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  1. Resilience versus "Resilient Individual": What Exactly Do We Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature and definition of resilience, despite the extensive 40 years of research, is still unclear. Currently is resilience seen as a personality trait, sum of the traits/factors, result of adaptation, or as a process. The concept of resilience as personality traits is usually tied to uni-dimensional or "simplex" theories of resistance as Hardiness, Sense of Control, Ego-Resiliency, Self-efficacy, Sense of Coherence, or specific personality traits. Multidimensional concepts see resilience as a complex of personality and social (environmental factors that work in interaction, complement or replace each other, and, in aggregate, create a comprehensive picture of resilience. The concept of resilience as the result of adaptation examines resilience in terms of the presence/absence of adverse/pathological manifestations, consequences and outcomes in relation to the earlier effect of stressful, risky or otherwise unfavorable situations. Finally, the concept of resilience as the process examines individual's response to risk factors or wounds that are present in the environment. Resilience is thus a process consisting of interactions between individual characteristics and the environment. Most experts and a large part of resilience research is based on the first three concepts that however explore how "resilient" the individual is rather than resilience itself, since they are based on "diagnosing" or at best dimensional, at worse dichotomous rating of the individual's resilience (within personality trait approach, or on the evaluation of the presence/absence of factors/source of resilience, thereby they are still holding the "diagnostic" approach (within multidimensional approach. Only the examination of processes, such as the ongoing interaction between these risk factors, resilience factors, outcomes (expressions of personality, behavior, presence of problems, etc. and other variables allows us to understand resilience (the true nature of how

  2. Understanding individual resilience in the workplace: the international collaboration of workforce resilience model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Cusack, Lynette; Hegney, Desley

    2015-01-01

    When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as "resilient." A number of studies have found relationships between levels of individual resilience and specific negative outcomes such as burnout and compassion fatigue. However, because psychological resilience is a multi-dimensional construct it is necessary to more clearly delineate it from other related and overlapping constructs. The creation of a testable theoretical model of individual workforce resilience, which includes both stable traits (e.g., neuroticism) as well as more malleable intrapersonal factors (e.g., coping style), enables information to be derived that can eventually inform interventions aimed at enhancing individual resilience in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new theoretical model of individual workforce resilience that includes several intrapersonal constructs known to be central in the appraisal of and response to stressors and that also overlap with the construct of psychological resilience. We propose a model in which psychological resilience is hypothesized to mediate the relationship between neuroticism, mindfulness, self-efficacy, coping, and psychological adjustment.

  3. Understanding Individual Resilience in the Workplace: The International Collaboration of Workforce Resilience (ICWR Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Samantha Rees

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as ‘resilient’. A number of studies have found relationships between levels of individual resilience and specific negative outcomes such as burnout and compassion fatigue. However, because psychological resilience is a multi-dimensional construct it is necessary to more clearly delineate it from other related and overlapping constructs. The creation of a testable theoretical model of individual workforce resilience, which includes both stable traits (e.g. neuroticism as well as more malleable intrapersonal factors (e.g. coping style, enables information to be derived that can eventually inform interventions aimed at enhancing individual resilience in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new theoretical model of individual workforce resilience that includes several intrapersonal constructs known to be central in the appraisal of and response to stressors and that also overlap with the construct of psychological resilience. We propose a model in which psychological resilience is hypothesised to mediate the relationship between neuroticism, mindfulness, self-efficacy, coping and psychological adjustment.

  4. Effects of individual resilience intervention on indigenous people who experienced Typhoon Morkot in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Fen Cheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan and caused serious harm to the indigenous peoples living in the southern mountainous regions. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of and the factors involved in individual resilience intervention of typhoon victims. Quantitative research was performed from October 2009 through September 2010. Purposive sampling yielded 77 indigenous persons who were willing to serve as participants in this study. These participants all maintained legal or actual residence in the areas of Kaohsiung that were affected by the typhoon. An individual resilience intervention program was implemented. The findings show the following: (1 after completing the individual resilience intervention program, the participants had higher individual resilience scores than before participating in the intervention program; and (2 individual resilience scores were significantly affected by residency after the typhoon. These findings suggest that an individual resilience intervention program is a useful approach that can be used to enhance the individual resilience of a victim and that professionals should pay more attention to victims who have to leave their hometowns after disasters.

  5. Understanding individual resilience in the workplace: the international collaboration of workforce resilience model

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Cusack, Lynette; Hegney, Desley

    2015-01-01

    When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as “resilient.” A number of studies have found rel...

  6. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C; Soto, Luis P; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database ( n  = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten , while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  7. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C.; Soto, Luis P.; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  8. Individual differences in the effects of chronic stress on memory: behavioral and neurochemical correlates of resiliency.

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    Sweis, B M; Veverka, K K; Dhillon, E S; Urban, J H; Lucas, L R

    2013-08-29

    Chronic stress has been shown to impair memory, however, the extent to which memory can be impaired is often variable across individuals. Predisposed differences in particular traits, such as anxiety, may reveal underlying neurobiological mechanisms that could be driving individual differences in sensitivity to stress and, thus, stress resiliency. Such pre-morbid characteristics may serve as early indicators of susceptibility to stress. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and enkephalin (ENK) are neurochemical messengers of interest implicated in modulating anxiety and motivation circuitry; however, little is known about how these neuropeptides interact with stress resiliency and memory. In this experiment, adult male rats were appetitively trained to locate sugar rewards in a motivation-based spatial memory task before undergoing repeated immobilization stress and then being tested for memory retention. Anxiety-related behaviors, among other characteristics, were monitored longitudinally. Results indicated that stressed animals which showed little to no impairments in memory post-stress (i.e., the more stress-resilient individuals) exhibited lower anxiety levels prior to stress when compared to stressed animals that showed large deficits in memory (i.e., the more stress-susceptible individuals). Interestingly, all stressed animals, regardless of memory change, showed reduced body weight gain as well as thymic involution, suggesting that the effects of stress on metabolism and the immune system were dissociated from the effects of stress on higher cognition, and that stress resiliency seems to be domain-specific rather than a global characteristic within an individual. Neurochemical analyses revealed that NPY in the hypothalamus and amygdala and ENK in the nucleus accumbens were modulated differentially between stress-resilient and stress-susceptible individuals, with elevated expression of these neuropeptides fostering anxiolytic and pro-motivation function, thus driving

  9. Strength in the Face of Adversity: Resilience Strategies of Transgender Individuals

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    Singh, Anneliese A.; Hays, Danica G.; Watson, Laurel S.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological inquiry explored the lived experiences of resilience of 21 transgender individuals. Through individual semistructured interviews (3 interviews each with 5 participants) and 1 focus group interview (16 participants), the authors identified 5 common resiliency themes (evolving a self-generated definition of self, embracing…

  10. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases 1

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Isabela Gonzales; Bertolli, Eduarda dos Santos; Paiva, Luciana; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Pompeo, Daniele Alcal?

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Method: correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paul...

  11. Do Holocaust survivors show increased vulnerability or resilience to post-Holocaust cumulative adversity?

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    Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shmotkin, Dov

    2010-06-01

    Prior trauma can hinder coping with additional adversity or inoculate against the effect of recurrent adversity. The present study further addressed this issue by examining whether a subsample of Holocaust survivors and comparison groups, drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe, were differentially affected by post-Holocaust cumulative adversity. Post-Holocaust cumulative adversity had a stronger effect on the lifetime depression of Holocaust survivors than on that of comparisons. However, comparisons were more negatively affected by post-Holocaust cumulative adversity when examining markers of physical and cognitive functioning. Our findings suggest that previous trauma can both sensitize and immunize, as Holocaust survivors show general resilience intertwined with specific vulnerability when confronted with additional cumulative adversity.

  12. Individual and Collective Responses to Crisis: An Analytical Framework for the Study of Social Resilience

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    Juan Díez Medrano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a sociological approach for the study of social resilience that emphasizes interpretation and the role of networks. After discussing past contributions to the study of social resilience and proposing an alternative analytical framework that builds on Max Weber’s approach to social action, the article illustrates the proposed strategy through a discussion of the acquisition of transnational skills as a strategy of social resilience. Available empirical evidence shows indeed that fluency in foreign languages works both a resilience strategy and a vehicle toward the emergence of an European demos

  13. Resilience

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    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widel...

  14. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Gonzales Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Method: correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population was composed of adult inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. A non-probabilistic consecutive sample was composed of 120 patients. Variables of interest were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Resilience Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results: anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 32.5% and 17.5% of the patients, respectively, and were associated with the female sex (p = 0.002; p = 0.022. Manifestations of depression were associated with the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.020. More resilient patients did not present depression symptoms (p < 0.001 and anxious women were more resilient (p = 0.042. The highest scores regarding self-esteem were present in patients with anxiety and depression. Men presented higher resilience and lower self-esteem compared to women. Conclusion: patients with anxiety and depression were less resilient but presented higher self-esteem.

  15. [Resilience in Individuals with Gender Dysphoria: Association with Perceived Social Support and Discrimination].

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    Başar, Koray; Öz, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress associated with discrimination is proposed to have an indirect effect on the development of mental disorders, through its negative influence on individual's cognitive, affective and social coping strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between resilience, perceived social support, and perceived discrimination in individuals with gender dysphoria. Individuals with gender dysphoria were assessed with Turkish validated forms of Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Perceived Discrimination Scale (PDS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Diagnoses of mental disorders, history of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self injury were assessed with clinical interviews. Self-report forms were used to obtain demographic information and gender transition related features. Participants' (n=116, 88 trans men) median age was 25. Significantly low RSA scores, indicating poor resilience, were obtained in participants with lifetime (59.5 %) and present (27.6 %) diagnosis of any mental disorder, history of suicide attempt (23.3 %). There was significant direct correlation between RSA and MSPSS scores, inverse correlation with BDI and personal PDS scores, but not with group PDS. Regression analysis revealed that only friends domain score in MSPSS predicted better resilience, whereas personal perceived discrimination score predicted poor resilience. Findings support the association between poor resilience and vulnerability to mental and behavioral problems in individuals with gender dysphoria. The associations reveal the significance of addressing discrimination and assisting individuals with gender dysphoria in developing strategies to obtain peer support in providing mental health services.

  16. The Contribution of Individual Psychological Resilience in Determining the Professional Quality of Life of Australian Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desley G Hegney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Research Topic: The aim of this study was to determine the relative contribution of trait negative affect and individual psychological resilience in explaining the professional quality of life of nurses. In particular, we sought to test whether resilience would mediate the relationship between trait negative affect and compassion satisfaction.Methods: One thousand, seven hundred and forty-three Australian nurses from the public, private and aged care sectors completed an online Qaltrics survey. The survey collected demographic data as well as measures of depression, anxiety and stress, trait negative affect, resilience and professional quality of life. Results: Significant positive relationships were observed between anxiety, depression and stress, trait negative affectivity, burnout and secondary traumatic stress (compassion fatigue. Significant negative relationships were observed between each of the aforementioned variables and resilience and compassion satisfaction. Results of mediated regression analysis indicated that resilience partially mediates the relationship between trait negative affect and compassion satisfaction. Conclusions: Results confirm the importance of both trait negative affect and resilience in explaining positive aspects of professional quality of life. Importantly, resilience was confirmed as a key variable impacting levels of compassion satisfaction and thus a potentially important variable to target in interventions aimed at improving nurse’s professional quality of life.

  17. Predictor Relationships between Values Held by Married Individuals, Resilience and Conflict Resolution Styles: A Model Suggestion

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    Tosun, Fatma; Dilmac, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to reveal the predictor relationships between the values held by married individuals, resilience and conflict resolution styles. The research adopts a relational screening model that is a sub-type of the general screening model. The sample of the research consists of 375 married individuals, of which 173 are…

  18. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis.

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    Weiling Xu

    Full Text Available Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma.

  19. Understanding Individual Resilience in the Workplace: The International Collaboration of Workforce Resilience (ICWR) Model

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Samantha Rees; Lauren J Breen; Lynette eCusack; Desley eHegney

    2015-01-01

    When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as ‘resilient’. A number of studies have found rela...

  20. Coping and resilience among ethnoracial individuals experiencing homelessness and mental illness.

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    Paul, Sayani; Corneau, Simon; Boozary, Tanya; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2018-03-01

    The multiple challenges that ethnoracial homeless individuals experiencing mental illness face are well documented. However, little is known about how this homeless subpopulation copes with the compounding stressors of racial discrimination, homelessness and mental illness. This study is an in-depth investigation of the personal perceived strengths, attitudes and coping behaviors of homeless adults of diverse ethnoracial backgrounds experiencing homelessness and mental illness in Toronto, Canada. Using qualitative methods, 36 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to capture the perspectives of ethnoracial homeless participants with mental illness on coping and resilience. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Similar to prior findings in the general homeless population, study participants recognized personal strengths and attitudes as great sources of coping and resilience, describing hope and optimism, self-esteem and confidence, insight into their challenges and spirituality as instrumental to overcoming current challenges. In addition, participants described several coping strategies, including seeking support from family, friends and professionals; socializing with peers; engaging in meaningful activities; distancing from overwhelming challenges; and finding an anchor. Findings suggest that homeless adults with mental illness from ethnoracial groups use similar coping strategies and sources of resilience with the general homeless population and highlight the need for existing services to foster hope, recognize and support individual coping strategies and sources of resilience of homeless individuals experiencing complex challenges.

  1. Does spirituality facilitate adjustment and resilience among individuals and families after SCI?

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    Jones, Kate; Simpson, Grahame Kenneth; Briggs, Lynne; Dorsett, Pat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to investigate the role of spirituality in facilitating adjustment and resilience after spinal cord injury (SCI) for the individual with SCI and their family members. METHOD-DATA SOURCES: Peer reviewed journals were identified using PsychInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and Sociological Abstracts search engines. After duplicates were removed, 434 abstracts were screened applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. The selected 28 studies were reviewed in detail and grouped according to methodological approach. Of the 28 studies relating to spirituality and related meaning-making constructs, 26 addressed the adjustment of the individual with SCI alone. Only two included family members as participants. Quantitative studies demonstrated that spirituality was positively associated with life satisfaction, quality of life, mental health and resilience. The utilisation of meaning-making and hope as coping strategies in the process of adjustment were highlighted within the qualitative studies. Clinical implications included recommendations that spirituality and meaning-making be incorporated in assessment and interventions during rehabilitation. The use of narratives and peer support was also suggested. Spirituality is an important factor in adjustment after SCI. Further research into the relationship between spirituality, family adjustment and resilience is needed. Higher levels of spirituality were associated with improved quality of life, life satisfaction, mental health, and resilience for individuals affected by spinal cord injury. Health professionals can enhance the role that spirituality plays in spinal rehabilitation by incorporating the spiritual beliefs of individuals and their family members into assessment and intervention. By drawing upon meaning-making tools, such as narrative therapy, incorporating peer support, and assisting clients who report a decline in spirituality, health professionals can provide additional support

  2. Predictors of Resilience in Abused and Neglected Children Grown-Up: The Role of Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics

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    DuMont, Kimberly A.; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines individual, family, and neighborhood level predictors of resilience in adolescence and young adulthood and describes changes in resilience over time from adolescence to young adulthood in abused and neglected children grown up. Method: We use documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect (n = 676)…

  3. Individual resilience as a strategy to counter employment barriers for people with epilepsy in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugumbate, Jacob; Gray, Mel

    2017-09-01

    Understanding individual resilience helps to improve employment opportunities of people with epilepsy. This is significant because, in Zimbabwe, as in many other countries in the Global South, people with epilepsy encounter several barriers in a context of less-than-ideal public services. Despite this disadvantage, some people with epilepsy have better employment outcomes for reasons including level of seizure control, social background, employment support services, and individual resilience. This article reports on data from participants (n=8), who were part of a larger study (n=30) on employment experiences of people with epilepsy in Harare. The study used in-depth interviews with the participants, who were all service users and members of the Epilepsy Support Foundation (ESF) in Harare. The eight resilient participants comprised four males and four females aged between 26-48years, who were selected because, unlike the remaining 22 participants, they had overcome chronic unemployment. Seven of the eight participants were employed, while one had recently become unemployed. Views of service providers (n=7) were sought on the experiences of people with epilepsy through a focus group discussion. The service providers included two health workers, three social service workers, and two disability advocacy workers. Data were analysed using NVivo, a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis package. The study found that participants experienced barriers, such as a lack of medical treatment, yet this was important for education and training, lack of finances for training, and negative attitudes at workplaces. Despite these barriers, participants had overcome chronic unemployment due to their individual resilience characterised by: (i) a 'fighting spirit', (ii) being their own advocates, and (iii) having a mastery over, and acceptance of, their epilepsy. The research concluded that, where people with epilepsy faced barriers, as in Zimbabwe, individual resilience acted as

  4. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Isabela Gonzales; Bertolli, Eduarda Dos Santos; Paiva, Luciana; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Pompeo, Daniele Alcalá

    2016-11-28

    to analyze the relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms, resilience and self-esteem with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; correlate resilience and self-esteem with age and duration of the disease; check associations between anxiety and depression with measures of resilience and self-esteem among individuals with cardiovascular diseases. correlational study conducted in a large university hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The population was composed of adult inpatients with cardiovascular diseases. A non-probabilistic consecutive sample was composed of 120 patients. Variables of interest were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Resilience Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 32.5% and 17.5% of the patients, respectively, and were associated with the female sex (p = 0.002; p = 0.022). Manifestations of depression were associated with the presence of comorbidities (p = 0.020). More resilient patients did not present depression symptoms (p self-esteem were present in patients with anxiety and depression. Men presented higher resilience and lower self-esteem compared to women. patients with anxiety and depression were less resilient but presented higher self-esteem. analisar as relações entre os sintomas ansiosos e depressivos, resiliência e autoestima com as características sociodemográficas e clínicas; correlacionar resiliência e autoestima com a idade e o tempo da doença; analisar associações entre ansiedade e depressão com as medidas de resiliência e autoestima em indivíduos com doenças cardiovasculares. estudo correlacional, realizado em Hospital de Ensino de grande porte do interior do Estado de São Paulo. A população era constituída por pacientes adultos internados com doenças cardiovasculares. Uma amostra consecutiva e não probabilística foi constituída por 120 pacientes. As variáveis de interesse foram avaliadas

  5. Community gardening: a parsimonious path to individual, community, and environmental resilience.

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    Okvat, Heather A; Zautra, Alex J

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce community gardening as a promising method of furthering well-being and resilience on multiple levels: individual, social group, and natural environment. We examine empirical evidence for the benefits of gardening, and we advocate the development and testing of social ecological models of community resilience through examination of the impact of community gardens, especially in urban areas. The definition of community is extended beyond human social ties to include connections with other species and the earth itself, what Berry (1988) has called an Earth community. We discuss the potential contribution of an extensive network of community gardens to easing the global climate change crisis and address the role of community psychologists in community gardening research and policy-oriented action.

  6. Identification of Resilient Individuals and Those at Risk for Performance Deficits under Stress

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    Brent eWinslow

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human task performance is affected by exposure to physiological and psychological stress. The ability to measure the physiological response to stressors and correlate that to task performance could be used to identify resilient individuals or those at risk for stress-related performance decrements. Accomplishing this prior to performance under severe stress or the development of clinical stress disorders could facilitate focused preparation such as tailoring training to individual needs. Here we measure the effects of stress on physiological response and performance through behavior, physiological sensors, and subjective ratings, and identify which individuals are at risk for stress-related performance decrements. Participants performed military-relevant training tasks under stress in a virtual environment, with autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA reactivity analyzed. Self-reported stress, as well as physiological indices of stress, increased in the group pre-exposed to socioevaluative stress. Stress response was effectively captured via electrodermal and cardiovascular measures of heart rate and skin conductance level. A resilience classification algorithm was developed based upon physiological reactivity, which correlated with baseline unstressed physiological and self-reported stress values. Outliers were identified in the experimental group that had a significant mismatch between self-reported stress and salivary cortisol. Baseline stress measurements were predictive of individual resilience to stress, including the impact stress had on physiological reactivity and performance. Such an approach may have utility in identifying individuals at risk for problems performing under severe stress. Continuing work has focused on adapting this method for military personnel, and assessing the utility of various coping and decision-making strategies on performance and physiological stress.

  7. Identification of resilient individuals and those at risk for performance deficits under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Brent D; Carroll, Meredith B; Martin, Jonathan W; Surpris, Glenn; Chadderdon, George L

    2015-01-01

    Human task performance is affected by exposure to physiological and psychological stress. The ability to measure the physiological response to stressors and correlate that to task performance could be used to identify resilient individuals or those at risk for stress-related performance decrements. Accomplishing this prior to performance under severe stress or the development of clinical stress disorders could facilitate focused preparation such as tailoring training to individual needs. Here we measure the effects of stress on physiological response and performance through behavior, physiological sensors, and subjective ratings, and identify which individuals are at risk for stress-related performance decrements. Participants performed military-relevant training tasks under stress in a virtual environment, with autonomic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) reactivity analyzed. Self-reported stress, as well as physiological indices of stress, increased in the group pre-exposed to socioevaluative stress. Stress response was effectively captured via electrodermal and cardiovascular measures of heart rate and skin conductance level. A resilience classification algorithm was developed based upon physiological reactivity, which correlated with baseline unstressed physiological and self-reported stress values. Outliers were identified in the experimental group that had a significant mismatch between self-reported stress and salivary cortisol. Baseline stress measurements were predictive of individual resilience to stress, including the impact stress had on physiological reactivity and performance. Such an approach may have utility in identifying individuals at risk for problems performing under severe stress. Continuing work has focused on adapting this method for military personnel, and assessing the utility of various coping and decision-making strategies on performance and physiological stress.

  8. Quantifying the contribution of root systems to community and individual drought resilience in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, E.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Oliveira, R. S.; Brum, M., Jr.; Saleska, S. R.; Bisht, G.; Prohaska, N.; Taylor, T.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.

    2017-12-01

    The increased intensity and severity of droughts within the Amazon Basin region has emphasized the question of vulnerability and resilience of tropical forests to water limitation. During the recent 2015-2016 drought caused by the anomalous El Nino episode, we monitored a large, diverse sample of trees within the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil, in the footprint of the K67 eddy covariance tower. The observed trees exhibited differential responses in terms of stem water potential and sap flow among species: their regulation of ecophysiological strategies varied from very conservative (`isohydric') behavior, to much less restrained, atmosphere-controlled (`anisohydric') type of response. While much attention has been paid to forest canopies, it remains unclear how the regulation of individual tree root system and root spatial interactions contribute to the emergent individual behavior and the ecosystem-scale characterization of drought resilience. Given the inherent difficulty in monitoring below-ground phenomena, physically-based models are valuable for examining different strategies and properties to reduce the uncertainty of characterization. We use a modified version of the highly parallel DOE PFLOTRAN model to simulate the three-dimensional variably saturated flows and root water uptake for over one thousand individuals within a two-hectare area. Root morphology and intrinsic hydraulic properties are assigned based on statistical distributions developed for tropical trees, which account for the broad spectrum of hydraulic strategies in biodiverse environments. The results demonstrate the dynamic nature of active zone of root water uptake based on local soil water potential gradients. The degree of the corresponding shifts in uptake and root collar potential depend not only on assigned hydraulic properties but also on spatial orientation and size relative to community members. This response highlights the importance of not only tree individual hydraulic traits

  9. A 67-Item Stress Resilience item bank showing high content validity was developed in a psychosomatic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbarius, Nina; Fischer, Felix; Obbarius, Alexander; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Rose, Matthias

    2018-04-10

    To develop the first item bank to measure Stress Resilience (SR) in clinical populations. Qualitative item development resulted in an initial pool of 131 items covering a broad theoretical SR concept. These items were tested in n=521 patients at a psychosomatic outpatient clinic. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), as well as other state-of-the-art item analyses and IRT were used for item evaluation and calibration of the final item bank. Out of the initial item pool of 131 items, we excluded 64 items (54 factor loading .3, 2 non-discriminative Item Response Curves, 4 Differential Item Functioning). The final set of 67 items indicated sufficient model fit in CFA and IRT analyses. Additionally, a 10-item short form with high measurement precision (SE≤.32 in a theta range between -1.8 and +1.5) was derived. Both the SR item bank and the SR short form were highly correlated with an existing static legacy tool (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale). The final SR item bank and 10-item short form showed good psychometric properties. When further validated, they will be ready to be used within a framework of Computer-Adaptive Tests for a comprehensive assessment of the Stress-Construct. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Building Resilience for Palliative Care Clinicians: An Approach to Burnout Prevention Based on Individual Skills and Workplace Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Anthony L; Steinhauser, Karen E; Kamal, Arif H; Jackson, Vicki A

    2016-08-01

    For palliative care (PC) clinicians, the work of caring for patients with serious illness can put their own well-being at risk. What they often do not learn in training, because of the relative paucity of evidence-based programs, are practical ways to mitigate this risk. Because a new study indicates that burnout in PC clinicians is increasing, we sought to design an acceptable, scalable, and testable intervention tailored to the needs of PC clinicians. In this article, we describe our paradigm for approaching clinician resilience, our conceptual model, and curriculum for a workplace resilience intervention for hospital-based PC teams. Our paradigm for approaching resilience is based on upstream, early intervention. Our conceptual model posits that clinician well-being is influenced by personal resources and work demands. Our curriculum for increasing clinician resilience is based on training in eight resilience skills that are useful for common challenges faced by clinicians. To address workplace issues, our intervention also includes material for the team leader and a clinician perception survey of work demands and workplace engagement factors. The intervention will focus on individual skill building and will be evaluated with measures of resilience, coping, and affect. For PC clinicians, resilience skills are likely as important as communication skills and symptom management as foundations of expertise. Future work to strengthen clinician resilience will likely need to address system issues more directly. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Internalized Transphobia, Resilience, and Mental Health: Applying the Psychological Mediation Framework to Italian Transgender Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Scandurra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC people are a highly-stigmatized population. For this reason, they might internalize society’s normative gender attitudes and develop negative mental health outcomes. As an extension of the minority stress model, the psychological mediation framework sheds light on psychological processes through which anti-transgender discrimination might affect mental health. Within this framework, the current study aimed at assessing in 149 TGNC Italian individuals the role of internalized transphobia as a mediator between anti-transgender discrimination and mental health, considering resilience as the individual-level coping mechanism buffering this relationship. The results suggest that both indicators of internalized transphobia (i.e., shame and alienation mediate the relationship between anti-transgender discrimination and depression, while only alienation mediates the relationship between anti-transgender discrimination and anxiety. Furthermore, the results suggest that the indirect relation between anti-transgender discrimination and anxiety through alienation is conditional on low and moderate levels of resilience. Findings have important implications for clinical practice and psycho-social interventions to reduce stigma and stress caused by interpersonal and individual stigma.

  12. Internalized Transphobia, Resilience, and Mental Health: Applying the Psychological Mediation Framework to Italian Transgender Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Vincenzo; Amodeo, Anna Lisa; Esposito, Concetta; Valerio, Paolo; Maldonato, Nelson Mauro; Bacchini, Dario; Vitelli, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people are a highly-stigmatized population. For this reason, they might internalize society’s normative gender attitudes and develop negative mental health outcomes. As an extension of the minority stress model, the psychological mediation framework sheds light on psychological processes through which anti-transgender discrimination might affect mental health. Within this framework, the current study aimed at assessing in 149 TGNC Italian individuals the role of internalized transphobia as a mediator between anti-transgender discrimination and mental health, considering resilience as the individual-level coping mechanism buffering this relationship. The results suggest that both indicators of internalized transphobia (i.e., shame and alienation) mediate the relationship between anti-transgender discrimination and depression, while only alienation mediates the relationship between anti-transgender discrimination and anxiety. Furthermore, the results suggest that the indirect relation between anti-transgender discrimination and anxiety through alienation is conditional on low and moderate levels of resilience. Findings have important implications for clinical practice and psycho-social interventions to reduce stigma and stress caused by interpersonal and individual stigma. PMID:29534023

  13. Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Catrine L; Larsen, Thomas; Hunt, Terry; Lipo, Carl; Solsvik, Reidar; Wallsgrove, Natalie; Ka'apu-Lyons, Cassie; Close, Hilary G; Popp, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment. Results of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ 15 N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment. Our results suggest highly elevated δ 15 N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Psychosocial factors affecting resilience in Nepalese individuals with earthquake-related spinal cord injury: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Muna; Maneewat, Khomapak; Sae-Sia, Wipa

    2018-03-02

    of intervention research concerning resilience is recommended to strengthen resilience in order to improve rehabilitation outcomes and enhance reintegration of individuals with SCI into their communities.

  15. Resilience to bullying victimization: the role of individual, family and peer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapouna, Maria; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Little research attention has been paid to bullied students who function better than expected and are therefore defined as "resilient". The present longitudinal study aimed to identify individual, family and peer factors that predict fewer than expected levels of depression and delinquency following experiences of bullying victimization. The sample consisted 3,136 adolescents. Self-report data were used to measure bullying victimization at age 13 and 14 and depression and delinquency at age 14. We examined the effects of gender, self-esteem, social alienation, parental conflict, sibling victimization and number of close friends on levels of emotional and behavioral resilience following bullying victimization. The resilience measures were derived by regressing depression and delinquency scores at age 14 on levels of bullying victimization at age 13 and 14, respectively. The adolescents who reported low depression despite frequently experiencing bullying tended to be male, had higher self-esteem, were feeling less socially alienated, were experiencing low levels of conflict with parents and were not victimized by siblings. On the other hand, the adolescents who reported low delinquency despite frequently experiencing bullying tended to be female, had higher self-esteem, were experiencing low levels of conflict with parents, were not victimized by siblings and had less close friends. Relationships with parents and siblings continue to play some role in promoting emotional and behavioral adjustment among victims of bullying and, therefore, interventions are more likely to be successful if they target both the psychosocial skills of adolescents and their relationships with their family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological resilience, pain catastrophizing, and positive emotions: perspectives on comprehensive modeling of individual pain adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, John A; Zautra, Alex J

    2013-03-01

    Pain is a complex construct that contributes to profound physical and psychological dysfunction, particularly in individuals coping with chronic pain. The current paper builds upon previous research, describes a balanced conceptual model that integrates aspects of both psychological vulnerability and resilience to pain, and reviews protective and exacerbating psychosocial factors to the process of adaptation to chronic pain, including pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and positive psychological resources predictive of enhanced pain coping. The current paper identifies future directions for research that will further enrich the understanding of pain adaptation and espouses an approach that will enhance the ecological validity of psychological pain coping models, including introduction of advanced statistical and conceptual models that integrate behavioral, cognitive, information processing, motivational and affective theories of pain.

  17. Individual differences in the peripheral immune system promote resilience versus susceptibility to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Georgia E; Pfau, Madeline L; Leboeuf, Marylene; Golden, Sam A; Christoffel, Daniel J; Bregman, Dana; Rebusi, Nicole; Heshmati, Mitra; Aleyasin, Hossein; Warren, Brandon L; Lebonté, Benoit; Horn, Sarah; Lapidus, Kyle A; Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Wong, Erik H F; Bahn, Sabine; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Bolaños-Guzman, Carlos A; Murrough, James W; Merad, Miriam; Russo, Scott J

    2014-11-11

    Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and promote vulnerability to social stress. Cytokine profiles were obtained 20 min after the first social stress exposure. Of the cytokines regulated by stress, IL-6 was most highly up-regulated only in mice that ultimately developed a susceptible behavioral phenotype following a subsequent chronic stress, and levels remained elevated for at least 1 mo. We confirmed a similar elevation of serum IL-6 in two separate cohorts of patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. Before any physical contact in mice, we observed individual differences in IL-6 levels from ex vivo stimulated leukocytes that predict susceptibility versus resilience to a subsequent stressor. To shift the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system to a pro- or antidepressant state, bone marrow (BM) chimeras were generated by transplanting hematopoietic progenitor cells from stress-susceptible mice releasing high IL-6 or from IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice. Stress-susceptible BM chimeras exhibited increased social avoidance behavior after exposure to either subthreshold repeated social defeat stress (RSDS) or a purely emotional stressor termed witness defeat. IL-6(-/-) BM chimeric and IL-6(-/-) mice, as well as those treated with a systemic IL-6 monoclonal antibody, were resilient to social stress. These data establish that preexisting differences in stress-responsive IL-6 release from BM-derived leukocytes functionally contribute to social stress-induced behavioral abnormalities.

  18. Impact of individual resilience and safety climate on safety performance and psychological stress of construction workers: A case study of the Ontario construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; McCabe, Brenda; Hyatt, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    The construction industry has hit a plateau in terms of safety performance. Safety climate is regarded as a leading indicator of safety performance; however, relatively little safety climate research has been done in the Canadian construction industry. Safety climate may be geographically sensitive, thus it is necessary to examine how the construct of safety climate is defined and used to improve safety performance in different regions. On the other hand, more and more attention has been paid to job related stress in the construction industry. Previous research proposed that individual resilience may be associated with a better safety performance and may help employees manage stress. Unfortunately, few empirical research studies have examined this hypothesis. This paper aims to examine the role of safety climate and individual resilience in safety performance and job stress in the Canadian construction industry. The research was based on 837 surveys collected in Ontario between June 2015 and June 2016. Structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques were used to explore the impact of individual resilience and safety climate on physical safety outcomes and on psychological stress among construction workers. The results show that safety climate not only affected construction workers' safety performance but also indirectly affected their psychological stress. In addition, it was found that individual resilience had a direct negative impact on psychological stress but had no impact on physical safety outcomes. These findings highlight the roles of both organizational and individual factors in individual safety performance and in psychological well-being. Construction organizations need to not only monitor employees' safety performance, but also to assess their employees' psychological well-being. Promoting a positive safety climate together with developing training programs focusing on improving employees' psychological health - especially post-trauma psychological

  19. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  20. Caregiver Burden Among Caregivers of Individuals With Severe Mental Illness: Testing the Moderation and Mediation Models of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulud, Zamzaliza Abdul; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2017-02-01

    The association between the socio-demographic characteristics of caregivers, such as gender and caregiver burden, is well documented; however, the process underlying this relationship is poorly understood. Based on the stress process model, we designed a cross-sectional study to examine the mediating and moderating effect of resilience on the relationship between gender and caregiver burden. Caregivers of individuals with severe mental illness (n=201) were recruited in two psychiatric outpatient clinics in Malaysia. The relationship between the gender of the caregiver and caregiver burden was mediated by resilience, thus supporting the stress process model. The findings from the present research contribute to the growing evidence of the interaction between socio-demographic variables of caregivers and resilience, and caregiver burden. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Most Resilient Show on Earth: The Circus as a Model for Viewing Identity, Change, and Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Loring

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resilience, adaptability, and transformability are all tightly linked to the notion of change, whether in respect to coping with, adapting to, or harnessing it. But in order to understand these forces of change, we first need to recognize its counterpart: identity. Identity of a social-ecological system is not merely a static set of quantifiable feedbacks or indicators, but a more qualitative characterization of what results from the overlap of the social and the ecological. To fully articulate these ideas, I turn to a unique and enduring phenomenon: the traveling circus. Through the many forms they have taken over the last 150 yr, circuses have changed significantly while sustaining a singular identity. As a successful and enduring social system, their intriguing history exposes the nuances of sustainability theory, from resilience to pathologies, and illustrates that sustainability requires a complex dynamic between identity, tradition, and change.

  2. International trade shows: Structure, strategy and performance of exhibitors at individual booths vs. joint booths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines differences in exhibitors who participate at international trade shows at joint booths and those who participate at individual booths. The structure, strategy, and trade show performance of exhibitors at joint booths and those at individual booths are analysed. The analysis...... implications for exhibitors at interna-tional trade shows and export marketing programmes and other marketing programmes offering services to international trade show exhibitors....... of exhibitors at the international food shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne) showed several significant differences with regard to structure and strategy. However, no significant differences in the performance assessments between the two partici-pation modes were found. The findings have important...

  3. Major urinary protein (MUP) profiles show dynamic changes rather than individual ‘barcode’ signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoß, M.; Luzynski, K.C.; Ante, M.; Miller, I.; Penn, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    House mice (Mus musculus) produce a variable number of major urinary proteins (MUPs), and studies suggest that each individual produces a unique MUP profile that provides a distinctive odor signature controlling individual and kin recognition. This ‘barcode hypothesis’ requires that MUP urinary profiles show high individual variability within populations and also high individual consistency over time, but tests of these assumptions are lacking. We analyzed urinary MUP profiles of 66 wild-caught house mice from eight populations using isoelectric focusing. We found that MUP profiles of wild male house mice are not individually unique, and though they were highly variable, closer inspection revealed that the variation strongly depended on MUP band type. The prominent (‘major) bands were surprisingly homogenous (and hence most MUPs are not polymorphic), but we also found inconspicuous (‘minor’) bands that were highly variable and therefore potential candidates for individual fingerprints. We also examined changes in urinary MUP profiles of 58 males over time (from 6 to 24 weeks of age), and found that individual MUP profiles and MUP concentration were surprisingly dynamic, and showed significant changes after puberty and during adulthood. Contrary to what we expected, however, the minor bands were the most variable over time, thus no good candidates for individual fingerprints. Although MUP profiles do not provide individual fingerprints, we found that MUP profiles were more similar among siblings than non-kin despite considerable fluctuation. Our findings show that MUP profiles are not highly stable over time, they do not show strong individual clustering, and thus challenge the barcode hypothesis. Within-individual dynamics of MUP profiles indicate a different function of MUPs in individual recognition than previously assumed and advocate an alternative hypothesis (‘dynamic changes’ hypothesis). PMID:26973837

  4. Major urinary protein (MUP) profiles show dynamic changes rather than individual 'barcode' signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoß, M; Luzynski, K C; Ante, M; Miller, I; Penn, D J

    2015-06-30

    House mice ( Mus musculus) produce a variable number of major urinary proteins (MUPs), and studies suggest that each individual produces a unique MUP profile that provides a distinctive odor signature controlling individual and kin recognition. This 'barcode hypothesis' requires that MUP urinary profiles show high individual variability within populations and also high individual consistency over time, but tests of these assumptions are lacking. We analyzed urinary MUP profiles of 66 wild-caught house mice from eight populations using isoelectric focusing. We found that MUP profiles of wild male house mice are not individually unique, and though they were highly variable, closer inspection revealed that the variation strongly depended on MUP band type. The prominent ('major) bands were surprisingly homogenous (and hence most MUPs are not polymorphic), but we also found inconspicuous ('minor') bands that were highly variable and therefore potential candidates for individual fingerprints. We also examined changes in urinary MUP profiles of 58 males over time (from 6 to 24 weeks of age), and found that individual MUP profiles and MUP concentration were surprisingly dynamic, and showed significant changes after puberty and during adulthood. Contrary to what we expected, however, the minor bands were the most variable over time, thus no good candidates for individual fingerprints. Although MUP profiles do not provide individual fingerprints, we found that MUP profiles were more similar among siblings than non-kin despite considerable fluctuation. Our findings show that MUP profiles are not highly stable over time, they do not show strong individual clustering, and thus challenge the barcode hypothesis. Within-individual dynamics of MUP profiles indicate a different function of MUPs in individual recognition than previously assumed and advocate an alternative hypothesis ('dynamic changes' hypothesis).

  5. PARANOID INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA SHOW GREATER SOCIAL COGNITIVE BIAS AND WORSE SOCIAL FUNCTIONING THAN NON-PARANOID INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E; Harvey, Philip D; Penn, David L

    2016-03-01

    Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia differ in social cognition and functional outcomes. On measures assessing social cognitive bias, paranoid individuals endorsed more hostile and blaming attributions and identified more faces as untrustworthy; however, paranoid and non-paranoid individuals did not differ on emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks assessing social cognitive ability. Likewise, paranoid individuals showed greater impairments in real-world interpersonal relationships and social acceptability as compared to non-paranoid patients, but these differences did not extend to performance based tasks assessing functional capacity and social competence. These findings isolate specific social cognitive disparities between paranoid and non-paranoid subgroups and suggest that paranoia may exacerbate the social dysfunction that is commonly experienced by individuals with schizophrenia.

  6. Elderly individuals with increased risk of falls show postural balance impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rogério de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platform to measure postural balance through parameters from the center of pressure (COP. Results Elderly individuals were split into two groups according to the score observed with the Downton scale: G1 — low fall risk (score ≤ 2 — and G2 — high fall risk (score > 2. No differences were observed between the groups concerning gender (P > 0.05, Chi Square test. On the other hand, individuals from G2 showed postural instability when compared to individuals from G1, and individuals from G2 showed higher values in all COP parameters analysed (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.05. Conclusion It can be concluded that the Downton scale has sensitivity for identifying individuals with balance impairment as well as a risk of falls. Therefore, it may be suggested that this scale may be useful in primary health care for detecting falls in the elderly.

  7. Expanding Opportunity through Critical Restorative Justice Portraits of Resilience at the Individual and School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, David; Wadhwa, Anita

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we tackle the disadvantaging conditions of zero tolerance policies in school settings and advocate using an alternative approach--critical restorative justice through peacemaking circles--to nurture resilience and open opportunity at the school level. In the process, this article builds on theory and qualitative research and…

  8. Conceptualizing Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Birkland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary provides an overview of the idea of resilience, and acknowledges the challenges of defining and applying the idea in practice. The article summarizes a way of looking at resilience called a “resilience delta”, that takes into account both the shock done to a community by a disaster and the capacity of that community to rebound from that shock to return to its prior functionality. I show how different features of the community can create resilience, and consider how the developed and developing world addresses resilience. I also consider the role of focusing events in gaining attention to events and promoting change. I note that, while focusing events are considered by many in the disaster studies field to be major drivers of policy change in the United States disaster policy, most disasters have little effect on the overall doctrine of shared responsibilities between the national and subnational governments.

  9. A Measure of Team Resilience: Developing the Resilience at Work Team Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Kathryn; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2018-03-01

    This study develops, and initial evaluates, a new measure of team-based resilience for use in research and practice. We conducted preliminary analyses, based on a cross-sectional sample of 344 employees nested within 31 teams. Seven dimensions were identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The measure had high reliability and significant discrimination to indicate the presence of a unique team-based aspect of resilience that contributed to higher work engagement and higher self-rated team performance, over and above the effects of individual resilience. Multilevel analyses showed that team, but not individual, resilience predicted self-rated team performance. Practice implications include a need to focus on collective as well as individual behaviors in resilience-building. The measure provides a diagnostic instrument for teams and a scale to evaluate organizational interventions and research the relationship of resilience to other constructs.

  10. Keeping your distance: attentional withdrawal in individuals who show physiological signs of social discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, Ancret; Loetscher, Tobias; Churches, Owen; Thomas, Nicole A; Spence, Charles J; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2015-04-01

    Being in close social proximity to a stranger is generally perceived to be an uncomfortable experience, which most people seek to avoid. In circumstances where crowding is unavoidable, however, people may seek to withdraw their attention from the other person. This study examined whether social discomfort, as indexed by electrodermal activity, is related to a withdrawal of attention in 28 (m=8, f=20) university students. Students performed a radial line bisection task while alone or together with a stranger facing them. Physiological arousal was indexed by a wrist monitor, which recorded electrodermal activity. Correlational analyses showed that individuals who displayed physiological discomfort when together showed a withdrawal of the perceived midpoint of the line towards them (and away from the stranger). Conversely, individuals who showed no discomfort exhibited an expansion of the perceived midpoint away from them. We propose that participants shift their attention away from the stranger to increase interpersonal distance and reduce anxiety/arousal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  12. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  13. Caregivers' resilience is independent from the clinical symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Rachel; Simões-Neto, José Pedro; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Baptista, Maria Alice Tourinho; Lacerda, Isabel Barbeito; Kimura, Nathalia Ramos Santos; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2016-12-01

    Resilience is the capacity for successful adaptation when faced with the stress of adversity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between caregivers' resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical factors of people with dementia. Cross-sectional assessment of 58 people with dementia and their caregiver dyads showed that most caregivers were female adult children. The caregivers reported moderate to higher levels of resilience, lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and moderate levels of burden. Resilience was not related to the caregiver's gender (p = 0.883), nor clinical (p = 0.807) or emotional problems (p = 0.420). The regression showed that resilience was related to the caregiver's quality of life (p caregivers' resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with dementia. We can assume that resilience is an individual characteristic. Support groups should also focus on the factors that may increase resilience among caregivers.

  14. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  15. Measuring resilience to energy shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, Lynette; Brown, Colin; Foster, John; Wagner, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Measuring energy security or resilience in energy is, in the main, confined to indicators which are used for comparative purposes or to show trends rather than provide empirical evidence of resilience to unpredicted crises. In this paper, the electricity systems of the individual states within the United States of America are analysed for their response to the 1973-1982 and the 2003-2012 oil price shocks. Empirical evidence is sought for elements which are present in systems that experience r...

  16. Individual Differences in Animal Stress Models: Considering Resilience, Vulnerability, and the Amygdala in Mediating the Effects of Stress and Conditioned Fear on Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Laurie L; Fitzpatrick, Mairen E; Hallum, Olga Y; Sutton, Amy M; Williams, Brook L; Sanford, Larry D

    2016-06-01

    To examine the REM sleep response to stress and fearful memories as a potential marker of stress resilience and vulnerability and to assess the role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in mediating the effects of fear memory on sleep. Outbred Wistar rats were surgically implanted with electrodes for recording EEG and EMG and with bilateral guide cannulae directed at the BLA. Data loggers were placed intraperitoneally to record core body temperature. After recovery from surgery, the rats received shock training (ST: 20 footshocks, 0.8 mA, 0.5-s duration, 60-s interstimulus interval) and afterwards received microinjections of the GABAA agonist muscimol (MUS; 1.0 μM) to inactivate BLA or microinjections of vehicle (VEH) alone. Subsequently, the rats were separated into 4 groups (VEH-vulnerable (VEH-Vul; n = 14), VEH-resilient (VEH-Res; n = 13), MUS-vulnerable (MUS-Vul; n = 8), and MUS-resilient (MUS-Res; n = 11) based on whether or not REM was decreased, compared to baseline, during the first 4 h following ST. We then compared sleep, freezing, and the stress response (stress-induced hyperthermia, SIH) across groups to determine the effects of ST and fearful context re-exposure alone (CTX). REM was significantly reduced on the ST day in both VEH-Vul and MUS-Vul rats; however, post-ST MUS blocked the reduction in REM on the CTX day in the MUS-Vul group. The VEH-Res and MUS-Res rats showed similar levels of REM on both ST and CTX days. The effects of post-ST inactivation of BLA on freezing and SIH were minimal. Outbred Wistar rats can show significant individual differences in the effects of stress on REM that are mediated by BLA. These differences in REM can be independent of behavioral fear and the peripheral stress response, and may be an important biomarker of stress resilience and vulnerability. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Paranoid individuals with schizophrenia show greater social cognitive bias and worse social functioning than non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Amy E. Pinkham; Philip D. Harvey; David L. Penn

    2016-01-01

    Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid indiv...

  18. Caregiving and Developmental Factors Differentiating Young At-Risk Urban Children Showing Resilient Versus Stress-Affected Outcomes: A Replication and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Peter A.; And Others

    1999-01-01

    Tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience among 7- to 9-year olds. Found that caregiving factors and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations. Variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilience…

  19. Elderly individuals with increased risk of falls show postural balance impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Márcio Rogério de; Inokuti, Thiago Tadashi; Bispo, Nuno Noronha da Costa; Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida Pires; Oliveira, Rodrigo Franco de; Silva Jr., Rubens Alexandre da

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platf...

  20. Can We Predict Burnout among Student Nurses? An Exploration of the ICWR-1 Model of Individual Psychological Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Clare S.; Heritage, Brody; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Chamberlain, Diane; Cusack, Lynette; Anderson, Judith; Terry, Victoria; Rogers, Cath; Hemsworth, David; Cross, Wendy; Hegney, Desley G.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of nursing work is demanding and can be stressful. Previous studies have shown a high rate of burnout among employed nurses. Recently, efforts have been made to understand the role of resilience in determining the psychological adjustment of employed nurses. A theoretical model of resilience was proposed recently that includes several constructs identified in the literature related to resilience and to psychological functioning. As nursing students are the future of the nursing wor...

  1. Can we predict burnout among student nurses? An exploration of the ICWR-1 model of individual psychological resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Samantha Rees; Brody Heritage; Rebecca Osseiran-Moisson; Dianne Chamberlain; Lynette Cusack; Judith Anderson; Victoria Terry; Cath Rogers; David Hemsworth; Wendy Cross; Desley Hegney; Desley Hegney

    2016-01-01

    The nature of nursing work is demanding and can be stressful. Previous studies have shown a high rate of burnout among employed nurses. Recently, efforts have been made to understand the role of resilience in determining the psychological adjustment of employed nurses. A theoretical model of resilience was proposed recently that includes several constructs identified in the literature related to resilience and to psychological functioning. As nursing students are the future of the nursing wor...

  2. Showing Your Students You Care: Seeing the Individual Trees in the Classroom Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Thanheiser, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Teaching is a complex profession, and although every context is unique, teachers face common challenges. The authors have identified two challenges that nearly every teacher encounters: (1) managing a classroom of students; and (2) addressing the needs of individual students. Although these are not teachers' only challenges, the authors highlight…

  3. Shoreline resilience to individual storms and storm clusters on a meso-macrotidal barred beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angnuureng, Donatus Bapentire; Almar, Rafael; Senechal, Nadia; Castelle, Bruno; Addo, Kwasi Appeaning; Marieu, Vincent; Ranasinghe, Roshanka

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of individual storms and storm clusters on shoreline recovery for the meso-to macrotidal, barred Biscarrosse beach in SW France, using 6 years of daily video observations. While the study area experienced 60 storms during the 6-year study period, only 36 storms

  4. Group and Individual Variability in Mouse Pup Isolation Calls Recorded on the Same Day Show Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra D. Barnes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in a variety of social situations, and USVs have been leveraged to study many neurological diseases including verbal dyspraxia, depression, autism and stuttering. Pups produce isolation calls, a common USV, spontaneously when they are isolated from their mother during the first 2 weeks of life. Several genetic manipulations affect (and often reduce pup isolation calls in mice. To facilitate the use of this assay as a means of testing whether significant functional differences in genotypes exist instead of contextual differences, we test the variability inherent in many commons measures of mouse vocalizations. Here we use biological consistency as a way of determining which are reproducible in mouse pup vocalizations. We present a comprehensive analysis of the normal variability of these vocalizations in groups of mice, individual mice and different strains of mice. To control for maturation effects, we recorded pup isolation calls in the same group of C57BL/6J 5 days old mice twice, with 1 h of rest in between recordings. In almost all cases, the group averages between the first and second recordings were the same. We also found that there were high correlations in some parameters in individual mice across recording while others were not well correlated. These findings could be replicated for the majority of features in a separate group of C57BL/6J mice and a group of 129/SvEvBrd-C57BL/6J mice. The averages of these mouse USV features are highly consistent and represent a robust assay to test the effects of genetic and other interventions in the experimental setting.

  5. Psychological resilience after Hurricane Sandy: the influence of individual- and community-level factors on mental health after a large-scale natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Sampson, Laura; Gruebner, Oliver; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Several individual-level factors are known to promote psychological resilience in the aftermath of disasters. Far less is known about the role of community-level factors in shaping postdisaster mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of both individual- and community-level factors on resilience after Hurricane Sandy. A representative sample of household residents (N = 418) from 293 New York City census tracts that were most heavily affected by the storm completed telephone interviews approximately 13-16 months postdisaster. Multilevel multivariable models explored the independent and interactive contributions of individual- and community-level factors to posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms. At the individual-level, having experienced or witnessed any lifetime traumatic event was significantly associated with higher depression and posttraumatic stress, whereas demographic characteristics (e.g., older age, non-Hispanic Black race) and more disaster-related stressors were significantly associated with higher posttraumatic stress only. At the community-level, living in an area with higher social capital was significantly associated with higher posttraumatic stress. Additionally, higher community economic development was associated with lower risk of depression only among participants who did not experience any disaster-related stressors. These results provide evidence that individual- and community-level resources and exposure operate in tandem to shape postdisaster resilience.

  6. Signalling changes to individuals who show resistance to change can reduce challenging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Leah E; Oliver, Chris; Woodcock, Kate A

    2017-03-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with resistance to change and challenging behaviours - including temper outbursts - that ensue following changes to routines, plans or expectations (here, collectively: expectations). Here, a change signalling intervention was tested for proof of concept and potential practical effectiveness. Twelve individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome participated in researcher- and caregiver-led pairing of a distinctive visual-verbal signal with subsequent changes to expectations. Specific expectations for a planned subset of five participants were systematically observed in minimally manipulated natural environments. Nine caregivers completed a temper outburst diary during a four week baseline period and a two week signalling evaluation period. Participants demonstrated consistently less temper outburst behaviour in the systematic observations when changes imposed to expectations were signalled, compared to when changes were not signalled. Four of the nine participants whose caregivers completed the behaviour diary demonstrated reliable reductions in temper outbursts between baseline and signalling evaluation. An active control group for the present initial evaluation of the signalling strategy using evidence from caregiver behaviour diaries was outside the scope of the present pilot study. Thus, findings cannot support the clinical efficacy of the present signalling approach. Proof of concept evidence that reliable pairing of a distinctive cue with a subsequent change to expectation can reduce associated challenging behaviour is provided. Data provide additional support for the importance of specific practical steps in further evaluations of the change signalling approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison of individual qualities of resiliency in adolescents with mild intellectual disability and typically developing adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miroslav V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a chronic adversity that increases the likelihood of negative developmental outcomes. The aim of this research is to examine differences between adolescents with mild ID and typically developing (TD adolescents in personal qualities which contribute to successful adaptation. The sample consisted of 92 adolescents with mild ID and 772 TD adolescents, 13-19 years of age, of both sexes. Resiliency was assessed using the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents. In comparison to TD adolescents, adolescents with mild ID have significantly lower levels of sense of mastery and sense of relatedness and a higher level of emotional reactivity. In the subsample of adolescents with mild ID there were no age or sex differences for resiliency. Adolescents with mild ID have a lower level of resiliency than TD adolescents, which highlights the need to develop programs focused on personal qualities associated with positive developmental outcomes.

  8. Can We Predict Burnout among Student Nurses? An Exploration of the ICWR-1 Model of Individual Psychological Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S.; Heritage, Brody; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Chamberlain, Diane; Cusack, Lynette; Anderson, Judith; Terry, Victoria; Rogers, Cath; Hemsworth, David; Cross, Wendy; Hegney, Desley G.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of nursing work is demanding and can be stressful. Previous studies have shown a high rate of burnout among employed nurses. Recently, efforts have been made to understand the role of resilience in determining the psychological adjustment of employed nurses. A theoretical model of resilience was proposed recently that includes several constructs identified in the literature related to resilience and to psychological functioning. As nursing students are the future of the nursing workforce it is important to advance our understanding of the determinants of resilience in this population. Student nurses who had completed their final practicum were invited to participate in an online survey measuring the key constructs of the ICWR-1 model. 422 students from across Australia and Canada completed the survey between July 2014 and July 2015. As well as several key demographics, trait negative affect, mindfulness, self-efficacy, coping, resilience, and burnout were measured. We used structural equation modeling and found support for the major pathways of the model; namely that resilience had a significant influence on the relationship between mindfulness, self-efficacy and coping, and psychological adjustment (burnout scores). Furthermore, as predicted, Neuroticism moderated the relationship between coping and burnout. Results are discussed in terms of potential approaches to supporting nursing students who may be at risk of burnout. PMID:27486419

  9. Can we predict burnout among student nurses? An exploration of the ICWR-1 model of individual psychological resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Samantha Rees

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature of nursing work is demanding and can be stressful. Previous studies have shown a high rate of burnout among employed nurses. Recently, efforts have been made to understand the role of resilience in determining the psychological adjustment of employed nurses. A theoretical model of resilience was proposed recently that includes several constructs identified in the literature related to resilience and to psychological functioning. As nursing students are the future of the nursing workforce it is important to advance our understanding of the determinants of resilience in this population. Student nurses who had completed their final practicum were invited to participate in an online survey measuring the key constructs of the ICWR-1 model. 422 students from across Australia and Canada completed the survey between July 2014 and July 2015. As well as several key demographics, trait negative affect, mindfulness, self-efficacy, coping, resilience and burnout were measured. We used structural equation modelling and found support for the major pathways of the model; namely that resilience had a significant influence on the relationship between mindfulness, self-efficacy and coping and psychological adjustment (burnout scores. Furthermore, as predicted, Neuroticism moderated the relationship between coping and burnout. Results are discussed in terms of potential approaches to supporting nursing students who may be at risk of burnout.

  10. Can We Predict Burnout among Student Nurses? An Exploration of the ICWR-1 Model of Individual Psychological Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S; Heritage, Brody; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Chamberlain, Diane; Cusack, Lynette; Anderson, Judith; Terry, Victoria; Rogers, Cath; Hemsworth, David; Cross, Wendy; Hegney, Desley G

    2016-01-01

    The nature of nursing work is demanding and can be stressful. Previous studies have shown a high rate of burnout among employed nurses. Recently, efforts have been made to understand the role of resilience in determining the psychological adjustment of employed nurses. A theoretical model of resilience was proposed recently that includes several constructs identified in the literature related to resilience and to psychological functioning. As nursing students are the future of the nursing workforce it is important to advance our understanding of the determinants of resilience in this population. Student nurses who had completed their final practicum were invited to participate in an online survey measuring the key constructs of the ICWR-1 model. 422 students from across Australia and Canada completed the survey between July 2014 and July 2015. As well as several key demographics, trait negative affect, mindfulness, self-efficacy, coping, resilience, and burnout were measured. We used structural equation modeling and found support for the major pathways of the model; namely that resilience had a significant influence on the relationship between mindfulness, self-efficacy and coping, and psychological adjustment (burnout scores). Furthermore, as predicted, Neuroticism moderated the relationship between coping and burnout. Results are discussed in terms of potential approaches to supporting nursing students who may be at risk of burnout.

  11. Real-life decision making in college students. II: Do individual differences show reliable effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galotti, Kathleen M; Tandler, Jane M; Wiener, Hillary J D

    2014-01-01

    First-year undergraduates participated in a short-term longitudinal study of real-life decision making over their first 14 months of college. They were surveyed about 7 different decisions: choosing courses for upcoming terms (on 3 different occasions), choosing an academic major (twice), planning for the upcoming summer, and planning for sophomore-year housing. They also completed a survey of self-reported decision-making styles and the Need for Cognition survey (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982) to assess their focus on rationality and enjoyment of analytic thinking. Results showed few statistically significant correlations between stylistic measures and behavioral measures of decision making, in either the amount of information considered or the way in which the information integration tracked predictions of linear models of decision making applied to each participant's data. However, there were consistent correlations, across the 7 decisions, between stylistic measures and affective reactions to, or retrospective descriptions of, episodes of decision making. We suggest that decision-making styles instruments may better reflect the construction of narratives of self as a decision maker more than they do actual behavior during decision making.

  12. Resilience in patients with psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozikas, V; Parlapani, E

    2016-01-01

    comprise the so called "phenomenological resilience" that can be measured by scales.4,5 Originally, research focused on resilience in relation to post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Recently, resilience was proven a significant predictor of depressive episode recurrence in bipolar disorder.6 Low resilience levels were also established in individuals at clinical high risk state for development of psychosis. Interestingly, individuals at high risk that developed a full-blown psychosis had shown significantly lower resilience levels compared with non-converters. Additionally, high resilience levels in individuals at high risk for psychosis related to less severe negative, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as higher social functioning.7,8 Schizophrenia patients with higher resilience levels and optimism showed higher levels of happiness that associated in turn with lower perceived stress and higher personal mastery,9 while resilience was a significant predictor of functioning in a subgroup of non-medicated schizophrenia patients.10 In light of evidence supporting a positive association between resilience and schizophrenia outcome and based on the fact that resilience is modifiable and could improve with treatment,5 resilience studies are particularly meaningful, specifically within the first 3-5 years after schizophrenia onset,11 and could lead to interventions that aim at harnessing resilience during this "critical period". Diverse positive psychology interventions aim at improving psychological well-being by developing and nourishing positive feelings, behaviours and cognitions. Lately, positive psychotherapy was adapted for schizophrenia patients and was proven a feasible intervention that might contribute to improvement in functioning.12 Conclusively, sustained improvement in social and occupational functioning remains the most important indicator of recovery from schizophrenia. Still, such an improvement may not be accomplished in all patients by

  13. Social ecology of resilience and Sumud of Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Mohammad; Hannigan, Ben; Jones, Aled

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of theoretical perspectives and practical research knowledge in relation to 'resilience', the resilience of Palestinians in particular and the related concept of 'Sumud'. 'Sumud' is a Palestinian idea that is interwoven with ideas of personal and collective resilience and steadfastness. It is also a socio-political concept and refers to ways of surviving in the context of occupation, chronic adversity, lack of resources and limited infrastructure. The concept of 'resilience' has deep roots, going back at least to the 10th century when Arabic scholars suggested strategies to cope with life adversity. In Europe, research into resilience extends back to the 1800s. The understanding of resilience has developed over four overlapping waves. These focus on individual traits, protective factors, ecological assets and (in the current wave) social ecological factors. The current wave of resilience research focuses on the contribution of cultural contextualisation and is an approach that is discussed in this article, which draws on Arabic and English language literature located through a search of multiple databases (CINAHL, British Nursing Index, ASSIA, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE). Findings suggest that 'Sumud' is linked to the surrounding cultural context and can be thought of as an innovative, social ecological, approach to promoting resilience. We show that resilience is a prerequisite to 'Sumud', meaning that the individual has to be resilient in order to stay and not to leave their place, position or community. We close by pressing the case for studies which investigate resilience especially in underdeveloped countries such as Palestine (occupied Palestinian territories), and which reveal how resilience is embedded in pre-existing cultural contexts.

  14. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufar Sukenik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD aged 9;0–18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI aged 8;8–14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2–18;1. We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group—the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI also differ in the pattern of performance—the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject, and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences. In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax

  15. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukenik, Nufar; Friedmann, Naama

    2018-01-01

    Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI)? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 9;0-18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI) aged 8;8-14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2-18;1). We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group-the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI) also differ in the pattern of performance-the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject), and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences). In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax in the structures we

  16. Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dunn cavelty, myriam; Kaufmann, Mareile; Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    2015-01-01

    , and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...

  17. Caregiver Resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Al

    2002-01-01

    This article argues that school counselors cannot teach and preach resilient behavior if they are not models of resiliency themselves. Examines why some people come through challenging times more emotionally intact than others and suggests some tips for increasing one's resilience potential. (GCP)

  18. Relationship Between Resilience, Adjustment, and Psychological Functioning After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukow, Herman R; Godwin, Emilie E; Marwitz, Jennifer H; Mills, Ana; Hsu, Nancy H; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between resilience, psychological distress, adjustment, and community participation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Large university health system. Adult survivors of mild to severe TBI (N = 96). Descriptive, preliminary. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item version) was used to assess resilience, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18) was used to characterize psychological distress, and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) was used to measure ability, adjustment, and participation. Resilience scores were substantially lower than those of the general population. Significant relationships were found between resilience, psychological distress, and adjustment. Partial correlations (adjusting for the other MPAI-4 indices) showed significant correlation (P MPAI-4 Adjustment and resilience. Partial correlations (adjusting for the other BSI-18 scales) also showed significance for Depression (P < .01) and resilience. Resilience scores differed significantly (P < .001) between individuals meeting BSI-18 caseness criteria for psychological distress (n = 55) and those not meeting criteria (n = 41). Individuals with TBI are at risk for low resilience, which was found to correlate with psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment. Developing interventions to strengthen resilience skills has the potential to improve postinjury psychosocial adjustment, an important area for future research.

  19. Caregivers’ resilience is independent from the clinical symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Resilience is the capacity for successful adaptation when faced with the stress of adversity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between caregivers’ resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical factors of people with dementia. Cross-sectional assessment of 58 people with dementia and their caregiver dyads showed that most caregivers were female adult children. The caregivers reported moderate to higher levels of resilience, lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and moderate levels of burden. Resilience was not related to the caregiver’s gender (p = 0.883, nor clinical (p = 0.807 or emotional problems (p = 0.420. The regression showed that resilience was related to the caregiver’s quality of life (p < 0.01 and inversely associated with their depressive symptoms (p < 0.01. There was no relationship between caregivers’ resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with dementia. We can assume that resilience is an individual characteristic. Support groups should also focus on the factors that may increase resilience among caregivers.

  20. Resilience assessment of interdependent infrastructure systems: With a focus on joint restoration modeling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min; Wang, Zhenghua

    2015-01-01

    As infrastructure systems are highly interconnected, it is crucial to analyze their resilience with the consideration of their interdependencies. This paper adapts an existing resilience assessment framework for single systems to interdependent systems and mainly focuses on modeling and resilience contribution analysis of multi-systems’ joint restoration processes, which are seldom addressed in the literature. Taking interdependent power and gas systems in Houston, Texas, USA under hurricane hazards as an illustrative exmaple, five types of joint restoration stategies are proposed, including random restoration strategy RS 1 , independent restoration strategy RS 2 , power first and gas second restoration strategy RS 3 , gas aimed restoration strategy RS 4 , and power and gas compromised restoration strategy RS 5 . Results show that under limited restoration resources, RS 1 produces the least resilience for both systems, RS 2 and RS 3 both generates the largest power system resilience while RS 4 is the best for the gas system; and if quantifying the total resilience as the evenly weighted sum of two systems’ individual resilience, RS 5 produces the largest total resilience. The proposed method can help decision makers search optimum joint restoration strategy, which can significantly enhance both systems’ resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a method to assess resilience of interdependent infrastructure systems. • We consider unidirectional interdependencies from power system to gas system. • Multi-systems’ restoration processes are solved by using genetic algorithm. • Effectiveness of five restoration strategies are compared and analyzed. • Interdependency-based strategies produce the largest total resilience

  1. Risk and resilience factors affecting the psychological wellbeing of individuals deployed in humanitarian relief roles after a disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Sage, Clara A M; Amlôt, Richard; Greenberg, Neil; Rubin, G James

    2015-12-01

    When disasters occur, humanitarian relief workers frequently deploy to assist in rescue/recovery efforts. To conduct a systematic review of factors affecting the psychological wellbeing of disaster relief workers and identify recommendations for interventions. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO® and Web of Science for relevant studies, supplemented by hand searches. We performed thematic analysis on their results to identify factors predicting wellbeing. Sixty-one publications were included. Key themes were: pre-deployment factors (preparedness/training); peri-deployment factors (deployment length/timing; traumatic exposure; emotional involvement; leadership; inter-agency cooperation; support; role; demands and workload; safety/equipment; self-doubt/guilt; coping strategies) and post-deployment factors (support; media; personal and professional growth). As well as role-specific stressors, many occupational stressors not specific to humanitarian relief (e.g. poor leadership, poor support) present a significant health hazard to relief workers. Humanitarian organisations should prioritise strengthening relationships between team members and supervisors, and dealing effectively with non-role-specific stressors, to improve the psychological resilience of their workforce.

  2. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Moss

    Full Text Available Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot. Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%. Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56 years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%. Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add

  3. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  4. Emotional Intelligence and resilience in mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex

    2016-09-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) and resilience may be considered as prerequisites for mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness (SMI), since they are often exposed to severe emotional stress during daily work. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study assessed both EI and resilience and their interrelationship in 61 individuals belonging to an assertive outreach team for patients suffering from SMI compared 61 control subjects without healthcare-related working conditions. EI was assessed by means of the German version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), resilience was assessed using the German version of the Resilience Scale. Both groups showed an average level of EI in all categories of the MSCEIT and indicated high levels of resilience. They did not differ significantly from each other, neither in terms of EI nor resilience. Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between EI and resilience, albeit small in magnitude. Our results suggest that mental health professionals are not more resilient and therefore not more 'protected' from stressors than the general population. Though this finding warrants cautious interpretation, the positive correlation between EI and resilience suggests that EI may be a potential target for education and training in order to strengthen resilience even in healthy individuals and vice versa.

  5. Nationwide individual record linkage study showed poor agreement of causes of death and hospital diagnoses at individual level but reasonable agreement at population level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    Objectives: To investigate to what extent underlying and multiple causes of death represent end-of-life morbidity in individuals and at population level. Study Design and Setting: Cause of death and national hospital data were individually linked for all deaths at the age of 50-84 years, in 2005 in

  6. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  7. Resilience: Theory and Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Bassett, G.W.; Buehring, W.A.; Collins, M.J., III; Folga, S.M.; Petit, F.D.; Phillips, J.A.; Verner, D.R.; Whitfield, R.G. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-03

    both in its own right and because of its implications for community/regional resilience, it is especially important to develop a sound methodology for assessing resilience at the asset/facility level. This objective will be accomplished by collecting data on four broadly defined groups of resilience-enhancing measures: preparedness, mitigation measures, response capabilities, and recovery mechanisms. Table ES-1 illustrates how the six components that define resilience are connected to the actions that enhance the capacity of an entity to be resilient. The relationships illustrated in Table ES-1 provide the framework for developing a survey instrument that will be used to elicit the information required to assess resilience at the asset/facility level. The resilience of a community/region is a function of the resilience of its subsystems, including its critical infrastructures, economy, civil society, governance (including emergency services), and supply chains/dependencies. The number and complexity of these subsystems will make the measurement of resilience more challenging as we move from individual assets/facilities to the community/regional level (where critical infrastructure resilience is only one component). Specific challenges include uncertainty about relationships (e.g., the composition of specific supply chains), data gaps, and time and budget constraints that prevent collection of all of the information needed to construct a comprehensive assessment of the resilience of a specific community or region. These challenges can be addressed, at least partially, by adopting a 'systems approach' to the assessment of resilience. In a systems approach, the extent to which the analysis addresses the resilience of the individual subsystems can vary. Specifically, high-level systems analysis can be used to identify the most important lower-level systems. In turn, within the most important lower-level systems, site assessment data should be collected only on

  8. Individual Diet Modeling Shows How to Balance the Diet of French Adults with or without Excessive Free Sugar Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Anne; Maillot, Matthieu; Gazan, Rozenn; Vieux, Florent; Delaere, Fabien; Vaudaine, Sarah; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-02-20

    Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed diet. The French food composition table was completed with free sugar (FS) content. Results were analyzed separately for individuals with FS intakes in their observed diets ≤10% or >10% of their energy intake (named below FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS, respectively). The FS-EXCESS group represented 41% of the total population (average energy intake of 14.2% from FS). Compared with FS-ACCEPTABLE individuals, FS-EXCESS individuals had diets of lower nutritional quality and consumed more energy (2192 vs. 2123 kcal/day), particularly during snacking occasions (258 vs. 131 kcal/day) (all p -values diets were significant increases in fresh fruits, starchy foods, water, hot beverages and plain yogurts; and significant decreases in mixed dishes/sandwiches, meat/eggs/fish and cheese. For FS-EXCESS individuals only, the optimization process significantly increased vegetables and significantly decreased sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet products and fruit juices. The diets of French adults with excessive intakes of FS are of lower nutritional quality, but can be optimized via specific dietary changes.

  9. Aligning Organizational Pathologies and Organizational Resilience Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Morales Allende

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing resilient individuals, organizations and communities is a hot topic in the research agenda in Management, Ecology, Psychology or Engineering. Despite the number of works that focus on resilience is increasing, there is not completely agreed definition of resilience, neither an entirely formal and accepted framework. The cause may be the spread of research among different fields. In this paper, we focus on the study of organizational resilience with the aim of improving the level of resilience in organizations. We review the relation between viable and resilient organizations and their common properties. Based on these common properties, we defend the application of the Viable System Model (VSM to design resilient organizations. We also identify the organizational pathologies defined applying the VSM through resilience indicators. We conclude that an organization with any organizational pathology is not likely to be resilient because it does not fulfill the requirements of viable organizations.

  10. Organizational culture of a psychiatric hospital and resilience of nursing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Gaioli, Cheila Cristina Leonardo de Oliveira; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques; Mininel, Vivian Aline; Vegro, Thamiris Cavazzani

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the organizational culture of a psychiatric hospital and identify the capacity of resilience of nursing workers. quantitative research. For data collection, were used the Brazilian Instrument for Evaluation of Organizational Culture (IBACO - Instrumento Brasileiro para Avaliação da Cultura Organizacional) and the Resilience Scale (RS). participants reported the existence of centralization of power and devaluation of workers, despite recognizing the existence of collaboration at work and practices for improving interpersonal relations. In relation to the capacity of resilience, 50% of workers showed high level, and 42.9% a medium level of resilience. The correlation tests revealed negative values between the IBACO and RS domains, indicating that the lower the appreciation of individuals in the institution, the greater their capacity of resilience. the organizational values reflect the work organization model in the institution that devalues the workers' needs and requires greater capacity of resilience.

  11. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows no association between the SNP rs1800469 in TGFB and late radiotherapy toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, Gillian C.; Elliott, Rebecca M.; Alsner, Jan; Andreassen, Christian N.; Abdelhay, Osama; Burnet, Neil G.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coles, Charlotte E.; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Fuentes-Raspall, Maria J.; Alonso-Muñoz, Maria C.; Kerns, Sarah; Raabe, Annette; Symonds, R. Paul; Seibold, Petra; Talbot, Chris J.; Wenz, Frederik; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Yarnold, John; Dunning, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reported associations between risk of radiation-induced normal tissue injury and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TGFB1, encoding the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), remain controversial. To overcome publication bias, the international Radiogenomics Consortium collected and analysed individual patient level data from both published and unpublished studies. Materials and methods: TGFB1 SNP rs1800469 c.-1347T>C (previously known as C-509T) genotype, treatment-related data, and clinically-assessed fibrosis (measured at least 2 years after therapy) were available in 2782 participants from 11 cohorts. All received adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Associations between late fibrosis or overall toxicity, reported by STAT (Standardised Total Average Toxicity) score, and rs1800469 genotype were assessed. Results: No statistically significant associations between either fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype were observed with univariate or multivariate regression analysis. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), obtained from meta-analysis, for an increase in late fibrosis grade with each additional rare allele of rs1800469 was 0.98 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.85–1.11). This CI is sufficiently narrow to rule out any clinically relevant effect on toxicity risk in carriers vs. non-carriers with a high probability. Conclusion: This meta-analysis has not confirmed previous reports of association between fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype in breast cancer patients. It has demonstrated successful collaboration within the Radiogenomics Consortium.

  12. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...

  13. Serum killing of Ureaplasma parvum shows serovar-determined susceptibility for normal individuals and common variable immuno-deficiency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Michael L; Daha, Mohamed R; El-Shanawany, Tariq; Jolles, Stephen R; Kotecha, Sailesh; Spiller, O Brad

    2012-02-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria, unlike Gram-positive, are directly lysed by complement. Ureaplasma can cause septic arthritis and meningitis in immunocompromised individuals and induce premature birth. Ureaplasma has no cell wall, cannot be Gram-stain classified and its serum susceptibility is unknown. Survival of Ureaplasma serovars (SV) 1, 3, 6 and 14 (collectively Ureaplasma parvum) were measured following incubation with normal or immunoglobulin-deficient patient serum (relative to heat-inactivated controls). Blocking monoclonal anti-C1q antibody and depletion of calcium, immunoglobulins, or lectins were used to determine the complement pathway responsible for killing. Eighty-three percent of normal sera killed SV1, 67% killed SV6 and 25% killed SV14; greater killing correlating to strong immunoblot identification of anti-Ureaplasma antibodies; killing was abrogated following ProteinA removal of IgG1. All normal sera killed SV3 in a C1q-dependent fashion, irrespective of immunoblot identification of anti-Ureaplasma antibodies; SV3 killing was unaffected by total IgG removal by ProteinG, where complement activity was retained. Only one of four common variable immunodeficient (CVID) patient sera failed to kill SV3, despite profound IgM and IgG deficiency for all; however, killing of SV3 and SV1 was restored with therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Only the classical complement pathway mediated Ureaplasma-cidal activity, sometimes in the absence of observable immunoblot reactive bands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  15. Live imaging of individual cell divisions in mouse neuroepithelium shows asymmetry in cilium formation and Sonic hedgehog response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowska-Nitsche Karolina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that play important roles in developmental signaling pathways. Recent work demonstrated that, in cell culture, the daughter cell that inherits the older mother centriole generates a primary cilium and responds to external stimuli prior to its sister cell. This asynchrony in timing of cilia formation could be especially critical during development as cell divisions are required for both differentiation and maintenance of progenitor cell niches. Methods Here we integrate several fluorescent markers and use ex vivo live imaging of a single cell division within the mouse E8.5 neuroepithelium to reveal both the formation of a primary cilium and the transcriptional response to Sonic hedgehog in the daughter cells. Results We show that, upon cell division, cilia formation and the Sonic hedgehog response are asynchronous between the daughter cells. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that we can directly observe single cell divisions within the developing neuroepithelium and concomitantly monitor cilium formation or Sonic hedgehog response. We expect this method to be especially powerful in examining whether cellular behavior can lead to both differentiation and maintenance of cells in a progenitor niche.

  16. Resilience As A Mediator Between Affect, Coping Styles, Support and Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Kelle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As humans, we are always targets of many positive and negative life events in which we would show differences in dealing with those events. In this study, the aim was to investigate how individuals react to stressful situations through the concept of resilience. Therefore it was aimed to test the role of individual characteristics of affect and coping styles in addition to receiving support from family and social environment on resilience. The role of resilience in life satisfaction was also investigated. A survey was used including demographic questions, ego resilience scale, positive and negative affect scale, stress coping styles inventory, and satisfaction with life scale. Target of the study was individuals who were over 18 years of age and 403 participants were reached through snowball sampling. Seventy six percent of the participants were female (n=310 and 24% of them were male (n=93. Hypothesized model was tested by using path analysis. Study results showed that positive affect, optimistic coping style and confident coping style were significant predictors of resilience as individual characteristics in addition to receiving social support. Resilience was found as a significant predictor of life satisfaction. Moreover, resilience was also found as a significant mediator of the relationships between positive affect, optimistic coping, confident coping styles, receiving social support and life satisfaction. Importance of the study in the field of psychology and suggestions for future research were also discussed with relevant literature.

  17. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  18. The influence of psychological resilience on the relation between automatic stimulus evaluation and attentional breadth for surprised faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Maud; De Raedt, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    The broaden-and-build theory relates positive emotions to resilience and cognitive broadening. The theory proposes that the broadening effects underly the relation between positive emotions and resilience, suggesting that resilient people can benefit more from positive emotions at the level of cognitive functioning. Research has investigated the influence of positive emotions on attentional broadening, but the stimulus in the target of attention may also influence attentional breadth, depending on affective stimulus evaluation. Surprised faces are particularly interesting as they are valence ambiguous, therefore, we investigated the relation between affective evaluation--using an affective priming task--and attentional breadth for surprised faces, and how this relation is influenced by resilience. Results show that more positive evaluations are related to more attentional broadening at high levels of resilience, while this relation is reversed at low levels. This indicates that resilient individuals can benefit more from attending to positively evaluated stimuli at the level of attentional broadening.

  19. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska

    2015-11-01

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  20. What Do We Mean by 'Community Resilience'? A Systematic Literature Review of How It Is Defined in the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonny S; Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James

    2017-02-01

    Government, industry and charitable organisations have an increasing focus on programs intended to support community resilience to disasters. But has consensus been reached as to what defines 'community resilience' and what its core characteristics are? We undertook a systematic literature review of definitions of community resilience related to disasters. We conducted an inductive thematic analysis of the definitions and descriptions that we identified, in order to determine the proposed characteristics of community resilience prior to, during and after a disaster. We identified 80 relevant papers. There was no evidence of a common, agreed definition of community resilience. In spite of this, evidence was found of nine core elements of community resilience that were common among the definitions. The core elements were: local knowledge, community networks and relationships, communication, health, governance and leadership, resources, economic investment, preparedness, and mental outlook. Within these core elements, we identified 19 sub-elements linked to community resilience. Our findings show that community resilience remains an amorphous concept that is understood and applied differently by different research groups. Yet in spite of the differences in conception and application, there are well-understood elements that are widely proposed as important for a resilient community. A focus on these individual elements may be more productive than attempting to define and study community resilience as a distinct concept.

  1. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M.; Bonanno, George A.; Masten, Ann S.; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  2. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Bonanno, George A; Masten, Ann S; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture).

  3. Autonomic and Brain Morphological Predictors of Stress Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Carnevali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stressful life events are an important cause of psychopathology. Humans exposed to aversive or stressful experiences show considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in their responses. However, the majority does not develop stress-related psychiatric disorders. The dynamic processes encompassing positive and functional adaptation in the face of significant adversity have been broadly defined as resilience. Traditionally, the assessment of resilience has been confined to self-report measures, both within the general community and putative high-risk populations. Although this approach has value, it is highly susceptible to subjective bias and may not capture the dynamic nature of resilience, as underlying construct. Recognizing the obvious benefits of more objective measures of resilience, research in the field has just started investigating the predictive value of several potential biological markers. This review provides an overview of theoretical views and empirical evidence suggesting that individual differences in heart rate variability (HRV, a surrogate index of resting cardiac vagal outflow, may underlie different levels of resilience toward the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Following this line of thought, recent studies describing associations between regional brain morphometric characteristics and resting state vagally-mediated HRV are summarized. Existing studies suggest that the structural morphology of the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC, particularly its cortical thickness, is implicated in the expression of individual differences in HRV. These findings are discussed in light of emerging structural neuroimaging research, linking morphological characteristics of the ACC to psychological traits ascribed to a high-resilient profile and abnormal structural integrity of the ACC to the psychophysiological expression of stress-related mental health consequences. We conclude that a multidisciplinary approach

  4. Race/ethnicity, psychological resilience, and social support among OEF/OIF combat veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Matthew S; Leung, Desmond W; Pittman, James O E; Floto, Elizabeth; Afari, Niloofar

    2018-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and psychological resilience, and the moderating role of social support in this relationship among non-Hispanic White (n = 605), Hispanic (n = 107), African American (n = 141), and Asian American (n = 97) Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) combat veterans. Veterans were primarily male (88%) with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 8.35). An analysis of covariance showed that Asian American veterans reported significantly lower psychological resilience than non-Hispanic White veterans. The interaction of race/ethnicity and social support with psychological resilience was examined via linear regression. We found that the relationship between psychological resilience and social support significantly differed by race/ethnicity such that social support was positively associated with psychological resilience among non-Hispanic White veterans, but not among other racial/ethnic groups. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that show Asian American veterans report lower psychological resilience than non-Hispanic White veterans. Cultural differences in how and why individuals use social support may underlie racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between social support and psychological resilience. Future qualitative and quantitative research is encouraged to better understand how social support relates to psychological resilience among minority OEF/OIF combat veterans. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  6. Resiliency and the Ability to Detect Cartoon Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killlon, Jessica B.; Torres, Aurora

    2017-01-01

    The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale was developed to measure resiliency, an individual's ability to positively adapt to stressful or adverse situations. Resilient individuals have close and secure relationships, have a strong sense of purpose, know when to turn to others for help, and find humor in situations. The focus of this study was on the…

  7. When Violence Can Appear With Different Male Partners: Identification of Resilient and Non-resilient Women in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Herrero

    2018-06-01

    women reported a higher physical IPV, they nevertheless show fewer psychological sequelae and a greater ability to end abusive relationships. In addition, the human development of the countries in which they live also seems to reinforce their resilience, which suggests combining intervention policies at the individual and contextual levels.

  8. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C

    2017-12-01

    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  9. Resilience in family caregivers of persons with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Hayas, Carlota; López de Arroyabe, Elena; Calvete, Esther

    2015-08-01

    The authors' purpose was to develop the Questionnaire of Resilience in Caregivers of Acquired Brain Injury (QRC-ABI) and explore its psychometric properties The QRC-ABI was developed to measure the process of resilience, including resilient factors that, according to the literature, are the most relevant for caregivers. This is a cross-sectional study of Spanish primary caregivers of individuals with ABI. It included 237 caregivers (77.6% women and 21.1% men) who completed the QRC-ABI, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (Weiss & Berger, 2006), the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (Skevington, Lotfy, O'Connell, & the WHOQOL Group, 2004) assessment, and the Positive Aspects of Caregiving (Tarlow et al., 2004) assessment. An item pool of 36 items was developed, from which 17 were finally selected based on a consensus among researchers and adequate symmetry indexes and kurtoses. Confirmatory factor analysis of the QRC-ABI confirmed a hierarchical solution in which 4 resilience dimensions were explained by a broader general resilience factor. The internal consistency of each scale was >.80. Convergent validity was supported through positive correlations of the QRC-ABI with quality of life, positive aspects of caregiving, and posttraumatic growth, and a negative correlation with perceived burden. The new QRC-ABI showed good reliability and validity. Our results are consistent with previous studies that have argued that resilient qualities are important for a healthy and positive adaptation to the challenging adversities faced by caregivers of individuals with ABI. Future interventions based on resilience should promote these factors in caregivers. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Incorporating Resilience into Dynamic Social Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    form contains classified information, stamp classification level on the top and bottom of this page. 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT. This block must be...resilience as a multi- level resilience and study their resilience at individual, family and society levels . However, having more than one level on a...4] U. Fischbacher, S. Gächter, and E. Fehr, “Are People Conditionally Cooperative ? Evidence from a Public Goods Experiment,” Econ . Lett., vol

  11. Assessment instruments of urban resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Saporiti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to highlight the aspects related to the resilient capacity of a neoecosistema. Clarifying what does it means to speak about a resilient neoecosistema and which are the specific characters that make him capable of change and adaptation when facing an environmental, social or economic threat, it will be possible to understand the efficacy related to the model of urban development. From the individuation of perturbing factors of this capacity, it will be possible to generate a panel of the resilient capacity linked to three different ambits that represent the three characteristic elements of natural ecosystems: its physic structure, the persons and the interaction processes between them so we would be able to make explicit the specific characters of resilience distinguished from those of sustainability and urban quality.  

  12. Quantifying resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The biosphere is under unprecedented pressure, reflected in rapid changes in our global ecological, social, technological and economic systems. In many cases, ecological and social systems can adapt to these changes over time, but when a critical threshold is surpassed, a system under stress can undergo catastrophic change and reorganize into a different state. The concept of resilience, introduced more than 40 years ago in the ecological sciences, captures the behaviour of systems that can occur in alternative states. The original definition of resilience forwarded by Holling (1973) is still the most useful. It defines resilience as the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stable state. The idea of alternative stable states has clear and profound implications for ecological management. Coral reefs, for example, are high-diversity systems that provide key ecosystem services such as fisheries and coastal protection. Human impacts are causing significant, ongoing reef degradation, and many reefs have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states in response to anthropogenic pressures such as elevated water temperatures and overfishing. Understanding and differentiating between the factors that help maintain reefs in coral-dominated states vs. those that facilitate a shift to an undesired algal-dominated state is a critical step towards sound management and conservation of these, and other, important social–ecological systems.

  13. Strengthening community resilience: a toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Scott; Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    While community resilience is said to have gained a lot of traction politically and given credence by disaster management professionals, this perception is not always shared by the individual members of communities. One solution to addressing the difficulty of individuals ‘conceptualising’ the

  14. Case study: Promoting community resilience with local values – Greenland's Paamiut Asasara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter; Larsen, Line Natascha; de Casas Soberón, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience.......The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience....

  15. Multidimensional approach to complex system resilience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama Dessavre, Dante; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Barker, Kash

    2016-01-01

    Recent works have attempted to formally define a general metric for quantifying resilience for complex systems as a relationship of performance of the systems against time. The technical content in the proposed work introduces a new model that allows, for the first time, to compare the system resilience among systems (or different modifications to a system), by introducing a new dimension to system resilience models, called stress, to mimic the definition of resilience in material science. The applicability and usefulness of the model is shown with a new heat map visualization proposed in this work, and it is applied to a simulated network resilience case to exemplify its potential benefits. - Highlights: • We analyzed two of the main current metrics of resilience. • We create a new model that relates events with the effects they have. • We develop a novel heat map visualization to compare system resilience. • We showed the model and visualization usefulness in a simulated case.

  16. Resilience in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Yhojan; Pacheco, Yovana; Zapata, Elizabeth; Monsalve, Diana M; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rodríguez-Jimenez, Monica; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Molano-González, Nicolás; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate the relationship between resilience and clinical outcomes in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Focus groups, individual interviews, and chart reviews were done to collect data on 188 women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely rheumatoid arthritis (n=51), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=70), systemic sclerosis (n=35), and Sjögren's syndrome (n=32). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed including disease activity by patient reported outcomes. Resilience was evaluated by using the Brief Resilience Scale. Bivariate, multiple linear regression, and classification and regression trees were used to analyse data. Resilience was influenced by age, duration of disease, and socioeconomic status. Lower resilience scores were observed in younger patients (50years) had higher resilience scores regardless of socioeconomic status. There was no influence of disease activity on resilience. A particular behaviour was observed in systemic sclerosis in which patients with high socioeconomic status and regular physical activity had higher resilience scores. Resilience in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is a continuum process influenced by age and socioeconomic status. The ways in which these variables along with exercise influence resilience deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being. PMID:26132197

  18. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  19. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Chapin, T.; Rockstrom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change

  20. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  1. Building from a conceptual model of the resilience process during ageing, towards the Groningen Aging Resilience Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Abbema, Renske; Bielderman, Annemiek; De Greef, Mathieu; Hobbelen, Hans; Krijnen, Wim; van der Schans, Cees

    2015-09-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Groningen Ageing Resilience Inventory. Ageing is a process that is often accompanied by functional limitation, disabilities and losses. Instead of focusing on these negative events of ageing, there are opportunities in focusing on adaptation mechanisms, like resilience, that are helpful to cope with those adversities. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted from 2011-2012. First, a conceptual model of resilience during the ageing process was constructed. Next, items were formulated that made up a comprehensive template questionnaire reflecting the model. Finally, a cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the construct validity and internal consistency of this template 16-item questionnaire. Participants (N = 229) with a mean age of 71·5 years, completed the template 16-item Groningen Ageing Resilience Inventory, and performance based tests and psychological questionnaires. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a two factor solution of internal and external resources of resilience. Three items did not discriminate well between the two factors and were deleted, remaining a final 13-item questionnaire that shows evidence of good internal consistency. The direction and magnitude of the correlations with other measures support the construct validity. The Groningen Ageing Resilience Inventory is a useful instrument that can help nurses, other healthcare workers, researchers and providers of informal care to identify the internal and external resources of resilience in individuals and groups. In a multidisciplinary biopsychosocial approach this knowledge provides tools for empowering older patients in performing health promoting behaviors and self-care tasks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Resilience linked to personality dimensions, alexithymia and affective symptoms in motor functional neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilianhasanpour, Rozita; Williams, Benjamin; Gilman, Isabelle; Burke, Matthew J; Glass, Sean; Fricchione, Gregory L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; LaFrance, W Curt; Perez, David L

    2018-04-01

    Reduced resilience, a construct associated with maladaptive stress coping and a predisposing vulnerability for Functional Neurological Disorders (FND), has been under-studied compared to other neuropsychiatric factors in FND. This prospective case-control study investigated self-reported resilience in patients with FND compared to controls and examined relationships between resilience and affective symptoms, personality traits, alexithymia, health status and adverse life event burden. 50 individuals with motor FND and 47 healthy controls participated. A univariate test followed by a logistic regression analysis investigated group-level differences in Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) scores. For within-group analyses performed separately in patients with FND and controls, univariate screening tests followed by multivariate linear regression analyses examined factors associated with self-reported resilience. Adjusting for age, gender, education status, ethnicity and lifetime adverse event burden, patients with FND reported reduced resilience compared to controls. Within-group analyses in patients with FND showed that individual-differences in mental health, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness positively correlated with CD-RISC scores; post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depression, anxiety, alexithymia and neuroticism scores negatively correlated with CD-RISC scores. Extraversion independently predicted resilience scores in patients with FND. In control subjects, univariate associations were appreciated between CD-RISC scores and gender, personality traits, anxiety, alexithymia and physical health; conscientiousness independently predicted resilience in controls. Patients with FND reported reduced resilience, and CD-RISC scores covaried with other important predisposing vulnerabilities for the development of FND. Future research should investigate if the CD-RISC is predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with FND. Copyright

  3. The fading affect bias shows positive outcomes at the general but not the individual level of analysis in the context of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Kyle A; Dunlap, Spencer M

    2017-08-01

    Unpleasant affect fades faster than pleasant affect (e.g., Walker, Vogl, & Thompson, 1997); this effect is referred to as the Fading Affect Bias (FAB; Walker, Skowronski, Gibbons, Vogl, & Thompson, 2003a). Research shows that the FAB is consistently related to positive/healthy outcomes at a general but not at a specific level of analysis based on event types and individual differences (e.g., Gibbons et al., 2013). Based on the positive outcomes for FAB and negative outcomes for social media (Bolton et al., 2013; Huang, 2010), the current study examined FAB in the context of social media events along with related individual differences. General positive outcomes were shown in the form of robust FAB effects across social media and non-social media events, a larger FAB for non-social media events than for social media events, negative correlations of FAB with depression, anxiety, and stress as well as a positive correlation of FAB with self-esteem. However, the lack of a negative correlation between FAB and anxiety for social media events in a 3-way interaction did not show positive outcomes at a specific level of analysis. Rehearsal ratings mediated the 3-way interaction. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of life in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: The impact of symptomatic remission and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, A; Mizuno, Y; Wartelsteiner, F; Wolfgang Fleischhacker, W; Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Mimura, M; Pardeller, S; Sondermann, C; Suzuki, T; Welte, A; Uchida, H

    2017-10-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is significantly affected in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (BD-I). The current study investigated whether symptomatic remission and resilience might differently impact HRQOL in these patients. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia and 60 patients suffering from BD-I from outpatient mental health services as well as 77 healthy control subjects from the general community were included into a cross-sectional study. HRQOL and resilience were assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF and the Resilience Scale. In patients, psychopathology was quantified by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively. Notably, both patient groups showed lower HRQOL and resilience compared to control subjects, non-remitted patients indicated lower HRQOL than remitted ones. The effect of remission on HRQOL was significantly larger in patients with BD-I than in those with schizophrenia but did not explain the difference in HRQOL between groups. Resilience predicted HRQOL in all three groups. When accounting for the effect of resilience among remitted patients, only the difference in HRQOL between schizophrenia patients and control subjects was significant. These findings demonstrate the impact of symptomatic remission and resilience on HRQOL of both patients suffering from schizophrenia and BD-I and indicate that these factors are especially relevant for HRQOL of patients with BD-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  6. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  7. A Whole Community Approach toward Child and Youth Resilience Promotion: A Review of Resilience Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlou, Nazilla; Wray, Ron

    2014-01-01

    A literature review of child and youth resilience with a focus on: definitions and factors of resilience; relationships between resilience, mental health and social outcomes; evidence for resilience promoting interventions; and implications for reducing health inequities. To conduct the review, the first two following steps were conducted iteratively and informed the third step: 1) Review of published peer-review literature since 2000; and 2) Review of grey literature; and 3) Quasi-realist synthesis of evidence. Evidence from three perspectives were examined: i) whether interventions can improve 'resilience' for vulnerable children and youth; ii) whether there is a differential effect among different populations; and, iii) whether there is evidence that resilience interventions 'close the gap' on health and social outcome measures. Definitions of resilience vary as do perspectives on it. We argue for a hybrid approach that recognizes the value of combining multiple theoretical perspectives, epistemologies (positivistic and constructivist/interpretive/critical) in studying resilience. Resilience is: a) a process (rather than a single event), b) a continuum (rather than a binary outcome), and c) likely a global concept with specific dimensions. Individual, family and social environmental factors influence resilience. A social determinants perspective on resilience and mental health is emphasized. Programs and interventions to promoting resilience should be complimentary to public health measures addressing the social determinants of health. A whole community approach to resilience is suggested as a step toward closing the public health policy gap. Local initiatives that stimulate a local transformation process are needed. Recognition of each child's or youth's intersections of gender, lifestage, family resources within the context of their identity markers fits with a localized approach to resilience promotion and, at the same time, requires recognition of the

  8. Resilience and reworking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus; Fold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    of this article is to shed light on the agency of individual workers involved in rapid industrialization processes. In this endeavor we draw inspiration from recent contributions that have integrated Cindi Katz's threefold categorization of agency as reworking, resilience and resistance. In combination...... the labor market. The empirical part of the article draws on interviews with local and migrant first-generation workers in two settlements located next to an industrial zone in Can Tho Province in the Mekong River Delta Region of Vietnam. It is suggested that the alternating practices of reworking...

  9. Resilience - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    the assessment of the health of a network or system. The hypothesis is: resiliency is meaningful in the context of holistic assessments of... health , holistic , Resiliency Tier, Resiliency Tier Matrix, State of Resiliency 295Defense ARJ, July 2015, Vol. 22 No. 3 : 294–324 296 Defense ARJ, July...upon who is speaking. Taking this one step further, consider resiliency as a concept that provides a holistic view of a system or capability, just

  10. Psychological Trait Resilience Within Ecological Systems Theory: The Resilient Systems Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Flowe, Heather D; Vostanis, Panos; Chivers, Sally

    2017-07-14

    This project describes the development of the Resilient Systems Scales, created to address conceptual and methodological ambiguities in assessing the ecological systems model of resilience. Across a number of samples (total N = 986), our findings suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales show equivalence to a previously reported assessment (Maltby, Day, & Hall, 2015 ) in demonstrating the same factor structure, adequate intercorrelation between the 2 measures of resilience, and equivalent associations with personality and well-being. The findings also suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales demonstrate adequate test-retest reliability, compare well with other extant measures of resilience in predicting well-being, and map, to varying degrees, onto positive expression of several cognitive, social, and emotional traits. The findings suggest that the new measure can be used alongside existing measures of resilience, or singly, to assess positive life outcomes within psychology research.

  11. Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.

  12. Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

  13. Interprofessionals' definitions of moral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Heidi; Heinze, Katherine; Rushton, Cynda

    2018-02-01

    To describe common characteristics and themes of the concept of moral resilience as reported by interprofessional clinicians in health care. Research has provided an abundance of data on moral distress with limited research to resolve and help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress. This reveals a critical need for research on how to mitigate the negative consequences of moral distress that plague nurses and other healthcare providers. One promising direction is to build resilience as an individual strategy concurrently with interventions to build a culture of ethical practice. Qualitative descriptive methods were used to analyse descriptive definitions provided by 184 interprofessional clinicians in health care attending educational programmes in various locations as well as a small group of 23 professionals with backgrounds such as chaplaincy and nonhealthcare providers. Three primary themes and three subthemes emerged from the data. The primary themes are integrity-personal and relational, and buoyancy. The subthemes are self-regulation, self-stewardship and moral efficacy. Individual healthcare providers and healthcare systems can use this research to help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress by finding ways to develop interventions to cultivate moral resilience. Moral resilience involves not only building and fostering the individual's capacity to navigate moral adversity but also developing systems that support a culture of ethical practice for healthcare providers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Design and methods for the Better Resiliency Among Veterans and non-Veterans with Omega-3's (BRAVO) study: A double blind, placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation among adult individuals at risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Bernadette P; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Killeen, Therese K; Magruder, Kathryn M; Holes-Lewis, Kelly; Tolliver, Bryan K; Turner, Travis H

    2016-03-01

    Suicide remains the 10th leading cause of death among adults in the United States (U.S.). Annually, approximately 30 per 100,000 U.S. military Veterans commit suicide, compared to 14 per 100,000 U.S. civilians. Symptoms associated with suicidality can be treatment resistant and proven-effective pharmaceuticals may have adverse side-effects. Thus, a critical need remains to identify effective approaches for building psychological resiliency in at-risk individuals. Omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFAs) are essential nutrients, which must be consumed in the diet. N-3 HUFAs have been demonstrated to reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety, and impulsivity - which are associated with suicide risk. Here we present the design and methods for the Better Resiliency Among Veterans and non-Veterans with Omega-3's (BRAVO) study, which is a double blind, randomized, controlled trial among individuals at risk of suicide of an n-3 HUFA versus placebo supplementation in the form of all natural fruit juice beverages. The BRAVO study seeks to determine if dietary supplementation with n-3 HUFAs reduces the risk for serious suicidal behaviors, suicidal thinking, negative emotions, and symptoms associated with suicide risk. Sub-analyses will evaluate efficacy in reducing depressive symptoms, alcohol, and nicotine use. A sub-study utilizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate the neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of n-3 HUFAs. We also outline selection of appropriate proxy outcome measures for detecting response to treatment and collection of ancillary data, such as diet and substance use, that are critical for interpretation of results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social-ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

  16. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  17. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  18. Special issue on Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    , and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...

  19. Individual Cell Based Traits Obtained by Scanning Flow-Cytometry Show Selection by Biotic and Abiotic Environmental Factors during a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomati, Francesco; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Jokela, Jukka; Ibelings, Bas W.

    2013-01-01

    In ecology and evolution, the primary challenge in understanding the processes that shape biodiversity is to assess the relationship between the phenotypic traits of organisms and the environment. Here we tested for selection on physio-morphological traits measured by scanning flow-cytometry at the individual level in phytoplankton communities under a temporally changing biotic and abiotic environment. Our aim was to study how high-frequency temporal changes in the environment influence biodiversity dynamics in a natural community. We focused on a spring bloom in Lake Zurich (Switzerland), characterized by rapid changes in phytoplankton, water conditions, nutrients and grazing (mainly mediated by herbivore ciliates). We described bloom dynamics in terms of taxonomic and trait-based diversity and found that diversity dynamics of trait-based groups were more pronounced than those of identified phytoplankton taxa. We characterized the linkage between measured phytoplankton traits, abiotic environmental factors and abundance of the main grazers and observed weak but significant correlations between changing abiotic and biotic conditions and measured size-related and fluorescence-related traits. We tested for deviations in observed community-wide distributions of focal traits from random patterns and found evidence for both clustering and even spacing of traits, occurring sporadically over the time series. Patterns were consistent with environmental filtering and phenotypic divergence under herbivore pressure, respectively. Size-related traits showed significant even spacing during the peak of herbivore abundance, suggesting that morphology-related traits were under selection from grazing. Pigment distribution within cells and colonies appeared instead to be associated with acclimation to temperature and water chemistry. We found support for trade-offs among grazing resistance and environmental tolerance traits, as well as for substantial periods of dynamics in which

  20. Resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    Carlene Souza Silva Manzini; Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity that people have to cope positively with adversities. A cross-sectional, quantitative study, that aimed to assess factors associated with the resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Sixty-six caregivers composed the sample, who were accompanied in a neurology ambulatory. Most caregivers presented moderate resilience. Linear regression showed that some factors interfered with caregivers’ resilience, being those: overload, the increment of...

  1. Developing the resilience typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in resilience in internal crisis management and crisis communication. How an organization can build up resilience as a response to organisational crisis, at a time when the amount of crises seem only to increase, is more relevant than ever before. Nevertheless resilience...... is often perceived in the literature as something certain organisations have by definition, without further reflection on what it is that creates this resiliency. This article explores what it is that creates organisational resilience, and in view of the different understandings of the resilience...... phenomenon, develops a typology of resilience. Furthermore the resilience phenomenon is discussed against the definition of a crisis as a cosmological episode, and implications for future research is discussed and summarized....

  2. Seeding Stress Resilience through Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Ashokan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generalized set of physiological and psychological responses observed when an organism is placed under challenging circumstances. The stress response allows organisms to reattain the equilibrium in face of perturbations. Unfortunately, chronic and/or traumatic exposure to stress frequently overwhelms coping ability of an individual. This is manifested as symptoms affecting emotions and cognition in stress-related mental disorders. Thus environmental interventions that promote resilience in face of stress have much clinical relevance. Focus of the bulk of relevant neurobiological research at present remains on negative aspects of health and psychological outcomes of stress exposure. Yet exposure to the stress itself can promote resilience to subsequent stressful episodes later in the life. This is especially true if the prior stress occurs early in life, is mild in its magnitude, and is controllable by the individual. This articulation has been referred to as “stress inoculation,” reminiscent of resilience to the pathology generated through vaccination by attenuated pathogen itself. Using experimental evidence from animal models, this review explores relationship between nature of the “inoculum” stress and subsequent psychological resilience.

  3. Resilience, age, and perceived symptoms in persons with long-term physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Alexandra L; Molton, Ivan R; Ehde, Dawn M; Amtmann, Dagmar; Bombardier, Charles H; Smith, Amanda E; Jensen, Mark P

    2016-05-01

    Resilience may mitigate impact of secondary symptoms such as pain and fatigue on quality of life in persons aging with disability. This study examined resilience in a large sample of individuals with disabling medical conditions by validating the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, obtaining descriptive information about resilience and evaluating resilience as a mediator among key secondary symptoms and quality of life using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the measure's psychometric properties were adequate in this sample. Resilience was lowest among participants who were middle-aged or younger, and participants with depression. Resilience mediated associations between secondary symptoms and quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  5. Beyond Negative Pain-Related Psychological Factors: Resilience Is Related to Lower Pain Affect in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington, Kasey S; Cheng, Joshua C; Bosma, Rachael L; Rogachov, Anton; Kim, Junseok A; Davis, Karen D

    2017-09-01

    Resilience, a characteristic that enhances adaptation in response to stressful events, is a positive psychological factor that can predict and modulate health outcomes. However, resilience is rarely considered in pain research. Conversely, negative psychological factors (eg, anxiety, depression) are known to be related to the affective dimension of pain. It is critical to understand all potential psychological drivers of pain affect, a prominent component of chronic pain. We tested the hypothesis that higher resilience is associated with lower pain affect, above and beyond the predictive value of negative psychological factors. Healthy adults underwent psychophysical testing to acquire ratings of heat pain intensity and unpleasantness and completed the Resilience Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait form), Beck Depression Inventory, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Pain Vigilance and Attention Questionnaire. Multiple regression modeling (n = 68) showed resilience to be a negatively associated with pain affect (unpleasantness). Furthermore, in individuals with higher anxiety scores, resilience was protective against higher pain affect. This highlights the importance of resilience, a positive psychological factor, in the affective dimension of pain. This study is the first to assess a positive psychological factor and experimental pain affect, and has the potential to improve prediction of and treatment strategies for clinical pain. We report that resilience, a positive psychological factor, interacts with anxiety and is associated with heat pain affect (unpleasantness) in healthy individuals. Resilience may provide predictive value of chronic pain affect and treatment outcomes, and could be a target for behavioral therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA and the Herth hope scale (HHS in the prediction of anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanna Morote

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS, in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25. Methods Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25. Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM. First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r, then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. Results The hierarchical models showed that (1 hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2 Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3 RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness. Women showed higher scores

  7. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA) and the Herth hope scale (HHS) in the prediction of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Krysinska, Karolina; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2017-10-27

    Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS), in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25). Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM). First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r), then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. The hierarchical models showed that (1) hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2) Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3) RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope) and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness). Women showed higher scores in social competences and resources (RSA

  8. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  9. Meaning in life, resilience, and psychological well-being among children affected by parental HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2017-11-01

    Meaning in life has been posited to improve psychological well-being. People facing adversities can reduce psychological distress through pursuing a sense of purpose in life. However, the effectiveness of meaning in life in promoting psychological well-being has been found varied, and what factors may affect the function of meaning in life remain unclear. In this paper, the authors suggest that resilience, the positive adaptation during or following significant adversity, can strengthen the protective effects of meaning in life on psychological well-being. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed data from a sample of 518 vulnerable children of parents living with HIV about their meaning in life, resilience, depression, and loneliness. Results showed that resilience moderated the relationship between meaning in life and depression, and between meaning in life and loneliness. Meaning in life was associated with lower levels of depression and loneliness among children high in resilience, in comparison to children low in resilience. Future interventions targeting meaning in life and well-being should consider children's resilience, which can allow for better individualization of the treatment.

  10. Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being: The role of resilience beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eDi Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is a key factor in the well-being of individuals. The present study set out to analyze the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and resilience in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in order to determine the incremental validity of resilience with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in 168 Italian high school students. The Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM, the Authenticity Scale (AS were administered to the participants in the study. The results showed that resilience added a significant percentage of incremental variance with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in relation to life satisfaction, positive affect, life meaning, and authenticity. These results underline the value of resilience in both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, thus offering new perspectives for research and intervention.

  11. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  12. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D. Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  13. Risk Factors as Major Determinants of Resilience: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul; Lahad, Mooli; Leykin, Dmitry; Goroshit, Marina

    2018-03-16

    The present study was conducted in the context of current concerns about replication in psychological research. It claims that risk factors should be regarded as an integral part of the definition of individual resilience, which should be defined in terms of the balance between individual strength or protective factors, and individual vulnerability or risk factors (IND-SVR). Five independent samples, including 3457 Israeli participants, were employed to determine the effects of resilience promoting and resilience suppressing variables on the IND-SVR index of resilience, and on its two components: recovery from adversity, and distress symptoms. Five path analyses were employed for determining the role of distress symptoms as a measure of psychological resilience, as compared to other indices of this resilience. Results indicated the major role of risk factors (distress symptoms) as an integral component of resilience. This role was generally replicated in the five investigated samples. Risk factors are legitimate, valid, and useful parts of the definition of psychological resilience. Resilience research has shifted away from studying individual risk factors to investigating the process through which individuals overcome the hardships they experience. The present data seem to suggest that this shift should be reexamined.

  14. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows a significant association between the ATM rs1801516 SNP and toxicity after radiotherapy in 5456 breast and prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Rosenstein, Barry S; Kerns, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several small studies have indicated that the ATM rs1801516 SNP is associated with risk of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy. However, the findings have not been consistent. In order to test this SNP in a well-powered study, an individual patient data meta-analysis was carried ou...

  15. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  16. How Robust is Your System Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounfar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.

    2017-12-01

    Robustness and resilience are concepts in system thinking that have grown in importance and popularity. For many complex social-ecological systems, however, robustness and resilience are difficult to quantify and the connections and trade-offs between them difficult to study. Most studies have either focused on qualitative approaches to discuss their connections or considered only one of them under particular classes of disturbances. In this study, we present an analytical framework to address the linkage between robustness and resilience more systematically. Our analysis is based on a stylized dynamical model that operationalizes a widely used concept framework for social-ecological systems. The model enables us to rigorously define robustness and resilience and consequently investigate their connections. The results reveal the tradeoffs among performance, robustness, and resilience. They also show how the nature of the such tradeoffs varies with the choices of certain policies (e.g., taxation and investment in public infrastructure), internal stresses and external disturbances.

  17. BEATVIC, a body-oriented resilience training with elements of kickboxing for individuals with a psychotic disorder : study protocol of a multi-center RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouwe, van der Elisabeth C.D.; de Vries, Bertine; Aleman, André; Arends, Johan; Waarheid, Clement; Meerdink, Aniek; van der Helm, Erwin; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Individuals with a psychotic disorder are at an increased risk of becoming victim of a crime or other forms of aggression. Research has revealed several possible risk factors (e.g. impaired social cognition, aggression regulation problems, assertiveness, self-stigma, self-esteem) for

  18. Anxiety among adults with a history of childhood adversity: Psychological resilience moderates the indirect effect of emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julia C; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis

    2017-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been widely identified as risk factors for increased symptoms of anxiety across the lifespan. Little is known, however, about the processes by which ACEs set the stage for increased symptoms of anxiety in adulthood. The current study evaluated whether emotion dysregulation and psychological resilience influence the association between ACEs and symptoms of anxiety. A sample of adult primary care patients (N=4006) completed self-report measures related to ACEs, symptoms of anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience. A moderated mediation analysis showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the association between ACEs and anxiety symptoms, and that the strength of this effect varied as a function of psychological resilience. Specifically, the influence of ACEs on emotional dysregulation was stronger among individuals with low levels of psychological resilience than among those with high levels of psychological resilience. These findings remained significant when controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables in the model. Cross-sectional designs preclude inferences about causality and self-report data may be susceptible to reporting biases. Other psychological variables that may be relevant to the current results, such as protective factors in childhood, were not assessed. These results have implications for the conceptualization of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience in etiological models of anxiety. They also highlight the relevance of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience to the detection, treatment, and prevention of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Researching resilience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda

    2009-01-01

    ... how these can be adapted to create effective interventions with at-risk youth. The chapters discuss methods that are applicable in a variety of personal circumstances and international contexts; they focus not only on the individual, but also the broader contexts in which youth find themselves, reflecting a more inclusive, less Eurocentric approach t...

  20. Measures of emergency preparedness contributing to nursing home resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sandi J; McGrady, Elizabeth

    2017-12-13

    Resilience approaches have been successfully applied in crisis management, disaster response, and high reliability organizations and have the potential to enhance existing systems of nursing home disaster preparedness. This study's purpose was to determine how the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) "Emergency Preparedness Checklist Recommended Tool for Effective Health Care Facility Planning" contributes to organizational resilience by identifying the benchmark resilience items addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist and items not addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist, and to recommend tools and processes to improve resilience for nursing homes. The CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist items were compared to the Resilience Benchmark Tool items; similar items were considered matches. Resilience Benchmark Tool items with no CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist item matches were considered breaches in nursing home resilience. The findings suggest that the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist can be used to measure some aspects of resilience, however, there were many resilience factors not addressed. For nursing homes to prepare and respond to crisis situations, organizations need to embrace a culture that promotes individual resilience-related competencies that when aggregated enable the organization to improve its resiliency. Social workers have the skills and experience to facilitate this change.

  1. Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state. It is fundamental for growth of positive psychology which deals with satisfaction, adaptability, contentment, and optimism in people's life. Of late, there has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience in context of stress risk vulnerability dimension. It is a neurobiological construct with significant neurobehavioral and emotional features which plays important role in deconstructing mechanism of biopsychosocial model of mental disorders. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide. Available information from scientific studies points out that resilience is modifiable factor which opens up avenues for a number of newer psychosocial as well as biological therapies. Early identification of vulnerable candidates and effectiveness of resilience-based intervention may offer more clarity in possibility of prevention. Future research may be crucial for preventive psychiatry. In this study, we aim to examine whether resilience is a psychopathological construct for mental disorder. PMID:26985103

  2. A resilience markers framework for small teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furniss, Dominic, E-mail: d.furniss@ucl.ac.u [UCL Interaction Centre, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Back, Jonathan; Blandford, Ann [UCL Interaction Centre, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hildebrandt, Michael; Broberg, Helena [OECD Halden Reactor Project, PO Box 173, 1751 Halden (Norway)

    2011-01-15

    Processes that enable an effective response to unexpected events and vulnerabilities that lie outside the scope of formal procedures can be described as being resilient. There are many such descriptions of resilience within and across different domains. Comparison and generalisation is difficult because resilience is not a component of a system and should be understood as an emergent property. Here we provide a framework for reasoning about resilience that requires representation of the level of analysis (from the individual to operational), a traceable link from abstract theory to specific observations, resilience mechanisms, and contextual factors. This moves forward an agenda to systematically observe concrete manifestations of resilience within and across domains. We illustrate the application of the framework by considering a case study of the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in an experimental scenario. This paper focuses on the small team level of analysis. The framework presented here provides the basis for developing concrete measures for improving the resilience of organisations through training, system design, and organisational learning.

  3. A resilience markers framework for small teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furniss, Dominic; Back, Jonathan; Blandford, Ann; Hildebrandt, Michael; Broberg, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Processes that enable an effective response to unexpected events and vulnerabilities that lie outside the scope of formal procedures can be described as being resilient. There are many such descriptions of resilience within and across different domains. Comparison and generalisation is difficult because resilience is not a component of a system and should be understood as an emergent property. Here we provide a framework for reasoning about resilience that requires representation of the level of analysis (from the individual to operational), a traceable link from abstract theory to specific observations, resilience mechanisms, and contextual factors. This moves forward an agenda to systematically observe concrete manifestations of resilience within and across domains. We illustrate the application of the framework by considering a case study of the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in an experimental scenario. This paper focuses on the small team level of analysis. The framework presented here provides the basis for developing concrete measures for improving the resilience of organisations through training, system design, and organisational learning.

  4. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

    2013-01-01

    Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action.

  5. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Åsa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10−8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  6. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Randall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%, including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9 and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG, all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8, but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

  7. Identifying Individual, Cultural and Asthma-Related Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Resilient Asthma Outcomes in Urban Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Jandasek, Barbara; Kopel, Sheryl J.; Seifer, Ronald; Klein, Robert B.; Potter, Christina; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to identify individual, family/cultural, and illness-related protective factors that may minimize asthma morbidity in the context of multiple urban risks in a sample of inner-city children and families. Methods Participating families are from African-American (33), Latino (51) and non-Latino white (47) backgrounds. A total of 131 children with asthma (56% male), ages 6–13 years and their primary caregivers were included. Results Analyses supported the relationship between cumulative risks and asthma morbidity across children of the sample. Protective processes functioned differently by ethnic group. For example, Latino families exhibited higher levels of family connectedness, and this was associated with lower levels of functional limitation due to asthma, in the context of risks. Conclusions This study demonstrates the utility of examining multilevel protective processes that may guard against urban risks factors to decrease morbidity. Intervention programs for families from specific ethnic groups can be tailored to consider individual, family-based/cultural and illness-related supports that decrease stress and enhance aspects of asthma treatment. PMID:22408053

  8. Rights for resilience: food sovereignty, power, and resilience in development practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marygold Walsh-Dilley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Even as resilience thinking becomes evermore popular as part of strategic programming among development and humanitarian organizations, uncertainty about how to define, operationalize, measure, and evaluate resilience for development goals prevails. As a result, many organizations and institutions have undertaken individual, collective, and simultaneous efforts toward clarification and definition. This has opened up a unique opportunity for a rethinking of development practices. The emergent consensus about what resilience means within development practice will have important consequences both for development practitioners and the communities in which they work. Incorporating resilience thinking into development practice has the potential to radically transform this arena in favor of social and environmental justice, but it could also flounder as a way to dress old ideas in new clothes or, at worst, to further exploit, disempower, and marginalize the world's most vulnerable populations. We seek to make an intervention into the definitional debates surrounding resilience that supports the former and helps prevent the latter. We argue that resilience thinking as it has been developed in social-ecological systems and allied literatures has a lot in common with the concept of food sovereignty and that paying attention to some of the lessons and claims of food sovereignty movements could contribute toward building a consensus around resilience that supports social and environmental justice. In particular, the food sovereignty movement relies on a strategy that elevates rights. We suggest that a rights-based approach to resilience-oriented development practice could contribute to its application in just and equitable ways.

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 130,000 individuals shows smoking does not modify the association of APOE genotype on risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Melis, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    events in 130,004 individuals of European descent were identified. The odds ratio (OR) for CHD risk from APOE genotype (ε4 carriers versus non-carriers) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.12) and for smoking (present vs. past/never smokers) was OR 2.05 (95%CI: 1.95, 2.14). When...... the association between APOE genotype and CHD was stratified by smoking status, compared to non-ε4 carriers, ε4 carriers had an OR of 1.11 (95%CI: 1.02, 1.21) in 28,789 present smokers and an OR of 1.04 (95%CI 0.98, 1.10) in 101,215 previous/never smokers, with no evidence of effect modification (P...

  10. Community Resilience to Militant Islamism: Who and What?: An Explorative Study of Resilience in Three Danish Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja; Schack, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    of resilience to militant Islamism in three Danish communities. It shows how families and trust-based networks, including local government, are the major sources of resilience, but also how punitive national policies and discourses work at cross purposes with resilience-building by reducing local actors......Building community resilience to violent extremism increasingly figures as a goal in national security strategies and debates. The exact meaning of resilience remains unclear, complicating an informed discussion of whom and what to support. This article presents findings from an explorative study...

  11. Study protocol for a prospective cohort study examining the predictive potential of dynamic symptom networks for the onset and progression of psychosis: the Mapping Individual Routes of Risk and Resilience (Mirorr) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Sanne H; Wichers, Marieke; de Jonge, Peter; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim; Wunderink, Lex; Wigman, Johanna T W

    2018-01-21

    Our current ability to predict the course and outcome of early psychotic symptoms is limited, hampering timely treatment. To improve our understanding of the development of psychosis, a different approach to psychopathology may be productive. We propose to reconceptualise psychopathology from a network perspective, according to which symptoms act as a dynamic, interconnected system, impacting on each other over time and across diagnostic boundaries to form symptom networks. Adopting this network approach, the Mapping Individual Routes of Risk and Resilience study aims to determine whether characteristics of symptom networks can predict illness course and outcome of early psychotic symptoms. The sample consists of n=100 participants aged 18-35 years, divided into four subgroups (n=4×25) with increasing levels of severity of psychopathology, representing successive stages of clinical progression. Individuals representing the initial stage have a relatively low expression of psychotic experiences (general population), whereas individuals representing the end stage are help seeking and display a psychometric expression of psychosis, putting them at ultra-high risk for transition to psychotic disorder. At baseline and 1-year follow-up, participants report their symptoms, affective states and experiences for three consecutive months in short, daily questionnaires on their smartphone, which will be used to map individual networks. Network parameters, including the strength and directionality of symptom connections and centrality indices, will be estimated and associated to individual differences in and within-individual progression through stages of clinical severity and functioning over the next 3 years. The study has been approved by the local medical ethical committee (ABR no. NL52974.042.15). The results of the study will be published in (inter)national peer-reviewed journals, presented at research, clinical and general public conferences. The results will assist

  12. Climate Change Resilience in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Tristan

    2017-12-01

    Between 1930 and 2030, the world's population will have flipped from 70% rural to 70% urban. While much has been written about the impacts of climate change and mitigation of its effects on individual buildings or infrastructure, this book is one of the first to focus on the resilience of whole cities. It covers a broad range of area-wide disaster-level impacts, including drought, heatwaves, flooding, storms and air quality, which many of our cities are ill-adapted to cope with, and unless we can increase the resilience of our urban areas then much of our current building stock may become uninhabitable. Climate Resilience in Urban Environments provides a detailed overview of the risks for urban areas, including those risks to human health as well as to building integrity, the physical processes involved, and presents key information in which way the risks can be reduced and urban areas made more resilient.

  13. Management of a Concealable Stigmatized Identity: A Qualitative Study of Concealment, Disclosure, and Role Flexing Among Young, Resilient Sexual and Gender Minority Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry, Laura Jane; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert; Burns, Michelle Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Disclosure of a sexual or gender minority status has been associated with both positive and negative effects on wellbeing. Few studies have explored the disclosure and concealment process in young people. Interviews were conducted with 10 sexual and/or gender minority individuals, aged 18-22 years, of male birth sex. Data were analyzed qualitatively, yielding determinants and effects of disclosure and concealment. Determinants of disclosure included holding positive attitudes about one's identity and an implicit devaluation of acceptance by society. Coming out was shown to have both positive and negative effects on communication and social support and was associated with both increases and decreases in experiences of stigma. Determinants of concealment included lack of comfort with one's identity and various motivations to avoid discrimination. Concealment was also related to hypervigilance and unique strategies of accessing social support. Results are discussed in light of their clinical implications.

  14. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  15. Proceedings of the third resilience engineering symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Pieri, Francois; Rigaud, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The proceeding from Third Resilience Engineering Symposium collects the papers presented on October 28-30, 2008, in Antibes-Juan-les-Pins, France. The Symposium provided a much appreciated forum for people working within the area of Resilience Engineering to become updated with the latest scientific achievements as well as more practical oriented applications, and exchange views and idea within the area. Resilience Engineering represents a new way of thinking about safety that has already given rise to several practical applications. In contrast to established risk management approaches that are based on hindsight and emphasise error tabulation and calculation of failure probabilities, Resilience Engineering looks for ways to enhance the ability of organisations to create processes that are robust yet flexible, to monitor and revise risk models, and to use resources pro-actively in the face of disruptions or ongoing production and economic pressures. In Resilience Engineering failures do not stand for a breakdown or malfunctioning of normal system functions, but rather represent the converse of the adaptations necessary to cope with the real world complexity. Individuals and organisations must always adjust their performance to the current conditions; and because resources and time are finite it is inevitable that such adjustments are approximate. Success has been ascribed to the ability of groups, individuals, and organisations to anticipate the changing shape of risk before damage occurs; failure is simply the temporary or permanent absence of that. Three papers were selected for INIS, these are: - Resilience and Brittleness in a Nuclear Emergency Response Simulation: Focusing on Team Coordination Activity (Costa, W.S. et al.); - Resilience and the Training of Nuclear Operators - A View from the Shop Floor (Hildebrandt, M. et al.); and - Complexity of Resilient Power Distribution Networks (May, M.)

  16. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE

    2015-01-01

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  17. A New ELISA Using the ANANAS Technology Showing High Sensitivity to diagnose the Bovine Rhinotracheitis from Individual Sera to Pooled Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarin, Elisabetta; Lucchese, Laura; Grazioli, Santina; Facchin, Sonia; Realdon, Nicola; Brocchi, Emiliana; Morpurgo, Margherita; Nardelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic tests for veterinary surveillance programs should be efficient, easy to use and, possibly, economical. In this context, classic Enzyme linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) remains the most common analytical platform employed for serological analyses. The analysis of pooled samples instead of individual ones is a common procedure that permits to certify, with one single test, entire herds as "disease-free". However, diagnostic tests for pooled samples need to be particularly sensitive, especially when the levels of disease markers are low, as in the case of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in milk as markers of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) disease. The avidin-nucleic-acid-nanoassembly (ANANAS) is a novel kind of signal amplification platform for immunodiagnostics based on colloidal poly-avidin nanoparticles that, using model analytes, was shown to strongly increase ELISA test performance as compared to monomeric avidin. Here, for the first time, we applied the ANANAS reagent integration in a real diagnostic context. The monoclonal 1G10 anti-bovine IgG1 antibody was biotinylated and integrated with the ANANAS reagents for indirect IBR diagnosis from pooled milk mimicking tank samples from herds with IBR prevalence between 1 to 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ANANAS integrated method was compared to that of a classic test based on the same 1G10 antibody directly linked to horseradish peroxidase, and a commercial IDEXX kit recently introduced in the market. ANANAS integration increased by 5-fold the sensitivity of the 1G10 mAb-based conventional ELISA without loosing specificity. When compared to the commercial kit, the 1G10-ANANAS integrated method was capable to detect the presence of anti-BHV1 antibodies from bulk milk of gE antibody positive animals with 2-fold higher sensitivity and similar specificity. The results demonstrate the potentials of this new amplification technology, which permits improving current classic ELISA sensitivity limits

  18. A New ELISA Using the ANANAS Technology Showing High Sensitivity to diagnose the Bovine Rhinotracheitis from Individual Sera to Pooled Milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Casarin

    Full Text Available Diagnostic tests for veterinary surveillance programs should be efficient, easy to use and, possibly, economical. In this context, classic Enzyme linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA remains the most common analytical platform employed for serological analyses. The analysis of pooled samples instead of individual ones is a common procedure that permits to certify, with one single test, entire herds as "disease-free". However, diagnostic tests for pooled samples need to be particularly sensitive, especially when the levels of disease markers are low, as in the case of anti-BoHV1 antibodies in milk as markers of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR disease. The avidin-nucleic-acid-nanoassembly (ANANAS is a novel kind of signal amplification platform for immunodiagnostics based on colloidal poly-avidin nanoparticles that, using model analytes, was shown to strongly increase ELISA test performance as compared to monomeric avidin. Here, for the first time, we applied the ANANAS reagent integration in a real diagnostic context. The monoclonal 1G10 anti-bovine IgG1 antibody was biotinylated and integrated with the ANANAS reagents for indirect IBR diagnosis from pooled milk mimicking tank samples from herds with IBR prevalence between 1 to 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the ANANAS integrated method was compared to that of a classic test based on the same 1G10 antibody directly linked to horseradish peroxidase, and a commercial IDEXX kit recently introduced in the market. ANANAS integration increased by 5-fold the sensitivity of the 1G10 mAb-based conventional ELISA without loosing specificity. When compared to the commercial kit, the 1G10-ANANAS integrated method was capable to detect the presence of anti-BHV1 antibodies from bulk milk of gE antibody positive animals with 2-fold higher sensitivity and similar specificity. The results demonstrate the potentials of this new amplification technology, which permits improving current classic ELISA

  19. Lack of Resilience Is Related to Stress-Related Sleep Reactivity, Hyperarousal, and Emotion Dysregulation in Insomnia Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Moretto, Umberto; Novi, Martina; Masci, Isabella; Caruso, Danila; Drake, Christopher L; Riemann, Dieter

    2018-05-15

    According to the diathesis-stress model of insomnia, insomnia may develop in vulnerable individuals in response to stress. Resilience is a psychobiological factor that determines an individual's capacity to adapt successfully to stressful events and low resilience increases vulnerability for development of mental disorders. The aim was to explore resilience in subjects with insomnia and its relationship with the factors that contribute to its development and perpetuation. The study consisted of 58 subjects with Insomnia Disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and 38 good sleepers. Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), Pre-sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) were administered while taking into account psychiatric symptoms. Differences in means between groups were assessed using t test or Mann-Whitney U /Wilcoxon test. Linear/multivariable regression analyses and mediation analyses were performed. Subjects with insomnia (24 females, mean age 49 ± 2.1 years) had lower RSA and higher FIRST, DERS, and PSAS scores than good sleepers (22 females, mean age 47.2 ± 1.2 years). After controlling for anxiety/depressive symptoms, low resilience correlated with high stress-related sleep reactivity ( P = .004), pre-sleep cognitive hyperarousal ( P = .01) and emotion dysregulation ( P = .01). Emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between low resilience and cognitive hyperarousal (Z = 2.06, P = .03). Subjects with insomnia showed low resilience, which was related to high stress-related sleep reactivity, emotional dysregulation, and hyperarousal. If resilience helps to minimize the extent of pathogenesis in the developmental process, an early identification of vulnerable candidates should be useful for preventing insomnia development and maintenance. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 709. © 2018 American

  20. [Perspectives on resilience : trait or aptitude ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, H; Fossion, P; Kotsou, I; Leys, C

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss various issues related to the concept of resilience, which is conventionally defined as a dynamic process allowing for a positive adaptation in a context of significant adversity. First, we try to draw the reader's attention to the importance of the concept of resilience in terms of public health. Second, we address the difficulty of measuring resilience in a relevant and operational manner. Third, we then address the question of whether resilience can be conceived only in the context of a confrontation with trauma, or whether its application can be relevant to the everyday nontraumatic adversity. In this regard, we introduce and define another coping strategy which is the Sense of Coherence (SOC). Fourth, we discuss the nature of resilience, that is to say, whether it should be considered as a personality trait or as an aptitude. We try to show that this problem arises from the difficulty to specify the emotional processes involved in resilience. Finally, we propose future research perspectives that should allow us to better understand the concept of resilience.

  1. Resilience and Coping After Hospital Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cynthia; Calo, Oriana; Harrison, Georgia; Mahoney, Kathleen; Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between resilience and coping in frontline nurses working in a healthcare system that has recently undergone a merger. Hospital mergers are common in the current healthcare environment. Mergers can provide hospital nurses the opportunity to use and develop positive coping strategies to help remain resilient during times of change. An anonymous-survey, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study design was used. Data were obtained from an electronic survey that was made available to all nurses working in a 3-hospital system located in the northeast. Overall, the results showed that, when nurses reported using positive coping strategies, they report higher levels of resilience. The levels of resilience also varied from campus to campus. The campus that has been through 2 recent mergers reported the highest levels of resilience. This study suggests that, during times of change in the workplace, if nurses are encouraged to use positive coping strategies, they may have higher levels of resilience. This changing environment provides the clinical nurse specialists/clinical nurse educators the opportunity to foster and support frontline nurses in the use of healthy coping strategies and to help improve and maintain a high level of resilience, which is critical in today's healthcare environment.

  2. Efficacy of a self-help manual in increasing resilience in carers of adults with depression in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Songprakun, Wallapa; Stephenson, John

    2016-02-01

    Caring for a person with a mental illness can have adverse effects on caregivers; however, little is known about how best to help such caregivers. The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a cognitive behaviour therapy-guided self-help manual in increasing resilience in caregivers of individuals with depression, in comparison to caregivers who receive routine support only. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted, following CONSORT guidelines, with 54 caregivers allocated to parallel intervention (self-help manual) (n = 27) or control (standard support) (n = 27) groups. Resilience was assessed at baseline, post-test (week 8), and follow up (week 12). Intention-to-treat analyses were undertaken. Repeated-measures ANOVA indicated a significant difference in resilience scores between the three time points, showing a large effect. Pairwise comparisons between intervention and control groups indicated resilience to be significantly different between baseline and post-test, and between baseline and follow up, but not between post-test and follow up. Overall, the intervention group showed a slightly greater increase in resilience over time than the control group; however, the time-group interaction was not significant. Guided self-help is helpful in improving caregivers' resilience and could be used as an adjunct to the limited support provided to carers by mental health nurses and other clinicians. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. High-anxious individuals show increased chronic stress burden, decreased protective immunity, and increased cancer progression in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus S Dhabhar

    Full Text Available In spite of widespread anecdotal and scientific evidence much remains to be understood about the long-suspected connection between psychological factors and susceptibility to cancer. The skin is the most common site of cancer, accounting for nearly half of all cancers in the US, with approximately 2-3 million cases of non-melanoma cancers occurring each year worldwide. We hypothesized that a high-anxious, stress-prone behavioral phenotype would result in a higher chronic stress burden, lower protective-immunity, and increased progression of the immuno-responsive skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma. SKH1 mice were phenotyped as high- or low-anxious at baseline, and subsequently exposed to ultraviolet-B light (1 minimal erythemal dose (MED, 3 times/week, 10-weeks. The significant strengths of this cancer model are that it uses a normal, immunocompetent, outbred strain, without surgery/injection of exogenous tumor cells/cell lines, and produces lesions that resemble human tumors. Tumors were counted weekly (primary outcome, and tissues collected during early and late phases of tumor development. Chemokine/cytokine gene-expression was quantified by PCR, tumor-infiltrating helper (Th, cytolytic (CTL, and regulatory (Treg T cells by immunohistochemistry, lymph node T and B cells by flow cytometry, adrenal and plasma corticosterone and tissue vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF by ELISA. High-anxious mice showed a higher tumor burden during all phases of tumor development. They also showed: higher corticosterone levels (indicating greater chronic stress burden, increased CCL22 expression and Treg infiltration (increased tumor-recruited immuno-suppression, lower CTACK/CCL27, IL-12, and IFN-γ gene-expression and lower numbers of tumor infiltrating Th and CTLs (suppressed protective immunity, and higher VEGF concentrations (increased tumor angiogenesis/invasion/metastasis. These results suggest that the deleterious effects of high trait anxiety

  4. Resilience and Emotional Intelligence: which role in achievement motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Magnano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancement and success in an organizational setting and with individual performance. Moreover, Emotional Intelligence is considered an antecedent to resilience. The present study aims to investigate the role of resilience and emotional intelligence in achievement motivation, verifying if emotional intelligence mediates the relationship among resilience and achievement motivation. Participants are 488 Italian workers, aged between 18 and 55 years. The findings confirm the significant role played by emotional intelligence on resilience and on motivation to achievement.

  5. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  6. Adversity and Resilience: A Synthesis of International Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Bush, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents worldwide experience a variety of adversities that have the potential to disrupt typical development. However, some of these individuals exhibit resilience, evidencing normal development in the face of adversity. Here we review research on these constructs of risk, adversity, and resilience; synthesize international…

  7. Community and School Gardens as Spaces for Learning Social Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Kimberley; Ferreira, Jo-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Can community and school gardens help people learn to build social resilience to potential food shortages? We seek to address this question through an examination of the ways in which gardens can teach individual and community resiliency in times of emergency, pockets of food insecurity, and the challenges presented by climate change. We focus on…

  8. Inferring the relative resilience of alternative states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Rojo, Carmen; Alvarez-Cobelas, Miguel; Rodrigo, Maria A.; Sanchez-Carrillo, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Ecological systems may occur in alternative states that differ in ecological structures, functions and processes. Resilience is the measure of disturbance an ecological system can absorb before changing states. However, how the intrinsic structures and processes of systems that characterize their states affects their resilience remains unclear. We analyzed time series of phytoplankton communities at three sites in a floodplain in central Spain to assess the dominant frequencies or “temporal scales” in community dynamics and compared the patterns between a wet and a dry alternative state. The identified frequencies and cross-scale structures are expected to arise from positive feedbacks that are thought to reinforce processes in alternative states of ecological systems and regulate emergent phenomena such as resilience. Our analyses show a higher species richness and diversity but lower evenness in the dry state. Time series modeling revealed a decrease in the importance of short-term variability in the communities, suggesting that community dynamics slowed down in the dry relative to the wet state. The number of temporal scales at which community dynamics manifested, and the explanatory power of time series models, was lower in the dry state. The higher diversity, reduced number of temporal scales and the lower explanatory power of time series models suggest that species dynamics tended to be more stochastic in the dry state. From a resilience perspective our results highlight a paradox: increasing species richness may not necessarily enhance resilience. The loss of cross-scale structure (i.e. the lower number of temporal scales) in community dynamics across sites suggests that resilience erodes during drought. Phytoplankton communities in the dry state are therefore likely less resilient than in the wet state. Our case study demonstrates the potential of time series modeling to assess attributes that mediate resilience. The approach is useful for assessing

  9. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  10. The Resilient Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Longhurst, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Brain research opens new frontiers in working with children and youth experiencing conflict in school and community. Blending this knowledge with resilience science offers a roadmap for reclaiming those identified as "at risk." This article applies findings from resilience research and recent brain research to identify strategies for reaching…

  11. How Resilience Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at coping skills that carry people through life and why some have them and others do not. Suggests that resilience is a reflex, a way of facing and understanding the world, and that resilient people and companies face reality with staunchness, make meaning out of hardship, and improvise. (JOW)

  12. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  13. Building Inner Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantieri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The capacity to be in control of one's thoughts, emotions, and physiology can form an internal safety net preparing children to face the challenges and opportunities of life. This is the goal of the Inner Resilience Program in the New York City Schools. Teachers in the Inner Resilience Program's intervention are exposed to calming and focusing…

  14. Building Resilience through Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Debra Vande; Van Brockern, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Research on resilience suggests that a sense of humor helps to stress-proof children in conflict. Reports on a workshop for educators and youth workers convened to explore ways humor is being used to foster positive development and resilience with troubled youth. Describes applications of humor front-line professionals report as useful in their…

  15. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  16. Resilience, social capital, and well-being : a cross-sectional study in a context of adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Arnesen, Anette

    2009-01-01

    An important and recurrent attribute in resilient individuals is the value they place in relationships to others, and the quality of these relationships, and it was of interest to investigate how the concept of resilience was related to social capital. Resilience and social capital are associated with good outcomes and well-being, although individual and cultural differences exist. An essential topic in the resilience research is the prevention of maladaptation in individuals at risk. Therefo...

  17. Adversity and Resilience Are Associated with Outcome after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Military Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew W; Cooper, Douglas B; Lu, Lisa H; Iverson, Grant L; Kennedy, Jan E

    2018-05-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the associations between resilience, adversity, post-concussion symptoms, and post-traumatic stress symptom reporting after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We hypothesized that resilience would be associated with less symptom reporting, and adversity would be associated with greater symptom reporting. This was a cross-sectional study of retrospective data collected for an ongoing TBI repository. United States military service members who screened positive for mTBI during a primary care visit completed the Trauma History Screen (THS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Data collected from February 2015 to August 2016 were used for the present study. Only participants with complete data for the above measures were included, yielding a sample size of 165 participants. Adversity (THS) and resilience (CD-RISC) scores were each correlated significantly with post-concussion (NSI) and traumatic stress (PCL-C) total and subscale scores in the hypothesized direction. Interactions between adversity and resilience were absent for all measures except the NSI sensory subscale. Four traumatic event types were significantly associated positively with most NSI and PCL-C total and subscale scores, but the age at which traumatic events were first experienced showed few and mixed significant associations. In conclusion, resilience and adversity were significantly associated with symptom endorsement after mTBI. Screening for cumulative adversity may identify individuals at greater risk of developing persistent post-concussion symptoms and/or PTSD, and interventions that increase resilience may reduce symptom severity.

  18. Zoogeomorphology and resilience theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Anzah, Faisal; Goff, Paepin D.; Villa, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Zoogeomorphology, the study of animals as geomorphic agents, has been largely overlooked in the context of resilience theory and biogeomorphic systems. In this paper, examples are provided of the interactions between external landscape disturbances and zoogeomorphological agents. We describe cases in which naturally occurring zoogeomorphological agents occupy a landscape, and examine whether those zoogeomorphic agents provide resilience to a landscape or instead serve as a landscape stress capable of inducing a phase-state shift. Several cases are described whereby the presence of exotic (introduced) zoogeomorphic agents overwhelms a landscape and induce collapse. The impact of climate change on species with zoogeomorphological importance is discussed in the context of resilience of a landscape. We conclude with a summary diagram illustrating the relationships existing between zoogeomorphic impacts and landscape resilience in the context of our case studies, and speculate about the future of the study of zoogeomorphology in the framework of resilience theory.

  19. [Resilience in caregivers of patients with dementia: A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lansac, Violeta; Crespo López, María; Cáceres, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Poyo, María

    2012-01-01

    Caring for a relative with dementia often has negative effects on the caregiver's physical and psychological health. However, many caregivers successfully cope with the stress factors arising from care, and even have uplifts during their experience, showing high resilience levels. This study presents a preliminary analysis of resilience in caregivers of patients with dementia, exploring its relationship with different variables. Resilience was assessed (by CD-RISC) in 53 family caregivers of patients with dementia. Resilience was correlated to the following variables: caregiving context, stressors (e.g., cognitive impairment), appraisals (e.g., burden), moderators (e.g., personality traits and resources), and caregiving consequences (physical and psychological health). The participants showed moderate scores on resilience. Resilience was associated with poor emotional and physical status (significant inverse correlations with anxiety, depression, psycho-active drug use, health habits…). High resilience scores were significantly correlated to burden, neuroticism and extraversion, self-efficacy, self-esteem and less use of emotion focused coping strategies. Higher resilience relates to a good emotional and physical status in caregivers. Moreover, resilience is more associated with caregiver variables (e.g., appraisal and coping with care, personality features), than to situational variables. The data highlight the strengthening of these types of appraisal and coping as a way to improve caregivers' resilience and, consequently, their health. Copyright © 2011 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-term hurricane impacts on a neotropical community of marked birds and implications for early-stage community resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew B; Winker, Kevin

    2010-11-30

    Populations in fragmented ecosystems risk extirpation through natural disasters, which must be endured rather than avoided. Managing communities for resilience is thus critical, but details are sketchy about the capacity for resilience and its associated properties in vertebrate communities. We studied short-term resilience in a community of individually marked birds, following this community through the catastrophic destruction of its forest habitat by Hurricane Iris in Belize, Central America. We sampled for 58 d immediately before the storm, 28 d beginning 11 d after Hurricane Iris, and for 69 d approximately one year later. Our data showed that the initial capacity for resilience was strong. Many banded individuals remained after the storm, although lower post-hurricane recapture rates revealed increased turnover among individuals. Changes occurred in community dynamics and in abundances among species and guilds. Survivors and immigrants both were critical components of resilience, but in a heterogeneous, species-specific manner. Delayed effects, including higher fat storage and increased species losses, were evident one year later.

  1. Role of Family Resilience and Mindfulness in Addiction Potential of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jalili Nikoo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: family and individual factors are involved in addiction potential. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of family resiliency (family communication and problem solving, utilizing social and economic resources, maintaining a positive outlook, family connectedness, family spirituality, ability to make meaning of adversity and mindfulness in addiction potential of students. Method: the research method used in the present study was correlation. A number of 399 students from Yasuj University in 2012-13 academic years were selected through a multi- stage cluster sampling method and responded to the Iranian scale of addiction potential, family resiliency questionnaire, and short form of Freiburg mindfulness inventory. Collected data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Simultaneous regression. Results: A negative and significant correlation was seen between family resiliency and its dimensions with addiction potential (P>0.01. Between mindfulness and addiction preparation, a significant and negative correlation was observed (P>0.01. The results of simultaneous regression analysis showed that family residency and mindfulness could significantly predict 13% of variance of addiction potential. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated the importance of family resilience and mindfulness as personal and family variables in preparing addiction. Therefore, the family resilience and mindfulness skills training could decrease the addiction potential among students.

  2. Resiliência e Socialização Organizacional entre Servidores Públicos Brasileiros e Noruegueses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Donizete de Carvalho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between resilience and organizational socialization among civil servants at two public universities in two different cultures, namely Brazil and Norway. Organizational socialization research has shown that an individual’s adjustment to a new job and organization tends to be a stressful event and resilience, defined as the ability to overcome stress or adversity, could be of importance when it comes to explaining the differences in socialization outcomes among individuals at the same organization. Based on this assumption, research was conducted with a sample of Brazilian and Norwegian professors and technical-administrative employees. Hierarchical regression analyses were carried out to observe and compare the predictive power of resilience in relation to organizational socialization. The results showed that overall resilience added a significant incremental prediction to organizational socialization, beyond nationality and occupation. The predictive power of resilience in relation to organizational socialization was higher among the Brazilians than the Norwegians. The practical implications, limitations and main contributions of the study are discussed, with suggestions for future research.

  3. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  4. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of p...

  5. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC): Linking Climate Literacy, Resilience Thinking and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and

  6. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  7. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Affective disorders and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in adolescents and young adults with Multiple Sclerosis (MS): the moderating role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainone, Nunzia; Chiodi, Alessandro; Lanzillo, Roberta; Magri, Valeria; Napolitano, Anna; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Valerio, Paolo; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the moderating role of resilience in the relationship between affective disorders and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) for adolescents and young adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). A quantitative methodology was adopted. Fifty-three adolescents and young adults were interviewed to assess resilience as a personality trait (Ego-Resiliency Scale) and resilience as an interactive competence (CYRM-28), Health-Related Quality of Life (PedsQL 4.0), depression and anxiety (BDI-II and STAI-Y). Affective disorders, both depression (β = -.38, p moderating role of resilience competence using individual resources on the relationship between the Depression Cognitive Factor and Emotional Functioning. Data show that in step 2 of the regression analysis, we obtained a variation of β = -.45 (p moderating effect of resilience was significant regarding the increase in R 2 (p moderates the relationship between the Depression Cognitive Factor and Emotional Functioning in adolescents with MS. Our study suggests that to improve well-being for adolescents with MS resilience could play a key role.

  9. A New Resilience Measure for Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiying Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, supply chain networks can span the whole world, and any disruption of these networks may cause economic losses, decreases in sales and unsustainable supplies. Resilience, the ability of the system to withstand disruption and return to a normal state quickly, has become a new challenge during the supply chain network design. This paper defines a new resilience measure as the ratio of the integral of the normalized system performance within its maximum allowable recovery time after the disruption to the integral of the performance in the normal state. Using the maximum allowable recovery time of the system as the time interval under consideration, this measure allows the resilience of different systems to be compared on the same relative scale, and be used under both scenarios that the system can or cannot restore in the given time. Two specific resilience measures, the resilience based on the amount of product delivered and the resilience based on the average delivery distance, are provided for supply chain networks. To estimate the resilience of a given supply chain network, a resilience simulation method is proposed based on the Monte Carlo method. A four-layered hierarchial mobile phone supply chain network is used to illustrate the resilience quantification process and show how network structure affects the resilience of supply chain networks.

  10. Measuring county resilience after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Lam, N.; Qiang, Y.; Li, K.; Yin, L.; Liu, S.; Zheng, W.

    2015-01-01

    The catastrophic earthquake in 2008 has caused serious damage to Wenchuan County and the surrounding area in China. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the resilience of the affected area. This study applied a new framework, the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model, to quantify and validate the community resilience of 105 counties in the affected area. The RIM model uses cluster analysis to classify counties into four resilience levels according to the exposure, damage, and recovery conditions, and then applies discriminant analysis to quantify the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on the county resilience. The analysis results show that counties located right at the epicenter had the lowest resilience, but counties immediately adjacent to the epicenter had the highest resilience capacities. Counties that were farther away from the epicenter returned to normal resiliency. The socioeconomic variables, including sex ratio, per capita GDP, percent of ethnic minority, and medical facilities, were identified as the most influential socio-economic characteristics on resilience. This study provides useful information to improve county resilience to earthquakes and support decision-making for sustainable development.

  11. Resilience in Utility Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Roger

    The following sections are included: * Scope of paper * Preamble * Background to the case-study projects * Source projects * Resilience * Case study 1: Electricity generation * Context * Model * Case study 2: Water recycling * Context * Model * Case study 3: Ecotechnology and water treatment * Context * The problem of classification: Finding a classificatory solution * Application of the new taxonomy to water treatment * Concluding comments and questions * Conclusions * Questions and issues * Purposive or Purposeful? * Resilience: Flexibility and adaptivity? * Resilience: With respect of what? * Risk, uncertainty, surprise, emergence - What sort of shock, and who says so? * Co-evolutionary friction * References

  12. Clinical correlates of resilience factors in geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Kelsey T; Lavretsky, Helen; Paholpak, Pattharee; Vlasova, Roza M; Roman, Michael; St Cyr, Natalie; Siddarth, Prabha

    2018-01-16

    Traditional perspectives conceptualize resilience as a trait and depression as resulting from resilience deficiency. However, research indicates that resilience varies substantially even among adults who are clinically depressed, as well as across the lifespan of an individual. Few studies have investigated resilience in depression, and even fewer have examined resilience in depressed older adults. Three hundred thirty-seven adults ≥60 years with major depressive disorder completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and measures of mental health, quality of life (QOL), and medical comorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the factor structure of the CD-RISC. Correlations and general linear models were used to examine associations between resilience and other variables. The rotated component matrix indicated a four-factor model. Sorting of items by highest factor loading revealed constructs associated with (1) grit, (2) active coping self-efficacy, (3) accommodative coping self-efficacy, and (4) spirituality. Resilience was significantly correlated with increased age, lower cognitive functioning, greater cerebrovascular risk, and greater medical comorbidity. Resilience was negatively associated with mental health symptoms (depression, apathy, and anxiety) and positively associated with QOL. The final optimal model identified less depression, less apathy, greater medical comorbidity, higher QOL, and minority (non-White) race as factors that significantly explained variability in resilience. Resilience was significantly associated with a range of mental health constructs in a sample of older adults with depression. Future clinical trials and dismantling studies may help determine whether interventions targeting grit, active coping, accommodative coping, and spirituality can increase resilience and help prevent and treat depression in older adults.

  13. Resilience of the IMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on end-to-end resilience analysis of the IMS based network through the principal resilience parameters by using OPNET. The resilience behaviours of communication across multiple IMS domains are investigated at different communication scenarios and compared with previous state......-of-the-art. Moreover, the resilience effects when adding a redundancy of the S-CSCF unit are examined. The results disclose interesting resilience behaviours for long distance communications....

  14. Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbesville, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    volume, increasing capacity of drainage systems, spatial planning, building regulations, etc. Resilience also considers resilience of population to floods and it's measured with time. Assessment of resilience that is focused on population is following bottom-up approach starting from individual and then assessing community level. Building resilience involves also contribution of social networks, increasing response capacity of communities, self-organization, learning and education and cheering adaptation culture. Measures for improving social side of resilience covers: raising public awareness, implementation of flood forecasting and warning, emergency response planning and training, sharing information, education and communication. Most of these aspects are analyzed with the CORFU FP7 project. Collaborative Research on Flood Resilience in Urban areas (CORFU) is a major project involving 17 European and Asian institutions, funded by a grant from the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme. The overall aim of CORFU is to enable European and Asian partners to learn from each other through joint investigation, development, implementation and dissemination of short to medium term strategies that will enable more scientifically sound management of the consequences of urban flooding in the future and to develop resilience strategies according to each situation. The CORFU project looks at advanced and novel strategies and provide adequate measures for improved flood management in cities. The differences in urban flooding problems in Asia and in Europe range from levels of economic development, infrastructure age, social systems and decision making processes, to prevailing drainage methods, seasonality of rainfall patterns and climate change trends. The study cases are, in Europe, the cities of Hamburg, Barcelona and Nice, and in Asia, Beijing, Dhaka, Mumbai, Taipei, Seoul and Incheon.

  15. Developing Mathematical Resilience of Prospective Math Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, L.; Herman, T.; Sumarmo, U.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Prospective math teachers need to develop positive adaptive attitudes toward mathematics that will enable them to continue learning despite having to deal with obstacles and difficulties. This research focuses on the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers after being treated using problem-based learning based on their basic knowledge on mathematic and their overall knowledge on math. This research used only one group for pre-test and post-test. The result of this research shows that there is improvement on prospective teachers’ resilience after they were given treatment using problem-based learning. One of the factors causing the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers is the instructions on students’ work sheet. In the instructions, stud ents were asked to write difficulties in solving math problems as well as write down the solution they take to overcome them. This research can be used as a reference for other researchers who want to do the same research related on students’ resiliency o n math and or math lecturers to improve the resilience of prospective teachers to be resilient teachers on math in the future.

  16. First steps in the development of a resilience measure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The demands faced by those who work within a military context require individuals to cope with difficult and challenging circumstances – physically, cognitively, emotionally and socially. Thus the understanding and measurement of resilience...

  17. Relationship Between Resilience and Coping Strategies in Competitive Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades, Xabel García; Molinero, Olga; Salguero, Alfonso; Barquín, Roberto Ruíz; de la Vega, Ricardo; Márquez, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Resilience is important in sport performers to withstand the pressure they experience. This study analyzed the relationship among resilient qualities and coping strategies in 235 Spanish athletes (126 males, 109 females; M age = 20.7 yr) who practiced different sports (79.1% team sports, 20.9% individual sports). They were evaluated at the beginning of the last competitive mesocycle and after an important competition. Coping strategies and level of resilient qualities were measured by the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport and the Resilience Scale. There was no significant difference in resilience scores between evaluations performed during the last mesocycle or competition. A significant increase occurred in the scores for emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping during competition. Resilience scores correlated positively to task-oriented coping and negatively to disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping during both periods. Analysis of variance indicated that athletes with high individual resilient qualities reached higher scores in task-oriented coping, using to a lower extent disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping. Results obtained suggest that resilient characteristics may associate in athletes to the use of more potentially adaptative coping strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  19. [Study on the resilience internal factors in a sample of Puerto Rican centenarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Medina, José J; Rodríguez-Gómez, José R; Altieri-Ramirez, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Old age is a stage that is usually characterized by lost at the physiological, psychological and social level that generates much distress to individuals. However, the centenaries have been identified as an example of successful aging, within other factors, because they have adequate managed skills that help them to deal with healthy normal losses. Resilience could be one of the factors that may help the Centennials to age successfully. It is necessary more studies with Puerto Rico Centennials since we lack such investigations. This study has an expo facto design; in addition we evaluate psychometrically the Symptoms Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The scale of Internal Resilience Factors (EFIR), a semi structured interview and the SCL-90-R were used to identify factors associated with successful aging in the centennials. In addition we explore if there exist gender differences in internal factors of resilience within the sample. 23 Centennials, 15 men and 8 women, of different parts of Puerto Rico (average age = 101. 5 years). Internal resilience factors associated with the aging process were identifying, those were: emotional stability, optimism, behavioral factor and behavioral and emotional skills component. These factors are consistent with the revised literature on positive emotions and adaptive ageing. On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was identified (p <. 05) for the internal factors of resilience on the basis of gender, a finding agreed with the revised literature. The multiple tests administered showed adequate internal consistency (EFIR: (=. 726); SCL-90-R: (=. 941). The Symptoms Check list 90-R (SCL-90-R) was valid with a Cronbach's alpha of. 941. We identified internal resilience factors that could be linked with successfully aging: those factors are encouraging the elderly population. In addition used tests showed adequate internal consistency. Limitations in relation to the size of the sample and the distribution of gender were

  20. Career anchors and career resilience: Supplementary constructs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Van Vuuren

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously the authors reported on a study in which an attempt was made at defining and measuring the construct career resilience (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998. The present article continues this investigation by reporting on the relationship between career resilience and career anchors, as defined in Scheins (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992 career anchor model. The aim of the study was to determine whether career anchor patterning could potentially inhibit or facilitate individuals' levels of career resilience. The "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 together with Scheins (1990 "Career Orientations Inventory" (COI were administered to 352 skilled employees. The findings regarding the statistical relationship between the two constructs are discussed. Opsomming Loopbaanankers en loopbaangehardheid: supplementere konstrukte? In n vorige publikasie van Fourie en Van Vuuren (1998 is die bevindinge aangaande die afbakening en meting van die konstruk, loopbaangehardheid, gerapporteer. In die huidige artikel word die ondersoek voortgesit met 'n beskrywing van die verwantskap tussen loopbaangehardheid en loopbaanankers, soos gedefinieer in die loopbaanankermodel van Schein (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992. Die doel met die studie was om te bepaal of die mate van loopbaanankerontplooiing individuele vlakke van loopbaangehardheid potensieel fasiliteer ofinhibeer. Die "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 is tesame met die "Career Orientation Inventory" (COI (Schein, 1990 op 352 geskoolde werknemers geadministreer. Die bevindinge betreffende die statistiese verwantskap tussen die twee konstrukte word bespreek.

  1. Disaster Preparation and Recovery: Lessons from Research on Resilience in Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann S. Masten

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four decades of theory and research on resilience in human development have yielded informative lessons for planning disaster response and recovery. In developmental theory, resilience following disaster could take multiple forms, including stress resistance, recovery, and positive transformation. Empirical findings suggest that fundamental adaptive systems play a key role in the resilience of young people facing diverse threats, including attachment, agency, intelligence, behavior regulation systems, and social interactions with family, peers, school, and community systems. Although human resilience research emphasizes the adaptive well-being of particular individuals, there are striking parallels in resilience theory across the developmental and ecological sciences. Preparing societies for major disasters calls for the integration of human research on resilience with the theory and knowledge gained from other disciplines concerned with resilience in complex, dynamic systems, and particularly those systems that interact with human individuals as disaster unfolds.

  2. The Positive Effect of Resilience on Stress and Business Outcomes in Difficult Work Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatté, Andrew; Perlman, Adam; Smith, Brad; Lynch, Wendy D

    2017-02-01

    To examine whether resilience has a protective effect in difficult work environments. A survey of 2063 individuals measured individual resilience, stress, burnout, sleep problems, likelihood of depression, job satisfaction, intent to quit, absences, and productivity. It also measured work characteristics: job demands, job influence, and social support. Multivariate and logistic regression models examined the main effects and interactions of resilience and job characteristics. High strain work environments (high demand, low influence, and low support) have an unfavorable effect on all outcomes. Resilience has a protective effect on all outcomes. For stress, burnout, and sleep, higher resilience has a more protective effect under low-strain conditions. For depression, absence and productivity, resilience has a more protective effect when job strain is high. Workers with high resilience have better outcomes in difficult work environments.

  3. GPs' perceptions of resilience training: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Anna; Hughes, John; Lewith, George; Panagioti, Maria; Peters, David; Simon, Chantal; Ridge, Damien

    2017-10-01

    GPs are reporting increasing levels of burnout, stress, and job dissatisfaction, and there is a looming GP shortage. Promoting resilience is a key strategy for enhancing the sustainability of the healthcare workforce and improving patient care. To explore GPs' perspectives on the content, context, and acceptability of resilience training programmes in general practice, in order to build more effective GP resilience programmes. This was a qualitative study of the perspectives of GPs currently practising in England. GPs were recruited through convenience sampling, and data were collected from two focus groups ( n = 15) and one-to-one telephone interviews ( n = 7). A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants perceived resilience training to be potentially of value in ameliorating workplace stresses. Nevertheless, uncertainty was expressed regarding how best to provide training for stressed GPs who have limited time. Participants suspected that GPs most likely to benefit from resilience training were the least likely to engage, as stress and being busy worked against engagement. Conflicting views were expressed about the most suitable training delivery method for promoting better engagement. Participants also emphasised that training should not only place the focus on the individual, but also focus on organisation issues. A multimodal, flexible approach based on individual needs and learning aims, including resilience workshops within undergraduate training and in individual practices, is likely to be the optimal way to promote resilience. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  4. Resiliency and the subjective evaluation of health in mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleta Kasprzak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Parents caring for children with developmental disorders are exposed to much higher levels of stress than parents of typically developing children. It has also been proved that parents of children with developmental disorders experience mental health deterioration, a sense of guilt, physical weakness, fatigue and exhaustion. Resiliency conditions cognitive and emotional flexibility, and enables an individual to adjust their own behavior to particular circumstances. The present study aims to verify whether there is a relationship between resiliency and the subjective evaluation of health under stress in a group of mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome. Participants and procedure The three measures used in the study were The Polish Resiliency Assessment Scale, The Subjective Evaluation of Health Scale, and a personal questionnaire. A group of 31 mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome and a group of 31 mothers whose children were not chronically ill and developed typically were examined. Results Mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome have similar levels of resiliency and its contributing factors compared to mothers with healthy children. However, when compared to mothers of healthy children, mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome show a more negative subjective evaluation of health. Moreover, we found that some resiliency factors (The ability to tolerate failures and view life as a challenge, and Optimism in life and the ability to focus in adversity correlate positively only in the group of mothers of children with Asperger’s syndrome. Conclusions Findings obtained in the study allow us to consider resiliency along with having a healthy child, as a factor contributing to a positive evaluation of health.

  5. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI JPEG Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  6. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI Excel database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  7. Science and Technology at DHS: Resiliency of our Physical and Social Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Mitchel

    2012-04-11

    Disasters affect us all. The challenge is to minimize the impact. Resilience has been defined as “Foster individual, community, and system robustness, adaptability, and capacity for rapid recovery.” The Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) provides new technologies, materials, controls, models, and other tools that promote resilience. More important, science and technology can contribute to shaping our resiliency blueprint by instilling scientific rigor into the processes that will shape our future. This presentation will review resiliency approaches, emerging technologies, and capability gaps for resilient communities and institutions.

  8. Effect of Somatic Experiencing Resiliency-Based Trauma Treatment Training on Quality of Life and Psychological Health as Potential Markers of Resilience in Treating Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblad, Neal E.; Changaris, Michael; Stein, Phyllis K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Individuals who treat trauma are at significant risk of vicarious traumatization and burnout. Somatic Experiencing® (SE®) is a resiliency-focused trauma treatment modality designed to address autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation and its impacted physical health and mental health symptoms e.g., anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, migraines, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue, etc. The SE® training supports the development of clinical skills to reduce physical health/mental health symptoms as well as increase clinician resilience. Individuals who display resilience often have increased experiences of well-being (quality of life) and decreased levels of self-reported psychological symptoms. Greater resilience could mitigate the risks to providers and the clients they treat. Materials and Methods: This within-groups, longitudinal study assessed students (N = 18) over the course of a 3-year SE® practitioner training. This training focuses on increased ANS, physical, and emotional regulation skills. The convenience of a web-based survey allowed for: measures of a general quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF), psychological symptoms, somatic, anxiety, and depressive symptoms (PHQ-SADS), as well as a measure of early life exposure to adversity (CDC/Kaiser Permanente ACE Score Calculator Questionnaire). The clinician survey was conducted yearly for 3 years. Future studies would do well to also include laboratory-based objective measures of ANS functioning. Results: ANOVA with repeated measures showed that there were significant reductions in anxiety symptoms (GAD7, p interpersonal well-being) both increased significantly (Health QoL p = 0.028; Social QoL p = 0.046). Conclusions: Results suggest that professionals attending the 3-year SE® training course experience a significant improvement in self-reported measures associated with resiliency including: quality of life (well-being) and psychological symptoms (anxiety and somatization). Our

  9. Effect of Somatic Experiencing Resiliency-Based Trauma Treatment Training on Quality of Life and Psychological Health as Potential Markers of Resilience in Treating Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal E. Winblad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals who treat trauma are at significant risk of vicarious traumatization and burnout. Somatic Experiencing® (SE® is a resiliency-focused trauma treatment modality designed to address autonomic nervous system (ANS dysregulation and its impacted physical health and mental health symptoms e.g., anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, migraines, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue, etc. The SE® training supports the development of clinical skills to reduce physical health/mental health symptoms as well as increase clinician resilience. Individuals who display resilience often have increased experiences of well-being (quality of life and decreased levels of self-reported psychological symptoms. Greater resilience could mitigate the risks to providers and the clients they treat.Materials and Methods: This within-groups, longitudinal study assessed students (N = 18 over the course of a 3-year SE® practitioner training. This training focuses on increased ANS, physical, and emotional regulation skills. The convenience of a web-based survey allowed for: measures of a general quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF, psychological symptoms, somatic, anxiety, and depressive symptoms (PHQ-SADS, as well as a measure of early life exposure to adversity (CDC/Kaiser Permanente ACE Score Calculator Questionnaire. The clinician survey was conducted yearly for 3 years. Future studies would do well to also include laboratory-based objective measures of ANS functioning.Results: ANOVA with repeated measures showed that there were significant reductions in anxiety symptoms (GAD7, p < 0.001 and somatization symptoms (PHQ15, p < 0.001. Health-related quality of life (a measure of physical well-being and social quality of life (a measure of interpersonal well-being both increased significantly (Health QoL p = 0.028; Social QoL p = 0.046.Conclusions: Results suggest that professionals attending the 3-year SE® training course experience a significant

  10. Relationships Among Positive Emotions, Coping, Resilience and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions suggests that positive emotions can widen the range of potential coping strategies that come to mind and subsequently enhance one's resilience against stress. Studies have shown that high stress, especially chronic levels of stress, strongly contributes to the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, researchers have also found that individuals who possess high levels of resilience are protected from stress and thus report lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 200 postdoctoral research fellows, the present study examined if (a) positive emotions were associated with greater resilience, (b) coping strategies mediated the link between positive emotions and resilience and (c) resilience moderated the influence of stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results support the broaden-and-build theory in that positive emotions may enhance resilience directly as well as indirectly through the mediating role of coping strategies-particularly via adaptive coping. Resilience also moderated the association of stress with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Although stress is unavoidable and its influences on anxiety and depressive symptoms are undeniable, the likelihood of postdocs developing anxiety or depressive symptoms may be reduced by implementing programmes designed to increase positive emotions, adaptive coping strategies and resilience. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Resilience evolution of medical students during the undergraduate period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Method: This is a descriptive study to identify the degree of resilience in medical students at Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, compare the resilience of different years of undergraduation and relate and compare the degree of resilience to demographic and socioeconomic status. Results: The study population has an average age of 21.68, single 270 (98.18%, caucasians 240 (87.27%, household income of more than 20 minimum wages (34.54%. In resilience general index it was obtained an average of 114 (SD=14.05. There was no significant difference between the scores obtained on the scale during graduation years. It was observed a predominance of moderate resilience in all years of the course and in the total sample. Resilience in medical students, it is shown as an individual characteristic and does not keep relations with gender, age, sexual orientation, race or housing conditions in the various years of the course. Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a predominance of moderate resilience among the medical students. There was no correlation between resilience and familiar income

  12. Resilience Predicts Well-Being in Teachers, but Not in Non-Teaching Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretsch, Johanna; Flunger, Barbara; Schmitt, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    The resilience concept has often been criticized as simply reflecting the absence of neuroticism (i.e. vulnerability to stress and negative affectivity). Challenging this point of view, the aim of this study was to show that resilience could predict well-being in teachers above and beyond neuroticism. By contrast, we expected that resilience would…

  13. Family Resilience in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  14. Resilience in IMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    ) and supporting always on services. Therefore, not only Quality of Service (QoS) but also resilience is required. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate and analyze end-to-end reliability of the IMS system using a model proposed as a combination of Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) and Markov Reward Models (MRMs......Reliability evaluation of systems has been widely researched for improving system resilience especially in designing processes of a complex system. The convergence of different access networks is possible via IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for development toward Next Generation Networks (NGNs......). The resilience of the IMS architecture is studied by applying 1:1 redundancy at different communication scenarios between end users within and across communication domains. The model analysis provides useful reliability characteristics of the system and can be further applied for system design processes....

  15. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  16. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  17. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  18. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  19. As Pliant as the Bamboo: A Grounded Theory Study of Incarcerated Filipino Elderly People's Sense of Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Imperial, Marnie Yvette G.; Javier, Rianne Rae L.; Kawasaki, Arisa M.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of prison upon incarcerated individuals is considerably destructive and may lead to low mental health resiliency. Despite a large body of literature on resiliency, little is known about the process that the elderly go through in developing resiliency in the penal setting--hence, this grounded theory investigation. The overall intent of…

  20. New Orleans' Resilience Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, J.

    2017-12-01

    New Orleans has had unique experience in dealing with and recovering from major urban emergencies. From Hurricanes Katrina and Isaac to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill to the city's frequent boil water advisories, New Orleans has learned important lessons about what it takes to become a vibrant, resilient city that serves all its residents — particularly its most vulnerable. The city of New Orleans released its Resilience Strategy on August 28, 2015. On September 12, 2016, the city released its One-Year Progress Update, sharing its key milestones.

  1. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  2. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe

    2016-11-01

    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  3. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963......-2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...... in new resources to the cluster but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  4. Multi-Sited Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2012-01-01

    with natural disasters and climate change. In a globalized world, however, it is hard to discern what is “local” as global organizations play an increasingly visible and powerful role. This paper will argue that local understandings and practices of resilience cannot be disentangled from global understandings...... flooding in northern Ghana, this paper examines the mutual construction of “local” and “global” notions and practices of resilience through multi-sited processes. It is based on interviews and participant observation in multiple sites at the “local,” “regional” and “global” levels....

  5. Personal Factors Underlying Resilience in Adolescence: Cross-Cultural Validity of the Prince-Embury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasana, Mercedes; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2017-09-25

    Resiliency personality factors are supposed to underlie resilience. To get evidence on this supposition, the Prince-Embury scales (PES) for adolescents were adapted to the Spanish population. Then, the relationship between the resiliency variables sense of mastery, sense of relatedness and emotional reactivity -assessed with the PES- with resilience -assessed with the Subjective Resilience Questionnaire (SRQ)- were analyzed, as well as the role of social integration within this relationship. Data from 1083 adolescents were analyzed using confirmatory techniques (CFA, PALV). CFA of PES displayed a good fit to the model (CFI: .95). Path-analysis showed that sense of mastery and emotional reactivity predict resilience as expected, but also that, contrary to expectations based on Prince-Embury's theory, sense of relatedness and resilience are not related, either directly, or through social integration. Being related and socially integrated probably favors well-being, but it may not favor resilience unless associated to Sense of Mastery, at least in adolescence.

  6. Cyber physical system based on resilient ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2016-02-01

    While development of science and technology has built up the sophisticated civilized society, it has also resulted in quite a few disadvantages in global environment and human society. The common recognition has been increasingly shared worldwide on sustainable development society attaching greater importance to the symbiotic relationship with nature and social ethics. After the East Japan Great Earthquake, it is indispensable for sustainable social development to enhance capacity of resistance and restoration of society against natural disaster, so called "resilient society". Our society consists of various Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) that make up the physical systems by fusing with an Information Communication Technology (ICT). We describe the proposed structure of CPS in order to realize resilient society. The configuration of resilient CPS consisting of ICT and physical system is discussed to introduce "autonomous, distributed, and cooperative" structure, where subsystems of ICT and physical system are simultaneously coordinated and cooperated with Business Continuity Planning (BCP) engine, respectively. We show the disaster response information system and energy network as examples of BCP engine and resilient CPS, respectively. We also propose the structure and key technology of resilient ICT.

  7. Mediated moderation or moderated mediation: relationship between length of unemployment, resilience, coping and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojo, Víctor; Guarino, Leticia

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate a model of mediated moderation vs. moderated mediation that could explain the relationship between length of unemployment, dispositional resilience, coping styles and depression and social functioning of Venezuelan unemployed individuals. Self-report measures were administered to a sample of 328 unemployed residents in Caracas, Venezuela. Results indicated that emotional coping acted as a mediator in the relationship between resilience and depression. Individuals with greater resilience used more detachment coping when unemployment was longer, while individuals with poorer resilience in the same situation used less avoidance coping. Resilience acted as a protective moderating factor between longer periods of unemployment and social functioning, a process mediated by detachment coping. Overall, results supported a mediated moderation model, with resilience as the moderating factor and coping as the mediator in the relation between stress due to the length of unemployment and well-being.

  8. Assessing resilience in adolescence: the Spanish adaptation of the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilera, Georgina; Pereda, Noemí; Paños, Ana; Abad, Judit

    2015-07-11

    The concept and assessment of resilience have attracted considerable attention in recent years, but none of the instruments developed to measure resilience in adolescents have been adapted to the Spanish context. The Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) provides a comprehensive and multidimensional assessment of the resources associated with resilience in adolescents. This study analyzes the psychometric properties of the ARQ. Participants included a community sample of 1101 Spanish adolescents (53.5 % boys) aged 12-17 years (M = 14.51; SD = 1.755). Results confirm the factor structure based on 12 scales. Internal consistency was generally adequate (between .60 and .84), although the unacceptable coefficient for the Empathy/Tolerance scale (α = .38) means that this scale needs to be revised for the Spanish context. Relationships between ARQ scales and psychopathology were in the expected direction and magnitude. Some gender differences were observed, with higher scores for boys on Confidence and Negative cognition. The Spanish version of the ARQ can help to identify personal characteristics associated with resilience and signs of positive engagement with family, peers, school, and the community. It can identify those adolescents most likely to show resilience in response to adversity, as well as those who may be vulnerable under situations of stress.

  9. Exploring narratives of resilience among seven males living with spinal cord injury: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geard, Anne; Kirkevold, Marit; Løvstad, Marianne; Schanke, Anne-Kristine

    2018-01-04

    It is a challenge for both individuals and families when an illness or traumatic injury results in a severe spinal cord injury. The on-going physical impairments experienced by persons with spinal cord injury play themselves out over time. Few qualitative studies have explored how health, resilience and wellbeing interplay across time among persons living with the consequences of severe physical injuries. Thus, the aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of how individuals with spinal cord injury reflect upon the efforts, strategies and agency they perform to sustain long term resilience and wellbeing. In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted a thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with seven men who had lived with spinal cord injury for 2-32 years and who previously had undergone medical rehabilitation. The efforts revealed by the participants in normalising life with a spinal cord injury required continued flexibility, persistency and solution-focused adjustment, interpreted as processes documenting resilience. The participants were marshalling personal resources to handle challenges over time. They explained that they succeeded in maintaining health and wellbeing by manoeuvring between different strategies such as being self-protective and flexible as well as staying active and maintaining a positive attitude. Further, support from relational resources were of utmost importance emotionally, socially and when in need of practical assistance. When harnessing relational resources when needed, the participants underlined that balancing dependence and autonomy to remain a part of ordinary life was essential in staying emotionally stable. The findings of the present study show similarities to those of previous studies with regard to the participants' attribution of their resilience and wellbeing to their innate personal abilities and strong connection to their family and friends. In addition, the current participants provide enlightening

  10. Resiliency as a factor protecting youths from risky behaviour: Moderating effects of gender and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels.

  11. Psychological resilience and the gene regulatory impact of posttraumatic stress in Nepali child soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; McCreath, Heather; Seeman, Teresa E; Crimmins, Eileen M; Cole, Steven W

    2016-07-19

    Adverse social conditions in early life have been linked to increased expression of proinflammatory genes and reduced expression of antiviral genes in circulating immune cells-the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA). However, it remains unclear whether such effects are specific to the Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) cultural environments in which previous research has been conducted. To assess the roles of early adversity and individual psychological resilience in immune system gene regulation within a non-WEIRD population, we evaluated CTRA gene-expression profiles in 254 former child soldiers and matched noncombatant civilians 5 y after the People's War in Nepal. CTRA gene expression was up-regulated in former child soldiers. These effects were linked to the degree of experienced trauma and associated distress-that is, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity-more than to child soldier status per se. Self-perceived psychological resilience was associated with marked buffering of CTRA activation such that PTSD-affected former child soldiers with high levels of personal resilience showed molecular profiles comparable to those of PTSD-free civilians. These results suggest that CTRA responses to early life adversity are not restricted to WEIRD cultural contexts and they underscore the key role of resilience in determining the molecular impact of adverse environments.

  12. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    structures such as levies, demountable structures that are partially installed, temporary structures that are removable, as well as dry- and` wet floodproofing of structures to meet construction standards to deflect or resist pressure without breaking. (3)SOCIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to the building of robust institutions (including NGO's) and governance systems that underpin our capacity to prepare for and cope with uncertainty, change, and disasters when they occur. (4) FLOOD RISK RESILIENCE implies the ability to withstand and recover from crises through financial insurance assistance and through assistance by governmental institutions, including the communication of information on floodproofing steps that individuals can take on their own. Within these four levels considerations are outlined to form categories within a matrix as a way to set planning priorities by considering existing conditions, to formulate goals and to develop concepts. The matrix can function as indicators of success for a pre-and post-project assessment. A clear formulation of goals is an essential first step in the planning process, and a pre-requisite for the monitoring of performance. Policy makers would be involved in an active policy process, which has been called "a learning and action alliance to build capacity for flood resilience.

  13. Can Resilience Thinking Inform Resilience Investments? Learning from Resilience Principles for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Hill Clarvis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the human and financial costs of natural disasters rise and state finances continue to deplete, increasing attention is being placed on the role of the private sector to support disaster and climate resilience. However, not only is there a recognised lack of private finance to fill this gap, but international institutional and financing bodies tend to prioritise specific reactive response over preparedness and general resilience building. This paper utilises the central tenets of resilience thinking that have emerged from scholarship on social-ecological system resilience as a lens through which to assess investing in disaster risk reduction (DRR for resilience. It draws on an established framework of resilience principles and examples of resilience investments to explore how resilience principles can actually inform decisions around DRR and resilience investing. It proposes some key lessons for diversifying sources of finance in order to, in turn, enhance “financial resilience”. In doing so, it suggests a series of questions to align investments with resilience building, and to better balance the achievement of the resilience principles with financial requirements such as financial diversification and replicability. It argues for a critical look to be taken at how resilience principles, which focus on longer-term systems perspectives, could complement the focus in DRR on critical and immediate stresses.

  14. Social Resilience: The Value of Social Fitness with an Application to the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Reis, Harry T.; Zautra, Alex J.

    2011-01-01

    Resilience has been regarded narrowly as a quintessential individual property by most investigators. Social resilience, however, is inherently a multilevel construct, revealed by capacities of individuals, but also groups, to foster, engage in, and sustain positive social relationships and to endure and recover from stressors and social isolation.…

  15. Measuring resilience in integrated planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apneseth, K.; Wahl, A. M.; Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how a Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG) can be used to profile the performance of a company in terms of the four abilities that characterize a resilient organization. It describes the development of a new, RAG-based tool founded on Resilience Engineering principles that can...... be used to assess an organization's resilience. The tool was tested in a case study involving a company in the offshore oil and gas industry. The company had decided to adopt an Integrated Operations (IO) approach to operations and maintenance planning and the tool was used to evaluate the impact...... of the Integrated Planning (IPL) process on its resilience....

  16. Achieving enhanced organisational resilience by improved management of risk: Summary of research into the principles of resilience and the practices of resilient organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, Paul

    There have been many high-profile incidents in recent times that have affected both individual organisations and large parts of society. In response to these disasters and their consequences, there has been increasing focus on the concept of 'resilience'. Airmic worked with Cranfield School of Management to investigate the features of resilient organisations and whether common characteristics could be identified. The research summarised in this paper discovered five principles that increase an organisation's level of resilence. The paper also reports on the actions taken by organisations to embed these resilience principles into four main business enablers. These business enablers in combination represent the business model of the organisation. The overall conclusion of the research was that, in order to achieve a state of enhanced resilience, organisations need to be aware of risks and threats they face and then combine the actions required to be 'risk compliant' with the ability to be 'risk responsive'.

  17. Experimenting for resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter; Dupret, Katia

    Focusing on how an experimental approach to organizing may pave the way for organizational resilience, we explore opportunities and barriers of experimental organizing by following a concrete social experiment in civil society and discuss its adaptability in traditional organizations. The social ...... through balancing a strategic and anticipatory strategy with experimental setups inspired by civil society organizing initiatives....

  18. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  19. Wellbeing And Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Susanne; Davidsen, Kirstine Agnete; MacBeth, Angus

    2015-01-01

    , 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction. DISCUSSION: The study will provide data on very early risk...

  20. Resilience through adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus A Ten Broeke

    Full Text Available Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  1. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Resilience through adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten Guus; Voorn, van George A.K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations

  3. Resilience through adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Broeke, Guus A; van Voorn, George A K; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  4. The Relationship Between EFL Learners’ Resilience and Autonomous Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Kajabadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate relationship between resilience as a personality factor defined in positive psychology and autonomous learning as a newly developed subject in learning and teaching (EFL area. This research employed resilience scale by Connor and Davidson (2003 and learner autonomy questionnaire by Spratt, Humphreys and Chan (2002 to evaluate EFL learners’ resilience level and their autonomy. To meet the purpose of this study, about 150 male and female participants randomly selected among undergraduate students majoring English language translation. Collected data of two questionnaires were analyzed through Spearman’s correlation and regression. Findings of the correlation analysis revealed that there is a significant relationship between resilience and autonomy (ρ = .29, n = 156, p < .01. Also, results showed that resilience is a strong predictor for autonomous learning.

  5. The Importance of Resilience for Well-Being in Retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Nalin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.

  6. Seychelles, a vulnerable or resilient SIDS? A local perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Philpot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses perceptions of residents of the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean in relation to a long-running debate over small island developing states (SIDS as to whether they are vulnerable or resilient. The results of data obtained from 25 key informant interviews and 70 household surveys conducted in 2013 showed that respondents perceived their country to be both vulnerable and resilient. Moreover, the data revealed that the relationship between vulnerability and resilience was complex, and that five interpretations of that relationship were evident: conflict, compromise, complementarity, symbiosis and transformation. Also, the conceptual distance between the two terms – vulnerability and resilience – was shown to be closer than may be commonly assumed. Finally, the paper questions whether the debate over vulnerability versus resilience is rightly confined to SIDS or could be equally applied to other states.

  7. Private prayer among Alzheimer's caregivers: mediating burden and resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Vonk, M Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the coping method of private prayer served as a protective factor of resiliency among a sample (N = 304) of Alzheimer's caregivers. Participants in caregiver support groups completed questionnaires that assessed a number of constructs, including caregiving burden; prayer frequency; use of private prayer as a means of coping; and perceived resiliency. The sample averaged a moderate level of burden and a great extent of prayer usage. Caregiving burden had positively affected the extent of prayer usage and negatively influenced perceived resiliency. Findings from hierarchical regression analysis showed that caregiving burden and private prayer significantly influenced variation in perceived resiliency scores. Results from a regression equation series and path analysis provided support for prayer as a mediator between burden and perceived resiliency. Implications for social work practice and education are discussed.

  8. Resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlene Souza Silva Manzini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the capacity that people have to cope positively with adversities. A cross-sectional, quantitative study, that aimed to assess factors associated with the resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Sixty-six caregivers composed the sample, who were accompanied in a neurology ambulatory. Most caregivers presented moderate resilience. Linear regression showed that some factors interfered with caregivers’ resilience, being those: overload, the increment of days dedicated to caregiving, the level of kinship daughter-in-law/son-in-law or spouse, and practice of other activities besides caregiving. The findings can be useful in care-related areas, once we identified variables interfering in resilience, and those can be worked and improved to benefit the caregiver and the patient.

  9. Building Resilient Students: Three Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janine S.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that personal connections and interests are vital to the resilience of at-risk children (Polakow, 1993). We know that attachments in early childhood, especially between birth and age three, matter a great deal. Even in the face of incredible hardship, parents or other mentors can successfully ease these troubles. Teachers can have…

  10. [Resilience: an interdisciplinary approach to concept and findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Lena

    2012-01-01

    First, the concept of the term "resilience" is introduced and summarized as an adaptive, dynamic "buffering process" of children's mental power of resistance against biological, psychological and psychosocial development risks. Subsequently, based on a critical discussion of the current research findings, protective factors are presented, which is followed by an approach to the concept of resilience from interdisciplinary perspectives. The latest findings from developmental neurobiology show that genetic as well as environmental factors have their important share in the development of resilience. This builds a bridge to the consideration of resilience with regard to attachment theory. Accordingly secure attachment could be seen as a condition for a resilient conduct of life. In this context, the concept of "earned security" is additionally taken into account. Furthermore, the relevance of resilience for the field of pedagogics is shortly and critically considered. With reference to a psychoanalytic approach to the concept of resilience self-regulation, internal integrity, mentalization and self-reflection are elaborated on, as well as the similarity to the psychoanalytic concept of ego strength. In conclusion, a critical discussion of the concept of resilience and its benefits as well as potential risks related to it is presented.

  11. Uniting Resilience Research and Practice With an Inequalities Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Hart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has evolved, from an individual-level characteristic to a wider ecological notion that takes into account broader person–environment interactions, generating an increased interest in health and well-being research, practice and policy. At the same time, the research and policy-based attempts to build resilience are increasingly under attack for responsibilizing individuals and maintaining, rather than challenging, the inequitable structure of society. When adversities faced by children and young people result from embedded inequality and social disadvantage, resilience-based knowledge has the potential to influence the wider adversity context. Therefore, it is vital that conceptualizations of resilience encompass this potential for marginalized people to challenge and transform aspects of their adversity, without holding them responsible for the barriers they face. This article outlines and provides examples from an approach that we are taking in our research and practice, which we have called Boingboing resilience. We argue that it is possible to bring resilience research and practice together with a social justice approach, giving equal and simultaneous attention to individuals and to the wider system. To achieve this goal, we suggest future research should have a co-produced and inclusive research design that overcomes the dilemma of agency and responsibility, contains a socially transformative element, and has the potential to empower children, young people, and families.

  12. Anticipatory governance for social-ecological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Emily; Nykvist, Björn; Borgström, Sara; Stacewicz, Izabela A

    2015-01-01

    Anticipation is increasingly central to urgent contemporary debates, from climate change to the global economic crisis. Anticipatory practices are coming to the forefront of political, organizational, and citizens' society. Research into anticipation, however, has not kept pace with public demand for insights into anticipatory practices, their risks and uses. Where research exists, it is deeply fragmented. This paper seeks to identify how anticipation is defined and understood in the literature and to explore the role of anticipatory practice to address individual, social, and global challenges. We use a resilience lens to examine these questions. We illustrate how varying forms of anticipatory governance are enhanced by multi-scale regional networks and technologies and by the agency of individuals, drawing from an empirical case study on regional water governance of Mälaren, Sweden. Finally, we discuss how an anticipatory approach can inform adaptive institutions, decision making, strategy formation, and societal resilience.

  13. Time-dependent resilience assessment and improvement of urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Min; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo

    2012-09-01

    This paper introduces an approach to assess and improve the time-dependent resilience of urban infrastructure systems, where resilience is defined as the systems' ability to resist various possible hazards, absorb the initial damage from hazards, and recover to normal operation one or multiple times during a time period T. For different values of T and its position relative to current time, there are three forms of resilience: previous resilience, current potential resilience, and future potential resilience. This paper mainly discusses the third form that takes into account the systems' future evolving processes. Taking the power transmission grid in Harris County, Texas, USA as an example, the time-dependent features of resilience and the effectiveness of some resilience-inspired strategies, including enhancement of situational awareness, management of consumer demand, and integration of distributed generators, are all simulated and discussed. Results show a nonlinear nature of resilience as a function of T, which may exhibit a transition from an increasing function to a decreasing function at either a threshold of post-blackout improvement rate, a threshold of load profile with consumer demand management, or a threshold number of integrated distributed generators. These results are further confirmed by studying a typical benchmark system such as the IEEE RTS-96. Such common trends indicate that some resilience strategies may enhance infrastructure system resilience in the short term, but if not managed well, they may compromise practical utility system resilience in the long run.

  14. Adolescent stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression: Resilience explains and differentiates the relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Hjemdal, Odin

    2016-10-01

    Some adolescents exhibit resilience even in the face of high levels of stress exposure. Despite this relationship, studies that investigate explanations for how resilience interacts with risk to produce particular outcomes and why this is so are lacking. The effect of resilience across the relationship between stress and symptoms of anxiety and stress and symptoms of depression was tested to provide explanations for how resilience interacts with stress and symptoms of anxiety, and depression. In a cross-sectional survey, 533 Ghanaian adolescents aged 13-17 years (M=15.25, SD=1.52), comprising 290 girls and 237 boys completed the Resilience Scale for Adolescents, Adolescent Stress Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, and Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. The results indicated that resilience partially mediated the relationship between stress, and symptoms of anxiety, and depression. Effects of stress were negatively associated with resilience, and positively associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. In a differential moderator effect, resilience moderated the relationship between stress and symptoms of depression but not stress and symptoms of anxiety. Although the findings in this study are novel, they do not answer questions about protective mechanisms or processes. Evidence that resilience did not have the same effect across stress, and symptoms of anxiety and depression may support resilience as a dynamic process model. Access to different levels of resilience shows that enhancing resilience while minimizing stress may improve psychiatric health in adolescents' general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Children's negative emotions and ego-resiliency: longitudinal relations with social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2014-04-01

    We examined the relations of negative emotions in toddlerhood to the development of ego-resiliency and social competence across early childhood. Specifically, we addressed whether fear and anger/frustration in 30-month-old children (N = 213) was associated with the development of ego-resiliency across 4 time points (42 to 84 months), and, in turn, whether ego-resiliency predicted social competence at 84 months. Child anger/frustration negatively predicted the intercept of ego-resiliency at 42 months (controlling for prior ego-resiliency at 18 months) as well as the slope. Fear did not significantly predict either the intercept or slope of ego-resiliency in the structural model, although it was positively correlated with anger/frustration and was negatively related to ego-resiliency in zero-order correlations. The slope of ego-resiliency was positively related to children's social competence at 84 months; however, the intercept of ego-resiliency (set at 42 months) was not a significant predictor of later social competence. Furthermore, the slope of ego-resiliency mediated the relations between anger/frustration and children's later social competence. The results suggest that individual differences in anger/frustration might contribute to the development of ego-resiliency, which, in turn, is associated with children's social competence.

  16. Resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native Public Health: An Underexplored Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Tippens, Julie A; McCrary, Hilary C; Ehiri, John E; Sanderson, Priscilla R

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review to assess the conceptualization, application, and measurement of resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health promotion. We searched 9 literature databases to document how resilience is discussed, fostered, and evaluated in studies of AIAN health promotion in the United States. The article had to (1) be in English; (2) peer reviewed, published from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015; (3) identify the target population as predominantly AIANs in the United States; (4) describe a nonclinical intervention or original research that identified resilience as an outcome or resource; and (5) discuss resilience as related to cultural, social, and/or collective strengths. Sixty full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion by 3 reviewers. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and verified for relevance to inclusion criteria by the third reviewer. Attributes of resilience that appeared repeatedly in the literature were identified. Findings were categorized across the lifespan (age group of participants), divided by attributes, and further defined by specific domains within each attribute. Nine articles (8 studies) met the criteria. Currently, resilience research in AIAN populations is limited to the identification of attributes and pilot interventions focused on individual resilience. Resilience models are not used to guide health promotion programming; collective resilience is not explored. Attributes of AIAN resilience should be considered in the development of health interventions. Attention to collective resilience is recommended to leverage existing assets in AIAN communities.

  17. On the rationale of resilience in the domain of safety: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergström, Johan; Winsen, Roel van; Henriqson, Eder

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is becoming a prevalent agenda in safety research and organisational practice. In this study we examine how the peer-reviewed safety science literature (a) formulates the rationale behind the study of resilience; (b) constructs resilience as a scientific object; and (c) constructs and locates the resilient subject. The results suggest that resilience engineering scholars typically motivate the need for their studies by referring to the inherent complexities of modern socio-technical systems; complexities that make these systems inherently risky. The object of resilience then becomes the capacity to adapt to such emerging risks in order to guarantee the success of the inherently risky system. In the material reviewed, the subject of resilience is typically the individual, either at the sharp end or at higher managerial levels. The individual is called-upon to adapt in the face of risk to secure the continuous performance of the system. Based on the results from how resilience has been introduced in safety sciences we raise three ethical questions for the field to address: (1) should resilience be seen as people thriving despite of, or because of, risk?; (2) should resilience theory form a basis for moral judgement?; and finally (3) how much should resilience be approached as a trait of the individual? - Highlights: • The article reviews the object of resilience in the safety science literature. • The literature offers a clear link between the notions of complexity and danger. • Danger is managed through adaptive capacity (resilience), typically at the sharp end. • The ethical implications of accepting danger at the sharp end need to be debated

  18. Validation of a Measure of Family Resilience among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Erin P; Pugh, Mary Jo; Palmer, Raymond F

    2016-01-01

    Although interactions within veterans' families may support or inhibit resilient coping to stress and trauma across the deployment cycle, research on family resilience has been hampered by the lack of a brief assessment. Using a three-stage mixed-method study, we developed and conducted preliminary validation of a measure of family resilience tailored for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAV), the Family Resilience Scale for Veterans (FRS-V) , which was field-tested using a survey of 151 IAV. Our findings indicate the resulting 6-item measure shows strong initial reliability and validity and support the application of existing models of family resilience in this population.

  19. Resilience Design Patterns: A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, Christian; Hukerikar, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to integrate the various HPC resilience techniques into composite solutions, nor are there methods to holistically evaluate the adequacy and efficacy of such solutions in terms of their protection coverage, and their performance \\& power efficiency characteristics. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this paper, we develop a structured approach to the design, evaluation and optimization of HPC resilience using the concept of design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the problems caused by various types of faults, errors and failures in HPC systems and the techniques used to deal with these events. Each well-known solution that addresses a specific HPC resilience challenge is described in the form of a pattern. We develop a complete catalog of such resilience design patterns, which may be used by system architects, system software and tools developers, application programmers, as well as users and operators as essential building blocks when designing and deploying resilience solutions. We also develop a design framework that enhances a designer's understanding the opportunities for integrating multiple patterns across layers of the system stack and the important constraints during implementation of the individual patterns. It is also useful for defining mechanisms and interfaces to coordinate flexible fault management across

  20. Examining the Relationship Between Traumatic Growth and Psychological Resilience in Young Adult Children of Parents With and Without a Mental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Gül; Gümüş, Funda; Dikeç, Gül

    2018-05-18

    To investigate the relationship between traumatic growth and psychological resilience in young adult children of parents with a mental disorder and to compare them with young adult children of parents without mental disorders. Negative life experiences that lead to trauma can affect young adults' psychological resilience, either positively or negatively. This study investigates levels of traumatic growth, the characteristics of psychological resilience, and the relationship between the former and latter in young adults between the ages of 18 and 23 who have parents with a mental disorder and who have parents without a mental disorder. This study was designed as a cross-sectional, descriptive study and was conducted between June 1 and October 31 of 2017. The sample of the study consisted of young adult children of outpatients with mental disorders who applied to the Psychiatric Polyclinics of Burdur State Hospital (334) and young adult children of parents without mental disorders who applied to different polyclinics (332). A total of 666 individuals participated in the study. Comparative analyses showed a significant difference between the participants who had parents with a mental disorder and participants who had parents without mental disorders in terms of the mean scale scores and all sub-scale scores on the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory and Resilience Scale for Adults. It was found that individuals who had parents without a mental disorder were negatively affected after traumatic events and that their psychological resilience was high. This study provides data on the characteristics of traumatic growth and psychological resilience levels of not only young adults whose parents have mental disorders but also young adults whose parents do not have mental disorders. In the light of this study's findings, psychiatric nurses may benefit from conducting early screening and intervention programs to help increase the psychological resilience of young adults whose

  1. Resilience Training for Work-related Stress Among Health Care Workers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing In-person and Smartphone-delivered Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Erin G; Davis, Mary C; Temkit, M'hamed; Lorenz, Christopher; Darby, Betty; Stonnington, Cynthia M

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this study was to assess whether an in-person mindfulness-based resilience training (MBRT) program or a smartphone-delivered resiliency-based intervention improved stress, well-being, and burnout in employees at a major tertiary health care institution. Sixty participants were randomized to a 6-week MBRT, a resiliency-based smartphone intervention, or an active control group. Stress, well-being, and burnout were assessed at baseline, at program completion, and 3 months postintervention. Both the MBRT and the smartphone groups showed improvements in well-being, whereas only the MBRT group showed improvements in stress and emotional burnout over time. The control group did not demonstrate sustained improvement on any outcome. Findings suggest that brief, targeted interventions improve psychological outcomes and point to the need for larger scale studies comparing the individual and combined treatments that can inform development of tailored, effective, and low-cost programs for health care workers.

  2. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  3. From resilience thinking to Resilience Planning: Lessons from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellberg, M M; Ryan, P; Borgström, S T; Norström, A V; Peterson, G D

    2018-07-01

    Resilience thinking has frequently been proposed as an alternative to conventional natural resource management, but there are few studies of its applications in real-world settings. To address this gap, we synthesized experiences from practitioners that have applied a resilience thinking approach to strategic planning, called Resilience Planning, in regional natural resource management organizations in Australia. This case represents one of the most extensive and long-term applications of resilience thinking in the world today. We conducted semi-structured interviews with Resilience Planning practitioners from nine organizations and reviewed strategic planning documents to investigate: 1) the key contributions of the approach to their existing strategic planning, and 2) what enabled and hindered the practitioners in applying and embedding the new approach in their organizations. Our results reveal that Resilience Planning contributed to developing a social-ecological systems perspective, more adaptive and collaborative approaches to planning, and that it clarified management goals of desirable resource conditions. Applying Resilience Planning required translating resilience thinking to practice in each unique circumstance, while simultaneously creating support among staff, and engaging external actors. Embedding Resilience Planning within organizations implied starting and maintaining longer-term change processes that required sustained multi-level organizational support. We conclude by identifying four lessons for successfully applying and embedding resilience practice in an organization: 1) to connect internal "entrepreneurs" to "interpreters" and "networkers" who work across organizations, 2) to assess the opportunity context for resilience practice, 3) to ensure that resilience practice is a learning process that engages internal and external actors, and 4) to develop reflective strategies for managing complexity and uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  4. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what resilience-building contributes to, what the problems, causes and solutions are, and what trade-offs, side-effects and other normative choices are acceptable. These different ways of ‘framing’ climate res...

  5. Making Meaning of Risk: Exploring Resilient Adolescents’ Interpretations of the Impact of Negative Life Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    D'Sa, Nikhit

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the relationship between risk factors and resilience has been framed primarily by probability. Resilience has been conceptualized as “beating the odds”: doing better than our statistical predictions would expect given the amount of risk the individual has faced. Undoubtedly, this research has offered a rich picture into trajectories of psychosocial development. However, it has limited our exploration of the mechanisms that explain why risk factors result in resilience. Co...

  6. Factors associated with the resilience of family caregivers of persons with dementia: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini,Carlene Souza Silva; Brigola,Allan Gustavo; Pavarini,Sofia Cristina Iost; Vale,Francisco Assis Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Resilience is the ability of individuals or groups to overcome adversity without displaying physical or mental disorders, or even learning to deal with unfavorable conditions more efficiently. There have been many studies on resilience, which try to identify the conditions under which people in situations of deprivation or adversity overcome such challenges. Objective: The present article aimed to identify factors associated the with development of resilience in family...

  7. Forest resilience to drought varies across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazol, Antonio; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Emilia; de Luis, Martin; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Novak, Klemen; Rozas, Vicente; Tíscar, Pedro A; Linares, Juan C; Martín-Hernández, Natalia; Martínez Del Castillo, Edurne; Ribas, Montse; García-González, Ignacio; Silla, Fernando; Camisón, Alvaro; Génova, Mar; Olano, José M; Longares, Luis A; Hevia, Andrea; Tomás-Burguera, Miquel; Galván, J Diego

    2018-05-01

    Forecasted increase drought frequency and severity may drive worldwide declines in forest productivity. Species-level responses to a drier world are likely to be influenced by their functional traits. Here, we analyse forest resilience to drought using an extensive network of tree-ring width data and satellite imagery. We compiled proxies of forest growth and productivity (TRWi, absolutely dated ring-width indices; NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for 11 tree species and 502 forests in Spain corresponding to Mediterranean, temperate, and continental biomes. Four different components of forest resilience to drought were calculated based on TRWi and NDVI data before, during, and after four major droughts (1986, 1994-1995, 1999, and 2005), and pointed out that TRWi data were more sensitive metrics of forest resilience to drought than NDVI data. Resilience was related to both drought severity and forest composition. Evergreen gymnosperms dominating semi-arid Mediterranean forests showed the lowest resistance to drought, but higher recovery than deciduous angiosperms dominating humid temperate forests. Moreover, semi-arid gymnosperm forests presented a negative temporal trend in the resistance to drought, but this pattern was absent in continental and temperate forests. Although gymnosperms in dry Mediterranean forests showed a faster recovery after drought, their recovery potential could be constrained if droughts become more frequent. Conversely, angiosperms and gymnosperms inhabiting temperate and continental sites might have problems to recover after more intense droughts since they resist drought but are less able to recover afterwards. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sustainability and resilience in midwifery: A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Susan; Hunter, Billie; McAra-Couper, Judith; Warren, Lucie; Gilkison, Andrea; Hunter, Marion; Fielder, Anna; Kirkham, Mavis

    2016-09-01

    midwifery workforce issues are of international concern. Sustainable midwifery practice, and how resilience is a required quality for midwives, have begun to be researched. How these concepts are helpful to midwifery continues to be debated. It is important that such debates are framed so they can be empowering for midwives. Care is required not to conceptually label matters concerning the midwifery workforce without judicious scrutiny and diligence. the aim of this discussion paper is to explore the concepts of sustainability and resilience now being suggested in midwifery workforce literature. Whether sustainability and resilience are concepts useful in midwifery workforce development is questioned. using published primary midwifery research from United Kingdom and New Zealand the concepts of sustainability and resilience are compared, contrasted and explored. there are obvious differences in models of midwifery care in the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Despite these differences, the concepts of resilience and sustainability emerge as overlapping themes from the respective studies' findings. Comparison between studies provides evidence of what is crucial in sustaining healthy resilient midwifery practice. Four common themes have been identified that traverse the different models of care; Self-determination, ability to self-care, cultivation of relationships both professionally and with women/families, and a passion, joy and love for midwifery. the impact that midwifery models of care may have on sustainable practice and nurturing healthy resilient behaviors remains uncertain. The notion of resilience in midwifery as the panacea to resolve current concerns may need rethinking. Resilience may be interpreted as expecting midwives 'to toughen up' in a workplace setting that is socially, economically and culturally challenging. Sustainability calls for examination of the reciprocity between environments of working and the individual midwife. The findings invite

  9. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia....... They are considered more vulnerable to disasters because of their size. This paper argues, on the contrary, that SMEs also can be less vulnerable to sudden change than large corporations, drawing upon the ideas of Hayek and Taleb, and that networks of SMEs may contribute to the overall resilience of society...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...

  10. Two sides of the same coin and two routes for improvement: Integrating resilience and the social identity approach to well-being and ill-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dick, Rolf; Ketturat, Charlene; Häusser, Jan Alexander; Mojzisch, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We propose that resilience effectively helps people cope with stress, thus predominantly reducing the negative. However, we argue that individuals' social identification has the potential to contribute to their well-being, thus fostering the positive. A two-wave survey study of 180 students shows that resilience is more strongly (negatively) associated with ill-health (i.e. stress and depression), whereas social identification is more strongly (positively) related to well-being (i.e. satisfaction and work engagement). We believe that it is necessary to see these two routes to improving people's health as complementary, both in future research and for therapy and interventions.

  11. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  12. Resilience and Emotional Intelligence: which role in achievement motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Magnano; Giuseppe Craparo; Anna Paolillo

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancemen...

  13. Resilience and emotional intelligence: which role in achievement motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Magnano, Paola; Facoltà di Scienze dell'Uomo e della Società, Università degli studi Kore, Enna, Italia.; Craparo, Giuseppe; Facoltà di Scienze dell'Uomo e della Società, Università degli studi Kore, Enna, Italia.; Paolillo, Anna; Dipartimento Filosofia, Pedagogia e Psicologia, Università degli Studi di Verona, Verona, Italia.

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancemen...

  14. Resilience in a reborn nation: Validation of the Lithuanian Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Jan; Viliūnienė, Rima; Friborg, Oddgeir; Pakalniškienė, Vilmantė; Danilevičiūtė, Vita

    2015-07-01

    Resilience, as an ability to withstand or rebound from crisis or adversity, is becoming an increasingly significant concept in health promotion and well-being. Individuals exhibiting resilience use skills or resources flexibly to solve situational demands. The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) may be used to assess protective resources, and the aim of the present study was to validate the Lithuanian translation. The translated RSA was administered to a clinical (n=125) and a non clinical sample (n=499) to examine the discriminant validity of the RSA items with a confirmatory factor analysis, the internal consistency as well as construct validity by correlating it with the Quick Psycho-Affective Symptoms Scan (QPASS). The internal consistency, the test-retest stability and the factor structure were replicated as adequate, thus indicating good psychometric properties and support of discriminant validity. Females reported more resilience resources for the domains of social competence, family cohesion and social resources compared to men. The RSA subscales correlated negatively with the QPASS scores, and patients reported significantly less resilience resources than non-patients, thus indicating construct validity. Valid psychometric tools for research purposes and routine every-day use are urgently needed in Lithuania, a young nation still under numerous challenges due to social, economic and political transitions. The RSA represents a reliable and valid tool for assessing protective factors. Assessing resilience factors may extend the understanding of factors relevant for mental health problems as well as treatment prognosis beyond the capabilities of mere symptom oriented approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attentional Bias towards Positive Emotion Predicts Stress Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoern, Hanna A; Grueschow, Marcus; Ehlert, Ulrike; Ruff, Christian C; Kleim, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence for an association between an attentional bias towards emotionally negative stimuli and vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. Less is known about whether selective attention towards emotionally positive stimuli relates to mental health and stress resilience. The current study used a modified Dot Probe task to investigate if individual differences in attentional biases towards either happy or angry emotional stimuli, or an interaction between these biases, are related to self-reported trait stress resilience. In a nonclinical sample (N = 43), we indexed attentional biases as individual differences in reaction time for stimuli preceded by either happy or angry (compared to neutral) face stimuli. Participants with greater attentional bias towards happy faces (but not angry faces) reported higher trait resilience. However, an attentional bias towards angry stimuli moderated this effect: The attentional bias towards happy faces was only predictive for resilience in those individuals who also endorsed an attentional bias towards angry stimuli. An attentional bias towards positive emotional stimuli may thus be a protective factor contributing to stress resilience, specifically in those individuals who also endorse an attentional bias towards negative emotional stimuli. Our findings therefore suggest a novel target for prevention and treatment interventions addressing stress-related psychopathology.

  16. Communal resilience: the Lebanese case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric BOUTIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a turbulent and aggressive environment, organizations are subject to external events. They are sometimes destabilized and can disappear. This context explains the multiplication of works studying resilience of human organizations. Resilience is then defined as the ability of the organization studied to face an external shock.This paper proposes a state of the art of resilience concept and considers the interests of the transposition of the concept to the field of a territorial community. A case study will lead us to apply the concept of resilience to the Lebanese nation.

  17. Assessing Resilience in Stressed Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine T. Nemec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several frameworks for assessing the resilience of social-ecological systems (SESs have been developed, some practitioners may not have sufficient time and information to conduct extensive resilience assessments. We have presented a simplified approach to resilience assessment that reviews the scientific, historical, and social literature to rate the resilience of an SES with respect to nine resilience properties: ecological variability, diversity, modularity, acknowledgement of slow variables, tight feedbacks, social capital, innovation, overlap in governance, and ecosystem services. We evaluated the effects of two large-scale projects, the construction of a major dam and the implementation of an ecosystem recovery program, on the resilience of the central Platte River SES (Nebraska, United States. We used this case study to identify the strengths and weaknesses of applying a simplified approach to resilience assessment. Although social resilience has increased steadily since the predam period for the central Platte River SES, ecological resilience was greatly reduced in the postdam period as compared to the predam and ecosystem recovery program time periods.

  18. Correlates of psychological distress, burnout, and resilience among Chinese female nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZOU, Guiyuan; SHEN, Xiuying; TIAN, Xiaohong; LIU, Chunqin; LI, Guopeng; KONG, Linghua; LI, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The present survey investigated the association between resilience, burnout and psychological distress among Chinese female nurses. A total of 366 female nurses were enrolled in our study. A series of self-reported questionnaires that dispose of the following constructs: psychological distress, burnout, and resilience were estimated. The hierarchical linear regression models were used to evaluate the mediating effect of resilience on the relationship between burnout and psychological distress. Results of the survey showed 85.5% nurses experienced psychological distress. Resilience was negatively related to psychological distress and burnout whereas burnout was positively associated with psychological distress. Mediation analysis revealed that resilience could partially mediate the relationship between the dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. This study highlights the mediator of resilience between burnout and psychological distress of female nurses. As such, interventions that attend to resilience training may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavors. PMID:27021058

  19. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be de...

  20. Physician resilience: what it means, why it matters, and how to promote it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ronald M; Krasner, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    Resilience is the capacity to respond to stress in a healthy way such that goals are achieved at minimal psychological and physical cost; resilient individuals "bounce back" after challenges while also growing stronger. Resilience is a key to enhancing quality of care, quality of caring, and sustainability of the health care workforce. Yet, ways of identifying and promoting resilience have been elusive. Resilience depends on individual, community, and institutional factors. The study by Zwack and Schweitzer in this issue of Academic Medicine illustrates that individual factors of resilience include the capacity for mindfulness, self-monitoring, limit setting, and attitudes that promote constructive and healthy engagement with (rather than withdrawal from) the often-difficult challenges at work. Cultivating these specific skills, habits, and attitudes that promote resilience is possible for medical students and practicing clinicians alike. Resilience-promoting programs should also strive to build community among clinicians and other members of the health care workforce. Just as patient safety is the responsibility of communities of practice, so is clinician well-being and support. Finally, it is in the self-interest of health care institutions to support the efforts of all members of the health care workforce to enhance their capacity for resilience; it will increase quality of care while reducing errors, burnout, and attrition. Successful organizations outside of medicine offer insight about institutional structures and values that promote individual and collective resilience. This commentary proposes methods for enhancing individuals' resilience while building community, as well as directions for future interventions, research, and institutional involvement.

  1. Resilience vs. Adaptation: Framing and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Wong-Parodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Responses to climate change may be viewed as requiring primarily “Resilience” or “Adaptation.” We examine how those two terms affect lay responses to the risks of coastal flooding and sea level rise. We use two tasks requiring substantial participant involvement, one providing minimal information and one substantial information. In Study 1, participants spent ten minutes writing an essay about a picture with flooding, labeled with “Resilience” or “Adaptation.” In Study 2, participants used an interactive aid to evaluate moving to a coastal community described as having a policy of Resilience or Adaptation, or having No Stated Policy. In Study 1, both groups judged the threat of flood similarly. In Study 2, Resilience was associated with increased concern about risks, but less willingness to take individual protective action.

  2. Resilience theory incorporated into urban wastewater systems management. State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-García, P; Butler, D; Comas, J; Darch, G; Sweetapple, C; Thornton, A; Corominas, Ll

    2017-05-15

    Government bodies, utilities, practitioners, and researchers have growing interest in the incorporation of resilience into wastewater management. Since resilience is a multidisciplinary term, it is important to review what has been achieved in the wastewater sector, and describe the future research directions for the forthcoming years. This work presents a critical review of studies that deal with resilience in the wastewater treatment sector, with a special focus on understanding how they addressed the key elements for assessing resilience, such as stressors, system properties, metrics and interventions to increase resilience. The results showed that only 17 peer-reviewed papers and 6 relevant reports, a small subset of the work in wastewater research, directly addressed resilience. The lack of consensus in the definition of resilience, and the elements of a resilience assessment, is hindering the implementation of resilience in wastewater management. To date, no framework for resilience assessment is complete, comprehensive or directly applicable to practitioners; current examples are lacking key elements (e.g. a comprehensive study of stressors, properties and metrics, examples of cases study, ability to benchmark interventions or connectivity with broader frameworks). Furthermore, resilience is seen as an additional cost or extra effort, instead of a means to overcome project uncertainty that could unlock new opportunities for investment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. A Systematic Review of Quantitative Resilience Measures for Water Infrastructure Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Shin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the concept of resilience has emerged as an important consideration in the planning and management of water infrastructure systems. Accordingly, various resilience measures have been developed for the quantitative evaluation and decision-making of systems. There are, however, numerous considerations and no clear choice of which measure, if any, provides the most appropriate representation of resilience for a given application. This study provides a critical review of quantitative approaches to measure the resilience of water infrastructure systems, with a focus on water resources and distribution systems. A compilation of 11 criteria evaluating 21 selected resilience measures addressing major features of resilience is developed using the Axiomatic Design process. Existing gaps of resilience measures are identified based on the review criteria. The results show that resilience measures have generally paid less attention to cascading damage to interrelated systems, rapid identification of failure, physical damage of system components, and time variation of resilience. Concluding the paper, improvements to resilience measures are recommended. The findings contribute to our understanding of gaps and provide information to help further improve resilience measures of water infrastructure systems.

  4. Evolution and resilience of the nuclear nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregenzer, Arian L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of systems resilience as a new framework for thinking about the future of the nonproliferation regime. Resilience refers to the ability of a system to maintain its vital functions in the face of continuous and unpredictable change. First, I make the case that the nonproliferation regime can be viewed as a complex system. Next, I discuss key themes from the literature on systems resilience and apply them to the nonproliferation system: the difference between resilience and stability; the need for evolution to maintain function; the importance of functional diversity; and the concept of the adaptive cycle. I show that most existing nonproliferation strategies are aimed at stability rather than resilience and that the current nonproliferation system may be over-constrained by the cumulative evolution of strategies. According to the literature on systems resilience, this increases its vulnerability to collapse. I argue that the resilience of the nonproliferation system can be enhanced by increasing international participation in setting the nonproliferation agenda, developing general international response capabilities, focusing on non-coercive approaches to decreasing demand, and applying systems thinking more rigorously to nonproliferation

  5. Childhood trauma and resilience in psoriatic patients: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Maria Luigia; De Simone, Clara; Di Pietro, Salvatore; Acanfora, Mariateresa; Caldarola, Giacomo; Moccia, Lorenzo; Callea, Antonino; Panaccione, Isabella; Peris, Ketty; Rinaldi, Lucio; Janiri, Luigi; Di Nicola, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology, involving the immune system, genetic factors, and external/internal triggers, with psychosomatic aspects. The aim of the study was to investigate childhood trauma and resilience in a psoriatic sample compared with healthy controls. Correlations between childhood trauma, resilience, quality of life, clinical data and psoriatic features were also evaluated. Seventy-seven psoriatic patients and seventy-six homogeneous healthy controls were enrolled. We used the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) to assess the severity of psoriasis and the Skindex-29 to measure health-related quality of life. The psychometric battery included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-Risc) to assess trauma exposure and resilience, respectively. Psoriatic patients showed a significant prevalence of childhood trauma and a lower resilience level compared to healthy controls. Associations between traumatic experiences, low resilience and reduced quality of life in psoriatic subjects were also observed. A multidisciplinary approach is helpful to investigate clinical aspects, trigger factors and psychophysiological stress response in psoriatic subjects. Improving resilience with an early psychological intervention focused on self-motivation and strengthening of self-efficacy could facilitate the management of psoriasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Resiliency as a component importance measure in network reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, John C.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to define the concept of resiliency as a component importance measure related to network reliability. Resiliency can be defined as a composite of: (1) the ability of a network to provide service despite external failures and (2) the time to restore service when in the presence of such failures. Although, Resiliency has been extensively studied in different research areas, this paper will study the specific aspects of quantifiable network resiliency when the network is experiencing potential catastrophic failures from external events and/or influences, and when it is not known a priori which specific components within the network will fail. A formal definition for Category I resiliency is proposed and a step-by-step approach based on Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate it is defined. To illustrate the approach, two-terminal networks with varying degrees of redundancy, have been considered. The results obtained for test networks show that this new quantifiable concept of resiliency provides insight into the performance and topology of the network. Future use for this work could include methods for safeguarding critical network components and optimizing the use of redundancy as a technique to improve network resiliency.

  7. Evolution and resilience of the nuclear nonproliferation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, Arian L. [Senior Scientist, Retired, Sandia National Laboratories, 13013 Arroyo de Vista NE, Albuquerque, NM 87111 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This paper introduces the concept of systems resilience as a new framework for thinking about the future of the nonproliferation regime. Resilience refers to the ability of a system to maintain its vital functions in the face of continuous and unpredictable change. First, I make the case that the nonproliferation regime can be viewed as a complex system. Next, I discuss key themes from the literature on systems resilience and apply them to the nonproliferation system: the difference between resilience and stability; the need for evolution to maintain function; the importance of functional diversity; and the concept of the adaptive cycle. I show that most existing nonproliferation strategies are aimed at stability rather than resilience and that the current nonproliferation system may be over-constrained by the cumulative evolution of strategies. According to the literature on systems resilience, this increases its vulnerability to collapse. I argue that the resilience of the nonproliferation system can be enhanced by increasing international participation in setting the nonproliferation agenda, developing general international response capabilities, focusing on non-coercive approaches to decreasing demand, and applying systems thinking more rigorously to nonproliferation.

  8. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what

  9. Longitudinal Examination of Resilience After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwitz, Jennifer H; Sima, Adam P; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Dreer, Laura E; Bergquist, Thomas F; Zafonte, Ross; Johnson-Greene, Douglas; Felix, Elizabeth R

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate (1) the trajectory of resilience during the first year after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); (2) factors associated with resilience at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury; and (3) changing relationships over time between resilience and other factors. Longitudinal analysis of an observational cohort. Five inpatient rehabilitation centers. Patients with TBI (N=195) enrolled in the resilience module of the TBI Model Systems study with data collected at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Not applicable. Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Initially, resilience levels appeared to be stable during the first year postinjury. Individual growth curve models were used to examine resilience over time in relation to demographic, psychosocial, and injury characteristics. After adjusting for these characteristics, resilience actually declined over time. Higher levels of resilience were related to nonminority status, absence of preinjury substance abuse, lower anxiety and disability level, and greater life satisfaction. Resilience is a construct that is relevant to understanding brain injury outcomes and has potential value in planning clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Resiliency as a mediator of the impact of sleep on child and adolescent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatburn A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alex Chatburn,1,2 Scott Coussens,1,2 Mark J Kohler1,3 1School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Women’s and Children’s Health Network, North Adelaide, SA, Australia; 3Children’s Research Centre, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Disturbed sleep is detrimental to child behavior; however, the precise means by which this association occurs is unclear. Sleep and resilience can theoretically share an underlying neural mechanism and therefore influence one another. However, the role of resilience in the association between sleep and behavior is not known. The associations between sleep, resilience, and problematic behavior in children and adolescents aged 7–18 years were investigated in this study. Methods: A correlational design was used to determine the relationships between total sleep problems, indices of resilience, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Results: Sleep problems and resiliency variables were strongly correlated, and further, sleep problems were found to be predictive of resiliency scores. Resiliency significantly mediated the relationship between increased sleep problems and both overall internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and specifically, measures of depression and anxiety. Conclusion: Sleep impacted levels of resilience such that greater sleep disturbance reduced resilience and consequently increased problematic behavior, potentially predisposing individuals to psychopathology. Keywords: resilience, behavior, internalizing, externalizing, anxiety, depression, sleep

  11. Response diversity can increase ecological resilience to disturbance in coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskett, Marissa L; Fabina, Nicholas S; Gross, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    Community-level resilience depends on the interaction between multiple populations that vary in individual responses to disturbance. For example, in tropical reefs, some corals can survive higher stress (resistance) while others exhibit faster recovery (engineering resilience) following disturbances such as thermal stress. While each type will negatively affect the other through competition, each might also benefit the other by reducing the potential for an additional competitor such as macroalgae to invade after a disturbance. To determine how community composition affects ecological resilience, we modeled coral-macroalgae interactions given either a resistant coral, a resilient coral, or both together. Having both coral types (i.e., response diversity) can lead to observable enhanced ecological resilience if (1) the resilient coral is not a superior competitor and (2) disturbance levels are high enough such that the resilient coral would collapse when considered alone. This enhanced resilience occurs through competitor-enabled rescue where each coral increases the potential for the other to recover from disturbance through external recruitment, such that both corals benefit from the presence of each other in terms of total cover and resilience. Therefore, conservation management aimed at protecting resilience under global change requires consideration of both diversity and connectivity between sites experiencing differential disturbance.

  12. Midwives׳ experiences of workplace resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Billie; Warren, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    many UK midwives experience workplace adversity resulting from a national shortage of midwives, rise in birth rate and increased numbers of women entering pregnancy with complex care needs. Research evidence suggests that workplace pressures, and the emotional demands of the job, may increase midwives׳ experience of stress and contribute to low morale, sickness and attrition. Much less is known about midwives who demonstrate resilience in the face of adversity. Resilience has been investigated in studies of other health and social care workers, but there is a gap in knowledge regarding midwives׳ experiences. to explore clinical midwives׳ understanding and experience of professional resilience and to identify the personal, professional and contextual factors considered to contribute to or act as barriers to resilience. an exploratory qualitative descriptive study. In Stage One, a closed online professional discussion group was conducted over a one month period. Midwives discussed workplace adversity and their resilient responses to this. In Stage Two, the data were discussed with an Expert Panel with representatives from midwifery workforce and resilience research, in order to enhance data interpretation and refine the concept modelling. the online discussion group was hosted by the Royal College of Midwives, UK online professional networking hub: 'Communities'. 11 practising midwives with 15 or more years of 'hands on clinical experience', and who self-identified as being resilient, took part in the online discussion group. thematic analysis of the data identified four themes: challenges to resilience, managing and coping, self-awareness and building resilience. The participants identified 'critical moments' in their careers when midwives were especially vulnerable to workplace adversity. Resilience was seen as a learned process which was facilitated by a range of coping strategies, including accessing support and developing self-awareness and protection of self

  13. Literature Review of Concepts: Psychological Resiliency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wald, Jaye; Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J; Jang, Kerry L; Stapleton, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    ...; and resiliency measures, their development and validation. Existing definitions implicate resiliency with the ability to adapt and successfully cope with adversity, life stressors, and traumatic events...

  14. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  15. CpG island methylator phenotype-low (CIMP-low) colorectal cancer shows not only few methylated CIMP-high-specific CpG islands, but also low-level methylation at individual loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takako; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Suemoto, Yuko; Kirkner, Gregory J; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2008-03-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high) with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct phenotype in colorectal cancer. However, the concept of CIMP-low with less extensive CpG island methylation is still evolving. Our aim is to examine whether density of methylation in individual CpG islands was different between CIMP-low and CIMP-high tumors. Utilizing MethyLight technology and 889 population-based colorectal cancers, we quantified DNA methylation (methylation index, percentage of methylated reference) at 14 CpG islands, including 8 CIMP-high-specific loci (CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1). Methylation positivity in each locus was defined as methylation index>4. Low-level methylation (methylation index>0, CIMP-high-specific locus was significantly more common in 340 CIMP-low tumors (1/8-5/8 methylation-positive loci) than 133 CIMP-high tumors (> or =6/8 methylation-positive loci) and 416 CIMP-0 tumors (0/8 methylation-positive loci) (PCIMP-high, low-level methylation, was not persistently more prevalent in CIMP-low tumors. In conclusion, compared to CIMP-high and CIMP-0 tumors, CIMP-low colorectal cancers show not only few methylated CIMP-high-specific CpG islands, but also more frequent low-level methylation at individual loci. Our data may provide supporting evidence for a difference in pathogenesis of DNA methylation between CIMP-low and CIMP-high tumors.

  16. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M; Vallerga, M B [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M R [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    signs after 5 months. So much the micronucleus frequency like the comet essay showed compatible values with a normal radiosensitivity. In the case 2 it was observed a partial answer, with resistant pain to the analgesic ones and sharpen again crisis. In this case, both essays indicated hypersensitivity to the lR in the lymphocytes of the patient's outlying blood. It was concludes that the bio indicators of individual radiosensitivity can be of utility for the radioleisures prevention, by means of the personalized adaptation of therapeutic outlines that imply the use of IR. Also, in situations of accidental overexposure to IR, these indicators would have predict value, contributing to the design of therapeutic strategies. (Author)

  17. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B. [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M. [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M.R. [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mdigiorg@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    signs after 5 months. So much the micronucleus frequency like the comet essay showed compatible values with a normal radiosensitivity. In the case 2 it was observed a partial answer, with resistant pain to the analgesic ones and sharpen again crisis. In this case, both essays indicated hypersensitivity to the lR in the lymphocytes of the patient's outlying blood. It was concludes that the bio indicators of individual radiosensitivity can be of utility for the radioleisures prevention, by means of the personalized adaptation of therapeutic outlines that imply the use of IR. Also, in situations of accidental overexposure to IR, these indicators would have predict value, contributing to the design of therapeutic strategies. (Author)

  18. Social Resilience: Challenging Neo-Colonial Thinking and Practices around "Risk"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Fran; Bolzan, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Understandings of resilience which primarily focus on the individual are of limited applicability unless we recognise the historical, economic and political factors in which social life occurs. To explore the social foundations of resilience is to chart the ongoing influence of these factors. An appreciation of this context is pivotal to any…

  19. The Relationship between Resilience and the Big Five Personality Traits in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Hulya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The factors related with resilience, which is an important element of positive psychology, are still being discussed. The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the resilience levels of individuals in emerging adulthood and the big five personality traits. Research Methods: Using a quantitative approach, the…

  20. Short Research Report: Exploring Resilience Development in a Taiwanese Preschooler's Narrative--An Emerging Theoretical Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Ling Olivia

    2016-01-01

    It is important to foster resilience in early childhood as this quality is, according to this author, "an individual's progressing development to adjust to life difficulties." This narrative study provides a cultural perspective by investigating a Taiwanese context and shifts the attention to preschoolers' resilience development in both…

  1. Modeling Precipitation Dependent Forest Resilience in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P.; Behera, M. D.; Roy, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    The impact of long term climate change that imparts stress on forest could be perceived by studying the regime shift of forest ecosystem. With the change of significant precipitation, forest may go through density change around globe at different spatial and temporal scale. The 100 class high resolution (60 meter spatial resolution) Indian vegetation type map was used in this study recoded into four broad categories depending on phrenology as (i) forest, (ii) scrubland, (iii) grassland and (iv) treeless area. The percentage occupancy of forest, scrub, grass and treeless were observed as 19.9 %, 5.05 %, 1.89 % and 7.79 % respectively. Rest of the 65.37 % land area was occupied by the cropland, built-up, water body and snow covers. The majority forest cover were appended into a 5 km × 5 km grid, along with the mean annual precipitation taken from Bioclim data. The binary presence and absence of different vegetation categories in relates to the annual precipitation was analyzed to calculate their resilience expressed in probability values ranging from 0 to 1. Forest cover observed having resilience probability (Pr) < 0.3 in only 0.3 % (200 km2) of total forest cover in India, which was 4.3 % < 0.5 Pr. Majority of the scrubs and grass (64.92 % Pr < 0.5) from North East India which were the shifting cultivation lands showing low resilience, having their high tendency to be transform to forest. These results have spatial explicitness to highlight the resilient and non-resilient distribution of forest, scrub and grass, and treeless areas in India.

  2. MODELING PRECIPITATION DEPENDENT FOREST RESILIENCE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Das

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of long term climate change that imparts stress on forest could be perceived by studying the regime shift of forest ecosystem. With the change of significant precipitation, forest may go through density change around globe at different spatial and temporal scale. The 100 class high resolution (60 meter spatial resolution Indian vegetation type map was used in this study recoded into four broad categories depending on phrenology as (i forest, (ii scrubland, (iii grassland and (iv treeless area. The percentage occupancy of forest, scrub, grass and treeless were observed as 19.9 %, 5.05 %, 1.89 % and 7.79 % respectively. Rest of the 65.37 % land area was occupied by the cropland, built-up, water body and snow covers. The majority forest cover were appended into a 5 km × 5 km grid, along with the mean annual precipitation taken from Bioclim data. The binary presence and absence of different vegetation categories in relates to the annual precipitation was analyzed to calculate their resilience expressed in probability values ranging from 0 to 1. Forest cover observed having resilience probability (Pr < 0.3 in only 0.3 % (200 km2 of total forest cover in India, which was 4.3 % < 0.5 Pr. Majority of the scrubs and grass (64.92 % Pr < 0.5 from North East India which were the shifting cultivation lands showing low resilience, having their high tendency to be transform to forest. These results have spatial explicitness to highlight the resilient and non-resilient distribution of forest, scrub and grass, and treeless areas in India.

  3. The quest for resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Gary; Välikangas, Liisa

    2003-09-01

    In less turbulent times, executives had the luxury of assuming that business models were more or less immortal. Companies always had to work to get better, but they seldom had to get different--not at their core, not in their essence. Today, getting different is the imperative. It's the challenge facing Coca-Cola as it struggles to raise its "share of throat" in noncarbonated beverages. It's the task that bedevils McDonald's as it tries to restart its growth in a burger-weary world. It's the hurdle for Sun Microsystems as it searches for ways to protect its high-margin server business from the Linux onslaught. Continued success no longer hinges on momentum. Rather, it rides on resilience-on the ability to dynamically reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change. Strategic resilience is not about responding to a onetime crisis or rebounding from a setback. It's about continually anticipating and adjusting to deep, secular trends that can permanently impair the earning power of a core business. It's about having the capacity to change even before the case for change becomes obvious. To thrive in turbulent times, companies must become as efficient at renewal as they are at producing today's products and services. To achieve strategic resilience, companies will have to overcome the cognitive challenge of eliminating denial, nostalgia, and arrogance; the strategic challenge of learning how to create a wealth of small tactical experiments; the political challenge of reallocating financial and human resources to where they can earn the best returns; and the ideological challenge of learning that strategic renewal is as important as optimization.

  4. Resiliency and subjective health assessment. Moderating role of selected psychosocial variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Sołtys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Resiliency is defined as a relatively permanent personality trait, which may be assigned to the category of health resources. The aim of this study was to determine conditions in which resiliency poses a significant health resource (moderation, thereby broadening knowledge of the specifics of the relationship between resiliency and subjective health assessment. Participants and procedure The study included 142 individuals. In order to examine the level of resiliency, the Assessment Resiliency Scale (SPP-25 by N. Ogińska-Bulik and Z. Juczyński was used. Participants evaluated subjective health state by means of an analogue-visual scale. Additionally, in the research the following moderating variables were controlled: sex, objective health status, having a partner, professional activity and age. These data were obtained by personal survey. Results The results confirmed the relationship between resiliency and subjective health assessment. Multiple regression analysis revealed that sex, having a partner and professional activity are significant moderators of associations between level of resiliency and subjective health evaluation. However, statistically significant interaction effects for health status and age as a moderator were not observed. Conclusions Resiliency is associated with subjective health assessment among adults, and selected socio-demographic features (such as sex, having a partner, professional activity moderate this relationship. This confirms the significant role of resiliency as a health resource and a reason to emphasize the benefits of enhancing the potential of individuals for their psychophysical wellbeing. However, the research requires replication in a more homogeneous sample.

  5. Stiffness, resilience, compressibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Bogdan M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source (United States); Sage, J. Timothy, E-mail: jtsage@neu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The flexibility of a protein is an important component of its functionality. We use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to quantify the flexibility of the heme iron environment in the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c by measuring the stiffness and the resilience. These quantities are sensitive to structural differences between the active sites of different proteins, as illustrated by a comparative analysis with myoglobin. The elasticity of the entire protein, on the other hand, can be probed quantitatively from NRVS and high energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements, an approach that we used to extract the bulk modulus of cytochrome c.

  6. Leakage resilient password systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  7. RESILIENCE THEORY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CHINESE ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Zhang, Da-Jun; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, resilience theory has attracted great attention from both researchers and mental health practitioners. Resilience is defined as a process of overcoming the negative effects of risk exposure, coping successfully with traumatic experiences, or avoiding the negative trajectories associated with risks. Three basic models of resilience have been proposed to account for the mechanism whereby promotive factors operate to alter the trajectory from risk exposure to negative consequences: compensatory model, protective model, and inoculation model. Assets and resources are two types of promotive factors found to be effective in decreasing internalizing and externalizing problems. Considering the protective or compensatory role of assets and resources in helping youth be resilient against negative effects of adversity, resilience could be applied to Chinese migrant and left-behind children who are at risk for internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety) and externalizing problems (e.g., delinquent behaviors, cigarette and alcohol use). Additionally, psychological suzhi-based interventions, a mental health construct for individuals that focuses on a strengths-based approach, can be integrated with resilience-based approach to develop more balanced programs for positive youth development.

  8. Resilience among abused and neglected children grown up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, J M; Widom, C S

    2001-01-01

    Although an extensive literature has accumulated documenting the maladaptive outcomes associated with childhood victimization, a limited body of knowledge addresses resilience. This paper sought to operationalize the construct of resilience across a number of domains of functioning and time periods and to determine the extent to which abused and neglected children grown up demonstrate resilience. Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971 were matched on gender, age, race, and approximate family social class with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed prospectively into young adulthood. Between 1989 and 1995. 1,196 participants (676 abused and neglected and 520 controls) were administered a 2-hr in-person interview, including a psychiatric assessment. Resilience requires meeting the criteria for success across six of eight domains of functioning: employment, homelessness, education, social activity, psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, and two domains assessing criminal behavior (official arrest and self-reports of violence). Results indicate that 22% of abused and neglected individuals meet the criteria for resilience. More females met the criteria for resilience and females were successful across a greater number of domains than males. We speculate on the meaning of these findings and discuss implications for the child maltreatment field. Limitations of the study are also acknowledged.

  9. Resilient mounting systems in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, R.; Tukker, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The basic elements of resilient mounting systems are described and various measures for quantifying the effect of such systems defined. Using electrical analogue circuits, the calculation of these measures is illustrated. With special reference to resilient mounting systems in buildings, under

  10. Tiered Approach to Resilience Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura; Allen, Craig R; Arnott, James C; Bellini, Emanuele; Coaffee, Jon; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Hatfield, Kirk; Hyde, Iain; Hynes, William; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Kasperson, Roger; Katzenberger, John; Keys, Patrick W; Lambert, James H; Moss, Richard; Murdoch, Peter S; Palma-Oliveira, Jose; Pulwarty, Roger S; Sands, Dale; Thomas, Edward A; Tye, Mari R; Woods, David

    2018-04-25

    Regulatory agencies have long adopted a three-tier framework for risk assessment. We build on this structure to propose a tiered approach for resilience assessment that can be integrated into the existing regulatory processes. Comprehensive approaches to assessing resilience at appropriate and operational scales, reconciling analytical complexity as needed with stakeholder needs and resources available, and ultimately creating actionable recommendations to enhance resilience are still lacking. Our proposed framework consists of tiers by which analysts can select resilience assessment and decision support tools to inform associated management actions relative to the scope and urgency of the risk and the capacity of resource managers to improve system resilience. The resilience management framework proposed is not intended to supplant either risk management or the many existing efforts of resilience quantification method development, but instead provide a guide to selecting tools that are appropriate for the given analytic need. The goal of this tiered approach is to intentionally parallel the tiered approach used in regulatory contexts so that resilience assessment might be more easily and quickly integrated into existing structures and with existing policies. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Resilia cyber resilience best practices

    CERN Document Server

    , AXELOS

    2015-01-01

    RESILIA™ Cyber Resilience Best Practices offers a practical approach to cyber resilience, reflecting the need to detect and recover from incidents, and not rely on prevention alone. It uses the ITIL® framework, which provides a proven approach to the provision of services that align to business outcomes.

  12. The International Resilience Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    Resilience is defined as "the human capacity to face, overcome, and be strengthened by experiences of adversity." This study used an Eriksonian developmental model to examine parents', caregivers', and children's resilience-promotion in children up to 12 years of age. Age and gender differences and cultural/ethnic similarities and…

  13. Resilience in shock and swim stress models of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Charles Drugan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental models of depression often entail exposing a rodent to a stressor and subsequently characterizing changes in learning and anhedonia, which may reflect symptoms of human depression. Importantly, not all people and not all laboratory rats exposed to stressors develop depressed behavior; these resilient individuals are the focus of our review. Herein we describe research from the learned helplessness and intermittent swim stress models of depression in which rats that were allowed to cope with the stressor appear to be behaviorally and neurochemically similar to rats that were not allowed to cope yet appeared resilient in behavioral tests. For example, rats exposed to inescapable tailshock, but do not develop learned helplessness, exhibit altered sensitivity to the behavioral effects of GABAA receptor antagonists and reduced in vitro benzodiazepine receptor ligand binding. This pattern suggested that resilience might involve activation of an endogenous benzodiazepine-like compound, possibly an allostatic modulator of the GABAA receptor like allopregnanolone. From the intermittent swim stress model, we have observed in resilient rats protection from stressor-induced glucocorticoid increases and immune activation. In order to identify the neural mediators of these correlates of resilience, non-invasive measures are needed to predict the resilient or vulnerable phenotype prior to analysis of neural endpoints. To this end, we found that ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs appear to predict the resilient phenotype in the intermittent swim stress paradigm. We propose that combining non-invasive predictive measures, such as USVs with biological endpoint measures, will facilitate future research into the neural correlates of resilience.

  14. Is there room for resilience? A scoping review and critique of substance use literature and its utilization of the concept of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, Katherine; McDonough, Peggy; Gartner, Rosemary; Strike, Carol

    2017-09-15

    resilience among PWUD predominantly concentrate on health-related behaviours, recovery-related factors or predefined harm reduction strategies. Indeed, overall, current conceptualizations of resilience are too narrow to recognize all the potential manifestations of resilience practices in the daily lives of individuals who actively use drugs.

  15. Network Skewness Measures Resilience in Lake Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, P. G.; Wang, R.; Dearing, J.; Zhang, E.; Doncaster, P.; Yang, X.; Yang, H.; Dong, X.; Hu, Z.; Xu, M.; Yanjie, Z.; Shen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ecosystem resilience defy straightforward quantification from biodiversity metrics, which ignore influences of community structure. Naturally self-organized network structures show positive skewness in the distribution of node connections. Here we test for skewness reduction in lake diatom communities facing anthropogenic stressors, across a network of 273 lakes in China containing 452 diatom species. Species connections show positively skewed distributions in little-impacted lakes, switching to negative skewness in lakes associated with human settlement, surrounding land-use change, and higher phosphorus concentration. Dated sediment cores reveal a down-shifting of network skewness as human impacts intensify, and reversal with recovery from disturbance. The appearance and degree of negative skew presents a new diagnostic for quantifying system resilience and impacts from exogenous forcing on ecosystem communities.

  16. Tamper Resilient Cryptography Without Self-Destruct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay

    2013-01-01

    We initiate a general study of schemes resilient to both tampering an d leakage attacks. Tamper- ing attacks are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an advers ary can change the secret state and observes the effect of such changes at the output. Our cont ributions are outlined below: 1. We propose...... a general construction showing that any cryptographic primitive where the secret key can be chosen as a uniformly random string can be made s ecure against bounded tampering and leakage. This holds in a restricted model where the ta mpering functions must be chosen from a set of bounded size after...... arbitrarily tamper with the prover’s state a bounded number of times and/or obtain some bounded amount of leakage. Interestingly, for the Okamoto scheme we can allow also independent tampering with the public parameters. 3. We show a bounded tamper and leakage resilient CCA secure public key cryptosystem...

  17. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  18. Resilient modulus of black cotton soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Mamatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilient modulus (MR values of pavement layers are the basic input parameters for the design of pavements with multiple layers in the current mechanistic empirical pavement design guidelines. As the laboratory determination of resilient modulus is costly, time consuming and cumbersome, several empirical models are developed for the prediction of resilient modulus for different regions of the world based on the database of resilient modulus values of local soils. For use of these relationships there is a need to verify the suitability of these models for local conditions. Expansive clay called black cotton soil (BC soil is found in several parts of India and is characterized by low strength and high compressibility. This soil shows swell – shrink behaviour upon wetting and drying and are problematic. The BC soil shows collapse behaviour on soaking and therefore the strength of the soil needs to be improved. Additive stabilization is found to be very effective in stabilizing black cotton soils and generally lime is used to improve the strength and durability of the black cotton soil. In this paper, the results of repeated load tests on black cotton soil samples for the determination of MR under soaked and unsoaked conditions at a relative compaction levels of 100% and 95% of both standard and modified proctor conditions are reported. The results indicate that the black cotton soil fails to meet the density requirement of the subgrade soil and shows collapse behaviour under soaked condition. To overcome this, lime is added as an additive to improve the strength of black cotton soil and repeated load tests were performed as per AASHTO T 307 - 99 for MR determination. The results have shown that the samples are stable under modified proctor condition with MR values ranging from 36 MPa to 388 MPa for a lime content of 2.5% and curing period ranging from 7 to 28 days. Also, it is observed that, the CBR based resilient modulus is not in agreement

  19. Resilient leadership and the organizational culture of resilience: construct validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Smith, Kenneth J; Lobo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Political, economic, and social unrest and uncertainty seem replete throughout the world. Within the United States, political vitriol and economic volatility have led to severe economic restrictions. Both government and private sector organizations are being asked to do more with less. The specter of dramatic changes in healthcare creates a condition of uncertainty affecting budget allocations and hiring practices. If ever there was a time when a "resilient culture" was needed, it is now. In this paper we shall discuss the application of "tipping point" theory (Gladwell, 2000) operationalized through a special form of leadership: "resilient leadership" (Everly, Strouse, Everly, 2010). Resilient leadership is consistent with Gladwells "Law of the Few" and strives to create an organizational culture of resilience by implementing an initial change within no more than 20% of an organization's workforce. It is expected that such a minority, if chosen correctly, will "tip" the rest of the organization toward enhanced resilience, ideally creating a self-sustaining culture of resilience. This paper reports on the empirical foundations and construct validation of "resilient leadership".

  20. Resiliency scoring for business continuity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Anna; Anderson, Jamie

    Through this paper readers will learn of a scoring methodology, referred to as resiliency scoring, which enables the evaluation of business continuity plans based upon analysis of their alignment with a predefined set of criteria that can be customised and are adaptable to the needs of any organisation. This patent pending tool has been successful in driving engagement and is a powerful resource to improve reporting capabilities, identify risks and gauge organisational resilience. The role of business continuity professionals is to aid their organisations in planning and preparedness activities aimed at mitigating the impacts of potential disruptions and ensuring critical business functions can continue in the event of unforeseen circumstances. This may seem like a daunting task for what can typically be a small team of individuals. For this reason, it is important to be able to leverage industry standards, documented best practices and effective tools to streamline and support your continuity programme. The resiliency scoring methodology developed and implemented at Target has proven to be a valuable tool in taking the organisation's continuity programme to the next level. This paper will detail how the tool was developed and provide guidance on how it can be customised to fit your organisation's unique needs.

  1. Analyzing Resiliency of the Smart Grid Communication Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-08-01

    Smart grids are susceptible to cyber-attack as a result of new communication, control and computation techniques employed in the grid. In this paper, we characterize and analyze the resiliency of smart grid communication architecture, specifically an RF mesh based architecture, under cyber attacks. We analyze the resiliency of the communication architecture by studying the performance of high-level smart grid functions such as metering, and demand response which depend on communication. Disrupting the operation of these functions impacts the operational resiliency of the smart grid. Our analysis shows that it takes an attacker only a small fraction of meters to compromise the communication resiliency of the smart grid. We discuss the implications of our result to critical smart grid functions and to the overall security of the smart grid.

  2. Consumer Preferences Determine Resilience of Ecological-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Baumgärtner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We perform a model analysis to study the origins of limited resilience in coupled ecological-economic systems. We demonstrate that under open access to ecosystems for profit-maximizing harvesting forms, the resilience properties of the system are essentially determined by consumer preferences for ecosystem services. In particular, we show that complementarity and relative importance of ecosystem services in consumption may significantly decrease the resilience of (almost any given state of the system. We conclude that the role of consumer preferences and management institutions is not just to facilitate adaptation to, or transformation of, some natural dynamics of ecosystems. Rather, consumer preferences and management institutions are themselves important determinants of the fundamental dynamic characteristics of coupled ecological-economic systems, such as limited resilience.

  3. Identifying resilient and non-resilient middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non- resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient ...

  4. Minority faculty members' resilience and academic productivity: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora-Bramble, Denice; Zhang, Kehua; Castillo-Page, Laura

    2010-09-01

    To explore whether there is a relationship between resilience and academic productivity of minority faculty members in U.S. academic health centers. For the purposes of the study, the authors defined academic productivity as peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications, grants, and academic promotion. In 2007, the authors simultaneously collected quantitative and qualitative data by using a triangulation (mixed-method) design. Past participants in the Association of American Medical Colleges' Minority Faculty Career Development Seminar completed the Web-based 70-item Personal Resilience Questionnaire (PRQ). In addition, two focus groups were conducted with past seminar participants. Seventy-four minority faculty members completed the PRQ, and 15 participated in the two focus groups. The quantitative data showed a positive correlation between demographic, educational, and academic productivity variables and certain resilience subscale scores. Common themes that emerged from the qualitative data were categorized under four major domains: existing barriers to academic advancement, internal protective factors or cultural buffers, external institutional or environmental facilitators, and necessary attributes for ensuring academic productivity and advancement. Certain resilience subscales showed correlation with academic productivity of minority faculty members, and specific personal and/or cultural characteristics were identified as enablers. Minority faculty members may benefit from skill development and coaching that extends beyond the traditional scope of faculty development programs and that specifically targets modifiable resilience characteristics. Additional research is needed, but such nontraditional, resilience-centered intervention strategies may positively affect the advancement of minority faculty in academic medicine.

  5. Disease epidemics: Lessons for resilience in an increasingly connected world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; DeWitte, S.N.; Kurth, M.H.; Linkov, I.

    2016-01-01

    In public health, the term resilience often refers to the personality traits that individuals possess which help them endure and recover from stressors. However, resilience as a system characteristic, especially in regards to complex social-ecological systems, can be informative for public health at scales larger than the individual. Acute shocks to systems occur against a background of existing conditions, which are crucial determinants of the eventual public health outcomes of those shocks, and in the context of complex dependencies among and between ecological and societal elements. Many components of a system's baseline condition are chronic public health concerns themselves and diminish the capacity of the system to perform in the face of acute shocks. The emerging field of resilience management is concerned with holistically assessing and improving a system's ability to prepare for and absorb disruption, and then recover and adapt across physical, information, environmental and social domains. Integrating resilience considerations into current risk- and evidence-based approaches to disease control and prevention1 can move public health efforts toward more proactive and comprehensive solutions for protecting and improving the health of communities. Here, we look to the case of the Black Death as an illustrative case of a dramatic transformation in human history, an acute shock to a system that was underlain by chronic social maladies, to derive lessons about resilience management for public health in contemporary systems.

  6. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.

  7. An ant colony based resilience approach to cascading failures in cluster supply network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingcong; Xiao, Renbin

    2016-11-01

    Cluster supply chain network is a typical complex network and easily suffers cascading failures under disruption events, which is caused by the under-load of enterprises. Improving network resilience can increase the ability of recovery from cascading failures. Social resilience is found in ant colony and comes from ant's spatial fidelity zones (SFZ). Starting from the under-load failures, this paper proposes a resilience method to cascading failures in cluster supply chain network by leveraging on social resilience of ant colony. First, the mapping between ant colony SFZ and cluster supply chain network SFZ is presented. Second, a new cascading model for cluster supply chain network is constructed based on under-load failures. Then, the SFZ-based resilience method and index to cascading failures are developed according to ant colony's social resilience. Finally, a numerical simulation and a case study are used to verify the validity of the cascading model and the resilience method. Experimental results show that, the cluster supply chain network becomes resilient to cascading failures under the SFZ-based resilience method, and the cluster supply chain network resilience can be enhanced by improving the ability of enterprises to recover and adjust.

  8. Towards an Urban Resilience Index: A Case Study in 50 Spanish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Suárez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a major driver of land use change and global environmental decline. With accelerated urbanization worldwide, it is essential to put in place new policies to conserve urban ecosystems, species and the services these provide in order to secure more sustainable, resilient and livable cities for the 21st century. In urban planning, the concept of resilience has broadly replaced the word sustainability. In recent years, resilience indicators have been gradually developed, but few address urban resilience from a social-ecological systems perspective. We develop a methodological framework to measure urban resilience, define an urban resilience index and apply it to Spanish province capitals as a case study. Results show that most Spanish province capitals are far from being resilient. We conclude that increased efforts to measure urban resilience should be in place, and we offer the urban resilience index as a theoretical framework for measuring resilience in urban social-ecological systems that can be gradually improved as more data become available.

  9. Future perspectives and their relation to wellbeing and resilience in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Omar

    2015-01-01

    Previous research (Omar, 2005; Omar, Uribe Delgado & Maltaneres, 2005), had showed a clear relationship between subjective well-being and resilience. In those opportunities, however, resilience was considered as a global construct. This study aims at exploring the possible relationships among resilience components, subjective well-being, and future perspectives. Method: Sample integrated by 198 (105 girls & 93 boys) Argentinean high school students, 14- to 19-yr.-old. All sample parti...

  10. Information Risk Management and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Scott

    Are the levels of information risk management efforts within and between firms correlated with the resilience of the firms to information disruptions? This paper examines the question by considering the results of field studies of information risk management practices at organizations and in supply chains. The organizations investigated differ greatly in the degree of coupling from a general and information risk management standpoint, as well as in the levels of internal awareness and activity regarding information risk management. The comparison of the levels of information risk management in the firms and their actual or inferred resilience indicates that a formal information risk management approach is not necessary for resilience in certain sectors.

  11. Moderating Effects of Resilience on Depression, Psychological Distress, and Suicidal Ideation Associated With Interpersonal Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Nam, Boyoung; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Shah, Roma; Von Mach, Tara; Bright, Charlotte L; DeVylder, Jordan

    2017-12-01

    Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i.e., IPV and nonpartner sexual violence) and mental health symptomology (i.e., depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) is moderated by resilience using a general population sample of women ( N = 932). A cross-sectional, observational survey was administered in four U.S. cities (Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.). Bivariate results indicated that women exposed to interpersonal violence reported significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and psychological distress compared with women without exposure to interpersonal violence. Regression models revealed significant positive associations between interpersonal violence and depression, distress, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographics. Resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between interpersonal violence victimization and any associated mental health outcomes. However, subgroup analyses reveal significant interaction effects between resilience and IPV within specific racial and ethnic minority subgroups, suggesting that attenuating effects of resilience on mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and psychological distress) associated with IPV likely vary across race and ethnicity. Implications for future research and clinical interventions focused on resilience among survivors of interpersonal violence are discussed.

  12. Resilience dimensions and mental health outcomes in bipolar disorder in a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echezarraga, A; Calvete, E; González-Pinto, A M; Las Hayas, C

    2018-02-01

    The individual process of resilience has been related to positive outcomes in mental disorders. We aimed (a) to identify the resilience domains from the Resilience Questionnaire for Bipolar Disorder that are associated cross sectionally and longitudinally with mental health outcomes in bipolar disorder (BD) and (b) to explore cross-lagged associations among resilience factors. A clinical adult sample of 125 patients diagnosed with BD (62.10% female, mean age = 46.13, SD = 10.89) gave their informed consent and completed a battery of disease-specific tools on resilience, personal recovery, symptomatology, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life, at baseline and at follow-up (n = 63, 58.10% female, mean age = 45.13, SD = 11.06, participation rate = 50.40%). Resilience domains of self-management of BD, turning point, self-care, and self-confidence were significantly associated with mental health indicators at baseline. In addition, self-confidence at baseline directly predicted an increase in personal recovery at follow-up, and self-confidence improvement mediated the relationship between interpersonal support and self-care at baseline and personal recovery at follow-up. These findings highlight that resilience domains are significantly associated with positive mental health outcomes in BD and that some predict personal recovery at follow-up. Moreover, some resilience factors improve other resilience factors over time. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Exploring Environmental Factors in Nursing Workplaces That Promote Psychological Resilience: Constructing a Unified Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin

    2016-01-01

    Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.

  14. System resiliency quantification using non-state-space and state-space analytic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Rahul; Kim, DongSeong; Trivedi, Kishor S.

    2013-01-01

    Resiliency is becoming an important service attribute for large scale distributed systems and networks. Key problems in resiliency quantification are lack of consensus on the definition of resiliency and systematic approach to quantify system resiliency. In general, resiliency is defined as the ability of (system/person/organization) to recover/defy/resist from any shock, insult, or disturbance [1]. Many researchers interpret resiliency as a synonym for fault-tolerance and reliability/availability. However, effect of failure/repair on systems is already covered by reliability/availability measures and that of on individual jobs is well covered under the umbrella of performability [2] and task completion time analysis [3]. We use Laprie [4] and Simoncini [5]'s definition in which resiliency is the persistence of service delivery that can justifiably be trusted, when facing changes. The changes we are referring to here are beyond the envelope of system configurations already considered during system design, that is, beyond fault tolerance. In this paper, we outline a general approach for system resiliency quantification. Using examples of non-state-space and state-space stochastic models, we analytically–numerically quantify the resiliency of system performance, reliability, availability and performability measures w.r.t. structural and parametric changes

  15. Resilience to emotional distress in response to failure, error or mistakes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Judith; Panagioti, Maria; Bass, Jennifer; Ramsey, Lauren; Harrison, Reema

    2017-03-01

    Perceptions of failure have been implicated in a range of psychological disorders, and even a single experience of failure can heighten anxiety and depression. However, not all individuals experience significant emotional distress following failure, indicating the presence of resilience. The current systematic review synthesised studies investigating resilience factors to emotional distress resulting from the experience of failure. For the definition of resilience we used the Bi-Dimensional Framework for resilience research (BDF) which suggests that resilience factors are those which buffer the impact of risk factors, and outlines criteria a variable should meet in order to be considered as conferring resilience. Studies were identified through electronic searches of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge. Forty-six relevant studies reported in 38 papers met the inclusion criteria. These provided evidence of the presence of factors which confer resilience to emotional distress in response to failure. The strongest support was found for the factors of higher self-esteem, more positive attributional style, and lower socially-prescribed perfectionism. Weaker evidence was found for the factors of lower trait reappraisal, lower self-oriented perfectionism and higher emotional intelligence. The majority of studies used experimental or longitudinal designs. These results identify specific factors which should be targeted by resilience-building interventions. Resilience; failure; stress; self-esteem; attributional style; perfectionism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors of Resilience in Emergency Department Nurses Who Have Experienced Workplace Violence in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsiu-Fen; Hung, Yu-Tung; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Ma, Shu-Ching; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among personality traits, social network integration (SNI), and resilience in emergency department (ED) nurses who had suffered from physical or verbal violence by patients or their families. A cross-sectional study with convenience sampling was conducted for exploring the related factors of resilience on abused nurses. A total of 187 participants met our inclusion criteria and completed all questionnaires. Higher degrees of extraversion and peer support were associated with greater resilience among all abused nurses, whereas neuroticism was inversely associated with their resilience. Among all forms of SNI, only peer support was shown to enhance an individual's resilience. In addition, personality traits were associated with resilience, and religions did not play an important role in enhancing resilience among our participants. Through a clearer understanding of the role of peer support in resilience among ED nurses, healthcare managers should provide and enhance their peer support to intensify their resilience for prevention of consequences of workplace violence. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Resilient health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.

    Health care is everywhere under tremendous pressure with regard to efficiency, safety, and economic viability - to say nothing of having to meet various political agendas - and has responded by eagerly adopting techniques that have been useful in other industries, such as quality management, lean...... production, and high reliability. This has on the whole been met with limited success because health care as a non-trivial and multifaceted system differs significantly from most traditional industries. In order to allow health care systems to perform as expected and required, it is necessary to have...... engineering's unique approach emphasises the usefulness of performance variability, and that successes and failures have the same aetiology. This book contains contributions from acknowledged international experts in health care, organisational studies and patient safety, as well as resilience engineering...

  18. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  19. Remarkable resilience of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-05-05

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel-dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by "stress shielding" from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet.

  20. The relationship between resilience and personality traits in doctors: implications for enhancing well being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diann S. Eley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The health and well being of medical doctors is vital to their longevity and safe practice. The concept of resilience is recognised as a key component of well being and is an important factor in medical training to help doctors learn to cope with challenge, stress, and adversity. This study examined the relationship of resilience to personality traits and resilience in doctors in order to identify the key traits that promote or impair resilience.Methods. A cross sectional cohort of 479 family practitioners in practice across Australia was studied. The Temperament and Character Inventory measured levels of the seven basic dimensions of personality and the Resilience Scale provided an overall measure of resilience. The associations between resilience and personality were examined by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, controlling for age and gender (α = 0.05 with an accompanying 95% confidence level and multiple regression analyses.Results. Strong to medium positive correlations were found between Resilience and Self-directedness (r = .614, p < .01, Persistence (r = .498, p < .01, and Cooperativeness (r = .363, p < .01 and negative with Harm Avoidance (r = .−555, p < .01. Individual differences in personality explained 39% of the variance in resilience [F(7, 460 = 38.40, p < .001]. The three traits which contributed significantly to this variance were Self-directedness (β = .33, p < .001, Persistence (β = .22, p < .001 and Harm Avoidance (β = .19, p < .001.Conclusion. Resilience was associated with a personality trait pattern that is mature, responsible, optimistic, persevering, and cooperative. Findings support the inclusion of resilience as a component of optimal functioning and well being in doctors. Strategies for enhancing resilience should consider the key traits that drive or impair it.

  1. Perceived social support buffers the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior: implications into suicide resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, M; Gooding, P A; Taylor, P J; Tarrier, N

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of identifying resilience factors against suicidal behavior. However, no previous study has investigated potential resilience factors among individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived social support buffered the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. Fifty-six individuals who had previously been exposed to a traumatic event and reported PTSD symptoms in the past month (n = 34, 60.7% participants met the full criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis) completed a range of self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms, perceived social support and suicidal behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine whether perceived social support moderates the effects of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. The results showed that perceived social support moderated the impact of the number and severity of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. For those who perceived themselves as having high levels of social support, an increased number and severity of PTSD symptoms were less likely to lead to suicidal behavior. The current findings suggest that perceived social support might confer resilience to individuals with PTSD and counter the development of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The milieu of social support potentially provides an area of further research and an important aspect to incorporate into clinical interventions for suicidal behavior in PTSD or trauma populations. © 2013.

  2. Resilience in work-related stress among female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Winnie Wing-Yan; Wong, William Chi-Wai; Holroyd, Eleanor; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2014-09-01

    The literature on positive psychology and resilience demonstrates that individuals utilize their personal strengths and environmental resources to facilitate positive adaptation. Using a qualitative approach, we investigated how these frameworks operated as self-protective strategies for female sex workers to maintain their psychological and physical well-being under stressful socioeconomic and work-related conditions. Twenty-three female sex workers in Hong Kong participated in in-depth interviews. We used the grounded theory approach for data analysis. The informants reported negative feelings in response to financial burden, clients' demands, threats to physical health, and stigma. Some female sex workers showed their resilience by being able to rationalize their role, believe their ability to make a change in life, and stay optimistic. They adopted strategies including emotional regulation and acceptance of their responsibility and limits to cope with stressful life events. The results help us understand the role of positive psychology and resilience in this vulnerable population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. The Role of Intrinsic Brain Functional Connectivity in Vulnerability and Resilience to Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; Bassett, Danielle S; Yao, Nailin; Glahn, David C; Frangou, Sophia

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heritable disorder characterized by mood dysregulation associated with brain functional dysconnectivity. Previous research has focused on the detection of risk- and disease-associated dysconnectivity in individuals with bipolar disorder and their first-degree relatives. The present study seeks to identify adaptive brain connectivity features associated with resilience, defined here as avoidance of illness or delayed illness onset in unaffected siblings of patients with bipolar disorder. Graph theoretical methods were used to examine global and regional brain network topology in head-motion-corrected resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 78 patients with bipolar disorder, 64 unaffected siblings, and 41 healthy volunteers. Global network properties were preserved in patients and their siblings while both groups showed reductions in the cohesiveness of the sensorimotor network. In the patient group, these sensorimotor network abnormalities were coupled with reduced integration of core default mode network regions in the ventromedial cortex and hippocampus. Conversely, integration of the default mode network was increased in the sibling group compared with both the patient group and the healthy volunteer group. The authors found that trait-related vulnerability to bipolar disorder was associated with reduced resting-state cohesiveness of the sensorimotor network in patients with bipolar disorder. However, integration of the default mode network emerged as a key feature differentiating disease expression and resilience between the patients and their siblings. This is indicative of the presence of neural mechanisms that may promote resilience, or at least delay illness onset.

  4. The Essential Resilience Scale: Instrument Development and Prediction of Perceived Health and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Wang, Yan; Yan, Yaqiong

    2016-12-01

    Further advancement in stress and health research calls for better tools to assess resilience. In this study, we developed the Essential Resilience Scale (ERS) and investigated the association between ERS scores and several health and behaviour measures. We developed the ERS with an operationalized definition of resilience-an individual's capability to anticipate, be flexible with and bounce back from three types of traumatic and adverse events (physical, emotional and social). The 15-item ERS was assessed using survey data from a diverse sample (n = 238, aged 18-45 years, 76 rural-to-urban migrants, 85 rural residents, 77 urban residents) recruited in Wuhan, China. Results showed a high reliability of the ERS (α = 0.94). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a satisfactory fit of the proposed second-order ERS measurement model (goodness-of-fit index = 0.94, comparative fit index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.06, chi-square/df = 1.75). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that ERS scores significantly predicted perceived health status, stress, anxiety, depression and cigarette smoking after controlling for important covariates. Findings of this study indicate high reliability and validity of the scale and its potential use in advancing stress and health research. Further studies are implied to provide additional support for the ERS and its relations with other health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. PeerShield: determining control and resilience criticality of collaborative cyber assets in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Hasan

    2012-06-01

    As attackers get more coordinated and advanced in cyber attacks, cyber assets are required to have much more resilience, control effectiveness, and collaboration in networks. Such a requirement makes it essential to take a comprehensive and objective approach for measuring the individual and relative performances of cyber security assets in network nodes. To this end, this paper presents four techniques as to how the relative importance of cyber assets can be measured more comprehensively and objectively by considering together the main variables of risk assessment (e.g., threats, vulnerabilities), multiple attributes (e.g., resilience, control, and influence), network connectivity and controllability among collaborative cyber assets in networks. In the first technique, a Bayesian network is used to include the random variables for control, recovery, and resilience attributes of nodes, in addition to the random variables of threats, vulnerabilities, and risk. The second technique shows how graph matching and coloring can be utilized to form collaborative pairs of nodes to shield together against threats and vulnerabilities. The third technique ranks the security assets of nodes by incorporating multiple weights and thresholds of attributes into a decision-making algorithm. In the fourth technique, the hierarchically well-separated tree is enhanced to first identify critical nodes of a network with respect to their attributes and network connectivity, and then selecting some nodes as driver nodes for network controllability.

  6. Resilience from the point of view of older people: 'There's still life beyond a funny knee'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Janine L; Wild, Kirsty; Kerse, Ngaire; Allen, Ruth E S

    2012-02-01

    Resilience is a concept of growing interest in relation to older people and within the context of population ageing. In this paper we explore older people's understandings and experiences of resilience, drawing on interviews and participant-led focus groups with 121 older people living in two case-study communities in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Close reading of extended conversations about what characterises resilience, such as positive attitude, counting blessings or keeping busy, reveal how all of these apparently internal or personal characteristics are deeply embedded in social and physical contexts. We argue that resilience should be seen as a contextualised process which can be both individual and environmental. Older people's experiences highlight the need to consider the effectiveness of environmental community resources and social-political structures such as state-funded service availability, as well as the personal characteristics that are usually focused on when considering resilience in old age. We also argue that it is important to consider different aspects of resilience, so that a person or group might face constraints in one area, such as physical or economic wellbeing, but be strong in other areas such as social relationships or mobility. Resilience can mean acknowledging and incorporating 'vulnerability' and balancing wellbeing across a range of areas. Thus even those living with significant illness or hardship can be understood to be ageing well and indeed to be resilient. Far from using resilience as a narrow measure against which to succeed or fail, resilience is a useful concept framing how ageing well can incorporate multidimensional pathways including both vulnerability and flourishing. We must pay adequate attention to the broader physical and social contexts and scales that underpin--or undermine--individual resilience. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Student Resiliency: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Counseling Group Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Cyril E.

    2015-01-01

    Student resiliency, or the internal resources that an individual possesses that enables success despite adversity, is a variable of interest, particularly for students who are at-risk for negative outcomes in school. This study examined the group counseling efforts of an alternative high school, looking at how group composition influenced the…

  8. How school ecologies facilitate resilience among adolescents with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annemie

    teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID). .... vidual's well-being, it is the individual's responsi- bility to steer towards, and make good use of these .... Formal ID diagnosis; Financial disadvantage (Mother unemployed with ID);.

  9. Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies (PRISE)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rlarbey

    PRISE Goal. This research will support the emergence of equitable, climate resilient economic development in semi-arid lands through research excellence and ... change in semi-arid areas, and how is the private sector adapting? 4. How do ... Role. Individual. Contact email. Lead Principal Investigator. Dr Tom Mitchell.

  10. Resilience of food companies to calamities - perceptions in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Burger, C.P.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Calamities such as extreme droughts and trade or infrastructure breakdowns potentially hamper the continuity of individual food companies, as well as the continuity of food supply in Europe at large. There is a lack of insight into food companies’ resilience in case of cumulative calamities or

  11. Factors Influencing Resilience of Burn Patients in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Heui; Park, Jongui; Chong, Mi Kyong; Sok, Sohyune R

    2017-09-01

    To examine and identify the factors influencing the degree of resilience among Korean burn patients. A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed. The study sample consisted of 138 burn patients recovering from the acute phase in H hospital, Seoul. The male patient participants numbered 93 (67.4%) and the female participants numbered 45 (32.6%). The average age of the participants was 46.79 years. Measures used were the Beck Depression Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, self-esteem scale, family support scale, and resilience scale. The analyses showed that the prediction model for resilience among burn patients was significant (F = 33.94, p resilience among burn patients was self-esteem (β = .35), followed by family support (β = .29). This study provides preliminary evidence that self-esteem is a major and primary predictor of resilience among burn patients, next followed by family support. In the nursing practice, nurses need to pay attention to the burn patient's self-esteem and family support. Concrete interventions and strategies to improve the resilience of burn patients are needed. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Coastal wetlands, sea level, and the dimensions of geomorphic resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2018-03-01

    Geomorphic system resilience is often perceived as an intrinsic property of system structure and interactions but is also related to idiosyncratic place and history factors. The importance of geographical and historical circumstances makes it difficult to generate categorical statements about geomorphic resilience. However, network-based analyses of system structure can be used to determine the dynamical stability (= resilience) based on generally applicable relationships and to determine scenarios of stability or instability. These provide guidelines for assessing place and history factors to assess resilience. A model of coastal wetlands is analyzed, based on interactions among relative sea level, wetland surface elevation, hydroperiod, vegetation, and sedimentation. The system is generally (but not always) dynamically unstable and non-resilient. Because of gradients of environmental factors and patchy distributions of microtopography and vegetation, a coastal wetland landscape may have extensive local variations in stability/resilience and in the key relationships that trigger instabilities. This is illustrated by a case study where dynamically unstable fragmentation is found in two nearby coastal wetlands in North Carolina's Neuse River estuary-Otter Creek Mouth and Anderson Creek. Neither is keeping pace with relative sea level rise, and both show unstable state transitions within the wetland system; but locally stable relationships exist within the wetland systems.

  13. [Profiles of resilience and quality of life in people with acquired disability due to traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriá Martínez, Raquel

    2015-09-01

    To identify distinct profiles of resilience in people with spinal cord injuries due to traffic accidents and to determine whether the profiles identified are related to differences in subjective well-being. The Resilience Scale (Wagnild and Young, 1993) and an adapted quality of life scale (GENCAT) were administered to 98 people with physical disabilities due to traffic accidents. Cluster analyses identified three different resilience profiles: a high-resilience group, a low-resilience group, and a group showing a predominance of high scores in self and life acceptance and social competence. The results also revealed statistically significant differences among profiles in most domains of subjective well-being. The results suggest the need to study resilience in greater depth and to design programs to enhance quality of life among people with disabilities due to traffic accidents. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. H.264/AVC error resilience tools suitable for 3G mobile video services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lin; YE Xiu-zi; ZHANG San-yuan; ZHANG Yin

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of third generation mobile system (3G) makes video transmission in wireless environment possible,and the latest 3GPP/3GPP2 standards require 3G terminals support H.264/AVC. Due to high packet loss rate in wireless environment, error resilience for 3G terminals is necessary. Moreover, because of the hardware restrictions, 3G mobile terminals support only part of H.264/AVC error resilience tool. This paper analyzes various error resilience tools and their functions, and presents 2 error resilience strategies for 3G mobile streaming video services and mobile conversational services. Performances of the proposed error resilience strategies were tested using off-line common test conditions. Experiments showed that the proposed error resilience strategies can yield reasonably satisfactory results.

  15. Sustainable and Resilient Garment Supply Chain Network Design with Fuzzy Multi-Objectives under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Irshad Mari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners are taking more interest in developing sustainable garment supply chains in recent times. On the other hand, the supply chain manager drops sustainability objectives while coping with unexpected natural and man-made disruption risks. Hence, supply chain managers are now trying to develop sustainable supply chains that are simultaneously resilient enough to cope with disruption risks. Owing to the importance of the considered issue, this study proposed a network optimization model for a sustainable and resilient supply chain network by considering sustainability via embodied carbon footprints and carbon emissions and resilience by considering resilience index. In this paper, initially, a possibilistic fuzzy multi-objective sustainable and resilient supply chain network model is developed for the garment industry considering economic, sustainable, and resilience objectives. Secondly, a possibilistic fuzzy linguistic weight-based interactive solution method is proposed. Finally, a numerical case example is presented to show the applicability of the proposed model and solution methodology.

  16. Resilience among caregivers of children with chronic conditions: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Yi; Rong, Jiin-Ru; Lee, Tzu-Ying

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this concept analysis is to uncover the essential elements involved in caregivers' resilience in the context of caring for children with chronic conditions. Walker and Avant's methodology guided the analysis. The study includes a literature review of conceptual definitions of caregiver resilience in caring for children with chronic conditions. The defining attributes and correlates of caregiver resilience are reviewed. Concept analysis findings in a review of the nursing and health-related literature show that caregiver resilience in the context of caring for chronically ill children can be defined within four main dimensions, ie, disposition patterns, situational patterns, relational patterns, and cultural patterns. Empiric measurements of the impact of caregiver resilience applied to caregivers with children with chronic conditions are also reported in the analysis. The findings of this concept analysis could help nurses and health care providers to apply the concept of caregiver resilience in allied health care and be applied to further studies.

  17. Diversity, Adaptability and Ecosystem Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keribin, Rozenn; Friend, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Our ability to predict climate change and anticipate its impacts depends on Earth System Models (ESMs) and their ability to account for the high number of interacting components of the Earth System and to gauge both their influence on the climate and the feedbacks they induce. The land carbon cycle is a component of ESMs that is still poorly constrained. Since the 1990s dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have become the main tool through which we understand the interactions between plant ecosystems and the climate. While DGVMs have made it clear the impacts of climate change on vegetation could be dramatic, predicting the dieback of rainforests and massive carbon losses from various ecosystems, they are highly variable both in their composition and their predictions. Their treatment of plant diversity and competition in particular vary widely and are based on highly-simplified relationships that do not account for the multiple levels of diversity and adaptability found in real plant ecosystems. The aim of this GREENCYCLES II project is to extend an individual-based DGVM to treat the diversity of physiologies found in plant communities and evaluate their effect if any on the ecosystem's transient dynamics and resilience. In the context of the InterSectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), an initiative coordinated by a team at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) that aims to provide fast-track global impact assessments for the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, we compare 6 vegetation models including 4 DGVMs under different climate change scenarios and analyse how the very different treatments of plant diversity and interactions from one model to the next affect the models' results. We then investigate a new, more mechanistic method of incorporating plant diversity into the DGVM "Hybrid" based on ecological tradeoffs mediated by plant traits and individual-based competition for light.

  18. Sociotechnical Resilience: A Preliminary Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Sulfikar; Kant, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance. We propose that the triad of relations, structures, and practices are fundamental aspects required to comprehend the resilience of sociotechnical systems during times of crisis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Exploring resilience in rural GP registrars--implications for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Lucie; Laurence, Caroline O; Dollard, Joanne; Elliott, Taryn; Eley, Diann S

    2015-07-02

    Resilience can be defined as the ability to rebound from adversity and overcome difficult circumstances. General Practice (GP) registrars face many challenges in transitioning into general practice, and additional stressors and pressures apply for those choosing a career in rural practice. At this time of international rural generalist medical workforce shortages, it is important to focus on the needs of rural GP registrars and how to support them to become resilient health care providers. This study sought to explore GP registrars' perceptions of their resilience and strategies they used to maintain resilience in rural general practice. In this qualitative interpretive research, semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive approach. Initial coding resulted in a coding framework which was refined using constant comparison and negative case analysis. Authors developed consensus around the final conceptual model. Eighteen GP registrars from: Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine Independent Pathway, and three GP regional training programs with rural training posts. Six main themes emerged from the data. Firstly, rural GP registrars described four dichotomous tensions they faced: clinical caution versus clinical courage; flexibility versus persistence; reflective practice versus task-focused practice; and personal connections versus professional commitment. Further themes included: personal skills for balance which facilitated resilience including optimistic attitude, self-reflection and metacognition; and finally GP registrars recognised the role of their supervisors in supporting and stretching them to enhance their clinical resilience. Resilience is maintained as on a wobble board by balancing professional tensions within acceptable limits. These limits are unique to each individual, and may be expanded through personal growth and professional development as part of rural general practice training.

  20. Resilience: a transversal occupational skill for current organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Piñeros-Botero

    2013-12-01

    some studies related to deal the resilience from the transverse occupational skills and the MCclelland approach TO KNOW TO BE AND TO KNOW TO DO, as a structural base for behavior and performance of people. Finally we propose an organizational resilience model that presents its functionality and categorization of profiles in occupational and individual skills that allow encouraging cultural and organizational behavior by means of optimization strategies to current organizations. The term organizations, is going to be used to talk about an industry or enterprise of any kind or financial sector.

  1. Constructing Resilience: The Wellington Studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Allan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a design studio on climate change at Victoria University of Wellington (VUW, New Zealand, in 2007. It discusses the processes and outcomes of the studio and the subsequent testing of student work against a resilience model developed by Canadian ecologist CS Holling (1973, 1998; Walker et al, 2004 to create a framework for the design of resilient cities.

  2. Resilient retfærdighed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stefan Gaarsmand

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the idea of resilience as a point of departure for analysing some contemporary challenges to the climate justice movement posed by social-ecological sciences. Climate justice activists are increasingly rallying for a system-change, demanding fundamental changes to political bure...... is that the scientific framework behind resilience is not politically neutral and that this framework tends to weaken the activist’s demands for a just transition and place more emphasis on technical and bureaucratic processes....

  3. Resilience among old Sami women

    OpenAIRE

    Aléx, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Artikkel som utforsker hvordan eldre kvinner forteller om sine erfaringer med helse og mangel på helse. There is lack of research on old indigenous women’s experiences. The aim of this study was to explore how old women narrate their experiences of wellbeing and lack of wellbeing using the salutogenetic concept of resilience. Interviews from nine old Sami women were analysed according to grounded theory with the following themes identified: contributing to resilience and wellbeing built up...

  4. Resiliencia Psicológica y Dolor Crónico (Psychological resilience and chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Eva López Martínez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of resilience continues to command wide-ranging interest, despite its long history. However, there is no universally accepted definition of resilience, despite its undoubted importance in the field of health. In this context, attention is being paid to the role played by resilience in the adaptation to physical diseases, including chronic pain. The few studies on this topic show resilience as a relevant variable in adjustment to chronic pain. Nevertheless, definitive conclusions cannot be formed due to differences in the conceptualization and measurement of this variable across different studies. Thus, further research in this area is needed.

  5. Individual differences in learning predict the return of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Hartley, Catherine A

    2015-09-01

    Using a laboratory analogue of learned fear (Pavlovian fear conditioning), we show that there is substantial heterogeneity across individuals in spontaneous recovery of fear following extinction training. We propose that this heterogeneity might stem from qualitative individual differences in the nature of extinction learning. Whereas some individuals tend to form a new memory during extinction, leaving their fear memory intact, others update the original threat association with new safety information, effectively unlearning the fear memory. We formalize this account in a computational model of fear learning and show that individuals who, according to the model, are more likely to form new extinction memories tend to show greater spontaneous recovery compared to individuals who appear to only update a single memory. This qualitative variation in fear and extinction learning may have important implications for understanding vulnerability and resilience to fear-related psychiatric disorders.

  6. Multiple Minority Stress and LGBT Community Resilience among Sexual Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Janulis, Patrick; Phillips, Gregory; Truong, Roky; Birkett, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Minority stress theory has widespread research support in explaining health disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities. However, less is known about how minority stress impacts multiply marginalized groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people of color (LGBT POC). Also, although research has documented resilience in the face of minority stress at the individual level, research is needed that examines macro-level processes such as community resilience (Meyer, 2015). In the current study, we integrate minority stress theory and intersectionality theory to examine multiple minority stress (i.e., racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and LGBT stigma in one's neighborhood) and community resilience (i.e., connection to LGBT community) among sexual minority men of different racial/ethnic groups who use a geosocial networking application for meeting sexual partners. Results showed that Black sexual minority men reported the highest levels of racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and White sexual minority men reported the lowest levels, with Asian and Hispanic/Latino men falling in between. Consistent with minority stress theory, racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and LGBT stigma in one's neighborhood were associated with greater stress for sexual minority men of all racial/ethnic groups. However, connection to LGBT community played more central role in mediating the relationship between stigma and stress for White than POC sexual minority men. Results suggest that minority stress and community resilience processes may differ for White and POC sexual minority men. Potential processes driving these differences and implications for minority stress theory are discussed.

  7. Resilience | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widely accepted (Gunderson 2000, cited under Original Definition). Currently, the concept is commonplace in academics, management, and policy. Although the idea has quantitative roots in the ecological sciences and was proposed as a measurable quality of ecosystems, the broad use of resilience led to an expansion of definitions and applications. Holling’s original definition, presented in 1973 (Holling 1973, cited under Original Definition), was simply the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain. Ecological resilience, therefore, emphasizes that the dynamics of complex systems are nonlinear, meaning that these systems can transition, often abruptly, between dynamic states with substantially different structures, functions, and processes. The transition of ecological systems from one state to another frequently has important repercussions for humans. Recent definitions are more normative and qualitative, especially in the social sciences, and a competing definition, that of engineering resilience, is still often used. Resilience is an emergent phenomenon of complex systems, which means it cannot be deduced from the behavior of t

  8. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta L Timpane-Padgham

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9, population- (6, community- (7, ecosystem- (7, or process-level attributes (16. Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1 including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2 considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3 certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to

  9. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpane-Padgham, Britta L; Beechie, Tim; Klinger, Terrie

    2017-01-01

    Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9), population- (6), community- (7), ecosystem- (7), or process-level attributes (16). Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1) including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2) considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3) certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to confer

  10. Resilience among asylum seekers living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orton Lois

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small body of evidence demonstrates the challenges faced by migrant communities living with HIV but has yet to consider in-depth the experience of asylum seekers whose residency status is undetermined. The overall aim of our study was to explore the experiences of those who are both living with HIV and seeking asylum. This paper focuses on the stressors precipitated by the HIV diagnosis and by going through the asylum system; as well as participants’ resilience in responding to these stressors and the consequences for their health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted an ethnographic study. Fieldwork took place in the UK between 2008–2009 and included: 350 hours of observation at voluntary services providing support to black and minority ethnic groups living with HIV; 29 interviews and four focus group discussions with those who were seeking asylum and living with HIV; and 15 interviews with their health and social care providers. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Results There were three main stressors that threatened participants’ resilience. First, migration caused them to leave behind many resources (including social support. Second, stigmatising attitudes led their HIV diagnosis to be a taboo subject furthering their isolation. Third, they found themselves trapped in the asylum system, unable to influence the outcome of their case and reliant on HIV treatment to stay alive. Participants were, however, very resourceful in dealing with these experiences. Resilience processes included: staying busy, drawing on personal faith, and the support received through HIV care providers and voluntary organisations. Even so, their isolated existence meant participants had limited access to social resources, and their treatment in the asylum system had a profound impact on perceived health and wellbeing. Conclusions Asylum seekers living with HIV in the UK show immense resilience. However, their isolation

  11. Increasing Resiliency Through Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [unaffiliated

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology to quantify the economic and resiliency benefit provided by renewable energy (RE) in a hybrid RE-storage-diesel microgrid. We present a case study to show how this methodology is applied to a multi-use/ multi-function telecommunications facility in southern California. In the case study, we first identify photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) technologies that minimize the lifecycle cost of energy at the site under normal, grid-connected operation. We then evaluate how those technologies could be incorporated alongside existing diesel generators in a microgrid to increase resiliency at the site, where resiliency is quantified in terms of the amount of time that the microgrid can sustain the critical load during a grid outage. We find that adding PV and BESS to the existing backup diesel generators with a fixed fuel supply extends the amount of time the site could survive an outage by 1.8 days, from 1.7 days for the existing diesel-only backup system to 3.5 days for the PV/diesel/BESS hybrid system. Furthermore, even after diesel fuel supplies are exhausted, the site can continue to operate critical loads during daytime hours using just the PV/BESS when there is sufficient solar resource. We find that the site can save approximately $100,000 in energy costs over the 25-year lifecycle while doubling the amount of time they can survive an outage. The methodology presented here provides a template for increasing resiliency at telecomm sites by implementing renewable energy solutions, which provide additional benefits of carbon emission reduction and energy cost savings.

  12. Resilience in language learners and the relationship to storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available International students, who study a foreign language abroad, experience more adversities than their domestic peers. The social challenges they face include problems with immigration status, isolation, difficulty speaking a new language, and learning unfamiliar customs. There is limited research focused on the coping strategies of these individuals. A growing body of research suggests storytelling may provide an important role in promoting resilience, defined as an individual’s ability to bounce back or recover from stress. The study investigated possible relationships between experiencing storytelling as a child and adult resilience. The sample consisted of 21 international college students studying Chinese or English. Students were examined with a survey, a narrative interview, and the brief resilience scale. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative results produced significant correlations between resilience scores and the survey scores for adults who reported using storytelling in their own teaching of a second language to peers and children. Qualitative results identified five protective factors for resilience: (1 social competence, (2 problem-solving skills, (3 autonomy, (4 sense of purpose, and (5 use of storytelling. Implications of the findings for research and intervention are discussed.

  13. Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Smith-Osborne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006. Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limitation of life span and other developmental theory is lack of attention to resilience (Greene, 2007; Robbins et al., 1998. The concept of resilience was developed to “describe relative resistance to psychosocial risk experiences” (Rutter, 1999b, p. 119. Longitudinal studies focused on typical and atypical child development informed theory formulation in developmental psychopathology (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983; Luthar, Cichetti,& Becker, 2000 and in an evolving resilience model (Richardson, 2002; Werner & Smith, 1992. Research on resilience has found a positive relationship between a number of individual traits and contextual variables and resistance to a variety of risk factors among children and adolescents. More recently, resilience research has examined the operation of these same factors in the young adult, middle-age, and elder life stages. This article examines the historical and conceptual progression of the two developmental theories—life span and resiliency—and discusses their application to social work practice and education in human behavior in the social environment.

  14. A life-course perspective on stigma-handling: resilience in persons of restricted growth narrated in life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how personal and contextual experiences throughout the life course are recollected as having influenced the development of stigma-handling strategies among people associated with disability and stigma. The article describes the development of stigma handling among ageing persons of restricted growth in order to avert negative effects, develop resilience, strengthen the self and support a positive identity. Qualitative retrospective interviews were conducted with ten persons - seven women and three men aged between 45 and 65 years - of short stature. Their narratives are analysed from a life-course perspective and the results presented under two main themes: the development of strategies during different stages of life, and the use of general non-stage-bound strategies. The study shows how stigma-handling has evolved from childhood to become, by adult years, refined, contextualised strategies demonstrating human resilience. The analysis documents the impact of human agency on personal lives and the subjects' efforts and strengths in handling adversity. The results demonstrate how the "insider perspective" reveals the individual's resources, resilience and strategies and provides an important perspective for the rehabilitation setting. Implications for Rehabilitation The study document human agency, resilience and strength in a life course perspective among people of restricted growth faced with stigmatization. The efforts and stigma handling strategies developed during the life course, such as withdrawal, humour, ignoring and positive thinking, are important tools to be recognized with relevance for other patient groups. The "insider perspective" revealing the potentialities and strength of human agency and resilience, should be further explored within the field of rehabilitation.

  15. Predicting Health Resilience in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes: A Test of the Resilience Model Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Jennifer M; Huang, Bin; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Dolan, Lawrence; Reeves, Grafton; Drotar, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    This research examined whether individual and family-level factors during the transition from late childhood to early adolescence protected individuals from an increased risk of poor glycemic control across time, which is a predictor of future diabetes-related complications (i.e., health resilience). This longitudinal, multisite study included 239 patients with type 1 diabetes and their caregivers. Glycemic control was based on hemoglobin A1c. Individual and family-level factors included: demographic variables, youth behavioral regulation, adherence (frequency of blood glucose monitoring), diabetes self-management, level of parental support for diabetes autonomy, level of youth mastery and responsibility for diabetes management, and diabetes-related family conflict. Longitudinal mixed-effects logistic regression indicated that testing blood glucose more frequently, better self-management, and less diabetes-related family conflict were indicators of health resilience. Multiple individual and family-level factors predicted risk for future health complications. Future research should develop interventions targeting specific individual and family-level factors to sustain glycemic control within recommended targets, which reduces the risk of developing future health complications during the transition to adolescence and adulthood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  17. On Undecidability Aspects of Resilient Computations and Implications to Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Future Exascale computing systems with a large number of processors, memory elements and interconnection links, are expected to experience multiple, complex faults, which affect both applications and operating-runtime systems. A variety of algorithms, frameworks and tools are being proposed to realize and/or verify the resilience properties of computations that guarantee correct results on failure-prone computing systems. We analytically show that certain resilient computation problems in presence of general classes of faults are undecidable, that is, no algorithms exist for solving them. We first show that the membership verification in a generic set of resilient computations is undecidable. We describe classes of faults that can create infinite loops or non-halting computations, whose detection in general is undecidable. We then show certain resilient computation problems to be undecidable by using reductions from the loop detection and halting problems under two formulations, namely, an abstract programming language and Turing machines, respectively. These two reductions highlight different failure effects: the former represents program and data corruption, and the latter illustrates incorrect program execution. These results call for broad-based, well-characterized resilience approaches that complement purely computational solutions using methods such as hardware monitors, co-designs, and system- and application-specific diagnosis codes.

  18. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a South African township: insights from a resilience questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlalepule Ruth Mampane

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township Schools (R-MATS that was used to survey 291 Grade 9 middle-adolescent learners from two black-only township secondary schools. The majority of respondents indicated an overall sense of contending with various stressors, especially the exposure to violence, and academic challenges. Respondents attributed their buoyancy to individual and environmental factors, such as self-confidence, an internal locus of control, a tough personality, commitment, being achievement-oriented, as well as positive identification of and access to social support.

  19. Resilience and precarious success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Mary D; Wears, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical case study to illustrate, corroborate, and perhaps extend some key generalizations about resilient performance in complex adaptive systems. The setting is a pediatric hematology/oncology pharmacy, a complex system embedded in the larger complex of the hospital, which provides chemotherapy and other high risk medications to children with cancer, sickle cell disease and autoimmune disorders. Recently the demands placed on this system have dramatically intensified while the resources allocated to the system have remained static. We describe the adaptations of this system in response to this additional stress. In addition, we discuss the risks associated with miscalibration about the system's adaptive capacity, and the tradeoff between the need to invest in adaptive capacity (to sustain performance when the system is stressed) versus the need to invest in efficient production (to sustain performance under normal circumstances and economic pressures). - Highlights: • We describe a complex adaptive system: a pediatric hematology/oncology pharmacy. • Work in this system has changed and intensified, but resources have remained static. • Staff's adaptive behaviors demonstrate graceful extensibility and fluency. • The HO staff has demonstrated extraordinary adaptive behaviors. • Leadership miscalibrates the efforts required to perform the pharmacy's work

  20. Positive Youth Development and Resilience: Growth Patterns of Social Skills Among Youth Investigated for Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Topple, Trasie A; Carlson, Matthew W

    2017-07-01

    Maltreated children are a vulnerable population, yet many of these youth follow positive developmental pathways. The primary aim was to identify social skills growth trajectories among at-risk youth to understand processes underlying resilience. Nationally representative, longitudinal data from 1,179 families investigated for child maltreatment (M age  = 12.75) were obtained from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Four trajectories were identified-stress-resistant, emergent resilience, breakdown, and unresponsive-maladaptive. Protective resources from multiple levels of the youth ecology (individual, family, school, and social service) predicted positive growth social skills trajectories. Resilience process and attendant positive outcomes in multiple domains of functioning were evident among the stress-resistant and emergent resilience trajectories. Results underscore the saliency of social skills development for resilient outcomes in youth. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Community resiliency as a measure of collective health status: perspectives from rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Judith C; Edge, Dana; Joyce, Brenda

    2008-12-01

    Community resiliency is a theoretical framework useful for describing the process used by communities to address adversity. A mixed-method 2-year case study was conducted to gather information about community resiliency in 2 rural communities. This article focuses on the themes generated from qualitative interviews with 55 members of these communities. The participants viewed community as a place of interdependence and interaction. The majority saw community resiliency as the ability to address challenges. Characteristics included physical and social infrastructure, population characteristics, conceptual characteristics, and problem-solving processes. Barriers included negative individual attitudes and lack of infrastructure in rural communities. Nurses could play a key role in enhancing the resiliency of rural communities by developing and implementing programs based on the Community Resiliency Model, which was supported in this study.

  2. Resilience Building in Students: The Role of Academic Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy relates to an individual's perception of their capabilities. It has a clear self-evaluative dimension leading to high or low perceived self-efficacy. Individual differences in perceived self-efficacy have been shown to be better predictors of performance than previous achievement or ability and seem particularly important when individuals face adversity. The study investigated the nature of the association between academic self-efficacy (ASE) and academic resilience. Undergraduate student participants (N = 435) were exposed to an adverse situation case vignette describing either personal or vicarious academic adversity. ASE was measured pre-exposure and academic resilience was measured post-exposure. ASE was correlated with, and a significant predictor of, academic resilience and students exhibited greater academic resilience when responding to vicarious adversity compared to personal adversity. Identifying constructs that are related to resilience and establishing the precise nature of how such constructs influence academic resilience will assist the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in students. PMID:26640447

  3. Team Resilience Training in the Workplace: E-Learning Adaptation, Measurement Model, and Two Pilot Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joel B; Neeper, Michael; Linde, Brittany D; Lucas, Gale M; Simone, Lindsay

    2018-05-02

    The majority of resilience interventions focus on the individual. Workplace resilience is a growing field of research. Given the ever-increasing interconnectedness in businesses, teamwork is a guarantee. There is also growing recognition that resilience functions at the team level. The objective of our work was to address three shortcomings in the study of workplace resilience interventions: lack of interventions focusing on group-level or team resilience, the need for brief interventions, and the need for more theoretical precision in intervention studies. The authors took an established evidence-based program (Team Resilience) and modified it based on these needs. A working model for brief intervention evaluation distinguishes outcomes that are proximal (perceptions that the program improved resilience) and distal (dispositional resilience). A total of 7 hypotheses tested the model and program efficacy. Two samples (n=118 and n=181) of engineering firms received the Web-based training and provided immediate reactions in a posttest-only design. The second sample also included a control condition (n=201). The findings support the model and program efficacy. For example, workplace resilience was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. Other findings suggest social dissemination effects, equal outcomes for employees at different stress levels, and greater benefit for females. This preliminary research provides evidence for the capabilities of e-learning modules to effectively promote workplace resilience and a working model of team resilience. ©Joel B Bennett, Michael Neeper, Brittany D Linde, Gale M Lucas, Lindsay Simone. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 02.05.2018.

  4. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zijing; Liu, Ye; Li, Xuelian; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation), Herth Hope Index (HHI), and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience. The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, Pconfrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001), and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037) significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation, and age.

  5. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing Wu

    Full Text Available Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation, Herth Hope Index (HHI, and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience.The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI, and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, P<0.001, educational level of junior college or above (β = 0.272, P<0.001, educational level of high school (β = 0.235, P<0.001, avoidance (β = 0.220, P<0.001, confrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001, and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037 significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience.Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation

  6. Socio-Environmental Resilience and Complex Urban Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Brian; Petri, Aaron; Pan, Haozhi; Goldenberg, Romain; Kalantari, Zahra; Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    (environmental) systems within the context of planning for a more resilient Stockholm. This work shows that complex urban systems models can help bridge the divide between socio-technological and socio-environmental systems knowledge and achieving resilient urban areas.

  7. Resilience and Physical and Mental Well-Being in Adults with and Without HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jennifer A; Brown, James; Lampe, Fiona C; Lipman, Marc; Smith, Colette; Rodger, Alison

    2018-05-01

    Resilience has been related to improved physical and mental health, and is thought to improve with age. No studies have explored the relationship between resilience, ageing with HIV, and well-being. A cross sectional observational study performed on UK HIV positive (N = 195) and HIV negative adults (N = 130). Associations of both age and 'time diagnosed with HIV' with resilience (RS-14) were assessed, and the association of resilience with depression, anxiety symptoms (PHQ-9 and GAD-7), and problems with activities of daily living (ADLs) (Euroqol 5D-3L). In a multivariable model, HIV status overall was not related to resilience. However, longer time diagnosed with HIV was related to lower resilience, and older age showed a non-significant trend towards higher resilience. In adults with HIV, high resilience was related to a lower prevalence of depression, anxiety, and problems with ADLs. It may be necessary to consider resilience when exploring the well-being of adults ageing with HIV.

  8. Ten Ways to Foster Resilience in Young Children--Teaching Kids to "Bounce Back"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Resilience has often been defined as the ability to bounce back in times of adversity and to develop in a positive way when faced with setbacks. Children routinely show high amounts of resilience mostly because of temperament and a built-in sense of autonomy.Children are able to overcome adversity to bounce back before social and emotional harm is…

  9. Resilience in nurses: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Patricia L; Brannan, Jane D; De Chesnay, Mary

    2014-09-01

    To describe nursing research that has been conducted to understand the phenomenon of resilience in nurses. Resilience is the ability to bounce back or cope successfully despite adverse circumstances. Nurses deal with modern-day problems that affect their abilities to remain resilient. Nursing administrators/managers need to look for solutions not only to recruit nurses, but to become knowledgeable about how to support and retain nurses. A comprehensive search was undertaken for nursing research conducted between 1990 and 2011. Key search terms were nurse, resilience, resiliency and resilient. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative approach was used to conduct the methodological review. Challenging workplaces, psychological emptiness, diminishing inner balance and a sense of dissonance are contributing factors for resilience. Examples of intrapersonal characteristics include hope, self-efficacy and coping. Cognitive reframing, toughening up, grounding connections, work-life balance and reconciliation are resilience building strategies. This review provides information about the concept of resilience. Becoming aware of contributing factors to the need for resilience and successful strategies to build resilience can help in recruiting and retaining nurses. Understanding the concept of resilience can assist in providing support and developing programmes to help nurses become and stay resilient. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Metabolomics reveals distinct neurochemical profiles associated with stress resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke N. Dulka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute social defeat represents a naturalistic form of conditioned fear and is an excellent model in which to investigate the biological basis of stress resilience. While there is growing interest in identifying biomarkers of stress resilience, until recently, it has not been feasible to associate levels of large numbers of neurochemicals and metabolites to stress-related phenotypes. The objective of the present study was to use an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify known and unknown neurochemicals in select brain regions that distinguish susceptible and resistant individuals in two rodent models of acute social defeat. In the first experiment, male mice were first phenotyped as resistant or susceptible. Then, mice were subjected to acute social defeat, and tissues were immediately collected from the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, basolateral/central amygdala (BLA/CeA, nucleus accumbens (NAc, and dorsal hippocampus (dHPC. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS was used for the detection of water-soluble neurochemicals. In the second experiment, male Syrian hamsters were paired in daily agonistic encounters for 2 weeks, during which they formed stable dominant-subordinate relationships. Then, 24 h after the last dominance encounter, animals were exposed to acute social defeat stress. Immediately after social defeat, tissue was collected from the vmPFC, BLA/CeA, NAc, and dHPC for analysis using UPLC-HRMS. Although no single biomarker characterized stress-related phenotypes in both species, commonalities were found. For instance, in both model systems, animals resistant to social defeat stress also show increased concentration of molecules to protect against oxidative stress in the NAc and vmPFC. Additionally, in both mice and hamsters, unidentified spectral features were preliminarily annotated as potential targets for future experiments. Overall, these findings

  11. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011. Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many researches. Of all this recent and varied range of literature, our focus is on those texts that combine resilience with strategies, processes and models for resilient cities, communities and regions. Starting from the resilience strategies developed as response for risks mitigation, the paper thus explores other approaches and experiences on cities resilience that have been conducted: the aim is to compare and identify innovation in the planning process towards risks mitigation. In this paper we present a summary of the initial survey stage of our research, with three main aims: understanding the approaches to resilience developed so far and identifying which aspects these approaches share (or not;understanding which strategies are being proposed for resilient regions, cities or social-ecological systems;understanding whether proposed resilience strategies involve innovations in urban and regional development disciplines. The aim is to understand whether the proposed concept of resilience, or rather strategies, constitute progress and contribute to innovation in the areas of urban planning and design in relation to risk mitigation. Three main families of literature have been identified from the recent literature promoting resilience as a key strategy. The first aim of the research is to understand which particular concept and which aspects of resilience are used, which resilience strategies are proposed, how the term ‘city’ is defined and interpreted

  12. Resilience and the rehabilitation of adult spinal cord injury survivors: A qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel; Mclean, Loyola; Betihavas, Vasiliki; Cleary, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    To synthesize the qualitative research evidence that explored how survivors of adult spinal cord injury experience and make sense of resilience. Spinal cord injury is often a sudden and unexpected life-changing event requiring complex and long-term rehabilitation. The development of resilience is essential in determining how spinal cord injury survivors negotiate this injury and rehabilitation. A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis of the research evidence. CINAHL, PubMed, Embase, Scopus and PsycINFO were searched, no restriction dates were used. Methodological quality was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Thematic synthesis focused on how survivors of adult spinal cord injury experience and make sense of resilience. Six qualitative research articles reported the experiences of 84 spinal cord injury survivors. Themes identified were: uncertainty and regaining independence; prior experiences of resilience; adopting resilient thinking; and strengthening resilience through supports. Recovery and rehabilitation following spinal cord survivors is influenced by the individual's capacity for resilience. Resilience may be influenced by previous life experiences and enhanced by supportive nursing staff encouraging self-efficacy. Survivors identified the need for active involvement in decision-making about their care to enable a sense of regaining control of their lives. This has the potential to have a significant impact on their self-efficacy and in turn health outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Resilience to urban poverty: theoretical and empirical considerations for population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne E; Lim, Sungwoo; Sohn, Woosung

    2008-06-01

    To better understand the trajectory that propels people from poverty to poor health, we investigated health resilience longitudinally among African American families with incomes below 250% of the federal poverty level. Health resilience is the capacity to maintain good health in the face of significant adversity. With higher levels of tooth retention as a marker of health resilience, we used a social-epidemiological framework to define capacity for health resilience through a chain of determinants starting in the built environment (housing quality) and community context (social support) to familial influences (religiosity) and individual mental health and health behavior. Odds of retaining 20 or more teeth were 3 times as likely among adults with resilience versus more-vulnerable adults (odds ratio=3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.3, 7.4). Children of caregivers with resilience had a lower incident rate of noncavitated tooth decay at 18- to 24-month follow-up (incidence risk ratio=0.8; 95% CI=0.7, 0.9) compared with other children. Health resilience to poverty was supported by protective factors in the built and social environments. When poverty itself cannot be eliminated, improving the quality of the built and social environments will foster resilience to its harmful health effects.

  14. The influence of personal characteristics on the resilience of operating room nurses: a predictor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-07-01

    Resilience in the workplace has been described as a means of facilitating adaptation in stressful environments, and therefore has application in nursing contexts. However, little research has examined how personal characteristics such as age, nursing experience and education contribute to resilience in clinical environments such as the operating room (OR). First to identify the level of resilience, and second, investigate whether age, experience and education contribute to resilience in an Australian sample of OR nurses. A predictive survey design was used. A random sample of 1430 nurses who were members of the Australian College of Operating Room Nurses association were surveyed. The survey included the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and demographic questions. A standard regression model tested the hypothesis that age, years of OR experience and education contributed to resilience in OR nurses. A total of 735 (51.4%) completed, usable surveys were returned. Pearson's correlations demonstrated modest but statistically significant associations between age (presilience. In the multiple regression model, only years of OR experience predicted resilience (presilience. In OR nurses, resilience appears to be predicted by other attributes and is not necessarily dependent on an individual's personal characteristics. Thus, recruitment to the OR should not be based on the conventional notion that an older nursing workforce will have greater longevity and hence be more stable. If younger, less experienced nurses are adequately supported, they may thrive in the OR environment.

  15. Can Biogeochemists Help To Enhance Urban Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout history, many human settlements have collapsed, often caused or triggered by extreme climatic fluctuation, resource depletion, or pollution. In today's world, with rapid urbanization, much of it in "informal" peri-urban settlements, increasing per capita wealth and consumption, climate warming, and widespread pollution, the potential for collapse of modern cities is a realistic hazard. This presentation addresses the question: can biogeochemists contribute knowledge, and translate that knowledge, into greater resilience of urban systems? I argue that we can, and present four examples, each illustrated with case studies. The first is an example of resource depletion - the eventual exhaustion of P rock used for fertilizer. Phosphate rock reserves are limited, at least in the U.S., causing us to import fertilizer P. Prices are rising, prompting more efficient use. Over the long term, depletion of phosphate rock globally may lead to a "brown devolution". We have started a process of tracking P from agricultural watersheds to the "urban plate", and the potential for recycling urban wastes back to agriculture. Early findings in our lab show that agricultural P use in a high-production watershed is now quite efficient, but urban P use is extremely inefficient. A P balance of the Minneapolis-St. Paul region showed that only 4% of input P was recycled, but 75% recycling was possible, even with off-the-shelf technologies. Recycling urban P to agricultural systems, at least for cities in agricultural regions, could close the P cycle and add resilience to the urban food system. A second example is the loss of resilience caused by pollution. Cities often pollute their groundwater, especially with nitrate, salts, and bacteria, limiting the potential for using underlying aquifers for water supply during drought periods and reducing the resilience of the urban system. This is a serious problem in cities in the developing world that do not have water-based waste removal

  16. Vicarious resilience in sexual assault and domestic violence advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Lisa L; Beesley, Denise; Abbott, Deah; Kendrick, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    There is little research related to sexual assault and domestic violence advocates' experiences, with the bulk of the literature focused on stressors and systemic barriers that negatively impact efforts to assist survivors. However, advocates participating in these studies have also emphasized the positive impact they experience consequent to their work. This study explores the positive impact. Vicarious resilience, personal trauma experiences, peer relational quality, and perceived organizational support in advocates (n = 222) are examined. Also, overlap among the conceptual components of vicarious resilience is explored. The first set of multiple regressions showed that personal trauma experiences and peer relational health predicted compassion satisfaction and vicarious posttraumatic growth, with organizational support predicting only compassion satisfaction. The second set of multiple regressions showed that (a) there was significant shared variance between vicarious posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction; (b) after accounting for vicarious posttraumatic growth, organizational support accounted for significant variance in compassion satisfaction; and (c) after accounting for compassion satisfaction, peer relational health accounted for significant variance in vicarious posttraumatic growth. Results suggest that it may be more meaningful to conceptualize advocates' personal growth related to their work through the lens of a multidimensional construct such as vicarious resilience. Organizational strategies promoting vicarious resilience (e.g., shared organizational power, training components) are offered, and the value to trauma-informed care of fostering advocates' vicarious resilience is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Integrated Approach to a Resilient City: Associating Social, Environmental and Infrastructure Resilience in its Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising complexity, numbers and severity of natural and manmade disasters enhance the importance of reducing vulnerability, or on contrary – increasing resilience, of different kind of systems, including those of social, engineering (infrastructure, and environmental (ecological nature. The goal of this research is to explore urban resilience as an integral system of social, environmental, and engineering resilience. This report analyses the concepts of each kind of resilience and identifies key factors influencing social, ecological, and infrastructure resilience discussing how these factors relate within urban systems. The achievement of resilience of urban and regional systems happens through the interaction of the different elements (social, psychological, physical, structural, and environmental, etc.; therefore, resilient city could be determined by synergy of resilient society, resilient infrastructure and resilient environment of the given area. Based on literature analysis, the current research provides some insights on conceptual framework for assessment of complex urban systems in terms of resilience. To be able to evaluate resilience and define effective measures for prevention and risk mitigation, and thereby strengthen resilience, we propose to develop an e-platform, joining risk parameters’ Monitoring Systems, which feed with data Resiliency Index calculation domain. Both these elements result in Multirisk Platform, which could serve for awareness and shared decision making for resilient people in resilient city.

  18. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Resilience in the operatives unitsof National Iranian Drilling Company (regional study: Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Resilience engineering is a new approach in safety science. Its goal is to maintain organizational capacity in an acceptable level to help system in managing the crisis. Indeed, resilience engineering rely on systems abilities instead of weaknesses, and try to find indicators that help the system durability. .Material and Method: In this study,first, 6 resilience engineering factors were chosen and sent toexperts in the form of paired comparison sheets. On the other hand, a valid standard questionnaire distributed among drilling rigs operational workers for measuring the NIDC resilience level. Finally,the priority of corrective actionswas determinedaccording to the score of the two analyzedquestionnaires. .Results: The results of resilience engineering factors weighting showed that the management commitment has the highest value andthe second place belonged to the correct culture. The indicators’scores,based on the distributed questionnaires among workers, showed that all of the six factors had similar scoreswhich can be evaluated as fairly good. Finally, the results of prioritization of indicators ofresilience engineering, basedon the combination ofthe questionnaire and experts opinions showed that management commitment is the most effective resilience factor in the organization. ..Conclusion: Management commitment and the current culture are the most importantcontributing factorsin company resilience level. Experienced workforce was the best strengthof the company and the effect of financial issues on resilience and safety was the biggest problem ahead.

  20. Academic Resilience: What Schools and Countries Do to Help Disadvantaged Students Succeed in PISA. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 167

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Avvisati, Francesco; Borgonovi, Francesca; Longobardi, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Resilience refers to the capacity of individuals to prosper despite encountering adverse circumstances. This paper defines academic resilience as the ability of 15-year-old students from disadvantaged backgrounds to perform at a certain level in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in reading, mathematics and science that…

  1. Burnout and its association with resilience in nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Lam, Louisa; Cross, Wendy; Plummer, Virginia; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and extent of burnout on nurses and its association with personal resilience. With the worldwide shortage of nurses, nurse burnout is considered one of the main contributing factors and has been the focus of studies in recent years. Given the well-documented high level of burnout among nurses, resilience is expected to be a significant predictor of nurse burnout. The association between burnout and resilience has not previously been investigated extensively. A cross-sectional survey design was selected. A total of 1,061 nurses from six separate three-level hospitals in Hunan Province, China, returned self-reported questionnaires from March-June 2015. Data were collected using a socio-demographic sheet, Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Nurses experienced severe burnout symptoms and showed a moderate level of resilience. Three metrics of burnout had significantly negative correlations with the total score and following variables of resilience. Linear regression analysis showed resilience, especially strength, demographic characteristics (exercise, alcohol use and marital status) and job characteristics (income per month, ratio of patients to nurses, shift work and professional rank) were the main predictors of the three metrics of burnout. The findings of this study may help nurse managers and hospital administrators to have a better understanding of nurse burnout and resilience. The significantly negative relationship between burnout symptoms and resilience has been demonstrated, and this informs the role of resilience in influencing burnout. Adaptable and effective interventions for improving resilience are needed to relieve nurses' burnout and reduce workplace stress. Moreover, nurse managers and hospital administrators should establish an effective management system to cultivate a healthy workplace and adopt positive attitudes and harmonious relationships. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  2. Parental Bereavement in Young Children Living in South Africa and Malawi: Understanding Mental Health Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, A; Sherr, L; Tomlinson, M; Skeen, S; Roberts, K J

    2018-04-17

    Parental loss is a major stressful event found to increase risk of mental health problems in childhood. Yet, some children show resilient adaptation in the face of adversity across time. This study explores predictors of mental health resilience among parentally bereaved children in South Africa and Malawi, and their cumulative effect. The study also explores whether predictors of resilience differed between orphaned and non-orphaned children. Consecutive attenders of community based organisations (children;4-13 years, and their caregivers) were interviewed at baseline and 15-18 month follow up (n=833). Interviews comprised of inventories on demographic information, family data, child mental health, bereavement experience and community characteristics. Mental health screens were used to operationalise resilience as the absence of symptoms of depression, suicidality, trauma, emotional and behavioural problems. Almost 60% of children experienced parental loss. One quarter of orphaned children showed no mental health problems at either wave and were classified as resilient. There were equal proportions of children classified as resilient within the orphaned (25%) vs. non-orphaned group (22%). Being a quick learner, aiding ill family members, positive caregiving, household employment, higher community support, and lower exposure to domestic violence, physical punishment, or stigma at baseline predicted sustained resilience. There were cumulative influences of resilience predictors among orphaned children. Predictors of resilience did not vary by child age, gender, country of residence or between orphaned and non-orphaned children. This study enhances understanding of resilience in younger children and identifies a number of potential environmental and psychosocial factors for bolstering resilience in orphaned children.

  3. Mapping media representation of the Seine river flood to assess the impact of communication on Paris resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Rosa; Tchiguirisnkaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    By the 2000s increasing attention among academics, as well as practitioners, has been devoted to the implementation of resilience. Putting the concept of social-ecological resilience (Holling, 1973) into practice involves relevant changes in policy and decision-making. Indeed, the social-ecological resilience approach emphasizes the need to apply the principle of subsidiarity, i.e. to decentralize risk management, to encourage citizen participation and share responsibilities (Tanguy, 2015). The concept of social-ecological resilience draws attention to the the impact of social construction of the reality- and therefore of the influence of media and other cultural contents, individual and groups knowledge, perceptions, emotions - on urban development. In this framework, communication between municipalities and citizens, especially a two-ways dialogue (i.e. participatory communication), has become a keystone of resilience strategies since it facilitates mutual understanding, shared goals identification and cooperation. Going beyond theory and implementing resilience requires resilience metrics: such indexes allow decision makers to compare the costs of resilience enhancement actions with the economic, environmental, social, and sanitary costs of non-action. However important gaps persists between theories and applied metrics of resilience. For instance, operational resilience metrics are usually defined with the help of semi-quantitative indicators that are applied to variables aggregated up to the outer scale of the system, not across the various spatial scales of the system. This research exploits recent computer aided text mining techniques to explore web communications and map press and social media representation of flood resilience, as well as identify the main opinion makers in the city of Paris. This approach allows a quantitative analysis of communication impacts, in terms of frequency and quality, and it is meant to be a basis to define new resilience

  4. Codesigning a resilient food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari J. Himanen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global changes, especially the progression of climate change, create a plethora of adaptation needs for social-ecological systems. With increasing uncertainty, more resilient food systems that are able to adapt and shape their operations in response to emerging challenges are required. Most of the research on this subject has been focused on developing countries; however, developed countries also face increasing environmental, economic, and social pressures. Because food systems are complex and involve multiple actors, using codesign might be the most productive way to develop desirable system characteristics. For this study, we engaged food system actors in a scenario-planning exercise to identify means of building more resilient food systems. In particular, the actors focused on determinants of adaptive capacity in developed countries, with Finland as a case study. The brainstorming session followed by a two-round Delphi study raised three main characteristics for effective food system resilience, namely, energy and nutrient sovereignty, transparency and dialogue in the food chain, and continuous innovativeness and evidence-based learning. In addition, policy interventions were found instrumental for supporting such food system resilience. The main actor-specific determinants of adaptive capacity identified included the farmers' utilization of agri-technology and expertise; energy and logistic efficiency of the input and processing industry; and for retail, communication to build consumer trust and environmental awareness, and effective use of information and communication technology. Of the food system actors, farmers and the processing industry were perceived to be the closest to reaching the limits of their adaptive capacities. The use of adaptive capacity as a proxy seemed to concretize food system resilience effectively. Our study suggests that the resilience approach generates new perspectives that can guide actors in developing food

  5. Resilience of primary healthcare professionals working in challenging environments: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Catriona; Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The modern primary healthcare workforce needs to be resilient. Early research framed professional resilience as avoiding 'burnout'; however, more recent literature has introduced the concept of positive adaptation to professional challenges, which results in individuals thriving in their role. To explore what primary health professionals working in challenging environments consider to be characteristics of resilience and what promotes or challenges professional resilience. A qualitative focus group in north east Scotland. Five focus groups were held with 20 health professionals (six GPs, nine nurses, four pharmacists, and a practice manager) based in rural or deprived city areas in the north east of Scotland. Inductive thematic analysis identified emerging themes. Personal resilience characteristics identified were optimism, flexibility and adaptability, initiative, tolerance, organisational skills, being a team worker, keeping within professional boundaries, assertiveness, humour, and a sense of self-worth. Workplace challenges were workload, information overload, time pressures, poor communication, challenging patients, and environmental factors (rural location). Promoters of professional resilience were strong management support, teamwork, workplace buffers, and social factors such as friends, family, and leisure activities. A model of health professional resilience is proposed that concurs with existing literature but adds the concept of personal traits being synergistic with workplace features and social networks. These facilitate adaptability and enable individual health professionals to cope with adversity that is inevitably part of the everyday experience of those working in challenging healthcare environments. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  6. Resilience Building in Students: The Role of Academic Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eCassidy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-efficacy relates to an individual’s perception of their capabilities. It has a clear self-evaluative dimension leading to high or low perceived self-efficacy. Individual differences in perceived self-efficacy have been shown to be better predictors of performance than previous achievement or ability and seem particularly important when individuals face adversity. The study investigated the nature of the association between academic self-efficacy (ASE academic resilience. Undergraduate student participants (N=435 were exposed to an adverse situation case vignette describing either personal or vicarious academic adversity. ASE was measured pre-exposure and academic resilience was measured post- exposure. ASE was correlated with, and a significant predictor of, academic resilience and students exhibited greater academic resilience when responding to vicarious adversity compared to personal adversity. Identifying constructs that are related to resilience and establishing the precise nature of how such constructs influence resilience will assist the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in students.

  7. Teaching Resiliency Theory to Substance Abuse Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Resiliency is the ability to cope in the face of adversity. One protective factor that promotes resiliency in substance-abusing dysfunctional families is family rituals and traditions. Social workers and substance abuse counselors can teach family members how to instill resiliency in their families and themselves through rituals and traditions. To…

  8. The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Saklofske, Donald H.; Nordstokke, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults (RSYA) is presented as an upward extension of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA). The RSYA is based on the "three-factor model of personal resiliency" including "mastery," "relatedness," and "emotional reactivity." Several stages of scale…

  9. A comprehensive approach to assess operational resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, R.J.M.; Karydas, D.M.; Rouvroye, J.L.; Hollnagel, E.; Pieri, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a first attempt to apply Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) to the concept of resilience. The focus of this paper is measuring the management performance of operational resilience in an organization. Operational resilience refers to the ability of an organization to prevent

  10. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  11. New York Solar Smart DG Hub-Resilient Solar Project: Economic and Resiliency Impact of PV and Storage on New York Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Kate; Burman, Kari; Simpkins, Travis; Helson, Erica; Lisell, Lars, Case, Tria

    2016-06-01

    Resilient PV, which is solar paired with storage ('solar-plus-storage'), provides value both during normal grid operation and power outages as opposed to traditional solar PV, which functions only when the electric grid is operating. During normal grid operations, resilient PV systems help host sites generate revenue and/or reduce electricity bill charges. During grid outages, resilient PV provides critical emergency power that can help people in need and ease demand on emergency fuel supplies. The combination of grid interruptions during recent storms, the proliferation of solar PV, and the growing deployment of battery storage technologies has generated significant interest in using these assets for both economic and resiliency benefits. This report analyzes the technical and economic viability for resilient PV on three critical infrastructure sites in New York City (NYC): a school that is part of a coastal storm shelter system, a fire station, and a NYCHA senior center that serves as a cooling center during heat emergencies. This analysis differs from previous solar-plus-storage studies by placing a monetary value on resiliency and thus, in essence, modeling a new revenue stream for the avoided cost of a power outage. Analysis results show that resilient PV is economically viable for NYC's critical infrastructure and that it may be similarly beneficial to other commercial buildings across the city. This report will help city building owners, managers, and policymakers better understand the economic and resiliency benefits of resilient PV. As NYC fortifies its building stock against future storms of increasing severity, resilient PV can play an important role in disaster response and recovery while also supporting city greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and relieving stress to the electric grid from growing power demands.

  12. Business resiliency and stakeholder management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Noel; Perry, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The authors facilitated separate round table discussions at the City and Financial Conference in London on 29th January, 2014. The theme of these discussions was business resiliency and stakeholder management. This topic attracted the largest group of all the breakout sessions, as the issue continues to generate much interest across the business resilience community. In this paper, the authors summarise the discussions held at the event and add their own insights into the subject of who are stakeholders, and the different means and messages to communicate to them.

  13. Factors Affecting Rural Households’ Resilience to Food Insecurity in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboubakr Gambo Boukary

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Niger faces many natural and human constraints explaining the erratic evolution of its agricultural production over time. Unfortunately, this is likely to cause a decline in the food supply. This study attempts to identify factors affecting rural households’ resilience to food insecurity in Niger. For this, we first create a resilience index by using principal component analysis and later apply structural equation modeling to identify its determinants. Data from the 2010 National Survey on Households’ Vulnerability to Food Insecurity done by the National Institute of Statistics is used. The study shows that asset and social safety net indicators are significant and have a positive impact on households’ resilience. Climate change approximated by long-term mean rainfall has a negative and significant effect on households’ resilience. Therefore, to strengthen households’ resilience to food insecurity, there is a need to increase assistance to households through social safety nets and to help them gather more resources in order to acquire more assets. Furthermore, early warning of climatic events could alert households, especially farmers, to be prepared and avoid important losses that they experience anytime an uneven climatic event occurs.

  14. More randomized and resilient in the topological properties of functional brain networks in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaizhou; Zhou, Haiyan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Haiyuan; Zhong, Ning

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have reported the enhanced randomization of functional brain networks in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the changes of key nodal attributes for randomization, the resilience of network, and the clinical significance of the alterations. In this study, we collected the resting-state functional MRI data from 19 MDD patients and 19 healthy control (HC) individuals. Graph theory analysis showed that decreases were found in the small-worldness, clustering coefficient, local efficiency, and characteristic path length (i.e., increase of global efficiency) in the network of MDD group compared with HC group, which was consistent with previous findings and suggested the development toward randomization in the brain network in MDD. In addition, the greater resilience under the targeted attacks was also found in the network of patients with MDD. Furthermore, the abnormal nodal properties were found, including clustering coefficients and nodal efficiencies in the left orbital superior frontal gyrus, bilateral insula, left amygdala, right supramarginal gyrus, left putamen, left posterior cingulate cortex, left angular gyrus. Meanwhile, the correlation analysis showed that most of these abnormal areas were associated with the clinical status. The observed increased randomization and resilience in MDD might be related to the abnormal hub nodes in the brain networks, which were attacked by the disease pathology. Our findings provide new evidence to indicate that the weakening of specialized regions and the enhancement of whole brain integrity could be the potential endophenotype of the depressive pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fostering resilience through changing realities. Introduction to operational resilience capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, D.; Vorm, J. van der; Beek, F.A. van der; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    The reality of operations does not always follow the book. Operational circumstances may develop into surprising situations that procedures have not accounted for. Still, we make things work. Resilient performance recognizes surprise early and acts upon it through adaptation, which is critical for

  16. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Degener, Jan; Gaudreau, Matthew; Li, Yangfan; Kappas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH_3-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management

  17. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi, E-mail: ly463526@gmail.com [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Degener, Jan [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Gaudreau, Matthew [Balsillie School of International Affairs, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, 67 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2L 6C2 (Canada); Li, Yangfan, E-mail: yangf@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Kappas, Martin [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH{sub 3}-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management.

  18. Kidnapping and Mental Health in Iraqi Refugees: The Role of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A Michelle; Talia, Yousif R; Aldhalimi, Abir; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E

    2017-02-01

    Although kidnapping is common in war-torn countries, there is little research examining its psychological effects. Iraqi refugees (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year later. At arrival, refugees were asked about prior trauma exposure, including kidnapping. One year later refugees were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression disorder (MDD) using the SCID-I. Individual resilience and narratives of the kidnapping were also assessed. Twenty-six refugees (9 %) reported being kidnapped. Compared to those not kidnapped, those who were had a higher prevalence of PTSD, but not MDD, diagnoses. Analyses examining kidnapping victims revealed that higher resilience was associated with lower rates of PTSD. Narratives of the kidnapping were also discussed. This study suggests kidnapping is associated with PTSD, but not MDD. Additionally, kidnapping victims without PTSD reported higher individual resilience. Future studies should further elucidate risk and resilience mechanisms.

  19. A Framework and Metric for resilience concept in water infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouz, M.; Olyaei, M.

    2017-12-01

    , Improvement of WWTPs' performance is investigated by allocating financial resources to attain a desirable level of resiliency. The result of this study shows the significant value of quantifying and improving flood resiliency of WWTPs that could be used for other water infrastructure and in planning of investment strategies for a region

  20. Design considerations for energy efficient, resilient, multi-layer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Hansen, Line Pyndt; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2016-01-01

    measures. In this complex problem, considerations such as client traffic granularity, applied grooming policies and multi-layer resiliency add even more complexity. A commercially available network planning tool is used to investigate the interplay between different methods for resilient capacity planning......This work investigates different network design considerations with respect to energy-efficiency, under green-field resilient multi-layer network deployment. The problem of energy efficient, reliable multi-layer network design is known to result in different trade-offs between key performance....... Switching off low-utilized transport links has been investigated via a pro-active re-routing applied during the network planning. Our analysis shows that design factors such as the applied survivability strategy and the applied planning method have higher impact on the key performance indicators compared...

  1. Nursing students' post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Cao, F; Cao, D; Liu, J

    2015-06-01

    Nursing students in the present sample who have experienced childhood adversity have a certain level of post-traumatic growth. If introduced into nursing curricula, emotional intelligence interventions may increase emotional coping resources and enhance social skills for nurses, which may benefit their long-term occupational health. As researchers consider personal resilience a strategy for responding to workplace adversity in nurses, resilience building should be incorporated into nursing education. This is a preliminary study that may guide future investigations of the curvilinear relationship rather than linear relationship between post-traumatic growth and positive factors in the special sample of nursing students. Resilience, emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth may benefit nursing students' careers and personal well-being in clinical work. Developing both their emotional intelligence and resilience may assist their individual post-traumatic growth and enhance their ability to cope with clinical stress. To investigate the relationships among post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience in vocational school nursing students who have experienced childhood adversities, a cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires was conducted and self-report data were analysed. The Childhood Adversities Checklist (Chinese version), Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Emotional Intelligence Scale and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used. Survey data were collected from 202 Chinese vocational school nursing students during 2011. Post-traumatic growth was associated with emotional intelligence and psychological resilience. Results indicated a curvilinear relationship between emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth, and between psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth. Moderate-level emotional intelligence and psychological resilience were most associated with the greatest levels of growth

  2. The impact of resilience and subsequent stressful life events on MDD and GAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, Christina M; Lind, Mackenzie J; Brown, Emily A; Gardner, Charles O; Kendler, Kenneth S; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2018-02-01

    There remains a dearth of research examining the "buffering" effect of resilience, wherein resilience at one point in time would be expected to protect an individual against development of psychopathology following future adverse life events. Using longitudinal data from an epidemiological twin sample (N = 7463), this study tested whether resilience would act as a buffer for stressful life events (SLEs) against risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Resilience, demographics, and psychopathology were measured at Time 1 and recent SLEs and current MDD and GAD were measured at Time 2. Final models, controlling for demographic covariates and Time 1 diagnosis, examined the impact of Time 1 resilience, recent SLEs, their interaction, and a three-way interaction adding sex on MDD and GAD. The pattern of findings was the same for MDD and GAD, wherein main effects and two-way interactions of resilience and SLEs were significant, such that greater resilience was protective even in the context of high numbers of past-year SLEs. The three-way interaction was not significant, suggesting that the relationship between SLEs and resilience on psychopathology was the same for both men and women. Findings support the conceptualization of resilience as a buffer against the impact of future life stressors on common internalizing psychopathology. Longitudinal designs and trajectory-based studies that include recurring measures of SLEs could inform conceptualizations of resilience in the context of ongoing adversity and aid in developing interventions aimed at fostering healthy adaptation in the face of stressors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Natural resilience: healthy ecosystems as climate shock insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Joanna [Royal Society for the Protection of the Birds (United Kingdom); Heath, Melanie [Birdlife International (United Kingdom); Reid, Hannah

    2009-12-15

    Resilience to climate change has many roots. A healthy, biodiverse environment is increasingly recognised as key to resilience, particularly in poor communities directly dependent on natural resources. Knowledge about ways of coping with climate variability is also essential - and for many of the poor who live in climate-vulnerable regions, already an area of expertise. A look at the National Adaptation Programmes of Action of the Least Developed Countries shows that many of these nations recognize and prioritise the role that biodiversity, ecosystems and natural habitats play in adaptation. It is now up to policymakers to follow suit.

  4. Neural correlates of psychological resilience and their relation to life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Wang, Xu; Hu, Siyuan; Liu, Jia

    2015-12-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the ability to thrive in the face of risk and adversity, which is crucial for individuals' mental and physical health. However, its precise neural correlates are still largely unknown. Here we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to identify the brain regions underlying this construct by correlating individuals' psychological resilience scores with the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and then examined how these resilience-related regions predicted life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults. We found that the ReHo in the bilateral insula, right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right rostral ACC (rACC) negatively predicted individual differences in psychological resilience, revealing the critical role of the salience network (SN) in psychological resilience. Crucially, the ReHo in the dACC within the SN mediated the effects of psychological resilience on life satisfaction. In summary, these findings suggest that spontaneous activity of the human brain reflect the efficiency of psychological resilience and highlight the dACC within the SN as a neural substrate linking psychological resilience and life satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  6. Caring for tomorrow's workforce: Moral resilience and healthcare ethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Settimio

    2016-02-01

    Preparing tomorrow's healthcare workforce for managing the growing complexity of care places high demands on students, educators, and faculties. In the light of worrying data about study-related stress and burnout, understanding how students manage stressors and develop resilience has been identified as a priority topic of research. In addition to study-related stressors, also moral stressors are known to characterize the students' first clinical experiences. However, current debates show that it remains unclear how healthcare ethics education should address them. In order to clarify this issue, this study first develops the notion of moral resilience as a response to moral stressors involving both situations of moral complexity and moral wrongness. Second, it explores the potential of healthcare ethics education in fostering moral resilience. For this purpose, it defines moral resilience operationally as a reduction of moral distress in a given axis of time measured by a validated tool. The educational transferability was assessed within an explorative, quantitative pre-post interventional study with a purposive sample of 166 nursing students. The educational intervention comprised a lecture introducing the typology of moral stressors. Before and after the lecture, students were presented vignettes depicting morally stressful situations. The competent research ethics committee confirmed that no ethical approval was needed. Informed consent was obtained from participants. Three of four vignettes showed a modest but statistically significant reduction in measured levels of distress after the lecture (p ethics education in providing students with transformative knowledge that fosters moral resilience. In times of global scarcity of educational resources, healthcare ethics education has an important contribution to offer in the promotion of students' mental and physical health by strengthening the knowledge base of moral resilience. This legitimates its costs for

  7. MSY from catch and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Chrysafi, Anna

    A simple Schaefer model was tested on the Greenland halibut stock offshore in NAFO SA 0 and 1. The minimum data required for this model is a catch time series and a measure of the resilience of the species. Other input parameters that had to be guessed were the carrying capacity, the biomass...

  8. Cyber Resilience in de Boardroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Zielstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Grand Conference - Building a Resilient Digital Society - took place in Amsterdam on October 16, 2012. The international conference aimed for top decision-makers of industry government and other organisations. Two hundred participants from twenty-two nations participated. Three Dutch

  9. What do you mean, 'resilient geomorphic systems'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Piégay, H.; Parsons, M.

    2018-03-01

    Resilience thinking has many parallels in the study of geomorphology. Similarities and intersections exist between the scientific discipline of geomorphology and the scientific concept of resilience. Many of the core themes fundamental to geomorphology are closely related to the key themes of resilience. Applications of resilience thinking in the study of natural and human systems have expanded, based on the fundamental premise that ecosystems, economies, and societies must be managed as linked social-ecological systems. Despite geomorphology and resilience sharing core themes, appreciation is limited of the history and development of geomorphology as a field of scientific endeavor by many in the field of resilience, as well as a limited awareness of the foundations of the former in the more recent emergence of resilience. This potentially limits applications of resilience concepts to the study of geomorphology. In this manuscript we provide a collective examination of geomorphology and resilience as a means to conceptually advance both areas of study, as well as to further cement the relevance and importance of not only understanding the complexities of geomorphic systems in an emerging world of interdisciplinary challenges but also the importance of viewing humans as an intrinsic component of geomorphic systems rather than just an external driver. The application of the concepts of hierarchy and scale, fundamental tenets of the study of geomorphic systems, provide a means to overcome contemporary scale-limited approaches within resilience studies. Resilience offers a framework for geomorphology to expand its application into the broader social-ecological domain.

  10. Role of Religiousness/Spirituality in Resilience of Fisheries College Cadets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri W Rahmawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Experts agree that resilience involves internal factors and external factors. In addition to those two factors, religious beliefs, spirituality and the capacity to give a meaning to the traumatic event, it is also discussed as a factor involved in the development of resilience. A number of researchers explore their findings to see the relationships between religiousness/ spirituality and resilience. People experiencing emptiness of spiritual, increasingly awareness of the importance of the involvement of religion/spiritual in solving problems, but it’s increasingly depletion due to exposure to materialistic life. This research is conducted to see the influence of religiousness/spirituality on resilience occuring among college students. The results showed that the following dimensions are related to the increasing resilience of a person: daily experience of human spiritual, beliefs/values, willingness to forgive, and the worship of religious activities as well as evaluating a person's level of religiousness. Discussion and implication of the research results are included.

  11. HOW RESILIENT IS THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL MODEL? FLEXIBILITY OR/AND SECURITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta GHEBREA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to assess the resilience of the European social model (ESM against recent challenges. Resilience depends on effectively managing the contradictions of the ESM. Flexicurity is an example of managing contradictions between security and flexibility. The contribution of flexicurity to the resilience of the ESM is determined by the development of the abilities necessary for resilience. Our research evaluates the performance of these abilities using statistical and document analyses. The results show that flexicurity policies perform satisfactorily relative to their resilience abilities. Still, the ability to respond is less effective due to significant differences among the Member States (regarding the implementation of flexicurity policies and to insufficient openness and functionality of the European labour market. Nevertheless, the European flexicurity policies redefine the ESM by adding a touch of a more mobile, autonomous and free-spirited approach, thus representing a solution to both preserve valuable tradition and modernise the ESM.

  12. [Resilience and the burnout-engagement model in formal caregivers of the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes de Lucena Carvalho, Virginia A; Fernández Calvo, Bernardino; Hernández Martín, Lorenzo; Ramos Campos, Francisco; Contador Castillo, Israel

    2006-11-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between resilience and positive/negative mental aspects of psychological well-being in formal caregivers for the elderly. The sample consisted of 265 caregivers who work in different residential homes in Extremadura and Castilla y León (Spain). The instruments used included the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale , the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The most significant findings show that caregivers with higher levels of resilience also have higher levels of professional efficacy and job engagement (vigor, dedication and absorption) and appear to be less emotionally exhausted or cynical than caregivers with lower levels of resilience. It cannot be concluded that more resilient caregivers will not get burned out, but they develop better engagement skills. As they strengthen these personal attributes, they become less vulnerable to burnout.

  13. Individualized performance prediction during total sleep deprivation: accounting for trait vulnerability to sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Thorsley, David; Wesensten, Nancy J; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in vulnerability to sleep loss can be considerable, and thus, recent efforts have focused on developing individualized models for predicting the effects of sleep loss on performance. Individualized models constructed using a Bayesian formulation, which combines an individual's available performance data with a priori performance predictions from a group-average model, typically need at least 40 h of individual data before showing significant improvement over the group-average model predictions. Here, we improve upon the basic Bayesian formulation for developing individualized models by observing that individuals may be classified into three sleep-loss phenotypes: resilient, average, and vulnerable. For each phenotype, we developed a phenotype-specific group-average model and used these models to identify each individual's phenotype. We then used the phenotype-specific models within the Bayesian formulation to make individualized predictions. Results on psychomotor vigilance test data from 48 individuals indicated that, on average, ∼85% of individual phenotypes were accurately identified within 30 h of wakefulness. The percentage improvement of the proposed approach in 10-h-ahead predictions was 16% for resilient subjects and 6% for vulnerable subjects. The trade-off for these improvements was a slight decrease in prediction accuracy for average subjects.

  14. Theory and Practice of a Leakage Resilient Masking Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasch, Josep; Faust, Sebastian; Gierlichs, Benedikt

    2012-01-01

    A recent trend in cryptography is to formally prove the leakage resilience of cryptographic implementations – that is, one formally shows that a scheme remains provably secure even in the presence of side channel leakage. Although many of the proposed schemes are secure in a surprisingly strong m...

  15. Techno-economics of resilient extended FTTH PONs

    OpenAIRE

    Prat Gomà, Josep Joan; Lázaro Villa, José Antonio; Chatzi, Sotiria; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    This work analyses different architectures of protected FTTH passive optical networks in terms of device and infrastructure requirements and costs, considering different home density scenarios and volume projections. The results show that the Sardana hybrid resilient network presents a wider scalability range in terms of cost efficiency. Peer Reviewed

  16. Resilience through participation and coping-enabling social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The articles included here show, albeit in different ways and to different degrees, that the resilience of HIV-affected children in the region is an outcome of their agency and interactions with their social environment. Policy actors and practitioners working to support HIV-affected children in Africa should take heed of the ...

  17. [Mediator effect of resilience between burnout and health in nursing staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the relationships between 3 burnout dimensions (Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Reduced Personal Accomplishment), health (physical and mental health), and resilience, as well as to analyse the mediator role of resilience in relationships between burnout and health in a sample of Nursing staff. A correlational and cross-sectional study with probabilistic sampling was conducted on a sample of 194 Nursing staff of University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid), and composed of nurses (n=133) and nursing assistants (n=61). MBI-HSS (burnout syndrome), SF-12v1 (physical and mental components of health), 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), and sociodemographic variables. Correlational analyses showed that mental health was negatively related with 3 burnout dimensions and positively with resilience. Furthermore, physical health was only negatively related with Emotional Exhaustion, and positively with resilience. Mediational analyses revealed that resilience mediated, on one hand, the relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization with mental health (partial mediation) and, on the other hand, the relationship between Reduced Personal Accomplishment and mental health (total mediation). Resilience is not only important to improve the mental health of Nursing staff, but also to buffer and minimize the negative consequences of the occupational stress to which they are at risk, with its most adverse result being signs of burnout. Therefore, resilience training should be promoted to improve nursing clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Resilient modulus characteristics of soil subgrade with geopolymer additive in peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Nasuhi; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Rahayu, Wiwik

    2017-06-01

    Resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil are generally very low with high potential of deformation and low bearing capacity. The efforts to improve the peat subgrade resilient modulus characteristics is required, one among them is by adding the geopolymer additive. Geopolymer was made as an alternative to replace portland cement binder in the concrete mix in order to promote environmentally friendly, low shrinkage value, low creep value, and fire resistant material. The use of geopolymer to improve the mechanical properties of peat as a road construction subgrade, hence it becomes important to identify the effect of geopolymer addition on the resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil. This study investigated the addition of 0% - 20% geopolymer content on peat soil derived from Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera Province. Resilient modulus measurement was performed by using cyclic triaxial test to determine the resilience modulus model as a function of deviator stresses and radial stresses. The test results showed that an increase in radial stresses did not necessarily lead to an increase in modulus resilient, and on the contrary, an increase in deviator stresses led to a decrease in modulus resilient. The addition of geopolymer in peat soil provided an insignificant effect on the increase of resilient modulus value.

  19. Perceived stress and resilience in Alzheimer's disease caregivers: testing moderation and mediation models of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Croom, Beth

    2008-05-01

    The study examined whether social support functioned as a protective, resilience factor among Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers. Moderation and mediation models were used to test social support amid stress and resilience. A cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data was conducted. Measures of demographics, perceived stress, family support, friend support, overall social support, and resilience were administered to caregiver attendees (N=229) of two AD caregiver conferences. Hierarchical regression analysis showed the compounded impact of predictors on resilience. Odds ratios generated probability of high resilience given high stress and social supports. Social support moderation and mediation were tested via distinct series of regression equations. Path analyses illustrated effects on the models for significant moderation and/or mediation. Stress negatively influenced and accounted for most variation in resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience, and caregivers with high family support had the highest probability of elevated resilience. Moderation was observed among all support factors. No social support fulfilled the complete mediation criteria. Evidence of social support as a protective, moderating factor yields implications for health care practitioners who deliver services to assist AD caregivers, particularly the promotion of identification and utilization of supportive familial and peer relations.

  20. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  1. Enkephalins: Endogenous Analgesics with an Emerging Role in Stress Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde S. Henry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension that results from adverse or demanding circumstances. Chronic stress is well known to induce anxiety disorders and major depression; it is also considered a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Stress resilience is a positive outcome that is associated with preserved cognition and healthy aging. Resilience presents psychological and biological characteristics intrinsic to an individual conferring protection against the development of psychopathologies in the face of adversity. How can we promote or improve resilience to chronic stress? Numerous studies have proposed mechanisms that could trigger this desirable process. The roles of enkephalin transmission in the control of pain, physiological functions, like respiration, and affective disorders have been studied for more than 30 years. However, their role in the resilience to chronic stress has received much less attention. This review presents the evidence for an emerging involvement of enkephalin signaling through its two associated opioid receptors, μ opioid peptide receptor and δ opioid peptide receptor, in the natural adaptation to stressful lifestyles.

  2. Post-Traumatic Growth and Resilience in Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patients: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greup, Suzanne R; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Jansen, Rosemarie; Manten-Horst, Eveliene; Thong, Melissa S Y; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Prins, Judith B; Husson, Olga

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on post-traumatic growth (PTG) and resilience among adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. A literature search in Embase, PsychInfo, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Cinahl was carried out. Thirteen articles met the pre-defined inclusion criteria. Qualitative interview studies showed that AYA cancer patients report PTG and resilience: PTG is described by AYA cancer patients in terms of benefit finding, including changing view of life and feeling stronger and more confident, whereas resilience is described as a balance of several factors, including stress and coping, goals, optimism, finding meaning, connection, and belonging. Quantitative studies showed that sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were not associated with PTG. Enduring stress was negatively, and social support positively, associated with PTG. Symptom distress and defensive coping were negatively and adaptive cognitive coping was positively associated with resilience. Both PTG and resilience were positively associated with satisfaction with life and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Resilience was found to be a mediator in the relationship between symptom distress and HRQoL. Two interventions aiming to promote resilience, a stress management and a therapeutic music video-intervention, were not successful in significantly increasing overall resilience. Most AYA cancer patients report at least some PTG or resilience. Correlates of PTG and resilience, including symptom distress, stress, coping, social support, and physical activity, provide further insight to improve the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting these positive outcomes and potentially buffer negative outcomes.

  3. Patterns and Limitations of Urban Human Mobility Resilience under the Influence of Multiple Types of Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population's vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals' movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers.

  4. Estimation of vegetation cover resilience from satellite time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Simoniello

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is a fundamental concept for understanding vegetation as a dynamic component of the climate system. It expresses the ability of ecosystems to tolerate disturbances and to recover their initial state. Recovery times are basic parameters of the vegetation's response to forcing and, therefore, are essential for describing realistic vegetation within dynamical models. Healthy vegetation tends to rapidly recover from shock and to persist in growth and expansion. On the contrary, climatic and anthropic stress can reduce resilience thus favouring persistent decrease in vegetation activity.

    In order to characterize resilience, we analyzed the time series 1982–2003 of 8 km GIMMS AVHRR-NDVI maps of the Italian territory. Persistence probability of negative and positive trends was estimated according to the vegetation cover class, altitude, and climate. Generally, mean recovery times from negative trends were shorter than those estimated for positive trends, as expected for vegetation of healthy status. Some signatures of inefficient resilience were found in high-level mountainous areas and in the Mediterranean sub-tropical ones. This analysis was refined by aggregating pixels according to phenology. This multitemporal clustering synthesized information on vegetation cover, climate, and orography rather well. The consequent persistence estimations confirmed and detailed hints obtained from the previous analyses. Under the same climatic regime, different vegetation resilience levels were found. In particular, within the Mediterranean sub-tropical climate, clustering was able to identify features with different persistence levels in areas that are liable to different levels of anthropic pressure. Moreover, it was capable of enhancing reduced vegetation resilience also in the southern areas under Warm Temperate sub-continental climate. The general consistency of the obtained results showed that, with the help of suited analysis

  5. Resilience and protective factors among people with a history of child maltreatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Li, Muzi; D'Arcy, Carl

    2018-05-01

    To provide an overview of resilience and protective factors associated with a better life following child maltreatment exposure, to compare protective factors across specific subtypes of maltreatment, and to explore existing issues in the current state of the literature. Electronic databases and grey literature up to October 2017 were systematically searched for English language with observational study designs for the research on resilience and childhood maltreatment. Systematic review and qualitative approaches were used to synthesize the results. Study quality and heterogeneity were also examined. Initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 247 papers being reviewed. A total of 85 articles met eligibility criteria of this review. Most of these studies had low or middle study quality. There were two subgroups of studies reviewed: (1) 11 studies examined whether resilience protected against the negative consequence of childhood maltreatment, and, (2) 75 studies explored what protective factor was associated with a kind of adaptive functioning. Although the conceptualization of resilience significantly varied from study to study, protective factors associated with resilience at individual, familial, and societal levels reduced the likelihood of negative consequences of childhood maltreatment. Negative consequences following childhood maltreatment can be prevented or moderated if protective factors are provided in time. Future research needs to address the conceptualization issue of resilience. Public and population mental health preventions should focus on early childhood and apply preventive strategies as early as possible. Cost-effective studies should be considered in the evaluation of resilience prevention program.

  6. Global resistance and resilience of primary production following extreme drought are predicted by mean annual precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Haëntjens, E. J.; De Boeck, H. J.; Lemoine, N. P.; Gough, C. M.; Kröel-Dulay, G.; Mänd, P.; Jentsch, A.; Schmidt, I. K.; Bahn, M.; Lloret, F.; Kreyling, J.; Wohlgemuth, T.; Stampfli, A.; Anderegg, W.; Classen, A. T.; Smith, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme drought is increasing globally in frequency and intensity, with uncertain consequences for the resistance and resilience of key ecosystem functions, including primary production. Primary production resistance, the capacity of an ecosystem to withstand change in primary production following extreme climate, and resilience, the degree to which primary production recovers, vary among and within ecosystem types, obscuring global patterns of resistance and resilience to extreme drought. Past syntheses on resistance have focused climatic gradients or individual ecosystem types, without assessing interactions between the two. Theory and many empirical studies suggest that forest production is more resistant but less resilient than grassland production to extreme drought, though some empirical studies reveal that these trends are not universal. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of sixty-four grassland and forest sites, finding that primary production resistance to extreme drought is predicted by a common continuum of mean annual precipitation (MAP). However, grasslands and forests exhibit divergent production resilience relationships with MAP. We discuss the likely mechanisms underlying the mixed production resistance and resilience patterns of forests and grasslands, including different plant species turnover times and drought adaptive strategies. These findings demonstrate the primary production responses of forests and grasslands to extreme drought are mixed, with far-reaching implications for Earth System Models, ecosystem management, and future studies of extreme drought resistance and resilience.

  7. How do we know about resilience? An analysis of empirical research on resilience, and implications for interdisciplinary praxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, Barbara J; Miller, Fiona; Barnett, Jon; Glaister, Alena; Ellemor, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We sought to understand how knowledge about resilience is produced. We examined empirical research into resilience from the social and natural sciences, randomly selected a sample of these studies and analysed their methods using common criteria to enable comparison. We found that studies of resilience from social scientists largely focus on the response of individuals to human-induced change events, while those from natural scientists largely focus on the response of ecological communities and populations to both environmental and human-induced change events. Most studies were of change over short time periods and focused on small spatial scales. Social science studies were dominated by one-off surveys, whereas natural science studies used a diversity of study designs to draw inferences about cause-and-effect. Whilst these differences typically reflect epistemological and methodological traditions, they also imply quite different understandings of resilience. We suggest that there are significant methodological barriers to producing empirical evidence about interactions between complex social and ecological systems. (letter)

  8. Future perspectives and their relation to wellbeing and resilience in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Omar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research (Omar, 2005; Omar, Uribe Delgado & Maltaneres, 2005, had showed a clear relationship between subjective well-being and resilience. In those opportunities, however, resilience was considered as a global construct. This study aims at exploring the possible relationships among resilience components, subjective well-being, and future perspectives. Method: Sample integrated by 198 (105 girls & 93 boys Argentinean high school students, 14- to 19-yr.-old. All sample participants answered a booklet that included Wagnild and Young’s Resilience Scale (1993; Nagpal and Sell’s Subjective Well-being Scale (1992, and three items specially developed to explore academic, labor, and family future perspectives. Development: correlation analysis indicated positive significant associations between resilience’s components (Personal realization; Self- determination, and Adaptation, and specific well-being dimensions. Likewise, resilience’s components and subjective well being dimensions showed significant correlations with positive future perspectives. No gender-specific differences were observed in any of the variables under analysis. Results: findings showed that adolescent resilience would be associated to familiar emotional support and positive social interchanges. Future orientations could be considered a new resilience protective factor. Social, familiar, and educational implications of these finding are discussed. A research agenda designed to further our understanding of resilience, well-being, and future perspectives linkages is proposed. 

  9. Student veterans' construction and enactment of resilience: A constructivist grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, A T; Kearney, C A; Isla, K; Bryant, R

    2018-02-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Resilience is an ability and a process that allows an individual to develop positive adaptation despite challenges and adversities. Many military veterans returning to college after their military service have difficulty transitioning to civilian life. Although some research exists that explores factors related to the resilience of college student veterans, limited theoretical descriptions exist that explain how student veterans construct resilience, and how resilience is enacted and enhanced in their academic and personal (non-academic) lives. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: The resilience of student veterans involves a complex process of transitioning from military to civilian life and an iterative journey between positive adaptation and transient perturbations. Student veterans' resilience is a result of integrating and resolving various aspects of their academic and personal challenges. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses can apply this grounded theory as a practical framework for equipping student veterans with effective strategies to develop and enhance resilience. Nurses can employ a holistic approach of care in their interactions with military veterans and student veterans that includes fostering psychological resilience, helping to manage their multiple non-academic responsibilities and supporting their academic success. Introduction Adjusting to college life is one of the most difficult experiences in a military veteran's transition to civilian life. Many military veterans returning to college not only encounter academic challenges, but also deal with physical and psychiatric disabilities, loss of military camaraderie and social disconnect. These often negatively affect their personal and academic lives. Hence, it is important to explore resilience to best support student veterans as they transition from military to civilian life. Aim The aim of this study was to explore how student veterans

  10. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  11. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eisenman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR, a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  12. Different roles in the quest for system resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fábio Morais; Menegon, Nilton Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Into dangerous and complex systems with high degree of interactivity between its components, the variability is present at all time, demanding a high degree of control of its operation. Maintaining or recovering the normality, when the system is under some stress (instability) is a function of Resilience. To cope with prevention, forecast, recovery and with memory of experiences from learned lessons requires some features from the companies. This paper purposes a structure that enables the Total Resilience of a system production that defines the assignments for Workers, Designers and Management Team, according to its features and possibilities. During one year and a half developing studies on ergonomics area of a Brazilian Oil Refinery, several situations were observed and studied using Work Ergonomic Analysis. These situations show actions and strategies that workers use to maintain the system stability. Furthermore, they revealed the importance that these actions are stored in a database of learned lessons from the Company. The research resulted in a broad scheme. It places each of these groups in the process of Total Resilience. It also shows the human like a center of actions that ensure the continuity of the system, main element at Resilience (Anthropocentric View).

  13. Nurses' resilience and the emotional labour of nursing work: An integrative review of empirical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cynthia; Upton, Dominic; Ranse, Kristen; Furness, Trentham; Foster, Kim

    2017-05-01

    The emotional labour of nursing work involves managing the emotional demands of relating with patients, families and colleagues. Building nurses' resilience is an important strategy in mitigating the stress and burnout that may be caused by ongoing exposure to these demands. Understandings of resilience in the context of emotional labour in nursing, however, are limited. To investigate the state of knowledge on resilience in the context of emotional labour in nursing. Integrative literature review. CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, and PsycINFO electronic databases were searched for abstracts published between 2005 and 2015 and written in English. Reference lists were hand searched. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method was used to guide this review. The constant comparative method was used to analyze and synthesize data from 27 peer-reviewed quantitative and qualitative articles. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool. Emotional labour is a facet of all aspects of nursing work and nurse-patient/family/collegial interactions. Emotional dissonance arising from surface acting in emotional labour can lead to stress and burnout. Resilience can be a protective process for the negative effects of emotional labour. Several resilience interventions have been designed to strengthen nurses' individual resources and reduce the negative effects of workplace stress; however they do not specifically address emotional labour. Inclusion of emotional labour-mitigating strategies is recommended for future resilience interventions. Resilience is a significant intervention that can build nurses' resources and address the effects of emotional dissonance in nursing work. There is a need for further investigation of the relationship between resilience and emotional labour in nursing, and robust evaluation of the impact of resilience interventions that address emotional labour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Socioeconomic inequalities in resilience and vulnerability among older adults: a population-based birth cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Cooper, R; Kuh, D; Stafford, M

    2017-11-08

    Aging is associated with declines in physical capability; however, some individuals demonstrate high well-being despite this decline, i.e. they are "resilient." We examined socioeconomic position (SEP) and resilience and the influence of potentially modifiable behavioral resources, i.e. social support and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), on these relationships. Data came from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally-representative birth cohort study. Resilience-vulnerability at age 60-64 years (n = 1,756) was operationalized as the difference between observed and expected levels of well-being, captured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), given the level of performance-based physical capability. SEP was assessed by father's and own social class, parental education, and intergenerational social mobility. PA and structural/functional social support were reported at ages 53 years and 60-64 years. Path analysis was used to examine mediation of SEP and resilience-vulnerability through LTPA and social support. Participants in the highest social class had scores on the resilience to vulnerability continuum that were an average of 2.3 units (β = 0.46, 95% CI 0.17, 0.75) higher than those in the lowest social class. Greater LTPA (β = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31, 0.85) and social support (β = 3.27, 95% CI 2.90, 3.63) were associated with greater resilience; LTPA partly mediated participant social class and resilience (23.4% of variance). Adult socioeconomic advantage was associated with greater resilience. Initiatives to increase LTPA may contribute to reducing socioeconomic inequalities in this form of resilience in later life.

  15. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  16. Loneliness, Resilience, Mental Health, and Quality of Life in Old Age: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerino, Eva; Rollè, Luca; Sechi, Cristina; Brustia, Piera

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In the scientific literature on aging, a recent core issue has been the role of individuals' internal and external resources, which are considered intrinsically connected, in contributing synergistically to physical and psychological quality of life (QoL). The current study investigates the way in which psychological factors-such as, loneliness, resilience, and mental states, in terms of depression and anxiety symptoms-affect the perceived QoL among elderly individuals. Method: Data from 290 elderly Italian participants were used to study the mediation effects of both mental health and resilience to elucidate the relationship between loneliness and psychophysical QoL. Results: The best model we obtained supports the mediation effect of both resilience and mental health between loneliness and mental and physical QoL. These results highlight that loneliness influences mental and physical QoL via two pathways, with the impact of loneliness mediated by mental health and resilience dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest the importance of the support that elderly people receive from social relationships. In terms of clinical interventions, the reduction of loneliness could be an important factor in primary prevention or the recovery process. A way to reduce levels of mental distress could be represented by the increasing of resilience and self-efficacy and reduction of loneliness dissatisfaction. A high degree of resiliency contributes to increasing perceived life quality at the physical and psychological levels, and at the same time, reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  17. Probing Resilience: Daily Environmental Mastery, Self-Esteem, and Stress Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Mignon A; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2016-10-01

    The current study explores one way the process of resilience arises by investigating the underlying process of stress appraisal. In particular, the analyses examine how resilience resources function each day to attenuate the extent to which life experiences are perceived as threatening, and how trait-like resilience resources shape the appraisal process. Daily diary and questionnaire data from 96 participants of Successful Aging in Context: The Macroenvironment and Daily Lived Experience (SAIC; MAge = 67 years, SDAge = 4.9 years; range: 58-86 years) were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling to investigate how individuals' daily perceptions of control and self-esteem impacted perceived stress on a given day. Results suggested that both self-esteem and environmental mastery help mitigate the experience of stress; furthermore, dispositional resilience and self-esteem stability predict differences between individuals in the extent to which self-esteem tempers the perception of stress each day. The results inform theoretical and empirical work on the nature of resilience, especially regarding how the process arises in ordinary life. From an application perspective, results imply that augmenting environmental mastery and self-esteem, both of which are malleable, can facilitate resilience by helping elders challenge their perceptions of stress each day. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Focusing the Meaning(s of Resilience: Resilience as a Descriptive Concept and a Boundary Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the variety of definitions proposed for "resilience" within sustainability science and suggests a typology according to the specific degree of normativity. There is a tension between the original descriptive concept of resilience first defined in ecological science and a more recent, vague, and malleable notion of resilience used as an approach or boundary object by different scientific disciplines. Even though increased conceptual vagueness can be valuable to foster communication across disciplines and between science and practice, both conceptual clarity and practical relevance of the concept of resilience are critically in danger. The fundamental question is what conceptual structure we want resilience to have. This article argues that a clearly specified, descriptive concept of resilience is critical in providing a counterbalance to the use of resilience as a vague boundary object. A clear descriptive concept provides the basis for operationalization and application of resilience within ecological science.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and its relationship with life-stress, anxiety and depression in a Hispanic Latin-American community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Resilience is a multi-dimensional construct associated with health and well-being. At present, we do not yet have a valid, scientific instrument that is designed to evaluate adult resilience in Spanish-speaking countries and that accounts for family, social and individual components. This study aimed at investigating the construct and cross-cultural validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) by combining Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Hierarchical Regression models in a Hispanic Latin-American group. A community sample of 805 adults answered the RSA, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). First-order CFA verified the six factors structure for the RSA (RMSEA = .037, SRMR = .047, CFI = .91, TLI = .90). Five RSA scales and total score have good internal consistency (scales α > .70; total score α = .90). Two second-order CFA verified the intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of the protector factors of resilience, as well as their commonality and uniqueness with affective symptoms (anxiety and depression). An exploratory MDS reproduced the relations of RSA items and factors at first and second-order levels against random simulated data, thereby providing initial evidence of its cross-cultural validity in a Spanish-speaking group. The Four-steps hierarchical model showed that the RSA scales are the strongest predictors of anxiety and depression-greater than gender, age, education and stressful life-events. Three RSA scales are significant unique predictors of affective symptoms. In addition, similar to findings in diverse cultural settings, resilience is positively associated with age but not with education. Women report higher scores of Social Resources and Social Competence and lower scores of Perception of the Self. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the construct and criterion-related validity of the RSA in broad, diverse and Spanish speaking

  20. Relationships between family resilience and posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Li, Yuli; Chen, Lijun; Li, Yurong; Qi, Weiye; Yu, Li

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationships between family resilience and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden among principal caregivers in China. Participants in this cross-sectional study comprised 108 women aged 26 to 74 years (M = 49, SD = 9) with early-stage breast cancer and 108 principal caregivers. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center of a public hospital in Shandong Province, China. The principal caregivers completed the Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale and the Chinese Version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview; patients completed the Short Form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and questions designed to obtain sociodemographic information. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to assess the adjusted association between family resilience and PTG and caregiver burden, while controlling for sociodemographics. Families showed a slightly elevated level of family resilience since the cancer experience, and patients showed a moderate degree of PTG. Principal caregivers reported moderate burden. The Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale total score was positively related to the Short Form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory total score (β = .28, P Caregiver Burden Interview total score (β = -.28, P resilience impacts PTG of breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden. Our findings indicated the necessity of interventions to facilitate family resilience, promote PTG among breast cancer survivors, and decrease family members' caregiver burden. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  2. Risk and resiliency processes in ethnically diverse families in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Santiago, Catherine Decarlo

    2008-06-01

    Families living in poverty face numerous stressors that threaten the health and well-being of family members. This study examined the relationships among family-level poverty-related stress (PRS), individual-level coping with PRS, and a wide range of psychological symptoms in an ethnically diverse sample of 98 families (300 family members) living at or below 150% of the federal poverty line. Hierarchical linear model (HLM) analyses revealed that family PRS is robustly related to a wide range of psychological syndromes for family members of both genders, all ages, and all ethnic backgrounds. In addition, primary and secondary control coping were both found to serve as buffers of PRS for many syndromes. For several psychological syndromes, parents showed significantly higher levels of symptoms, but the link between PRS and symptoms was significantly stronger for children than for adults. Ethnicity was not a significant predictor in overall HLM models or follow-up analyses, suggesting that the broad construct of PRS and the theoretical model tested here apply across the 3 major ethnic groups included in this study. The findings suggest that family-based, coping-focused interventions have the potential to promote resiliency and break linkages in the pernicious cycle of family economic stress. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Resilience to Interacting multi-natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Lu; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    Conventional analyses of hazard assessment tend to focus on individual hazards in isolation. However, many parts of the world are usually affected by multiple natural hazards with the potential for interacting relationships. The understanding of such interactions, their impacts and the related uncertainties, are an important and topical area of research. Interacting multi-hazards may appear in different forms, including 1) CASCADING HAZARDS (a primary hazard triggering one or more secondary hazards such as an earthquake triggering landslides which may block river channels with dammed lakes and ensued floods), 2) CONCURRING HAZARDS (two or more primary hazards coinciding to trigger or exacerbate secondary hazards such as an earthquake and a rainfall event simultaneously creating landslides), and 3) ALTERING HAZARDS (a primary hazard increasing the probability of a secondary hazard occurring such as major earthquakes disturbing soil/rock materials by violent ground shaking which alter the regional patterns of landslides and debris flows in the subsequent years to come). All three types of interacting multi-hazards may occur in natural hazard prone regions, so it is important that research on hazard resilience should cover all of them. In the past decades, great progresses have been made in tackling disaster risk around the world. However, there are still many challenging issues to be solved, and the disasters over recent years have clearly demonstrated the inadequate resilience in our highly interconnected and interdependent systems. We have identified the following weaknesses and knowledge gaps in the current disaster risk management: 1) although our understanding in individual hazards has been greatly improved, there is a lack of sound knowledge about mechanisms and processes of interacting multi-hazards. Therefore, the resultant multi-hazard risk is often significantly underestimated with severe consequences. It is also poorly understood about the spatial and

  4. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  5. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  7. Urban Systems during Disasters: Factors for Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Wallace

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban neighborhoods form the basic functional unit of municipalities. Socioeconomically, they consist of social networks and interlocking layers of social networks. Old, stable neighborhoods are blessed with large social networks and dense interlocking layers. Both social control and social support depend on these complex structures of tight and loose ties. Public health and public order depend on these structures. They are the basis of resilience of both the neighborhood itself and of the municipality that is composed of neighborhoods. In New York City in the 1970s and later, domain shift occurred because of the disruption of the socioeconomic structure by the massive destruction of low-rental housing. A combined epidemic of building fires and landlord abandonment of buildings leveled a huge percentage of housing in poor neighborhoods and forced mass migration between neighborhoods. Social relationships that had existed between families and individuals for decades were destroyed. Community efficacy also greatly diminished. Drug use, violent crime, tuberculosis, and low-weight births were among the many public health and public order problems that soared in incidence consequent to the unraveling of the communities. These problems spilled out into the metropolitan region of dependent suburban counties. The ability of a municipality and its dependent suburban counties to weather a disaster such as an avian flu pandemic depends on the size of social networks in its neighborhoods and on the interconnection between the social networks. Diversity such as gained by social and economic integration influences the strength of the loose ties between social networks. Poor neighborhoods with extreme resilience conferred by a dense fabric of social networks must also maintain connections with mainstream political structure or they will fail to react to both good and bad impacts and communications.

  8. Degrees of Resilience: Profiling Psychological Resilience and Prospective Academic Achievement in University Inductees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…

  9. Teaching Resilience: A Narrative Inquiry into the Importance of Teacher Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Angela; Pendergast, Donna; Garvis, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This study set out to explore how high school teachers perceive their resilience as they teach a scripted social and emotional learning program to students with the goal of promoting the resilience skills of the students in their pastoral care classes. In this emerging field of research on teacher resilience, there is a paucity of research…

  10. Reframing Resilience: Pilot Evaluation of a Program to Promote Resilience in Marginalized Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Matthew C.; Gorby, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Resilience has been described as a paradigm for aging that is more inclusive than models that focus on physiological and functional abilities. We evaluated a novel program, Resilient Aging, designed to influence marginalized older adults' perceptions of their