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Sample records for resilience scale rs

  1. Transdisciplinary Application of Cross-Scale Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana M. Sundstrom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems.

  2. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Maki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS and short version of the RS (RS-14. Findings The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p Conclusions This study demonstrates that the Japanese version of RS has psychometric properties with high degrees of internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.

  3. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Uehara, Ritei; Kondo, Maki; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2010-11-17

    The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) and short version of the RS (RS-14). The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.

  4. Resilience to affective disorders: a comparative validation of two resilience scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontjevas, Ruslan; de Beek, Wendie Op; Lataster, Johan; Jacobs, Nele

    2014-10-01

    Resilience to affective disorders in rehabilitating patients or in individuals with a severe disability is of special research interest. However, there is no gold standard for measuring resilience. We aimed to test the accuracy of the Dutch translation of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRSnl) and of the Resilience Scale (RSnl) in recognizing rehabilitating patients without anxiety and depression, and to determine the reliability and construct validity of both scales. A within-subjects longitudinal study with six assessments, each one week apart. Forty residents of a nursing home rehabilitating unit were interviewed to assess resilience (BRSnl and RSnl), optimism and pessimism (LOT-R), depression and anxiety (HADS), positive and negative affect (PANAS), and pain (VAS). Receiver operating characteristic analyses for recognizing the absence of depression and anxiety (HADS-score≤7) revealed better accuracy (P=0.038) for the BRSnl (AUC=0.84; pscales correlated moderately at baseline (rs=0.35; p=0.026), and at four-week follow-up (rs=0.50; p=0.004). The RSnl was positively associated with positive outcomes (optimism and positive affect), and the BRSnl positively with positive outcomes, and negatively with negative outcomes (pessimism, anxiety and negative affect). The RSnl showed a better four-week test-retest reliability (ICC, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.97) than the BRSnl (0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to.83). Short study duration, a relatively small sample. The BRSnl showed better performance in detecting people without depression and anxiety than the RSnl, and performed better on construct validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of the Chinese version of the resilience scale and its cutoff score for detecting low resilience in Chinese cancer patients.

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    Tian, Jun; Hong, Jin Sheng

    2013-05-01

    We aim to investigate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale (RS-14) and to determine the cutoff score of the RS-14 for screening Chinese cancer patients with low resilience. The current study was divided into two studies. In the first study, we randomly selected 625 people and obtained their scores in the Chinese version of the RS-14 and SF-36 using cross-sectional survey. We then calculated the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the RS-14. In the second study, we selected 970 hospital cancer patients diagnosed during 2010 to 2011 and assessed for their resilience once and for anxiety, depression, and quality of life on two occasions. We determined the cutoff score of the RS-14 based on the maximum Youden Index, with the scores of anxiety and depression as gold standards. The correlation coefficients for inter-items were in the range of 0.23 to 0.68 (P cancer patients with low resilience (sensitivity and specificity were 0.74 and 0.71, respectively). The Chinese version of the RS-14 has good validity and reliability, and it can measure the resilience of Chinese people. The cutoff score of 64 for the RS-14 is appropriate for detecting cancer patients with low resilience in order to decrease psychological stress and improving quality of life. Health care nurses can screen and detect cancer patients with low resilience based on the said cutoff score to timely provide psychological care and interventions for the patients.

  6. Resilience scales of a dammed tropical river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Elisa; Schmid, Martin; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Artificial river impoundments disrupt the seasonality and dynamics of thermal, chemical, morphological and ecological regimes in river systems. These alterations affect the aquatic ecosystems in space and time and specifically modify the seasonality and the longitudinal gradients of important biogeochemical processes. Resilience of river systems to anthropogenic stressors enables their recovery along the flow path; however little is known about the longitudinal distance that rivers need to partially restore their physical, chemical and biological integrity. In this study, the concept of a "resilience scale" will be explored for different water quality parameters downstream of Kariba dam, the largest artificial lake in the Zambezi basin (South-East Africa). The goal of this project is to develop a modelling framework to investigate and quantify the impact of large dams on downstream water quality in tropical context. In particular, we aim to assess the degree of reversibility of the main downstream alterations (temperature, oxygen, nutrients) and consequently the quantification of their longitudinal extent. Coupling in-situ measurements with hydraulic and hydrological parameters such as travel times, will allow us to define a physically-based parametrization of the different resilience scales for tropical rivers. The results will be used for improving future dam management at the local scale and assessing the ecological impact of planned dams at the catchment scale.

  7. Reliability and validity of a Swedish language version of the Resilience Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Björn; Randström, Kerstin Björkman; Lejonklou, Anna K; Lundman, Beril

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Swedish language version of the Resilience Scale (RS). Participants were 142 adults between 19-85 years of age. Internal consistency reliability, stability over time, and construct validity were evaluated using Cronbach's alpha, principal components analysis with varimax rotation and correlations with scores on the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). The mean score on the RS was 142 (SD = 15). The possible scores on the RS range from 25 to 175, and scores higher than 146 are considered high. The test-retest correlation was .78. Correlations with the SOC and the RSE were .41 (p validity of the Swedish language version of the RS.

  8. Extreme-scale Algorithms and Solver Resilience

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    Dongarra, Jack [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-12-10

    A widening gap exists between the peak performance of high-performance computers and the performance achieved by complex applications running on these platforms. Over the next decade, extreme-scale systems will present major new challenges to algorithm development that could amplify this mismatch in such a way that it prevents the productive use of future DOE Leadership computers due to the following; Extreme levels of parallelism due to multicore processors; An increase in system fault rates requiring algorithms to be resilient beyond just checkpoint/restart; Complex memory hierarchies and costly data movement in both energy and performance; Heterogeneous system architectures (mixing CPUs, GPUs, etc.); and Conflicting goals of performance, resilience, and power requirements.

  9. Resilience Scale-25 Spanish version: validation and assessment in eating disorders.

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    Las Hayas, Carlota; Calvete, Esther; Gómez del Barrio, Andrés; Beato, Luís; Muñoz, Pedro; Padierna, Jesús Ángel

    2014-08-01

    To validate into Spanish the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale - 25 (RS-25), assess and compare the scores on the scale among women from the general population, eating disorder (ED) patients and recovered ED patients. This is a cross-sectional study. ED participants were invited to participate by their respective therapists. The sample from the general population was gathered via an open online survey. Participants (N general population=279; N ED patients=124; and N recovered ED patients=45) completed the RS-25, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-BREF and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Mean age of participants ranged from 28.87 to 30.42years old. Statistical analysis included a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis and ANOVA. The two-factor model of the RS-25 produced excellent fit indexes. Measurement invariance across samples was generally supported. The ANOVA found statistically significant differences in the RS-25 mean scores between the ED patients (Mean=103.13, SD=31.32) and the recovered ED participants (Mean=138.42, SD=22.26) and between the ED patients and the general population participants (Mean=136.63, SD=19.56). The Spanish version of the RS-25 is a psychometrically sound measurement tool in samples of ED patients. Resilience is lower in people diagnosed with ED than in recovered individuals and the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transdisciplinary application of the cross-scale resilience model

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    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Angeler, David G.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Garcia, Jorge H.; Allen, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems.

  11. Development and Validation of the Mathematical Resilience Scale

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    Kooken, Janice; Welsh, Megan E.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Lee, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The Mathematical Resilience Scale measures students' attitudes toward studying mathematics, using three correlated factors: Value, Struggle, and Growth. The Mathematical Resilience Scale was developed and validated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across three samples. Results provide a new approach to gauge the likelihood of…

  12. A Measure of Team Resilience: Developing the Resilience at Work Team Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Kathryn; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2018-03-01

    This study develops, and initial evaluates, a new measure of team-based resilience for use in research and practice. We conducted preliminary analyses, based on a cross-sectional sample of 344 employees nested within 31 teams. Seven dimensions were identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The measure had high reliability and significant discrimination to indicate the presence of a unique team-based aspect of resilience that contributed to higher work engagement and higher self-rated team performance, over and above the effects of individual resilience. Multilevel analyses showed that team, but not individual, resilience predicted self-rated team performance. Practice implications include a need to focus on collective as well as individual behaviors in resilience-building. The measure provides a diagnostic instrument for teams and a scale to evaluate organizational interventions and research the relationship of resilience to other constructs.

  13. Development of a Career Resilience Scale for University Students

    OpenAIRE

    児玉, 真樹子

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a career resilience scale for university students. The data of 114 university students was collected. Career resilience, career decision making anxiety, and the degree of career development were measured. The result of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure of career resilience with a high Cronbach’s alpha: ability to cope with problems and changes; social skills; interest in novelty; optimism about the future; and willingness...

  14. Reliability and validity of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale

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    Callegari C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Camilla Callegari,1 Lorenza Bertù,2 Melissa Lucano,1 Marta Ielmini,1 Elena Braggio,1 Simone Vender1 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine – Psychiatric Division, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Centre for Research EPIMED – Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy Background: In recent years resilience has gained clinical relevance in sociological, psychological, and medical disciplines, and a lot of scales measuring resilience have been developed and have been utilized in the western countries. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14, by describing its validity and reliability. As agreed with the authors of the original English version of the RS-14, it was translated into Italian. Then the standard procedure for back-translation was followed. Methods: In total, 150 participants among the nursing and professional education students of the University of Insubria of Varese and health workers of the “ASST dei Sette Laghi-Ospedale di Circolo” of Varese were enrolled. The responses to the questionnaires were collected only from the students and the health workers between the ages of 18 and 65 years who gave their consent to participate in the study from April to September 2015. A subsample of 26 students and health workers was retested on the RS-14, 5 weeks after the first assessment. The questionnaires were handed out to 214 people, and 150 sets of questionnaires (70% were returned, of which eight were subsequently removed because >60% of the answers were missing. In order to ensure anonymity, every completed questionnaire was identified only via a code. Results: No significant differences were found between the mean values of the resilience scores between women (76.1 and men (76.3, with unpaired t-test = –0.08 and P=0.93. Similarly, no difference between resilience scores were found between

  15. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.1)

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    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Therefore the resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. Also, due to practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems future systems are likely to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. As a result the techniques that seek to improve resilience must navigate the complex trade-off space between resilience and the overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power efficiency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience using the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. Each established solution is described in the form of a pattern that

  16. Resilience of small-scale societies: a view from drylands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Balbo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To gain insights on long-term social-ecological resilience, we examined adaptive responses of small-scale societies to dryland-related hazards in different regions and chronological periods, spanning from the mid-Holocene to the present. Based on evidence from Africa (Sahara and Sahel, Asia (south margin of the Thar desert, and Europe (South Spain, we discuss key traits and coping practices of small-scale societies that are potentially relevant for building resilience. The selected case studies illustrate four main coping mechanisms: mobility and migration, storage, commoning, and collective action driven by religious beliefs. Ultimately, the study of resilience in the context of drylands emphasizes the importance of adaptive traits and practices that are distinctive of small-scale societies: a strong social-ecological coupling, a solid body of traditional ecological knowledge, and a high degree of internal cohesion and self-organization.

  17. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest that very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems will require future systems to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. The resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. These techniques must seek to improve resilience at reasonable overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various solutions, application-level as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power eciency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software ecosystems, which are expected to be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience based on the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. The catalog of resilience design patterns provides designers with reusable design elements. We define a design framework that enhances our understanding of the important

  18. Resilience Design Patterns: A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, Christian; Hukerikar, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to integrate the various HPC resilience techniques into composite solutions, nor are there methods to holistically evaluate the adequacy and efficacy of such solutions in terms of their protection coverage, and their performance \\& power efficiency characteristics. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this paper, we develop a structured approach to the design, evaluation and optimization of HPC resilience using the concept of design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the problems caused by various types of faults, errors and failures in HPC systems and the techniques used to deal with these events. Each well-known solution that addresses a specific HPC resilience challenge is described in the form of a pattern. We develop a complete catalog of such resilience design patterns, which may be used by system architects, system software and tools developers, application programmers, as well as users and operators as essential building blocks when designing and deploying resilience solutions. We also develop a design framework that enhances a designer's understanding the opportunities for integrating multiple patterns across layers of the system stack and the important constraints during implementation of the individual patterns. It is also useful for defining mechanisms and interfaces to coordinate flexible fault management across

  19. The Youth Ecological-Resilience Scale: A Partial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, Adrian D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In South Africa, the field of scale development and utilization in social work is referred to as "ecometrics," that is, the measurement of ecological constructs. There is, however, a lack of ecometric tools for social workers, particularly regarding strengths or resilience. Given the high vulnerability of South African youth,…

  20. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of resilience scale specific to cancer: an item response theory analysis.

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    Ye, Zeng Jie; Liang, Mu Zi; Zhang, Hao Wei; Li, Peng Fei; Ouyang, Xue Ren; Yu, Yuan Liang; Liu, Mei Ling; Qiu, Hong Zhong

    2018-03-22

    Classic theory test has been used to develop and validate the 25-item Resilience Scale Specific to Cancer (RS-SC) in Chinese patients with cancer. This study was designed to provide additional information about the discriminative value of the individual items tested with an item response theory analysis. A two-parameter graded response model was performed to examine whether any of the items of the RS-SC exhibited problems with the ordering and steps of thresholds, as well as the ability of items to discriminate patients with different resilience levels using item characteristic curves. A sample of 214 Chinese patients with cancer diagnosis was analyzed. The established three-dimension structure of the RS-SC was confirmed. Several items showed problematic thresholds or discrimination ability and require further revision. Some problematic items should be refined and a short-form of RS-SC maybe feasible in clinical settings in order to reduce burden on patients. However, the generalizability of these findings warrants further investigations.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bilenberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , was used to test the psychometric properties of this scale in a sample of 566 Danish school children between 6 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that parents and teachers had different frames of reference when rating symptoms in the mADHD-RS. There was support for the unidimensionality...... of the three subscales when parent and teacher ratings were analyzed independently. Nonetheless, evidence for differential item functioning was found across gender and age for specific items within each of the subscales. The findings expand existing psychometric information about the mADHD-RS and support its......Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Rating the severity of psychopathology and symptom load is essential in daily clinical practice and in research. The parent and teacher ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) includes...

  2. Resilience

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    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widel...

  3. The Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30): A New Multidimensional Construct Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is a psychological construct observed in some individuals that accounts for success despite adversity. Resilience reflects the ability to bounce back, to beat the odds and is considered an asset in human characteristic terms. Academic resilience contextualizes the resilience construct and reflects an increased likelihood of educational success despite adversity. The paper provides an account of the development of a new multidimensional construct measure of academic resilience. The 30 item Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30) explores process—as opposed to outcome—aspects of resilience, providing a measure of academic resilience based on students’ specific adaptive cognitive-affective and behavioral responses to academic adversity. Findings from the study involving a sample of undergraduate students (N = 532) demonstrate that the ARS-30 has good internal reliability and construct validity. It is suggested that a measure such as the ARS-30, which is based on adaptive responses, aligns more closely with the conceptualisation of resilience and provides a valid construct measure of academic resilience relevant for research and practice in university student populations. PMID:27917137

  4. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA and the Herth hope scale (HHS in the prediction of anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanna Morote

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS, in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25. Methods Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25. Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM. First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r, then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. Results The hierarchical models showed that (1 hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2 Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3 RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness. Women showed higher scores

  5. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA) and the Herth hope scale (HHS) in the prediction of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Krysinska, Karolina; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2017-10-27

    Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS), in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25). Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM). First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r), then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. The hierarchical models showed that (1) hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2) Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3) RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope) and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness). Women showed higher scores in social competences and resources (RSA

  6. Resilience in schizophrenia: A comparative study between a remote island and an urban area in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazunari; Suzuki, Takefumi; Imasaka, Yasushi; Kubo, Ken-Ichiro; Mizuno, Yuya; Saruta, Juri; Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The resilience levels between patients with schizophrenia residing in a rural island and a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan, was compared and the factors associated with resilience were explored. The Resilience Scale (RS) and EuroQol were assessed, together with biological markers and multiple demographic variables. No significant difference was found in the RS scores between the two groups (40 subjects each). However, longer duration of illness and higher EuroQol score were significantly associated with a greater RS score, which indicates that potentially successful adaptation and subjective perspectives appear more pertinent than the degree of urbanicity in determining resilience levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Measurement and Role of Ecological Resilience Systems Theory Across Domain-Specific Outcomes: The Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie S; Chivers, Sally

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education. The Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales are found to predict unique variance in job satisfaction, lower job burnout, quality-of-life following illness, marriage commitment, and educational engagement, while controlling for factors including sex, age, personality, cognitive ability, and trait resilience. The findings also suggest a distinction between the three resilience dimensions in terms of the types of systems to which they contribute. Engineering resilience may contribute most to life domains where an established system needs to be maintained, for example, one's health. Ecological resilience may contribute most to life domains where the system needs sustainability in terms of present and future goal orientation, for example, one's work. Adaptive Capacity may contribute most to life domains where the system needs to be retained, preventing it from reaching a crisis state, for example, work burnout.

  8. Diagnosing Disaster Resilience of Communities as Multi-scale Complex Socio-ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mochizuki, Junko; Keating, Adriana; Mechler, Reinhard; Williges, Keith; Hochrainer, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Global environmental change, growing anthropogenic influence, and increasing globalisation of society have made it clear that disaster vulnerability and resilience of communities cannot be understood without knowledge on the broader social-ecological system in which they are embedded. We propose a framework for diagnosing community resilience to disasters, as a form of disturbance to social-ecological systems, with feedbacks from the local to the global scale. Inspired by iterative multi-scale analysis employed by Resilience Alliance, the related socio-ecological systems framework of Ostrom, and the sustainable livelihood framework, we developed a multi-tier framework for thinking of communities as multi-scale social-ecological systems and analyzing communities' disaster resilience and also general resilience. We highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on communities that exist from lower (e.g., household) to higher (e.g., regional, national) scales. The conceptual framework is then applied to a real-world resilience assessment situation, to illustrate how key components of socio-ecological systems, including natural hazards, natural and man-made environment, and community capacities can be delineated and analyzed.

  9. Cross-scale feedbacks and scale mismatches as influences on cultural services and the resilience of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kristine; De Vos, Alta; Cumming, Graeme S; Moore, Christine; Biggs, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a central strategy for achieving global conservation goals, but their continued existence depends heavily on maintaining sufficient social and political support to outweigh economic interests or other motives for land conversion. Thus, the resilience of protected areas can be considered a function of their perceived benefits to society. Nature-based tourism (NBT), a cultural ecosystem service, provides a key source of income to protected areas, facilitating a sustainable solution to conservation. The ability of tourism to generate income depends, however, on both the scales at which this cultural service is provided and the scales at which tourists respond to services on offer. This observation raises a set of location-, context-, and scale-related questions that need to be confronted before we can understand and value cultural service provision appropriately. We combine elements of resilience analysis with a systems ecology framework and apply this to NBT in protected areas to investigate cross-scale interactions and scale mismatches. We postulate that cross-scale effects can either have a positive effect on protected area resilience or lead to scale mismatches, depending on their interactions with cross-scale feedbacks. To demonstrate this, we compare spatial scales and nested levels of institutions to develop a typology of scale mismatches for common scenarios in NBT. In our new typology, the severity of a scale mismatch is expressed as the ratio of spatial scale to institutional level, producing 25 possible outcomes with differing consequences for system resilience. We predict that greater differences between interacting scales and levels, and greater magnitudes of cross-scale interactions, will lead to greater magnitudes of scale mismatch. Achieving a better understanding of feedbacks and mismatches, and finding ways of aligning spatial and institutional scales, will be critical for strengthening the resilience of protected areas that

  10. Validation of the Persian version of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Shahrzad; Ghafaree-Nejad, Ali R; Soleymani-Zade, Somayeh; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-06-01

    The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) is an interview-based assessment of cognition that involves interviews with patients and informants. The SCoRS has shown good reliability, validity, and sensitivity to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, with the advantage of brief administration and scoring time. The present study aimed to test the concurrent validity of the Persian version of the SCoRS. A group of 35 patients with schizophrenia and a group of 35 healthy controls received the Persian-SCoRS in the first session, and a standardized performance-based cognitive battery, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), in the second session.Our results indicated that the Persian version of the SCoRS was sensitive to cognitive impairment in the patients. The Persian SCoRS global rating was significantly associated with the composite score generated from the Persian version of the BACS and predicted functional outcomes as measured by Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHO QOL). A Persian version of the SCoRS, an interview based measure of cognition that included informants, is related to cognitive performance and global functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Climate Resilience Toolkit: Central gateway for risk assessment and resilience planning at all governance scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, D.; Lipschultz, F.

    2016-12-01

    As people and organizations grapple with a changing climate amid a range of other factors simultaneously shifting, there is a need for credible, legitimate & salient scientific information in useful formats. In addition, an assessment framework is needed to guide the process of planning and implementing projects that allow communities and businesses to adapt to specific changing conditions, while also building overall resilience to future change. We will discuss how the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT) can improve people's ability to understand and manage their climate-related risks and opportunities, and help them make their communities and businesses more resilient. In close coordination with the U.S. Climate Data Initiative, the CRT is continually evolving to offer actionable authoritative information, relevant tools, and subject matter expertise from across the U.S. federal government in one easy-to-use location. The Toolkit's "Climate Explorer" is designed to help people understand potential climate conditions over the course of this century. It offers easy access to downloadable maps, graphs, and data tables of observed and projected temperature, precipitation and other decision-relevant climate variables dating back to 1950 and out to 2100. Since climate is only one of many changing factors affecting decisions about the future, it also ties climate information to a wide range of relevant variables to help users explore vulnerabilities and impacts. New topic areas have been added, such as "Fisheries," "Regions," and "Built Environment" sections that feature case studies and personal experiences in making adaptation decisions. A curated "Reports" section is integrated with semantic web capabilities to help users locate the most relevant information sources. As part of the USGCRP's sustained assessment process, the CRT is aligning with other federal activities, such as the upcoming 4th National Climate Assessment.

  12. Validity and clinical feasibility of the ADHD rating scale (ADHD-RS) A Danish Nationwide Multicenter Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szomlaiski, N; Dyrborg, J; Rasmussen, H

    2008-01-01

    clinical sample, and was sensitive to change in symptom load as measured before and after commencing of the treatment. Conclusion: The Danish version of ADHD-RS is valid and clinically feasible when measuring HKD symptom load in a CAMH-setting. The questionnaire provides useful data in patient management......Aim: To establish the validity of a Danish version of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), secondly to present national norm scores compared to that of United States and other European data and thirdly to evaluate ADHD-RS when used for monitoring treatment...... effectiveness. Methods: A Danish translation of the ADHD-RS was used on a normative sample of 837 children. Two clinical samples, 138 hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) cases and 110 clinical controls were recruited from eleven Danish Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH) centres and assessed according to usual...

  13. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: Implications for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Emma; Sandin, Leonard; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  14. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: implications for resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Göthe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  15. Measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-items Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC. Role of trauma exposure and anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Scali

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt positively in the face of trauma. Little is known, however, about lifetime factors affecting resilience. METHODS: We assessed the effects of psychiatric disorder and lifetime trauma history on the resilience self-evaluation using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10 in a high-risk-women sample. Two hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling women, including 122 participants in a study of breast cancer survivors and 116 participants without previous history of cancer completed the CD-RISC-10. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms were assessed retrospectively using two standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, education, trauma history, cancer, current psychiatric diagnoses, and psychoactive treatment indicated a negative association between current psychiatric disorder and high resilience compared to low resilience level (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.21-0.93]. This was related to anxiety and not mood disorder. A positive and independent association with a trauma history was also observed (OR = 3.18, 95% CI [1.44-7.01]. CONCLUSION: Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a "vaccination" effect. This finding need to be taken into account in future studies evaluating resilience in general or clinical populations.

  16. [Constructs of career resilience and development of a scale for their assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Makiko

    2015-06-01

    The constructs of career resilience were clarified and a scale was developed to assess them. Company employees (N = 241) participated in an online survey. The results of an exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure of career resilience with a high Cronbach's alpha: (a) ability to cope with challenges, problem-solving, and adaptation; (b) social skills; (c) novelty and diversity of interests; (d) future orientation; and (e) helping. The results of a correlation analysis showed that all five factors of career resilience directly promoted career development. The results of a two-way analysis of variance and t-tests revealed that all factors except for novelty and diversity of interests reduced the negative effects of risk on career development. The results confirmed that career resilience consisted of four factors: (a) ability to cope with challenges, problem-solving, and adaptation; (b) social skills; (d) future orientation; and (e) helping.

  17. Family resilience – definition of construct and preliminary results of the Polish adaptation of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nadrowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The article describes construct of family resilience with the main focus on the model Walsh. The aim of this article is to present preliminary results: adaptation, reliability, statistical analyses of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS for the Polish population. Participants and procedure Participants (n = 329, aged 18-35, completed experimental Polish version of the FRAS (SPR – Skala Prężności Rodzinnej. In the procedure of adaptation, scale was translated and modified into Polish. Scale consists of the following subscales: Family Communication and Problem Solving, Utilizing Social and Economic Resources, Maintaining a Positive Outlook, Family Connectedness, Family Spirituality and Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity. Results The reliability of the experimental Polish version of the FRAS for the entire scale and five subscales are satisfactory. Only subscale Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity obtained reliability of less than 0.7. Taking into account the diversity of gender and declaring the passage through the difficult events were observed significant differences in the three scales: Family Communication and Problem Solving, Family Connectedness, Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity and total scale of FRAS. Conclusions The work on the questionnaire is still in progress and the results presented here should be considered as preliminary. In the next steps, the number of men should be increased in order to perform confirmatory factor analysis. Future studies should take into account a number of factors and contexts (e.g. family structure, social and cultural context and the type of stressful event.

  18. Psychometric validation of the French version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihard, G; Deumier, L; Alliot-Licht, B; Bouton-Kelly, L; Michaut, C; Quilliot, F

    2018-02-01

    Resilience defines the ability to face adversity with positive outcomes. Different scales, including the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CDRISC), have been elaborated in order to evaluate resilience among various populations. The evaluation of resilience in French populations was impossible until CDRISC was translated into French. In the present work, we aim to validate a French version of CDRISC (f-CDRISC). The survey was conducted at Nantes University. Both dental and medical students were eligible. The factor structure of f-CDRISC was determined and its replicability was tested on two sub-samples by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and parallel analysis (PA). A third student sample was used for confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA). We collected 1210 responses. Four items did not reach acceptance thresholds for reliability and were discarded from the f-CDRISC. EFA and PA of the remaining 21 items highlighted a replicable 3-factor structure that was further confirmed by CFA. Resilience factors included "tolerance to negative affects", "tenacity" and "self-confidence". All factors displayed acceptable to good internal consistency. They were characterized by positive medium to strong correlations with the overall f-CDRISC Scale. Significant positive correlations were also observed between the resilience factors. The present work constitutes the first study devoted to a French adaptation of the CDRISC questionnaire. We present evidence showing that the f-CDRISC is a reliable tool for resilience evaluation in French speaking populations. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The notions of resilience in spatial planning for drought - flood coexistence (DFC) at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trong Hoa, Nguyen; Vinh, Nguyen Quoc

    2018-04-01

    The notions of urban resilience and resilient city has been developed in the 2000s [1], four decades since the first concept of ecological resilience was originally introduced in the 1970s by ecologist C.S. Holling [2]. However, they have attracted great attentions and interests, in both academia and urban governance, then in planning practice over recent years. The first two sections of this paper examine the term resilience in ecological systems, urban systems, in spatial planning and in urban design. Specific attention of the paper, introduced in the third part, is to investigate resilience in the context of drought-flood coexistence (DFC), revolving two key objects and their interactions: DFC and urban at regional scale. Flood and drought events, in their turns intertwine in natural correlation, which is also reviewed. These relationships are literally investigated, to prove that they interplay mutually with each other, and that once a city develops in relation with water cycle at a regional context, in arid zone, not only hydrological drought could be regionally decreased, but human-induced floods could be ecologically regulated. The study concludes in the fourth, together with lessons from relevant case studies in America, China, with some principles on spatial planning, resilient/adaptive to DFC, which could be ecologically managed in correlation with urban development on a sustainable pathway.

  20. Reliability and validity of the korean version of the connor-davidson resilience scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Mi-Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook

    2010-06-01

    The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) measures various aspects of psychological resilience in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric ailments. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC). In total, 576 participants were enrolled (497 females and 79 males), including hospital nurses, university students, and firefighters. Subjects were evaluated using the K-CD-RISC, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were examined as a measure of reliability, and convergent validity and factor analysis were also performed to evaluate validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. The total score on the K-CD-RISC was positively correlated with the RSES (r=0.56, pvalidity for measurement of resilience among Korean subjects.

  1. Incorporating resilience and cost in ecological restoration strategies at landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Stefanes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of deforested or degraded areas can contribute to biodiversity conservation and global resilience given the current and projected impacts of climate change. In recent years, a robust array of ecological restoration frameworks have been generated to address restoration challenges at large scales in different ecosystems around the world. Unfortunately, the costs associated with restoration at such scales greatly challenges the implementation of such frameworks. We used landscape ecology principles with multicriteria optimization of landscape resilience and agricultural productivity as a way to mitigate the trade-offs between production and restoration. We used the Cerrado biome in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, as a case study to apply our framework. We compared three scenarios: minimal legal compliance (MLC; selection by ecological resilience (SER; and selection by restoration cost (SRC. Our results show that increasing the restoration target from MLC (25% to SER (30% means moving from 968,316 to 1592 million hectares, which can represent a huge opportunity cost for agricultural lands. However, because costs and resilience are not homogeneously distributed throughout landscapes, we can select areas of intermediate ecological resilience and low cost, for the same restoration area target. This process can reduce potential conflicts and make restoration a more viable process. Our results also reveal some areas that can be particularly important for reconciling agriculture and landscape restoration. Those areas combined high and intermediate resilience and an above average profitability. This could mean that increasing restoration in this area could be very expensive, assuming that our proxy roughly represents the restoration implementation cost. However, there is another important message here, that some areas can be productive at the same time that they maintain levels of resilience above the legal compliance, which facilitates

  2. Using the Kannada version of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale to assess resilience and its relationship with psychological distress among adolescent girls in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidheek, K P Fasli; Satyanarayana, Veena A; Sowmya, H R; Chandra, Prabha S

    2017-12-01

    A widely used and accepted scale for assessing resilience is the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The aim of the present study was to establish the psychometric properties of the Kannada version of the scale and assess the relationship between resilience and psychological distress in a sample of adolescent girls living in low-income settings. Data was obtained from a sample of 606 adolescent girls studying in a college meant for women from a socio-economically disadvantaged setting. The CD- RISC (25 item) was used to assess resilience and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) was used to assess psychological distress. Exploratory factor analysis yielded four stable factors instead of the original five factors. Similar results have been obtained in other factor-analytic studies. A significant negative correlation was found between psychological distress and resilience. Our study shows that the CD-RISC is a valuable measure to assess resilience among adolescents in low-income settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Zea mays iRS1563: A Comprehensive Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstruction of Maize Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rajib; Suthers, Patrick F.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2011-01-01

    The scope and breadth of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions have continued to expand over the last decade. Herein, we introduce a genome-scale model for a plant with direct applications to food and bioenergy production (i.e., maize). Maize annotation is still underway, which introduces significant challenges in the association of metabolic functions to genes. The developed model is designed to meet rigorous standards on gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations, elementally and charged balanced reactions and a biomass reaction abstracting the relative contribution of all biomass constituents. The metabolic network contains 1,563 genes and 1,825 metabolites involved in 1,985 reactions from primary and secondary maize metabolism. For approximately 42% of the reactions direct literature evidence for the participation of the reaction in maize was found. As many as 445 reactions and 369 metabolites are unique to the maize model compared to the AraGEM model for A. thaliana. 674 metabolites and 893 reactions are present in Zea mays iRS1563 that are not accounted for in maize C4GEM. All reactions are elementally and charged balanced and localized into six different compartments (i.e., cytoplasm, mitochondrion, plastid, peroxisome, vacuole and extracellular). GPR associations are also established based on the functional annotation information and homology prediction accounting for monofunctional, multifunctional and multimeric proteins, isozymes and protein complexes. We describe results from performing flux balance analysis under different physiological conditions, (i.e., photosynthesis, photorespiration and respiration) of a C4 plant and also explore model predictions against experimental observations for two naturally occurring mutants (i.e., bm1 and bm3). The developed model corresponds to the largest and more complete to-date effort at cataloguing metabolism for a plant species. PMID:21755001

  4. Psychometric properties of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in a Spanish sample of entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-García, Guadalupe; Ayala Calvo, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The literature regarding entrepreneurship suggests that the resilience of entrepreneurs may help to explain entrepreneurial success, but there is no resilience measure widely accepted by researchers. This study analyzes the psychometric properties of the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a sample of Spanish entrepreneurs. A telephone survey research method was used. The participants were entrepreneurs operating in the business services sector. Interviewers telephoned a total of 900 entrepreneurs of whom 783 produced usable questionnaires. The CD-RISC was used as data collection instrument. We used principal component analysis factor and confirmatory factor analysis to determine the factor structure of the CD-RISC. Confirmatory factor analysis failed to verify the original five-factor structure of the CD-RISC, whereas principal component analysis factor yielded a 3-factor structure of resilience (hardiness, resourcefulness and optimism). In this research, 47.48% of the total variance was accounted for by three factors, and the obtained factor structure was verified through confirmatory factor analysis. The CD-RISC has been shown to be a reliable and valid tool for measuring entrepreneurs' resilience.

  5. The Continuum of Conflict and Control Relationship Scale (CCC-RS): Psychometrics for a Measure Designed to Discriminate among Types of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ryan G.; Rogers, Tiffany L.; Wheeler, Naomi J.; Kelchner, Viki; Griffith, Sandy-Ann M.; Liu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) classifications have treatment implications for couples. This study tested the psychometrics of the Continuum of Conflict and Control Relationship Scale (CCC-RS) and examined differences between violence severity and CCC-RS scales. A sample of 575 low-income, ethnically diverse participants contributed data. Results…

  6. Relationship between Barthel Index (BI and the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS Score in Assessing Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Mohanty

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated that stroke functional outcome can be predicted from the baseline BI and mRS scales. It is concluded thatBI and mRS Stroke scale can be used to prognosticate functional outcome at admission and at follow up.

  7. Does Resilience Mediate Carer Distress After Head and Neck Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Grahame K; Dall'Armi, Luci; Roydhouse, Jessica K; Forstner, Dion; Daher, Maysaa; Simpson, Teresa; White, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Caring for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) can have significant negative psychological and practical impact; however, some carers seem able to cope effectively. Little research has investigated this resilience among carers. The objective of this study was to investigate the resilience levels among carers of patients with HNC. Carers (n = 51) from 2 cancer services in New South Wales completed the Resilience Scale (RS), the Head and Neck Information Needs Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale cutoff scores (>8) were used to classify carers with clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression. The majority of carers (67% [34/51]) reported moderately high to high resilience. Rates of anxiety and depression among carers were 27.4% and 9.8%, respectively. Higher resilience scores were significantly correlated with lower anxiety and depression scores, as well as increasing age. Resilience Scale scores were independent of the severity of the HNC. There were no significant correlations between RS scores and Head and Neck Information Needs Questionnaire scores. Finally, increasing RS scores were associated with a decreasing probability of possible anxiety or depression. These results indicate that higher resilience in carers of HNC patients was associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further investigation into the relationship between resilience and carer psychological wellbeing is warranted. If further evidence supports the findings of this study, then investigating ways to build resilience will be an important clinical option for reducing carer morbidity associated with anxiety and depression. The RS could be used to assess resilience levels among carers of HNC patients.

  8. A simulation infrastructure for examining the performance of resilience strategies at scale.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Levy, Scott N.; Bridges, Patrick G.

    2013-04-01

    Fault-tolerance is a major challenge for many current and future extreme-scale systems, with many studies showing it to be the key limiter to application scalability. While there are a number of studies investigating the performance of various resilience mechanisms, these are typically limited to scales orders of magnitude smaller than expected for next-generation systems and simple benchmark problems. In this paper we show how, with very minor changes, a previously published and validated simulation framework for investigating appli- cation performance of OS noise can be used to simulate the overheads of various resilience mechanisms at scale. Using this framework, we compare the failure-free performance of this simulator against an analytic model to validate its performance and demonstrate its ability to simulate the performance of two popular rollback recovery methods on traces from real

  9. A test of the cross-scale resilience model: Functional richness in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardwell, D.A.; Allen, Craig R.; Peterson, G.D.; Tyre, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological resilience has been proposed to be generated, in part, in the discontinuous structure of complex systems. Environmental discontinuities are reflected in discontinuous, aggregated animal body mass distributions. Diversity of functional groups within body mass aggregations (scales) and redundancy of functional groups across body mass aggregations (scales) has been proposed to increase resilience. We evaluate that proposition by analyzing mammalian and avian communities of Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. We first determined that body mass distributions for each animal community were discontinuous. We then calculated the variance in richness of function across aggregations in each community, and compared observed values with distributions created by 1000 simulations using a null of random distribution of function, with the same n, number of discontinuities and number of functional groups as the observed data. Variance in the richness of functional groups across scales was significantly lower in real communities than in simulations in eight of nine sites. The distribution of function across body mass aggregations in the animal communities we analyzed was non-random, and supports the contentions of the cross-scale resilience model. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents in Norwegian adolescents 13-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Unni K; Haugan, Gørill

    2018-03-01

    Resilience is seen as a vital resource for coping and mental health in adolescents. However, there is no universally accepted theory or definition of resilience, leading to considerable challenges regarding how to operationalise and measure this construct. The study aimed at providing further knowledge of the psychometric properties (dimensionality, construct validity and internal consistency) of the 28-item version of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) in N = 1183 Norwegian adolescents, 13-18 years old. Dimensionality of READ was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Convergent validity and reliability were tested using Pearson's correlation analysis, Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability. The CFA supported a modified, 20-item, five-factor structure with high reliability, supporting the dimensionality and internal consistency of the instrument. Convergent validity was confirmed where all factors correlated in expected directions with measures of sense of coherence, self-esteem, stress and depression. The psychometric properties of the READ need to be further evaluated in adolescents; however, the results indicate that a modified 20-item version of READ is adequate for assessing resilience in the present sample of Norwegian adolescents. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Multi-Scale Modeling and Probabilistic Assessment of Electrical Power and Dependent Systems' Resilience to Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, S.; Pasqualini, D.; Crawford, T.; Ewers, M.; Tasseff, B.; Ambrosiano, J.; Linger, S.; Roberts, R.; Bent, R.; Barnes, A.

    2016-12-01

    Electrical power systems and infrastructure systems that depend on electric power are deployed and operated at spatial scales ranging from individual facilities to cities to regions. The resilience of these systems has evolved naturally under the influence of extreme events. This evolution continues today as systems face more severe and frequent extreme events. Accurately representing the present resilience and future evolution of these systems across such a wide range of scales is both a modeling and computational challenge, especially considering that system evolution may involve new technologies and design approaches where no historical data are available to enable extrapolations. Naïve top-down aggregations of existing electrical power distribution networks will not capture important correlations between previous system hardening and critical dependent systems, leading to inaccurate modeling of current local resilience and costs associated with upgrades to improve local resilience and inaccurate boundary conditions on regional-scale electrical transmission models. Using probabilistic risk analysis approaches for hurricane and ice storm events, we present an integrated multi-scale, multi-sector modeling approach that can model and upscale naturally evolved resilience of fine-scale electrical distribution networks and their dependent critical systems. We use stochastic optimization-based models to predict and upscale potential future evolution driven by existing and emerging technologies. An optimization approach can incorporate human factors and represent potential bias in the resilience adaptation toward different residual risk profiles. We describe the coupling of these new aggregated models of fine-scale electrical power system resilience to models of regional electrical transmission systems and show how resilient regional operational strategies may be adapted to autonomous local resilience upgrades.

  12. Resilience to climate change in a cross-scale tourism governance context: a combined quantitative-qualitative network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Luthe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social systems in mountain regions are exposed to a number of disturbances, such as climate change. Calls for conceptual and practical approaches on how to address climate change have been taken up in the literature. The resilience concept as a comprehensive theory-driven approach to address climate change has only recently increased in importance. Limited research has been undertaken concerning tourism and resilience from a network governance point of view. We analyze tourism supply chain networks with regard to resilience to climate change at the municipal governance scale of three Alpine villages. We compare these with a planned destination management organization (DMO as a governance entity of the same three municipalities on the regional scale. Network measures are analyzed via a quantitative social network analysis (SNA focusing on resilience from a tourism governance point of view. Results indicate higher resilience of the regional DMO because of a more flexible and diverse governance structure, more centralized steering of fast collective action, and improved innovative capacity, because of higher modularity and better core-periphery integration. Interpretations of quantitative results have been qualitatively validated by interviews and a workshop. We conclude that adaptation of tourism-dependent municipalities to gradual climate change should be dealt with at a regional governance scale and adaptation to sudden changes at a municipal scale. Overall, DMO building at a regional scale may enhance the resilience of tourism destinations, if the municipalities are well integrated.

  13. Organizational culture of a psychiatric hospital and resilience of nursing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Gaioli, Cheila Cristina Leonardo de Oliveira; Camelo, Silvia Helena Henriques; Mininel, Vivian Aline; Vegro, Thamiris Cavazzani

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the organizational culture of a psychiatric hospital and identify the capacity of resilience of nursing workers. quantitative research. For data collection, were used the Brazilian Instrument for Evaluation of Organizational Culture (IBACO - Instrumento Brasileiro para Avaliação da Cultura Organizacional) and the Resilience Scale (RS). participants reported the existence of centralization of power and devaluation of workers, despite recognizing the existence of collaboration at work and practices for improving interpersonal relations. In relation to the capacity of resilience, 50% of workers showed high level, and 42.9% a medium level of resilience. The correlation tests revealed negative values between the IBACO and RS domains, indicating that the lower the appreciation of individuals in the institution, the greater their capacity of resilience. the organizational values reflect the work organization model in the institution that devalues the workers' needs and requires greater capacity of resilience.

  14. Standardization of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in Iranian subjects with Cerebrovascular Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad1

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilience is a personal trait that can influence the stroke subjects’ attitudes toward future opportunities and facilitate the transitional process and adaptation in them. Assessment of this trait in stroke subjects with a standardized tool would promote the rehabilitation protocols and occupational therapy interventions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to standardize the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC for Persian Iranian people who have had strokes. Methods: A descriptive observational study was adopted in order to standardize the CD-RISC in stroke population. The population was comprised of 34 female and 29 male subjects with a mean age of 51.4±10.6 years and the history of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accidents. Subjects were recruited based on inclusion criteria within the period of two months between May and July of 2014. Descriptive statistics were calculated along with the Cronbach’s alpha to determine reliability. Standard multiple regression analyses searched for any correlation between variables and resilience. Results: Statistical parameters revealed a mean of 58.4±15.5 for CD-RISC raw scores. Percentile ranks were also calculated from raw data. Cronbach’s alpha of 0.892 revealed that the CD-RISC had high reliability for the population of this study. Multiple regression analyses showed that the functional status was the only variable that uniquely predicted subjects’ resilience (ß=0.41; P<0.01. Conclusion: The findings of this research confirmed applicability of CDRISC in Iranian people who have had strokes. The standardized CD-RISC was determined to be suitable for use in the clinic and for utilization in research studies in Iranian people status post-stroke.

  15. Coupled Vulnerability and Resilience: the Dynamics of Cross-Scale Interactions in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Gotham

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of trauma on cross-scale interactions in order to identify the major social-ecological factors affecting the pace and trajectory of post-Katrina rebuilding in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Disaster and traumatic events create and activate networks and linkages at different spatial and institutional levels to provide information and resources related to post-trauma recovery and rebuilding. The extension, intensification, and acceleration of cross-scale linkages and interactions in response to trauma alter organizational couplings, which then contribute to the vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems. Rather than viewing urban ecosystems as either resilient or vulnerable, we conceptualize them as embodying both resilient and vulnerable components. This integrated approach directs analytical attention to the impact of socio-legal regulations, government policies, and institutional actions on resilience and vulnerability, which are also systemic properties of urban ecosystems.

  16. Content Validity of the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV) and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) in Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen W. Wyrwich PhD; Shannon Shaffer BA; Katharine Gries PharmD, PhD; Priscilla Auguste MHS; Kim Hart Mooney MS, CGC; Suyash Prasad MD; Deborah A. Bilder MD

    2016-01-01

    The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV; parent report) and Adult ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS; self-report) are validated instruments for measuring symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objectives of this study were to elicit descriptions of phenylketonuria (PKU) symptoms and assess content validity of these instruments in PKU. Parents (N = 15) of children with PKU (≥8 years old) and adults with PKU (N=13) described PKU-related symptoms and commented on the scale’s clari...

  17. Impact of Data Placement on Resilience in Large-Scale Object Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carns, Philip; Harms, Kevin; Jenkins, John; Mubarak, Misbah; Ross, Robert; Carothers, Christopher

    2016-05-02

    Distributed object storage architectures have become the de facto standard for high-performance storage in big data, cloud, and HPC computing. Object storage deployments using commodity hardware to reduce costs often employ object replication as a method to achieve data resilience. Repairing object replicas after failure is a daunting task for systems with thousands of servers and billions of objects, however, and it is increasingly difficult to evaluate such scenarios at scale on realworld systems. Resilience and availability are both compromised if objects are not repaired in a timely manner. In this work we leverage a high-fidelity discrete-event simulation model to investigate replica reconstruction on large-scale object storage systems with thousands of servers, billions of objects, and petabytes of data. We evaluate the behavior of CRUSH, a well-known object placement algorithm, and identify configuration scenarios in which aggregate rebuild performance is constrained by object placement policies. After determining the root cause of this bottleneck, we then propose enhancements to CRUSH and the usage policies atop it to enable scalable replica reconstruction. We use these methods to demonstrate a simulated aggregate rebuild rate of 410 GiB/s (within 5% of projected ideal linear scaling) on a 1,024-node commodity storage system. We also uncover an unexpected phenomenon in rebuild performance based on the characteristics of the data stored on the system.

  18. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in Critical Care Nurses: A Psychometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealer, Meredith; Schmiege, Sarah J; Meek, Paula

    2016-01-01

    (a) To investigate the factor structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in critical care nurses, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and (b) to assess reliability and known group differences of the CD-RISC on critical care nurses. CD-RISC surveys were collected on 744 critical care nurses across the United States. An abridged version of the CD-RISC was used for the EFA and CFA. Further reliability and known group differences were also tested. EFA identified 3 factors with eigenvalues >1.0 and an explained variance of 59%. The factors were labeled personal competence, perseverance, and leadership, and each factor had salient loadings. The 3-factor CFA provided good fit to the data, χ(2) = 243.1, p < .001; RMSEA = .062; CFI = .935, although correlations among the 3 factors were high (.78-.86). A 1-factor model was subsequently tested but did not produce a better fit, and model comparison analyses supported retention of the 3-factor model. Known group differences was supported as intensive care unit (ICU) nurses with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had significantly lower total resilience scores (M = 75.43) compared to those without a diagnosis of PTSD (M = 83.21; t = 5.01; p < .001). The current investigation found that the 3-factor structure provided the best fit for the data on the abridged version of the CD-RISC in a population of ICU nurses. Analyses also supported the reliability and known group differences of the 16-item measure. Further research is needed to examine trait and capacity features of resilience as it relates to this population.

  19. Differential item functioning in the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Teresi, Jeanne A; Stebbins, Glenn T; Goetz, Christopher G

    2017-08-01

    Test if differential item functioning due to gender, age, race/ethnicity, or education impacts Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale scores. Testing rating scales for differential item functioning is a core validation step. If differential item functioning exists, interpretation of item scores must consider secondary influences on dyskinesia ratings. Using Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale translation databases (N = 3,132), we tested uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning. We required confirmation by two independent methods and considered differential item functioning pertinent if McFadden pseudo R 2 magnitude statistics exceeded negligible ratings. No age, race/ethnicity, or education nonuniform differential item functioning was identified. Gender nonuniform differential item functioning occurred for 2 items, both with negligible magnitude. Gender, race, and education uniform differential item functioning was observed for multiple items, all with negligible magnitude. The Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale items effectively capture dyskinesia severity without pertinent gender, age, race/ ethnicity, or education influence. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. An exploratory investigation of relationships among mental skills and resilience in Warrior Transition Unit cadre members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Michael A; Hammermeister, Jon; Ohlson, Carl; Holliday, Bernie; Ulmer, Graham

    2010-04-01

    Warrior transition unit (WTU) cadre members are exposed to a variety of stressors that put them at risk for adverse conditions and events. Resilience may be a construct capable of moderating some of these potential negative outcomes. In turn, mental toughness is a concept associated with resilience that may provide a unique framework from which to train resilient behavior. This article explored associations between resilience and several mental skills that are assumed to be related to mental toughness, in a sample (n = 27) of WTU cadre members in the U.S. Army. Instruments included the Ottawa Mental Skills Inventory (OMSAT-3) and the Resilience Scale (RS). Both cognitive mental skills and emotion management skills were positively associated with resilience. Results also indicated a model specifying emotion management as a mediator of the relationship between cognitive skills and resilience was consistent with the study data.

  1. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale as a Positive Psychology Measure for People with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Mayu; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Catalano, Denise; Hunter, Celeste; Bengtson, Kevin; Rahimi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the measurement structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) as a positive psychology measure for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) using confirmatory factor analysis. The participants consisted of 274 Canadians with SCI living in the community. The result indicated that the…

  2. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  3. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Chapin, T.; Rockstrom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change

  4. Content Validity of the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV and Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS in Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen W. Wyrwich PhD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD RS-IV; parent report and Adult ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS; self-report are validated instruments for measuring symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The objectives of this study were to elicit descriptions of phenylketonuria (PKU symptoms and assess content validity of these instruments in PKU. Parents (N = 15 of children with PKU (≥8 years old and adults with PKU (N=13 described PKU-related symptoms and commented on the scale’s clarity, comprehensiveness, and relevance to their experience with PKU. Most of the adults (84.6% and all of the children were on a phenylalanine-restricted diet, according to respondent report. The inattentiveness symptoms reported by participants mapped to the inattentive items of the questionnaires. Most participants felt the inattentive items were clear and relevant to their experience. Despite study design limitations, these results demonstrate the relevance of assessing inattentiveness in PKU, and both instruments achieved content validity for inattentive subscale items.

  5. Satellite imaging coral reef resilience at regional scale. A case-study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gwilym; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Metsamaa, Liisa; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip

    2012-06-01

    We propose a framework for spatially estimating a proxy for coral reef resilience using remote sensing. Data spanning large areas of coral reef habitat were obtained using the commercial QuickBird satellite, and freely available imagery (NASA, Google Earth). Principles of coral reef ecology, field observation, and remote observations, were combined to devise mapped indices. These capture important and accessible components of coral reef resilience. Indices are divided between factors known to stress corals, and factors incorporating properties of the reef landscape that resist stress or promote coral growth. The first-basis for a remote sensed resilience index (RSRI), an estimate of expected reef resilience, is proposed. Developed for the Red Sea, the framework of our analysis is flexible and with minimal adaptation, could be extended to other reef regions. We aim to stimulate discussion as to use of remote sensing to do more than simply deliver habitat maps of coral reefs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A validation of the Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures scale (ECR-RS) in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Feddern, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    , exhibiting satisfactory construct validity, including factor-specific links to the model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991), and independent factor discrimination between subgroups. A robust validation supports the application of the ECR-RS to assessing relationship-specific adolescent...

  7. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social-ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

  8. Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Stability and Resilience of Catchment Spatial Structure and Function to Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Ecohydrological systems evolve spontaneously in response to geologic, hydroclimate and biodiversity drivers. The stability and resilience of these systems to multiple disturbances can be addressed over specific temporal extents, potentially embedded within long term transience in response to geologic or climate change. The limits of ecohydrological resilience of system state in terms of vegetation canopy and soil catenae and the space/time distribution of water, carbon and nutrient cycling is determined by a set of critical feedbacks and potential substitutions of plant functional forms in response to disturbance. The ability of forest systems to return to states functionally similar to states prior to major disturbance, or combinations of multiple disturbances, is a critical question given increasing hydroclimate extremes, biological invasions, and human disturbance. Over the past century, forest landscape ecological patterns appear to have the ability to recover from significant disturbance and re-establish similar hydrological and ecological function in humid, biodiverse regions such as the southern Appalachians, and potentially drier forest ecosystems. Understanding and prediction of past and future long term dynamics requires explicit representation of spatial and temporal feedbacks and dependencies between hydrological, ecosystem and geomorphic processes, and the spatial pattern of species or plant functional type (PFT). Comprehensive models of watershed ecohydrological resilience requires careful balance between the level of process and parameter detail between the interacting components, relative to the structure, organization, space and time scales of the landscape.

  9. Economics Of Climate Resiliency A Case Of The Small-Scale Industrial Sector In Jamuna River Basin Of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Saleh Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate resilient cluster village with handlooms was established by an NGO named ActionAid Bangladesh with the objective of ensuring secure living and productive service for sustained livelihood in the Jamuna river basin of Bangladesh. The experience was that the poor people had their handloom factories and dwellings devastated by flood almost every year with consequential threat to livelihood and dignity of the women. It was therefore felt essential to facilitate them in building multi-hazard resilient handloom factories so as to make them self-protective from windy storm foggy weather monsoon flooding theft etc. The program started with a threadbare discussion with the vulnerable communities in a participatory manner where the program staffs has sat with the community groups especially the poor to generate the basic analysis of vulnerabilities the community is facing and its link to climate change. The community itself did the analysis and analyzed the vulnerability faced by them. The result is building of climate resilient handloom industry for 10 families whose industrial unit and dwellings were devastated almost annually by flood. A variant of a social and economic analysis is carried out to determine scaling up of these types of adaptations to similar ecological zones of the country and elsewhere.

  10. Modeling resilience, friability, and cost of an airport affected by the large-scale disruptive event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with modeling resilience, friability, and cost of an airport affected by the largescale disruptive event. These events affecting the airport's operations individually or in combination can be bad weather, failures of particular crucial aiiport and ATC (Air Traffic Control)

  11. Trading river services: optimizing dam decisions at the basin scale to improve socio-ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. G.; Gold, A.; Uchida, E.; McGreavy, B.; Smith, S. M.; Wilson, K.; Blachly, B.; Newcomb, A.; Hart, D.; Gardner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Dam removal has become a cornerstone of environmental restoration practice in the United States. One outcome of dam removal that has received positive attention is restored access to historic habitat for sea-run fisheries, providing a crucial gain in ecosystem resilience. But dams also provide stakeholders with valuable services, and uncertain socio-ecological outcomes can arise if there is not careful consideration of the basin scale trade offs caused by dam removal. In addition to fisheries, dam removals can significantly affect landscape nutrient flux, municipal water storage, recreational use of lakes and rivers, property values, hydroelectricity generation, the cultural meaning of dams, and many other river-based ecosystem services. We use a production possibility frontiers approach to explore dam decision scenarios and opportunities for trading between ecosystem services that are positively or negatively affected by dam removal in New England. Scenarios that provide efficient trade off potentials are identified using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. Our results suggest that for many river systems, there is a significant potential to increase the value of fisheries and other ecosystem services with minimal dam removals, and further increases are possible by including decisions related to dam operations and physical modifications. Run-of-river dams located near the head of tide are often found to be optimal for removal due to low hydroelectric capacity and high impact on fisheries. Conversely, dams with large impoundments near a river's headwaters can be less optimal for dam removal because their value as nitrogen sinks often outweighs the potential value for fisheries. Hydropower capacity is negatively impacted by dam removal but there are opportunities to meet or exceed lost capacity by upgrading preserved hydropower dams. Improving fish passage facilities for dams that are critical for safety or water storage can also reduce impacts on fisheries. Our

  12. Natural Hazard Resilience - A Large-scale Transdisciplinary "National Science Challenge" for New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The National Science Challenges are initiatives to address the most important public science issues that face New Zealand with long-term funding and the combined strength of a coordinated science-sector behind them. Eleven major topics are tackled, across our human, natural and built environments. In the "Resilience Challenge" we address New Zealand's natural hazards. Alongside severe metrological threats, New Zealand also faces one of the highest levels of earthquake and volcanic hazard in the world. Resilience is a hotly discussed concept, here, we take the view: Resilience encapsulates the features of a system to anticipate threats, acknowledge there will be impacts (no matter how prepared we are), quickly pick up the pieces, as well as learn and adapt from the experience to better absorb and rebound from future shocks. Our research must encompass innovation in building and lifelines engineering, planning and regulation, emergency management practice, alongside understanding how our natural hazard systems work, how we monitor them and how our communities/governance/industries can be influenced and encouraged (e.g., via economic incentives) to develop and implement resilience practice. This is a complex interwoven mix of areas and is best addressed through case-study areas where researchers and the users of the research can jointly identify problems and co-develop science solutions. I will highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses of this coordinated approach to an all-hazard, all-country problem, using the example of the Resilience Challenge approach after its first two and a half years of operation. Key issues include balancing investment into high-profile (and often high consequence), but rare hazards against the frequent "monthly" hazards that collectively occupy regional and local governance. Also, it is clear that despite increasingly sophisticated hazard and hazard mitigation knowledge being generated in engineering and social areas, a range of policy

  13. [Resilience, spirituality, distress and tactics for battered women's conflict resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Vélez, Diva E; Ospina-Muñoz, Doris E; Cabarcas-Iglesias, Germán; Humphreys, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Determining the relationship of resilience and spirituality in battered women to distress, the frequency and intensity of mistreatment and the severity of injury. A sample was taken of 199 women who consulted Comisarías de Familia de Medellín, Colombia (family police/counselling stations). Resilience scales (RS), spiritual perspective (SPS), SCL-90R and conflict tactics (CTS) were used. Internal consistency, correlation and main exploratory components were measured. The scales revealed internal consistency. Resilience was positively correlated to spirituality (r = 0.22; p = 0.0015) and negatively correlated to total positive distress symptoms (PST) (r = -0.39; p spirituality, a lower number of positive distress symptoms and less distress.

  14. Blockchain for Smart Grid Resilience: Exchanging Distributed Energy at Speed, Scale and Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylrea, Michael E.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup

    2017-09-18

    Blockchain may help solve several complex problems related to integrity and trustworthiness of rapid, distributed, complex energy transactions and data exchanges. In a move towards resilience, blockchain commoditizes trust and enables automated smart contracts to support auditable multiparty transactions based on predefined rules between distributed energy providers and customers. Blockchain based smart contracts also help remove the need to interact with third-parties, facilitating the adoption and monetization of distributed energy transactions and exchanges, both energy flows as well as financial transactions. This may help reduce transactive energy costs and increase the security and sustainability of distributed energy resource (DER) integration, helping to remove barriers to a more decentralized and resilient power grid.

  15. Quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment in large-scale stochastic dynamic systems for resilient and economic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sonjoy; Goswami, Kundan; Datta, Biswa N.

    2014-01-01

    Failure of structural systems under dynamic loading can be prevented via active vibration control which shifts the damped natural frequencies of the systems away from the dominant range of loading spectrum. The damped natural frequencies and the dynamic load typically show significant variations in practice. A computationally efficient methodology based on quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment technique and optimization under uncertainty has been formulated in the present work that will rigorously account for these variations and result in an economic and resilient design of structures. A novel scheme based on hierarchical clustering and importance sampling is also developed in this work for accurate and efficient estimation of probability of failure to guarantee the desired resilience level of the designed system. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology

  16. Self-Reported Perceptions of Sleep Quality and Resilience Among Dance Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbinaga, F

    2018-04-01

    This study examined relationships between self-perceived sleep quality and resilience among 116 dance students (Mean age = 21.6 years; SD = 4.348). who self-reported sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and personal resilience with the Resilience Scale (RS). Most participants (59.5%) reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI, with 62.9% of the women and 42.1% of the men ( p = .092) scoring higher than five points on this instrument. On the RS, a large majority of the participants (75%) obtained scores less than 147, indicating low resilience, with no significant gender differences observed. Those reporting poor sleep quality (PSQI scores > 5) obtained lower resilience scores (RS resilience (Odds Ratio = 3.273) relative to those with good sleep quality ( p = .006). Those with shorter duration sleep (claiming they slept resilience (Odds Ratio = 3.266), relative to those with longer duration sleep (>7 hours/night). These findings can help students and dance professionals improve their performance and face pressures inherent in dance practice. Follow-up research should verify these findings in varied populations with objective sleep measures and observational data from multiple respondents.

  17. Measuring social skills of children and adolescents in a Chinese population: Preliminary evidence on the reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Phoebe P P; Siu, Andrew M H; Brown, Ted

    2017-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS; Gresham & Elliott, 2008) are designed to assist in the screening and classification of students (aged 5-18 years) who are suspected of presenting with social skills deficits and to offer guidelines in the development of interventions to remediate those types of problems. The objective of this study is to examine the preliminary reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of the SSIS-RS, referred to as the SSIS-RS-C. In this study, parent-reported social skills and problem behaviors among students with typical development (n=79) were compared with those of age- and gender-matched students with a known developmental disability (n=79) using the SSIS-RS-C. The results indicated that the SSIS-RS-C subscale scores in all the disability groups were significantly different except for those in the Assertion scale for one disability group. Furthermore, the normative sample of typically developing children and adolescents (aged 5-12 and 13-18 years, n=567) from Hong Kong was established to improve the psychometric properties of the SSIS-RS-C. There were moderate to strong relationships between the common subscales across all forms of the SSIS-RS-C. Acceptable to excellent levels of internal consistency across all common subscales was also obtained. The scores for the Hong Kong sample (n=567) derived from the use of the SSIS-RS-C were then compared to the normative sample scores from the American version of the SSIS-RS. It was found that there were statistically significant differences on five out of the seven SSIS-RS-C Social Skill subscales for children aged 5-12 years and on four out of the seven SSIS-RS-C Social Skills subscales for the adolescent group (aged 13-18 years). Also, there were statistically significant differences between the American and Hong Kong samples on all of the SSIS-RS-C Problem Behavior scale scores. It was concluded that the SSIS-RS-C is a promising instrument for clinicians

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Salazar-Pousada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10 and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS, respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P<.05. Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P=.03 and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P=.004 related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged.

  19. Lack of association between PKLR rs3020781 and NOS1AP rs7538490 and type 2 diabetes, overweight, obesity and related metabolic phenotypes in a Danish large-scale study: case-control studies and analyses of quantitative traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla Helene; Mogensen, Mette S.; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies in multiple ethnicities have reported linkage to type 2 diabetes on chromosome 1q21-25. Both PKLR encoding the liver pyruvate kinase and NOS1AP encoding the nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal) adaptor protein (CAPON) are positioned within this chromosomal region...... and are thus positional candidates for the observed linkage peak. The C-allele of PKLR rs3020781 and the T-allele of NOS1AP rs7538490 are reported to strongly associate with type 2 diabetes in various European-descent populations comprising a total of 2,198 individuals with a combined odds ratio (OR) of 1...... of the variants in relation to overweight and obesity. METHODS: PKLR rs3020781 and NOS1AP rs7538490 were genotyped, using TaqMan allelic discrimination, in a combined study sample comprising a total of 16,801 and 16,913 individuals, respectively. The participants were ascertained from four different study groups...

  20. Resilience and spirituality in patients with depression and their family members: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Chisa; Suzuki, Takefumi; Mizuno, Yuya; Tarumi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Kazunari; Fujii, Kazuhito; Hirano, Jinichi; Tani, Hideaki; Rubinstein, Ellen B; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    The degree and quality of resilience in patients with depression have never been investigated in the context of remission status, spirituality/religiosity, and family members' resilience levels, which was addressed in this study. This cross-sectional study recruited Japanese outpatients with depressive disorder according to ICD-10 and cohabitant family members who were free from psychiatric diagnoses. Resilience was assessed using the 25-item Resilience Scale (RS). Other assessments included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT) and Kasen et al.'s (2012) scale for spirituality/religiosity; and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). One hundred outpatients with depression (mean±SD age, 50.8±14.5years; 44 men; MADRS total score 9.8±9.0) and 36 healthy family members (mean±SD age, 56.5±15.0years; 18 men) were included. Symptom severity, attendance at religious/spiritual services, and self-esteem were significantly associated with RS scores in the patient group. RS total scores were significantly higher in remitted patients compared to non-remitted patients (mean±SD, 112.3±17.1 vs. 84.8±27.7, pfamily members (p=0.265), regardless of patients' remission status. Resilience may be influenced by individual characteristics rather than familial environment; furthermore, self-esteem or spirituality/religiosity may represent reinforcing elements. While caution is necessary in extrapolating these findings to other patient populations, our results suggest that resilience may be considered a state marker in depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Resilience assessment of interdependent infrastructure systems: With a focus on joint restoration modeling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min; Wang, Zhenghua

    2015-01-01

    As infrastructure systems are highly interconnected, it is crucial to analyze their resilience with the consideration of their interdependencies. This paper adapts an existing resilience assessment framework for single systems to interdependent systems and mainly focuses on modeling and resilience contribution analysis of multi-systems’ joint restoration processes, which are seldom addressed in the literature. Taking interdependent power and gas systems in Houston, Texas, USA under hurricane hazards as an illustrative exmaple, five types of joint restoration stategies are proposed, including random restoration strategy RS 1 , independent restoration strategy RS 2 , power first and gas second restoration strategy RS 3 , gas aimed restoration strategy RS 4 , and power and gas compromised restoration strategy RS 5 . Results show that under limited restoration resources, RS 1 produces the least resilience for both systems, RS 2 and RS 3 both generates the largest power system resilience while RS 4 is the best for the gas system; and if quantifying the total resilience as the evenly weighted sum of two systems’ individual resilience, RS 5 produces the largest total resilience. The proposed method can help decision makers search optimum joint restoration strategy, which can significantly enhance both systems’ resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a method to assess resilience of interdependent infrastructure systems. • We consider unidirectional interdependencies from power system to gas system. • Multi-systems’ restoration processes are solved by using genetic algorithm. • Effectiveness of five restoration strategies are compared and analyzed. • Interdependency-based strategies produce the largest total resilience

  2. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Zimmermann; Susanne Firnkes; Jens T. Kowalski; Johannes Backus; Stefan Siegel; Gerd Willmund; Andreas Maercker

    2014-01-01

    Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context.Method: Schwartz’s Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanist...

  3. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC) in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Serrano-Parra, María D; Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, Raquel; García-Campayo, Javier; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2011-08-05

    The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC) is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version. Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS) and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI) were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient.The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores. The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.

  4. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Campayo Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version. Findings Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores. Conclusions The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.

  5. Identifying resilient and non-resilient middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non- resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient ...

  6. The impact of resilience on psychological outcomes in women after preeclampsia: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Eva; Stern, Christina; Deutsch, Maria; Nagele, Eva; Greimel, Elfriede; Lang, Uwe; Cervar-Zivkovic, Mila

    2013-11-14

    Preeclampsia is a frequent obstetric complication which affects the mother`s and the fetus's health and can be life threatening. It also has an impact on psychological outcomes. There may be protective variables such as resilience shielding against psychosocial distress in women experiencing these pregnancy complications. The aim of this study was to examine differences in resilience in terms of quality of life, depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms in women after preeclampsia. Four international validated questionnaires were used to measure the psychological outcomes (Medical Outcome Study Short-Form SF12, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale EPDS, Resilience Scale RS13, Impact of Event Scale IES-R). Statistical analyses were performed using independent-samples t-test and chi-square test. 67 women with previous preeclampsia returned the questionnaires. Women with high resilience showed significantly less depression (p = 0.001) and better mental quality of life (p = 0.002) compared to women with low resilience. No group differences were found on the medical and socio-demographic characteristics. Resilience has an important impact on the psychological outcomes in women after preeclampsia. A screening for resilience, depression and quality of life may be appropriate to identify these women.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and its relationship with life-stress, anxiety and depression in a Hispanic Latin-American community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Resilience is a multi-dimensional construct associated with health and well-being. At present, we do not yet have a valid, scientific instrument that is designed to evaluate adult resilience in Spanish-speaking countries and that accounts for family, social and individual components. This study aimed at investigating the construct and cross-cultural validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) by combining Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Hierarchical Regression models in a Hispanic Latin-American group. A community sample of 805 adults answered the RSA, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). First-order CFA verified the six factors structure for the RSA (RMSEA = .037, SRMR = .047, CFI = .91, TLI = .90). Five RSA scales and total score have good internal consistency (scales α > .70; total score α = .90). Two second-order CFA verified the intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of the protector factors of resilience, as well as their commonality and uniqueness with affective symptoms (anxiety and depression). An exploratory MDS reproduced the relations of RSA items and factors at first and second-order levels against random simulated data, thereby providing initial evidence of its cross-cultural validity in a Spanish-speaking group. The Four-steps hierarchical model showed that the RSA scales are the strongest predictors of anxiety and depression-greater than gender, age, education and stressful life-events. Three RSA scales are significant unique predictors of affective symptoms. In addition, similar to findings in diverse cultural settings, resilience is positively associated with age but not with education. Women report higher scores of Social Resources and Social Competence and lower scores of Perception of the Self. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the construct and criterion-related validity of the RSA in broad, diverse and Spanish speaking

  8. Adaptação transcultural, confiabilidade e validade da escala de resiliência Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the resilience scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata P. Pesce

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Busca-se apresentar os resultados da adaptação transcultural para o português da escala de resilência de Wagnild & Young e da avaliação psicométrica desta. A escala foi adaptada para uma amostra de escolares dos ensinos fundamental e médio da rede pública de ensino do Município de São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. São apresentados dados do estudo-piloto, com 203 alunos entrevistados em dois momentos consecutivos (teste-reteste, bem como do total de alunos investigados na pesquisa (977. Quanto à adaptação transcultural, foram encontrados bons resultados na equivalência semântica dos itens, tanto para o significado geral,quanto para o referencial. O alfa de Chronbach encontrado foi de 0,85 no pré-teste e 0,80 na amostra total. Na confiabilidade intra-observador, verificou-se que o kappa situou-se entre regular e moderado e o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse foi de 0,746 (p = 0,000. Análise fatorial indicou três fatores não totalmente homogêneos e diferenciados dos achados pelo autor da escala. Quanto à validade de constructo, nota-se correlação direta e significativa com auto-estima, supervisão familiar, satisfação de vida e apoio social. Verificou-se correlação inversa com a escala que avalia violência psicológica.This study describes the cross-cultural adaptation to Portuguese and the psychometric evaluation of the resilience scale developed by Wagnild & Young. The scale was adapted for a sample of students from public schools in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data from the pilot study (203 students interviewed at two points in time and from the entire study (977 are presented. The cross-cultural adaptation showed good results in the semantic equivalence for: general meaning (above 90.0% and referential meaning (above 85.0%. Chronbach alpha was 0.85 in the pilot study and 0.80 in the total sample. Kappa between the two points in time was regular and moderate, and the intraclass correlation

  9. Herbivory, connectivity, and ecosystem resilience: response of a coral reef to a large-scale perturbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Adam

    Full Text Available Coral reefs world-wide are threatened by escalating local and global impacts, and some impacted reefs have shifted from coral dominance to a state dominated by macroalgae. Therefore, there is a growing need to understand the processes that affect the capacity of these ecosystems to return to coral dominance following disturbances, including those that prevent the establishment of persistent stands of macroalgae. Unlike many reefs in the Caribbean, over the last several decades, reefs around the Indo-Pacific island of Moorea, French Polynesia have consistently returned to coral dominance following major perturbations without shifting to a macroalgae-dominated state. Here, we present evidence of a rapid increase in populations of herbivorous fishes following the most recent perturbation, and show that grazing by these herbivores has prevented the establishment of macroalgae following near complete loss of coral on offshore reefs. Importantly, we found the positive response of herbivorous fishes to increased benthic primary productivity associated with coral loss was driven largely by parrotfishes that initially recruit to stable nursery habitat within the lagoons before moving to offshore reefs later in life. These results underscore the importance of connectivity between the lagoon and offshore reefs for preventing the establishment of macroalgae following disturbances, and indicate that protecting nearshore nursery habitat of herbivorous fishes is critical for maintaining reef resilience.

  10. Analysing urban resilience through alternative stormwater management options: application of the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System model at the neighbourhood scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsells, M; Barroca, B; Amdal, J R; Diab, Y; Becue, V; Serre, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in cities and their environments, caused by rapid urbanisation and climate change, have increased both flood probability and the severity of flooding. Consequently, there is a need for all cities to adapt to climate and socio-economic changes by developing new strategies for flood risk management. Following a risk paradigm shift from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future urban development, one of the main emerging tasks for city managers becomes the development of resilient cities. However, the meaning of the resilience concept and its operability is still not clear. The goal of this research is to study how urban engineering and design disciplines can improve resilience to floods in urban neighbourhoods. This paper presents the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System (DS3) model which we consider a relevant tool to analyse and then implement resilience into neighbourhood design. Using this model, we analyse and discuss alternative stormwater management options at the neighbourhood scale in two specific areas: Rotterdam and New Orleans. The results obtained demonstrate that the DS3 model confirmed in its framework analysis that stormwater management systems can positively contribute to the improved flood resilience of a neighbourhood.

  11. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  12. New resilience instrument for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Liang, Mu Zi; Li, Peng Fei; Sun, Zhe; Chen, Peng; Hu, Guang Yun; Yu, Yuan Liang; Wang, Shu Ni; Qiu, Hong Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Resilience is an important concept in the cancer literature and is a salient indicator of cancer survivorship. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new resilience instrument that is specific to patients with cancer diagnosis (RS-SC) in Mainland China. First, a resilience framework was constructed for patients with cancer diagnosis. Second, items were formulated based on the framework to reflect different aspects of resilience. Third, two rounds of expert panel discussion were performed to select important and relevant items. Finally, two cross-sectional studies were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Fifty-one items were generated based on the resilience framework and the final 25-item RS-SC resulted in a five-factor solution including Generic Elements, Benefit Finding, Support and Coping, Hope for the Future and Meaning for Existence, accounting for 64.72% of the variance. The Cronbach's α of the RS-SC was 0.825 and the test-retest reliability was 0.874. The RS-SC is a brief and specific self-report resilience instrument for Chinese patients with cancer and shows sound psychometric properties in this study. The RS-SC has potential applications in both clinical practice and research with strength-based resiliency interventions.

  13. Conference Presentation on “Scaling up the Circular Economy: Smart and Resilient Cities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conference is designed to engage sustainability practitioners from across sectors, including business, academia, government and NGOs. US BCSD meetings typically attract 100+ leading sustainability practitioners from around the US and world. Cities play a key role in scaling u...

  14. On the intensity and type transition of land use at the basin scale using RS/GIS: a case study of the Hanjiang River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangming; Zeng, Qun; Yang, Shan; Hu, Limei; Lin, Xiaowei; Che, Yi; Zheng, Yuge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the land use intensity and land use change type at the basin scale in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin (in Hubei Province, China) by combining the Landsat TM images in 1995 and 2000 with the land use database (in scale 1:10,000) and relative data. In this study, the basic data is acquired from the interpretation of remote sensing (RS) images. The intensity of land use and the rate of change in double-directions of land use dynamics are calculated with the support of software ARC/INFO. The intensity of land use is indicated by the intensity coefficient of land use, and the transition of land use types is quantified as the rate of change in double-direction of land use types and also expressed as the transition matrix of land use types. The results are expressed in space by Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Results of this study show that (1) the intensity of land use is high in the study region, the intensity coefficients of land use in 1995 and 2000 are 260.025 and 290.526, respectively, and the intensity of development and utilization of land is trend to increscent; and (2) the rate of land use change in double directions in the whole study region is 0.52 with great spatial variation and the differentiation of land use types. In the differentiation of land use types, the unutilized land (with the rate to 4.391) is developed fast, the grassland (with 2.836) and water area (with 1.664) are disturbed severely, and these changes will influence the eco-environment in the Hanjiang River Basin and all the Yangtze Basin. The rates of the farmland and the woodland are 0.424 and 0.344, respectively, meaning that the fundamentals of regional human-environmental system are relative stable. With this study, we can conclude that (1) the patterns of land use are increasingly changing in the study region, the environmental impacts are escalated on this stage, and the further outcomes are destined to

  15. Cross-Scale and Cross-Level Dynamics: Governance and Capacity for Resilience in a Social-Ecological System in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Sheng Tai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking has strongly influenced how people understand and pursue sustainability of linked social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking highlights the need to build capacity and manage general system properties in a complex, constantly changing world. I modified an analytical framework to address associations among cross-scale and cross-level dynamics, attributes of governance, and capacity to enhance resilience. The Danungdafu Forestation Area represents one of Taiwan’s most controvisal cases concerning land use, indigenous rights, and environmental issues. Analysis of this Taiwanese experience from a social-ecological perspective can show how current capacities for managing resilience are related to critical governance attributes. Analysis helped identify fundamental flaws in current governance and key issues needing to be addressed. The Danungdafu Forestation Area should transition towards a governance regime that is more participatory, deliberative, multi-layered, accountable, just, and networked. This can be done by developing an intermediate level institution that coordinates the cross-scale and cross-level interactions that better fit this social-ecological system.

  16. Derivative-based scale invariant image feature detector with error resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Pradip; Lafruit, Gauthier; Tack, Klaas; Van Gool, Luc; Lauwereins, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel scale-invariant image feature detection algorithm (D-SIFER) using a newly proposed scale-space optimal 10th-order Gaussian derivative (GDO-10) filter, which reaches the jointly optimal Heisenberg's uncertainty of its impulse response in scale and space simultaneously (i.e., we minimize the maximum of the two moments). The D-SIFER algorithm using this filter leads to an outstanding quality of image feature detection, with a factor of three quality improvement over state-of-the-art scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and speeded up robust features (SURF) methods that use the second-order Gaussian derivative filters. To reach low computational complexity, we also present a technique approximating the GDO-10 filters with a fixed-length implementation, which is independent of the scale. The final approximation error remains far below the noise margin, providing constant time, low cost, but nevertheless high-quality feature detection and registration capabilities. D-SIFER is validated on a real-life hyperspectral image registration application, precisely aligning up to hundreds of successive narrowband color images, despite their strong artifacts (blurring, low-light noise) typically occurring in such delicate optical system setups.

  17. [Mental disorders in German soldiers after deployment - impact of personal values and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens; Backus, Johannes; Alliger-Horn, Christina; Willmund, Gerd; Hellenthal, Andrea; Bauer, Amanda; Petermann, Franz; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Soldiers are at increased risk of developing mental health disorders after military deployment. The impact of personal values on psychological symptomatology based on an empirical working model has not yet been studied in a military environment. 117 German Armed Forces soldiers completed the Portrait-Values-Questionnaire (PVQ), the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ) and the Resilience-Scale (RS-11) after their deployment to Afghanistan. In the regression analyses the values hedonism, benevolence, tradition, self-direction and universalism had a differential significant impact on depression, anxiety and somatoform symptoms of the PHQ. The RS-11 sum scale values were negatively correlated with symptomatology. Personal values and resilience seem to be associated with psychological symptomatology in soldiers after military deployment. The results can contribute to the further development of both preventive and therapeutic approaches. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Reliability and Validity Testing of the Physical Resilience Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Dorsey, Susan; Scheve, Ann; Gutkin, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test reliability and validity of the Physical Resilience Scale. Methods: A single-group repeated measure design was used and 130 older adults from three different housing sites participated. Participants completed the Physical Resilience Scale, Hardy-Gill Resilience Scale, 14-item Resilience Scale,…

  19. Parameters affecting the resilience of scale-free networks to random failures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Lane, Terran (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Saia, Jared (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-09-01

    It is commonly believed that scale-free networks are robust to massive numbers of random node deletions. For example, Cohen et al. in (1) study scale-free networks including some which approximate the measured degree distribution of the Internet. Their results suggest that if each node in this network failed independently with probability 0.99, most of the remaining nodes would still be connected in a giant component. In this paper, we show that a large and important subclass of scale-free networks are not robust to massive numbers of random node deletions. In particular, we study scale-free networks which have minimum node degree of 1 and a power-law degree distribution beginning with nodes of degree 1 (power-law networks). We show that, in a power-law network approximating the Internet's reported distribution, when the probability of deletion of each node is 0.5 only about 25% of the surviving nodes in the network remain connected in a giant component, and the giant component does not persist beyond a critical failure rate of 0.9. The new result is partially due to improved analytical accommodation of the large number of degree-0 nodes that result after node deletions. Our results apply to power-law networks with a wide range of power-law exponents, including Internet-like networks. We give both analytical and empirical evidence that such networks are not generally robust to massive random node deletions.

  20. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Social-Emotional Assets and Resiliency Scale for Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravitch, Nancy Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of social and emotional learning (SEL) in young children is critical to understanding developmental progress and informing care and instruction. The current study investigated the development of a behavior rating scale designed to measure SEL skills in preschool-age children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the…

  1. Validation of the Urdu Version of Wagnild and Young's Long and Short Resilience Scales Among 20- to 40-Year-Old Married Women Living in Urban Squatter Settlements of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamani, Shireen Shehzad; Pasha, Omrana; Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis; Azam, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    There were no instrument exists in South Asia to assess resilience. Thus, this study assessed the validity and reliability of the Urdu version of Wagnild and Young's long and short Resilience Scales. Study was carried out in two urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Resilience Scales were validated against the depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction scales among 20- to 40-year-old married women. Sample size for validity and reliability were 636 and 319. Moderate negative correlation with the depression and anxiety and moderate positive significant correlation with life satisfaction were found with both scales. The test-retest correlation were .54 and .49, respectively. Internal consistency were found acceptable. Concurrent validity were .729 and .813. Study found a valid and reliable resilience scale in Urdu language.

  2. Millennial-scale faunal record reveals differential resilience of European large mammals to human impacts across the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crees, Jennifer J; Carbone, Chris; Sommer, Robert S; Benecke, Norbert; Turvey, Samuel T

    2016-03-30

    The use of short-term indicators for understanding patterns and processes of biodiversity loss can mask longer-term faunal responses to human pressures. We use an extensive database of approximately 18,700 mammalian zooarchaeological records for the last 11,700 years across Europe to reconstruct spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene range change for 15 large-bodied mammal species. European mammals experienced protracted, non-congruent range losses, with significant declines starting in some species approximately 3000 years ago and continuing to the present, and with the timing, duration and magnitude of declines varying individually between species. Some European mammals became globally extinct during the Holocene, whereas others experienced limited or no significant range change. These findings demonstrate the relatively early onset of prehistoric human impacts on postglacial biodiversity, and mirror species-specific patterns of mammalian extinction during the Late Pleistocene. Herbivores experienced significantly greater declines than carnivores, revealing an important historical extinction filter that informs our understanding of relative resilience and vulnerability to human pressures for different taxa. We highlight the importance of large-scale, long-term datasets for understanding complex protracted extinction processes, although the dynamic pattern of progressive faunal depletion of European mammal assemblages across the Holocene challenges easy identification of 'static' past baselines to inform current-day environmental management and restoration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. The economic-wide consequences of large-scale floods. How resilient is the European economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koks, Elco; Thissen, Mark; De Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    For a successful adaptation strategy, it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of the economic consequences of a flood. To assess the economic consequences of large-scale river floods in Europe, we introduce an integrated direct and indirect risk model for the European economy as a whole. The proposed methodology consists of multiple steps. First, a direct loss assessment is conducted for the 50 largest river basin districts in Europe, based on simulated floods for several return periods. Second, the direct losses in capital and labour are translated into the loss in production per sector. Third, the recovery of this production shock is modelled using a hybrid interregional input-output model, combining non-linear programming and input-output modelling. This combination makes it possible to find (1) the possible production losses in the affected regions and other European regions, (2) the required production in Europe to satisfy additional reconstruction demands from the affected regions and (3) the required production in other regions that is necessary to take over lost production in the affected region. Consequently, when knowing how much production is lost (or gained) in each region, the economic consequences can be assessed. Finally, the model outcome is loss estimation expressed in terms of expected annual damage. To assess these consequences, interregional supply and use tables are used, consisting of 256 different European NUTS2 regions. This data makes it possible to model the indirect losses for both the affected regions and the rest of Europe in detail. By combining the outcomes of all floods in all the river basin districts, it is possible to determine the flood risk of each region in Europe, even when a region is not directly hit by a flood. Consequently, the overall consequences for the European Union are found to be positive for small-scale floods and negative for large-scale floods.

  4. Identifying Resilient and Non-Resilient Middle-Adolescents in a Formerly Black-Only Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampane, Ruth; Bouwer, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non-resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient and non-resilient…

  5. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  6. Validation and application of the Chinese version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) among parents of children with cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Qiu, Hong Zhong; Li, Peng Fei; Chen, Peng; Liang, Mu Zi; Liu, Mei Ling; Yu, Yuan Liang; Wang, Shu Ni; Quan, Xiao Ming

    2017-04-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with cancer often experience considerable emotional distress for their children with negative emotions, such as disbelief, depression, anxiety, hope and shock. Resilience is defined as the psychological characteristics that promote positive adaptation in the face of stress and adversity, which has been demonstrated to relate to positive coping and less psychological distress. Thus, a quick screening tool to evaluate the levels of resilience of parents with cancer-diagnosed children is urgently required. The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used to evaluate the CD-RISC-10 using a sample size of 500 parents. Velicer's Minimum Average Partial (MAP) Test and a parallel analysis were also supplemented to confirm the EFA-derived structure of the scale. The participants were given the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ) to test the associates with CD-RISC-10 and obtain the cut-off of the scale. The Chinese version of CD-RISC-10 has good psychometric properties and retains its single dimension in the original English version, which can explain 49.602% of the total variance. The CFA demonstrates the fit indices of a one-order model: Chi-Square = 39.987, CMIN/DF = 1.333, P resilience of the parents when their children undergo treatment, which can be the most important indicator to their psychological health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response and Resiliency of Wildlife and Vegetation to Large-Scale Wildfires and Climate Change in the North Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartowitz, K.; Morrison, P.; Romain-Bondi, K.; Smith, C. W.; Warne, L.; McGill, D.

    2016-12-01

    Changing climatic patterns have affected the western US in a variety of ways: decreases in precipitation and snowpack, earlier spring snowmelt, and increased lightning strikes have created a drier, more fire-prone system, despite variability in these characteristics. Wildfires are a natural phenomenon, but have been suppressed for much of the past century. Effects of this evolving fire regime on native vegetation and wildlife are not well understood. Increased frequency and intensity of fires coupled with subsequent drought and extreme heat may inhibit or alter recovery of native ecosystems. We are currently investigating how a mega-fire has affected presence of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus, WGS) in the North Cascades, and the mortality, survival, and recovery of vegetation following these fires and extreme drought. The Methow Valley in WA experienced a record-breaking wildfire in 2014, which disturbed nearly 50% of priority habitat of the North Cascades population of WGS. WGS were studied at the same pre and post-fire plots. WGS were present at over half of the post-burn plots (58%). There was a significant difference in the number of WGS hair samples collected in different levels of remaining vegetation: the most in moderate, few in low, and none in high. Vegetation recovery was assessed through field data, and a chronosequence of satellite images and aerial photography. 75% of the 2014 fire burned non-forested vegetation. Ponderosa pine forests comprised the rest. The forests experienced about 70% initial mortality. Recovery of the forest appears slower than in the shrub-steppe. First year seedling survival was poor due to an extremely hot, dry summer, while second year survival appears higher due to a cool, moist spring and summer. One year after a large, multi-severity fire we found WGS may be more resilient to disturbance such as fires than previously thought. Future studies of WGS will help elucidate long-term response to large-scale fires, and

  8. Resilient ledelse

    OpenAIRE

    Rygh, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Master i styring og ledelse Denne masteroppgaven bygger på litteraturanalyse og intervju med forskere, lederutviklere, ledere og tillitsvalgte. Oppgaven utvikler en hypotese om en resilient lederstil, diskuterer om og hvordan ledere kan bidra til å bedre resiliens hos underordnede, samt identifiserer hva som kan kjennetegne resilient ledelse. Resilient ledelse kan defineres som det en leder gjør for å bedre de underordnedes evne til å få mer psykologisk motstandskraft, det vil si gjør d...

  9. Prospects for resilience and sustainability of urban socio-techno-ecological systems to evolving stressors at global, regional, and local scales (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an accelerating rate against a backdrop of the numerous other globally significant environmental changes that are the hallmark of the Anthropocene. Thus an understanding of the environmental impacts of urbanization must recognize the multiscalar context of other environmental changes. Cities are focal points of human population, production, and consumption, including the generation of waste and most of the critical emissions to the atmosphere. They are highly modified and dominated by built structure. They are generally depauperate of species and harbor their own microclimates and hot spots of pollutants. But they also are centers of human creative activities, and in that capacity may provide platforms for the transition to a more sustainable world. A view of the city, a complex social-technological-ecological system, as both driver and responder to these multiple stressors is key to developing appropriate conceptual frameworks for understanding urban ecosystem change. The convergence of global environmental change, including climate change, and worldwide urbanization presents numerous challenges for sustainability that are manifest at global, regional, and local scales. This presentation will explore the current reality and future prospects for resilience of cities and, more specifically, urban water systems, to extant and changing stressors at these three scales. At the global scale, challenges of supplying water for three billion new urban residents in the coming decades are explored through a geography of water availability, quality, and accessibility. At regional scales, I highlight differences in solutions to climate change-related challenges that derive from geophysical and socioecological gradients. And, at the local scale, blended technological and ecological solutions to the challenges of urban stormwater and the 'new normal' are discussed, based on a case study in an arid urban ecosystem. Urban resilience and sustainability

  10. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  11. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens T; Backus, Johannes; Siegel, Stefan; Willmund, Gerd; Maercker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11) were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated). Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (-), power (-), tradition (+), and universalism (+) were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  12. Personal values in soldiers after military deployment: associations with mental health and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zimmermann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: After military deployment, soldiers are at an increased risk of developing posttraumatic psychiatric disorders. The correlation of personal values with symptoms, however, has not yet been examined within a military context. Method: Schwartz's Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, and the 11-item version of the Resilience Scale (RS-11 were completed by 117 soldiers of the German Armed Forces who had recently been deployed to Afghanistan (n=40 undergoing initial psychiatric treatment, n=77 untreated. Results: Logistic regression showed that the value types of hedonism (−, power (−, tradition (+, and universalism (+ were significantly correlated with the probability and severity of PTSD and whether the participant was in treatment or not. The effects were partially mediated by the RS-11 scale values. Conclusions: Value types seem to be associated with psychiatric symptoms in soldiers after deployment. These results could contribute to the further development of therapeutic approaches.

  13. Resilience in infertile couples acts as a protective factor against infertility-specific distress and impaired quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Darja; Scherg, Horst; Verres, Rolf; von Hagens, Cornelia; Strowitzki, Thomas; Wischmann, Tewes

    2011-11-01

    Our hypothesis was that resilience (=psychosocial stress-resistance) reduces infertility-specific distress and maintains quality of life of infertile couples. Questionnaire data of WHO Quality of Life assessment (WHOQOL; domains: 'physical', 'psychological', 'social relationships' and 'environment'), Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI; scales: 'social concern', 'sexual concern', 'relationship concern', 'rejection of childfree lifestyle' and 'need for parenthood'), Resilience Scale (RS), as well as sociographic and medical data were available for 199 infertile couples. Age, medical diagnosis and 'intensity of desire for a child' had no influence on quality of life. High scores on 'suffering from childlessness' went along with less satisfaction on 'physical' and 'psychological' domains for the women only. For both partners, high scores on 'suffering from childlessness' went along with higher scores on all FPI scales. High resilience was associated with high scores on all WHOQOL domains for both partners, also with low scores on all FPI scales except for 'need for parenthood' for the women and with a low score only on 'relationship concern' for the men. For infertile couples, resilience can be considered as an unspecific protective factor against infertility-specific distress and impaired quality of life. When offering counselling to involuntarily childless couples, awareness should be raised for resilience as a couple's resource and a "generic" factor of coping.

  14. The influence of resilience on fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Bernhard; Brix, Christina; Fischer, Sebastian; Leppert, Karena; Füller, Jürgen; Roehrig, Bernd; Schleussner, Christine; Wendt, Thomas G

    2007-08-01

    The primary goal of the study was to determine if resilience influences fatigue in a consecutive sample of cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Out of an initial sample of 250 patients, 239 could be assessed at the beginning of their RT. Two hundred and eight patients were reassessed at the end of RT 4-8 weeks later. Measures comprised the Resilience Scale (RS), the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), and the SF-12 as a measure of health related Quality of Life (QoL). Medical data were continuously registered. As hypothesized, the sample revealed higher scores in the MFI and lower scores in the SF-12 than normative samples. Resilience scores were higher than in the norm population. Fatigue increased during RT. Using multiple regression analyses, fatigue scores at the beginning of treatment were shown to be higher in inpatients and patients undergoing palliative treatment. Initial fatigue was best predicted by the patients' initial resilience scores. Changes of fatigue scores during RT depended on initial scores, decrease in Hb and the patients' experience with RT. Resilience could not be determined as a predictor of changes in fatigue during RT. The study confirmed that fatigue is an important problem among RT patients. Resilience turned out to powerfully predict the patients' fatigue at least early in RT. This result is in line with other studies, showing resilience to be an important psychological predictor of QoL and coping in cancer patients. On the other hand, resilience seems to have little influence on treatment related fatigue during RT.

  15. Resource degradation, marginalization, and poverty in small-scale fisheries: threats to social-ecological resilience in India and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep K. Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine poverty in local fisheries using a social-ecological resilience lens. In assessing why "fishery may rhyme with poverty", Christophe Béné suggests a typology of impoverishment processes, which includes economic exclusion, social marginalization, class exploitation, and political disempowerment as key mechanisms that accelerate poverty. We extend his analysis by exploring these four mechanisms further and by intertwining them with processes of environmental change and degradation. Our goal is to understand poverty in local fisheries as a process rooted in social and institutional factors as influenced by ecological dynamics. We argue that understanding poverty will require a focus on the social-ecological system (SES as a whole, and addressing poverty will mean rebuilding not only collapsed stocks but the entire social-ecological system, including restoring relationships between resources and people. Information from two cases, the Chilika Lagoon on the Bay of Bengal in India, and the Paraty region on the southeastern coast of Brazil, is used to understand how fishery social-ecological systems come under pressure from drivers at multiple levels, resulting in a range of impacts and pushing the system to a breaking point or collapse. We analyze elements of what it takes for the whole system to break down or collapse and push fishers into poverty and marginalization. The Chilika SES has already broken down, and the Paraty SES is under pressure from multiple drivers of change. The two cases help contrast key dynamics in the social, cultural, economic, political, and environmental spheres, for lessons on system collapse and recovery. Rebuilding fisheries may be examined as a process of building and strengthening resilience. The challenge is to make the fishery social-ecological system more resilient, with more flexibility and options, not only within fishing activities but also within a range of other sectors.

  16. Assessing Resilience in Stressed Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine T. Nemec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several frameworks for assessing the resilience of social-ecological systems (SESs have been developed, some practitioners may not have sufficient time and information to conduct extensive resilience assessments. We have presented a simplified approach to resilience assessment that reviews the scientific, historical, and social literature to rate the resilience of an SES with respect to nine resilience properties: ecological variability, diversity, modularity, acknowledgement of slow variables, tight feedbacks, social capital, innovation, overlap in governance, and ecosystem services. We evaluated the effects of two large-scale projects, the construction of a major dam and the implementation of an ecosystem recovery program, on the resilience of the central Platte River SES (Nebraska, United States. We used this case study to identify the strengths and weaknesses of applying a simplified approach to resilience assessment. Although social resilience has increased steadily since the predam period for the central Platte River SES, ecological resilience was greatly reduced in the postdam period as compared to the predam and ecosystem recovery program time periods.

  17. RS-WebPredictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, J.; Bergeron, C.; Huang, T.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Regioselectivity-WebPredictor (RS-WebPredictor) is a server that predicts isozyme-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated sites of metabolism (SOMs) on drug-like molecules. Predictions may be made for the promiscuous 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 CYP isozymes, as well as CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C19 and 2E1....... RS-WebPredictor is the first freely accessible server that predicts the regioselectivity of the last six isozymes. Server execution time is fast, taking on average 2s to encode a submitted molecule and 1s to apply a given model, allowing for high-throughput use in lead optimization projects.......Availability: RS-WebPredictor is accessible for free use at http://reccr.chem.rpi.edu/ Software/RS-WebPredictor....

  18. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  19. Association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-09-15

    Long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3/n-6 PUFA) play important roles in emotional regulation. We previously reported an association between fish consumption, which is major source of LC n-3 PUFA, and resilience to depression, where resilience is the ability to cope with stress in the face of adversity. Although the traditional Japanese dietary pattern of high fish consumption is associated with low depressive symptoms, the current Japanese diet pattern has become westernized. Westernized diets contain excessive amounts of LC n-6 PUFA due to high intake of vegetable oils commonly used in fried food and are associated with risk of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression. Participants were 715 Japanese company workers. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms, and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) was used to measure resilience. Frequency of fish and fried food consumption was assessed using a self-report questionnaire based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Regression analyses using Preacher and Hayes' bootstrap script were used to adjust for demographic factors, frequency of physical exercise, and fish consumption. Significant associations were identified between frequency of fried food consumption and total CES-D score (path c, B = 0.72; P frequency of fried food consumption and total RS-14 score (path a, B = -1.73, P food consumption and total CES-D score was not significant when we controlled for RS-14 score. Bootstrapping results showed that there was a significant positive indirect association between frequency of fried food and CESD score through RS-14 (95 % bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval = 0.34 to 0.92). Frequency of fried food consumption was associated with lower resilience to depression. Further nutritional interventional studies to

  20. Resilience and Coping Strategies Influencing the Quality of Life in Patients With Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chiu-Ju; Liu, Hui-Chun; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Wu, Wei-Wen; Cheng, Su-Fen

    2017-06-01

    The study purpose was to evaluate how much of the variance in quality of life (QOL) among Taiwanese patients with brain tumor could be accounted for by resilience and coping strategy. This cross-sectional study included 95 patients who had undergone a treatment of operations or chemotherapy or radiotherapy relevant to brain tumor after at least 1 month and completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL Questionnaire-Brain Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-BN20), Resilience Scale (RS), and Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (WCC-R). There was a significant negative correlation between resilience and future uncertainty QOL and motor dysfunction QOL. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the emotion-focused coping and future uncertainty QOL, as well as a significant negative correlation between problem-focused coping and motor dysfunction QOL. Resilience accounted for 4.8% and the emotion-focused coping accounted for 10.20% of the variance in separately predicting the future uncertainty QOL. This study highlights the potential importance of resilience and coping strategies in patients' QOL, which is relevant to brain tumor treatment.

  1. Stress, resilience and psychological well-being in Chinese undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme D; Yang, Fang

    2017-02-01

    Globally, stress is a well-recognized feature of the life of undergraduate nursing students. However, there currently is little evidence to suggest what role resilience plays in this issue. To examine the relationship between stress and resilience on psychological well-being in a cohort of Chinese undergraduate student nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted using multivariate logistic regression and descriptive statistical analysis in three Chinese nursing schools. A total of 1538 nursing students participated in the study, completing three validated self-administered questionnaires. Nursing students in their final year reported the highest mean General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) scores (Mean 4.50 SD 2.89) and Stress in Nursing Student (SINS CN) scores (Mean 105.11 SD 25.37), Moderate levels of resilience were noted across all four years of nursing training programmes (Mean 121.59 SD 21.49). Resilience scale (RS) scores were negatively correlated with mean total score for stress (r=-0.236, Ppsychological well-being (r=-0.411, PPsychological well-being appears impaired in Chinese nursing students, particularly final year students, prior to registration. Globally, more attention could be given to the potential role of resilience training and other forms effective coping strategies to deal with the inevitable sources of stress in student nurse training. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Advancing empirical resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically.

  3. Dynamics of resilience in forced migration: a 1-year follow-up study of longitudinal associations with mental health in a conflict-affected, ethnic Muslim population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Abas, Melanie; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2015-02-16

    The concept of 'resilience' is of increasing interest in studies of mental health in populations facing adversity. However, lack of longitudinal data on the dynamics of resilience and non-usage of resilience-specific measurements have prevented a better understanding of resilience-mental health interactions. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the stability of levels of resilience and its associations with sociodemographic and mental health exposures in a conflict-affected internal-migrant population in Sri Lanka. A prospective follow-up study of 1 year. Puttalam district of North Western province in postconflict Sri Lanka (baseline in 2011, follow-up in 2012). An ethnic Muslim population internally displaced 20 years ago (in 1990) from Northern Sri Lanka, aged 18 or above and currently in the process of return migration. It was hypothesised that levels of resilience would be associated with mental health outcomes. Resilience was measured on both occasions using the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), social support by the Multidimensional Social Support Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale and common mental disorders by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Of 450 participants interviewed at baseline in 2011, 338 (75.1%) were re-interviewed in 2012 after a 1-year follow-up. The mean resilience scores measured by RS-14 were 80.2 (95% CI 78.6 to 81.9) at baseline and 84.9 (83.5 to 86.3) at follow-up. At both time points, lower resilience was independently associated with food insecurity, lower social support availability and social isolation. At both time points, there were significant associations with common mental disorders (CMDs) in unadjusted analyses, but they only showed independence at baseline. The CMD prevalence, maintenance and incidence at follow-up was 8.3%, 28.2% and 2.2%, respectively. In this displaced population facing a potential reduction in adversity, resilience was more strongly and robustly associated with economic and

  4. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  5. Tiered Approach to Resilience Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura; Allen, Craig R; Arnott, James C; Bellini, Emanuele; Coaffee, Jon; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Hatfield, Kirk; Hyde, Iain; Hynes, William; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Kasperson, Roger; Katzenberger, John; Keys, Patrick W; Lambert, James H; Moss, Richard; Murdoch, Peter S; Palma-Oliveira, Jose; Pulwarty, Roger S; Sands, Dale; Thomas, Edward A; Tye, Mari R; Woods, David

    2018-04-25

    Regulatory agencies have long adopted a three-tier framework for risk assessment. We build on this structure to propose a tiered approach for resilience assessment that can be integrated into the existing regulatory processes. Comprehensive approaches to assessing resilience at appropriate and operational scales, reconciling analytical complexity as needed with stakeholder needs and resources available, and ultimately creating actionable recommendations to enhance resilience are still lacking. Our proposed framework consists of tiers by which analysts can select resilience assessment and decision support tools to inform associated management actions relative to the scope and urgency of the risk and the capacity of resource managers to improve system resilience. The resilience management framework proposed is not intended to supplant either risk management or the many existing efforts of resilience quantification method development, but instead provide a guide to selecting tools that are appropriate for the given analytic need. The goal of this tiered approach is to intentionally parallel the tiered approach used in regulatory contexts so that resilience assessment might be more easily and quickly integrated into existing structures and with existing policies. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. What do you mean, 'resilient geomorphic systems'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Piégay, H.; Parsons, M.

    2018-03-01

    Resilience thinking has many parallels in the study of geomorphology. Similarities and intersections exist between the scientific discipline of geomorphology and the scientific concept of resilience. Many of the core themes fundamental to geomorphology are closely related to the key themes of resilience. Applications of resilience thinking in the study of natural and human systems have expanded, based on the fundamental premise that ecosystems, economies, and societies must be managed as linked social-ecological systems. Despite geomorphology and resilience sharing core themes, appreciation is limited of the history and development of geomorphology as a field of scientific endeavor by many in the field of resilience, as well as a limited awareness of the foundations of the former in the more recent emergence of resilience. This potentially limits applications of resilience concepts to the study of geomorphology. In this manuscript we provide a collective examination of geomorphology and resilience as a means to conceptually advance both areas of study, as well as to further cement the relevance and importance of not only understanding the complexities of geomorphic systems in an emerging world of interdisciplinary challenges but also the importance of viewing humans as an intrinsic component of geomorphic systems rather than just an external driver. The application of the concepts of hierarchy and scale, fundamental tenets of the study of geomorphic systems, provide a means to overcome contemporary scale-limited approaches within resilience studies. Resilience offers a framework for geomorphology to expand its application into the broader social-ecological domain.

  7. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Stefanovski, Petar; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Raleva, Marija; Dejanova, Beti

    2015-12-15

    A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. Two hundred eighteen (218) women, treated for early breast cancer responded to Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, in order to assess the level of psychological resilience and the level of depression. There is a significant negative correlation between depression and resilience in our sample (r = - 0.562, p resilience. There is no statistically significant correlation between the ages of the participants; time passed since diagnosis, cancer stage and resilience levels. This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  8. Resilience and active coping style: Effects on the self-reported quality of life in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Velea, Ovidiu; Diaconescu, Liliana; Jidveian Popescu, Mara; Truţescu, Carmen

    2017-03-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the association between resilience, active coping styles and the self-perceived quality of life in cancer patients. Additionally, we evaluated the contribution brought to quality of life by demographic variables (age, gender, occupational status) and medical ones (tumour, node and metastasis [TNM] stage, time from diagnosis, number of treatment lines). Methods The study design was cross-sectional. One hundred and seventy-eight patients (94 males, 84 females; mean age 56.20, SD = 7.81) consecutively admitted to two specialty hospitals in Bucharest and displaying TNM cancer stages II-IV were administered the Brief COPE Questionnaire, the RS-14 Resilience Scale and the Rotterdam symptom checklist. Hierarchical regression was used to analyze the relationship between the study variables and the quality of life components (physical distress, psychological distress, and the ability to remain active). Results The quality of life scores were within the average limits, despite 87.6% of patients being in an advanced cancer stage. Both resilience and active coping scores were in the higher range (resilience mean = 78.10, SD = 13.31, 95%CI = 76.14-80.06; active coping mean = 18.33, SD = 4.39, 95%CI = 17.68-18.98). Resilience correlated significantly with all quality of life components (global: p resilience. Among other variables, occupational status and time from diagnosis correlated inversely to two of quality of life components, and TNM stage to all. Conclusions This study points out the importance of resilience in influencing the self-perception of quality of life in cancer patients. Considering that resilience can be improved through psychological intervention, our findings may be useful for the design, adjustment, and implementation of future psychotherapeutic protocols.

  9. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  10. [MaRS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruljothi, Arunvenkatesh

    2016-01-01

    The Space Exploration Division of the Safety and Mission Assurances Directorate is responsible for reducing the risk to Human Space Flight Programs by providing system safety, reliability, and risk analysis. The Risk & Reliability Analysis branch plays a part in this by utilizing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) tools to identify possible types of failure and effective solutions. A continuous effort of this branch is MaRS, or Mass and Reliability System, a tool that was the focus of this internship. Future long duration space missions will have to find a balance between the mass and reliability of their spare parts. They will be unable take spares of everything and will have to determine what is most likely to require maintenance and spares. Currently there is no database that combines mass and reliability data of low level space-grade components. MaRS aims to be the first database to do this. The data in MaRS will be based on the hardware flown on the International Space Stations (ISS). The components on the ISS have a long history and are well documented, making them the perfect source. Currently, MaRS is a functioning excel workbook database; the backend is complete and only requires optimization. MaRS has been populated with all the assemblies and their components that are used on the ISS; the failures of these components are updated regularly. This project was a continuation on the efforts of previous intern groups. Once complete, R&M engineers working on future space flight missions will be able to quickly access failure and mass data on assemblies and components, allowing them to make important decisions and tradeoffs.

  11. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Maltby

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being.

  12. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being. PMID:26132197

  13. The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between stress and life satisfaction among Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Wang, XiaoXi; Bian, YuGe; Wang, Lie

    2015-02-13

    The psychological distress of medical students has been widely acknowledged. However, few studies focused on positive well-being among medical students. The purpose of this study was to investigate related demographic factors of life satisfaction among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationship between stress and life satisfaction among this group of people, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in this relationship. This multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), as well as demographic section were distributed to students at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. A total of 2925 students (effective response rate: 83.6%) became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to explore the mediating role of resilience. Among the demographic factors, life satisfaction was significantly different in gender (P = 0.001) and study programs (P life satisfaction (r = -0.35, P life satisfaction (β = -0.34, P life satisfaction among Chinese medical students. Both stress and resilience played a big role in life satisfaction among Chinese medical students. Besides reducing perceived stress, the university authorities should adopt evidence-based intervention strategies to enhance their resilience in order to promote life satisfaction among the students.

  14. Association between regular physical exercise and depressive symptoms mediated through social support and resilience in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisho Yoshikawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical exercise has been reported to reduce depressive symptoms. Several lines of evidence suggest that physical exercise may prevent depression by promoting social support or resilience, which is the ability to adapt to challenging life conditions. The aim of this study was to compare depressive symptoms, social support, and resilience between Japanese company workers who engaged in regular physical exercise and workers who did not exercise regularly. We also investigated whether regular physical exercise has an indirect association with depressive symptoms through social support and resilience. Methods Participants were 715 Japanese employees at six worksites. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale, social support with the short version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ, and resilience with the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14. A self-report questionnaire, which was extracted from the Japanese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, was used to assess whether participants engage in regular physical exercise, defined as more than 20 min, three or more times per week. The group differences in CES-D, SSQ, and RS-14 scores were investigated by using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Mediation analysis was conducted by using Preacher and Hayes’ bootstrap script to assess whether regular physical exercise is associated with depressive symptoms indirectly through resilience and social support. Results The SSQ Number score (F = 4.82, p = 0.03, SSQ Satisfaction score (F = 6.68, p = 0.01, and RS-14 score (F = 6.01, p = 0.01 were significantly higher in the group with regular physical exercise (n = 83 than in the group without regular physical exercise (n = 632 after adjusting for age, education, marital status, and job status. The difference in CES-D score was not significant (F = 2.90, p = 0

  15. Association between regular physical exercise and depressive symptoms mediated through social support and resilience in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-07-12

    Regular physical exercise has been reported to reduce depressive symptoms. Several lines of evidence suggest that physical exercise may prevent depression by promoting social support or resilience, which is the ability to adapt to challenging life conditions. The aim of this study was to compare depressive symptoms, social support, and resilience between Japanese company workers who engaged in regular physical exercise and workers who did not exercise regularly. We also investigated whether regular physical exercise has an indirect association with depressive symptoms through social support and resilience. Participants were 715 Japanese employees at six worksites. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, social support with the short version of the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), and resilience with the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14). A self-report questionnaire, which was extracted from the Japanese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, was used to assess whether participants engage in regular physical exercise, defined as more than 20 min, three or more times per week. The group differences in CES-D, SSQ, and RS-14 scores were investigated by using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Mediation analysis was conducted by using Preacher and Hayes' bootstrap script to assess whether regular physical exercise is associated with depressive symptoms indirectly through resilience and social support. The SSQ Number score (F = 4.82, p = 0.03), SSQ Satisfaction score (F = 6.68, p = 0.01), and RS-14 score (F = 6.01, p = 0.01) were significantly higher in the group with regular physical exercise (n = 83) than in the group without regular physical exercise (n = 632) after adjusting for age, education, marital status, and job status. The difference in CES-D score was not significant (F = 2.90, p = 0.09). Bootstrapping revealed significant negative indirect

  16. CORRELATION OF WELL-BEING WITH RESILIENCE AND AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guna Svence

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resilience and positive thinking, resilience and optimism, kindness as value could be the factors which could impact the future of our humanity and Earth as well as health and welfare of society. There is an active process of research in the positive psychology carried out in Latvia within the last ten years. The most important category of positive psychology is resilience and well-being. A lot of work has been done regarding adaptation of the concept of well-being and resilience in Latvia. There is a group of young researchers (master level students who have made a contribution to adaptation of the concept of resilience and well-being in the science of psychology in Latvia at Riga Teacher Training and Education Management Academy (RTTEMA. A group of professors have recently made a joint research, where different samples of adults are demonstrated among the Latvian population in this article. The idea of this research is to analyse the collected secondary data on different groups of adults concerning correlation between the aspects of well-being and resilience. The aim of the research is to investigate the dimension of well-being in cognitive, eudaimonistic, hedonistic, interpersonal and spiritual (transcendent relationship with resilience indicators - self-perseverance, self-reliance, acceptance of life, as well as the relevance of well-being indicators to age. One statement of this analysis was the hypothesis about the age as a factor which predetermines development of well-being and resilience. Methods- 1 Questionnaire on well-being (Majors, Majore, Svence, 2009, 2 Resilience scale, RS (Wagnild, Young, 1993, linguistically adapted by I. Bērziņa, G. Svence, 2011, 3 correlation and hierarchical regression analysis of the secondary data. Questions of the research: 1\twhat kind of correlation does exist between the indicators of well-being and resilience? 2\twhich well-being indicators predict these resilience indicators? 3\tis there any

  17. Building resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2011-04-01

    Failure is a familiar trauma in life, but its effects on people differ widely. Some reel, recover, and move on with their lives; others get bogged down by anxiety, depression, and fear of the future. Seligman, who is known as the father of positive psychology, has spent three decades researching failure, helplessness, and optimism. He created a program at the University of Pennsylvania to help young adults and children overcome anxiety and depression, and has worked with colleagues from around the world to develop a program for teaching resilience. That program is being tested by the U.S. Army, an organization of 1.1 million people where trauma is more common and more severe than in any corporate setting. Nevertheless, businesspeo-ple can draw lessons from resilience training, particularly in times of failure and stagnation. The program is called Comprehensive Soldier Fitness, and it has three components: the Global Assessment Tool, a test for psychological fitness (administered to more than 900,000 soldiers to date); self-improvement courses following the test; and "master resilience training" (MRT) for drill sergeants. MRT focuses on enhancing mental toughness, highlighting and honing strengths, and fostering strong relationships-core competencies for any successful manager.

  18. Quantifying resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The biosphere is under unprecedented pressure, reflected in rapid changes in our global ecological, social, technological and economic systems. In many cases, ecological and social systems can adapt to these changes over time, but when a critical threshold is surpassed, a system under stress can undergo catastrophic change and reorganize into a different state. The concept of resilience, introduced more than 40 years ago in the ecological sciences, captures the behaviour of systems that can occur in alternative states. The original definition of resilience forwarded by Holling (1973) is still the most useful. It defines resilience as the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stable state. The idea of alternative stable states has clear and profound implications for ecological management. Coral reefs, for example, are high-diversity systems that provide key ecosystem services such as fisheries and coastal protection. Human impacts are causing significant, ongoing reef degradation, and many reefs have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states in response to anthropogenic pressures such as elevated water temperatures and overfishing. Understanding and differentiating between the factors that help maintain reefs in coral-dominated states vs. those that facilitate a shift to an undesired algal-dominated state is a critical step towards sound management and conservation of these, and other, important social–ecological systems.

  19. Differential responses of emergent intertidal coral reef fauna to a large-scale El-Niño southern oscillation event: sponge and coral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J; Moraes, Simone Souza; Gomes, Rilza da Costa Tourinho; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Attrill, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of information on the impacts of the 1997-8 El Niño event and subsequent climatic episodes on emergent intertidal coral reef assemblages. Given the environmental variability intertidal reefs experience, such reefs may potentially be more resilient to climatic events and provide important insights into the adaptation of reef fauna to future ocean warming. Here we report the results of a 17-year (1995-2011) biodiversity survey of four emergent coral reef ecosystems in Bahia, Brazil, to assess the impact of a major El Niño event on the reef fauna, and determine any subsequent recovery. The densities of two species of coral, Favia gravida and Siderastrea stellata, did not vary significantly across the survey period, indicating a high degree of tolerance to the El Niño associated stress. However, there were marked decreases in the diversity of other taxa. Molluscs, bryozoans and ascidians suffered severe declines in diversity and abundance and had not recovered to pre-El Niño levels by the end of the study. Echinoderms were reduced to a single species in 1999, Echinometra lucunter, although diversity levels had recovered by 2002. Sponge assemblages were not impacted by the 1997-8 event and their densities had increased by the study end. Multivariate analysis indicated that a stable invertebrate community had re-established on the reefs after the El Niño event, but it has a different overall composition to the pre-El Niño community. It is unclear if community recovery will continue given more time, but our study highlights that any increase in the frequency of large-scale climatic events to more than one a decade is likely to result in a persistent lower-diversity state. Our results also suggest some coral and sponge species are particularly resilient to the El Niño-associated stress and therefore represent suitable models to investigate temperature adaptation in reef organisms.

  20. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and sage-grouse- A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Boyd, Chad S.; Campbell, Steve; Espinosa, Shawn; Havlina, Doug; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution, relative abundance, and persistence of sage-grouse populations to develop management strategies at both landscape and site scales. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with sage-grouse habitat requirements for landscape cover of sagebrush to help decision makers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at landscape scales. Focal areas for management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation (PACs), breeding bird densities, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of focal areas for treatment and the most appropriate management treatments.

  1. Resilience in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Yhojan; Pacheco, Yovana; Zapata, Elizabeth; Monsalve, Diana M; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rodríguez-Jimenez, Monica; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Molano-González, Nicolás; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate the relationship between resilience and clinical outcomes in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Focus groups, individual interviews, and chart reviews were done to collect data on 188 women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely rheumatoid arthritis (n=51), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=70), systemic sclerosis (n=35), and Sjögren's syndrome (n=32). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed including disease activity by patient reported outcomes. Resilience was evaluated by using the Brief Resilience Scale. Bivariate, multiple linear regression, and classification and regression trees were used to analyse data. Resilience was influenced by age, duration of disease, and socioeconomic status. Lower resilience scores were observed in younger patients (50years) had higher resilience scores regardless of socioeconomic status. There was no influence of disease activity on resilience. A particular behaviour was observed in systemic sclerosis in which patients with high socioeconomic status and regular physical activity had higher resilience scores. Resilience in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is a continuum process influenced by age and socioeconomic status. The ways in which these variables along with exercise influence resilience deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  3. Resiliency and the Ability to Detect Cartoon Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killlon, Jessica B.; Torres, Aurora

    2017-01-01

    The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale was developed to measure resiliency, an individual's ability to positively adapt to stressful or adverse situations. Resilient individuals have close and secure relationships, have a strong sense of purpose, know when to turn to others for help, and find humor in situations. The focus of this study was on the…

  4. Resilience, post-traumatic growth, and work engagement among health care professionals after the Great East Japan Earthquake: A 4-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Kawashima, Yuzuru; Noguchi, Hiroko; Usuki, Masato; Yamashita, Akihiro; Koido, Yuichi; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-07-22

    Although attention has been paid to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among health care professionals after disasters, the impact of traumatic events on their work has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether disaster-related distress, resilience, and post-traumatic growth (PTG) affect work engagement among health care professionals who had been deployed to the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011. We recruited disaster medical assistance team members who were engaged in rescue activities after the earthquake. The short version of the Resilience Scale (RS-14) and Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) were administered one month after the earthquake, and the short form of Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (SF-PTGI) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were administered four years after the earthquake. Work engagement is composed of vigor, dedication, and absorption. Regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of UWES with RS-14, PDI, and SF-PTGI. We obtained baseline data of 254 participants in April 2011, and 191 (75.2%) completed the follow-up assessment between December 2014 and March 2015. The results showed that RS-14 predicted vigor, dedication, and absorption; in addition, SF-PTGI was positively related with these three parameters (pwork engagement among health care professionals after disasters. These findings could be useful for establishing a support system after rescue activities during a large-scale disaster and for managing work-related stress among health care professionals.

  5. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  6. Life satisfaction, distress, and resiliency across the life span of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Glaesmer, Heide; Decker, Oliver; Fischbeck, Sabine; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine (1) the relationship between life satisfaction, mental disorders, and aging in the female community and (2) to identify the impact of vulnerability factors, personal (resilience, self-esteem), and social resources on life satisfaction and distress. A stratified random sample of the German female population (N = 2,540) was investigated using standardized questionnaires of life satisfaction (Questions on Life Satisfaction), depression, anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire), resilience scale (RS-11), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). When participants were divided into six age groups (18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and >70 y), we found lower life satisfaction, satisfaction with partnership, and sexuality beyond the age of 50 years. Satisfaction with health was decreased already at early adulthood. Although the importance of partnership/sexuality was reduced around midlife, the importance of health increased. Depression was highest in the oldest group, whereas anxiety remained fairly stable across the cohorts. Life satisfaction was strongly associated with resilience, a good household income, the presence of a partnership, absence of anxiety and depression, lack of unemployment, positive self-esteem, religious affiliation, and-least-age. Personal and social resources and the absence of anxiety and depression are of crucial importance for the maintenance of life satisfaction in aging women.

  7. Inferring the relative resilience of alternative states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available Ecological systems may occur in alternative states that differ in ecological structures, functions and processes. Resilience is the measure of disturbance an ecological system can absorb before changing states. However, how the intrinsic structures and processes of systems that characterize their states affects their resilience remains unclear. We analyzed time series of phytoplankton communities at three sites in a floodplain in central Spain to assess the dominant frequencies or "temporal scales" in community dynamics and compared the patterns between a wet and a dry alternative state. The identified frequencies and cross-scale structures are expected to arise from positive feedbacks that are thought to reinforce processes in alternative states of ecological systems and regulate emergent phenomena such as resilience. Our analyses show a higher species richness and diversity but lower evenness in the dry state. Time series modeling revealed a decrease in the importance of short-term variability in the communities, suggesting that community dynamics slowed down in the dry relative to the wet state. The number of temporal scales at which community dynamics manifested, and the explanatory power of time series models, was lower in the dry state. The higher diversity, reduced number of temporal scales and the lower explanatory power of time series models suggest that species dynamics tended to be more stochastic in the dry state. From a resilience perspective our results highlight a paradox: increasing species richness may not necessarily enhance resilience. The loss of cross-scale structure (i.e. the lower number of temporal scales in community dynamics across sites suggests that resilience erodes during drought. Phytoplankton communities in the dry state are therefore likely less resilient than in the wet state. Our case study demonstrates the potential of time series modeling to assess attributes that mediate resilience. The approach is useful

  8. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with brain metastases: influences on caregiver resilience and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saria, Marlon Garzo; Courchesne, Natasia; Evangelista, Lorraine; Carter, Joshua; MacManus, Daniel A; Gorman, Mary Kay; Nyamathi, Adeline M; Phillips, Linda R; Piccioni, David; Kesari, Santosh; Maliski, Sally

    2017-04-01

    Neurologic deficits that may be manifested as cognitive impairment contribute to the challenges faced by caregivers of patients with brain metastases. To better address their needs, we examined how caregivers respond to these challenges and explore the relationship between the patient's cognitive impairment and caregiver resilience and coping. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study using self-reported data from 56 caregivers of patients with brain metastases. Study participants from a comprehensive cancer center were asked to complete a series of instruments that measured their perception of the patient's cognitive dysfunction (revised memory and behavior problems checklist, RMBC), their own personal resilience (Resilience Scale, RS), and their utilization of a broad range of coping responses (COPE inventory and Emotional-Approach Coping scale). Caregivers reported that memory-related problems occurred more frequently in the patients they cared for compared to depression and disruptive behavior (mean scores 3.52 vs 2.34 vs. 1.32, respectively). Coping strategies most frequently used by caregivers were acceptance (3.28), planning (3.08), and positive reinterpretation and growth (2.95). Most caregivers scored moderate to high on the RS (77%). The coping strategy acceptance correlated significantly with the memory and disruptive behavior subscales of the RMBC. Given the protective effect of problem-focused coping and the high rate of caregivers utilizing less effective coping strategies in instances of worsening cognitive dysfunction, healthcare professionals need to systematically assess the coping strategies of caregivers and deliver a more personalized approach to enhance effective coping among caregivers of patients with brain metastases.

  9. Relationship among Medical Student Resilience, Educational Environment and Quality of Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tempski

    Full Text Available Resilience is a capacity to face and overcome adversities, with personal transformation and growth. In medical education, it is critical to understand the determinants of a positive, developmental reaction in the face of stressful, emotionally demanding situations. We studied the association among resilience, quality of life (QoL and educational environment perceptions in medical students.We evaluated data from a random sample of 1,350 medical students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Information from participants included the Wagnild and Young's resilience scale (RS-14, the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM, the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire - short form (WHOQOL-BREF, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI.Full multiple linear regression models were adjusted for sex, age, year of medical course, presence of a BDI score ≥ 14 and STAI state or anxiety scores ≥ 50. Compared to those with very high resilience levels, individuals with very low resilience had worse QoL, measured by overall (β=-0.89; 95% confidence interval =-1.21 to -0.56 and medical-school related (β=-0.85; 95%CI=-1.25 to -0.45 QoL scores, environment (β=-6.48; 95%CI=-10.01 to -2.95, psychological (β=-22.89; 95%CI=-25.70 to -20.07, social relationships (β=-14.28; 95%CI=-19.07 to -9.49, and physical health (β=-10.74; 95%CI=-14.07 to -7.42 WHOQOL-BREF domain scores. They also had a worse educational environment perception, measured by global DREEM score (β=-31.42; 95%CI=-37.86 to -24.98, learning (β=-7.32; 95%CI=-9.23 to -5.41, teachers (β=-5.37; 95%CI=-7.16 to -3.58, academic self-perception (β=-7.33; 95%CI=-8.53 to -6.12, atmosphere (β=-8.29; 95%CI=-10.13 to -6.44 and social self-perception (β=-3.12; 95%CI=-4.11 to -2.12 DREEM domain scores. We also observed a dose-response pattern across resilience level groups for most measurements.Medical students with higher resilience levels

  10. Itaara, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no município de Itaara, RS, Brasil, em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual secundária com 70 anos aproximadamente. O estudo teve como principal objetivo quantificar a biomassa acima do solo na floresta. Para tanto, foram abatidas vinte árvores distribuídas em cinco classes de diâmetros. As árvores abatidas foram separadas nas frações, madeira do fuste, casca do fuste, galhos e folhas. Em cada fração, foram retiradas amostras para determinação da umidade, determinado o peso seco de cada componente. A estimativa da biomassa foi obtida pelo uso da equação log y = b0 + b1 . log DAP. A produção total estimada de biomassa acima do solo foi de 210,0 Mg ha-1. Nessa estimativa, os galhos corresponderam a 48,8%, a madeira do fuste 43,3%, a casca do fuste 5,4%, e as folhas 2,4%.

  11. Interleukin-6-receptor polymorphisms rs12083537, rs2228145, and rs4329505 as predictors of response to tocilizumab in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Christian; Baslund, Bo; Linde, Louise

    2014-01-01

    for association with the IL6R-haplotype or genotype. The major allele (A) of rs12083537 and the minor allele (C) of rs4329505 were associated with a poor SJC response (P=0.02 and 0.02, respectively). Moreover, the AAC-haplotype (for rs12083537, rs2228145, and rs4329505, respectively) was associated with a poor...

  12. Normative data and psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the abbreviated version (CD-RISC2) among the general population in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Michael Y; Li, Tom K; Yu, Nancy X; Pang, Herbert; Chan, Brandford H Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether the two-item version (CD-RISC2) of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) has adequate internal consistency and construct validity, as well as significant correlation with the full scale, and to provide normative data for the CD-RISC and the CD-RISC2 in a Chinese general population in Hong Kong. In total, 10,997 randomly selected participants aged ≥20 years completed the Chinese version of the CD-RISC (including the 2 items of the CD-RISC2), the Patient Health Questionnaire, Family Harmony Scale, Family APGAR, and CAGE Questionnaire. Internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 were assessed. Cronbach's α for CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 0.97 and 0.79, respectively. CD-RISC2 was associated with the 25-item version of the CD-RISC (r = 0.88), depressive symptoms (r s = -0.18), family harmony (r = 0.20), family functioning (r = 0.27) and was not associated with alcohol consumption (r = 0.05). The mean score for the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 59.99 (SD = 13.92) and 5.03 (SD = 1.37), respectively. Men, younger individuals, and those with higher education or higher household income reported higher resilience levels. The Chinese version of the CD-RISC2 was demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measure in assessing resilience among the general population in Hong Kong.

  13. Of resilient places: planning for urban resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmood, Abid

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that resilience of a place cannot necessarily be associated only with the level of its vulnerability to the environment or security. A place-based perspective to resilience helps understand the capacity of communities to withstand or adapt with change. Resilience of a place does not only refer to contingencies—such as formulating immediate responses to crisis situations or incidents such as earthquakes, floods or other disasters in vulnerable areas—but also considers long-te...

  14. Paula, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is part of studies and researches developed at Long Duration Ecological Project - PELD/CNPq, located in São Francisco de Paula’s National Forest (FLONA, RS. The objective of this paper was to identify and to characterize the different stages of succession in mixed rainy forest remains. The work had been accomplished in ten permanent conglomerates of 100m x 100m (10.000m2, which were divided into ten strips of 10m x 100m (1.000m2 and these ones subdivided into ten subunits of 10m x 10m (100m2. In this research, a strip of 10m x 100m was selected for each conglomerate, totaling 100 subunits (stands, where it had been installed, at DBH height, dendrometric bands in all trees with CBH ≥ 30cm, for annual diameters measurement. The cluster analysis was accomplished through the Twinspan program, using a data matrix with ninety-nine stands (one of those was unconsidered by the absence of individuals with CBH ≥ 30cm having as variable the annual increment in diameter (obtained in two years of observations of sixty nine species. Three floristic groups was obtained, indicating stages of succession in the forest: a group separated a less developed stage of succession denominated secondary forest, being Nectandra megapotamica and Cryptocaria aschersoniana the indicative species; a second group indicated an intermediate stage of succession in the forest, being Sebastiania commersoniana and Ocotea pulchella the indicative species; and a third group of primary forest, whose indicative species was Araucaria angustifolia.

  15. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  16. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  17. The importance of being resilient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, J.

    2012-04-01

    Despite many efforts to pin down resilience in terms of measurable indicators and indices, there is little agreement about what is the most appropriate scale, level of (dis)integration, functional relationship and trade-off between the various constituents of resilience. More than anything else, resilience is knowledge. Knowing how to prepare, respond and recover from hazard strikes. More than that, resilience is a capacity to deploy that knowledge. To help oneself to get back on feet after having sustained a blow. To learn how to. Resilience has many forms and manifestations. People convalescing after having lost what was dear to them. Communities recovering from shattering blows. Economies getting back on track after having sustained major shocks and losses. However, resilience has also negative connotation: the persistent overlooking of the threat and perceived powerlessness of individuals, in front of unacquainted community or nonsensical institutions, to make any difference. During the flood emergency situations, the community resilience is determined at individual level by the willpower and readiness of community members to help others in need ('we don't step away') and themselves, and the degree to which they know how to. In this sense, the preparedness comprises capability and experience that can be acquired or trained, and commitment which is transmitted by moral obligation and community membership. In the most cases it is not the professional staff trained for emergency situation which arrives as first at the place of disaster, however well the emergency response is organised. Before the professional rescue teams, the ordinary people intervene, or can do so, with positive or negative outcomes. The articles revisits recent flood events and identify factors and measures that boost community resilience to flood (REF). In Italy, the analysed events included 2000 Soverato, 2006 Vibo Valentia floods, both places situated in Calabria on Ionian and Tyrrhenian

  18. Building Resilience in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to succeed in life. That is why Kenneth Ginsburg, M.D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing ... resilience in children, teens, and young adults. Dr. Ginsburg has identified seven “C”s of resilience, recognizing that “ ...

  19. Resiliant Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task goal is to develop and demonstrate an innovative software architecture, the “Resilient Spacecraft Executive”, that will enable highly-resilient...

  20. Developing the resilience typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in resilience in internal crisis management and crisis communication. How an organization can build up resilience as a response to organisational crisis, at a time when the amount of crises seem only to increase, is more relevant than ever before. Nevertheless resilience...... is often perceived in the literature as something certain organisations have by definition, without further reflection on what it is that creates this resiliency. This article explores what it is that creates organisational resilience, and in view of the different understandings of the resilience...... phenomenon, develops a typology of resilience. Furthermore the resilience phenomenon is discussed against the definition of a crisis as a cosmological episode, and implications for future research is discussed and summarized....

  1. Resilience and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that a relationship exists between quality of life (QoL and resilience in breast cancer patients, but few studies present information on the nature of this relationship of resilience on QoL. Our aim was to examine the relationship between resilience and quality of life in breast cancer patients. METHODS: QoL was measured in 218 consequent breast cancer patients, with EORTC - QLQ Core 30 questionnaire, and EORTC QLQ-BR23. The resilience was measured with Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. RESULTS: The global quality of life was positively correlated with the levels of resilience (R = 0.39 p < 0.001. All functional scales (physical, role, emotional, cognitive and social functioning was in a positive correlation with resilience. The symptoms severity (fatigue, nausea and vomitus, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, diarrhea, financial difficulties was in negative correlation with resilience. Less resilient breast cancer patients reported worse body image and future perspective and suffered from more severe adverse effects of systemic therapy, and arm/breast symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychological resilience affects different aspects of health-related quality of life. More resilient patients have significantly better quality of life in almost all aspects of QoL.

  2. Psychological resilience contributes to low emotional distress in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Sujung; Lee, Chang-Uk; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Chul; Song, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Suk

    2013-09-01

    Although a considerable number of cancer patients suffer from emotional distress which may have an impact on their quality of life, it still remains poorly understood which psychosocial factors contribute to individual vulnerabilities to emotional distress of cancer patients. Recently, resilience has been suggested as the capacity to cope with adversities like cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationships between resilience and emotional distress in cancer patients. One hundred fifty-two cancer patients who were consecutively hospitalized for their scheduled treatments at the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were enrolled and completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale to measure resilience and emotional distress. The relationships between the levels of psychological resilience and emotional distress were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Psychological resilience levels were negatively associated with emotional distress after controlling for relevant covariates. The highest quartile of resilience level was associated with a 90% (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03-0.34, P cancer patients, resilience was also found to be a significant protective factor for emotional distress (adjusted OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.79, P = 0.02). The present study suggests that psychological resilience may independently contribute to low emotional distress in cancer patients. The relationship between resilience and emotional distress was also significant in the subgroup of metastatic cancer patients. Psychosocial interventions to enhance resilience might provide useful approaches to overcome cancer-related emotional distress.

  3. Resilience - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Image designed by Diane Fleischer Resilience —A CONCEPT Col Dennis J. Rensel, USAF (Ret.) Resilience takes on many definitions and ideas depending...upon who is speaking. Taking this one step further, consider resiliency as a concept that provides a holistic view of a system or capability, just...the assessment of the health of a network or system. The hypothesis is: resiliency is meaningful in the context of holistic assessments of

  4. Psychological resilience after Hurricane Sandy: the influence of individual- and community-level factors on mental health after a large-scale natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Sampson, Laura; Gruebner, Oliver; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Several individual-level factors are known to promote psychological resilience in the aftermath of disasters. Far less is known about the role of community-level factors in shaping postdisaster mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of both individual- and community-level factors on resilience after Hurricane Sandy. A representative sample of household residents (N = 418) from 293 New York City census tracts that were most heavily affected by the storm completed telephone interviews approximately 13-16 months postdisaster. Multilevel multivariable models explored the independent and interactive contributions of individual- and community-level factors to posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms. At the individual-level, having experienced or witnessed any lifetime traumatic event was significantly associated with higher depression and posttraumatic stress, whereas demographic characteristics (e.g., older age, non-Hispanic Black race) and more disaster-related stressors were significantly associated with higher posttraumatic stress only. At the community-level, living in an area with higher social capital was significantly associated with higher posttraumatic stress. Additionally, higher community economic development was associated with lower risk of depression only among participants who did not experience any disaster-related stressors. These results provide evidence that individual- and community-level resources and exposure operate in tandem to shape postdisaster resilience.

  5. Development of a multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents: the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzwell Simone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of resilience has captured the imagination of researchers and policy makers over the past two decades. However, despite the ever growing body of resilience research, there is a paucity of relevant, comprehensive measurement tools. In this article, the development of a theoretically based, comprehensive multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents is described. Methods Extensive literature review and focus groups with young people living with chronic illness informed the conceptual development of scales and items. Two sequential rounds of factor and scale analyses were undertaken to revise the conceptually developed scales using data collected from young people living with a chronic illness and a general population sample. Results The revised Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire comprises 93 items and 12 scales measuring resilience factors in the domains of self, family, peer, school and community. All scales have acceptable alpha coefficients. Revised scales closely reflect conceptually developed scales. Conclusions It is proposed that, with further psychometric testing, this new measure of resilience will provide researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive and developmentally appropriate instrument to measure a young person's capacity to achieve positive outcomes despite life stressors.

  6. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...... and resources. This poster will present the conceptual framework for this project focusing on species resilience....

  7. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  8. The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between big five personality and anxiety among Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Liu, Li; Wang, Zi Yue; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    The psychological distress of medical students is a major concern of public health worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate anxiety symptoms of medical students in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiety symptoms among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms among medical students, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in these relationships. This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Big Five Inventory (BFI), Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14) and demographic section were distributed to the subjects. A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select 2925 medical students (effective response rate: 83.57%) at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of resilience. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 47.3% (SAS index score≥50) among Chinese medical students. After adjusting for the demographic factors, the traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were all negatively associated with anxiety whereas neuroticism was positively associated with it. Resilience functioned as a mediator in the relationships between agreeableness/conscientiousness/openness and anxiety symptoms. Among Chinese medical students, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was high and resilience mediated the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms. Identifying at-risk individuals and undertaking appropriate intervention strategies that focus on both personality traits and resilience might be more effective to prevent and reduce anxiety symptoms.

  9. The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between big five personality and anxiety among Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Shi

    Full Text Available The psychological distress of medical students is a major concern of public health worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate anxiety symptoms of medical students in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiety symptoms among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms among medical students, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in these relationships.This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, Big Five Inventory (BFI, Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14 and demographic section were distributed to the subjects. A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select 2925 medical students (effective response rate: 83.57% at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of resilience.The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 47.3% (SAS index score≥50 among Chinese medical students. After adjusting for the demographic factors, the traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were all negatively associated with anxiety whereas neuroticism was positively associated with it. Resilience functioned as a mediator in the relationships between agreeableness/conscientiousness/openness and anxiety symptoms.Among Chinese medical students, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was high and resilience mediated the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms. Identifying at-risk individuals and undertaking appropriate intervention strategies that focus on both personality traits and resilience might be more effective to prevent and reduce anxiety symptoms.

  10. The Mediating Role of Resilience in the Relationship between Big Five Personality and Anxiety among Chinese Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Liu, Li; Wang, Zi Yue; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds The psychological distress of medical students is a major concern of public health worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate anxiety symptoms of medical students in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiety symptoms among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms among medical students, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in these relationships. Methods This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Big Five Inventory (BFI), Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14) and demographic section were distributed to the subjects. A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select 2925 medical students (effective response rate: 83.57%) at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of resilience. Results The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 47.3% (SAS index score≥50) among Chinese medical students. After adjusting for the demographic factors, the traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were all negatively associated with anxiety whereas neuroticism was positively associated with it. Resilience functioned as a mediator in the relationships between agreeableness/conscientiousness/openness and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Among Chinese medical students, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was high and resilience mediated the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms. Identifying at-risk individuals and undertaking appropriate intervention strategies that focus on both personality traits and resilience might be more effective to prevent and reduce anxiety symptoms. PMID:25794003

  11. Resilience and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Filov, Izabela; Rajchanovska, Domnika; Stefanovski, Petar; Dejanova, Beti

    2015-12-15

    Many studies have shown that a relationship exists between quality of life (QoL) and resilience in breast cancer patients, but few studies present information on the nature of this relationship of resilience on QoL. Our aim was to examine the relationship between resilience and quality of life in breast cancer patients. QoL was measured in 218 consequent breast cancer patients, with EORTC - QLQ Core 30 questionnaire, and EORTC QLQ-BR23. The resilience was measured with Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. The global quality of life was positively correlated with the levels of resilience (R = 0.39 p resilience. The symptoms severity (fatigue, nausea and vomitus, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, diarrhea, financial difficulties) was in negative correlation with resilience. Less resilient breast cancer patients reported worse body image and future perspective and suffered from more severe adverse effects of systemic therapy, and arm/breast symptoms. Our findings show that psychological resilience affects different aspects of health-related quality of life. More resilient patients have significantly better quality of life in almost all aspects of QoL.

  12. Social-ecological resilience and geomorphic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Scown, Murray

    2018-03-01

    Governance of coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) and the underlying geomorphic processes that structure and alter Earth's surface is a key challenge for global sustainability amid the increasing uncertainty and change that defines the Anthropocene. Social-ecological resilience as a concept of scientific inquiry has contributed to new understandings of the dynamics of change in SESs, increasing our ability to contextualize and implement governance in these systems. Often, however, the importance of geomorphic change and geomorphological knowledge is somewhat missing from processes employed to inform SES governance. In this contribution, we argue that geomorphology and social-ecological resilience research should be integrated to improve governance toward sustainability. We first provide definitions of engineering, ecological, community, and social-ecological resilience and then explore the use of these concepts within and alongside geomorphology in the literature. While ecological studies often consider geomorphology as an important factor influencing the resilience of ecosystems and geomorphological studies often consider the engineering resilience of geomorphic systems of interest, very few studies define and employ a social-ecological resilience framing and explicitly link the concept to geomorphic systems. We present five key concepts-scale, feedbacks, state or regime, thresholds and regime shifts, and humans as part of the system-which we believe can help explicitly link important aspects of social-ecological resilience inquiry and geomorphological inquiry in order to strengthen the impact of both lines of research. Finally, we discuss how these five concepts might be used to integrate social-ecological resilience and geomorphology to better understand change in, and inform governance of, SESs. To compound these dynamics of resilience, complex systems are nested and cross-scale interactions from smaller and larger scales relative to the system of interest

  13. Resilience and impact of children's intellectual disability on Indian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Anugraha Merin; John, Romate

    2017-12-01

    Resilience of parents in the context of raising a child with intellectual disability is gaining attention as a mechanism that addresses their inherent strengths to withstand the potential associated strain. Understanding its underlying factors has applications in fostering their resilience. The present study explored the resilience of parents and its relationship with the impact of child's disability. A total of 121 parents were assessed using Connor Davidson Resilience Scale and National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped Disability Impact Scale. The results revealed that parenting a child with intellectual disability posed them with both positive and negative experiences. Their evaluations about the condition of the child significantly influenced their resilience. The positive perceptions about the child's disability operated as a protective element, whereas their negative evaluations acted as a risk element of resilience. The findings have specific importance in designing interventions for families of persons with intellectual disability.

  14. Association of neuropeptide Y promoter polymorphism (rs16147) with perceived stress and cardiac vagal outflow in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-An; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Tieh-Ching; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia

    2016-08-16

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in resilience to stress, and higher vagal (parasympathetic) activity has been associated with greater stress resilience. Thus, we examined whether rs16147, a functional promoter polymorphism (C>T) of the NPY gene, could influence vagal tone during chronic high stress levels. NPY genotyping, chronic psychological stress level measurement (using the Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]), cardiac autonomic function assessment (using short-term heart rate variability [HRV]) were performed in 1123 healthy, drug-free Han Chinese participants who were divided into low- and high-PSS groups. In the high-PSS group (n = 522), the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences and high frequency power (both HRV indices of parasympathetic activity) were significantly increased in T/T homozygotes compared to C/C homozygotes. However, no significant between-genotype difference was found in any HRV variable in the low-PSS group (n = 601). Our results are the first to demonstrate that functional NPY variation alters chronic stress-related vagal control, suggesting a potential parasympathetic role for NPY gene in stress regulation.

  15. Resilience in patients with psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozikas, V; Parlapani, E

    2016-01-01

    comprise the so called "phenomenological resilience" that can be measured by scales.4,5 Originally, research focused on resilience in relation to post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Recently, resilience was proven a significant predictor of depressive episode recurrence in bipolar disorder.6 Low resilience levels were also established in individuals at clinical high risk state for development of psychosis. Interestingly, individuals at high risk that developed a full-blown psychosis had shown significantly lower resilience levels compared with non-converters. Additionally, high resilience levels in individuals at high risk for psychosis related to less severe negative, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as higher social functioning.7,8 Schizophrenia patients with higher resilience levels and optimism showed higher levels of happiness that associated in turn with lower perceived stress and higher personal mastery,9 while resilience was a significant predictor of functioning in a subgroup of non-medicated schizophrenia patients.10 In light of evidence supporting a positive association between resilience and schizophrenia outcome and based on the fact that resilience is modifiable and could improve with treatment,5 resilience studies are particularly meaningful, specifically within the first 3-5 years after schizophrenia onset,11 and could lead to interventions that aim at harnessing resilience during this "critical period". Diverse positive psychology interventions aim at improving psychological well-being by developing and nourishing positive feelings, behaviours and cognitions. Lately, positive psychotherapy was adapted for schizophrenia patients and was proven a feasible intervention that might contribute to improvement in functioning.12 Conclusively, sustained improvement in social and occupational functioning remains the most important indicator of recovery from schizophrenia. Still, such an improvement may not be accomplished in all patients by

  16. Implementing a Global Tool for Mercy Corps Based on Spatially Continuous Precipitation Analysis for Resiliency Monitoring and Measuring at the Community-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, J. N.; El-Behaedi, R.; McCartney, S.; Lingo, R.; Thieme, A.

    2017-12-01

    Global water resources are important for societies, economies, and the environment. In Niger, limited water resources restrict the expansion of agriculture and communities. Mercy Corps currently works in over 40 countries around the world to address a variety of stresses which include water resources and building long-term food resilience. As Mercy Corps seeks to integrate the use of Earth observations, NASA has established a partnership to help facilitate this effort incorporating Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) data to create a standardized precipitation index that highlights low and high rainfall from 1981 - 2016. The team created a Google Earth Engine tool that combines precipitation data with other metrics of stress in Niger. The system is designed to be able to incorporate groundwater storage data as it becomes available. This tool allows for near real-time updates of trends in precipitation and improves Mercy Corps' ability to spatially evaluate changes in resiliency by monitoring shocks and stressors.

  17. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Manning, Mary E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution and relative abundance of sage-grouse populations to address persistent ecosystem threats, such as invasive annual grasses and wildfire, and land use and development threats, such as oil and gas development and cropland conversion, to develop effective management strategies. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with modeled sage-grouse breeding habitat probabilities to help decisionmakers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at both landscape and site scales. Areas for targeted management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with Greater sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation and Gunnison sage-grouse critical habitat and linkages, breeding bird concentration areas, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of target areas for management and the most appropriate management actions. A similar approach was developed for the Great Basin that was incorporated into the Federal land use plan amendments and served as the basis of a Bureau of Land Management Fire and Invasives Assessment Tool, which was used to prioritize sage-grouse habitat for targeted management activities.

  18. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  19. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  20. Recommender Thermometer for Measuring the Preparedness for Flood Resilience Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kaklauskas, Arturas; Lepkova, Natalija; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Lill, Irene; Urbonaviciene, Vita; Naimaviciene, Jurga; Budryte, Loreta; Tupenaite, Laura; Kanapeckiene, Loreta

    2014-01-01

    A range of various thermometers and similar scales are employed in different human and resilience management activities: Distress Thermometer, Panic Thermometer, Fear Thermometer, fire danger rating, hurricane scales, earthquake scales (Richter\\ud Magnitude Scale, Mercalli Scale), Anxiety Thermometer, Help Thermometer, Problem Thermometer, Emotion Thermometer, Depression Thermometer, the Torino scale (assessing asteroid/comet impact prediction), Excessive Heat Watch, etc. Extensive financing ...

  1. Social and technological aspects of disaster resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Revez, Alexandra; Sparf, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Large scale projects tasked with designing infrastructures and urban networks resilient to disasters face a common challenge, i.e. the need to address concomitant technological issues and social problems. What is more, conflicting technologies and the diverse philosophical underpinnings of distinct...... academic disciplines pose difficulties in the collaboration among experts of different fields. These difficulties and possible ways to tackle them have been highlighted by a questionnaire developed in the framework of an EU project named ANDROID (Academic Network for Disaster Resilience to Optimize...... Educational Development). More specifically, the project investigated the level of interdisciplinary work in current research and educational projects within the field of disaster resilience. Findings illustrate the number and types of disciplines involved in disaster resilience projects and suggest...

  2. Medical student resilience and stressful clinical events during clinical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpy, Jennifer C; Lee, Wei Wei; Woodruff, James N; Pincavage, Amber T

    2017-01-01

    Medical students face numerous stressors during their clinical years, including difficult clinical events. Fostering resilience is a promising way to mitigate negative effects of stressors, prevent burnout, and help students thrive after difficult experiences. However, little is known about medical student resilience. To characterize medical student resilience and responses to difficult clinical events during clinical training. Sixty-two third-year (MS3) and 55 fourth-year (MS4) University of Chicago medical students completed surveys in 2016 assessing resilience (Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC 10), symptoms of burnout, need for resilience training, and responses to difficult clinical events. Medical student mean resilience was lower than in a general population sample. Resilience was higher in males, MS4s, those without burnout symptoms, and students who felt able to cope with difficult clinical events. When students experienced difficult events in the clinical setting, the majority identified poor team dynamics among the most stressful, and agreed their wellbeing was affected by difficult clinical events. A majority also would prefer to discuss these events with their team later that day. Students discussed events with peers more than with attendings or residents. Students comfortable discussing stress and burnout with peers had higher resilience. Most students believed resilience training would be helpful and most beneficial during MS3 year. Clinical medical student resilience was lower than in the general population but higher in MS4s and students reporting no burnout. Students had some insight into their resilience and most thought resilience training would be helpful. Students discussed difficult clinical events most often with peers. More curricula promoting medical student resilience are needed.

  3. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  4. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  5. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE

    2015-01-01

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  6. The psychobiology of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2009-02-01

    Although adverse environments are well known to be a risk factor for psychopathology, many individuals respond adaptively to such environments. There is growing interest in the underlying mechanisms involved in such resilience. Several cognitive-affective processes may be involved, and these may be mediated by particular neuronal circuits and neurochemical systems. This article summarizes some of the relevant work on the role of fear conditioning, reward processing, and social behavior in resilience. There is a growing body of data on how particular gene-environment interactions affect these processes, and thus underpin resilience. Ultimately, a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning resilience may lead to novel interventions.

  7. 8th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing & Workshop on Cyber Security and Resilience of Large-Scale Systems & 6th International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Braubach, Lars; Venticinque, Salvatore; Badica, Costin

    2015-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the Eight International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing - IDC'2014, of the Workshop on Cyber Security and Resilience of Large-Scale Systems - WSRL-2014, and of the Sixth International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics- MASTS-2014. All the events were held in Madrid, Spain, during September 3-5, 2014. The 47 contributions published in this book address several topics related to theory and applications of the intelligent distributed computing and multi-agent systems, including: agent-based data processing, ambient intelligence, collaborative systems, cryptography and security, distributed algorithms, grid and cloud computing, information extraction, knowledge management, big data and ontologies, social networks, swarm intelligence or videogames amongst others.

  8. A New Resilience Measure for Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiying Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, supply chain networks can span the whole world, and any disruption of these networks may cause economic losses, decreases in sales and unsustainable supplies. Resilience, the ability of the system to withstand disruption and return to a normal state quickly, has become a new challenge during the supply chain network design. This paper defines a new resilience measure as the ratio of the integral of the normalized system performance within its maximum allowable recovery time after the disruption to the integral of the performance in the normal state. Using the maximum allowable recovery time of the system as the time interval under consideration, this measure allows the resilience of different systems to be compared on the same relative scale, and be used under both scenarios that the system can or cannot restore in the given time. Two specific resilience measures, the resilience based on the amount of product delivered and the resilience based on the average delivery distance, are provided for supply chain networks. To estimate the resilience of a given supply chain network, a resilience simulation method is proposed based on the Monte Carlo method. A four-layered hierarchial mobile phone supply chain network is used to illustrate the resilience quantification process and show how network structure affects the resilience of supply chain networks.

  9. Predictors of psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances; Bell, Caroline; Ali, Anthony; McKenzie, Janice; Boden, Joseph M; Wilkinson, Timothy; Bell, Caroline

    2016-05-06

    To identify predictors of self-reported psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes in Canterbury in 2010 and 2011. Two hundred and fifty-three medical students from the Christchurch campus, University of Otago, were invited to participate in an electronic survey seven months following the most severe earthquake. Students completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist, the Work and Adjustment Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Likert scales and other questions were also used to assess a range of variables including demographic and historical variables (eg, self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes), plus the impacts of the earthquakes. The response rate was 78%. Univariate analyses identified multiple variables that were significantly associated with higher resilience. Multiple linear regression analyses produced a fitted model that was able to explain 35% of the variance in resilience scores. The best predictors of higher resilience were: retrospectively-rated personality prior to the earthquakes (higher extroversion and lower neuroticism); higher self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes; not being exposed to the most severe earthquake; and less psychological distress following the earthquakes. Psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes was able to be predicted to a moderate extent.

  10. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  11. Engagement, resilience and empathy in nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Abal, Yolanda; López-López, M José; Climent-Rodríguez, José A

    To analyse the levels of engagement, resilience and empathy, and the relationship between them, in a sample of nursing assistants working in different private institutions in Huelva. A transversal, descriptive study. The sample comprised 128 nursing assistants working in private health centres of Huelva. They were given the following instruments: resilience scale Wagnild and Young, Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Utrech Work Engagement Scale. There is a relationship between the cognitive and emotional components of engagement and empathy. Certain sociodemographic variables associated with the organisation of work and working conditions are associated with level of engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Richard G; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT), resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = 0.59), but negatively associated with total stress (r = -0.44). The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R (2) = 0.35). Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R (2) = 0.21). Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport.

  13. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gregory Cowden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT, resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = .59, but negatively associated with total stress (r = -.44. The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R2 = .35. Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R2 = .21. Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport.

  14. A review of definitions and measures of system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyedmohsen; Barker, Kash; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and evaluating the resilience of systems, potentially complex and large-scale in nature, has recently raised significant interest among both practitioners and researchers. This recent interest has resulted in several definitions of the concept of resilience and several approaches to measuring this concept, across several application domains. As such, this paper presents a review of recent research articles related to defining and quantifying resilience in various disciplines, with a focus on engineering systems. We provide a classification scheme to the approaches in the literature, focusing on qualitative and quantitative approaches and their subcategories. Addressed in this review are: an extensive coverage of the literature, an exploration of current gaps and challenges, and several directions for future research. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of definitions and measures of system resilience. • Focus given to resilience in engineering systems is provided. • Nearly 150 articles across several domains are reviewed. • Future directions in resilience research are discussed.

  15. Resilience and Treatment Adhesion in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Daniella Antunes Pousa; Revoredo, Luciana Silva; Vilar, Maria José; Eulália Maria Chaves, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, rheumatic inflammatory disease that can cause significant morbidity with evident psychological impacts and obvious harm to quality-of-life that require the patient to adapt treatment. Objective: Assessment of resilience and the self-reported treatment adhesion behaviors of patients with SLE, investigating which of these factors are associated to resilience. Method: Cross-sectional study of 40 women with SLE. A questionnaire with social demographic data, health history and the Wagnild Young Resilience Scale were used. Results: 62.5% followed the medical treatment properly but 55% found it difficult. 27.5% of the patients presented low resilience, 57.5% medium and 15% high resilience. Resilience was associated in the chi-square test (p-value individual capacities to learn how to tackle with the disease for which psychological support of family and doctors can play a significant role. PMID:24665352

  16. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Richard G.; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT), resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = 0.59), but negatively associated with total stress (r = -0.44). The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R2 = 0.35). Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R2 = 0.21). Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport. PMID:27014132

  17. Shaping a Stories of Resilience Model from urban American Indian elders' narratives of historical trauma and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Attakai, Agnes; Kahn, Carmella B; Whitewater, Shannon; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    American Indians (AIs) have experienced traumatizing events but practice remarkable resilience to large-scale and long-term adversities. Qualitative, community-based participatory research served to collect urban AI elders' life narratives on historical trauma and resilience strategies. A consensus group of 15 elders helped finalize open-ended questions that guided 13 elders in telling their stories. Elders shared multifaceted personal stories that revealed the interconnectedness between historical trauma and resilience, and between traditional perceptions connecting past and present, and individuals, families, and communities. Based on the elders' narratives, and supported by the literature, an explanatory Stories of Resilience Model was developed.

  18. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  19. Predict Resiliency Based On the Rate Of Emotional Intelligence In Public Organizations In Yasuj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Karimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: resiliency is the human ability in dealing with high-risk and traumatic conditions. Nevertheless, not all individuals are equally abiding, and resiliency can be increased or decreased by various factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence in the level of resiliency among employees in public organizations of Yasuj, Iran. Methods: In the current correlational study, 382 state employees of Yasuj (221 males and 161 females were selected using multistage cluster sampling. For variable measurement, the Emotional Intelligence Scale and Connor-Davidson resilience scale were used. The collected data were analyzed by the correlation coefficient and regression methods. Results: Total score of emotional intelligence with resiliency revealed a significant positive relationship. Emotional intelligence can predict some degree of resilience. Emotional intelligence and resiliency among men is more than women. Conclusion: If the level of emotional intelligence goes higher, the possibility of employee’s resiliency in risky circumstances also increases.

  20. How Resilience Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at coping skills that carry people through life and why some have them and others do not. Suggests that resilience is a reflex, a way of facing and understanding the world, and that resilient people and companies face reality with staunchness, make meaning out of hardship, and improvise. (JOW)

  1. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  2. Resilient health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.

    . Whereas current safety approaches primarily aim to reduce or eliminate the number of things that go wrong, Resilient Health Care aims to increase and improve the number of things that go right. Just as the WHO argues that health is more than the absence of illness, so does Resilient Health Care argue...... rights reserved....

  3. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  4. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature...

  5. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    -2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...

  6. The Resilient Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elle

    2012-01-01

    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  7. From Risk to Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    This thesis investigates unpredictability in contemporary disaster and emergency management. The thesis traces the shift from risk thinking towards the resilience approach that has recently characterized the field. It asks how resilience manifests itself in practice and discusses how to incorporate...... this approach into preparedness planning to improve the ability of socio-technological systems to cope with unexpected disruptions. Those working in the field understand resilience as a broad umbrella term linked to risk thinking and concerned with flexible systems that are able to absorb and adapt...... resilience and complexity discourses in an attempt to conjoin the two concepts. This broad discussion leads into a case study of resilience thinking in contemporary disaster and emergency management: preparedness planning for long-term disruptions of the Øresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden. Through...

  8. Zoogeomorphology and resilience theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Anzah, Faisal; Goff, Paepin D.; Villa, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Zoogeomorphology, the study of animals as geomorphic agents, has been largely overlooked in the context of resilience theory and biogeomorphic systems. In this paper, examples are provided of the interactions between external landscape disturbances and zoogeomorphological agents. We describe cases in which naturally occurring zoogeomorphological agents occupy a landscape, and examine whether those zoogeomorphic agents provide resilience to a landscape or instead serve as a landscape stress capable of inducing a phase-state shift. Several cases are described whereby the presence of exotic (introduced) zoogeomorphic agents overwhelms a landscape and induce collapse. The impact of climate change on species with zoogeomorphological importance is discussed in the context of resilience of a landscape. We conclude with a summary diagram illustrating the relationships existing between zoogeomorphic impacts and landscape resilience in the context of our case studies, and speculate about the future of the study of zoogeomorphology in the framework of resilience theory.

  9. Psychometric properties of the adult resilience indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Researchers need to assess the psychometric rigour of resilience measuring scales. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator (ARI.Motivation for the study: Researchers have not previously published the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.Research design, approach and method: The authors used a cross-sectional quantitative research design. A sample of 789 young adults participated in the study. Cross-validation allowed the authors to confirm (using the validation sample the validity of the ARI structure they obtained during initial testing (using the calibration sample. They investigated two measurement models (the original factor structure and a one-dimensional factor structure.Main findings: The original factor structure presented the data and the proposed theory better than did the one-dimensional factor structure. The authors found acceptable goodness of fit for the ARI. More specifically, they found invariance (in terms of equal factor loadings,covariances and error variances in the calibration and validation samples. They also found acceptable reliability estimates for each of the eight sub-scales.Practical/managerial implications: The results can help researchers and practitioners interested in measuring resilience in adults to choose a resilience measure and to select an appropriate measure for their populations and contexts.Contribution/value-add: Previous research has clearly shown that reliable and valid resilience measures are necessary. It is also necessary to assess the psychometric properties of the currently available instruments and to publish the findings. This study has helped by examining the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.

  10. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  11. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Resilience: Theory and Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Bassett, G.W.; Buehring, W.A.; Collins, M.J., III; Folga, S.M.; Petit, F.D.; Phillips, J.A.; Verner, D.R.; Whitfield, R.G. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-03

    There is strong agreement among policymakers, practitioners, and academic researchers that the concept of resilience must play a major role in assessing the extent to which various entities - critical infrastructure owners and operators, communities, regions, and the Nation - are prepared to respond to and recover from the full range of threats they face. Despite this agreement, consensus regarding important issues, such as how resilience should be defined, assessed, and measured, is lacking. The analysis presented here is part of a broader research effort to develop and implement assessments of resilience at the asset/facility and community/regional levels. The literature contains various definitions of resilience. Some studies have defined resilience as the ability of an entity to recover, or 'bounce back,' from the adverse effects of a natural or manmade threat. Such a definition assumes that actions taken prior to the occurrence of an adverse event - actions typically associated with resistance and anticipation - are not properly included as determinants of resilience. Other analyses, in contrast, include one or more of these actions in their definitions. To accommodate these different definitions, we recognize a subset of resistance- and anticipation-related actions that are taken based on the assumption that an adverse event is going to occur. Such actions are in the domain of resilience because they reduce both the immediate and longer-term adverse consequences that result from an adverse event. Recognizing resistance- and anticipation-related actions that take the adverse event as a given accommodates the set of resilience-related actions in a clear-cut manner. With these considerations in mind, resilience can be defined as: 'the ability of an entity - e.g., asset, organization, community, region - to anticipate, resist, absorb, respond to, adapt to, and recover from a disturbance.' Because critical infrastructure resilience is important

  13. Vulnerability and Resilience of Temperate Forest Landscapes to Broad-Scale Deforestation in Response to Changing Fire Regimes and Altered Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepley, A. J.; Veblen, T. T.; Perry, G.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    In the face of on-going climatic warming and land-use change, there is growing concern that temperate forest landscapes could be near a tipping point where relatively small changes to the fire regime or altered post-fire vegetation dynamics could lead to extensive conversion to shrublands or savannas. To evaluate vulnerability and resilience to such conversion, we develop a simple model based on three factors we hypothesize to be key in predicting temperate forest responses to changing fire regimes: (1) the hazard rate (i.e., the probability of burning in the next year given the time since the last fire) in closed-canopy forests, (2) the hazard rate for recently-burned, open-canopy vegetation, and (3) the time to redevelop canopy closure following fire. We generate a response surface representing the proportions of the landscape potentially supporting closed-canopy forest and non-forest vegetation under nearly all combinations of these three factors. We then place real landscapes on this response surface to assess the type and magnitude of changes to the fire regime that would drive extensive forest loss. We show that the deforestation of much of New Zealand that followed initial human colonization and the introduction of a new ignition source ca. 750 years ago was essentially inevitable due to the slow rate of forest recovery after fire and the high flammability of post-fire vegetation. In North America's Pacific Northwest, by contrast, a predominantly forested landscape persisted despite two periods of widespread burning in the recent past due in large part to faster post-fire forest recovery and less pronounced differences in flammability between forests and the post-fire vegetation. We also assess the factors that could drive extensive deforestation in other regions to identify where management could reduce this potential and to guide field and modeling work to better understand the responses and ecological feedbacks to changing fire regimes.

  14. Toward a digital resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn J. Wright

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As we contend with human impacts on the biosphere, there is rightfully a great emphasis now on community adaptation and resilience to climate change. Recent innovations in information technologies and analyses are helping communities to become more resilient. However, not often discussed in this vein is a path toward digital resilience. If mapping and information tools are to help communities, it stands to reason that they must be resilient themselves, as well as the data that they are based on. In other words, digital tools can help make communities resilient by providing data, evidence-based advice on community decisions, etc., but the resilience of the tools themselves can also be an issue. Digital resilience means that to the greatest extent possible, data and tools should be freely accessible, interchangeable, operational, of high quality, and up-to-date so that they can help give rise to the resilience of communities or other entities using them. Given the speed at which humans are altering the biosphere, the usefulness and effectiveness of these technologies must keep pace. This article reviews and recommends three fundamental digital practices, particularly from the standpoint of geospatial data and for community resilience and policy-making. These are: (1 create and implement a culture that consistently shares not only data, but workflows and use cases with the data, especially within maps and geographic information systems or GIS; (2 use maps and other visuals to tell compelling stories that many different kinds of audiences will understand and remember; and (3 be more open to different kinds of partnerships to reduce project costs, yield better results, and foster public awareness and behavioral change.

  15. Clinical correlates of resilience factors in geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Kelsey T; Lavretsky, Helen; Paholpak, Pattharee; Vlasova, Roza M; Roman, Michael; St Cyr, Natalie; Siddarth, Prabha

    2018-01-16

    Traditional perspectives conceptualize resilience as a trait and depression as resulting from resilience deficiency. However, research indicates that resilience varies substantially even among adults who are clinically depressed, as well as across the lifespan of an individual. Few studies have investigated resilience in depression, and even fewer have examined resilience in depressed older adults. Three hundred thirty-seven adults ≥60 years with major depressive disorder completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and measures of mental health, quality of life (QOL), and medical comorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the factor structure of the CD-RISC. Correlations and general linear models were used to examine associations between resilience and other variables. The rotated component matrix indicated a four-factor model. Sorting of items by highest factor loading revealed constructs associated with (1) grit, (2) active coping self-efficacy, (3) accommodative coping self-efficacy, and (4) spirituality. Resilience was significantly correlated with increased age, lower cognitive functioning, greater cerebrovascular risk, and greater medical comorbidity. Resilience was negatively associated with mental health symptoms (depression, apathy, and anxiety) and positively associated with QOL. The final optimal model identified less depression, less apathy, greater medical comorbidity, higher QOL, and minority (non-White) race as factors that significantly explained variability in resilience. Resilience was significantly associated with a range of mental health constructs in a sample of older adults with depression. Future clinical trials and dismantling studies may help determine whether interventions targeting grit, active coping, accommodative coping, and spirituality can increase resilience and help prevent and treat depression in older adults.

  16. Resilience of the IMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on end-to-end resilience analysis of the IMS based network through the principal resilience parameters by using OPNET. The resilience behaviours of communication across multiple IMS domains are investigated at different communication scenarios and compared with previous state......-of-the-art. Moreover, the resilience effects when adding a redundancy of the S-CSCF unit are examined. The results disclose interesting resilience behaviours for long distance communications....

  17. Development of a Climate Resilience Screening Index (CRSI) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Climate Resilience Screening Index is being developed that is applicable at multiple scales for the United States. Those scales include national, state, county and community. The index will be applied at the first three scales and at selected communities. The index was developed in order to explicitly include domains, indicators and metrics addressing environmental, economic and societal aspects of climate resilience. In addition, the index uses indicators and metrics that assess ecosystem, economic, governance and social services at these scales. Finally, we are developing forecasting approaches that can relate intended changes in services and governance to likely levels of changes in the resiliency of communities to climate change impacts. The present challenge is the incorporation of the index, its relationships to governance and the developing forecasting tools into Federal decision-making across US government and into state/county/community decision-making across the US. This is a slower and more tedious process than the slow process of technical acceptance of the index and its relation to climate change Development of a Climate Resilience Screening Index and its potential for application. Will permit comparison of the resilience of varying communities to climate impacts and through its use permit improvement of resilience of environmental, economic, social and governance attributes of resilience. OAR, OW, OSC, and Regions.

  18. Resilience Theory and Praxis: a Critical Framework for Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Laboy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of resilience as a goal of architectural practice presents a new challenge in architects’ responsibility to health, safety, welfare and poetic expression of human-building interaction. With roots in disaster response, resilience in the building industry emphasizes the preservation and rapid restoration of the physical environment’s normal function in the face of shocks and disturbances of limited duration. The focus on maintaining function, and/or rapidly returning to the status quo ante necessarily affords a narrow understanding of architecture and a limited view of the concept of resilience. While useful at certain scales of time and inquiry, this so-called engineering resilience approach is only one among many within the broad discourse across diverse disciplines such as psychology, economics, and ecology.  Drawing on the academic and professional literature of resilience outside the discipline, this paper explores the multiple competing frameworks represented, considers their influences and implications for architecture and the built environment at multiple scales, and examines the overlaps with existing discourse on change, architecture and time. The analysis of alternative concepts enables a critical perspective to move beyond the circumscribed, functionalist approach afforded by engineering resilience currently guiding architecture practice, towards a framework of social- ecological resilience that can fully embrace the richness of architecture, and results in a necessary and clear theoretical basis for the resilience of architecture over time in a climate of increasing uncertainty.

  19. Resilience and Physical and Mental Well-Being in Adults with and Without HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Jennifer A; Brown, James; Lampe, Fiona C; Lipman, Marc; Smith, Colette; Rodger, Alison

    2018-05-01

    Resilience has been related to improved physical and mental health, and is thought to improve with age. No studies have explored the relationship between resilience, ageing with HIV, and well-being. A cross sectional observational study performed on UK HIV positive (N = 195) and HIV negative adults (N = 130). Associations of both age and 'time diagnosed with HIV' with resilience (RS-14) were assessed, and the association of resilience with depression, anxiety symptoms (PHQ-9 and GAD-7), and problems with activities of daily living (ADLs) (Euroqol 5D-3L). In a multivariable model, HIV status overall was not related to resilience. However, longer time diagnosed with HIV was related to lower resilience, and older age showed a non-significant trend towards higher resilience. In adults with HIV, high resilience was related to a lower prevalence of depression, anxiety, and problems with ADLs. It may be necessary to consider resilience when exploring the well-being of adults ageing with HIV.

  20. Resilience in the global food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekell, David; Carr, Joel; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; D'Odorico, Paolo; Fader, Marianela; Gephart, Jessica; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Puma, Michael; Ratajczak, Zak; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Ensuring food security requires food production and distribution systems function throughout disruptions. Understanding the factors that contribute to the global food system’s ability to respond and adapt to such disruptions (i.e. resilience) is critical for understanding the long-term sustainability of human populations. Variable impacts of production shocks on food supply between countries indicate a need for national-scale resilience indicators that can provide global comparisons. However, methods for tracking changes in resilience have had limited application to food systems. We developed an indicator-based analysis of food systems resilience for the years 1992-2011. Our approach is based on three dimensions of resilience: socio-economic access to food in terms of income of the poorest quintile relative to food prices, biophysical capacity to intensify or extensify food production, and the magnitude and diversity of current domestic food production. The socio-economic indicator has a large variability, but with low values concentrated in Africa and Asia. The biophysical capacity indicator is highest in Africa and Eastern Europe, in part because of a high potential for extensification of cropland and for yield gap closure in cultivated areas. However, the biophysical capacity indicator has declined globally in recent years. The production diversity indicator has increased slightly, with a relatively even geographic distribution. Few countries had exclusively high or low values for all indicators. Collectively, these results are the basis for global comparisons of resilience between countries, and provide necessary context for developing generalizations about resilience in the global food system.

  1. Exploration of resilience assessments for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Jacomo, Anna; Han, Dawei; Champneys, Alan

    2017-04-01

    measures of resilience are hazard dependent, and require hazard information. In those cases, the type of hazard information required varies from long term information such as the general probability of occurrence of a particular hazard, to short term information such as the observed damage following a specific earthquake occurrence. The required information also varies from national scale, such as census data, to local scale, such as stakeholder perceptions of a threat. This is shown through examples of resilience assessments, along with a discussion of their ability to inform decision making.

  2. Using large-scale flow experiments to rehabilitate Colorado River ecosystem function in Grand Canyon: Basis for an adaptive climate-resilient strategy: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Pine, William E.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Jain, Shaleen; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Miller, Kathleen; Hamlet, Alan F.; Kenney, Douglas S.; Redmond, Kelly T.

    2016-01-01

    system-wide reduction in trout from 2000-06, possibly due to several years of natural reproduction under limited food supply. Uncertainties about dam operations and ecosystem responses remain, including how native and nonnative fish will interact and respond to possible increased river temperatures under drier basin conditions. Ongoing assessment of operating policies by the AMP’s diverse stakeholders represents a major commitment to the river’s valued resources, while surprise learning opportunities can also help identify a resilient climate-change strategy for co-managing nonnative and endangered native fish, sandbar habitats and other river resources in a region with already complex and ever-increasing water demands.

  3. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  4. Resilient Diffusive Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    RESILIENT DIFFUSIVE CLOUDS TRUSTEES OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE FEBRUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...To) SEP 2011 – SEP 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RESILIENT DIFFUSIVE CLOUDS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-11-2-0257 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM...diversified virtual machines. The concepts lead to a view of cloud computing in which vulnerabilities are different at every host, attackers cannot

  5. Resilience and reworking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus; Fold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    of this article is to shed light on the agency of individual workers involved in rapid industrialization processes. In this endeavor we draw inspiration from recent contributions that have integrated Cindi Katz's threefold categorization of agency as reworking, resilience and resistance. In combination...... and resilience can be conceptualized as transformative trajectories - workers’ situated knowledge and practices evolve and change over time and is conditioned by the specific labor market contexts through which the individual moves....

  6. Genetic Variant rs10757278 on Chromosome 9p21 Contributes to Myocardial Infarction Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyuan Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed that rs10757278 polymorphism (or its proxy rs1333049 on chromosome 9p21 is associated with myocardial infarction (MI susceptibility in individuals of Caucasian ancestry. Following studies in other populations investigated this association. However, some of these studies reported weak or no significant association. Here, we reevaluated this association using large-scale samples by searching PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Our results showed significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI with p = 6.09 × 10−22, odds ratio (OR = 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.22–1.36 in pooled population. We further performed a subgroup analysis, and found significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI in Asian and Caucasian populations. We identified that the association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI did not vary substantially by excluding any one study. However, the heterogeneity among the selected studies varies substantially by excluding the study from the Pakistan population. We found even more significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI in pooled population, p = 3.55 × 10−53, after excluding the study from the Pakistan population. In summary, previous studies reported weak or no significant association between rs10757278 polymorphism and MI. Interestingly, our analysis suggests that rs10757278 polymorphism is significantly associated with MI susceptibility by analyzing large-scale samples.

  7. Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystem Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tom H; Heard, Matthew S; Isaac, Nick J B; Roy, David B; Procter, Deborah; Eigenbrod, Felix; Freckleton, Rob; Hector, Andy; Orme, C David L; Petchey, Owen L; Proença, Vânia; Raffaelli, David; Suttle, K Blake; Mace, Georgina M; Martín-López, Berta; Woodcock, Ben A; Bullock, James M

    2015-11-01

    Accelerating rates of environmental change and the continued loss of global biodiversity threaten functions and services delivered by ecosystems. Much ecosystem monitoring and management is focused on the provision of ecosystem functions and services under current environmental conditions, yet this could lead to inappropriate management guidance and undervaluation of the importance of biodiversity. The maintenance of ecosystem functions and services under substantial predicted future environmental change (i.e., their 'resilience') is crucial. Here we identify a range of mechanisms underpinning the resilience of ecosystem functions across three ecological scales. Although potentially less important in the short term, biodiversity, encompassing variation from within species to across landscapes, may be crucial for the longer-term resilience of ecosystem functions and the services that they underpin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychometric properties of the adult resilience indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2013-09-01

    Motivation for the study: Researchers have not previously published the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator. Research design, approach and method: The authors used a cross-sectional quantitative research design. A sample of 789 young adults participated in the study. Cross-validation allowed the authors to confirm (using the validation sample the validity of the ARI structure they obtained during initial testing (using the calibration sample. They investigated two measurement models (the original factor structure and a one-dimensional factor structure. Main findings: The original factor structure presented the data and the proposed theory better than did the one-dimensional factor structure. The authors found acceptable goodness of fit for the ARI. More specifically, they found invariance (in terms of equal factor loadings,covariances and error variances in the calibration and validation samples. They also found acceptable reliability estimates for each of the eight sub-scales. Practical/managerial implications: The results can help researchers and practitioners interested in measuring resilience in adults to choose a resilience measure and to select an appropriate measure for their populations and contexts. Contribution/value-add: Previous research has clearly shown that reliable and valid resilience measures are necessary. It is also necessary to assess the psychometric properties of the currently available instruments and to publish the findings. This study has helped by examining the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.

  9. Family environment and adult resilience: contributions of positive parenting and the oxytocin receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekh Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abundant research shows that childhood adversity increases the risk for adult psychopathology while research on influences of positive family environment on risk for psychopathology is limited. Similarly, a growing body of research examines genetic and gene by environment predictors of psychopathology, yet such research on predictors of resilience is sparse. Objectives: We examined the role of positive factors in childhood family environment (CFE and the OXTR rs53576 genotype in predicting levels of adult resilient coping and positive affect. We also examined whether the relationship between positive factors in the CFEs and adult resilient coping and positive affect varied across OXTR rs53576 genotype. Methods: We gathered self-report data on childhood environment, trauma history, and adult resilience and positive affect in a sample of 971 African American adults. Results: We found that positive CFE was positively associated with higher levels of resilient coping and positive affect in adulthood after controlling for childhood maltreatment, other trauma, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. We did not find a direct effect of OXTR 53576 on a combined resilient coping/positive-affect-dependent variable, but we did find an interaction of OXTR rs53576 with family environment. Conclusions: Our data suggest that even in the face of adversity, positive aspects of the family environment may contribute to resilience. These results highlight the importance of considering protective developmental experiences and the interaction of such experiences with genetic variants in risk and resilience research.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  10. Polymorphisms FTO rs9939609, PPARG rs1801282 and ADIPOQ rs4632532 and rs182052 but not lifestyle are associated with obesity related-traits in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Muñoz-Yáñez

    Full Text Available Abstract Concerning the genetic factors of obesity, no consistent association between populations has been reported, which may be due to the frequency of polymorphisms, the lifestyle of studied populations and its interaction with other factors. We studied a possible association of polymorphisms FTO rs9939609, PPARG rs1801282, and ADIPOQ rs4632532 and rs182052 with obesity phenotypes in 215 Mexican children. Glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL and LDL were measured. In addition, weight, height, waist circumference and triceps skin thickness were recorded. High-energy diets and sedentary behavior were evaluated with a validated questionnaire. In contrast with other reports, only FTO rs9939609 was associated with obesity related-traits, including BMI (p = 0.03, waist circumference (p = 0.02, triceps skinfold (p = 0.03 and waist/height ratio (p = 0.01, and also with cholesterol levels (p = 0.02 and LDL (p = 0.009. Lower levels of triglycerides (p=0.04 were related with presence of PPARG rs1801282, while ADIPOQ rs4632532 showed an effect on HDL (p = 0.03 levels. On the other hand, diet, physical activity and screen time were not related with obesity. In summary, only FTO rs9939609 was associated with obesity related-traits, while PPARG2 rs1801282 and ADIPOQ rs4632532 were involved in lipid metabolism.

  11. FORUM: Effective management of ecological resilience – are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Bryan M.; Ives, Stephen C.; Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Birk, Sebastian; Carvalho, Laurence; Cavers, Stephen; Daunt, Francis; Morton, R. Daniel; Pocock, Michael J. O.; Rhodes, Glenn; Thackeray, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological resilience is developing into a credible paradigm for policy development and environmental management for preserving natural capital in a rapidly changing world. However, resilience emerges from complex interactions, limiting the translation of theory into practice.Main limitations include the following: (i) difficulty in quantification and detection of changes in ecological resilience, (ii) a lack of empirical evidence to support preventative or proactive management and (iii) difficulties in managing processes operating across socio-ecological systems that vary in space and time.We highlight recent research with the potential to address these limitations including new and/or improved indicators of resilience and tools to assess scale as a driver of resilience.Synthesis and applications. Effective resilience-based management must be adaptive in nature. To support this, we propose an operational model using resilience-based iterative management actions operating across scales.

  12. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI Excel database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  13. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI JPEG Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  14. Resilience evolution of medical students during the undergraduate period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Method: This is a descriptive study to identify the degree of resilience in medical students at Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, compare the resilience of different years of undergraduation and relate and compare the degree of resilience to demographic and socioeconomic status. Results: The study population has an average age of 21.68, single 270 (98.18%, caucasians 240 (87.27%, household income of more than 20 minimum wages (34.54%. In resilience general index it was obtained an average of 114 (SD=14.05. There was no significant difference between the scores obtained on the scale during graduation years. It was observed a predominance of moderate resilience in all years of the course and in the total sample. Resilience in medical students, it is shown as an individual characteristic and does not keep relations with gender, age, sexual orientation, race or housing conditions in the various years of the course. Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a predominance of moderate resilience among the medical students. There was no correlation between resilience and familiar income

  15. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  16. Family Resilience in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  17. Fishing for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Management approaches that focus on social–ecological systems—systems comprised of ecosystems, landscapes, and humans—are needed to secure the sustainability of inland recreational fisheries without jeopardizing the integrity of the underlying social and ecological components. Resilience management can be useful because it focuses on providing recreational capacity for fishermen under a variety of conditions while assuring that the social–ecological system is not pushed to a critical threshold that would result in a new, undesired system regime. Resilience management is based on a system perspective that accounts for the possible regimes a system could manifest. It aims to enhance system properties that allow continued maintenance of the system in a desired regime in which multiple goods and services, including recreational capacity, are provided. In this forum paper, we provide an overview of the potential of a resilience approach to the management of recreational fisheries and highlight the scientific and administrative challenges to its successful implementation.

  18. Resilience in IMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    Reliability evaluation of systems has been widely researched for improving system resilience especially in designing processes of a complex system. The convergence of different access networks is possible via IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for development toward Next Generation Networks (NGNs......) and supporting always on services. Therefore, not only Quality of Service (QoS) but also resilience is required. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate and analyze end-to-end reliability of the IMS system using a model proposed as a combination of Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) and Markov Reward Models (MRMs......). The resilience of the IMS architecture is studied by applying 1:1 redundancy at different communication scenarios between end users within and across communication domains. The model analysis provides useful reliability characteristics of the system and can be further applied for system design processes....

  19. Resilience in adolescents with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIBASHI, Akiko; UEDA, Reiko

    2003-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer experience multiple stressors, evertheless some function well or are "resilient." Focusing on resilience in childhood cancer patients and understanding why and how resilience develops during the cancer experience is of great value . This knowledge may provide information to health care professionals to facilitate intervention for promoting resilience and improving quality of life in adolescents with cancer . The purpose of thisarticle is to review the lite...

  20. From community resilience towards urban resilience : Exploring the grassroot initiatives' role in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.; Van Timmeren, A.; Crul, M.R.M.; Brezet, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and resource scarcity effects pose challenges by themselves. In the context of the complexity of cities, these challenges become wicked and ill-defined as e.g. socialeconomic issues are added. To face these challenges, a city’s resilience on multiple scales has to enable it to both

  1. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  2. Evaluating Application Resilience with XRay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sui [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bronevetsky, Greg [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Li, Bin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Casas-Guix, Marc [Barcelona Supercomputing Center (Spain); Peng, Lu [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The rising count and shrinking feature size of transistors within modern computers is making them increasingly vulnerable to various types of soft faults. This problem is especially acute in high-performance computing (HPC) systems used for scientific computing, because these systems include many thousands of compute cores and nodes, all of which may be utilized in a single large-scale run. The increasing vulnerability of HPC applications to errors induced by soft faults is motivating extensive work on techniques to make these applications more resiilent to such faults, ranging from generic techniques such as replication or checkpoint/restart to algorithmspecific error detection and tolerance techniques. Effective use of such techniques requires a detailed understanding of how a given application is affected by soft faults to ensure that (i) efforts to improve application resilience are spent in the code regions most vulnerable to faults and (ii) the appropriate resilience technique is applied to each code region. This paper presents XRay, a tool to view the application vulnerability to soft errors, and illustrates how XRay can be used in the context of a representative application. In addition to providing actionable insights into application behavior XRay automatically selects the number of fault injection experiments required to provide an informative view of application behavior, ensuring that the information is statistically well-grounded without performing unnecessary experiments.

  3. Self-esteem and resilience : The connection with risky behavior among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; Gajdosova, Beata; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    The aim was to explore the association of self-esteem and resilience with smoking and cannabis use among adolescents, separately for gender. A sample of 3694 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years) from elementary schools in Slovakia filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Resiliency scale and

  4. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  5. Resilience, Flexibility and Adaptive Management - - Antidotes for Spurious Certitude?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Gunderson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, a predicate of adaptive environmental assessment and management (AEAM has been a search for flexibility in management institutions, or for resilience in the ecological system prior to structuring actions that are designed for learning. Many of the observed impediments to AEAM occur when there is little or no resilience in the ecological components (e.g., when there is fear of an ecosystem shift to an unwanted stability domain, or when there is a lack of flexibility in the extant power relationships among stakeholders. In these cases, a pragmatic solution is to seek to restore resilience or flexibility rather than to pursue a course of broad-scale, active adaptive management. Restoration of resilience and flexibility may occur through novel assessments or small-scale experiments, or it may occur when an unforeseen policy crisis allows for reformation or restructuring of power relationships among stakeholders.

  6. Building Ecological and Community Resilience and Measuring Success of the Department of Interior Hurricane Sandy Resilience Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. M.; Worman, S. L.; Bennett, R.; Bassow, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) partnered with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) to administer an external funding competition to support coastal resilience projects in the region affected by Hurricane Sandy. The projects complement the DOI Bureau-led projects, but are led by state and local governments, universities, non-profits, community groups, tribes, and other non-Federal entities. In total, the Hurricane Sandy Resilience Program invested over $750 million in approximately 180 projects to repair damage and improve the resilience of habitats, communities and infrastructure to future storms and sea level rise. Project activities include waterway connection and opening, living shoreline, marsh restoration, community resilience planning, data/mapping/modeling, and beach and dune restoration. DOI and NFWF initiated a resilience assessment in 2015 to evaluate the impact of this investment. The assessment began by clarifying the program's resilience goals and the development of ecological and socio-economic metrics across the project activities. Using these metrics, the evaluation is assessing the ecological and community outcomes, cost effectiveness of activities, improved scientific understanding, and temporal and spatial scaling of benefits across resilience activities. Recognizing the unique opportunity afforded by the scale and distribution of projects, NFWF and DOI have invested in monitoring through 2024 to better understand how these projects perform over time. This presentation will describe the evaluation questions, approach, long-term monitoring, online metrics portal, and findings to date.

  7. Experimenting for resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter; Dupret, Katia

    Focusing on how an experimental approach to organizing may pave the way for organizational resilience, we explore opportunities and barriers of experimental organizing by following a concrete social experiment in civil society and discuss its adaptability in traditional organizations. The social...... experiment is called Civic Desire. The founders explicitly call for new ways of organizing that can develop social sustainability. We discuss how these experiments may create platforms of new unforeseen goals that organizations may choose to follow. In conclusion we argue for organizational resilience...

  8. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  9. RS-land cover based environmental monitoring in Europe progress report on the applicability of NOAA-AVHRR 1-km data for small scale land cover mapping; final report part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mücher, C.A.; Veldkamp, J.G.; Katwijk, van V.F.; Nieuwenhuis, G.J.A.; Velde, van de R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The multispectral and multitemporal classification approach of AVHRR data on specific dates was studied for land cover mapping on a continental scale. Major conclusions are: decision keys must be developed that exploit both the use of multitemporal composites and multispectral data; the current

  10. (RS-Efonidipine acetone hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Heng Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C34H38N3O7P·0.5C3H6O {systematic name: (RS-2-[phenyl(phenylmethylamino]ethyl 5-(5,5-dimethyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxa-2λ5-phosphacyclohex-2-yl-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylate acetone hemisolvate}, contains one R-efonidipine molecule, one S-efonidipine molecule and half of a solvate acetone molecule. In both efonidipine molecules, the six-membered rings of the dioxaphosphinanyl moieties display a chair conformation and the dihydropyridine rings display a flattened boat conformation. In the crystal, N—H...O, C—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...π interactions link the molecules into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. A solvent-accessible void of 199 Å3 is found in the structure; the contribution of the heavily disordered solvate molecule was suppressed by use of the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18].

  11. Can Resilience Thinking Inform Resilience Investments? Learning from Resilience Principles for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Hill Clarvis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the human and financial costs of natural disasters rise and state finances continue to deplete, increasing attention is being placed on the role of the private sector to support disaster and climate resilience. However, not only is there a recognised lack of private finance to fill this gap, but international institutional and financing bodies tend to prioritise specific reactive response over preparedness and general resilience building. This paper utilises the central tenets of resilience thinking that have emerged from scholarship on social-ecological system resilience as a lens through which to assess investing in disaster risk reduction (DRR for resilience. It draws on an established framework of resilience principles and examples of resilience investments to explore how resilience principles can actually inform decisions around DRR and resilience investing. It proposes some key lessons for diversifying sources of finance in order to, in turn, enhance “financial resilience”. In doing so, it suggests a series of questions to align investments with resilience building, and to better balance the achievement of the resilience principles with financial requirements such as financial diversification and replicability. It argues for a critical look to be taken at how resilience principles, which focus on longer-term systems perspectives, could complement the focus in DRR on critical and immediate stresses.

  12. Resilience versus "Resilient Individual": What Exactly Do We Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature and definition of resilience, despite the extensive 40 years of research, is still unclear. Currently is resilience seen as a personality trait, sum of the traits/factors, result of adaptation, or as a process. The concept of resilience as personality traits is usually tied to uni-dimensional or "simplex" theories of resistance as Hardiness, Sense of Control, Ego-Resiliency, Self-efficacy, Sense of Coherence, or specific personality traits. Multidimensional concepts see resilience as a complex of personality and social (environmental factors that work in interaction, complement or replace each other, and, in aggregate, create a comprehensive picture of resilience. The concept of resilience as the result of adaptation examines resilience in terms of the presence/absence of adverse/pathological manifestations, consequences and outcomes in relation to the earlier effect of stressful, risky or otherwise unfavorable situations. Finally, the concept of resilience as the process examines individual's response to risk factors or wounds that are present in the environment. Resilience is thus a process consisting of interactions between individual characteristics and the environment. Most experts and a large part of resilience research is based on the first three concepts that however explore how "resilient" the individual is rather than resilience itself, since they are based on "diagnosing" or at best dimensional, at worse dichotomous rating of the individual's resilience (within personality trait approach, or on the evaluation of the presence/absence of factors/source of resilience, thereby they are still holding the "diagnostic" approach (within multidimensional approach. Only the examination of processes, such as the ongoing interaction between these risk factors, resilience factors, outcomes (expressions of personality, behavior, presence of problems, etc. and other variables allows us to understand resilience (the true nature of how

  13. Measuring resilience in integrated planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apneseth, K.; Wahl, A. M.; Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how a Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG) can be used to profile the performance of a company in terms of the four abilities that characterize a resilient organization. It describes the development of a new, RAG-based tool founded on Resilience Engineering principles that can...... be used to assess an organization's resilience. The tool was tested in a case study involving a company in the offshore oil and gas industry. The company had decided to adopt an Integrated Operations (IO) approach to operations and maintenance planning and the tool was used to evaluate the impact...... of the Integrated Planning (IPL) process on its resilience....

  14. RESILIENCY OF SMALL-SCALE COMMON CARP (Cyprinus carpio FARMERS IN WEST PAGADEN RURAL AREA OF SUBANG - WEST JAVA (Daya Lenting Pembudidaya Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio Skala Kecil di Perdesaan Kecamatan Pagaden Barat Subang – Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Carolina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since early 1980s, freshwater fish farming was introduced as an economic activity to the rural community in Subang, West Java Province. Until presently, 5% of the population participate on it, specifically as common carp (Cyprinus carpio cultivators in freshwater ponds ecosystem. The economic gain from the carp farming triggers vast development indicated by significant landscape conversion from rice fields to fish ponds. Environmental limitation does not seem to become their major concern, because good yields which means good income is their main driving factor to extend and intensify common carp aquaculture. Recognizing the important role of small scale fish farms in West Java common carp production system, we explore their resiliency in confronting challenges encountered in managing the freshwater ecosystem. Utilizing participatory observation and interview, we explore their socio-ecological resilience from the perception of human and nature interaction. The study area is Pagaden Sub District in Subang - West Java. Descriptive analysis is used to articulate the phenomenon enfolded in a socio-ecological framework of thinking. It can be concluded that high dependency to the aquaculture activity, has reached a situation in which ecologically sound technology should be introduced. Included in a scheme of technical assistance which specifically designed to meet the need and in harmony with the socio-cultural characters of small-scale fish farmers, the technology introduction should be carried out to spur the sustainable aquaculture in Subang West Java. This should be a proposed agenda for the local government in support to aquaculture sustainable development. ABSTRAK Sejak awal tahun 1980, budidaya ikan air tawar diperkenalkan sebagai kegiatan ekonomi masyarakat desa di wilayah Subang, Propinsi Jawa Barat. Dewasa ini, sekitar 5% populasi terlibat di kegiatan tersebut, terutama sebagai pembudidaya ikan mas (Cyprinus carpio di ekosistem

  15. Predictors of anxiety and resilience in adolescents undergoing cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Min; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Shu, Hsiu-Lan; Chang, Shu-Chen; Hsiao, Chih-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    To report a study examining the relationships among coping, anxiety and resilience and to identify predictors of anxiety and resilience in adolescents undergoing cancer treatment. Anxiety is the main psychological disturbance in adolescents with cancer, but predictors in the context of anxiety related cancer treatments have not been investigated. Cross-sectional study. Adolescents (n = 131) recruited from three medical centres between 2010-2011. The eligible participants were diagnosed with cancer, without mental disease and receiving chemotherapy. Participants were assessed with the paediatric cancer coping scale, revised children's manifest anxiety scale, second edition, and the Haase adolescent resilience in illness scale. Over 20% of participants scored high on worry. The most commonly used coping strategy was cognitive coping, followed by problem-oriented coping and finally by defensive coping. There was a statistically significant correlation between defensive coping and level of worry. Resilience was positively correlated with cognitive coping and problem-oriented coping. The cognitive coping and defensive coping were found to predict anxiety and resilience significantly by a step-wise multiple regression analysis and accounted for 40·9% and 46·5% of total variance, respectively. Cognitive coping and defensive coping are predictors for the level of anxiety and resilience in adolescents undergoing cancer treatment. Health providers should evaluate coping behaviour in patients and work towards a cognitive and problem-oriented coping style that will benefit the patient's mental health during treatment. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Factors Influencing Resilience of Burn Patients in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Heui; Park, Jongui; Chong, Mi Kyong; Sok, Sohyune R

    2017-09-01

    To examine and identify the factors influencing the degree of resilience among Korean burn patients. A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed. The study sample consisted of 138 burn patients recovering from the acute phase in H hospital, Seoul. The male patient participants numbered 93 (67.4%) and the female participants numbered 45 (32.6%). The average age of the participants was 46.79 years. Measures used were the Beck Depression Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, self-esteem scale, family support scale, and resilience scale. The analyses showed that the prediction model for resilience among burn patients was significant (F = 33.94, p resilience among burn patients was self-esteem (β = .35), followed by family support (β = .29). This study provides preliminary evidence that self-esteem is a major and primary predictor of resilience among burn patients, next followed by family support. In the nursing practice, nurses need to pay attention to the burn patient's self-esteem and family support. Concrete interventions and strategies to improve the resilience of burn patients are needed. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Optimal Resilient Dynamic Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    updates in $O(\\log n+\\delta)$ amortized time. Our dynamic dictionary also supports range queries in $O(\\log n+\\delta+t)$ worst case time, where $t$ is the size of the output. Finally, we show that every resilient search tree (with some reasonable properties) must take~$\\Omega(\\log n + \\delta)$ worst...

  18. [Resilience in old age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Jiménez, Andrea; López-Díaz, Alba L

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise and analyse articles published on resilience and old-age from 1990-2006. After a systematic search of five databases (Academic Search Premier-Ebsco Host, Medline, Psyc Articles, Ovid and Science Direct) 33 pieces of literature were included in the analysis. The selected articles had 31 different definitions of resilience, from eight disciplines, mainly health-related fields. It was also found that the research studied the association of resilience with individual (68 variables) and social/environmental factors (17 variables); the most frequent were age and health self-perception. Cultural and religious values were of special interest amongst the latter variables. The literature review demonstrated that resilience in old age is a topic having increasing research interest; this has been linked to various individual, social and cultural factors. However, this is a rapidly developing area that requires that a unified definition be established and that a theoretical and intervention model be created.

  19. Resilience of Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Flores, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the

  20. Multi-Sited Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2012-01-01

    Participatory methods to build local resilience often involve the organization of local community groups. When global organizations use such methods, it reflects a desire to incorporate local agency. They thereby acknowledge the ability of a society to be innovative and adapt when faced with natu......Participatory methods to build local resilience often involve the organization of local community groups. When global organizations use such methods, it reflects a desire to incorporate local agency. They thereby acknowledge the ability of a society to be innovative and adapt when faced...... with natural disasters and climate change. In a globalized world, however, it is hard to discern what is “local” as global organizations play an increasingly visible and powerful role. This paper will argue that local understandings and practices of resilience cannot be disentangled from global understandings...... flooding in northern Ghana, this paper examines the mutual construction of “local” and “global” notions and practices of resilience through multi-sited processes. It is based on interviews and participant observation in multiple sites at the “local,” “regional” and “global” levels....

  1. Wellbeing And Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Susanne; Davidsen, Kirstine; MacBeth, Angus

    2015-01-01

    , 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction. DISCUSSION: The study will provide data on very early risk...

  2. New pathways to resilience

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    droughts, floods, and heat waves, along with shifting rainfall patterns, threaten to overwhelm the natural resilience of African communities, risking livelihoods and food security. .... As of March 2012, 68Fellows have pursued advanced research through a scholarship program on adaptation to climate change. • 11people ...

  3. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  4. Resilience of Past Landscapes: Resilience Theory, Society, and the Longue Durée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L. Redman

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Resilience theory is an expanding body of ideas that attempts to provide explanations for the source and role of change in adaptive systems, particularly the kinds of change that are transforming. Scholars from various disciplines have contributed to the current state of this formulation. This article proposes that resilience theory would benefit from an increasing collaboration with archaeologists, who would provide a long-term perspective on adaptive cycles. Although archaeologists and anthropologists have written provocatively about studying the resilience of past and present societies, such an approach has not become common in these disciplines. We suggest, however, that a resilience framework offers a potential mechanism for reinvigorating the conceptual base of archaeological and anthropological disciplines. To make this case, we (1 highlight three features of resilience theory, including cross-scale interactions, information flow, and phases of the adaptive cycle; (2 examine the extent to which purely natural or social science analyses would give complementary or contradictory conclusions; and (3 discuss the implications of using a long-term integrative perspective for understanding linked social and ecological systems.

  5. decidual em itaara, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luiz Munari Vogel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado na fazenda da Brigada Militar no município de Itaara, RS, Brasil, e teve como principal objetivo avaliar a devolução de serapilheira em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual. Para a coleta de serapilheira, foram demarcadas seis parcelas de 25 m x 17 m cada, alocadas no interior da floresta. Em cada parcela, foram distribuídos cinco coletores, totalizando 30 coletores, constituídos por uma moldura de ferro de forma circular, com 50 cm de diâmetro. As coletas de serapilheira foram realizadas mensalmente, durante um período de 2 anos. No laboratório, o material foi separado nas frações folhas, galhos finos (< 1 cm e miscelânea (flores, frutos, sementes e restos vegetais não-identificáveis. Nos dois anos de coleta, houve grande devolução de serapilheira no início do inverno e principalmente na primavera, aumentando nos meses de setembro e novembro, no primeiro ano. No segundo ano, apesar da menor devolução mensal, essa tendência manteve-se mais ou menos constante, indicando um padrão sazonal nessa floresta. A devolução média anual de serapilheira foi de 7436,0 kg ha-1, com uma distribuição relativa de 71,7% de folhas, 16,5% de galhos finos e 11,8% de miscelânea. Não foi verificada uma correlação significativa entre as variáveis climáticas precipitação e temperatura e a devolução de serapilheira.

  6. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  7. Emergence of human resilience in coastal ecosystems under environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Matin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resilience has been studied in a number of disciplines, predominantly in psychosocial and ecological sciences. Although there are striking similarities in their approaches, the psychosocial tradition has centered on the family and its immediate surroundings, whereas the social-ecological approach has focused on macrosystems that stop at the family level. Recently, the need for bridging these gaps has been echoed by researchers from both these traditions, particularly for promoting resilience of individuals and their wider environment in the context of natural disasters and climate change. However, a new synthesis of social-ecological and behavioral theories integrating multiple dynamic systems that interact across levels is strikingly rare. We addressed some of these issues in the context of complex coastal ecosystems in the Sundarbans region in southwest Bangladesh soon after the Cyclone Aila, which hit the coast in May 2009. The devastation that followed tested the endurance and resilience of people and nature alike. We used an integrated method that combined Antonovsky's sense of coherence scale with narrative inquiry for assessing human resilience. The quantitative analysis was able to address gender, educational, and livelihood dimensions of individual resilience. Life history narratives were found particularly useful in bringing out the underlying contexts and processes that embody individual social-ecological interactions that influence the construct of human resilience. These exercises show that the emergence of human resilience must be understood as a holistic and dynamic process because the variables that contribute to its emergence interact in complex ways.

  8. Factors associated with resilience of school age children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong H; Yoo, Il Y

    2010-07-01

    To identify factors associated with resilience of school age children with cancer. The participants were 74 children, 10-15 years old who were diagnosed with cancer at least 6 months prior to data collection. The instruments used were; a self-reported questionnaire on resilience, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, measurements of relationship with friends and teachers. Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. The average score for resilience was 98.49 (range: 32-128). There was no statistically significant relationship with resilience for age, gender, religion, existence of siblings, mother's age, academic performance, duration of illness or type of cancer. In bivariate analysis, family adaptability and cohesion (r= 0.535, P resilience. However, the results of multiple regression analysis showed that only family function (beta= 0.257, P resilience. School age children with cancer who reported higher family function and positive relationships with friends showed higher resiliency than their counterparts. Thus, it is important to help the families of children with cancer to enhance family function and help children to adjust to school re-entry by maintaining ties with school friends and teachers during treatment. Development of counselling programmes for parents to promote family adaptation and cohesion and educational programmes for classmates and teachers are recommended.

  9. Childhood trauma and resilience in psoriatic patients: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Maria Luigia; De Simone, Clara; Di Pietro, Salvatore; Acanfora, Mariateresa; Caldarola, Giacomo; Moccia, Lorenzo; Callea, Antonino; Panaccione, Isabella; Peris, Ketty; Rinaldi, Lucio; Janiri, Luigi; Di Nicola, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology, involving the immune system, genetic factors, and external/internal triggers, with psychosomatic aspects. The aim of the study was to investigate childhood trauma and resilience in a psoriatic sample compared with healthy controls. Correlations between childhood trauma, resilience, quality of life, clinical data and psoriatic features were also evaluated. Seventy-seven psoriatic patients and seventy-six homogeneous healthy controls were enrolled. We used the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) to assess the severity of psoriasis and the Skindex-29 to measure health-related quality of life. The psychometric battery included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-Risc) to assess trauma exposure and resilience, respectively. Psoriatic patients showed a significant prevalence of childhood trauma and a lower resilience level compared to healthy controls. Associations between traumatic experiences, low resilience and reduced quality of life in psoriatic subjects were also observed. A multidisciplinary approach is helpful to investigate clinical aspects, trigger factors and psychophysiological stress response in psoriatic subjects. Improving resilience with an early psychological intervention focused on self-motivation and strengthening of self-efficacy could facilitate the management of psoriasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Profiles of resilience and quality of life in people with acquired disability due to traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriá Martínez, Raquel

    2015-09-01

    To identify distinct profiles of resilience in people with spinal cord injuries due to traffic accidents and to determine whether the profiles identified are related to differences in subjective well-being. The Resilience Scale (Wagnild and Young, 1993) and an adapted quality of life scale (GENCAT) were administered to 98 people with physical disabilities due to traffic accidents. Cluster analyses identified three different resilience profiles: a high-resilience group, a low-resilience group, and a group showing a predominance of high scores in self and life acceptance and social competence. The results also revealed statistically significant differences among profiles in most domains of subjective well-being. The results suggest the need to study resilience in greater depth and to design programs to enhance quality of life among people with disabilities due to traffic accidents. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The Dark Side of Resilience and Burnout: A Moderation-Mediation Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Treglown

    Full Text Available This study tested whether specific dark-side traits may be beneficial in manifesting and maintaining Resilience, whilst others are vulnerability factors for Burnout. Four hundred and fifty-one (50 female ambulance personnel completed three questionnaires as a part of a selection and development assessment. The study utilised the Hogan Development survey as a measure of dark side personality, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory to assess work-related burnout, and the Resilience Scale- 14 to measure resilience levels. Those high on Excitable and Cautious but low on Bold and Reserved were linked to an increased vulnerability to Burnout. Also those high on Bold and Diligent yet low on the Excitable, Cautious, and Imaginative scales were more resilient. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that resilience plays both a mediating and moderating role on personality and burnout. Theoretical implications suggest future research assessing the predictive capacity of psychological variables on burnout should account the indirect effect of resilience.

  12. [Leisure activities, resilience and mental stress in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Norbert; Popal, Narges; Plück, Julia; Petermann, Franz; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    To date, the factors contributing to emergence of resilience in different stages of adolescence have yet to be sufficiently examined. This study looks at the influence of extracurricular activities on resilience. The sample consists of 413 adolescents (f = 14.8) reporting personal problems (mood, concentration problems, behavior). The effect of extracurricular activities on resilience (gathered by the RS25) was analyzed by linear regression models. Predictor variables in these models were extracurricular activities (sport, hobbies, club memberships, household duties) and the subscales of the SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Because of the lack of homoscedasticity, two different regression models (model A: Realschule and Grammar School. Model B: Hauptschule) were specified. The explained variance of both models (model A: R = .516; model B: R = .643) is satisfactory. In both models “prosocial behavior” (SDQ) turns out to be a significant positive predictor for resilience (model A: b = 2.815; model B; b = 3.577) and emotional symptoms (model A: b = -1.697; model B: b = -2.596) are significant negative predictors for resilience. In addition, model A presents significant positive influences of sport (b = 16,314) and significant negative influences of “hyperactivity” (SDQ). In contrast, in model B “club memberships” (b = 15.775) and” peer relationship problems” (b = 1.508) are additional positive predictors. The results of the study demonstrate the important role of prosocial behavior and emotional competence in the manifestation of resilience. The effect of extracurricular activities proves to depend on the social environment (type of school). Thus, these results could form the basis for further more specific developmental programs.

  13. Bridging the Macro and the Micro by Considering the Meso: Reflections on the Fractal Nature of Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Bergström

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We pursued the following three interconnected points: (1 there are unexplored opportunities for resilience scholars from different disciplines to cross-inspire and inform, (2 a systems perspective may enhance understanding of human resilience in health and social settings, and (3 resilience is often considered to be fractal, i.e., a phenomenon with recognizable or recurring features at a variety of scales. Following a consideration of resilience from a systems perspective, we explain how resilience can, for analytic purposes, be constructed at four scales: micro, meso, macro, and cross-scale. Adding to the cross-scale perspective of the social-ecological field, we have suggested an analytical framework for resilience studies of the health field, which incorporates holism and complexity by embracing an ecological model of cognition, something supported by empirical studies of organizations in crisis situations at various spatial as well as temporal scales.

  14. Resilience in aging: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Arlete Portella; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2015-05-01

    Psychological resilience is comprised of an adaptive functioning standard before the current and accumulated risks of life. Furthermore, it has a comprehensive range of psychological resources which are essential to overcome adversities, such as personal competences, self-beliefs and interpersonal control which interact with the social networks support. The objectives are to show the concepts of psychological resilience in elderly, relative to dominant theoretical models and the main data about psychological resilience in aging, found in an international and Brazilian review from 2007 to 2013. The descriptors "resilience, psychological resilience and aging", "resiliência e envelhecimento, velhice e velho", were used in PubMed, PsychInfo, SciELO and Pepsic databases. Fifty three international and eleven national articles were selected. The international articles were classified in four categories: psychological and social coping resources, emotional regulation before stressing experiences, successful resilience and aging and correlates, and resilience measures. The Brazilian articles were grouped in three: psychological and social resources, resilience in carers and theory review. Articles on psychological resources and on emotional regulation prevailed as key factors associated with psychological resilience in aging.

  15. Resilience and psychosocial outcomes in parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Wolfe, Joanne; Bradford, Miranda C; Shaffer, Michele L; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Curtis, J Randall; Syrjala, Karen L; Baker, K Scott

    2014-03-01

    The psychosocial function of parents of children with cancer can impact the well-being of the entire family. Resilience resources are likely related to psychosocial outcomes and may be amenable to intervention. We hypothesized that parents with lower resources would report worse outcomes. In the "Understanding Resilience in Parents of Children with Cancer" study, comprehensive surveys were mailed to consecutive, English-speaking parents of children with cancer who were treated at Seattle Children's Hospital and completed therapy between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010. Resilience resources were measured by the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; outcome measures included psychological distress, health-related behaviors, social and family function, and perceived communication with the medical team. Ninety-six parents (86% of contactable) completed the survey. Compared to population norms, enrolled parents had lower resilience resources, higher psychological distress, and more commonly reported binge drinking. Conversely, they reported higher social support and family adaptability (P resilience resources were associated with higher distress, lower social support, and lower family function (P resilience resources had higher odds of frequent sleep difficulties (OR 5.19, 95% CI 1.74,15.45), lower health satisfaction (OR 5.71, 95% CI 2.05,15.92), and decreased ability to express worries to the medical team (OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.43,11.18). Parents of children with cancer are at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes and those with low resilience resources may be at greater risk. Interventions directed at promoting resilience resources may provide a novel and complimentary approach toward improving outcomes for families facing pediatric cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. MODELING PRECIPITATION DEPENDENT FOREST RESILIENCE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Das

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of long term climate change that imparts stress on forest could be perceived by studying the regime shift of forest ecosystem. With the change of significant precipitation, forest may go through density change around globe at different spatial and temporal scale. The 100 class high resolution (60 meter spatial resolution Indian vegetation type map was used in this study recoded into four broad categories depending on phrenology as (i forest, (ii scrubland, (iii grassland and (iv treeless area. The percentage occupancy of forest, scrub, grass and treeless were observed as 19.9 %, 5.05 %, 1.89 % and 7.79 % respectively. Rest of the 65.37 % land area was occupied by the cropland, built-up, water body and snow covers. The majority forest cover were appended into a 5 km × 5 km grid, along with the mean annual precipitation taken from Bioclim data. The binary presence and absence of different vegetation categories in relates to the annual precipitation was analyzed to calculate their resilience expressed in probability values ranging from 0 to 1. Forest cover observed having resilience probability (Pr < 0.3 in only 0.3 % (200 km2 of total forest cover in India, which was 4.3 % < 0.5 Pr. Majority of the scrubs and grass (64.92 % Pr < 0.5 from North East India which were the shifting cultivation lands showing low resilience, having their high tendency to be transform to forest. These results have spatial explicitness to highlight the resilient and non-resilient distribution of forest, scrub and grass, and treeless areas in India.

  17. Macroecological Patterns of Resilience Inferred from a Multinational, Synchronized Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier L. Baho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The likelihood of an ecological system to undergo undesired regime shifts is expected to increase as climate change effects unfold. To understand how regional climate settings can affect resilience; i.e., the ability of an ecosystem to tolerate disturbances without changing its original structure and processes, we used a synchronized mesocosm experiment (representative of shallow lakes along a latitudinal gradient. We manipulated nutrient concentrations and water levels in a synchronized mesocosm experiment in different climate zones across Europe involving Sweden, Estonia, Germany, the Czech Republic, Turkey and Greece. We assessed attributes of zooplankton communities that might contribute to resilience under different ecological configurations. We assessed four indicator of relative ecological resilience (cross-scale, within-scale structures, aggregation length and gap size of zooplankton communities, inferred from discontinuity analysis. Similar resilience attributes were found across experimental treatments and countries, except Greece, which experienced severe drought conditions during the experiment. These conditions apparently led to a lower relative resilience in the Greek mesocosms. Our results indicate that zooplankton community resilience in shallow lakes is marginally affected by water level and the studied nutrient range unless extreme drought occurs. In practice, this means that drought mitigation could be especially challenging in semi-arid countries in the future.

  18. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  19. From resilience thinking to Resilience Planning: Lessons from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellberg, M M; Ryan, P; Borgström, S T; Norström, A V; Peterson, G D

    2018-04-14

    Resilience thinking has frequently been proposed as an alternative to conventional natural resource management, but there are few studies of its applications in real-world settings. To address this gap, we synthesized experiences from practitioners that have applied a resilience thinking approach to strategic planning, called Resilience Planning, in regional natural resource management organizations in Australia. This case represents one of the most extensive and long-term applications of resilience thinking in the world today. We conducted semi-structured interviews with Resilience Planning practitioners from nine organizations and reviewed strategic planning documents to investigate: 1) the key contributions of the approach to their existing strategic planning, and 2) what enabled and hindered the practitioners in applying and embedding the new approach in their organizations. Our results reveal that Resilience Planning contributed to developing a social-ecological systems perspective, more adaptive and collaborative approaches to planning, and that it clarified management goals of desirable resource conditions. Applying Resilience Planning required translating resilience thinking to practice in each unique circumstance, while simultaneously creating support among staff, and engaging external actors. Embedding Resilience Planning within organizations implied starting and maintaining longer-term change processes that required sustained multi-level organizational support. We conclude by identifying four lessons for successfully applying and embedding resilience practice in an organization: 1) to connect internal "entrepreneurs" to "interpreters" and "networkers" who work across organizations, 2) to assess the opportunity context for resilience practice, 3) to ensure that resilience practice is a learning process that engages internal and external actors, and 4) to develop reflective strategies for managing complexity and uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  20. "I know it when I see it." The complexities of measuring resilience among parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Starks, Helene; Jones, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Promoting parent resilience may provide an opportunity to improve family-level survivorship after pediatric cancer; however, measuring resilience is challenging. The "Understanding Resilience in Parents of Children with Cancer" was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study of bereaved and non-bereaved parents. Surveys included the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, the Kessler-6 psychological distress scale, the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory, and an open-ended question regarding the ongoing impact of cancer. We conducted content analyses of open-ended responses and categorized our impressions as "resilient," "not resilient," or "unable to determine." "Resilience" was determined based on evidence of psychological growth, lack of distress, and parent-reported meaning/purpose. We compared consensus impressions with instrument scores to examine alignment. Analyses were stratified by bereavement status. Eighty-four (88 %) non-bereaved and 21 (88 %) bereaved parents provided written responses. Among non-bereaved, 53 (63 %) were considered resilient and 15 (18 %) were not. Among bereaved, 11 (52 %) were deemed resilient and 5 (24 %) were not. All others suggested a mixed or incomplete picture. Rater-determined "resilient" parents tended to have higher personal resources and lower psychological distress (p = resilient" parents also had higher post-traumatic growth (p = 0.02). Person-level analyses demonstrated that only 50-62 % of parents had all three instrument scores aligned with our impressions of resilience. Despite multiple theories, measuring resilience is challenging. Our clinical impressions of resilience were aligned in 100 % of cases; however, instruments measuring potential markers of resilience were aligned in approximately half. Promoting resilience therefore requires understanding of multiple factors, including person-level perspectives, individual resources, processes of adaptation, and emotional well-being.

  1. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...... and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions.” This paper will define resilience and business continuity management by retracing the origins of both concepts through time. It will then compare them by highlighting their similarities...

  2. Morphological brain measures of cortico-limbic inhibition related to resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Love, Aubrey; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Labus, Jennifer S; Bhatt, Ravi; Chang, Lin; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-09-01

    Resilience is the ability to adequately adapt and respond to homeostatic perturbations. Although resilience has been associated with positive health outcomes, the neuro-biological basis of resilience is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to identify associations between regional brain morphology and trait resilience with a focus on resilience-related morphological differences in brain regions involved in cortico-limbic inhibition. The relationship between resilience and measures of affect were also investigated. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed structural MRI scans. Self-reported resilience was measured using the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale. Segmentation and regional parcellation of images was performed to yield a total of 165 regions. Gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, surface area, and mean curvature were calculated for each region. Regression models were used to identify associations between morphology of regions belonging to executive control and emotional arousal brain networks and trait resilience (total and subscales) while controlling for age, sex, and total GMV. Correlations were also conducted between resilience scores and affect scores. Significant associations were found between GM changes in hypothesized brain regions (subparietal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, amygdala, anterior mid cingulate cortex, and subgenual cingulate cortex) and resilience scores. There were significant positive correlations between resilience and positive affect and negative correlations with negative affect. Resilience was associated with brain morphology of regions involved in cognitive and affective processes related to cortico-limbic inhibition. Brain signatures associated with resilience may be a biomarker of vulnerability to disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Standardisation or Resilience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinck Pedersen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    stability and predictability is presently being challenged by critics who insist that healthcare systems are complex and changing entities, thereby shifting focus towards the healthcare organisation's resilient and adaptive capacities. Based on a close reading of predominant patient safety literature...... begin to address the uncertainty of medical practice as well as the necessary competences of healthcare professionals to act with ‘safety dispositions’ as a precondition for delivering safe care....

  4. Resilience correlates with outcomes after total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokish, John M; Kissenberth, Michael J; Tolan, Stefan J; Salim, Tariq I; Tadlock, Josh; Kellam, Thomas; Long, Catherine D; Crawford, Ashley; Lonergan, Keith T; Hawkins, Richard J; Shanley, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Resilience, characterized by an ability to bounce back or recover from stress, is increasingly recognized as a psychometric property affecting many outcomes' domains including quality of life, suicide risk in active-duty military personnel, and recovery in cancer patients. This study examines the correlation between resilience, as measured by the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), and traditional outcome scores including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and Penn scores in patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Seventy patients undergoing primary anatomic TSA were followed up for a minimum of 2 years (mean, 30 ± 3 months). Patients were stratified into groups a priori, based on deviation from the mean of the BRS score, into low-resilience (LR), normal-resilience (NR), and high-resilience (HR) patients, and outcome scores were calculated for each group. Postoperative BRS scores significantly correlated with ASES, Penn, and SANE scores (r = 0.41-0.44, P resilience group, the LR group had a Penn score that was 34 points lower than that in the HR group. Likewise, the LR group had a SANE score that averaged 40 points lower than that in the HR group (SANE score of 53 points in LR group and 92 points in HR group, P = .05). When we evaluated ASES subscores, it appeared that the pain subscale was responsible for most of the difference between the LR and HR groups (29 points and 48 points [out of 50 points], respectively; P = .03). Resilience is a major predictor of postoperative outcomes after TSA. Patients who are classified as having LR have outcome scores that are 30 to 40 points lower on traditional outcome scales than patients with HR. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  6. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov

    2014-09-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

  7. Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dunn cavelty, myriam; Kaufmann, Mareile; Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    2015-01-01

    Diverse, sometimes even contradictory concepts and practices of resilience have proliferated into a wide range of security policies. In introducing this special issue, we problematize and critically discuss how these forms of resilience change environments, create subjects, link temporalities......, and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...... to be conceptualized and investigated in plural terms. We use temporalities and subjectivities as key analytical aspects to investigate the plural instantiations of resilience in actual political practice. These two issues – subjectivity and temporality – form the overall context for the special issue and are core...

  8. Resilience in Homeland Security [video

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Dan; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, Dan O'Connor, Director Field Operations for the Chief Security Officer at FEMA, talks about the importance of resilience in Homeland Security. The term "resilience" refers to the ability to adapt to changing conditions and withstand and rapidly recover from disruption due to emergencies. Whether it is resilience towards acts of terrorism, cyber attacks, pandemics, and catastrophic natural disasters, our national preparedness is the shared responsibility of all levels of gov...

  9. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeffrey L. Beck; Steve Campbell; John Carlson; Thomas J. Christiansen; Karen J. Clause; Jonathan B. Dinkins; Kevin E. Doherty; Kathleen A. Griffin; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth F. Henke; Jacob D. Hennig; Laurie L. Kurth; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mary Manning; Kenneth E. Mayer; Brian A. Mealor; Clinton McCarthy; Marco A. Perea; David A. Pyke

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses...

  10. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and greater sage-grouse: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; David A. Pyke; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mike Pellant; Chad S. Boyd; Steven B. Campbell; Shawn Espinosa; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth E. Mayer; Amarina Wuenschel

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2...

  11. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  12. Communal resilience: the Lebanese case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric BOUTIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a turbulent and aggressive environment, organizations are subject to external events. They are sometimes destabilized and can disappear. This context explains the multiplication of works studying resilience of human organizations. Resilience is then defined as the ability of the organization studied to face an external shock.This paper proposes a state of the art of resilience concept and considers the interests of the transposition of the concept to the field of a territorial community. A case study will lead us to apply the concept of resilience to the Lebanese nation.

  13. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be dec...

  14. Association between morningness and resilience in Korean college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Jin; Park, Chul-Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Cheol-Soon; Cha, Boseok; Lee, Yu Jin; Soh, Minah; Park, Jin Ah; Young, Park So; Song, Eun Hye

    2016-01-01

    Circadian typology and sleep quality may be essential factors associated with the promotion of resilience. However, previous studies investigating the association between circadian typology and resilience did not analyze the effects of sleep quality on resilience. Thus, the present study evaluated the association between circadian typology and resilience in Korean college students after controlling for sleep quality. Additionally, this study investigated several sleep-related variables, including sleep duration, social jetlag and sunlight exposure during the daytime, to examine the modifiable behavioral features of morningness and also investigated whether the findings regarding morningness-related modifiable habits were associated with resilience. This study included 1094 participants (947 males and 147 females) between 19 and 29 years of age (22.8 ± 1.9 years) who completed the 10-item Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10), the Korean version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Korean version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and a survey about social jetlag that determined misalignments between weekday and weekend times of awakening and activity duration under conditions of sunlight between 10:00 and 15:00. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that sleep duration, mean daily sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 15:00 and age were positive predictors of morningness, whereas social jetlag was a negative predictor of morningness. Of these morningness-related modifiable behavioral features, mean daily sunlight exposure between 10:00 and 15:00 significantly predicted greater resilience. An additional multiple linear regression analysis revealed that morningness was a positive predictor of resilience after controlling for age, sex, depression, anxiety and sleep quality. These results support the idea that morningness and better sleep quality are

  15. Alkaline protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 mitigates industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit; Ansari, Mohammad W; Anwar, Mohmmad S; Agrawal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    Proteases have found a wide application in the several industrial processes, such as laundry detergents, protein recovery or solubilization, prion degradation, meat tenderizations, and in bating of hides and skins in leather industries. But the main hurdle in industrial application of proteases is their economical production on a large scale. The present investigation aimed to exploit the locally available inexpensive agricultural and household wastes for alkaline protease production using Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via solid-state fermentation (SSF) technique. The alkaline enzyme is potentially useful as an additive in commercial detergents to mitigate pollution load due to extensive use of caustic soda-based detergents. Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 showed good protease production under SSF conditions of 55 °C, pH 9, and 50 % moisture content with potato peels as solid substrate. The presented findings revealed that crude alkaline protease produced by Thermoactinomyces sp. RS1 via SSF is of potential application in silver recovery from used X-ray films.

  16. Family resilience as a source of positive adaptation among young people [Resiliencja rodziny jako źródło pozytywnej adaptacji młodzieży

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr KWIATKOWSKI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical constructs fundamental to this paper – individual resiliency, family resilience, and school adjustment – are presented. Individual resilience has been operationalized with the use of three indicators: positive self-concept, social and emotional competence, and self-control/self-regulation. Family resilience was measured with a one-dimensional scale describing integration and educational functionality of a family. School adjustment was measured with the use of three indicators: school-related stress, success at school, and assertiveness at school. 130 students aged 17–18 constituted the sample. Path analysis proved that family resiliency can influence school adjustment directly as well as through individual resilience

  17. Association between demographics and resilience - a cross-sectional study among nurses in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, S Y; Uthaman, T; Ayre, T C; Mordiffi, S Z; Ang, E; Lopez, V

    2018-03-08

    To give an overview of the level of resilience among nurses in Singapore and to examine associations between various demographics variables and resilience level. The World Health Organization reported a global needs-based shortage of over 9 million nurses and midwives in 2013. Building resilience among nurses has been postulated as one of the ways to support and retain nurses in the profession. A self-reported questionnaire consisting of questions on demographics and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale CD-RISC 10 was used. Univariate analysis identified marital status, age group, years of experience in nursing, highest education qualification and job grade to have significant associations with resilience. During multivariate analysis, only marital status, age group, highest educational qualification and job grade remained significant. A strong association was found between highest educational qualification and resilience level; nurses with bachelor's or postgraduate degree were about three times more likely than nurses with only a general nursing certificate to be of moderate/high resilience. The experience of life events (as exemplified by marital status, age and working experience) was associated with higher resilience levels. There is a need for healthcare organizations and nurse leaders to develop programmes focusing on building resilience among younger and less experienced nurses. Nurses should also be supported in their pursuits for higher education, which will in turn lead to higher resilience, and consequently, retention of nurses within the profession and institution. © 2018 International Council of Nurses.

  18. Resilience canvas: a heuristic tool for socio-hydrological management under change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Clark, J.; Buytaert, W.; Karpouzoglou, T.; Dewulf, A.; Hannah, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Although resilience thinking has been gaining interest in managing socio-hydrological systems in a changing world, there are still gaps between the resilience theory and its applications in policy making and management. This research introduces the notion of the "resilience canvas" as a heuristic tool to support social-hydrological water management under change. We argue that resilience is a set of three systematic properties including absorptive, adaptive and transformative capacities. For socio-hydrological systems, each capacity type arises from different sources and can be managed in different ways. The "resilience canvas" can be constructed by combining absorptive and adaptive capacities as the x and y axes. At the corners of the two-dimensional space, four resulting quadrates are found, including most resilient, vulnerable, susceptible, and resistant system states. The resilience canvas can be used not only to understand the development trajectories of socio-hydrological systems at different scales from single river basin to global level, but also to design bespoke interventions and strategies to maintain or enhance resilience. To address projected change-induced uncertainties, this research recommends that future efforts should be focused on shifting socio-hydrological systems from resistant towards resilient status. This implies that interventions including ecosystem restoration, technological innovations and developments in institutional arrangements and management practices, such as polycentric governance and public participation, may play important roles to address future uncertainties and enhance resilience.

  19. The Relationship between Parental Rearing Behavior, Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Ryoung Moon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesParental rearing behavior is one factor that influences the strength of resilience. In turn, resilience influences depression. However, it is unclear whether resilience has a mediating effect on the relationship between parental rearing and depression in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD. Therefore, the associations between parental rearing behavior and resilience and between rearing behavior and symptoms of depression were investigated with respect to age, gender and disease severity.Subjects and methodsPatients completed a parental rearing behavior questionnaire, a resilience scale and the Children’s Depression Inventory during a routine clinic visit. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe median age of the 180 patients included in the study was 17.8 years, and 64% were male. Lower resilience was found to be associated with overprotection, punishment, rejection, and control. There was a strong relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression. Resilience varied according to gender, age group, and disease severity.ConclusionParental rearing behaviors such as emotional warmth, rejection, punishment, control, and overprotection have a significant influence on adolescent’s resilience. When developing intervention programs to increase resilience and reduce depression in adolescents with CHD, parenting attitudes, gender, age, and CHD severity should be considered.

  20. Longitudinal Examination of Resilience After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwitz, Jennifer H; Sima, Adam P; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S; Dreer, Laura E; Bergquist, Thomas F; Zafonte, Ross; Johnson-Greene, Douglas; Felix, Elizabeth R

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate (1) the trajectory of resilience during the first year after a moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI); (2) factors associated with resilience at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury; and (3) changing relationships over time between resilience and other factors. Longitudinal analysis of an observational cohort. Five inpatient rehabilitation centers. Patients with TBI (N=195) enrolled in the resilience module of the TBI Model Systems study with data collected at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Not applicable. Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Initially, resilience levels appeared to be stable during the first year postinjury. Individual growth curve models were used to examine resilience over time in relation to demographic, psychosocial, and injury characteristics. After adjusting for these characteristics, resilience actually declined over time. Higher levels of resilience were related to nonminority status, absence of preinjury substance abuse, lower anxiety and disability level, and greater life satisfaction. Resilience is a construct that is relevant to understanding brain injury outcomes and has potential value in planning clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotional Intelligence and resilience in mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Pardeller, Silvia; Kemmler, Georg; Hofer, Alex

    2016-09-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) and resilience may be considered as prerequisites for mental health professionals caring for patients with serious mental illness (SMI), since they are often exposed to severe emotional stress during daily work. Accordingly, this cross-sectional study assessed both EI and resilience and their interrelationship in 61 individuals belonging to an assertive outreach team for patients suffering from SMI compared 61 control subjects without healthcare-related working conditions. EI was assessed by means of the German version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), resilience was assessed using the German version of the Resilience Scale. Both groups showed an average level of EI in all categories of the MSCEIT and indicated high levels of resilience. They did not differ significantly from each other, neither in terms of EI nor resilience. Correlation analysis revealed a positive association between EI and resilience, albeit small in magnitude. Our results suggest that mental health professionals are not more resilient and therefore not more 'protected' from stressors than the general population. Though this finding warrants cautious interpretation, the positive correlation between EI and resilience suggests that EI may be a potential target for education and training in order to strengthen resilience even in healthy individuals and vice versa.

  2. The Examination of Sport's Effects over High School Students' Resiliency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mustafa Yasar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the resiliency of high school education students and to compare it by athletic or non-athletic factors. A sample of 728 (284 girls, 444 boys) high school students who were chosen randomly among pupils studying in Gaziantep provided responses. High School Version of California Resiliency Rating Scale which was…

  3. Relationships between Self-Concept and Resilience Profiles in Young People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriá Martínez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aims to identify different profiles in self-concept and resilience. In addition, statistically significant differences in self-concept domains among the profiles previously identified are analyzed. Method: The AF5 Self-Concept Questionnaire ("Cuestionario de Autoconcepto AF5") and the Resilience Scale were…

  4. Correlations among Psychological Resilience, Self-Efficacy, and Negative Emotion in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Neng; Liu, Shaohui; Yu, Nan; Peng, Yunhua; Wen, Yumei; Tang, Jie; Kong, Lingyu

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the influencing factors of the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion. Eighty-eight participants were enrolled. Psychological resilience, self-efficacy, and negative emotion were assessed with the Psychological Resilience Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. Furthermore, the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion were investigated. The average scores of psychological resilience, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were 70.08 ± 13.26, 21.56 ± 9.66, 53.68 ± 13.10, and 56.12 ± 12.37, respectively. The incidences of anxiety and depression were 23.90% (21/88) and 28.40% (25/88), respectively. The psychological resilience and self-efficacy scores of AMI patients after PCI varied significantly with age and economic status. SAS scores and SDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Negative emotions in AMI patients after PCI are closely related to psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, anxiety and depression could be alleviated by improving the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of patients undergoing PCI, thus improving patients' quality of life.

  5. The International Resilience Project: Promoting Resilience in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    The International Resilience Project was intended to determine the multidimensional, reciprocal, and dynamic factors--and relationships of factors--that parents, teachers, caregivers, and children themselves use to promote resilience in children. The samples were 589 children and their caregivers from 14 countries: Lithuania, Russia, Costa Rica,…

  6. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what

  7. The Relationship Between Psychological Resilience and Life Satisfaction of University Academic Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze ÜLKER TÜMLÜ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic staff psychological resilience and life satisfaction. The research is a descriptive study in relational survey model. The study group includes 94 faculty members chosen randomly in 2011-2012 academic years in Kastamonu University. As a data collection instruments, life satisfaction scale developed by Diener et al in 1985, adapted to Turkish by Köker in 1991 and Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale/CD-RISC developed by Connor and Davidson in 2003, adapted to Turkish by Karaırmak in 2010, were used. In the study correlation method was used in order to determine the relationship between resilience and life satisfaction, regression analysis was used in order to determine whether the resilience predict life satisfaction. In addition, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used in the analysis of resilience in terms of age, gender, marital status, degree, years of service and years of service at the university in the study. When the outcomes were evaluated, a significant, positive relationship was found between life satisfaction and resilience. The psychological resilience predicts life satisfaction in a meaningful way and resilience explains 7% of the total variance about life satisfaction. In addition, resilience levels of the university academic staff does not differ meaningfully from the gender, age, marital status, degree, years of service and years of service at university.

  8. Systems resilience: a new analytical framework for nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of systems resilience as a new framework for thinking about the future of nonproliferation. Resilience refers to the ability of a system to maintain its vital functions in the face of continuous and unpredictable change. The nonproliferation regime can be viewed as a complex system, and key themes from the literature on systems resilience can be applied to the nonproliferation system. Most existing nonproliferation strategies are aimed at stability rather than resilience, and the current nonproliferation system may be over-constrained by the cumulative evolution of strategies, increasing its vulnerability to collapse. The resilience of the nonproliferation system can be enhanced by diversifying nonproliferation strategies to include general international capabilities to respond to proliferation and focusing more attention on reducing the motivation to acquire nuclear weapons in the first place. Ideas for future research, include understanding unintended consequences and feedbacks among nonproliferation strategies, developing methodologies for measuring the resilience of the nonproliferation system, and accounting for interactions of the nonproliferation system with other systems on larger and smaller scales.

  9. Systems resilience : a new analytical framework for nuclear nonproliferation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    This paper introduces the concept of systems resilience as a new framework for thinking about the future of nonproliferation. Resilience refers to the ability of a system to maintain its vital functions in the face of continuous and unpredictable change. The nonproliferation regime can be viewed as a complex system, and key themes from the literature on systems resilience can be applied to the nonproliferation system. Most existing nonproliferation strategies are aimed at stability rather than resilience, and the current nonproliferation system may be over-constrained by the cumulative evolution of strategies, increasing its vulnerability to collapse. The resilience of the nonproliferation system can be enhanced by diversifying nonproliferation strategies to include general international capabilities to respond to proliferation and focusing more attention on reducing the motivation to acquire nuclear weapons in the first place. Ideas for future research, include understanding unintended consequences and feedbacks among nonproliferation strategies, developing methodologies for measuring the resilience of the nonproliferation system, and accounting for interactions of the nonproliferation system with other systems on larger and smaller scales.

  10. Balancing psychache and resilience in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2014-06-01

    Psychache can and does co-exist alongside resilience and coping amongst trauma survivors. This has been the center of the a-integrative theory of aging demonstrating an attitude to life based on cognitive and emotional dimensions. Aging of Holocaust survivors (HS) is especially difficult when focus is brought to the issue of integrating their life history. The present study aimed to investigate the interplay between psychache and resilience amongst aging HS. Cross-sectional study of HS and a matched comparison group recruited from the general population was carried out. All underwent a personal interview and endorsed quantifiable psychache and resilience scales. We enrolled 214 elderly participants: 107 HS and 107 comparison participants. Mean age for the participants was 80.7± years; there were 101 women and 113 men in each group. Holocaust survivors did not differ in the level of resilience from comparisons (mean: 5.82 ± 0.68 vs. 5.88 ± 0.55, respectively). Psychache was significantly more intense in the HS group (F(8,205) = 2.21; p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the complex interplay between psychache and resilience. Aging HS still have to cope with high levels of psychache while realizing a life-long process of development through resilience.

  11. The quest for resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Gary; Välikangas, Liisa

    2003-09-01

    In less turbulent times, executives had the luxury of assuming that business models were more or less immortal. Companies always had to work to get better, but they seldom had to get different--not at their core, not in their essence. Today, getting different is the imperative. It's the challenge facing Coca-Cola as it struggles to raise its "share of throat" in noncarbonated beverages. It's the task that bedevils McDonald's as it tries to restart its growth in a burger-weary world. It's the hurdle for Sun Microsystems as it searches for ways to protect its high-margin server business from the Linux onslaught. Continued success no longer hinges on momentum. Rather, it rides on resilience-on the ability to dynamically reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change. Strategic resilience is not about responding to a onetime crisis or rebounding from a setback. It's about continually anticipating and adjusting to deep, secular trends that can permanently impair the earning power of a core business. It's about having the capacity to change even before the case for change becomes obvious. To thrive in turbulent times, companies must become as efficient at renewal as they are at producing today's products and services. To achieve strategic resilience, companies will have to overcome the cognitive challenge of eliminating denial, nostalgia, and arrogance; the strategic challenge of learning how to create a wealth of small tactical experiments; the political challenge of reallocating financial and human resources to where they can earn the best returns; and the ideological challenge of learning that strategic renewal is as important as optimization.

  12. Neural correlates of psychological resilience and their relation to life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Wang, Xu; Hu, Siyuan; Liu, Jia

    2015-12-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the ability to thrive in the face of risk and adversity, which is crucial for individuals' mental and physical health. However, its precise neural correlates are still largely unknown. Here we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to identify the brain regions underlying this construct by correlating individuals' psychological resilience scores with the regional homogeneity (ReHo) and then examined how these resilience-related regions predicted life satisfaction in a sample of healthy young adults. We found that the ReHo in the bilateral insula, right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right rostral ACC (rACC) negatively predicted individual differences in psychological resilience, revealing the critical role of the salience network (SN) in psychological resilience. Crucially, the ReHo in the dACC within the SN mediated the effects of psychological resilience on life satisfaction. In summary, these findings suggest that spontaneous activity of the human brain reflect the efficiency of psychological resilience and highlight the dACC within the SN as a neural substrate linking psychological resilience and life satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Resilience to Drought Impacts of Climate Change in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenkert, A. L.; Ibarrarán, M. E.; Malone, E. L.

    2007-05-01

    Countries and states within countries have a different vulnerability and resilience to the effects of climate change. Although many aspects determine relative vulnerability and resilience, we look at socioeconomic and environmental information to assess the relative ranking of Mexican states to climate change, both establishing baselines in the year 2000 and then looking at projections once particular effects such as drought intensify throughout the country. We employ the modeling analysis framework of the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Model (VRIM) that shows considerable variation among states in comparative resilience to climate change and in the sources of that resilience. The VRIM uses 18 proxy indicators, grouped into 8 sectors, to assess on a quantitative basis the comparative potential vulnerability and resilience of countries to climate change. The model integrates detailed socioeconomic and environmental information such as land use, crop production, water availability, per capita GDP, inequality, and health status. A multiple-scale analysis was performed. Mexico as a country ranks in the second-highest quartile of the 160 countries ranked; for comparison purposes, Brazil, the Czech Republic, and Turkey are also in this quartile. Mexico and Mexican states were compared using national and state data; the comparisons show that resilience to climate change does not depend on location as much as on the combination of socio-economic and environmental aspects of a state. When drought was added as a stressor affecting most proxy variables, the overall and projected resilience changed only slightly; to gain insight into the impacts of drought, case studies are needed to complement model results.

  14. Measuring Operational Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    Julia Allen CERT Allen is a principal researcher within the CERT Program at the SEI. Allen’s areas of interest include operational resilience...funded research and development center. The government of the United States has a royalty-free government-purpose license to use, duplicate, or...Technologies Forum Twitter: #SEIVirtualForum We offer a diverse range of learning products—including classroom training, eLearning , certification, and more—to serve the needs of customers and partners worldwide.

  15. Stiffness, resilience, compressibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Bogdan M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source (United States); Sage, J. Timothy, E-mail: jtsage@neu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The flexibility of a protein is an important component of its functionality. We use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to quantify the flexibility of the heme iron environment in the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c by measuring the stiffness and the resilience. These quantities are sensitive to structural differences between the active sites of different proteins, as illustrated by a comparative analysis with myoglobin. The elasticity of the entire protein, on the other hand, can be probed quantitatively from NRVS and high energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements, an approach that we used to extract the bulk modulus of cytochrome c.

  16. Leakage resilient password systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  17. Resilient ageing: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Maxine M; Conner, Norma E

    2014-04-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept resilient ageing. Unique in comparison with other healthy ageing concepts, resilient ageing can be applied to all older people, regardless of age or affliction. The state of global population expansion in older people over the next 50 years calls for increased health promotion research efforts to ensure the maintenance of health and optimal quality of life for all older people. Literature for this concept analysis was retrieved from several databases, CINAHL, PubMed PsycINFO, for the years 1990-2012. Rodgers's evolutionary method of concept analysis was used because of its applicability to concepts that are still evolving. An integrative research review methodology was applied to peer-reviewed journal articles (n = 46) for an inductive analysis of the concept of resilient ageing. The antecedents, defining attributes, and consequence of resilient ageing were identified. Antecedents to resilient ageing were found to be adversity and protective factors, while the core attributes include coping, hardiness and self-concept. The consequence of the process of resilient ageing was optimal quality of life. Sense of coherence was found to be the surrogate term. The results obtained were further substantiated using Antonovsky's (1979) theory of salutogenesis. A theoretical definition and a model of resilient ageing were developed. In addition, a discussion was provided on the practice, policy and research implications for promoting the development of protective factors and resilient ageing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Adventure Education and Resilience Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beightol, Jesse; Jevertson, Jenn; Carter, Susan; Gray, Sky; Gass, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of an experiential, adventure-based program on levels of resilience in fifth-grade Latino students. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental design was used to measure the impact of the Santa Fe Mountain Center's Anti-Bullying Initiative on internal assets commonly associated with resilient individuals. Results indicated…

  19. Resilia cyber resilience best practices

    CERN Document Server

    , AXELOS

    2015-01-01

    RESILIA™ Cyber Resilience Best Practices offers a practical approach to cyber resilience, reflecting the need to detect and recover from incidents, and not rely on prevention alone. It uses the ITIL® framework, which provides a proven approach to the provision of services that align to business outcomes.

  20. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  1. Is there room for resilience? A scoping review and critique of substance use literature and its utilization of the concept of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, Katherine; McDonough, Peggy; Gartner, Rosemary; Strike, Carol

    2017-09-15

    Research in the area of illicit substance use remains preoccupied with describing and analyzing the risks of people who use drugs (PWUD), however more recently there has been a drive to use a strengths-based or resilience approach as an alternative to investigating drug use. This leads us to ask: what can be known about PWUD from the point of view of resilience? The objective of this scoping review is to analyze how the concept of resilience is defined, operationalized, and applied in substance use research. Popular health, social science, psychology, and inter-disciplinary databases namely: SCOPUS, PUBMED, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts were searched. Studies were selected if they used the concept of resilience and if substance use was a key variable under investigation. A total of 77 studies were identified which provided a definition of resilience, or attempted to operationalize (e.g., via scales) the concept of resilience in some manner. Data were charted and sorted using key terms and fundamental aspects of resilience. The majority of studies focus on youth and their resistance to, or engagement in, substance use. There is also a small but growing area of research that examines recovery from substance addiction as a form of resilience. Very few studies were found that thoroughly investigated resilience among PWUD. Consistently throughout the literature drug use is presented as a 'risk factor' jeopardizing one's ability to be resilient, or drug use is seen as a 'maladaptive coping strategy', purporting one's lack of resilience. Currently, substance use research provides a substantial amount of information about the internal strengths that can assist in resisting future drug use; however there is less information about the external resources that play a role, especially for adults. Though popular, outcome-based conceptualizations of resilience are often static, concealing the potential for developing resilience over time or as conditions change. Studies of

  2. Resilience Associated with Self-Disclosure and Relapse Risks in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ayako; Yoshioka, Shin-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the self-disclosure and risks of relapse associated with promoting resilience of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and participating in self-help groups. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey was administered to 48 patients with AUD and participating in self-help groups; this questionnaire consisted of basic attributes, a bidimensional resilience scale to assess both innate and acquired resilience factors, a scale to assess depth of self-disclosure, and a scale assessing relapse risks. We conducted an evaluation by dividing the respondents into a high group and low group based on their median values for both innate and acquired resilience. Innate/acquired resilience had a mutually reinforcing relationship, and, compared with the low resilience group, the high resilience group had significantly reduced risks for relapses and resulted in deeper self-disclosure. Patients with high resilience had lower risk of alcohol relapse and deeper self-disclosure. The results suggest that one way of supporting patients with AUD in recovery is assisting them in building personal relationships with others and in deepening self-disclosure in a setting where they can relax, thus promoting their natural ability to recover.

  3. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  4. Hydropower and sustainability: resilience and vulnerability in China's powersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Magee, Darrin; Wolf, Aaron T

    2009-07-01

    Large dams represent a whole complex of social, economic and ecological processes, perhaps more than any other large infrastructure project. Today, countries with rapidly developing economies are constructing new dams to provide energy and flood control to growing populations in riparian and distant urban communities. If the system is lacking institutional capacity to absorb these physical and institutional changes there is potential for conflict, thereby threatening human security. In this paper, we propose analyzing sustainability (political, socioeconomic, and ecological) in terms of resilience versus vulnerability, framed within the spatial abstraction of a powershed. The powershed framework facilitates multi-scalar and transboundary analysis while remaining focused on the questions of resilience and vulnerability relating to hydropower dams. Focusing on examples from China, this paper describes the complex nature of dams using the sustainability and powershed frameworks. We then analyze the roles of institutions in China to understand the relationships between power, human security and the socio-ecological system. To inform the study of conflicts over dams China is a particularly useful case study because we can examine what happens at the international, national and local scales. The powershed perspective allows us to examine resilience and vulnerability across political boundaries from a dynamic, process-defined analytical scale while remaining focused on a host of questions relating to hydro-development that invoke drivers and impacts on national and sub-national scales. The ability to disaggregate the affects of hydropower dam construction from political boundaries allows for a deeper analysis of resilience and vulnerability. From our analysis we find that reforms in China's hydropower sector since 1996 have been motivated by the need to create stability at the national scale rather than resilient solutions to China's growing demand for energy and water

  5. Resilient leadership and the organizational culture of resilience: construct validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Smith, Kenneth J; Lobo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Political, economic, and social unrest and uncertainty seem replete throughout the world. Within the United States, political vitriol and economic volatility have led to severe economic restrictions. Both government and private sector organizations are being asked to do more with less. The specter of dramatic changes in healthcare creates a condition of uncertainty affecting budget allocations and hiring practices. If ever there was a time when a "resilient culture" was needed, it is now. In this paper we shall discuss the application of "tipping point" theory (Gladwell, 2000) operationalized through a special form of leadership: "resilient leadership" (Everly, Strouse, Everly, 2010). Resilient leadership is consistent with Gladwells "Law of the Few" and strives to create an organizational culture of resilience by implementing an initial change within no more than 20% of an organization's workforce. It is expected that such a minority, if chosen correctly, will "tip" the rest of the organization toward enhanced resilience, ideally creating a self-sustaining culture of resilience. This paper reports on the empirical foundations and construct validation of "resilient leadership".

  6. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  7. [Resilience and the burnout-engagement model in formal caregivers of the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes de Lucena Carvalho, Virginia A; Fernández Calvo, Bernardino; Hernández Martín, Lorenzo; Ramos Campos, Francisco; Contador Castillo, Israel

    2006-11-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between resilience and positive/negative mental aspects of psychological well-being in formal caregivers for the elderly. The sample consisted of 265 caregivers who work in different residential homes in Extremadura and Castilla y León (Spain). The instruments used included the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale , the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The most significant findings show that caregivers with higher levels of resilience also have higher levels of professional efficacy and job engagement (vigor, dedication and absorption) and appear to be less emotionally exhausted or cynical than caregivers with lower levels of resilience. It cannot be concluded that more resilient caregivers will not get burned out, but they develop better engagement skills. As they strengthen these personal attributes, they become less vulnerable to burnout.

  8. Applying Resilience Concepts in Forest Management: A Retrospective Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren C. Dymond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the resilience of ecological and sociological systems has been proposed as an option to adapt to changing future climatic conditions. However, few studies test the applicability of those strategies to forest management. This paper uses a real forest health incident to assess the ability of forest management strategies to affect ecological and economic resilience of the forest. Two landscape scale strategies are compared to business as usual management for their ability to increase resilience to a climate-change induced mountain pine beetle outbreak in the Kamloops Timber Supply Area, British Columbia, Canada for the period 1980 to 2060. Proactive management to reduce high risk species while maintaining or increasing diversity through reforestation was found to be more resilient in terms of the metrics: post-disturbance growing stock, improved volume and stability of timber flow, and net revenue. However, landscape-scale indicators of diversity were little affected by management. Our results were robust to uncertainty in tree growth rates and timber value and show that adapting to climate change through improving the resilience of forested landscapes is an economically viable option.

  9. Patients' psychological well-being and resilient coping protect from secondary somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) 1 year after vestibular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschan, Regine; Best, Christoph; Beutel, Manfred E; Knebel, Achim; Wiltink, Jörg; Dieterich, Marianne; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret

    2011-01-01

    Secondary somatoform dizziness and vertigo (SVD) is an underdiagnosed and handicapping psychosomatic disorder, leading to extensive utilization of health care and maladaptive coping. Few long-term follow-up studies have focused on the assessment of risk factors and little is known about protective factors. The aim of this 1-year follow-up study was to identify neurootological patients at risk for the development of secondary SVD with respect to individual psychopathological disposition, subjective well-being and resilient coping. In a prospective interdisciplinary study, we assessed mental disorders in n=59 patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders (n=15 benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, n=15 vestibular neuritis, n=8 Menière's disease, n=24 vestibular migraine) at baseline (T0) and 1 year after admission (T1). Psychosomatic examinations included the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, the Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS), and a psychometric test battery measuring resilience (RS), sense of coherence (SOC), and satisfaction with life (SWLS). Subjective well-being significantly predicted the development of secondary SVD: Patients with higher scores of RS, SOC, and SWLS at T0 were less likely to acquire secondary SVD at T1. Lifetime mental disorders correlated with a reduced subjective well-being at T0. Patients with mental comorbidity at T0 were generally more at risk for developing secondary SVD at T1. Patients' dispositional psychopathology and subjective well-being play a major predictive role for the long-term prognosis of dizziness and vertigo. To prevent secondary SVD, patients should be screened for risk and preventive factors, and offered psychotherapeutic treatment in case of insufficient coping capacity.

  10. Investigating the psychological resilience, self-confidence and problem-solving skills of midwife candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin Pinar, Sukran; Yildirim, Gulay; Sayin, Neslihan

    2018-05-01

    The high level of psychological resilience, self-confidence and problem solving skills of midwife candidates play an important role in increasing the quality of health care and in fulfilling their responsibilities towards patients. This study was conducted to investigate the psychological resilience, self-confidence and problem-solving skills of midwife candidates. It is a convenience descriptive quantitative study. Students who study at Health Sciences Faculty in Turkey's Central Anatolia Region. Midwife candidates (N = 270). In collection of data, the Personal Information Form, Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults (PRSA), Self-Confidence Scale (SCS), and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used. There was a negatively moderate-level significant relationship between the Problem Solving Inventory scores and the Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults scores (r = -0.619; p = 0.000), and between Self-Confidence Scale scores (r = -0.524; p = 0.000). There was a positively moderate-level significant relationship between the Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults scores and the Self-Confidence Scale scores (r = 0.583; p = 0.000). There was a statistically significant difference (p Resilience Scale for Adults scores according to getting support in a difficult situation. As psychological resilience and self-confidence levels increase, problem-solving skills increase; additionally, as self-confidence increases, psychological resilience increases too. Psychological resilience, self-confidence, and problem-solving skills of midwife candidates in their first-year of studies are higher than those who are in their fourth year. Self-confidence and psychological resilience of midwife candidates aged between 17 and 21, self-confidence and problem solving skills of residents of city centers, psychological resilience of those who perceive their monthly income as sufficient are high. Psychological resilience and problem-solving skills for

  11. The 3Rs program: the Colorado experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Richert E; Eichler, Mary C

    2008-12-01

    COPIC Insurance Company is a Colorado-based medical liability carrier. From October of 2000 to the present, it has employed an early intervention program called the 3Rs program standing for recognize, respond, and resolve. The program emphasizes disclosure, transparency, apology, and patient benefits. The origins of the program, its operational aspects, and results of implementation are discussed.

  12. A systematic review of ecological attributes that confer resilience to climate change in environmental restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta L Timpane-Padgham

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration is widely practiced as a means of rehabilitating ecosystems and habitats that have been degraded or impaired through human use or other causes. Restoration practices now are confronted by climate change, which has the potential to influence long-term restoration outcomes. Concepts and attributes from the resilience literature can help improve restoration and monitoring efforts under changing climate conditions. We systematically examined the published literature on ecological resilience to identify biological, chemical, and physical attributes that confer resilience to climate change. We identified 45 attributes explicitly related to climate change and classified them as individual- (9, population- (6, community- (7, ecosystem- (7, or process-level attributes (16. Individual studies defined resilience as resistance to change or recovery from disturbance, and only a few studies explicitly included both concepts in their definition of resilience. We found that individual and population attributes generally are suited to species- or habitat-specific restoration actions and applicable at the population scale. Community attributes are better suited to habitat-specific restoration at the site scale, or system-wide restoration at the ecosystem scale. Ecosystem and process attributes vary considerably in their type and applicability. We summarize these relationships in a decision support table and provide three example applications to illustrate how these classifications can be used to prioritize climate change resilience attributes for specific restoration actions. We suggest that (1 including resilience as an explicit planning objective could increase the success of restoration projects, (2 considering the ecological context and focal scale of a restoration action is essential in choosing appropriate resilience attributes, and (3 certain ecological attributes, such as diversity and connectivity, are more commonly considered to

  13. Spatially Explicit Assessment of Ecosystem Resilience: An Approach to Adapt to Climate Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem resilience plays a key role in maintaining a steady flow of ecosystem services and enables quick and flexible responses to climate changes, and maintaining or restoring the ecosystem resilience of forests is a necessary societal adaptation to climate change; however, there is a great lack of spatially explicit ecosystem resilience assessments. Drawing on principles of the ecosystem resilience highlighted in the literature, we built on the theory of dissipative structures to develop a conceptual model of the ecosystem resilience of forests. A hierarchical indicator system was designed with the influencing factors of the forest ecosystem resilience, including the stand conditions and the ecological memory, which were further disaggregated into specific indicators. Furthermore, indicator weights were determined with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and the coefficient of variation method. Based on the remote sensing data and forest inventory data and so forth, the resilience index of forests was calculated. The result suggests that there is significant spatial heterogeneity of the ecosystem resilience of forests, indicating it is feasible to generate large-scale ecosystem resilience maps with this assessment model, and the results can provide a scientific basis for the conservation of forests, which is of great significance to the climate change mitigation.

  14. Does resilience 'buffer' against depression in prostate cancer patients? A multi-site replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, C F; Bitsika, V; Wootten, A C; Christie, D R H

    2014-07-01

    Although psychological resilience has been shown to 'buffer' against depression following major stressors, no studies have reported on this relationship within the prostate cancer (PCa) population, many of whom are at elevated risk of depression, health problems and suicide. To investigate the effects of resilience upon anxiety and depression in the PCa population, postal surveys of 425 PCa patients were collected from two sites: 189 PCa patients at site 1 and 236 at site 2. Background data plus responses to depression and resilience scales were collected. Results indicated that total resilience score was a significant buffer against depression across both sites. Resilience had different underlying component factor structures across sites, but only one (common) factor significantly (inversely) predicted depression. Within that factor, only some specific items significantly predicted depression scores, suggesting a focused relationship between resilience and depression. It may be concluded that measures of resilience may be used to screen depression at-risk PCa patients. These patients might benefit from resilience training to enhance their ability to cope effectively with the stress of their diagnosis and treatment. A focus upon specific aspects of overall resilience may be of further benefit in both these processes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Mediating Effect of Resilience on the Association between Emotional Neglect and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Won; Bae, Geum Ye; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Lee, Seung Jae; Chang, Sung Man; Kim, Byung-Soo; Won, Seunghee

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that childhood maltreatment experiences could induce biological and psychological vulnerability in depressive disorders. However, it is still unclear that type-specific effects of childhood maltreatment on psychological resilience, depressive symptoms and interactions among childhood maltreatment experiences, resilience, and depressive symptoms. A total of 438 medical students were included in the study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, the Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used for measuring childhood maltreatment experiences, psychological resilience, and depressive symptoms, respectively. We investigated the effects of childhood maltreatment experiences on resilience and depressive symptoms using correlation analysis. In addition, we analyzed the mediating effect of resilience on the association between childhood maltreatment and symptoms of depression. Among childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect was a significant predictor of the scores of low resilience and high depressive symptoms in both gender groups (all psresilience was found to be a mediator connecting emotional neglect experiences with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that emotional neglect has detrimental effects on mood and resilience, and clinicians need to focus on the recovery of resilience when they deal with depressive symptoms in victims of childhood maltreatment.

  16. Burnout and health among critical care professionals: The mediational role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Oscar; Aparicio-Zaldivar, Eva

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the mediational role of resilience in relationships between burnout and health in critical care professionals; to determine relationships among resilience level, three burnout dimensions, and physical/mental health; and to establish demographic differences in psychological variables evaluated. Cross-sectional study. A total of 52 critical care professionals, mainly nurses, were recruited from an intensive care unit of Madrid (Spain). All participants were assessed with the questionnaires 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Short Form-12 Health Survey. No demographic differences were found. Three burnout dimensions were negatively associated with mental health and resilience. Mediational analyses revealed resilience mediated 1) the relationships between emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation with mental health (partial mediations) and 2) the relationship between personal accomplishment and mental health (total mediation). Resilience minimises and buffers the impact of negative outcomes of workplace stress on mental health of critical care professionals. As a result, resilience prevents the occurrence of burnout syndrome. Resilience improves not only their mental health, but also their ability to practice effectively. It is therefore imperative to develop resilience programs for critical care nurses in nursing schools, universities and health centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Introduction to noise-resilient computing

    CERN Document Server

    Yanushkevich, Svetlana N; Tangim, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Noise abatement is the key problem of small-scaled circuit design. New computational paradigms are needed -- as these circuits shrink, they become very vulnerable to noise and soft errors. In this lecture, we present a probabilistic computation framework for improving the resiliency of logic gates and circuits under random conditions induced by voltage or current fluctuation. Among many probabilistic techniques for modeling such devices, only a few models satisfy the requirements of efficient hardware implementation -- specifically, Boltzman machines and Markov Random Field (MRF) models. These

  18. The relationship between resilience and personality traits in doctors: implications for enhancing well being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diann S. Eley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The health and well being of medical doctors is vital to their longevity and safe practice. The concept of resilience is recognised as a key component of well being and is an important factor in medical training to help doctors learn to cope with challenge, stress, and adversity. This study examined the relationship of resilience to personality traits and resilience in doctors in order to identify the key traits that promote or impair resilience.Methods. A cross sectional cohort of 479 family practitioners in practice across Australia was studied. The Temperament and Character Inventory measured levels of the seven basic dimensions of personality and the Resilience Scale provided an overall measure of resilience. The associations between resilience and personality were examined by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, controlling for age and gender (α = 0.05 with an accompanying 95% confidence level and multiple regression analyses.Results. Strong to medium positive correlations were found between Resilience and Self-directedness (r = .614, p < .01, Persistence (r = .498, p < .01, and Cooperativeness (r = .363, p < .01 and negative with Harm Avoidance (r = .−555, p < .01. Individual differences in personality explained 39% of the variance in resilience [F(7, 460 = 38.40, p < .001]. The three traits which contributed significantly to this variance were Self-directedness (β = .33, p < .001, Persistence (β = .22, p < .001 and Harm Avoidance (β = .19, p < .001.Conclusion. Resilience was associated with a personality trait pattern that is mature, responsible, optimistic, persevering, and cooperative. Findings support the inclusion of resilience as a component of optimal functioning and well being in doctors. Strategies for enhancing resilience should consider the key traits that drive or impair it.

  19. Development of a Climate Resilience Screening Index (CRSI) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Climate Resilience Screening Index is being developed that is applicable at multiple scales for the United States. Those scales include national, state, county and community. The index will be applied at the first three scales and at selected communities. The index was developed in order to explicitly include domains, indicators and metrics addressing environmental, economic and societal aspects of climate resilience. In addition, the index uses indicators and metrics that assess ecosystem, economic, governance and social services at these scales. Finally, we are developing forecasting approaches that can relate intended changes in services and governance to likely levels of changes in the resiliency of communities to climate change impacts. The present challenge is the incorporation of the index, its relationships to governance and the developing forecasting tools into Federal decision-making across US government and into state/county/community decision-making across the US. Governmental acceptance of changes to policies often can be just as challenging as the initial technical acceptance of the index and its relation to climate change. Climate Resilience Index is a requested product by ORD AA and EPA Administrator through SHC Program. Index needed to assess states', counties', and communities' abilities of recovery from climate events. Audience: Internal EPA (Administrator, IO, OLEM, OW and OAR) and external (states, counties and communities). Product

  20. Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To help the people of Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal adapt, this project will develop robust evidence to inform climate change adaptation policies and practices. ... -promote decision-makers' use of knowledge and adaptation practices at various scales to reduce vulnerabilities and build livelihood resilience; and

  1. Resilient Cities Initiative on Climate Change in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This joint initiative between IDRC and the Climate and Development Knowledge Network will help strengthen decision-making and scale-up effective action on climate resilient development to improve the livelihoods of those most affected by climate change in Latin America. Climate change in Latin America Climate ...

  2. Citizen science for hydrological risk reduction and resilience building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Jonathan D.; Buytaert, Wouter; Allen, Simon; Ballesteros‐Cánovas, Juan A.; Bhusal, Jagat K.; Cieslik, Katarzyna; Clark, Julian; Dugar, Sumit; Hannah, David M.; Stoffel, M.; Dewulf, A.R.P.J.; Dhital, Megh R.; Liu, Wei; Nayaval, Janak Lal; Neupane, Bhanu; Schiller, Arnulf; Smith, P.J.; Supper, Robert

    2017-01-01

    In disaster risk management (DRM), an emerging shift has been noted from broad-scale, top-down assessments toward more participatory, community-based, bottom-up approaches. Arguably, nonscientist local stakeholders have always played an important role in knowledge risk management and resilience

  3. Mapping media representation of the Seine river flood to assess the impact of communication on Paris resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Rosa; Tchiguirisnkaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    By the 2000s increasing attention among academics, as well as practitioners, has been devoted to the implementation of resilience. Putting the concept of social-ecological resilience (Holling, 1973) into practice involves relevant changes in policy and decision-making. Indeed, the social-ecological resilience approach emphasizes the need to apply the principle of subsidiarity, i.e. to decentralize risk management, to encourage citizen participation and share responsibilities (Tanguy, 2015). The concept of social-ecological resilience draws attention to the the impact of social construction of the reality- and therefore of the influence of media and other cultural contents, individual and groups knowledge, perceptions, emotions - on urban development. In this framework, communication between municipalities and citizens, especially a two-ways dialogue (i.e. participatory communication), has become a keystone of resilience strategies since it facilitates mutual understanding, shared goals identification and cooperation. Going beyond theory and implementing resilience requires resilience metrics: such indexes allow decision makers to compare the costs of resilience enhancement actions with the economic, environmental, social, and sanitary costs of non-action. However important gaps persists between theories and applied metrics of resilience. For instance, operational resilience metrics are usually defined with the help of semi-quantitative indicators that are applied to variables aggregated up to the outer scale of the system, not across the various spatial scales of the system. This research exploits recent computer aided text mining techniques to explore web communications and map press and social media representation of flood resilience, as well as identify the main opinion makers in the city of Paris. This approach allows a quantitative analysis of communication impacts, in terms of frequency and quality, and it is meant to be a basis to define new resilience

  4. Fatty acid translocase gene CD36 rs1527483 variant influences oral fat perception in Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hing-Huat; Tan, Yen-Nee; Say, Yee-How

    2017-01-01

    We determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1761667 and rs1527483) in the fatty acid translocase CD36 gene - a receptor for fatty acids - is associated with oral fat perception (OFP) of different fat contents in custards and commercially-available foods, and obesity measures in Malaysian subjects (n=313; 118 males, 293 ethnic Chinese; 20 ethnic Indians). A 170-mm visual analogue scale was used to assess the ratings of perceived fat content, oiliness and creaminess of 0%, 2%, 6% and 10% fat content-by-weight custards and low-fat/regular versions of commercially-available milk, mayonnaise and cream crackers. Overall, the subjects managed to significantly discriminate the fat content, oiliness and creaminess between low-fat/regular versions of milk and mayonnaise. Females rated the perception of fat content and oiliness of both milks higher, but ethnicity, obesity and adiposity status did not seem to play a role in influencing most of OFP. The overall minor allele frequencies for rs1761667 and rs1527483 were 0.30 and 0.26, respectively. Females and individuals with rs1527483 TT genotype significantly perceived greater creaminess of 10% fat-by-weight custard. Also, individuals with rs1527483 TT genotype and T allele significantly perceived greater fat content of cream crackers, independent of fat concentration. rs1761667 SNP did not significantly affect OFP, except for cream crackers. Both gene variants were also not associated with obesity measures. Taken together, this study supports the notion that CD36 - specifically rs1527483, plays a role in OFP, but not in influencing obesity in Malaysian subjects. Besides, gender is an important factor for OFP, where females had higher sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing Wu

    Full Text Available Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS, Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation, Herth Hope Index (HHI, and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience.The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI, and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, P<0.001, educational level of junior college or above (β = 0.272, P<0.001, educational level of high school (β = 0.235, P<0.001, avoidance (β = 0.220, P<0.001, confrontation (β = 0.187, P = 0.001, and age (β = -0.108, P = 0.037 significantly affected resilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience.Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation

  6. Resilience is decreased in irritable bowel syndrome and associated with symptoms and cortisol response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Naliboff, B D; Shih, W; Presson, A P; Videlock, E J; Ju, T; Kilpatrick, L; Gupta, A; Mayer, E A; Chang, L

    2018-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive disorder associated with early adverse life events (EALs) and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Resilience is the ability to recover and adapt positively to stress but has not been well studied in IBS. The aims of this study are to compare resilience in IBS and healthy controls (HCs) and to assess its relationships with IBS symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), EALs, and HPA axis response. Two hundred fifty-six subjects (154 IBS, 102 HCs) completed questionnaires for resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CD-RISC] and Brief Resilience Scale [BRS]), IBS symptoms, IBS-QOL, and EALs. Ninety-six of these subjects had serial serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels to exogenous corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and ACTH measured. The relationship between IBS status, resilience, and other variables of interest was assessed by regression analysis after adjusting for demographics and neuroticism, a predictor of resilience. Resilience was significantly lower in IBS compared to HCs (CD-RISC: 72.16±14.97 vs 77.32±12.73, P=.003; BRS: 3.29±0.87 vs 3.93±0.69, Presilience and IBS status for ACTH-stimulated cortisol response (P=.031); more resilient IBS subjects had lower cortisol response, and more resilient HCs had higher cortisol response. Lower resilience is associated with IBS status, worse IBS symptom severity, lower IBS-QOL, greater EALs, and stress hyperresponsiveness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  8. Quality of life in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: The impact of symptomatic remission and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, A; Mizuno, Y; Wartelsteiner, F; Wolfgang Fleischhacker, W; Frajo-Apor, B; Kemmler, G; Mimura, M; Pardeller, S; Sondermann, C; Suzuki, T; Welte, A; Uchida, H

    2017-10-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is significantly affected in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (BD-I). The current study investigated whether symptomatic remission and resilience might differently impact HRQOL in these patients. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia and 60 patients suffering from BD-I from outpatient mental health services as well as 77 healthy control subjects from the general community were included into a cross-sectional study. HRQOL and resilience were assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF and the Resilience Scale. In patients, psychopathology was quantified by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively. Notably, both patient groups showed lower HRQOL and resilience compared to control subjects, non-remitted patients indicated lower HRQOL than remitted ones. The effect of remission on HRQOL was significantly larger in patients with BD-I than in those with schizophrenia but did not explain the difference in HRQOL between groups. Resilience predicted HRQOL in all three groups. When accounting for the effect of resilience among remitted patients, only the difference in HRQOL between schizophrenia patients and control subjects was significant. These findings demonstrate the impact of symptomatic remission and resilience on HRQOL of both patients suffering from schizophrenia and BD-I and indicate that these factors are especially relevant for HRQOL of patients with BD-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between health-promoting behaviors and resilience in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Ching; Chang, Hong-Jer; Liu, Yueh-Min; Hsieh, Hsiang-Li; Lo, Lan; Lin, Mei-Yu; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional research study explored differences in health-promoting behavior and resilience among three groups of chronic kidney disease patients (high-risk, early chronic kidney disease; early CKD and pre-end stage renal disease; pre-ESRD) treated at the Nephrology outpatient clinic in northern Taiwan. A total of 150 CKD outpatients were interviewed using structured questionnaires including a CKD Health to Promote Lifestyle Scale, and resilience scale. We found that the pre-ESRD group had lower resilience than either high-risk or early CKD groups. Factors affecting pre-ESRD resilience were gender, occupational status, diabetes and health-promoting behaviors. Factors affecting resilience of the high-risk group included level of education and health-promoting behaviors while factors affecting resilience in the early CKD group involved whether they are employed and health promoting behaviors. A significant positive correlation was found between health promoting behavior and resilience in all study subjects. Multiple regression analysis found that factors which could effectively predict resilience in patients at high-risk for CKD were gender, whether the patient had a job, nutrition, self-actualization, and stress level, accounting for 69.7% of the variance. Therefore, nursing education should focus on health promotion advocacy throughout the life of not only patients but also their families.

  10. Resilience and hope during advanced disease: a pilot study with metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Joao Paulo Consentino; da Silva, Amanda Gomes; Soares, Ivan Agurtov; Ashmawi, Hazem Adel; Vieira, Joaquim Edson

    2016-08-02

    The balance between hope-hopelessness plays an important role in the way terminally ill patients report quality of life, and personal resilience may be related to hope at the end of life. The objective of this study was to explore associations between personal resilience, hope, and other possible predictors of hope in advanced cancer patients. A cross-sectional pilot study was carried out with metastatic colorectal cancer patients in a tertiary hospital. The patients answered the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Herth Hope Index, Barthel Index, an instrument addressing family and social support, visual-numeric scales for pain and suffering, a two-item screening for depression, socio-demographic and socio-economic information about the family. Forty-four patients were interviewed (mean age 56 years; range 29-86). A strong correlation was noted between resilience and hope (0.63; p resilience (p = 0.005) and hope (p = 0.003), and higher scores of suffering (p resilience and hope kept stable after adjusting for age, gender, and presence of depression (p resilience is a dynamic, changeable path that can improve hope, resilience-fostering interventions should be most valued in palliative care settings and should be commenced as soon as possible with cancer patients. Patients with advanced stages of non-malignant conditions would also probably benefit from such interventions.

  11. Resilience as a predictor for emotional response to the diagnosis and surgery in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovitz, Sabine E; Schrooten, Ward; Arntz, Arnoud; Peters, Madelon L

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate the role of resilience in the prediction of emotional response in breast cancer patients and to examine whether this association is specific for women undergoing this emotionally taxing condition or whether resilience is more generally associated with higher levels of emotional well-being. Two hundred fifty-three breast cancer patients and 211 healthy female controls completed four psychological questionnaires. Measures comprised the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and two happiness items. Cancer patients were assessed after diagnosis and surgery. Cancer patients reported higher levels of anxiety, depression, and negative affect and lower levels of positive affect and current happiness compared with control women. There was no difference between the two groups in level of resilience. Higher levels of resilience were related to better emotional adjustment both in women with breast cancer and in control women, but this association was stronger within the sample of cancer patients. In fact, patients scoring high on resilience seemed to experience similar levels of anxiety, depression, and current happiness as healthy women. Our results confirm that resilience may at least partially protect against emotional distress in cancer patients. Our findings suggest that resilience may be a relatively stable trait that is not affected by adversity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Relationship between Health-Promoting Behaviors and Resilience in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Ching; Chang, Hong-Jer; Liu, Yueh-Min; Hsieh, Hsiang-Li; Lo, Lan; Lin, Mei-Yu; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional research study explored differences in health-promoting behavior and resilience among three groups of chronic kidney disease patients (high-risk, early chronic kidney disease; early CKD and pre-end stage renal disease; pre-ESRD) treated at the Nephrology outpatient clinic in northern Taiwan. A total of 150 CKD outpatients were interviewed using structured questionnaires including a CKD Health to Promote Lifestyle Scale, and resilience scale. We found that the pre-ESRD group had lower resilience than either high-risk or early CKD groups. Factors affecting pre-ESRD resilience were gender, occupational status, diabetes and health-promoting behaviors. Factors affecting resilience of the high-risk group included level of education and health-promoting behaviors while factors affecting resilience in the early CKD group involved whether they are employed and health promoting behaviors. A significant positive correlation was found between health promoting behavior and resilience in all study subjects. Multiple regression analysis found that factors which could effectively predict resilience in patients at high-risk for CKD were gender, whether the patient had a job, nutrition, self-actualization, and stress level, accounting for 69.7% of the variance. Therefore, nursing education should focus on health promotion advocacy throughout the life of not only patients but also their families. PMID:23589703

  13. The Relationship between Health-Promoting Behaviors and Resilience in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional research study explored differences in health-promoting behavior and resilience among three groups of chronic kidney disease patients (high-risk, early chronic kidney disease; early CKD and pre-end stage renal disease; pre-ESRD treated at the Nephrology outpatient clinic in northern Taiwan. A total of 150 CKD outpatients were interviewed using structured questionnaires including a CKD Health to Promote Lifestyle Scale, and resilience scale. We found that the pre-ESRD group had lower resilience than either high-risk or early CKD groups. Factors affecting pre-ESRD resilience were gender, occupational status, diabetes and health-promoting behaviors. Factors affecting resilience of the high-risk group included level of education and health-promoting behaviors while factors affecting resilience in the early CKD group involved whether they are employed and health promoting behaviors. A significant positive correlation was found between health promoting behavior and resilience in all study subjects. Multiple regression analysis found that factors which could effectively predict resilience in patients at high-risk for CKD were gender, whether the patient had a job, nutrition, self-actualization, and stress level, accounting for 69.7% of the variance. Therefore, nursing education should focus on health promotion advocacy throughout the life of not only patients but also their families.

  14. Predictive value of psychological resilience for mental health disturbances: A three-wave prospective study among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Erik; van der Velden, Peter G; Setti, Ilaria; van Veldhoven, Marc J P M

    2017-12-12

    Psychological resilience is considered an important predictor for mental health disturbances among rescue workers. To what extent resilience predicts mental health disturbances among police officers at different stages while adjusting for existing (mental) health disturbances is unclear. Among 566 police officers resilience was operationalized by the Resilience Scale-nl and the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 questionnaires (8 scales in total). Mental health disturbances (such as depression symptoms and PTSD) and other health-related variables were assessed at baseline and follow-ups at three and nine months. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses assessed the predictive values of the 8 resilience scales for mental health disturbances at baseline (n = 566), three months (n = 566) and nine months (n = 364), adjusted for demographics, work circumstances, and health-related factors at baseline. Seven of the eight resilience scales at baseline were cross sectional associated with mental health disturbances at baseline. Only four scales were independent predictors for mental health disturbances at three months. When examining mental health disturbances at nine months, only one resilience scale remained a significant predictor. In sum, psychological resilience has a declining protective capacity for mental health disturbances over a medium time-span, specifically when corrected for baseline mental health disturbances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of resiliency in the process of adaptation to life after heart transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the research was to find out if resiliency is a potentially significant factor in the process of adaptation after heart transplantation. Material and methods. The research included 53 people after heart transplantation, hospitalized in the John Paul II Hospital in Kraków. Measures included a self-made interview questionnaire; the Acceptance of Illness Scale, the Polish Resiliency Assessment Scale SPP-25. The necessary statistics were conducted by means of SPSS program.Results....

  16. Resilient communities: implications for professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Neef, Martijn; Davis, Scott; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    As a result of societal changes like citizen empowerment and increasing attention for strengthening community resilience, relationships between citizens and professional responders in crisis management are changing. Citizens actively deal with crises themselves, implying adjustments to professional

  17. Assessment instruments of urban resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Saporiti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to highlight the aspects related to the resilient capacity of a neoecosistema. Clarifying what does it means to speak about a resilient neoecosistema and which are the specific characters that make him capable of change and adaptation when facing an environmental, social or economic threat, it will be possible to understand the efficacy related to the model of urban development. From the individuation of perturbing factors of this capacity, it will be possible to generate a panel of the resilient capacity linked to three different ambits that represent the three characteristic elements of natural ecosystems: its physic structure, the persons and the interaction processes between them so we would be able to make explicit the specific characters of resilience distinguished from those of sustainability and urban quality.  

  18. Sociotechnical Resilience: A Preliminary Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Sulfikar; Kant, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance. We propose that the triad of relations, structures, and practices are fundamental aspects required to comprehend the resilience of sociotechnical systems during times of crisis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Multiscale Metrics to Assess Flood Resilience: Feedbacks from SMARTesT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the FP7 SMARTesT project is to greatly improve flood resilient technologies and systems. A major difficulty is that hydrological basins, in particular urban basins, are systems that are not only complicated due to their large number of components with multiple functions, but also complex. This explains many failures in flood management, as well as to assess, including with the help of numerical simulations, the resilience of a flood management system and therefore to optimize strategies. The term resilience has become extremely fashionable, although corresponding operational and mathematical definitions have remained rather elusive. The latter is required to analyse flood scenarios and simulations. It should be based on some conceptual definition, e.g. the definition of "ecological resilience" (Hollings 1973). The first attempt to define resilience metrics was based on the dynamical system approach. In spite of its mathematical elegance and apparent rigor, this approach suffers from a series of limitations. A common limitation with viability theory is the emergence of spatial scales in systems that are complex in time and space. As recently discussed (Folke et al., 2010), "multiscale resilience is fundamental for understanding the interplay between persistence and change, adaptability and transformability". An operational definition of multiscale resilience can be obtained as soon as scale symmetries are considered. The latter considerably reduce the space-time complexity by defining scale independent variables, called singularities. Ae scale independent resilient metrics should rely on singularities, e.g. to measure qualitative changes of their distribution. Incidentally, singularities are more and more used to analyse urban floods e.g. with the help done for climate scenario analysis. A radical point of view would correspond to define the scale independent analogues of the viability constraint set, viability kernel and resilient basin for

  20. Resilient retfærdighed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stefan Gaarsmand

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the idea of resilience as a point of departure for analysing some contemporary challenges to the climate justice movement posed by social-ecological sciences. Climate justice activists are increasingly rallying for a system-change, demanding fundamental changes to political bure...... is that the scientific framework behind resilience is not politically neutral and that this framework tends to weaken the activist’s demands for a just transition and place more emphasis on technical and bureaucratic processes....

  1. Exploring Strategies that Build Livelihood Resilience: a Case from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Marschke

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods in Cambodian fishing communities are complex and dynamic. Fluctuations in resource abundance, seasonal cycles of resource use, and changes in access create conditions that bring challenges for rural households, as do economic and policy drivers. Nonetheless, people are continuously "doing something" in response to these stresses and shocks. This paper sets out to explore how households and community members attempt to mitigate against such challenges. The analysis of livelihood stresses and shocks in two Cambodian fishing villages shows that diversification is a commonly used strategy for coping and adapting. Analyzing responses at multiple scales, with emphasis on resilience-building strategies at household and community levels, illuminates aspects of livelihoods. To study local-level perspectives of resilience, well-being was used as the surrogate of resilience, producing three clusters of responses related to economic conditions, resources, and relationships.

  2. ECONOMIC RESILIENCE AND CROWDSOURCING PLATFORMS

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    Kendra L. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased interdependence and complexity of modern societies have increased the need to involve all members of a community into solving problems. In times of great uncertainty, when communities face threats of different kinds and magnitudes, the traditional top-down approach where government provides solely for community wellbeing is no longer plausible. Crowdsourcing has emerged as an effective means of empowering communities with the potential to engage individuals in innovation, self-organization activities, informal learning, mutual support, and political action that can all lead to resilience. However, there remains limited resource on the topic. In this paper, we outline the various forms of crowdsourcing, economic and community resilience, crowdsourcing and economic resilience, and a case study of the Nepal earthquake. his article presents an exploratory perspective on the link can be found between crowdsourcing and economic resilience. It introduces and describes a framework that can be used to study the impact of crowdsourcing initiatives for economic resilience by future research. An initial a set of indicators to be used to measure the change in the level of resilience is presented.

  3. Resilience | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widely accepted (Gunderson 2000, cited under Original Definition). Currently, the concept is commonplace in academics, management, and policy. Although the idea has quantitative roots in the ecological sciences and was proposed as a measurable quality of ecosystems, the broad use of resilience led to an expansion of definitions and applications. Holling’s original definition, presented in 1973 (Holling 1973, cited under Original Definition), was simply the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain. Ecological resilience, therefore, emphasizes that the dynamics of complex systems are nonlinear, meaning that these systems can transition, often abruptly, between dynamic states with substantially different structures, functions, and processes. The transition of ecological systems from one state to another frequently has important repercussions for humans. Recent definitions are more normative and qualitative, especially in the social sciences, and a competing definition, that of engineering resilience, is still often used. Resilience is an emergent phenomenon of complex systems, which means it cannot be deduced from the behavior of t

  4. Resilience in language learners and the relationship to storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available International students, who study a foreign language abroad, experience more adversities than their domestic peers. The social challenges they face include problems with immigration status, isolation, difficulty speaking a new language, and learning unfamiliar customs. There is limited research focused on the coping strategies of these individuals. A growing body of research suggests storytelling may provide an important role in promoting resilience, defined as an individual’s ability to bounce back or recover from stress. The study investigated possible relationships between experiencing storytelling as a child and adult resilience. The sample consisted of 21 international college students studying Chinese or English. Students were examined with a survey, a narrative interview, and the brief resilience scale. Data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative results produced significant correlations between resilience scores and the survey scores for adults who reported using storytelling in their own teaching of a second language to peers and children. Qualitative results identified five protective factors for resilience: (1 social competence, (2 problem-solving skills, (3 autonomy, (4 sense of purpose, and (5 use of storytelling. Implications of the findings for research and intervention are discussed.

  5. Disease epidemics: Lessons for resilience in an increasingly connected world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; DeWitte, S.N.; Kurth, M.H.; Linkov, I.

    2016-01-01

    In public health, the term resilience often refers to the personality traits that individuals possess which help them endure and recover from stressors. However, resilience as a system characteristic, especially in regards to complex social-ecological systems, can be informative for public health at scales larger than the individual. Acute shocks to systems occur against a background of existing conditions, which are crucial determinants of the eventual public health outcomes of those shocks, and in the context of complex dependencies among and between ecological and societal elements. Many components of a system's baseline condition are chronic public health concerns themselves and diminish the capacity of the system to perform in the face of acute shocks. The emerging field of resilience management is concerned with holistically assessing and improving a system's ability to prepare for and absorb disruption, and then recover and adapt across physical, information, environmental and social domains. Integrating resilience considerations into current risk- and evidence-based approaches to disease control and prevention1 can move public health efforts toward more proactive and comprehensive solutions for protecting and improving the health of communities. Here, we look to the case of the Black Death as an illustrative case of a dramatic transformation in human history, an acute shock to a system that was underlain by chronic social maladies, to derive lessons about resilience management for public health in contemporary systems.

  6. EMPLOYEE INNOVATION RESILIENCE: A PROPOSAL FOR MULTIDIMENSIONAL CONSTRUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Aslan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As being one of the prominent phenomenon in ecology, engineering and pyschology studies for more than thirty years, resilience has started to gain attraction and attention in management and organization fields in the last decade. The concept is accepted as an antidote of invulnerability (Weick, 1993, adaptive functioning against risk hazards (Rutter, 1987 and ability to cope with multiple changes (Boyd and Folke, 2012. Resilience is either defined as set of available and accessible behaviors over time that reflects growth (Ungar; 2010,2011 or as the maintenance of positive adjustment under challenging conditions (Vogus and Sutcliffe, 2007,  it fosters the strenght and the survival of the organism. Resilience could be accepted in its infancy in management and organization studies, however, it has a grand potential to understand how employees in organizations endure ongoing changes, challenges and uncertainty that reveal through innovation and its potential effects on innovation performance. Due to lack of any measurement scale in employee innovation resilience, in this study,,we aim at proposing a model that presents innovation resilience as a second order multidimensional construct that consists of three dimensions and three sub-dimensions of each observable variables.

  7. Family functioning, resilience, and depression among North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boyoung; Kim, Jae Yop; DeVylder, Jordan E; Song, Ahyoung

    2016-11-30

    North Korean refugees in South Korea are at high risk of depression, but there are few studies exploring protective factors in this population. We hypothesized that family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) and resilience would protect North Korean refugees from developing depressive symptoms. A subsample of 304 adult North Korean refugees drawn from the cross-sectional 2010 Nationwide Survey of Domestic Violence in South Korea was analyzed. Approximately 44% of respondents were identified as having depression, using scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. In models capturing the full spectrum of depressive symptoms (continuous), family cohesion was significantly associated with depression, and the relationship was partially mediated by resilience. In models predicting clinical depression (dichotomous), resilience fully mediated the relationship between family cohesion and clinical depression. In contrast, family adaptability was not associated with depression or resilience in this sample. These findings suggest that assessing and enhancing family cohesion and resilience may be essential for professionals working with refugees, and that refugees without family support may be at particularly high risk for depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Resilience and risk management in the urban project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyron, Jessica; Becue, Vincent; El Meouche, Rani; Barroca, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    Our study focus on the recourse of resilience concept in an urban environment coupled with risk management concerns. The urban resilience is subject to interpretation according to the expertise fields and the using context. It brings underlying concepts of time and space out. For its part, the urban environment is complex because of the elements multitude which makes up it on a dense area as much humanly, structurally, materially as functionally. The resilience polysemy rediscovers within the risk management and is confronted with the operational expectation that she arouses in this field. Between absorption, recovery, adaptability or else effectiveness, the level of requirement of the urban area could be abundant and varied to a system to another and in front of a risk to another. The capability of the urban systems to integrate the outstanding risk scope could be reinforce through the use of spatialisation tools. The access to these knowledge more and more widespread makes the changing of spatial and temporal scales thought easier in the urban project approach along with the sharing of citizen and territorial actions and innovations. Our work gets into position between resilience and urban planning. Based on bibliography and urban planning feedback in front of risks, we envisage to study the achievement of the urban planning in the field of vulnerable districts or buildings. Our aim tends torwards characterise urban resilience in risk field through spatialisation tool setting up.

  9. Aligning Organizational Pathologies and Organizational Resilience Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Morales Allende

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing resilient individuals, organizations and communities is a hot topic in the research agenda in Management, Ecology, Psychology or Engineering. Despite the number of works that focus on resilience is increasing, there is not completely agreed definition of resilience, neither an entirely formal and accepted framework. The cause may be the spread of research among different fields. In this paper, we focus on the study of organizational resilience with the aim of improving the level of resilience in organizations. We review the relation between viable and resilient organizations and their common properties. Based on these common properties, we defend the application of the Viable System Model (VSM to design resilient organizations. We also identify the organizational pathologies defined applying the VSM through resilience indicators. We conclude that an organization with any organizational pathology is not likely to be resilient because it does not fulfill the requirements of viable organizations.

  10. The Effectiveness of Resiliency based on Islamic Spirituality Training on Mental Health and Spiritual Resiliency among Mothers of Slow Pace (Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Bakhshizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Birth and presence of slow pace children in each family can be considered as challenging and adverse event that probably leads to stress and frustration and mental health related complications. According to several studies that show positive and significant relationship between resiliency and values and religious beliefs and their impact on mental health,the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of resiliency skills training based on Islamic spirituality in promoting mental health and spiritual resilience among mothers of Slow Pace children. Methods: The present study used a semi-experimental design with pre test-post test which was conducted among mothers of Slow Pace Children in Dehdasht, Iran, and the countryside using random sampling, in which 30 of these mothers were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups, participated in this study. Twelve sessions of resiliency training based on Islamic spirituality were held for experimental group of 15 people.The tools used in this study included a mental health questionnaire-28 (Ghq and resiliency based on Islamic spirituality researcher made scale that were completed by individuals in pre and post tests. Finally, collected data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: Analysis of data using multivariate analysis of covariance showed that utilization of Intervention program among mothers of Slow Pace children in experimental group was significantly (P>0/05 effective on mental health and components of resiliency based on Islamic spirituality. In other words, spiritual resiliency skills training was led to improve depressive symptoms, social functioning and components of spiritual resiliency such as patience, contentment, Submission and thanksgiving. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that through changes in attitude of Slow Pace children's mothers, resiliency skills training based on Islamic

  11. Stress Management and Resilience Training (SMART) program to decrease stress and enhance resilience among breast cancer survivors: a pilot randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Caitlin E; Prasad, Kavita; Schroeder, Darrell R; Sood, Amit

    2011-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial assessed the effect of a SMART (Stress Management and Resiliency Training) program among 25 women diagnosed with breast cancer. Resilience, perceived stress, anxiety, and quality of life improved at 12 weeks in the active but not the control arm. A brief training in the SMART program can enhance resilience and quality of life and decrease stress and anxiety. Patients with breast cancer experience stress and anxiety related to their diagnosis, with resulting lower quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a SMART (Stress Management and Resiliency Training) program for increasing resiliency and for decreasing stress and anxiety among mentors who themselves were previously diagnosed with breast cancer. The program consisted of two 90-minute group training sessions, a brief individual session, and 3 follow-up telephone calls. Twenty-four mentors at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, were randomized in a single-blind, wait-list controlled clinical trial to either the SMART intervention or a control group for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures assessed at baseline and at week 12 included the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Smith Anxiety Scale, and Linear Analog Self Assessment Scale. Twenty patients completed the study. A statistically significant improvement in resilience, perceived stress, anxiety, and overall quality of life at 12 weeks, compared with baseline was observed in the study arm. No significant difference in any of these measures was noted in the control group. This study demonstrates that a brief, predominantly group-based resilience training intervention is feasible in patients with previous breast cancer; also, it may be efficacious. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Systemic aspects of conjugal resilience in couples with a child facing cancer and marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie; Péloquin, Katherine; Vachon, Marie-France; Duval, Michel; Sultan, Serge

    The negative impact of paediatric cancer on parents is well known and is even greater when intensive treatments are used. This study aimed to describe how couples whose child has received a transplant for the treatment of leukaemia view conjugal resilience and to evaluate the role of we-ness as a precursor of conjugal adjustment. Four parental couples were interviewed. Interviews were analysed in two ways: inductive thematic analysis and rating of verbal content with the We-ness Coding Scale . Participants report that conjugal resilience involves the identification of the couple as a team and cohesion in the couple. Being a team generates certain collaborative interactions that lead to conjugal resilience. A sense of we-ness in parents is associated with fluctuation in the frequency of themes. Participants' vision of conjugal resilience introduced novel themes. The sense of we-ness facilitates cohesion and the process of conjugal resilience.

  13. Systemic aspects of conjugal resilience in couples with a child facing cancer and marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The negative impact of paediatric cancer on parents is well known and is even greater when intensive treatments are used. This study aimed to describe how couples whose child has received a transplant for the treatment of leukaemia view conjugal resilience and to evaluate the role of we-ness as a precursor of conjugal adjustment. Methods: Four parental couples were interviewed. Interviews were analysed in two ways: inductive thematic analysis and rating of verbal content with the We-ness Coding Scale. Results: Participants report that conjugal resilience involves the identification of the couple as a team and cohesion in the couple. Being a team generates certain collaborative interactions that lead to conjugal resilience. A sense of we-ness in parents is associated with fluctuation in the frequency of themes. Discussion: Participants’ vision of conjugal resilience introduced novel themes. The sense of we-ness facilitates cohesion and the process of conjugal resilience.

  14. Linking disaster resilience and urban sustainability: a glocal approach for future cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asprone, Domenico; Manfredi, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Resilience and sustainability will be two primary objectives of future cities. The violent consequences of extreme natural events and the environmental, social and economic burden of contemporary cities make the concepts of resilience and sustainability extremely relevant. In this paper we analyse the various definitions of resilience and sustainability applied to urban systems and propose a synthesis, based on similarities between the two concepts. According to the proposed approach, catastrophic events and the subsequent transformations occurring in urban systems represent a moment in the city life cycle to be seen in terms of the complex sustainability framework. Hence, resilience is seen as a requirement for urban system sustainability. In addition, resilience should be evaluated not only for single cities, with their physical and social systems, but also on a global scale, taking into account the complex and dynamic relationships connecting contemporary cities. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  15. Burnout and its association with resilience in nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Lam, Louisa; Cross, Wendy; Plummer, Virginia; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and extent of burnout on nurses and its association with personal resilience. With the worldwide shortage of nurses, nurse burnout is considered one of the main contributing factors and has been the focus of studies in recent years. Given the well-documented high level of burnout among nurses, resilience is expected to be a significant predictor of nurse burnout. The association between burnout and resilience has not previously been investigated extensively. A cross-sectional survey design was selected. A total of 1,061 nurses from six separate three-level hospitals in Hunan Province, China, returned self-reported questionnaires from March-June 2015. Data were collected using a socio-demographic sheet, Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Nurses experienced severe burnout symptoms and showed a moderate level of resilience. Three metrics of burnout had significantly negative correlations with the total score and following variables of resilience. Linear regression analysis showed resilience, especially strength, demographic characteristics (exercise, alcohol use and marital status) and job characteristics (income per month, ratio of patients to nurses, shift work and professional rank) were the main predictors of the three metrics of burnout. The findings of this study may help nurse managers and hospital administrators to have a better understanding of nurse burnout and resilience. The significantly negative relationship between burnout symptoms and resilience has been demonstrated, and this informs the role of resilience in influencing burnout. Adaptable and effective interventions for improving resilience are needed to relieve nurses' burnout and reduce workplace stress. Moreover, nurse managers and hospital administrators should establish an effective management system to cultivate a healthy workplace and adopt positive attitudes and harmonious relationships. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  16. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on

  17. Nursing students' post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Cao, F; Cao, D; Liu, J

    2015-06-01

    Nursing students in the present sample who have experienced childhood adversity have a certain level of post-traumatic growth. If introduced into nursing curricula, emotional intelligence interventions may increase emotional coping resources and enhance social skills for nurses, which may benefit their long-term occupational health. As researchers consider personal resilience a strategy for responding to workplace adversity in nurses, resilience building should be incorporated into nursing education. This is a preliminary study that may guide future investigations of the curvilinear relationship rather than linear relationship between post-traumatic growth and positive factors in the special sample of nursing students. Resilience, emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth may benefit nursing students' careers and personal well-being in clinical work. Developing both their emotional intelligence and resilience may assist their individual post-traumatic growth and enhance their ability to cope with clinical stress. To investigate the relationships among post-traumatic growth, emotional intelligence and psychological resilience in vocational school nursing students who have experienced childhood adversities, a cross-sectional research design with anonymous questionnaires was conducted and self-report data were analysed. The Childhood Adversities Checklist (Chinese version), Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Emotional Intelligence Scale and the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were used. Survey data were collected from 202 Chinese vocational school nursing students during 2011. Post-traumatic growth was associated with emotional intelligence and psychological resilience. Results indicated a curvilinear relationship between emotional intelligence and post-traumatic growth, and between psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth. Moderate-level emotional intelligence and psychological resilience were most associated with the greatest levels of growth

  18. Resilience and Associated Factors among Mainland Chinese Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zijing; Liu, Ye; Li, Xuelian; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the individual's ability to bounce back from trauma. It has been studied for some time in the U.S., but few studies in China have addressed this important construct. In mainland China, relatively little is known about the resilience of patients in clinical settings, especially among patients with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of resilience and identify predictors of resilience among mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 213 mainland Chinese women newly diagnosed with breast cancer between November 2014 and June 2015. Participants were assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ, including 3 subscales: confrontation, avoidance, and acceptance-resignation), Herth Hope Index (HHI), and demographic and disease-related information. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and multiple stepwise regression were conducted to explore predictors for resilience. The average score for CD-RISC was 60.97, ranging from 37 to 69. Resilience was positively associated with educational level, family income, time span after diagnosis, social support, confrontation, avoidance, and hope. However, resilience was negatively associated with age, body mass index (BMI), and acceptance-resignation. Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that hope (β = 0.343, Presilience and explained 50.1% of the total variance in resilience. Women with newly diagnosed breast cancer from mainland China demonstrated particularly low resilience level, which was predicted by hope educational level, avoidance, confrontation, and age.

  19. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C

    2017-12-01

    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  20. A Comparative Study on Resilience, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness Among Cancer Patients Treated with Curative and Palliative Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Ravindran Ottilingam; Devamani, Kiran A

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Psychological distress is common among patients affected by cancer. In this study, we examined the relationship between resilience, social support, and hopelessness among cancer patients treated with curative and palliative care. Patients and Methods: Sixty cancer patients in the age range of 18–65 years were randomly selected and divided into two groups based on their treatment intent namely, curative care (n = 30) and palliative care (n = 30). Both groups were assessed by the following instruments: Bharathiar University Resilience Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Results: Resilience was significantly associated with less hopelessness and higher levels of perceived social support. Conclusion: Cancer patients are found to be resilient, and the role of social support and hopelessness on promoting resilience cannot be ignored. PMID:27162423

  1. A Comparative Study on Resilience, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness Among Cancer Patients Treated with Curative and Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Ravindran Ottilingam; Devamani, Kiran A

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common among patients affected by cancer. In this study, we examined the relationship between resilience, social support, and hopelessness among cancer patients treated with curative and palliative care. Sixty cancer patients in the age range of 18-65 years were randomly selected and divided into two groups based on their treatment intent namely, curative care (n = 30) and palliative care (n = 30). Both groups were assessed by the following instruments: Bharathiar University Resilience Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Resilience was significantly associated with less hopelessness and higher levels of perceived social support. Cancer patients are found to be resilient, and the role of social support and hopelessness on promoting resilience cannot be ignored.

  2. Resilience and unmet supportive care needs in patients with cancer during early treatment: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, C; De Maria, J; Hoeppli, C; Betticher, D C; Eicher, M

    2015-10-01

    The concept of resilience is gaining increasing importance as a key component of supportive care but to date has rarely been addressed in studies with adult cancer patients. The purpose of our study was to describe resilience and its potential predictors and supportive care needs in cancer patients during early treatment and to explore associations between both concepts. This descriptive study included adult cancer patients under treatment in ambulatory cancer services of a Swiss hospital. Subjects completed the 25-item Connor-Davidson-Resilience Scale and the 34-item Supportive Care Needs Survey. Descriptive, correlational and regression analysis were performed. 68 patients with cancer were included in the study. Compared to general population, resilience scores were significantly lower (74.4 ± 12.6 vs. 80.4 ± 12.8, p = .0002). Multiple regression analysis showed predictors ("age", "metastasis", "recurrence" and "living alone") of resilience (adjusted R2 = .19, p resilience scores were significantly and strongly associated with higher levels of unmet psychological needs (Rho = -.68, p resilience express fewer unmet needs. Further work is needed to elucidate the mechanism of the observed relationships and if interventions facilitating resilience have a positive effect on unmet needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Are We Hoping For A Bounce A Study On Resilience And Human Relations In A High Reliability Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    leadership, relational coordination, social support, psychological safety, cohesion, organizational effectiveness 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 73 16. PRICE...safety. Therefore, I hypothesize that: Hypothesis 1: Psychological safety is a significant predictor of organizational resilience. Hypothesis 2...learning goal orientation, leadership, and organizational resilience. Psychological Safety. The first measure was scored as a 7-item scale in which

  4. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011. Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many researches. Of all this recent and varied range of literature, our focus is on those texts that combine resilience with strategies, processes and models for resilient cities, communities and regions. Starting from the resilience strategies developed as response for risks mitigation, the paper thus explores other approaches and experiences on cities resilience that have been conducted: the aim is to compare and identify innovation in the planning process towards risks mitigation. In this paper we present a summary of the initial survey stage of our research, with three main aims: understanding the approaches to resilience developed so far and identifying which aspects these approaches share (or not;understanding which strategies are being proposed for resilient regions, cities or social-ecological systems;understanding whether proposed resilience strategies involve innovations in urban and regional development disciplines. The aim is to understand whether the proposed concept of resilience, or rather strategies, constitute progress and contribute to innovation in the areas of urban planning and design in relation to risk mitigation. Three main families of literature have been identified from the recent literature promoting resilience as a key strategy. The first aim of the research is to understand which particular concept and which aspects of resilience are used, which resilience strategies are proposed, how the term ‘city’ is defined and interpreted

  5. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae...

  6. COX-2 rs689466, rs5275, and rs20417 polymorphisms and risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of adjusted and unadjusted data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, Wei-Dong; Wen, Xiu-Jie; Kwong, Joey S. W.; Huang, Wei; Chen, Jian-Gang; Zeng, Xian-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Numerous case–control studies have been performed to investigate the association between three cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) polymorphisms (rs20417 (−765G > C), rs689466 (−1195G > A), and rs5275 (8473 T > C)) and the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the association. We searched in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science up to January 20, 2015 (last updated on May 12, 2016). Two independent reviewers extracted the data. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. All statistical analyses were performed using the Review Manager (RevMan) 5.2 software. Finally 8 case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. For unadjusted data, an association with increased risk was observed in three genetic models in COX-2 rs689466 polymorphism; however, COX-2 rs5275 and rs20417 polymorphisms were not related to HNSCC risk in this study. The pooled results from adjusted data all revealed non-significant association between these three polymorphisms and risk of HNSCC. We also found a similar result in the subgroup analyses, based on both unadjusted data and adjusted data. Current results suggest that COX-2 rs689466, rs5275, and rs20417 polymorphisms are not associated with HNSCC. Further large and well-designed studies are necessary to validate this association

  7. Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

  8. Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen

    2011-02-01

    The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice.

  9. FIRE, A Test Bed for ARIES-RS/AT Advanced Physics and Plasma Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, Dale M.

    2004-01-01

    The overall vision for FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] is to develop and test the fusion plasma physics and plasma technologies needed to realize capabilities of the ARIES-RS/AT power plant designs. The mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize a fusion dominated plasma which would be satisfied by producing D-T [deuterium-tritium] fusion plasmas with nominal fusion gains ∼10, self-driven currents of ∼80%, fusion power ∼150-300 MW, and pulse lengths up to 40 s. Achieving these goals will require the deployment of several key fusion technologies under conditions approaching those of ARIES-RS/AT. The FIRE plasma configuration with strong plasma shaping, a double null pumped divertor and all metal plasma-facing components is a 40% scale model of the ARIES-RS/AT plasma configuration. ''Steady-state'' advanced tokamak modes in FIRE with high beta, high bootstrap fraction, and 100% noninductive current drive are suitable for testing the physics of the ARIES-RS/A T operating modes. The development of techniques to handle power plant relevant exhaust power while maintaining low tritium inventory is a major objective for a burning plasma experiment. The FIRE high-confinement modes and AT-modes result in fusion power densities from 3-10 MWm -3 and neutron wall loading from 2-4 MWm -2 which are at the levels expected from the ARIES-RS/AT design studies

  10. Military Climate Resilience Planning and Contemporary Urban Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    3 2.3 Psychological resilience...use of the term resilience must begin by asking core-level questions. A further overview of resilience in the areas of psychology , organizations, and...use of resilience during planning and design. 2.3 Psychological resilience While resilience is solidly rooted and established in the engineering

  11. The Resilience Assessment Framework: a common indicator for land management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Annette; Metternicht, Graciela; O'Connell, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    applicable to all agro-ecosystems, and that involvement of stakeholders is critical to discerning the critical variables to be assessed, the proposed framework uses an iterative participatory approach to characterise the system, considering also interactions across and within scales; identify the controlling variables, and assess proximity to thresholds, and adaptive capacity. The framework consists of four elements: Element A: System description; Element B Assessing the system; Element C Adaptive governance and management; Element D Participatory process. Element D is intended as a cross-cutting element, applying across Elements A to C, although Elements A and B can be applied as a desktop activity in a preliminary assessment. The results of the assessment are synthesised in "Resilience action indicators", that summarise the state of the system with respect to the need to adapt or transform. The presentation will summarise the framework and the responses of expert reviewers who identified strengths of the approach, and challenges for implementation, particularly at program and national scales. The presentation will emphasise the conceptual basis for the approach, and the role of scientists in testing, refining and operationalizing the approach.

  12. Stress From Uncertainty and Resilience Among Depressed and Burned Out Residents: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkin, Arabella L; Khan, Alisa; West, Daniel C; Garcia, Briana M; Sectish, Theodore C; Spector, Nancy D; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2018-03-07

    Depression and burnout are highly prevalent among residents, but little is known about modifiable personality variables, such as resilience and stress from uncertainty, that may predispose to these conditions. Residents are routinely faced with uncertainty when making medical decisions. To determine how stress from uncertainty is related to resilience among pediatric residents and whether these attributes are associated with depression and burnout. We surveyed 86 residents in pediatric residency programs from 4 urban freestanding children's hospitals in North America in 2015. Stress from uncertainty was measured with the use of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty Scale, resilience with the use of the 14-item Resilience Scale, depression with the use of the Harvard National Depression Screening Scale; and burnout with the use of single-item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Fifty out of 86 residents responded to the survey (58.1%). Higher levels of stress from uncertainty correlated with lower resilience (r = -0.60; P resilience (56.6 ± 10.7 vs 85.4 ± 8.0; P resilience (76.7 ± 14.8 vs 85.0 ± 9.77; P = .02) compared with residents who were not burned out. We found high levels of stress from uncertainty, and low levels of resilience were strongly correlated with depression and burnout. Efforts to enhance tolerance of uncertainty and resilience among residents may provide opportunities to mitigate resident depression and burnout. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Improving urban ecosystems resilience at a city level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferrreira, Carla S. S.; Malta, Miguel; Soares, Daniel D. J.; Pardal, João; Vilhena, José

    2013-04-01

    The sustainability of urban communities is at risk in a global change context, where environmental problems and the constraints posed by a limited access to key raw materials, energy and sanitation will cause profound changes on the way we interact with the natural environment. Major changes are expected on processes magnitude and connectivity at various scales, with profound impacts on the environmental and well-being problems posed by the packing of high density of people in restricted areas, that have to be dealt with. The conventional approach is to find technological solutions that are often expensive and inefficient, especially in what concerns the use of energy and raw materials, limiting long term sustainability and urban ecosystems' resilience, and consequent impacts on the quality of life and health of urban populations. To improve city resilience in face of global change threats (climatic change, growing world population, land use change, lower energy availability, reduced mobility as a result of fossil fuels stringency and costs), we need to develop a nested approach binding together various greening actions and management of green infrastructures at various scales (i.e. household, neighbourhood, city and urban/wildland interface). This paper presents the conceptual strategy being developed at the Coimbra City (Centre of Portugal) to increase the resilience of urban ecosystems, using them to reduce natural risk occurrence (such as flash floods), the promotion of human health and increasing city resilience towards an improve food self sufficiency. We present a discussion and evaluation of the different solutions designed and implemented to improve the overall urban sustainability at different scales of intervention, from the household solutions to more structural solutions such as the recover of riparian forests or the preservation and improvement of green corridors. Of paramount importance to improve urban ecosystem resilience is the development of new

  14. A survey of resilience, burnout, and tolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice registrars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Georga PE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout and intolerance of uncertainty have been linked to low job satisfaction and lower quality patient care. While resilience is related to these concepts, no study has examined these three concepts in a cohort of doctors. The objective of this study was to measure resilience, burnout, compassion satisfaction, personal meaning in patient care and intolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice (GP registrars. Methods We conducted a paper-based cross-sectional survey of GP registrars in Australia from June to July 2010, recruited from a newsletter item or registrar education events. Survey measures included the Resilience Scale-14, a single-item scale for burnout, Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL scale, Personal Meaning in Patient Care scale, Intolerance of Uncertainty-12 scale, and Physician Response to Uncertainty scale. Results 128 GP registrars responded (response rate 90%. Fourteen percent of registrars were found to be at risk of burnout using the single-item scale for burnout, but none met the criteria for burnout using the ProQOL scale. Secondary traumatic stress, general intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety due to clinical uncertainty and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients were associated with being at higher risk of burnout, but sex, age, practice location, training duration, years since graduation, and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to physicians were not. Only ten percent of registrars had high resilience scores. Resilience was positively associated with compassion satisfaction and personal meaning in patient care. Resilience was negatively associated with burnout, secondary traumatic stress, inhibitory anxiety, general intolerance to uncertainty, concern about bad outcomes and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients. Conclusions GP registrars in this survey showed a lower level of burnout than in other recent surveys of the broader junior doctor population in both Australia

  15. Integrated Approach to a Resilient City: Associating Social, Environmental and Infrastructure Resilience in its Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising complexity, numbers and severity of natural and manmade disasters enhance the importance of reducing vulnerability, or on contrary – increasing resilience, of different kind of systems, including those of social, engineering (infrastructure, and environmental (ecological nature. The goal of this research is to explore urban resilience as an integral system of social, environmental, and engineering resilience. This report analyses the concepts of each kind of resilience and identifies key factors influencing social, ecological, and infrastructure resilience discussing how these factors relate within urban systems. The achievement of resilience of urban and regional systems happens through the interaction of the different elements (social, psychological, physical, structural, and environmental, etc.; therefore, resilient city could be determined by synergy of resilient society, resilient infrastructure and resilient environment of the given area. Based on literature analysis, the current research provides some insights on conceptual framework for assessment of complex urban systems in terms of resilience. To be able to evaluate resilience and define effective measures for prevention and risk mitigation, and thereby strengthen resilience, we propose to develop an e-platform, joining risk parameters’ Monitoring Systems, which feed with data Resiliency Index calculation domain. Both these elements result in Multirisk Platform, which could serve for awareness and shared decision making for resilient people in resilient city.

  16. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  17. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  18. Resilience associated with mental health problems among methadone maintenance treatment patients in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Mingxu; Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Hao, Chun; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yuteng; Zhang, Xiao; Babbitt, Andrew; Hao, Yuantao

    2017-05-01

    A considerable proportion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients have experienced mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety), and poor mental health status is associated with HIV-related risk behaviors and treatment drop-out. Resilience is known to be a protective factor for mental health problems but is not studied among MMT clients in China. This study aimed to explore the relationship between resilience and mental health problems (depression, anxiety and stress) among clients of community-based MMT clinics in China. A total of 208 MMT clients completed the face-to-face interview conducted at 4 of 11 MMT clinics in Guangzhou. The Chinese short version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the presence of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure resilience. Logistic regression models were fit in data analyses. Of all participants, 12.8%, 19.5% and 8.3% had depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. The mean resilience score was 57.6 (SD = 15.9). In the univariate analyses, resilience was negatively associated with two studied mental health problems (depression and anxiety, OR u  = 0.96 and 0.96, p mental health problems of MMT users should consider resilience as an important part in the designing of such interventions.

  19. Future perspectives and their relation to wellbeing and resilience in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Omar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous research (Omar, 2005; Omar, Uribe Delgado & Maltaneres, 2005, had showed a clear relationship between subjective well-being and resilience. In those opportunities, however, resilience was considered as a global construct. This study aims at exploring the possible relationships among resilience components, subjective well-being, and future perspectives. Method: Sample integrated by 198 (105 girls & 93 boys Argentinean high school students, 14- to 19-yr.-old. All sample participants answered a booklet that included Wagnild and Young’s Resilience Scale (1993; Nagpal and Sell’s Subjective Well-being Scale (1992, and three items specially developed to explore academic, labor, and family future perspectives. Development: correlation analysis indicated positive significant associations between resilience’s components (Personal realization; Self- determination, and Adaptation, and specific well-being dimensions. Likewise, resilience’s components and subjective well being dimensions showed significant correlations with positive future perspectives. No gender-specific differences were observed in any of the variables under analysis. Results: findings showed that adolescent resilience would be associated to familiar emotional support and positive social interchanges. Future orientations could be considered a new resilience protective factor. Social, familiar, and educational implications of these finding are discussed. A research agenda designed to further our understanding of resilience, well-being, and future perspectives linkages is proposed. 

  20. Relationships between family resilience and posttraumatic growth in breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Li, Yuli; Chen, Lijun; Li, Yurong; Qi, Weiye; Yu, Li

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationships between family resilience and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden among principal caregivers in China. Participants in this cross-sectional study comprised 108 women aged 26 to 74 years (M = 49, SD = 9) with early-stage breast cancer and 108 principal caregivers. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center of a public hospital in Shandong Province, China. The principal caregivers completed the Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale and the Chinese Version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview; patients completed the Short Form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and questions designed to obtain sociodemographic information. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to assess the adjusted association between family resilience and PTG and caregiver burden, while controlling for sociodemographics. Families showed a slightly elevated level of family resilience since the cancer experience, and patients showed a moderate degree of PTG. Principal caregivers reported moderate burden. The Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale total score was positively related to the Short Form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory total score (β = .28, P resilience impacts PTG of breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden. Our findings indicated the necessity of interventions to facilitate family resilience, promote PTG among breast cancer survivors, and decrease family members' caregiver burden. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Job satisfaction and resilience in psychiatric nurses: A study at the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhimin; Gangaram, Poornima; Xie, Huiting; Chua, Stephanie; Ong, Samantha Bee Cheng; Koh, Sioh Eng

    2017-12-01

    Job satisfaction ranks highly as one of the main factors influencing turnover rates among nurses. Mental health nursing has been reported to be a particularly stressful specialty, yet little is known about the level of job satisfaction among psychiatric nurses in Singapore. Resilience is defined as a means of adapting to stress at the workplace, and could serve as a factor influencing job satisfaction. The present study aimed to explore the current level of job satisfaction among psychiatric nurses working in the only tertiary psychiatric institution in Singapore, the influencing factors, and the relationship between resilience and job satisfaction. A survey questionnaire consisting of the following was administered to all eligible nurses working in the Institute of Mental Health between the period of 16-24 December 2014: (i) The McCloskey and Mueller Satisfaction Scale; (ii) The Resilience Scale; and (iii) sociodemographic data form. A total of 874 nurses were eligible for participation in the study, and a total of 748 nurses responded, totalling 85.6% response. A mean satisfaction score of 95.21 and mean resilience score of 125.74 were obtained. Mean satisfaction and resilience scores were the highest for nurses with longer working experience and those of older age. A positive and significant association between satisfaction and resilience scores (P = 0.001) was obtained. Psychiatric nurses in Singapore are generally satisfied with their job, but this can be further improved with the strengthening of personal resilience. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Resilience and related factors in urban, mid-aged Spanish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, P J; Oliva, A; Fasero, M; Piñel, C; Herraiz, M A; Pérez-López, F R

    2015-01-01

    To assess resilience and related factors among urban, mid-aged Spanish women. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 227 women aged 40-65 years who filled out the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (WYRS-14), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a questionnaire containing personal sociodemographic data. For the whole sample, median (interquartile range) age and total WYRS-14 score were 52.4 (8.7) years and 79 (20.0) points, respectively. Resilience score was inversely related to non-working status, non-university studies, depressed mood, perimenopausal status, and higher MRS total scores (≥ 17). Using the 25th percentile of the obtained total WYRS-14 score as a cut-off value to define lower resilience (resilience was related to being unemployed, having depressed mood and being perimenopausal. Drinking less than 3 units/day of alcohol was significantly related to higher resilience. In this sample of urban, mid-aged Spanish women, low resilience (lower WYRS-14 scores) was related to unemployment status, depressed mood and severe menopausal symptoms.

  3. Estimation of vegetation cover resilience from satellite time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Simoniello

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is a fundamental concept for understanding vegetation as a dynamic component of the climate system. It expresses the ability of ecosystems to tolerate disturbances and to recover their initial state. Recovery times are basic parameters of the vegetation's response to forcing and, therefore, are essential for describing realistic vegetation within dynamical models. Healthy vegetation tends to rapidly recover from shock and to persist in growth and expansion. On the contrary, climatic and anthropic stress can reduce resilience thus favouring persistent decrease in vegetation activity.

    In order to characterize resilience, we analyzed the time series 1982–2003 of 8 km GIMMS AVHRR-NDVI maps of the Italian territory. Persistence probability of negative and positive trends was estimated according to the vegetation cover class, altitude, and climate. Generally, mean recovery times from negative trends were shorter than those estimated for positive trends, as expected for vegetation of healthy status. Some signatures of inefficient resilience were found in high-level mountainous areas and in the Mediterranean sub-tropical ones. This analysis was refined by aggregating pixels according to phenology. This multitemporal clustering synthesized information on vegetation cover, climate, and orography rather well. The consequent persistence estimations confirmed and detailed hints obtained from the previous analyses. Under the same climatic regime, different vegetation resilience levels were found. In particular, within the Mediterranean sub-tropical climate, clustering was able to identify features with different persistence levels in areas that are liable to different levels of anthropic pressure. Moreover, it was capable of enhancing reduced vegetation resilience also in the southern areas under Warm Temperate sub-continental climate. The general consistency of the obtained results showed that, with the help of suited analysis

  4. Concepts of Resilience for Coastal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-06

    Resilience Study Definition American Society of Civil Engineers (2006) http://www.asce.org/Content.aspx?id=8478 “Resilience refers to the capability to...AR5/images/uploads/WGIIAR5-Glossary_FGD.pdf “The capacity of a social- ecological system to cope with a hazardous event or disturbance, responding or...dunes, wetlands Ecological Resilience The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change Ecological Resilience

  5. Systemic Resilience of Complex Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Salat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two key paradigms emerge out of the variety of urban forms: certain cities resemble trees, others leaves. The structural difference between a tree and a leaf is huge: one is open, the other closed. Trees are entirely disconnected on a given scale: even if two twigs are spatially close, if they do not belong to the same branch, to go from one to the other implies moving down and then up all the hierarchy of branches.  Leaves on the contrary are entirely connected on intermediary scales. The veins of a leaf are disconnected on the two larger scales but entirely connected on the two or three following intermediary scales before presenting tiny tree-like structures on the finest capillary scales. Deltas are leaves not trees. Neither galaxies nor whirlpools are trees. We will see in this paper that historical cities, like leaves, deltas, galaxies, lungs, brains and vein systems are all fractal structures, multiply connected and complex on all scales. These structures display the same degree of complexity and connectivity, regardless of the magnification scale on which we observe them. We say that these structures are scale free. Mathematical fractal forms are often generated recursively by applying again and again the same generator to an initiator. The iteration creates an arborescence. But scale free structure is not synonymous with a recursive tree-like structure. The fractal structure of the leaf is much more complex than that of the tree by its multiconnectivity on three or more intermediary levels. In contrast, trees in the virgin forest, even when they seem to be entangled, horizontal, and rhizomic, have branches that are not interconnected to form a lattice. As we will see, the history of urban planning has evolved from leaf-like to tree-like patterns, with a consequent loss of efficiency and resilience. Indeed, in a closed foliar path structure, the formation of cycles enables internal complexification and flow fluctuations due to the

  6. Lack of association between rheumatoid arthritis and genetic variants rs10889677, rs11209026 and rs2201841 of IL-23R gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Gorycka, Agnieszka; Malinowski, Damian; Haladyj, Ewa; Olesinska, Marzena; Safranow, Krzysztof; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2018-01-19

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune diseases, where different genetic variants in cytokine genes may play a pathogenic role. A GWAS in autoimmune diseases highlighted the IL-23R gene as a one of the susceptibility factors. We examined three candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs10889677, rs11209026 and rs2201841 of the IL-23R gene, as well as determined their possible association with RA in a Polish population. The IL-23R gene polymorphisms were genotyped for 422 RA patients and 348 healthy individuals using TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. The genotypes frequency did not deviate from HWE in each examined group. A comparison of the allele as well as genotype frequencies of the IL-23R polymorphisms under codominant, dominant and recessive genetic model revealed no significant differences between RA patients and healthy subjects. We also demonstrated that IL-23R rs2201841 and rs11209026 as well as rs11209026 and rs10889677 were in complete linkage disequilibrium (D'=1.0). Our genotype-phenotype analysis demonstrated that in carriers of rs10889677C and/or rs2201841A allele the RF, extra-articular manifestations and erosion were more frequent present than in patients with rs10889677A and/or rs2201841A allele, although this association was not significant. Present findings indicated that the autoimmune disease-associated genetic variants in IL-23R gene are not associated with RA in the Polish population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska

    2015-11-01

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  8. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...... that the availability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying relevant resilience techniques....

  9. Resilience in nursing students: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Jean; Revell, Susan Hunter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this integrative review was to investigate the state of knowledge on resilience in nursing students. Specifically the authors sought to define and describe the concept, and identify factors that affect and evaluate strategies to promote resilience in nursing students. Integrative literature review. Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL), Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) and PsychINFO electronic databases were searched for publications between 1990 and 2014. Search terms included resilience, student, nurse, nursing student, hardiness, emotional resilience, research, resili*, and nurse*. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative approach was utilized to conduct the methodological review. Each article was assessed with an appraisal tool. The search resulted in the inclusion of nine articles. The majority of the literature utilized definitions of resilience from the discipline of psychology. One exception was a definition developed within nursing specific to nursing students. Factors that affect resilience were grouped into three themes: support, time, and empowerment. Strategies to promote resilience in nursing students were found in three of the nine articles, but their methods and findings were disparate. This review provides information about the concept of resilience in nursing students. Faculty awareness of the importance of resilience in nursing students can better prepare students for the role of the professional nurse. Support from family, friends and faculty impact a student's resilience. Through closely working with students in advisement, the clinical arena and the classroom faculty can promote resilience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  11. Fostering resilience through changing realities. Introduction to operational resilience capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, D.; Vorm, J. van der; Beek, F.A. van der; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    The reality of operations does not always follow the book. Operational circumstances may develop into surprising situations that procedures have not accounted for. Still, we make things work. Resilient performance recognizes surprise early and acts upon it through adaptation, which is critical for

  12. The Mediating Role of Resilience on Quality of Life and Cancer Symptom Distress in Adolescent Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Shao-Yu; Liang, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Berry, Donna L

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how cancer symptom distress and resilience contribute to quality of life (QoL) in adolescent cancer and may potentially help these patients achieve better health-related outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe cancer symptom distress, QoL, and resilience in adolescents with cancer and to determine whether resilience is a mediating variable. Forty adolescent cancer patients were recruited, and data were collected via a demographic questionnaire, the Cancer Symptom Distress Scale, the Resilience Scale, and the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life Scale. Pearson's correlation, multiple regressions, and the Sobel test were conducted. Both resilience and cancer symptom distress were regressed against QoL, accounting for 62.1% of observed variation in QoL scores. The bootstrap result estimated the true indirect effect between -.0189 and -.0024, with a 95% confidence interval. Resilience mediates the relationship between cancer symptom distress and QoL. Clinical use of a resilience measure, for example to use in developing and evaluating interventions focused on enhancing resilience, may be practical for nurses. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  13. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Presilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Presilience (moderator effect). Resilience moderates the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotion Regulation Ability and Resilience in a Sample of Adolescents from a Suburban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Mestre

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earlier research has identified a remarkable number of related factors to resilience during adolescence. Historically, theoretical treatments of resilience have been focused almost exclusively on psychosocial levels of analysis to derive explanatory models. However, there is insufficient understanding of the role of emotion regulation explaining competent functioning despite the experience of adversity (resilience, especially during adolescence. This study explores the relationship between both, emotional regulation abilities and strategies, and resilience in a sample of adolescents from suburbs high-schools (Jerez de la Frontera, Spain. The study also examines how using different emotional regulation strategies may help the development of resilience levels at this stage. Participants of the study were 164 adolescents ranging from 13 to 16 years old (M = 13.98; SD = 0.66. Emotion regulation was measured using the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ, Garnefski et al., 2001, and sections D and H of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, a performance test (Emotion Regulation Ability sections, MSCEIT, Spanish version, Mayer et al., 2003. Resilience was evaluated with ERE (Educative Resilience Scale for children and adolescents, Saavedra and Castro, 2009. Verbal Intelligence (Yuste, 1997 and personality traits (Cattell and Cattell, 1986 were assessed as two independent variables. Results supported the idea that emotion regulation ability (MSCEIT, D and H sections, Extremera et al., 2006 is a significant predictor of adolescents' resilience. Moreover, cognitive regulation strategies, such as positive reappraisal, predicted perceived resilience among students. Sociability (A factor of HSPQ, sociability also correlated with resilience levels. Hence, these results are promising, implying that emotion regulation ability may act as a helpful tool preventing adolescents from irrational risky behaviors, commonly assumed at this

  15. Resilience-based perspectives to guiding high-nature-value farmland through socioeconomic change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV) farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspec...... conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change....

  16. The relationship between emotional intelligence and resilience in students at university of social welfare science and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to examine relationship between emotional intelligence and resilience in students at university of social welfare science and rehabilitation. Method:100 students resident in bedroom participated in this correlational study. Modified Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (MSEIS and Coonor-Davidson Resilience Scale(CDRIS were applied to assess variables. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regressions. Finding: This study revealed significant associations among emotional intelligence factors and resilience(p<0/01. Results of multiple regression showed that the emotional intelligence factors can Predict respectively 41% of the resilience variance (p<0/0001. Conclusion: The more the emotional intelligence are higher and favorable, the more probability that students becomes resilient in the face of adversity.

  17. [The resilience and health status of primary caregivers of schizophrenia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ya-Chi; Chen, Mei-Bih; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Bai, Ya-Mei; Wei, Shiow-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Resilience has been shown to have a positive effect on health status. However, little research has been conducted on the impact of resilience on the health of primary caregivers of schizophrenia patients. This study investigated the correlations between resilience and the health status of caregivers of schizophrenia patients. A cross-sectional, descriptive research design was used. Data collection was conducted using a set of questionnaires that included a demographic datasheet, the SOC-13 (Sense of Coherence), the DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales), and the SF-36 (short form). Seventy caregivers of schizophrenia patients were enrolled as participants at the psychiatric inpatient department of a medical center. SPSS 17.0 and SAS.9.2 statistical software packages were used to conduct descriptive analysis, the Sobel test, and Tobit model analysis. (1) The mean QOL (quality of life) scale score was 67.46 (SD = 17.74). Nearly one-fifth (18.6%) of caregivers were classified in the low to high depression range; 17.1% were classified in the low to high anxiety level; and 10% were classified in low to high stress level. (2) Duration of the caring period correlated negatively with caregiver QOL; having a concomitant disease significantly impacted QOL and resilience; and number of patient hospitalization days correlated negatively with level of caregiver anxiety. (3) The numbers of incidents of patient violence and patient suicide attempts correlated negatively with caregiver resilience and QOL. (4) Resilience was a mediator between care-giver demographic data and QOL. (5) Caregiver resilience was a predictor of QOL, depression, anxiety, and stress. The findings of the present study increase our understanding of the impact of resilience on the health status of caregivers of schizophrenia patients. The authors hope these finding may be referenced in the development of resilience-based nursing caring models in the future.

  18. The Walsh Family Resilience Questionnaire: the Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Silvana; Ghidelli, Claudio; Burro, Roberto; Vitacca, Michele; Scalvini, Simonetta; Della Vedova, Anna Maria; Roselli, Gianmarco; Ramponi, Jean-Pierre; Bertolotti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Resilience focuses on strength under stress, in the context of adversity. Walsh's theoretical model identifies relational processes that allow families to tackle and overcome critical situations, dividing them into three domains of family function. The aim of this study was to assess resilience in families of patients with a chronic disease by adapting and validating the Italian version of the Walsh Family Resilience Questionnaire (Walsh-IT). An Italian adult sample of 421 participants (patients and relatives) was collected with the aim to assess the reliability and validity of the Walsh-IT. Concurrent validity was carried out by comparing this instrument with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III (FACES III) administered at the same time as the Walsh-IT. Reliability showed high correlation between repeated measurements. The alpha coefficient was 0.946. Both parallel analysis and minimum average partial criteria suggested that the best number of domains is equal to 3, explaining 50.4% of the total variance. Based on the results obtained from the Rasch analysis, items 10, 11, 16, 22, and 23 have been removed resulting in a short-form questionnaire (Walsh-IT-R) of 26 items with three domains: shared beliefs and support (SBS, α=0.928); family organization and interaction (FOI, α=0.863); and utilization of social resources (USR, α=0.567). The total score of the Walsh-IT-R was strongly correlated with the total score of FACES III Real Family Scale ( r =0.68; p family resilience in Italy when contending with the challenges of chronic disease. It could be used in pre- and post-assessment in practice effectiveness research, offering a profile of family resilience processes at the start and end of interventions and follow-up.

  19. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  20. Hedonic and eudaimonic well-being: The role of resilience beyond fluid intelligence and personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria eDi Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is a key factor in the well-being of individuals. The present study set out to analyze the role of fluid intelligence, personality traits, and resilience in hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in order to determine the incremental validity of resilience with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in 168 Italian high school students. The Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM, the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM, the Authenticity Scale (AS were administered to the participants in the study. The results showed that resilience added a significant percentage of incremental variance with respect to fluid intelligence and personality traits in relation to life satisfaction, positive affect, life meaning, and authenticity. These results underline the value of resilience in both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, thus offering new perspectives for research and intervention.

  1. [Resilience in Individuals with Gender Dysphoria: Association with Perceived Social Support and Discrimination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, Koray; Öz, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress associated with discrimination is proposed to have an indirect effect on the development of mental disorders, through its negative influence on individual's cognitive, affective and social coping strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between resilience, perceived social support, and perceived discrimination in individuals with gender dysphoria. Individuals with gender dysphoria were assessed with Turkish validated forms of Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Perceived Discrimination Scale (PDS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Diagnoses of mental disorders, history of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self injury were assessed with clinical interviews. Self-report forms were used to obtain demographic information and gender transition related features. Participants' (n=116, 88 trans men) median age was 25. Significantly low RSA scores, indicating poor resilience, were obtained in participants with lifetime (59.5 %) and present (27.6 %) diagnosis of any mental disorder, history of suicide attempt (23.3 %). There was significant direct correlation between RSA and MSPSS scores, inverse correlation with BDI and personal PDS scores, but not with group PDS. Regression analysis revealed that only friends domain score in MSPSS predicted better resilience, whereas personal perceived discrimination score predicted poor resilience. Findings support the association between poor resilience and vulnerability to mental and behavioral problems in individuals with gender dysphoria. The associations reveal the significance of addressing discrimination and assisting individuals with gender dysphoria in developing strategies to obtain peer support in providing mental health services.

  2. Seeding Stress Resilience through Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Ashokan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generalized set of physiological and psychological responses observed when an organism is placed under challenging circumstances. The stress response allows organisms to reattain the equilibrium in face of perturbations. Unfortunately, chronic and/or traumatic exposure to stress frequently overwhelms coping ability of an individual. This is manifested as symptoms affecting emotions and cognition in stress-related mental disorders. Thus environmental interventions that promote resilience in face of stress have much clinical relevance. Focus of the bulk of relevant neurobiological research at present remains on negative aspects of health and psychological outcomes of stress exposure. Yet exposure to the stress itself can promote resilience to subsequent stressful episodes later in the life. This is especially true if the prior stress occurs early in life, is mild in its magnitude, and is controllable by the individual. This articulation has been referred to as “stress inoculation,” reminiscent of resilience to the pathology generated through vaccination by attenuated pathogen itself. Using experimental evidence from animal models, this review explores relationship between nature of the “inoculum” stress and subsequent psychological resilience.

  3. Cyber Resilience in de Boardroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Zielstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Grand Conference - Building a Resilient Digital Society - took place in Amsterdam on October 16, 2012. The international conference aimed for top decision-makers of industry government and other organisations. Two hundred participants from twenty-two nations participated. Three Dutch

  4. MSY from catch and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Chrysafi, Anna

    A simple Schaefer model was tested on the Greenland halibut stock offshore in NAFO SA 0 and 1. The minimum data required for this model is a catch time series and a measure of the resilience of the species. Other input parameters that had to be guessed were the carrying capacity, the biomass...

  5. Strengthening community resilience: a toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Scott; Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    While community resilience is said to have gained a lot of traction politically and given credence by disaster management professionals, this perception is not always shared by the individual members of communities. One solution to addressing the difficulty of individuals ‘conceptualising’ the

  6. Coral reef resilience through biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to “manage” coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

  7. Integrative approaches: promoting socioecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Long; Carl Skinner; M. North; C.T. Hunsaker; L. Quinn-Davidson

    2014-01-01

    This chapter begins by discussing current challenges for ecosystem management that emerged from multiple chapters of the full synthesis. It then considers integrative approaches to promote resilience, including general strategies that recognize the integrated nature of socioecological systems, the importance of promoting disturbance regimes upon which these systems...

  8. Panarchy use in environmental science for risk and resilience planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Environmental sciences have an important role in informing sustainable management of built environments by providing insights about the drivers and potentially negative impacts of global environmental change. Here, we discuss panarchy theory, a multi-scale hierarchical concept that accounts for the dynamism of complex socio-ecological systems, especially for those systems with strong cross-scale feedbacks. The idea of panarchy underlies much of system resilience, focusing on how systems respond to known and unknown threats. Panarchy theory can provide a framework for qualitative and quantitative research and application in the environmental sciences, which can in turn inform the ongoing efforts in socio-technical resilience thinking and adaptive and transformative approaches to management.

  9. Resilience of Amazon forests emerges from plant trait diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice; Poorter, Lourens; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Heinke, Jens; Joshi, Jasmin; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change threatens ecosystems worldwide, yet their potential future resilience remains largely unquantified. In recent years many studies have shown that biodiversity, and in particular functional diversity, can enhance ecosystem resilience by providing a higher response diversity. So far these insights have been mostly neglected in large-scale projections of ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we show that plant trait diversity, as a key component of functional diversity, can have a strikingly positive effect on the Amazon forests' biomass under future climate change. Using a terrestrial biogeochemical model that simulates diverse forest communities on the basis of individual tree growth, we show that plant trait diversity may enable the Amazon forests to adjust to new climate conditions via a process of ecological sorting, protecting the Amazon's carbon sink function. Therefore, plant trait diversity, and biodiversity in general, should be considered in large-scale ecosystem projections and be included as an integral part of climate change research and policy.

  10. Panarchy use in environmental science for risk and resilience ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental sciences have an important role in informing sustainable management of built environments by providing insights about the drivers and potentially negative impacts of global environmental change. Here, we discuss panarchy theory, a multi-scale hierarchical concept that accounts for the dynamism of complex socio-ecological systems, especially for those systems with strong cross-scale feedbacks. The idea of panarchy underlies much of system resilience, focusing on how systems respond to known and unknown threats. Panarchy theory can provide a framework for qualitative and quantitative research and application in the environmental sciences, which can in turn inform the ongoing efforts in socio-technical resilience thinking and adaptive and transformative approaches to management. The environmental sciences strive for understanding, mitigating and reversing the negative impacts of global environmental change, including chemical pollution, to maintain sustainability options for the future, and therefore play an important role for informing management.

  11. Regime shifts and resilience in China's coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2016-02-01

    Regime shift often results in large, abrupt, and persistent changes in the provision of ecosystem services and can therefore have significant impacts on human wellbeing. Understanding regime shifts has profound implications for ecosystem recovery and management. China's coastal ecosystems have experienced substantial deterioration within the past decades, at a scale and speed the world has never seen before. Yet, information about this coastal ecosystem change from a dynamics perspective is quite limited. In this review, I synthesize existing information on coastal ecosystem regime shifts in China and discuss their interactions and cascading effects. The accumulation of regime shifts in China's coastal ecosystems suggests that the desired system resilience has been profoundly eroded, increasing the potential of abrupt shifts to undesirable states at a larger scale, especially given multiple escalating pressures. Policy and management strategies need to incorporate resilience approaches in order to cope with future challenges and avoid major losses in China's coastal ecosystem services.

  12. Measuring regional resilience towards fossil fuel supply constraints. Adaptability and vulnerability in socio-ecological Transformations-the case of Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, Andreas; Politti, Emilio; Schriefl, Ernst; Erker, Susanna; Stangl, Rosemarie; Baud, Sacha; Warmuth, Hannes; Matzenberger, Julian; Kranzl, Lukas; Paulesich, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Resilience has become a prominent concept to understand system vulnerabilities and flexible ways of adapting to crises. Recently, it gained importance in discussions about the possible peak in oil production (peak oil) and its consequences, which might affect economic performance, social well-being and political stability, and thus also the energy transition to a low-carbon economy. The paper presents a new way of measuring resilience as absolute resilience related to a best practice-model of a resilient society. The resilience model is grounded in explicit theoretical assumptions. All indicators are justified by theoretical and empirical arguments. We present a case study of Austrian municipalities and broader-scale spatial types, which were defined according to their degree of urbanization. The mean resilience of Austrian municipalities is moderate, the difference between resilience values of municipalities is small. Significant differences between spatial types exist. Higher resilience is displayed by less urbanized types due to a higher share of agricultural activities and a more favorable level of GDP per capita. Austria has considerable latitude to improve resilience. Corresponding policies should target resilience components with the lowest values first. A sole focus on regionalization is not recommended. These conclusions are applicable to OECD countries in general. - Highlights: •Mean resilience of Austrian municipalities towards peak oil is moderate. •The difference between resilience values of municipalities is small. •Significant differences in resilience between spatial types exist. •Higher resilience is displayed by less urbanized types. •Policies should target resilience components with the lowest values first.

  13. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Southwick

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1 how do we define resilience, (2 what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3 how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4 what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture.

  14. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M.; Bonanno, George A.; Masten, Ann S.; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  15. Effects of VRK2 (rs2312147 on white matter connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoung Sohn

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia reported a novel risk variant, rs2312147 at vaccinia-related kinase 2 gene (VRK2, in multiple Asian and European samples. However, its effect on the brain structure in schizophrenia is little known. We analyzed the brain structure of 36 schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy subjects with regard to rs2312147 genotype groups. Brain magnetic resonance scans for gray matter (GM and white matter (WM analysis, and genotype analysis for VRK2 rs2312147, were conducted. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Digit Symbol Test were assessed for schizophrenia patients. There was no significant difference in either GM volume or WM connectivity with regard to rs2312147 genotype in healthy subjects. In contrast, we found significant differences in the WM connectivity between rs2312147 CC and CT/TT genotype groups of schizophrenia patients. The related brain areas included the splenium of corpus callosum, the left occipital lobe WM, the internal capsule (left anterior limb and right retrolenticular part, the bilateral temporal lobe WM, the left fornix/stria terminalis, the left cingulate gyrus WM, and the left parietal lobe WM. Voxelwise correlation analysis revealed that the Digit Symbol Test scores (age corrected correlated with the fractional anisotropy in WM tracts that previously showed significant group differences between the CT/TT and CC genotypes in the rs2312147 CT/TT genotype group, while no significant correlation was found in the CC genotype group. Our data may provide evidence for the effect of VRK2 on WM connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

  16. Multidimensional approach to complex system resilience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama Dessavre, Dante; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Barker, Kash

    2016-01-01

    Recent works have attempted to formally define a general metric for quantifying resilience for complex systems as a relationship of performance of the systems against time. The technical content in the proposed work introduces a new model that allows, for the first time, to compare the system resilience among systems (or different modifications to a system), by introducing a new dimension to system resilience models, called stress, to mimic the definition of resilience in material science. The applicability and usefulness of the model is shown with a new heat map visualization proposed in this work, and it is applied to a simulated network resilience case to exemplify its potential benefits. - Highlights: • We analyzed two of the main current metrics of resilience. • We create a new model that relates events with the effects they have. • We develop a novel heat map visualization to compare system resilience. • We showed the model and visualization usefulness in a simulated case.

  17. Biomarkers of post-deployment resilience among military service members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista B. Highland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of PTSD after military deployment is influenced by a combination of biopsychosocial risk and resilience factors. In particular, physiological factors may mark risk for symptom progression or resiliency. Research in civilian populations suggests elevated catecholamines after trauma are associated with PTSD months following the trauma. However, less is known regarding physiological markers of PTSD resilience among post-deployment service members (SM. We therefore assessed whether catecholamines obtained shortly after deployment were associated with combat-related PTSD symptoms three months later. Eighty-seven SMs completed the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV and blood draws within two months after return from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan (“Time 1” or “T1” and three months later (“Time 2” or “T2”. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that lower norepinephrine at T1 was associated with lower PTSD symptoms at T2. In particular, T1 norepinephrine was positively associated with T2 symptom intensity and avoidance symptoms. The present findings represent a biologically-informed method of assessing PTSD resilience after deployment, which may aid clinicians in providing tailored treatments for those in the greatest need. Further research is needed to validate these findings and incorporate physiological measures within an assessment battery.

  18. Extending the Binomial Checkpointing Technique for Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Andrea; Narayanan, Sri Hari Krishna

    2016-10-10

    In terms of computing time, adjoint methods offer a very attractive alternative to compute gradient information, re- quired, e.g., for optimization purposes. However, together with this very favorable temporal complexity result comes a memory requirement that is in essence proportional with the operation count of the underlying function, e.g., if algo- rithmic differentiation is used to provide the adjoints. For this reason, checkpointing approaches in many variants have become popular. This paper analyzes an extension of the so-called binomial approach to cover also possible failures of the computing systems. Such a measure of precaution is of special interest for massive parallel simulations and adjoint calculations where the mean time between failure of the large scale computing system is smaller than the time needed to complete the calculation of the adjoint information. We de- scribe the extensions of standard checkpointing approaches required for such resilience, provide a corresponding imple- mentation and discuss numerical results.

  19. Resilience factors play an important role in the mental health of parents when children survive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilertsen, Mary-Elizabeth; Hjemdal, Odin; Le, Thien Thanh; Diseth, Trond H; Reinfjell, Trude

    2016-01-01

    Childhood cancer is a tremendous stressor that requires parents to adapt to new challenges, and research has mainly focused on psychopathology and rarely on a resource-oriented perspective, such as resilience. This study assessed resilience factors among parents of children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and parents of healthy children. We also explored the association between parental resilience and mental health. The study compared 57 parents of 40 children from eight to 15 years of age in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 63 parents of 42 healthy children. The Resilience Scale for Adults and the General Health Questionnaire were used to assess parental resilience and mental health. Parents of children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia showed significantly lower levels of resilience than parents of healthy children, but no significant difference was found for mental health. Certain resilience factors were positively associated with mental health, especially for mothers, such as family cohesion, good perception of self and being able to plan their future. Resilience factors may help to protect parents' mental health, especially mothers, when their child has survived acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and should be considered in a clinical setting. Further research on resilience factors for fathers is needed. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. ARIES-RS safety design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; El-Guebaly, L.; Herring, S.; Khater, H.; Mogahed, E.; Thayer, R.; Tillack, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The ARIES-RS safety design and analysis focused on achieving two objectives: (1) The avoidance of sheltering or evacuation in the event of an accident; and (2) the generation of only low-level waste, no greater than Class C. The ARIES-RS baseline design employs V-4Cr-4Ti as the blanket structural material and a low activation ferritic steel in the reflector and shield. In the event of a LOCA, the baseline design first wall maximum temperature falls in the range of 1100-1200 C. For this temperature range, the hazard assessment indicates that the dose at the site boundary will be less than 1 rem per year. Thus, no sheltering or evacuation would be required in the event of a LOCA. Although the baseline design satisfies the first safety objective noted above, a first wall maximum temperature of ∝1100-1200 C would likely compromise the integrity of the vanadium blanket structure and would require blanket replacement following such a temperature excursion. To avoid this situation, a modified blanket design incorporating supplemental heat removal is also proposed. Preliminary analysis of this modified design suggests that the first wall maximum temperature can be kept below the temperature range of concern, ∝1000-1100 C, in the event of a LOCA. When the ferritic steel used in the reflector and shield is one reduced in Ir and Ag impurities, all in-vessel components qualify for near-surface shallow land burial as Class C low-level waste. (orig.)

  1. Regime shifts, resilience and recovery of a cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Diekmann, Rabea; Möllmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...... of the local cod stock to environmental change. The recovery and healthy condition of the Sound cod stock illustrate the need for adaptive marine management strategies that maximize ecosystem resilience....

  2. Challenging comparison of stroke scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke scales can be classified as clinicometric scales and functional impairment, handicap scales. All studies describing stroke scales were reviewed by internet searching engines with the final search performed on January 1, 2013. The following string of keywords was entered into search engines; stroke, scale, score and disability. Despite advantages of modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Scandinavian stroke scale comparing to the NIHSS, including their simplification and less inter-rater variability; most of the stroke neurologists around the world continue using the NIHSS. The modified Rankin scale (mRS and Barthel index (BI are widely used functional impairment and disability scales. Distinction between grades of mRS is poorly defined. The Asian stroke disability scale is a simplified functional impairment, handicap scale which is as valid as mRS and BI. At the present time, the NIHSS, mRS and BI are routine stroke scales because physicians have used to work with these scales for more than two decades, although it could not be an acceptable reason. On the other side, results of previous stroke trials, which are the basis of stroke management guidelines are driven using these scales.

  3. The interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 with PGC and ERCC6 gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 with pepsinogen C (PGC and excision repair cross complementing group 6 (ERCC6 gene polymorphisms and its association with the risks of gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. We hoped to identify miRNA polymorphism or a combination of several polymorphisms that could serve as biomarkers for predicting the risk of gastric cancer and its precancerous diseases. METHODS: Sequenom MassARRAY platform method was used to detect polymorphisms of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 G → A, PGC rs4711690 C → G, PGC rs6458238 G → A, PGC rs9471643 G → C, and ERCC6 rs1917799 in 471 gastric cancer patients, 645 atrophic gastritis patients and 717 controls. RESULTS: An interaction effect of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism with ERCC6 rs1917799 polymorphism was observed for the risk of gastric cancer (P interaction = 0.026; and interaction effects of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism with PGC rs6458238 polymorphism (P interaction = 0.012 and PGC rs9471643 polymorphism (P interaction = 0.039 were observed for the risk of atrophic gastritis. CONCLUSION: The combination of pri-let-7a-1 rs10739971 polymorphism and ERCC6 and PGC polymorphisms could provide a greater prediction potential than a single polymorphism on its own. Large-scale studies and molecular mechanism research are needed to confirm our findings.

  4. Ego and Spiritual Transcendence: Relevance to Psychological Resilience and the Role of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hanfstingl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates different approaches of transcendence in the sense of spiritual experience as predictors for general psychological resilience. This issue is based on the theoretical assumption that resilience does play a role for physical health. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirical evidence about the extent to which spirituality does play a role for resilience. As potential predictors for resilience, ego transcendence, spiritual transcendence, and meaning in life were measured in a sample of 265 people. The main result of a multiple regression analysis is that, in the subsample with people below 29 years, only one rather secular scale that is associated with ego transcendence predicts resilience, whereas for the older subsample of 29 years and above, spiritual transcendence gains both a positive (oneness and timelessness and a negative (spiritual insight relevance to psychological resilience. On the one hand, these results concur with previous studies that also found age-related differences. On the other hand, it is surprising that the MOS spiritual insight predicts psychological resilience negatively, the effect is increasing with age. One possible explanation concerns wisdom research. Here, an adaptive way of dealing with the age-related loss of control is assumed to be relevant to successful aging.

  5. Measuring Community Resilience to Coastal Hazards along the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nina S N; Reams, Margaret; Li, Kenan; Li, Chi; Mata, Lillian P

    2016-02-01

    The abundant research examining aspects of social-ecological resilience, vulnerability, and hazards and risk assessment has yielded insights into these concepts and suggested the importance of quantifying them. Quantifying resilience is complicated by several factors including the varying definitions of the term applied in the research, difficulties involved in selecting and aggregating indicators of resilience, and the lack of empirical validation for the indices derived. This paper applies a new model, called the resilience inference measurement (RIM) model, to quantify resilience to climate-related hazards for 52 U.S. counties along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The RIM model uses three elements (exposure, damage, and recovery indicators) to denote two relationships (vulnerability and adaptability), and employs both K-means clustering and discriminant analysis to derive the resilience rankings, thus enabling validation and inference. The results yielded a classification accuracy of 94.2% with 28 predictor variables. The approach is theoretically sound and can be applied to derive resilience indices for other study areas at different spatial and temporal scales.

  6. [Psychological well-being in nursing: relationships with resilience and coping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Óscar; Pérez-García, Ana Maria; Aparicio-Zaldívar, Eva G

    2015-01-01

    To determine the differences in resilience, coping, and psychological well-being (PWB) among nursing professionals of different hospital services, as well as to establish a structural model in nursing staff where resilience and coping were included. Correlational and cross-sectorial study with probabilistic sampling. A sample of 208 nursing professionals from University Hospital of Fuenlabrada (Madrid) took part in the study. This sample consisted of nurses (n = 133), nursing assistants (n = 61), and midwives (n = 14), of whom 94 worked in special units and 114 worked in wards. 10-Item CD-RISC (resilience), Brief-Cope (coping strategies), PWB scales (PWB dimensions), and sociodemographic variables. No differences were found in any assessed psychological variables as regards hospital service worked in. A structural model was found where resilience was a precursor factor of coping that determined the PWB of the nurses. Resilience favoured strategies related to engagement coping with stressful situations (β = 0.56) that contributed to PWB (β = 0.43) (these relationships were inverted in the case of disengagement coping). Resilience is an inherent feature in nursing staff whether they work in special units or wards. Coping strategies focused on engagement (or adaptive) with the stressful situation determined nursing PWB (primarily self-acceptance and environment mastery dimensions). Resilience and coping strategies more adaptives constitute two personal resources that determine PWB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Your Resilience is My Vulnerability: ‘Rules in Use’ in a Local Water Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Sondershaus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an empirical analysis of a water conflict in the German state of Brandenburg to explore diverse constructions of vulnerability to water scarcity by local stakeholders. It demonstrates how, in the absence of effective formal institutions, these constructions are getting translated into conflictual resilience strategies practiced by these stakeholders, creating situations in which “your resilience is my vulnerability”. The novel contribution of the paper to resilience research is threefold. Firstly, it illustrates how the vulnerability and resilience of a socio-ecological system—such as small catchment—are socially constructed; that is, how they are not given but rather the product of stakeholders’ perceptions of threats and suitable responses to them. Secondly, the paper emphasizes the role of institutions—both formal and informal—in framing these vulnerability constructions and resilience strategies. Particular attention is paid to the importance of informal ‘rules in use’ emerging in the wake of (formal ‘institutional voids’ and how they work against collective solutions. Thirdly, by choosing a small-scale, commonplace dispute to study vulnerability and resilience, the paper seeks to redress the imbalance of resilience research (and policy on dramatic disaster events by revealing the relevance of everyday vulnerabilities, which may be less eye-catching but are far more widespread.

  8. Subjective well-being and its association with peer caring and resilience among nursing vs medical students: A questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, FangFang; Guo, Yujie; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2016-02-01

    The subjective well-being (SWB) of nursing and medical students is a very important component in the training of future nurses and doctors, as well-being enables them to be more productive. The study examined the effects of peer caring and resilience on SWB as well as the mediating and moderating effects of resilience in the relationship between peer caring and SWB. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A university and an affiliated hospital in China. The convenience sample consisted of 426 nursing students and 336 medical students. Questionnaires comprising peer caring measurement, a resilience scale and a well-being scale were used in the spring of 2014. Students participate in the study showed low SWB. There was a significant difference between nursing students and medical students in peer caring, but not in SWB and resilience. The mediating effects of resilience on the relationship between peer caring and SWB were examined. As hypothesized, resilience mediated the relationship between peer caring and SWB partly for nursing students (SE=0.022, 95% CI=0.041-0.128) and fully for medical students (SE=0.023, 95% CI=0.067-0.161). Resilience did not statistically significantly moderate the peer caring-SWB relationship for nursing students (β=0.092, p=0.057) but did so for medical students (β=0.108, p<0.05). Peer caring and resilience improved the SWB of both nursing students and medical students. In addition, resilience improved SWB through peer caring for both nursing students and medical students, and higher resilience in medical students enhanced the positive effects of peer caring on SWB. Therefore, educators should promote peer caring and resilience in order to improve students' SWB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How do we know about resilience? An analysis of empirical research on resilience, and implications for interdisciplinary praxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, Barbara J; Miller, Fiona; Barnett, Jon; Glaister, Alena; Ellemor, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    We sought to understand how knowledge about resilience is produced. We examined empirical research into resilience from the social and natural sciences, randomly selected a sample of these studies and analysed their methods using common criteria to enable comparison. We found that studies of resilience from social scientists largely focus on the response of individuals to human-induced change events, while those from natural scientists largely focus on the response of ecological communities and populations to both environmental and human-induced change events. Most studies were of change over short time periods and focused on small spatial scales. Social science studies were dominated by one-off surveys, whereas natural science studies used a diversity of study designs to draw inferences about cause-and-effect. Whilst these differences typically reflect epistemological and methodological traditions, they also imply quite different understandings of resilience. We suggest that there are significant methodological barriers to producing empirical evidence about interactions between complex social and ecological systems. (letter)

  10. Resilience to stress and disturbance, and resistance to Bromus tectorum L. invasion in cold desert shrublands of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Bradley, Bethany A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; D'Antonio, Carla; Germino, Matthew J.; Grace, James B.; Hardegree, Stuart P.; Miller, Richard F.; Pyke, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Alien grass invasions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems are resulting in grass–fire cycles and ecosystem-level transformations that severely diminish ecosystem services. Our capacity to address the rapid and complex changes occurring in these ecosystems can be enhanced by developing an understanding of the environmental factors and ecosystem attributes that determine resilience of native ecosystems to stress and disturbance, and resistance to invasion. Cold desert shrublands occur over strong environmental gradients and exhibit significant differences in resilience and resistance. They provide an excellent opportunity to increase our understanding of these concepts. Herein, we examine a series of linked questions about (a) ecosystem attributes that determine resilience and resistance along environmental gradients, (b) effects of disturbances like livestock grazing and altered fire regimes and of stressors like rapid climate change, rising CO2, and N deposition on resilience and resistance, and (c) interacting effects of resilience and resistance on ecosystems with different environmental conditions. We conclude by providing strategies for the use of resilience and resistance concepts in a management context. At ecological site scales, state and transition models are used to illustrate how differences in resilience and resistance influence potential alternative vegetation states, transitions among states, and thresholds. At landscape scales management strategies based on resilience and resistance—protection, prevention, restoration, and monitoring and adaptive management—are used to determine priority management areas and appropriate actions.

  11. Resilience and positive affect contribute to lower cancer-related fatigue among Chinese patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guiyuan; Li, Ye; Xu, Ruicai; Li, Ping

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of cancer-related fatigue and explore the relationship between resilience, positive affect, and fatigue among Chinese patients with gastric cancer. Cancer-related fatigue is the most distressing symptom reported frequently by cancer patients during both treatment and survival phases. Resilience and positive affect as vital protective factors against cancer-related fatigue have been examined, but the underlying psychological mechanisms are not well understood. A cross-sectional study. Two hundred and three gastric cancer patients were enrolled from three hospitals in China. The Cancer Fatigue Scale, the positive affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10) were administered. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was conducted to examine the association between resilience and cancer-related fatigue, and the mediating effect of positive affect. The incidence of clinically relevant fatigue among patients with gastric cancer was 91.6%. Regression analysis showed that resilience was negatively associated with cancer-related fatigue, explaining 15.4% of variance in cancer-related fatigue. Mediation analysis showed that high resilience was associated with increased positive affect, which was associated with decreased cancer-related fatigue. Cancer-related fatigue is prevalent among patients with gastric cancer. Positive affect may mediate the relationship between resilience and cancer-related fatigue. Interventions that attend to resilience training and promotion of positive affect may be the focus for future clinical and research endeavours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A WFS1 Haplotype Consisting of the Minor Alleles of rs752854, rs10010131, and rs734312 Shows a Protective Role Against Type 2 Diabetes in Russian Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Khodyrev, Dmitry S.; Smetanina, Svetlana A.; Bel'chikova, Larisa N.; Suplotova, Lyudmila A.; Nosikov, Valery V.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rare variants of the WFS1 gene encoding wolframin cause Wolfram syndrome, a monogenic disease associated with diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness. In contrast, common variants of WFS1 showed association with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in numerous Caucasian populations. AIM: In this study, we tested whether the markers rs752854, rs10010131, and rs734312, located in the WFS1 gene, are related to the development of T2D in a Russian population. METHODS: The p...

  13. Life satisfaction, anxiety, depression and resilience across the life span of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Glaesmer, Heide; Wiltink, Jörg; Marian, Hanna; Brähler, Elmar

    2010-03-01

    To determine (a) the relationship between life satisfaction, anxiety, depression and ageing in the male community and (b) to identify the impact of vulnerability factors, personal and social resources on life satisfaction and distress. A stratified random sample of the German male population (N = 2144) was investigated by standardized questionnaires of life satisfaction (FLZ(M)), depression, anxiety (PHQ), resilience (RS-11) and self-esteem (RSS). No age-related change was found regarding overall life satisfaction. Satisfaction with health decreased in midlife (51-60 years), while the importance of health increased. Importance of and satisfaction with partnership and sexuality were only reduced in the oldest group (70+). Anxiety was highest around midlife (51-60 years), accompanied by reduced resilience and self-esteem. No clear age-related change was found regarding depression. Life satisfaction was strongly associated with resilience, lack of unemployment, the presence of a partnership, positive self-esteem, a good household income, the absence of anxiety and depression and living in the Eastern states. Personal and social resources and the absence of anxiety and depression are of crucial importance for the maintenance of life satisfaction in ageing men. There is also evidence for a crisis around midlife manifested by health concerns, anxiety and reduced resilience.

  14. Drawing on resilience: piloting the utility of the Kinetic Family Drawing to measure resilience in children of HIV-positive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ebersöhn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe how using a visual, child-friendly measure of resilience in a randomised control trial (RCT, the Kgolo Mmogo (KM project, resulted in representative insights on resilience in a mother-child relationship where the mother is HIV-positive. We used the existing psychological method Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD to measure resilience of young children in the qualitative phase of the concurrent mixed method RCT as the children represent cultural groups for whom standardized measures have not been developed. We use the case example of baseline KM assessment data of 6 year olds (n = 11; 3 female, 8 male. The results of the study demonstrate that the visual and qualitative data from children (KFD added to quantitative information obtained from mothers (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, VABS. Additional information from the KFD had interpretation value for VABS scores and provided a child's perspective regarding resilience. Contrasting information from the KFD problematized mothers' perspectives as indicated in the VABS. The absence of significant information in KFD results regarding VABS sub-domains indicates differences in the cultural/contextual conceptualization of resilience. This exploratory study indicates initial support for the cross-cultural utility of the KFD to measure resilience in young children faced with adversity.

  15. Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

    2009-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

  16. Simple and Robust Multipoint Data Acquisition Bus Built on Top of the Standard RS232 Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey PAVLUCHENKO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-scale wired sensor network architecture built on top of the standard RS232 serial link with the minimum additional non-standard hardware components is described. The presented network structure and associated protocol can be used to form a general purpose distributed data acquisition bus. Basic methods of data flow control and failure recovery suitable for the described architecture are proposed.

  17. Resilience linked to personality dimensions, alexithymia and affective symptoms in motor functional neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilianhasanpour, Rozita; Williams, Benjamin; Gilman, Isabelle; Burke, Matthew J; Glass, Sean; Fricchione, Gregory L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; LaFrance, W Curt; Perez, David L

    2018-04-01

    Reduced resilience, a construct associated with maladaptive stress coping and a predisposing vulnerability for Functional Neurological Disorders (FND), has been under-studied compared to other neuropsychiatric factors in FND. This prospective case-control study investigated self-reported resilience in patients with FND compared to controls and examined relationships between resilience and affective symptoms, personality traits, alexithymia, health status and adverse life event burden. 50 individuals with motor FND and 47 healthy controls participated. A univariate test followed by a logistic regression analysis investigated group-level differences in Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) scores. For within-group analyses performed separately in patients with FND and controls, univariate screening tests followed by multivariate linear regression analyses examined factors associated with self-reported resilience. Adjusting for age, gender, education status, ethnicity and lifetime adverse event burden, patients with FND reported reduced resilience compared to controls. Within-group analyses in patients with FND showed that individual-differences in mental health, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness positively correlated with CD-RISC scores; post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depression, anxiety, alexithymia and neuroticism scores negatively correlated with CD-RISC scores. Extraversion independently predicted resilience scores in patients with FND. In control subjects, univariate associations were appreciated between CD-RISC scores and gender, personality traits, anxiety, alexithymia and physical health; conscientiousness independently predicted resilience in controls. Patients with FND reported reduced resilience, and CD-RISC scores covaried with other important predisposing vulnerabilities for the development of FND. Future research should investigate if the CD-RISC is predictive of clinical outcomes in patients with FND. Copyright

  18. Socioeconomic inequalities in resilience and vulnerability among older adults: a population-based birth cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Cooper, R; Kuh, D; Stafford, M

    2017-11-08

    Aging is associated with declines in physical capability; however, some individuals demonstrate high well-being despite this decline, i.e. they are "resilient." We examined socioeconomic position (SEP) and resilience and the influence of potentially modifiable behavioral resources, i.e. social support and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), on these relationships. Data came from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally-representative birth cohort study. Resilience-vulnerability at age 60-64 years (n = 1,756) was operationalized as the difference between observed and expected levels of well-being, captured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), given the level of performance-based physical capability. SEP was assessed by father's and own social class, parental education, and intergenerational social mobility. PA and structural/functional social support were reported at ages 53 years and 60-64 years. Path analysis was used to examine mediation of SEP and resilience-vulnerability through LTPA and social support. Participants in the highest social class had scores on the resilience to vulnerability continuum that were an average of 2.3 units (β = 0.46, 95% CI 0.17, 0.75) higher than those in the lowest social class. Greater LTPA (β = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31, 0.85) and social support (β = 3.27, 95% CI 2.90, 3.63) were associated with greater resilience; LTPA partly mediated participant social class and resilience (23.4% of variance). Adult socioeconomic advantage was associated with greater resilience. Initiatives to increase LTPA may contribute to reducing socioeconomic inequalities in this form of resilience in later life.

  19. Toward a Digital Resilience (with a Dash of Location Enlightenment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The AGU Earth and Space Science Informatics Focus Group addresses a compelling array of research questions and projects. This year's session topics range from large-scale data management within global cyberinfrastructures or virtual observatories, to intelligent systems theory, semantics, and handling of near-real-time data streams, to issues of "dark data," data transparency, reproducibility, and more. The aim of this lecture is to build in part on these themes but to consider more broadly how we might push the boundaries of informatics knowledge more along the lines of use-inspired science (responsive to the needs and perspectives of society while still being fundamental and cutting edge). To wit, as we contend with human impacts on the biosphere recent innovations in computational and data science are now facilitating community resilience to climate change (e.g., helping communities to monitoring air quality or drought, find available drinking water, determine habitat vulnerability, etc.). But not often discussed is a path toward digital resilience. If digital tools are to continue helping communities, it stands to reason that they must engender some resilience themselves. The capacity to deal effectively with change and threats, to recover quickly from challenges or difficulties, even to withstand stress and catastrophe, can apply to data too. As investments in digital data continue to rise, we find ourselves in new "digital world order" comprised of ubiquitous technologies from satellites to wristwatches to human biochip implants. And a significant proportion of these are geospatial, given the incredible power of maps to communicate, persuade, inspire, understand, and elicit action. Therefore, the lecture reviews and recommends seven fundamental digital research and communication practices. The aim is ensuring not only a modicum of resilience for our nascent discipline, but in prototyping and delivering repeatable solutions that all can use to help guide the

  20. Linking Resilience of Aquatic Species to Watershed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Watershed condition means different things to different people. From the perspective of aquatic ecology, watershed condition may be interpreted to mean the capacity of a watershed to support life history diversity of native species. Diversity in expression of life history is thought to confer resilience allowing portions of the broader population to survive stressful conditions. Different species have different life history strategies, many of which were developed through adaptation to regional or local environmental conditions and natural disturbance regimes. By reviewing adaptation strategies for species of interest at regional scales, characteristics of watersheds that confer resilience may be determined. Such assessments must be completed at multiple levels of spatial organization (i.e. sub-watershed, watershed, region) allowing assessments to be inferred across broad spatial extents. In a project on the Wenatchee River watershed, we guided models of wildfire effects on bull trout and spring Chinook from a meta-population perspective to determine risks to survival at local and population scales over multiple extents of spatial organization. In other work in the Oregon Coast Range, we found that historic landslides continue to exert habitat-forming pressure at local scales, leading to patchiness in distribution of habitats for different life stages of coho salmon. Further, climate change work in Oregon estuaries identified different vulnerabilities in terms of juvenile rearing habitat depending on the species of interest and the intensity of future changes in climate. All of these studies point to the importance of considering physical conditions in watersheds at multiple spatial extents from the perspective of native aquatic species in order to understand risks to long-term survival. The broader implications of watershed condition, from this perspective, is the determination of physical attributes that confer resilience to native biota. This may require

  1. Effect of Perceived Parent-Child Relationship in Childhood on Resilience in Japanese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of the perceived parent-child relationship in childhood on resilience in youth. It recruited 268 university students majoring in education and college students majoring in welfare science to investigate the relationship between their perception of parent-child relationship in their childhood and their current resilience by their responses on the Adolescent Resilience Scale and the Children's Perceived Affiliation for Parents Scale. The results indicated that female's positive perception of their relationship with their mothers in childhood had a positive influence on their resilience. On the other hand, the positive influence was inconspicuous and limited with regard to the perception of female's relationship with their fathers in childhood. In contrast, this positive influence was not confirmed in male participants regardless of the perception of their relationship with mothers and fathers in childhood. Although limited to females, these results suggest that youth's perception of their parent-child relationships in childhood significantly affected the development of resilience. In addition, sex difference was observed in this effect. The findings have been discussed with respect to the process of the development of resilience.

  2. Resilience, lifestyle and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescence: the Young-HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrove, Marit; Romundstad, Pål; Indredavik, Marit S

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescence, their associations with lifestyle and resilience and the possibility that resilience factors can attenuate the associations between unhealthy lifestyle and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Adolescents (n = 7,639) aged 13-18 years completed a questionnaire regarding lifestyle and health. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were measured by the SCL-5, a five-item shortened version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Resilience factors included questions on friends and family relations and two sub-scales of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents; Family cohesion and Social competence. Of the total population, 13% reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. Resilience characteristics were associated with lower symptom levels (ORs ranging from 0.2 to 0.6), and substance use and infrequent physical activity with higher symptom levels (ORs ranging from 2.1 to 4.0). The associations with substance use were strengthened by social competence, but attenuated by family cohesion. The association with physical activity was attenuated by both social competence and family cohesion. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were frequent in adolescents and were associated with unhealthy lifestyle factors as substance use and low physical activity. Resilience characteristics seemed to protect against symptoms and markedly influenced the associations between lifestyle factors and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The importance of family and other supportive relationships should be emphasized in treatment and prevention of anxiety and depression in adolescence.

  3. Depression and resilience mediates the effect of family function on quality of life of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Canjie; Yuan, Lexin; Lin, Weiquan; Zhou, Ying; Pan, Shengmao

    2017-07-01

    Family function, which improves individual resilience and strongly link to quality of life (QOL) among the elderly, increases the risk of depression. Because of these demonstrated relationships, it can be hypothesized that both depression and resilience are mediators of the association between family function and QOL. To test this hypothesis, the structural equation model (SEM) constructed by Amos 21.0 was employed to assess the indirect effect of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) and resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC) on the relationship between family function (Family APGAR Score, APGAR) and QOL (12-item Short Form health survey, SF-12) in 474 elderly adults from three communities in Guangzhou, China. Correlation matrix showed that depression is significantly negatively correlated with family functioning (r=-0.54, Pfamily functioning (r=0.35, PFamily functioning appeared to have significant indirect effects through resilience (β=0.089) and depression (β=0.307; combined β=0.056) on QOL (R 2 =0.55). The model fit indices showed a good fit of the model of the data (χ 2 /df=1.362, P>0.05, SRMR=0.023, RMSEA=0.028, GFI=0.985, NFI=0.987, TLI=0.993, CFI=0.996). The finding supports the assumption that depression and resilience are consistent intermediary factors of the relationship between family function and QOL among the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Resilience in the built environment: How to evaluate the impacts of flood resilient building technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The EU floods directive and its transcription into national legislation request exposed citizens and organisations to take individual measures to reduce flood risks on building scale. In response to that issue, a number of general approaches to buildings in flood risk areas and a set of strategies and technical guidance for the design and construction of flood resilient buildings have been developed in recent years. Particularly flood resilient building materials and constructions (FReMaCo, e.g. adapted exterior wall systems or floor arrangements, are expected to provide a considerable potential to limit flood damage if, for example, aperture technologies cannot stop water entering the building. However, there are significant uncertainties about the performance of FReMaCo that impede their comparison and hamper their uptake. To reduce those obstacles the paper discusses the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP (i to quantify and to compare the physical flood vulnerability of various building constructions and (ii to evaluate and to rank the impact of alternative FReMaCo options. The paper explores a set of eleven evaluation criteria ranging from statics criteria about buildings physics criteria up to durability criteria. The AHP generates a weight for each defined criterion and assigns a score for each FReMaCo option. Then, the AHP combines the criteria weights and the option scores to determine a global score for each construction alternative that evaluate the impact of FReMaCo options in a comprehensible manner. The application of AHP reduces the bias in the decision making process and is therefore of international interest, especially for those involved in improving the resilience properties of buildings.

  5. Toward disaster-resilient cities: characterizing resilience of infrastructure systems with expert judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephanie E; McDaniels, Timothy; Fox, Jana; Dhariwal, Rajan; Longstaff, Holly

    2014-03-01

    Resilient infrastructure systems are essential for cities to withstand and rapidly recover from natural and human-induced disasters, yet electric power, transportation, and other infrastructures are highly vulnerable and interdependent. New approaches for characterizing the resilience of sets of infrastructure systems are urgently needed, at community and regional scales. This article develops a practical approach for analysts to characterize a community's infrastructure vulnerability and resilience in disasters. It addresses key challenges of incomplete incentives, partial information, and few opportunities for learning. The approach is demonstrated for Metro Vancouver, Canada, in the context of earthquake and flood risk. The methodological approach is practical and focuses on potential disruptions to infrastructure services. In spirit, it resembles probability elicitation with multiple experts; however, it elicits disruption and recovery over time, rather than uncertainties regarding system function at a given point in time. It develops information on regional infrastructure risk and engages infrastructure organizations in the process. Information sharing, iteration, and learning among the participants provide the basis for more informed estimates of infrastructure system robustness and recovery that incorporate the potential for interdependent failures after an extreme event. Results demonstrate the vital importance of cross-sectoral communication to develop shared understanding of regional infrastructure disruption in disasters. For Vancouver, specific results indicate that in a hypothetical M7.3 earthquake, virtually all infrastructures would suffer severe disruption of service in the immediate aftermath, with many experiencing moderate disruption two weeks afterward. Electric power, land transportation, and telecommunications are identified as core infrastructure sectors. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Resilience influence, goals and social context in the academic achievement of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Concepción Gaxiola Romero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The academic achievement in high school students of Mexico, according to national and international evaluations has been insufficient. In spite of this situation, is possible to find excellent students, even in the context of sharing negative contextual and physical conditions. There are few investigations that describe the variables associated to resilient students. The alumni that are beyond the risks are called resilient (Rutter, 2007. The aim of this research was to explore and identify the internal variables: goals and resilience, and the external variables: risky neighborhood and risky friends that predicted the scholar achievement of high school students. To measure those variables, was used a compilation of scales validated in the region. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, and show that resilience predicted indirectly the scholar achievement trough the academic goals. The results could be used in programs to improve the academic achievement of this group of students.

  7. Redundancy and response diversity of functional groups: implications for the resilience of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Magnus

    2006-02-01

    To improve coral reef management, a deeper understanding of biodiversity across scales in the context of functional groups is required. The focus of this paper is on the role of diversity within functional groups in securing important ecosystem processes that contribute to the resilience of coral-dominated reef states. Two important components of species biodiversity that confer ecosystem resilience are analyzed: redundancy and the diversity of responses within functional groups to change. Three critical functional groups are used to illustrate the interaction between these two components and their role in coral reef resilience: zooxanthellae (symbiotic micro algae in reef-building corals), reef-building corals, and herbivores. The paper further examines the consequences of undermining functional redundancy and response diversity and addresses strategies to secure ecological processes that are critical for coral reef resilience.

  8. KCNQ1 rs2237895 polymorphism is associated with Gestational Diabetes in Pakistani Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Sadia; Chaudhry, Bushra; Khan, Taseer Ahmed; Farooq, Saad

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies on gestational diabetes (GDM) are relatively scarce; moreover, limited data is available for KCNQ1 polymorphism in Pakistani pregnant women. We aimed to determine the frequency of KCNQ1 rs2237895 in GDM and normal pregnant controls and its association with GDM-related phenotypes. A total of 637 pregnant females (429 controls and 208 cases) in their second trimester were classified according to the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study criteria in this study. Their blood samples were genotyped for KCNQ1 SNP rs2237895 using PCR-RFLP method and sequencing. Fasting and two hour-post glucose load blood levels, serum HbA1c, insulin, and anthropometric assessment was performed.: Pearson's Chi Square test, Mann- Whitney U test, and regression analyses were performed. A p-value of 0.05). The rs2237895 showed an association with GDM (OR 2.281; 1.388-3.746: p KCNQ1 rs2237895 polymorphisms might be associated with risk of GDM in Pakistani population and that it is related to higher glucose levels and insulin resistance. Further large scale studies are required to consolidate on the functional aspect of this polymorphism.

  9. Special Education Teacher Resilience: A Phenomenological Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Resilience of Highly Resilient Special Educators

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Brienne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Of The DissertationSpecial Education Teacher Resilience: A Phenomenological Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Resilience of Highly Resilient Special EducatorsbyBrienne DowningDoctor of Education in Educational LeadershipUniversity of California, San Diego, 2017California State University, San Marcos, 2017Professor Jacqueline Thousand, ChairSpecial education teachers are in high demand and greatly needed to meet the needs of the growing population of students qualified fo...

  10. “I know it when I see it.” The complexities of measuring resilience among parents of children with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R.; Starks, Helene; Jones, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Promoting parent resilience may provide an opportunity to improve family-level survivorship after pediatric cancer; however, measuring resilience is challenging. Methods The “Understanding Resilience in Parents of Children with Cancer” was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study of bereaved and non-bereaved parents. Surveys included the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, the Kessler-6 psychological distress scale, the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory, and an open-ended question regarding the on-going impact of cancer. We conducted content analyses of open-ended responses and categorized our impressions as “resilient,” “not resilient,” or “unable to determine.” “Resilience” was determined based on evidence of psychological growth, lack of distress, and parent-reported meaning/purpose. We compared consensus-impressions with instrument scores to examine alignment. Analyses were stratified by bereavement status. Results Eighty-four (88%) non-bereaved, and 21 (88%) bereaved parents provided written responses. Among non-bereaved, 53 (63%) were considered resilient, 15 (18%) were not. Among bereaved, 11 (52%) were deemed resilient, 5 (24%) were not. All others suggested a mixed or incomplete picture. Rater-determined “resilient” parents tended to have higher personal resources and lower psychological distress (p=resilient” parents also had higher post-traumatic growth (p=0.02). Person-level analyses demonstrated that only 50–62% of parents had all 3 instrument scores aligned with our impressions of resilience. Conclusions Despite multiple theories, measuring resilience is challenging. Our clinical impressions of resilience were aligned in 100% of cases; however, instruments measuring potential markers of resilience were aligned in approximately half. Promoting resilience therefore requires understanding of multiple factors, including person-level perspectives, individual resources, processes of adaptation and emotional well-being. PMID

  11. Building Resilient Communities Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    University - Faculty of Liberal Arts Colleen Vaughan JIBC School of Public Safety Dan Sandink Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction Daniel...First Nations, Métis and Inuit people has been a very real positive outcome and the mini-poster carrying this focus will be an important step in...Executive Summary Promoting Canadian Aboriginal Disaster Resilience in First Nations, Métis and Inuit Communities Eric Bussey, Brenda L. Murphy

  12. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  13. Political Subculture: A Resilience Modifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    A RESILIENCE MODIFIER by Gordon S. Hunter September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr. Second Reader...Approved by: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr., DPA Thesis Advisor Lauren S. Fernandez, DSc Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chair...addition, I must acknowledge the continued support, guidance, and encouragement of Dr. Sam Clovis and Dr. Lauren Fernandez who have led me on the path to

  14. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  15. The Role of Academic Burnout, Resilience, and Perceived Stress in Predicting Students\\\\\\' Addiction Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojtaba salmabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at determining the role of academic burnout, resilience, and perceived stress in predicting students' addiction potential. Method: In this correlational study, the number of 200 high school students in of South Khorasan province was selected as the participants through random cluster sampling and they responded to the three pertinent questionnaires, namely resilience scale, academic burnout scale, perceived stress scale, and addiction potential scale. Results: The results showed that academic burnout, perceived stress, and resilience were positively correlated with addiction potential. Similarly, there was a significant positive relationship between academic burnout and perceived stress. Conclusion: Dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, apathy, impotency, dimensions of perceived stress (negative emotional responses and coping ability level, and resilience could predict 20% of addiction potential. Among these dimensions, only coping ability level and resilience were significantly effective in predicting addiction potential therefore, educational authorities are recommended to pay more attention to the prevention and treatment of addiction in students towards having a healthy society.

  16. Insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs): Important amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels which mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission in insect and vertebrate nervous systems. The great abundance of nAChRs within the insect central nervous system has led to the development of insecticides targeting these receptors, such as ...

  17. Apelin rs2235306 polymorphism is not related to metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eman T. Mehanna

    2014-11-27

    Nov 27, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Apelin is an adipokine that was identified to play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Apelin rs2235306 gene polymorphism was linked to insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. Aim of the study: To assess the relation of apelin rs2235306 polymorphism with metabolic ...

  18. Configuration control plan for the ports NCS IBM RS/6000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes the actions and responsibilities for maintaining the quality and integrity of the NS software resident on the IBM RS/6000 workstation managed by the Nuclear Criticality Safety group at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. This document does not address the validation of NS software packages for the RS/6000

  19. Apelin rs2235306 polymorphism is not related to metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Apelin is an adipokine that was identified to play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Apelin rs2235306 gene polymorphism was linked to insulin resistance and poor glycemic control. Aim of the study: To assess the relation of apelin rs2235306 polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and its ...

  20. Focusing the Meaning(s of Resilience: Resilience as a Descriptive Concept and a Boundary Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the variety of definitions proposed for "resilience" within sustainability science and suggests a typology according to the specific degree of normativity. There is a tension between the original descriptive concept of resilience first defined in ecological science and a more recent, vague, and malleable notion of resilience used as an approach or boundary object by different scientific disciplines. Even though increased conceptual vagueness can be valuable to foster communication across disciplines and between science and practice, both conceptual clarity and practical relevance of the concept of resilience are critically in danger. The fundamental question is what conceptual structure we want resilience to have. This article argues that a clearly specified, descriptive concept of resilience is critical in providing a counterbalance to the use of resilience as a vague boundary object. A clear descriptive concept provides the basis for operationalization and application of resilience within ecological science.

  1. The evolution of the Three Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnaud, Sebastien

    2009-07-01

    Whilst the whole world is celebrating the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the 150th anniversary of the publication of his renowned book, The Origin of Species, another anniversary should not be forgotten - the publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch. The concomitance of the anniversaries of the two publications is not a coincidence, since, as reflected by the numerous quotes chosen by Russell from Darwin's masterpiece, numerous analogies can be found between the two works and the new ideas they describe. From a discrete birth, and after decades of struggle, the Three Rs concept can now celebrate its 50th anniversary, the result of its evolution through harsh selection and adaptation. The emergence of new types of techniques, in combination with the descent of modified old ones, testify to the undeniable change in our society toward a more efficient and more ethical science, through the progressive replacement of animal models. Both Darwin and Russell would no doubt have welcomed such progress, not only in terms of science, but also of moral values. One could also expect that, if Russell could have foreseen the incredible technological advances achieved 50 years later, where Replacement becomes a reality, as illustrated by some edifying examples, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique would have probably been defined as the One R concept. 2009 FRAME.

  2. USB and RS232 voltage datalogger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Hernández Tabares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The design and construction of a PIC microcontroller based datalogger with USB 2.0 and RS232 interfaces is presented. The datalogger has one 0 to +10VDC analogue input, 10bits ADC, Real Time Clock, 4k sample room on the microcontroller’s program flash memory and an external DC power supply. This paper proposes a cheap variant to construct such device widely used in meteorological and environmental instrumentation among others. The prototype was attached to an Ultraviolet Photometric O3 Analyzer for recording the environmental (tropospheric ozone concentration in a control station at the Havana city. Key words: datalogger, USB, enviromental ozone

  3. Polymorphisms in Four Genes (KCNQ1 rs151290, KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 and MTNR1B rs10830963) and Their Correlation with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Han Chinese in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kaiping; Wang, Jinjin; Li, Linlin; Zhai, Yujia; Ren, Yongcheng; You, Haifei; Wang, Bingyuan; Wu, Xuli; Li, Jianna; Liu, Zichen; Li, Xiong; Huang, Yaxin; Luo, Xin-Ping; Hu, Dongsheng; Ohno, Kinji; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-02-26

    Genetic variants at KCNQ1 rs151290, KLF14 rs972283, GCKR rs780094 and MTNR1B rs10830963 have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the results are contradictory in Chinese populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of these four SNPs with T2DM in a large population of Han Chinese at Henan province, China. Seven-hundred-thirty-six patients with T2DM (cases) and Seven-hundred-sixty-eight healthy glucose-tolerant controls were genotyped for KCNQ1