Sample records for resilience road paving

  1. Paving the Road to Success: A Framework for Implementing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paving the Road to Success: A Framework for Implementing the Success Tutoring Approach Danie de Klerk,** Tshepiso Maleswena*** & Andrew Jones. Linda Spark, Danie de Klerk, Tshepiso Maleswena, Andrew Jones ...

  2. Paving the Road to Success: A Framework for Implementing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paving the Road to Success: A Framework for. Implementing the Success Tutoring Approach. Linda Spark,* Danie de Klerk,** Tshepiso Maleswena*** & Andrew Jones****. * Linda Spark is a Senior Tutor and Grant Holder: Road to Success Programme, Faculty of Commerce, Law, and Management, University of the ...

  3. Road, Paved, Unpaved, Socio-economic, Development.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    absence of good road infrastructure may undermine productive process and may further ... author's email: 2Department of Geography and Regional Planning University Of Calabar, Nigeria. 83 ... construction of new roads and rehabilitation of existing ones(Umoren,2008). Most of the bitumen.

  4. Gravel road paving guidelines, technical summary. (United States)


    The percentage of gravel roads in rural areas in Kansas is higher than most states. A wide variation of traffic volumes across different regions and variations of local conditions and scenarios present a great challenge for local agencies to determin...

  5. Road Edge of Pavement, EOP (Driveway_Paved, Driveway_Unpaved, Median, Parking_Paved, Parking_Unpaved, Roads_Paved, Roads_Unpaved): Part of 2005 Planimetry-Topography layers, Published in 2005, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washington County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road Edge of Pavement dataset current as of 2005. EOP (Driveway_Paved, Driveway_Unpaved, Median, Parking_Paved, Parking_Unpaved, Roads_Paved, Roads_Unpaved): Part of...

  6. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations. (United States)

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra


    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  7. Comparison of human exposure pathways in an urban brownfield: reduced risk from paving roads. (United States)

    James, Kyle; Farrell, Richard E; Siciliano, Steven D


    Risk assessments often do not quantify the risk associated with soil inhalation. This pathway generally makes a negligible contribution to the cumulative risk, because soil ingestion is typically the dominant exposure pathway. Conditions in northern or rural centers in Canada characterized by large areas of exposed soil, including unpaved roads, favor the resuspension of soil particles, making soil inhalation a relevant risk pathway. The authors determined and compared human exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil ingestion and inhalation and analyzed the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks before and after roads were paved in a northern community. To determine the inhalation exposure, three size fractions of airborne particulate matter were collected (total suspended particulates [TSP], particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm [PM10], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm [PM2.5]) before and after roads were paved. Road paving reduced the concentration of many airborne contaminants by 25 to 75%, thus reducing risk. For example, before paving, the carcinogenic risk associated with inhalation of Cr was 3.4 excess cancers per 100,000 people exposed, whereas after paving, this risk was reduced to 1.6 in 100,000. Paving roads reduced the concentrations of total suspended particulates (TSP; p paving roads is an effective method of reducing risk from the inhalation of soil particles. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  8. Paving the way : road-building wave good as gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.


    Canadian bitumen and heavy oil producers benefited from a busy road construction season in 2001. The high demand for asphalt in Canada and the United States was a result of massive efforts to improve roads for an expected increase in trade between Canada and the U.S. The trade corridor provided a temporary boost to asphalt sales, a strong growth in demand from the U.S. has bolstered the longer-term health of heavy oil. Sales of Canadian-made asphalt were made easier with a change in U.S. transportation legislation. Western Canadian heavy oil-based asphalt is considered to be better than others produced in North America. The quality depends on the manufacturing process and Husky invested in making a high-grade product at its Lloydminster refinery using a very heavy crude of about 17 degrees API. In June 1998, the U.S. government enacted the Transportation Equity Act which authorized US$218 billion for highway construction and improvement. It followed a 10 year research project on the importance of using high-quality asphalt. This new standard has allowed Canadian producers to better compete because customers in the U.S. are now more willing to pay for high-grade Canadian asphalt. The five companies that manufacture asphalt in Western Canada are Husky, Imperial Oil, Shell Canada, Chevron Canada and Moose Jaw Asphalt. The total Western Canadian sales for the year 2000 were 976,680 cubic metres. The transportation requirements of asphalt are such that it must be carried hot from refinery to customers on trucks and trains. It is currently difficult to ship asphalt overseas and therefore, marketing asphalt beyond North America is not logistically viable. For the present time, the North-South Corridor fills a healthy demand for asphalt. Projects include a portion of the CANAMEX Highway, a 2,800 km road system linking Canada, the U.S. and Mexico via Interstate 15. Other four-lane divided highways are being constructed to move long-combination vehicles (LCVs) in order to

  9. Road infrastructure resilience to tsunami in Cilegon (United States)

    Arini, Srikandi Wahyu; Sumabrata, Jachrizal


    Indonesia is vulnerable to natural disasters. The highest number of natural disaster occurs on the west side of Java Island with the tsunami as the most deadly. Cilegon, a densely populated city with high industrial activity is located on the west coast of Java Island with a gently sloping topography, hence it is vulnerable to tsunami. Simulations conducted by the National Disaster Management Authority indicates that earthquakes with epicenters in the Sunda strait will cause tsunamis which can sweep away the whole industrial area in one hour. The availability of evacuation routes which can accommodate the evacuation of large numbers of people within a short time is required. Road infrastructure resilience is essential to support the performance of the evacuation routes. Poor network resilience will reduce mobility and accessibility during the evacuation. The objectives of this paper are to analyze the impact of the earthquake-generated tsunami on the evacuation routes and to simulate and analyze the performance of existing evacuation routes in Cilegon. The limitations of the modeling approaches including the current and future challenges in evacuation transport research and its applications are also discussed. The conclusion from this study is accurate data source are needed to build a more representative model and predict the areas susceptible to tsunamis vulnerable areas and to construct cogent tsunami mitigation plans and actions for the most vulnerable areas.

  10. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations. (United States)

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy


    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  11. Influence of pavement macrotexture on PM10 emissions from paved roads: A controlled study (United States)

    China, Swarup; James, David E.


    This paper investigates influence of pavement macrotexture on paved road PM10 emissions. This study was conducted on different paved roadway types (local, collector and minor arterial) in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. Pavement macrotexture was measured using the ASTM E 965 sand patch method and the Digital Surface Roughness Meter™ (DSRM™). A controlled constant soil loading with known PM10 fraction was applied to cleaned road surfaces. The Desert Research Institute's (DRI) Mini-PI-SWERL™ (Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab) was used to estimate PM10 mass emissions and cumulative mass emitted from pavement surfaces. PM10 mass emissions using controlled applied soil loadings generally declined with increasing pavement macrotexture at all applied shear levels. The relationships were statistically significant, and indicate that pavement macrotexture may need to be included in future development of revised paved road PM10 emissions factors. A change in the slope of emitted PM10 mass and pavement macrotexture occurred between 0.8 and 0.9 mm mean texture depth (MTD). Anomalies in PM10 mass emissions were observed at MTDs exceeding 1.2 mm. Two-way frequency distributions of pavement surface features obtained from DSRM measurements were analyzed to explain the observed anomalies. Results showed that pavement surface feature size distributions may influence on PM10 emissions from paved roads at similar MTDs. PM10 mass emissions were found to linearly depend on adjusted mode size of the pavement surface aggregate. A sharp decrease in friction velocities, computed from wind erosion theory, at MTDs above 0.9 mm matched an observed sharp decrease in PM10 emissions rates at MTDs above 0.9 mm, indicating that classical wind erosion theory could be adapted for non-erodible pavement surfaces and linearly relate PM10 emissions rates to applied shear stress at an aerodynamic roughness height of 0.075 mm.

  12. Occupational exposure to asphalt fume can cause oxidative DNA damage among road paving workers. (United States)

    Bal, Ceylan; Ağış, Erol R; Büyükşekerci, Murat; Gündüzöz, Meşide; Tutkun, Lütfiye; Yılmaz, Ömer H


    We designed the present study to determine the effect of occupational exposure to asphalt fumes on oxidative status and DNA damage in road paving workers. Sixty road paving workers exposed to asphalt fumes and forty non-exposed control subjects were recruited. Occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) excretion. Serum thiol disulfide homeostasis (TDH), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) and urinary 8-hydro-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) level were evaluated by automated colourimetric method. The urinary concentrations of 1-OHP and 8-OH-dG were significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Disulfide/thiol ratio, TOS, and TAS were also significantly higher for the asphalt workers. A positive correlation existed between urinary 1-OHP and 8-OH-dG, TOS and TAS. Study results indicate that exposure to PAHs induces oxidative stress and causes genotoxic effects in asphalt workers. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Field data analysis of asphalt road paving damages caused by tree roots (United States)

    Weissteiner, Clemens; Rauch, Hans Peter


    Tree root damages are a frequent problem along paved cycling paths and service roads of rivers and streams. Damages occur mostly on streets with thin asphalt layers and especially in the upper part of the pavement structure. The maintainers of these roads are faced with frequent and high annual repair costs in order to guarantee traffic safety and pleasant cycling conditions. The focus of this research project is to get an insight in the processes governing the growth of the tree roots in asphalt layers and to develop test methods to avoid rood penetration into the road structure. Tree vegetation has been analysed selectively along a 300 km long cycle and service path of the Danube River in the region of Austria. Tree characteristics, topographic as well as hydrologic conditions have been analysed at 119 spots with different asphalt damage intensities. On 5 spots additional investigations on the root growth characteristics where performed. First results underline a high potential damage of pioneer trees which are growing naturally along rivers. Mostly, local occurring fast growing tree species penetrated the road layer structure. In a few cases other tree species where as well responsible for road structure damages. The age respectively the size of the trees didn't seem to influence significantly the occurrence of asphalt damages. Road structure damages were found to appear unaffected by hydrologic or topographic conditions. However, results have to be interpreted with care as the investigations represent a temporally limited view of the problem situation. The investigations of the root growth characteristics proved that tree roots penetrate the road structure mostly between the gravel sublayer and the asphalt layer as the layers it selves don't allow a penetration because of their high compaction. Furthermore roots appear to be attracted by condensed water at the underside of the asphalt layer. Further steps of the research project imply testing of different

  14. Paving Pathways Through the Pain: A Grounded Theory of Resilience Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer Youth. (United States)

    Asakura, Kenta


    This grounded theory study utilized interviews with 16 service providers and 19 lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) youth to develop a substantive theory of resilience processes among LGBTQ youth. The core category, paving pathways through the pain, suggests that LGBTQ youth build on emotional pain inflicted by external adversities to carve out pathways to resilience. Youth employed the following resilience processes: (1) navigating safety across contexts, (2) asserting personal agency, (3) seeking and cultivating meaningful relationships, (4) un-silencing marginalized identities, and (5) engaging in collective healing and action. Youth focused on particularly painful adversities and engaged intentionally in one or more of the resilience processes related to the origins of their pain. © 2016 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  15. Paving the road to negligence: the compensation for research-related injuries in Spain. (United States)

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A


    The planned reform of the regulation of clinical trials in Spain has reopened the debate over how to regulate research-related injuries. Act 29/2006 and Royal Decree 223/2004 regulate the insurance of research-related injuries, and they include a general clause requiring mandatory insurance and imposing a no-fault compensation system; they also contain an exception clause enabling clinical trials to be carried out without insurance under some conditions, and an exclusion clause excluding compensation when there is no causal connection between injuries and a clinical trial. National legislation is under review, affecting the requirement of mandatory insurance and paving the road to a liability system based on negligence, which will affect the level of protection of the persons enrolled in clinical trials because it would not ensure compensation. Regulatory texts on individuals' participation as research subjects should include not only mandatory insurance, but also a no-fault compensation system for cases when voluntary research subjects are injured, irrespective of negligence.

  16. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement—Part II: Effect of precipitation, wintertime road sanding, and street sweepers on inferred PM 10 emission potentials from paved and unpaved roads (United States)

    Kuhns, H.; Etyemezian, V.; Green, M.; Hendrickson, Karin; McGown, Michael; Barton, Kevin; Pitchford, Marc

    Testing Re-Entrained Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) is a new technique to infer paved and unpaved road dust PM 10 emission potentials based on particulate matter (PM) measurements made onboard a moving vehicle. Light scattering instruments mounted in front and behind the vehicle's tires measure the differential particle concentration of dust suspended by the vehicle's tire in contact with the road surface. Through empirical regressions relating the differential concentration (i.e. TRAKER signal) with the vehicle speed and the downwind flux of PM 10 particles from the road, an equation is derived to infer the speed independent road dust emission potential from the measured TRAKER signal. Measurements from TRAKER offer a new perspective on the processes that affect road dust emissions. The system was used to investigate temporal changes in emission potentials from paved roads in both the winter and summer in the Treasure Valley in Southwest Idaho. During the 3-week wintertime sampling period, the residential road dust PM 10 emission potential decreased by ˜50%. Summertime PM 10 emission potentials were similar to those observed at the end of the winter sampling and showed no upward or downward trends. Wintertime unpaved road emissions increased consistently with the number of days since the last rainfall. Measurement of road dust emission potentials after road sanding on dry roads indicated a 75% increase in PM 10 emissions after 2.5 h. This effect was short lived and emission potentials returned to their pre-sanding levels within 8 h of the sand application. Street sweeping with mechanical and vacuum sweepers was found to offer no measurable reduction in PM 10 emission potentials. On several roads, the PM 10 emission potentials actually increased immediately after vacuum sweeping. Long term effects of street sweeping on road dust emissions were not evaluated as part of this study and may offer some overall reduction in PM emissions from paved roads.

  17. A Pre-Paving Baseline Inventory of Vehicle-Related Mortality on Mule Deer along, Seep Ridge Road, Book Cliffs, Utah


    Hansen, D. Alex


    Part I: The Seep Ridge road is the major route used to access the Book Cliffs from Uintah County. For many years the County has expressed interest in paving the road in order to improve access to this remote portion of the County. In 2011 Uintah County received Bureau of Land Management (BLM) approval for the project and began construction on the road. There have been many concerns expressed concerning the Seep Ridge Road paving project, including impacts to mule deer. The Utah Division of...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembayev


    Full Text Available Construction of concrete road paving which was started in the 30-ies of the last century in the United States has proved its perspectiveness from the viewpoint of service life. In addition to that an analysis of road usage has shown that concrete paving is a deformation tendency due to some reasons and the tendency entails some difficulties in their repair after rather long operation. The deformations appear more intensively after 5-10-year road operational period. The following negative effects are practically unavoidable: micro-crack formation, scaling, deformation due to freezing of angular edges in concrete plates, destruction of deformation joints etc. The defects are characterized by rather large scope and they are present practically on all the roads. It is necessary to note the fact that a great number of the above-mentioned defects can be avoided on the condition that measures on strengthening surface layer of concrete paving will be undertaken in time. The measures presuppose application of impregnating method while using compositions that contain hydrophobisator and silicon dioxide sol. Industry-produced potassium methyl siliconate, oligomethyl hydride siliconate, tetraethoxysilane have been used as hydrophobisator and they form not easily soluble film on the surface of concrete pores which prevents penetration of water into concrete. Calcium hydrate being formed in the dissolution and hydrolysis process of cement clinker minerals is bound in hydrosilicates which are contained in the solution impregnated by silicon dioxide sol. These hydrosilicates culmatate concrete pores and strengthen its surface layer due to additional hard phase and according to chemical composition it is related to calcium hydrosilicates formed as a result of concrete hardening.

  19. Assessment of dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road paving and mastic crews with an observational method. (United States)

    Agostini, Michela; Fransman, Wouter; De Vocht, Frank; Van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Kromhout, Hans


    To assess dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road pavers and indoor mastic workers in multiple crews using a semi-quantitative observational method [DeRmal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM)]. Two skilled observers assessed dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among 85 asphalt workers from 12 crews from nine companies active within four European countries using the DREAM methodology, which produces an estimate of exposure expressed in dimensionless DREAM units. Both observers independently evaluated each crew member's job (N = 14 jobs) for road paving and mastic applications. Potential and actual dermal exposures were estimated for hands and for the rest of the body separately, taking into account the effect of protective clothing. To evaluate the reproducibility of the observational method intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated. The exposures in DREAM units were modelled using linear mixed models to estimate average relative scores for each job. Correlations between dermal exposure parameters were evaluated by estimating Pearson correlation coefficients. A total of 170 observations were completed by two observers independently (n = 118 and n = 52 for 59 road pavers and 26 mastic workers, respectively) in 11 days. The mean ICCs (for potential and actual exposure in DREAM units) varied between 0.74 and 0.80 with values for actual units being slightly higher. Geometric mean potential dermal exposure units of mastic workers were higher than for road pavers (factor 3 for hands and factor 4 for rest of the body). Differences for actual dermal exposure units were smaller for hands (factor 2) and larger for actual exposure units of rest of the body (factor 5). Differences in dermal exposure at the hands between jobs within a paving crew were much larger than between jobs within a mastic crew. Within paving crews, a consistent pattern for all exposure units emerged with 'screed man' and 'raker' as the two highest exposed jobs. Within mastic

  20. Factors affecting non-tailpipe aerosol particle emissions from paved roads: On-road measurements in Stockholm, Sweden (United States)

    Hussein, Tareq; Johansson, Christer; Karlsson, Hans; Hansson, Hans-Christen

    A large fraction of urban PM 10 concentrations is due to non-exhaust traffic emissions. In this paper, a mobile measurement system has been used to quantify the relative importance of road particle emission and suspension of accumulated dust versus direct pavement wear, tire type (studded, friction, and summer), pavement type, and vehicle speed. Measurements were performed during May-September on selected roads with different pavements and traffic conditions in the Stockholm region. The highest particle mass concentrations were always observed behind the studded tire and the lowest were behind the summer tire; studded-to-summer ratios were 4.4-17.3 and studded-to-friction ratios were 2.0-6.4. This indicates that studded tires lead to higher emissions than friction and summer tires regardless to the asphalt type. By comparing with measurements in a road simulator, it could be estimated that the pavement wear due to the friction tires was 0.018-0.068 of the suspension of accumulated road dust. Likewise for studded tires road-wear was estimated to be 1.2-4.8 the suspension of accumulated dust. This indicates that wear due to friction tires is very small compared to the suspension of accumulated dust and that suspension due to studded tires may sometimes be as large as the wear of the road. But this will vary depending on, e.g. the amount of dust accumulated on the roads. An important dependence on vehicle speed was also observed. During May, the particle mass concentrations behind the studded tire at vehicle speed 100 km h -1 were about 10 times higher than that at 20 km h -1. The speed dependence was not so pronounced in September, which could be due to less accumulated dust on the roads. The particle number size distribution of the emissions due to road wear by studded tire was characterized by a clear increase in number concentrations of the coarse fraction of aerosol particles, with a geometric mean diameter between 3 and 5 μm. The size distribution of the

  1. Paving the Road to Success: Reflecting Critically on Year One of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite a number of challenges, ranging from funding shortfalls and food security to students' emotional wellbeing and resilience, 2015 proved invaluable in terms of refining strategies, gaining insight, and programme growth. Preliminary data shows an increased pass rate for students who engaged with the RSP, with ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Belova


    Full Text Available Aim. The oil (artificial bitumens, got by conversion of the oil cheese, are broadly used in the road construction. The track record of the development road covering, studies, bound with improvement their characteristic and development of the competitions among technology is presented in this article.Methods. Nowdays the modern developments in the field of production bitumen road marks are implemented using such technological-go acceptance as chemical actuated heavy oil cheese, which principles are based on regulation of the energybetween molecular interactions and optimization their dimensionality, allowing raise quality bitumen.Results. Adjusting the depth of recovery of the oxidized product, it is possible to obtain different composition, plasticity and heat resistance of the bitumen. The residual bitumen obtained by two-stage oxidation with subsequent vacuum distillation of the oxidized product comply with GOST 60/90. Vacuum gas oil in the production of residual bitumen corresponds to the motor fuel for marine installations.Conclusion. Today, the bitumen production leaves on positions packed-valuable segment oil processing industry. The Main customer roads - a state. Herewith important role as ideologues of the development of the culture road construction plays the Federal road agency, supporting developing competition amongst leading technology. Introduction new technology at conversion remaining component oils, founded on do active cheese to account physical and chemical of the influence, with using the modern equipment, including equipment, using subject to influence effects, ultrasonic and electro-magnetic fields, and others, allows to get the qualitative road bitumens from majority of the oils, scanned earlier unfit for production bitumen.

  3. A methodology for road traffic resilience analysis and review of related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvert, S.C.; Snelder, M.


    Major and minor disturbances can have a considerable impact on the performance of road networks. In this respect, resilience is considered as the ability of a road section to resist and to recover from disturbances in traffic flow. In this contribution, an indicator is presented, the Link

  4. To pave or not to pave? (United States)


    The Issue : Two key questions must be answered when developing a gravel : road maintenance plan: : 1. What is the best way to maintain a gravel road? : 2. When should the roadway be upgraded to a paved surface? : These are not easy questions because ...

  5. Occupational exposure to asphalt mixture during road paving is related to increased mitochondria DNA copy number: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Xu, Yiyi; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Broberg, Karin; Albin, Maria


    Asphalt workers are exposed to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from hot mix asphalt via both inhalation and dermal absorption. The use of crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt may result in higher exposure to PAHs and more adverse effects. Our aim is to assess occupational exposure to PAHs from conventional and CRM asphalt paving by measuring PAH metabolites in urine, and to investigate the effects on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length. We recruited 116 workers paving conventional asphalt, 51 workers paving CRM asphalt and 100 controls in Sweden, all males. A repeated-measures analysis included 31 workers paving both types of asphalt. Urine and blood samples were collected pre-working on Monday morning and post-working on Thursday afternoon after 4 days working. PAH metabolites: 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR) and 2-hydroxyphenanthrene (2-OH-PH) were measured in urine by LC-MS/MS. Relative mtDNAcn and telomere length were measured by quantitative PCR. Conventional and CRM asphalt workers showed higher 1-OH-PYR and 2-OH-PH than controls (p paving with conventional and CRM asphalt. Increment of 2-OH-PH was smaller after paving with CRM asphalt. Road asphalt paving in open areas resulted in PAHs exposure, as shown by elevation of PAH metabolites in urine. Asphalt workers may experience oxidative stress, evidenced by alternation in mtDNAcn; however the effects could not be fully explained by exposure to PAHs from the asphalt mixture.

  6. A study on the characteristics of silt loading on paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area using a mobile monitoring system. (United States)

    Han, Sehyun; Jung, Yong-Won


    This study is considered the first attempt to apply a mobile monitoring system to estimating silt loading on paved roads in a megacity such as the Seoul metropolitan area. Using a mobile monitoring system developed in 2005, we estimated silt loadings on representative paved roads in the Seoul metropolitan area, including the city of Incheon, over a period of 3 yr. The temporal and spatial characteristics of silt loading were investigated for the carefully selected roads that may reflect the characteristics of the cities of Seoul and Incheon. In this study, changes in the average silt loading values were investigated in terms of land use, the temporal resolution of data acquisition (i.e., seasonal, daily, three-hour scale), the road width or number of lanes, and rainfall, which may affect the characteristics of the average silt loading significantly. It was found that the advantages of using the mobile monitoring system are its ability to obtain a large quantity of silt loading data in a short period of time and over a wide area and its ability to create a silt loading map showing the relative magnitude of silt loading in relation to a specific location, which makes it possible to easily locate hot spots.

  7. Project PAVE (Personality And Vision Experimentation: Role of personal and interpersonal resilience in the perception of emotional facial expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eTanzer


    Full Text Available The aim of the proposed theoretical model is to illuminate personal and interpersonal resilience by drawing from the field of emotional face perception. We suggest that perception/recognition of emotional facial expressions serves as a central link between subjective, self-related processes and the social context. Emotional face perception constitutes a salient social cue underlying interpersonal communication and behavior. Because problems in communication and interpersonal behavior underlie most, if not all, forms of psychopathology, it follows that perception/recognition of emotional facial expressions impacts psychopathology. The ability to accurately interpret one's facial expression is crucial in subsequently deciding on an appropriate course of action. However, perception in general, and of emotional facial expressions in particular, is highly influenced by individuals’ personality and the self-concept. Herein we briefly outline well-established theories of personal and interpersonal resilience and link them to the neuro-cognitive basis of face perception. We then describe the findings of our ongoing program of research linking two well-established resilience factors, general self-efficacy (GSE and perceived social support (PSS, with face perception. We conclude by pointing out avenues for future research focusing on possible genetic markers and patterns of brain connectivity associated with the proposed model. Implications of our integrative model to psychotherapy are discussed.

  8. Global Economic Integration and Local Community Resilience: Road Paving and Rural Demographic Change in the Southwestern Amazon (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Cabrera, Liliana; Carvalho, Lucas Araujo; Castillo, Jorge; Barnes, Grenville


    Recent years have witnessed an expansion in international investment in large-scale infrastructure projects with the goal of achieving global economic integration. We focus on one such project, the Inter-Oceanic Highway in the "MAP" region, a trinational frontier where Bolivia, Brazil, and Peru meet in the southwestern Amazon. We adopt a…

  9. A resilience-oriented approach for quantitatively assessing recurrent spatial-temporal congestion on urban roads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Tang

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion brings not only delay and inconvenience, but other associated national concerns, such as greenhouse gases, air pollutants, road safety issues and risks. Identification, measurement, tracking, and control of urban recurrent congestion are vital for building a livable and smart community. A considerable amount of works has made contributions to tackle the problem. Several methods, such as time-based approaches and level of service, can be effective for characterizing congestion on urban streets. However, studies with systemic perspectives have been minor in congestion quantification. Resilience, on the other hand, is an emerging concept that focuses on comprehensive systemic performance and characterizes the ability of a system to cope with disturbance and to recover its functionality. In this paper, we symbolized recurrent congestion as internal disturbance and proposed a modified metric inspired by the well-applied "R4" resilience-triangle framework. We constructed the metric with generic dimensions from both resilience engineering and transport science to quantify recurrent congestion based on spatial-temporal traffic patterns and made the comparison with other two approaches in freeway and signal-controlled arterial cases. Results showed that the metric can effectively capture congestion patterns in the study area and provides a quantitative benchmark for comparison. Also, it suggested not only a good comparative performance in measuring strength of proposed metric, but also its capability of considering the discharging process in congestion. The sensitivity tests showed that proposed metric possesses robustness against parameter perturbation in Robustness Range (RR, but the number of identified congestion patterns can be influenced by the existence of ϵ. In addition, the Elasticity Threshold (ET and the spatial dimension of cell-based platform differ the congestion results significantly on both the detected number and

  10. A resilience-oriented approach for quantitatively assessing recurrent spatial-temporal congestion on urban roads. (United States)

    Tang, Junqing; Heinimann, Hans Rudolf


    Traffic congestion brings not only delay and inconvenience, but other associated national concerns, such as greenhouse gases, air pollutants, road safety issues and risks. Identification, measurement, tracking, and control of urban recurrent congestion are vital for building a livable and smart community. A considerable amount of works has made contributions to tackle the problem. Several methods, such as time-based approaches and level of service, can be effective for characterizing congestion on urban streets. However, studies with systemic perspectives have been minor in congestion quantification. Resilience, on the other hand, is an emerging concept that focuses on comprehensive systemic performance and characterizes the ability of a system to cope with disturbance and to recover its functionality. In this paper, we symbolized recurrent congestion as internal disturbance and proposed a modified metric inspired by the well-applied "R4" resilience-triangle framework. We constructed the metric with generic dimensions from both resilience engineering and transport science to quantify recurrent congestion based on spatial-temporal traffic patterns and made the comparison with other two approaches in freeway and signal-controlled arterial cases. Results showed that the metric can effectively capture congestion patterns in the study area and provides a quantitative benchmark for comparison. Also, it suggested not only a good comparative performance in measuring strength of proposed metric, but also its capability of considering the discharging process in congestion. The sensitivity tests showed that proposed metric possesses robustness against parameter perturbation in Robustness Range (RR), but the number of identified congestion patterns can be influenced by the existence of ϵ. In addition, the Elasticity Threshold (ET) and the spatial dimension of cell-based platform differ the congestion results significantly on both the detected number and intensity. By tackling

  11. Paving the Road to Success: Reflecting critically on year one of an undergraduate student support programme at a large South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie de Klerk


    Full Text Available Student success, faculty and university throughput, and the need for adequate and appropriate student support remain prevalent issues in the South African and global higher education sectors. Subsequently, the Faculty of Commerce, Law, and Management (CLM at a large South African university applied for Teaching and Development Grant (TDG funding in order to address these areas of concern. The grant was awarded and initially intended to help students at risk by implementing appropriate interventions to prevent them from dropping out of university or being excluded. However, being labelled as “at risk” was not well received by students and so the grant holders designed a new programme, adopting a decidedly more holistic approach. As such, the Road to Success Programme (RSP was born. The first three months saw those involved conceptualise, plan, and develop strategies, material, and interventions that were implemented in January 2015. The vision was to scaffold and support first-year students, particularly those in danger of being academically excluded, through an integrated network of tutorials, workshops, online support, and a series of resources called Toolkits for Success, in an attempt to help students achieve their academic goals. Despite a number of challenges, ranging from funding shortfalls and food security to students’ emotional wellbeing and resilience, 2015 proved invaluable in terms of refining strategies, gaining insight, and programme growth. Preliminary data shows an increased pass rate for students who engaged with the RSP, with higher pass rates linked to greater RSP attendance. Consequently, this article serves as a critical reflection of the RSP at the end of its inaugural year and will share data, highlight lessons learned and challenges faced, as well as discuss how the programme has been taken to scale in 2016.

  12. Resilience (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widel...

  13. Characterizing resilient behavior of naturally occurring bituminous sands for road construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available large capacity haul trucks and shovels. This paper focuses on determining in laboratory the resilient behavior of three oil sand materials with bitumen contents of 8.5, 13.3, and 14.5% by weight. The resilient modulus MR properties were obtained using a...

  14. The Road to Success in Africa is Paved in Asphalt: Transportation Infrastructure Development in Emerging Economies as a Way to Achieve National Strategic Policy Objectives (United States)


    later that slavery was abolished, followed by another 100 years of segregation and Jim Crow laws. Almost 200 years after independence and declaring...from Wanting in Burma to Kunming in China, a distance of roughly 717 miles, though only 320 miles as the crow flies. The road was constructed through

  15. Paving the Road for Student Success: Building a Case for Integrated Strategic Planning from Pre-K to Post-Doc (United States)

    Kealey, Jarrett; Peterson, Renee; Thompson, Angela; Waters, Kristin


    The road from prekindergarten (pre-K) to post-doctoral (post-doc) work is riddled with potholes, detours, u-turns, and construction zones. National education initiatives such as No Child Left Behind, the Common Core, Race to the Top, Performance-Based Funding, College Readiness and Completion Acts, and Post-Graduate Gainful Employment Reports…

  16. Avoiding the road to ethical disaster: overcoming vulnerabilities and developing resilience. (United States)

    Tjeltveit, Alan C; Gottlieb, Michael C


    Psychotherapists may, despite their best intentions, find themselves engaging in ethically problematic behaviors that could have been prevented. Drawing on recent research in moral psychology and longstanding community mental health approaches to prevention, we suggest that psychotherapists can reduce the likelihood of committing ethical infractions (and move in the direction of ethical excellence) by attending carefully to 4 general dimensions: the desire to facilitate positive (good) outcomes, the powerful opportunities given to professionals to effect change, personal values, and education. Each dimension can foster enhanced ethical behavior and personal resilience, but each can also contribute to ethical vulnerability. By recognizing and effectively addressing these dimensions, psychotherapists can reduce their vulnerabilities, enhance their resilience, reduce the risk of ethical infractions, and improve the quality of their work. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Abrindo caminho para o futuro: redes de apoio social e resiliência em autobiografias de jovens socioeconomicamente vulneráveis Paving the way to the future: social support networks and resilience in autobiographies of socioeconomically vulnerable youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idilva Maria Pires Germano


    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute processos de resiliência e redes de apoio social a partir de entrevistas narrativas realizadas com jovens socioeconomicamente desfavorecidos de escolas públicas de Fortaleza. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar como contavam suas histórias de vida, especialmente como enfrentavam adversidades em busca de recursos promotores de saúde e bem-estar. Os relatos foram analisados temática e narrativamente a fim de compreender como os jovens recrutam recursos pessoais, familiares, comunitários e culturais disponíveis e como esses recursos e as formas de manejo atuam de modo protetivo. Considerando que a resiliência também implica a disponibilidade dos recursos buscados pelo jovem, atenção especial foi dada à capacidade de suas comunidades em fornecê-los apropriadamente. Um resultado significativo é sua percepção do poder público como ineficaz ou ausente. Frente ao declínio da esfera pública, o jovem tende a refugiar-se na família e em seus próprios recursos pessoais para enfrentar o futuro.This work discusses resilience processes and social support networks among youth based on narrative interviews with socioeconomically disadvantaged students from public schools in Fortaleza (Brazil. The aim of the study was to analyze how they told their life stories, particularly how they dealt with adversities, navigating their way to health-sustaining resources and well-being. Thematic and narrative analysis were applied to understand the way youth achieve personal, family, community and cultural resources and how these resources and strategies have a protective effect. Considering that resilience also refers to the availability of the resources sought special attention was directed to their communities' capacity to properly provide them. A meaningful result is their perception of public politics and services as ineffective or absent. Facing the decline of the public sphere, youth tend to take refuge in the family and in

  18. Resilience and efficiency in transportation networks. (United States)

    Ganin, Alexander A; Kitsak, Maksim; Marchese, Dayton; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Seager, Thomas; Linkov, Igor


    Urban transportation systems are vulnerable to congestion, accidents, weather, special events, and other costly delays. Whereas typical policy responses prioritize reduction of delays under normal conditions to improve the efficiency of urban road systems, analytic support for investments that improve resilience (defined as system recovery from additional disruptions) is still scarce. In this effort, we represent paved roads as a transportation network by mapping intersections to nodes and road segments between the intersections to links. We built road networks for 40 of the urban areas defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. We developed and calibrated a model to evaluate traffic delays using link loads. The loads may be regarded as traffic-based centrality measures, estimating the number of individuals using corresponding road segments. Efficiency was estimated as the average annual delay per peak-period auto commuter, and modeled results were found to be close to observed data, with the notable exception of New York City. Resilience was estimated as the change in efficiency resulting from roadway disruptions and was found to vary between cities, with increased delays due to a 5% random loss of road linkages ranging from 9.5% in Los Angeles to 56.0% in San Francisco. The results demonstrate that many urban road systems that operate inefficiently under normal conditions are nevertheless resilient to disruption, whereas some more efficient cities are more fragile. The implication is that resilience, not just efficiency, should be considered explicitly in roadway project selection and justify investment opportunities related to disaster and other disruptions.

  19. Paving a Highway to Space (United States)

    Schafer, C. F.; Schmidt, G. R.


    This paper presents the Paving a Highway to Space at the 49th JANNAF (Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air force) Propulsion Meeting. The topics include: 1) Earth-To-Orbit; 2) Orbit and Beyond; 3) Duct Propulsion; 4) Electric Propulsion; 5) Beamed Energy Propulsion; 6) Externally-Effected Force; 7) Nuclear Propulsion; 8) The Road to Higher Power Densities and Performance; 9) Propulsion Technology Map; 10) Launch Applications; 11) Space Applications; and 12) Advanced High-Energy Concepts. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  20. Distributed road assessment system (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W


    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  1. Impact of nighttime paving operations on asphalt roughness behavior. (United States)


    The relationship between nighttime construction scheduling and future road quality in terms of roughness was investigated. Research was three-phased: interviews with local leaders in paving, on-site observations, and historical data analyses. Intervi...

  2. Paving the Road to Technology Integration (United States)

    Mulligan, Angie; Strong, Mary; Crabbe, Jill; Steen, Patricia


    During the 2004-2005 school year, Community Consolidated School District 146, in Tinley Park, Illinois, embarked on a journey to become more familiar with the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS). This journey culminated with the launch of a comprehensive WebQuest for third graders about the American Revolution. The detail that sets…

  3. Paving new roads for scholarly communication

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Although electronic publishing has became mainstream, to a large extent the patterns of scholarly communication are still very similar to what we knew prior to the invention of the World Wide Web. Indeed, the most common method used by authors remains writing up the findings of research in an article to be published in a scholarly journal. Many communities want to make the next step, and CERN is acting as a hub in this change.   At the end of June, more than 250 librarians, IT engineers and information specialists from different communities and from all five continents gathered at the University of Geneva to participate in the CERN Workshop on Innovations in Scholarly Communication. Will nano-publications and triplets replace the classic journal articles? Will Mendeley become the new Facebook for scientists? Why do fewer than 10% of scientists, across all disciplines, publish their work in Open Access while actually 90% think Open Access would be beneficial for their field? These were the kind of...

  4. Crazy paving pattern. (United States)

    Verma, Rajanshu; Abdoh, Mamoun


    Crazy paving pattern is the name given to characteristic polygonal pattern of interlobular thickening on computed tomography (CT scan) of the lung, which results from accumulation of collagen, interstitial fluid, cell, or other pathology and may be seen in multiple clinical conditions including metastatic cancer as described in this case.

  5. Implementation of the SuperPave IDT Analysis Procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli

    framework, which is used to characterize the fracture resistance of mixtures based on the SuperPave indirect tensile test (IDT). An open source Matlab-based software for analyzing resilient modulus, Poisson’s ratio, creep parameters and fracture resistance parameters has been developed. The software...

  6. The asphalt paving process: Plans for action research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei Rosario; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Doree, Andries G.; Atkin, Brian; Borgbrant, Jan


    Recent significant changes in public sector procurement in the Netherlands are forcing road construction companies to professionalize one of their primary processes: on-site asphalt paving. This paper describes an initiative aimed at improving quality in the process. A literature review confirmed

  7. Improving logistics in the asphalt paving process. What can we learn from the planner logic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Doree, Andries G.; Dainty, A


    Significant public procurement changes are forcing road construction companies to professionalise planning and control of asphalt paving projects. In an effort to outperform competitors, companies seek better control over the paving process, over the planning and scheduling of resources and work,

  8. Savage paves the way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolach, D. (Savage Industries Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))


    According to the National Coal Association, an average of 105 million tons of coal per year are moved by truck in the USA to their field destination. Hundreds of millions of tons are also moved by truck to preparation plants, rail depots and barge docks for movement beyond. Savage Industries Inc., which describes itself as a leader in the transport of coal by road, moves some 30 million tons per year of coal, lignite, petroleum coke, waste coal and other products, operating in 15 stages. This article briefly describes some recent advances in truck design and discusses weight laws and truck axle configurations which vary greatly across the United States. Coal volumes moved by trucks are likely to increase over the next few years and the article briefly lists some of the new markets for coal transport which may emerge. 1 photo.

  9. Towards appropriate standards for rural roads: discussion document

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Zyl, GD


    Full Text Available The road user in South Africa currently experiences a large gap between gravel and paved roads in terms of the serviceability and standards which are applied. Because of the high coasts associated with current paved road standards, the provision...

  10. Experimenting for resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter; Dupret, Katia

    Focusing on how an experimental approach to organizing may pave the way for organizational resilience, we explore opportunities and barriers of experimental organizing by following a concrete social experiment in civil society and discuss its adaptability in traditional organizations. The social...... experiment is called Civic Desire. The founders explicitly call for new ways of organizing that can develop social sustainability. We discuss how these experiments may create platforms of new unforeseen goals that organizations may choose to follow. In conclusion we argue for organizational resilience...

  11. Scrap tire rubber as modifier of asphalt cement for use in road paving Borracha de pneus como modificador de cimentos asfálticos para uso em obras de pavimentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Oda


    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a research on the technical feasibility of the use of asphalt-rubber binder by the asphalt paving industry. In Brazil more than 30 million tires a year are disposed of, mostly in inadequate sites, causing serious health and environmental problems. The effects of the main factors (rubber content, rubber particle size, temperature of mixture, reaction time on the behavior of asphalt-rubber binders are evaluated by traditional and Superpave Method tests, the latter based on certain fundamental properties directly related to field performance. Results of the statistical analysis of the factorial design of laboratory experiments show the most significant effect of rubber contents, or rather, that asphalt-rubber binder may increase the resistance against permanent deformation and fatigue crackingEste trabalho apresenta estudo sobre a incorporação de borracha de pneus em ligantes asfálticos utilizados em obras de pavimentação. Trata-se de uma alternativa para solucionar um grave problema ambiental, pois no Brasil, anualmente, são descartados mais de 30 milhões de pneus, dos quais a maior parte é disposta em locais inadequados, servindo para a procriação de vetores de doenças e representando risco de contaminação do meio-ambiente. Os efeitos dos principais fatores que condicionam o comportamento do ligante asfalto-borracha (teor e granulometria da borracha, temperatura de mistura, tempo de reação são avaliados através de ensaios tradicionais de caracterização de ligantes asfálticos e ensaios do Método Superpave, diretamente relacionadas ao desempenho dos pavimentos no campo. Os resultados da análise estatística evidenciam o efeito preponderante do teor de borracha e, principalmente, que o ligante asfalto-borracha pode aumentar a resistência ao acúmulo de deformação permanente e ao aparecimento de trincas por fadiga do revestimento

  12. ["Crazy paving" of the lungs]. (United States)

    Euler, André; Bremerich, Jens; Niemann, Tilo


    The term «crazy paving» describes an unspecific pattern in thoracic computed-tomography mimicking a paving stone configuration. This pattern can be caused by a number of differential diagnosis, for example alveolar hemorrhage, alveolar proteinosis, lipoid pneumonia or adenocarcinoma in situ. The knowledge of the correlation between imaging findings, histopathological pattern and clinical presentation prepares the clinician to understand the pathophysiology and to initiate the right therapeutic processes. In the following review, we describe the most common diseases and their radiologic correlation in daily practice.

  13. Introductory guide to garden paving

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Addis, B.J


    Full Text Available away from buildings or to stormwater drains. Note that i t is illegal to discharge stormwater into munic~pal sewers. Ramps for pedestrian access between various levels and to doorways should be pmvided in preference to steps, particularly... CONCRETE PAVING STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS T o e n m adequate load carrying capacity and guard against cracking or sub- sidence, rigid concrete paving should be: - cast on fm, solid and weU drained ground; at least 75 mm thick, if cast in panels, or 90...

  14. ePave: A Self-Powered Wireless Sensor for Smart and Autonomous Pavement. (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zou, Xiang; Xu, Wenyao


    "Smart Pavement" is an emerging infrastructure for various on-road applications in transportation and road engineering. However, existing road monitoring solutions demand a certain periodic maintenance effort due to battery life limits in the sensor systems. To this end, we present an end-to-end self-powered wireless sensor-ePave-to facilitate smart and autonomous pavements. The ePave system includes a self-power module, an ultra-low-power sensor system, a wireless transmission module and a built-in power management module. First, we performed an empirical study to characterize the piezoelectric module in order to optimize energy-harvesting efficiency. Second, we developed an integrated sensor system with the optimized energy harvester. An adaptive power knob is designated to adjust the power consumption according to energy budgeting. Finally, we intensively evaluated the ePave system in real-world applications to examine the system's performance and explore the trade-off.

  15. An asphalt paving tool for adverse conditions (United States)


    Poor compaction can lead to early deterioration of an asphalt pavement. It often happens when paving occurs during adverse weather conditions. Yet, in Minnesota, paving must often occur under adverse conditions. A new tool now simulates the cooling o...

  16. 14 CFR 151.81 - Taxiway paving. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxiway paving. 151.81 Section 151.81... FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.81 Taxiway paving. (a) The construction... resealing or refilling joints, as set forth in § 151.77, apply also to taxiway paving. (b) Appendix D of...

  17. Runway paving: taking a different approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doree, Andries G.; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.


    Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) paving of airport runways mostly requires multiple paving teams, multiple pavers, and a wide array of other equipment. The runway paving projects are typically renowned for the logistical effort and the tight margins for overruns, often requiring a relatively large part of the

  18. Serious Illness Conversations: Paving the Road with Metaphors. (United States)

    Hui, David; Zhukovsky, Donna S; Bruera, Eduardo


    Serious illness conversations can influence the direction of care by supporting decision-making compatible with the patient's goals. Effective use of core communication techniques, such as active listening and empathic statements, allows for a deeper understanding of the patients' goals, concerns, communication preferences, and questions. Metaphors can be used to augment end-of-life care planning. Used inappropriately, metaphors can cause misunderstandings and confusion. Applied skillfully, metaphors can personalize challenging discussions, improving patient comprehension and helping patients and their families to plan ahead. The art of communication is to use the right tool for the right person at the right time. Discussions with patients about serious illness concerns are especially challenging for the oncologist. This article provides guidance for preparing for such conversations, including examples of the use of metaphors to personalize and improve communication. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  19. Paving the road for a European postgraduate training curriculum. (United States)

    van der Aa, Jessica E; Goverde, Angelique J; Teunissen, Pim W; Scheele, Fedde


    The 'Project for Achieving Consensus in Training' has been initiated by the European Board & College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology to harmonise training in Obstetrics and Gynaecology throughout Europe. In this project called the EBCOG-PACT, a state of the art pan-European training curriculum will be developed. Implementation of a pan-European curriculum will enhance harmonisation of both quality standards of women's healthcare practice and standards of postgraduate training. Secondly, it will assure equal quality of training of gynaecologists, promoting mobility throughout Europe. Thirdly, it will enhance cooperation and exchange of best practices between medical specialists and hospitals within Europe. The project is expecting to deliver (1) a description of the core and electives of the curriculum based on previously defined standards of care, (2) a societally responsive competency framework based on input from societal stakeholders and (3) strategies for education and assessment based on the current literature. Also, the project focuses on implementation and sustainability of the curriculum by delivering (4) a SWOT-analysis for the implementation based on insights into transcultural differences, (5) recommendations for implementation, change management and sustainability based on the SWOT analysis (6) and finally a handbook for other specialties initiating European curriculum development. The development and the implementation of this modern pan-European curriculum in Obstetrics and Gynaecology aims to serve as an example for the harmonisation of postgraduate training in Europe. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Refugee Data Center: Paving the Road to Resettlement. (United States)

    Farkas, Livia J.


    Describes the Refugee Data Center (RDC) (New York City), a hub for linking refugees with voluntary resettlement agencies. The RDC maintains a database on refugees as they progress toward final resettlement in the United States. At present, RDC files include refugees from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America. (SLD)

  1. The road to Environmental Policy Integration is paved with obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrhauge, Helene


    Transport is one of the most polluting sectors and needs to adopt environmental protection, yet the constant struggle between the environment and the economy is often won by economic priorities. This struggle makes environmental policy integration difficult, especially in the legislative process...

  2. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  3. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; Brussel, Aram SA van; Groep, Petra van der; Morsink, Folkert HM; Bult, Peter; Wall, Elsken van der; Diest, Paul J van


    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate

  4. Impact of Modificated Asphalt Mixtures on Paving Functioning and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gribulis


    Full Text Available Atmospheric pollution began to increase in the beginning of 19th century, when the global economy and industrial development started the signal grow. The current problem of global warming is partly related with emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 to environment, which one of the sources are industrial production companies. Warm asphalt mix is usually used in the practice of Lithuania and the world for equipment of road paving. These mixes are produced in specialized asphalt mixers where stone dosing, drying and its mixing with bituminous binders are performed. The temperature of produced hot asphalt mix in mixer reach 150–180 °C and 120–160 °C of mixture laying on the road. Various pollutants, carbon dioxide, formaldehydes, and other are spread to the environment. The carried out researches in Lithuania and the world have showed that while using special additives it is possible to reduce the temperatures of warm asphalt production and laying on the road. Such reduction of temperature helps not to worsen the quality of asphalt layer, to lower the emission of pollutants to environment, to improve the conditions of road workers and to economically use the gas for production of asphalt mixes. Production technologies of different asphalt mixes, their advantages and disadvantages, and results of laboratory tests are analyzed in this article. Equipment samples of experimental road sections, using the warm mixing asphalt mixtures are given.

  5. Lived Lives: A Pavee Perspective (United States)

    Malone, Kevin M; McGuinness, Seamus G; Cleary, Eimear; Jefferies, Janis; Owens, Christabel; Kelleher, Cecily C


    Background: Suicide is a significant public health concern, which impacts on health outcomes. Few suicide research studies have been interdisciplinary. We combined a psychobiographical autopsy with a visual arts autopsy, in which families donated stories, images and objects associated with the lived life of a loved one lost to suicide. From this interdisciplinary research platform, a mediated exhibition was created ( Lived Lives ) with artist, scientist and families, co-curated by communities, facilitating dialogue, response and public action around suicide prevention. Indigenous ethnic minorities (IEMs) bear a significant increased risk for suicide. Irish Travellers are an IEM with social and cultural parallels with IEMs internationally, experiencing racism, discrimination, and poor health outcomes including elevated suicide rates (SMR 6.6). Methods: An adjusted Lived Lives exhibition, Lived Lives: A Pavee Perspective manifested in Pavee Point, the national Traveller and Roma Centre. The project was evaluated by the Travelling Community as to how it related to suicide in their community, how it has shaped their understanding of suicide and its impacts, and its relevance to other socio-cultural contexts, nationally and internationally. The project also obtained feedback from all relevant stakeholders. Evaluation was carried out by an international visual arts research advisor and an independent observer from the field of suicide research. Results: Outputs included an arts-science mediated exhibition with reference to elevated Irish Traveller suicide rates. Digital online learning materials about suicide and its aftermath among Irish Travellers were also produced. The project reached its target audience, with a high level of engagement from members of the Travelling Community. Discussion: The Lived Lives methodology navigated the societal barriers of stigma and silence to foster communication and engagement, working with cultural values, consistent with an adapted

  6. Comparison of compressive strength of paving block with a mixture of Sinabung ash and paving block with a mixture of lime (United States)

    Hastuty, I. P.; Sembiringand Nursyamsi, I. S.


    Paving block is one of the material used as the top layer of road structure besides asphalt and concrete paving block is usually made of mixed material such as Portland cement or other adhesive material, water, and aggregate. People nowadays prefer paving block compared to other pavement such as concrete or asphalt. Their interest toward the use of paving block increase because paving block is an eco-friendly construction which is very useful in helping soil water conservation, can be done faster, has easier installation and maintenance, has a variety of shades that increase the aesthetic value, also costs cheaper than the other. Preparation of the specimens with a mixture of Sinabung ash and a mixture of Sinabung ash and lime are implemented with a mixture ratio of cement : sand : stone ash is 1: 2 : 3. The mixture is used as a substitute material by reducing the percentage amount of the weight of the cement with the composition ratio variation based on the comparative volume category of the paving block aggregate, i.e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. The result of this research shows that the maximum compressive strength value is 42.27 Mpa, it was obtained from a mixture of 10% lime with curing time 28 days. The maximum compressive strength value which is obtained from the mixture of sinabung ash is 41.60 Mpa, it was obtained from a mixture of 15% sinabung ash. From the use of these two materials, paving blocks produced are classified as paving blocks quality A and B (350 - 400 Mpa) in accordance to specification from SNI 03-0691-1996.

  7. Assessment of Some Road Infrastructural Variables in Akwa Ibom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic development than the bad road condition. From this study, it was revealed that the study area has a total length of 6288km of roads. A total of 1272.6km (20%) constituted paved or tarred roads while about 5015.4km (80%) constituted ...

  8. Cold weather paving requirements for bituminous concrete. (United States)


    Cold weather paving specifications were developed from work by Corlew and Dickson, who used a computer solution to predict the cooling rate of bituminous concrete. Virginia had used a minimum atmospheric temperature as a criterion; however, it was ev...

  9. Implementing GPS into Pave-IR. (United States)


    To further enhance the capabilities of the Pave-IR thermal segregation detection system developed at the Texas Transportation Institute, researchers incorporated global positioning system (GPS) data collection into the thermal profiles. This GPS capa...

  10. Paving fabrics for reducing reflective cracking (United States)


    This research effort was part of ADOT's New Product Evaluation Program. The objective was to evaluate the construction and field performances of three commercially available paving fabrics; Paveprep, Glassgrid, and Tapecoat. The fabrics were designed...

  11. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu


    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  12. Resilient ledelse


    Rygh, Bjørn


    Master i styring og ledelse Denne masteroppgaven bygger på litteraturanalyse og intervju med forskere, lederutviklere, ledere og tillitsvalgte. Oppgaven utvikler en hypotese om en resilient lederstil, diskuterer om og hvordan ledere kan bidra til å bedre resiliens hos underordnede, samt identifiserer hva som kan kjennetegne resilient ledelse. Resilient ledelse kan defineres som det en leder gjør for å bedre de underordnedes evne til å få mer psykologisk motstandskraft, det vil si gjør d...

  13. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan


    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...


    The report provides data from pilot-scale measurements of the emissions of specific air pollutants from paving asphalt both with and without recycled crumb rubber additives. The methods used in this work measured emissions from a static layer of asphalt maintained for several hou...

  15. Paving the Way for Apollo 11

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M


    In 'Paving the Way for Apollo 11' David Harland explains the lure of the Moon to classical philosophers, astronomers, and geologists, and how NASA set out to investigate the Moon in preparation for a manned lunar landing mission. It focuses particularly on the Lunar Orbiter and Surveyor missions.

  16. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy


    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  17. Water Resilience (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  18. Construction of a high modulus asphalt (HiMA) trial section Ethekwini: South Africa's first practical experience with design, manufacturing and paving of HiMA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkgapele, M


    Full Text Available Table 3: Summary of paving results (Lewis T, 2011) Date paved Lane Layer Average dispatch temperat ure (?C) Average temperatu re at paver (?C) Average field voids content (%) Average roller passes Steel Wheel PT R 30 August 2011... for the rehabilitation of the section of the South Coast road, which had experienced severe rutting due to high volumes of trucks accessing the Durban harbour. The trial section comprises approximately 300 m of the north bound lanes, towards the intersection...

  19. Properties of paving units incorporating slag cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan A. El Nouhy


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect and possibility of using Portland slag cement in the production of interlocking paving units. Paving units consist of two layers. Four mixes were cast. The first mix was the control mix, in which Portland cement was used in the two layers. In the second mix, Portland slag cement was used in the upper layer, Portland cement was used in the backing layer. In the third mix, Portland cement was placed in the upper layer, while Portland slag cement was used in the backing layer. Finally, in the fourth mix, Portland cement was fully replaced by Portland slag cement in both layers. Tests were carried out in order to investigate the properties of the manufactured specimens at ages 28 and 180 days, respectively. Compressive strength and abrasion resistance were conducted according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM C 140 and ASTM C418. Water absorption, split tensile strength, abrasion resistance, as well as, skid resistance were performed according to both Egyptian Standard Specifications (ESS 4382 and European Standard (EN 1338. The Egyptian standard is identical with the European standard. The results indicate that it is feasible to use Portland slag cement in the manufacture of paving blocks as the conditions of the conducted tests were satisfied at age180 days except for the minimum splitting tensile strength test.

  20. 40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52... asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary in the Pennsylvania... bituminous asphalt paving material used shall be cutback asphalt; and (2) No more than 2,615,000 gallons of...

  1. 14 CFR 151.77 - Runway paving: General rules. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: General rules. 151.77... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.77 Runway paving: General rules. (a) On any airport, paving of the designated instrument landing runway (or dominant runway if...

  2. Understanding pave-IR : background, use, and advanced techniques (United States)


    Why Has TxDOT Implemented Pave-IR? : Promote more uniform, higher quality pavements : Minimize/eliminate thermal segregation : Expand range of weather conditions for paving : Special Provision 341-024 : Contains option for contractor to use Pave-IR :...

  3. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; hide


    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  4. Sulfur extended oil sand as a potential temporary mine paving material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simion, J.R.; Hyne, J.B. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Coward, J.; Melley, R.; Noble, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    The development of sulfur-extended oil sand material, as part of a paving material to be used for heavy haul roads, was described. Paving materials made from oil sand, sulfur and other components which are available at mining sites or are plant by-products, were evaluated to determine the optimum characteristics of the mix to be used. Preliminary mixes were prepared in the laboratory. One problem encountered was the possibility of producing H{sub 2}S by the reaction of the hot sulfur with the bitumen. A final mix temperature of 140-148 degrees C was established for mixing and for minimizing toxic fumes evolution. Some additional tests performed on the preferred mix included the effect of freeze-thaw cycles and water immersion on compressive strength. 3 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  5. Use of noncontact sensors for paving operations on airport pavements (United States)

    Lenngren, Carl A.


    The Swedish National Road Administration has been using a laser range finder system for assessing longitudinal and transversa profiles of pavements for a number of years. The Civil Administration has expressed interest in trying automated methods for surveying airfield runways. Regardless of sampling method, the data re used as input for computer aided design of new pavement surfaces. Typically, the output will consist of tables and maps of where to pave and mill the old pavement surface. Adjusting an old surface to perfectly smooth standards may require continuously changing the new pavement layer thickness. Traditionally, this was often carried out with mechanical devices, usually in direct touch with a wire. Some manufacturers now offer non-contact devices for pavers such as ultra sound sensors as an alternative to the mechanical sensors thus eliminating the need for setting up sires. The method was tested in late 1997 after the output data were converted for a design to be read directly by a paver control unit. A larger test was done in the summer of 1998. The results were promising and the Royal Swedish Fortifications Administration decided to try the method on a taxiway in 1999. The present paper describes some of the experiences obtained with this method and computer controlled equipment in general.

  6. Reuse of steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures. (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Sanzeni, Alex; Rondi, Luca


    This paper presents a comprehensive study to evaluate the mechanical properties and environmental suitability of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures. A variety of tests were executed on samples of EAF slag to characterize the physical, geometrical, mechanical and chemical properties as required by UNI EN specifications, focusing additionally on the volumetric expansion associated with hydration of free CaO and MgO. Five bituminous mixtures of aggregates for flexible road pavement were designed containing up to 40% of EAF slag and were tested to determine Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength. The leaching behaviour of slag samples and bituminous mixtures was evaluated according to the UNI EN leaching test. The tested slag showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties and a release of pollutants generally below the limits set by the Italian code. Tests on volume stability of fresh materials confirmed that a period of 2-3 months is necessary to reduce effects of oxides hydration. The results of tests performed on bituminous mixtures with EAF slag were comparable with the performance of mixtures containing natural aggregates and the leaching tests provided satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Paving materials for heat island mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rosenfeld, A.H. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

  8. ePave: A Self-Powered Wireless Sensor for Smart and Autonomous Pavement (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; Zou, Xiang


    “Smart Pavement” is an emerging infrastructure for various on-road applications in transportation and road engineering. However, existing road monitoring solutions demand a certain periodic maintenance effort due to battery life limits in the sensor systems. To this end, we present an end-to-end self-powered wireless sensor—ePave—to facilitate smart and autonomous pavements. The ePave system includes a self-power module, an ultra-low-power sensor system, a wireless transmission module and a built-in power management module. First, we performed an empirical study to characterize the piezoelectric module in order to optimize energy-harvesting efficiency. Second, we developed an integrated sensor system with the optimized energy harvester. An adaptive power knob is designated to adjust the power consumption according to energy budgeting. Finally, we intensively evaluated the ePave system in real-world applications to examine the system’s performance and explore the trade-off. PMID:28954430

  9. Road Closures (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This is an up to date map of current road closures in Montgomery County.This dataset is updated every few minutes from the Department of Transportation road closure...

  10. Road density (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  11. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes


    To ancient geographers, roads were important not only as arteries of communication, but also as sources of information, since mileages measured along the Roman highways were among the very few precise distances available to the ancient geographer. This chapter explores the place of roads...... in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general...... or the statesman, roads provide routes of communication; for the systematic geographer, they provide measured distances and directions. Through case studies of Spain, Gaul, Italy, Greece and Anatolia, this chapter attempts to reach a better understanding of the place of roads in Strabo’s universe, especially two...

  12. Properties of paving units incorporating crushed ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina M. Sadek


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of using crushed ceramic in the production of interlocking paving units. Eight mixes were cast. The first mix was the control mix, in which natural aggregates were used in the upper and lower layers. In the second and third mixes, coarse crushed ceramic was used in the lower layer replacing 50% and 100% of crushed stone, respectively. In the fourth and fifth mixes, fine crushed ceramic was used in the lower layer replacing 50% and 100% of natural sand, respectively. In the sixth mix, coarse and fine crushed ceramic were used in the lower layer replacing 50% of crushed stone and 50% of natural sand, respectively. Finally, in the seventh and eighth mixes, fine crushed ceramic was used in the upper layer replacing 50% and 100% of natural sand, respectively while natural sand was used in the lower layer. Tests were carried out in order to investigate the properties of the manufactured specimens after 28 days of curing. Compressive strength and abrasion resistance were determined according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM C 140 and ASTM C418, respectively. Water absorption, split tensile strength, abrasion resistance, as well as, skid resistance were determined according to both Egyptian Standard Specifications (ESS 4382 and European Standard (EN 1338. The Egyptian standard is identical with the European standard. The results indicate that it is feasible to use fine crushed ceramic in the manufacture of paving blocks.

  13. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  14. Recognizing resilience (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf


    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  15. Effects of roads on habitat quality for bears in the southern Appalachians: A long-term study (United States)

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.


    We tested the hypothesis that gravel roads, not paved roads, had the largest negative effect on habitat quality for a population of American black bears (Ursus americanus) that lived in a protected area, where vehicle collision was a relatively minimal source of mortality. We also evaluated whether road use by bears differed by sex or age and whether annual variation in hard mast productivity affected the way bears used areas near roads. In addition, we tested previous findings regarding the spatial extent to which roads affected bear behavior negatively. Using summer and fall home ranges for 118 black bears living in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary in western North Carolina during 1981-2001, we estimated both home-range-scale (2nd-order) and within-home-range-scale (3rd-order) selection for areas within 250, 500, 800, and 1,600 m of paved and gravel roads. All bears avoided areas near gravel roads more than they avoided areas near paved roads during summer and fall for 2nd-order selection and during summer for 3rd-order selection. During fall, only adult females avoided areas near gravel roads more than they avoided areas near paved roads for 3rd-order selection. We found a positive relationship between use of roads by adults and annual variability in hard mast productivity. Overall, bears avoided areas within 800 m of gravel roads. Future research should determine whether avoidance of gravel roads by bears affects bear survival. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  16. Evaluating the use of waste-to-energy bottom ash as road construction materials : [summary]. (United States)


    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) generates millions of tons of ash each year. In European and Asian countries, this ash has been recycled into road beds, asphalt paving, and concrete products encouraged and enforced by standards, managem...

  17. Building resilience. (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P


    Failure is a familiar trauma in life, but its effects on people differ widely. Some reel, recover, and move on with their lives; others get bogged down by anxiety, depression, and fear of the future. Seligman, who is known as the father of positive psychology, has spent three decades researching failure, helplessness, and optimism. He created a program at the University of Pennsylvania to help young adults and children overcome anxiety and depression, and has worked with colleagues from around the world to develop a program for teaching resilience. That program is being tested by the U.S. Army, an organization of 1.1 million people where trauma is more common and more severe than in any corporate setting. Nevertheless, businesspeo-ple can draw lessons from resilience training, particularly in times of failure and stagnation. The program is called Comprehensive Soldier Fitness, and it has three components: the Global Assessment Tool, a test for psychological fitness (administered to more than 900,000 soldiers to date); self-improvement courses following the test; and "master resilience training" (MRT) for drill sergeants. MRT focuses on enhancing mental toughness, highlighting and honing strengths, and fostering strong relationships-core competencies for any successful manager.

  18. Quantifying resilience (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.


    The biosphere is under unprecedented pressure, reflected in rapid changes in our global ecological, social, technological and economic systems. In many cases, ecological and social systems can adapt to these changes over time, but when a critical threshold is surpassed, a system under stress can undergo catastrophic change and reorganize into a different state. The concept of resilience, introduced more than 40 years ago in the ecological sciences, captures the behaviour of systems that can occur in alternative states. The original definition of resilience forwarded by Holling (1973) is still the most useful. It defines resilience as the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stable state. The idea of alternative stable states has clear and profound implications for ecological management. Coral reefs, for example, are high-diversity systems that provide key ecosystem services such as fisheries and coastal protection. Human impacts are causing significant, ongoing reef degradation, and many reefs have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states in response to anthropogenic pressures such as elevated water temperatures and overfishing. Understanding and differentiating between the factors that help maintain reefs in coral-dominated states vs. those that facilitate a shift to an undesired algal-dominated state is a critical step towards sound management and conservation of these, and other, important social–ecological systems.

  19. The crazy-paving pattern: a radiological-pathological correlation. (United States)

    De Wever, Walter; Meersschaert, Joke; Coolen, Johan; Verbeken, Eric; Verschakelen, Johny A


    The crazy-paving pattern is a linear pattern superimposed on a background of ground-glass opacity, resembling irregularly shaped paving stones. The crazy-paving pattern is initially described as the pathognomonic sign of alveolar proteinosis. Nowadays this pattern is a common finding on high-resolution CT imaging, and can be seen in a number of acute and chronic diseases. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate different diseases that cause this crazy-paving pattern and to correlate the radiological findings from computed tomography with the histopathological findings.

  20. Generic metrics and quantitative approaches for system resilience as a function of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Devanandham; Emmanuel Ramirez-Marquez, Jose


    Resilience is generally understood as the ability of an entity to recover from an external disruptive event. In the system domain, a formal definition and quantification of the concept of resilience has been elusive. This paper proposes generic metrics and formulae for quantifying system resilience. The discussions and graphical examples illustrate that the quantitative model is aligned with the fundamental concept of resilience. Based on the approach presented it is possible to analyze resilience as a time dependent function in the context of systems. The paper describes the metrics of network and system resilience, time for resilience and total cost of resilience. Also the paper describes the key parameters necessary to analyze system resilience such as the following: disruptive events, component restoration and overall resilience strategy. A road network example is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed resilience metrics and how these analyses form the basis for developing effective resilience design strategies. The metrics described are generic enough to be implemented in a variety of applications as long as appropriate figures-of-merit and the necessary system parameters, system decomposition and component parameters are defined. - Highlights: ► Propose a graphical model for the understanding of the resilience process. ► Mathematical description of resilience as a function of time. ► Identification of necessary concepts to define and evaluate network resilience. ► Development of cost and time to recovery metrics based on resilience formulation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Purwanto


    Full Text Available Concrete paving blocks are the choice for road and urban road’s surfacing. Besides their ease inapplication, they also provide design freedom by coloring off the material.Of major importance is their compression strength. The Indonesian SNI categorizes strength to theirpurposes i.e., for parking areas, pedestrian walking areas and heavy industrial estates.According to the SNI 03 – 0691 -1989 and British Standard BS 6717:1986 the strength of a paving blockis determined by the maximum carrying capacity under distributed load. The blocks are placed under acompression apparatus, and the compression strength at failure is recorded.As being observed in the field paving block’s failure pattern differs as to the failure under distributedloading. The paving’s failure mode is distinguished by a bending failure plain at the smallest crosssection.The BS EN 1338 code proposes a different approach. This paper will discuss the methods being used inthe BS EN 1338 code, and evaluates the effectiveness of Indonesian standards to date.

  2. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.


    SMARTeST. A web based three tier advisory system FLORETO-KALYPSO (, Manojlovic et al, 2009) devoted to support decision-making process at the building level has been further developed to support multi-scale decision making on resilient systems, improving the existing data mining algorithms of the Business Logic tier. Further tuning of the algorithms is to be performed based on the new developments and findings in applicability and efficiency of different FRe Technology for different flood typologies. The first results obtained at the case studies in Greater Hamburg, Germany indicate the potential of this approach to contribute to the multiscale resilient planning on the road to flood resilient cities. FIAC (2007): "Final report form the Awareness and Assistance Sub-committee", FIAC, Scottish Government Zevenbergen C. et al (2008) "Challenges in urban flood management: travelling across spatial and temporal scales", Journal of FRM Volume 1 Issue 2, p 81-88 Manojlovic N., et al (2009): "Capacity Building in FRM through a DSS Utilising Data Mining Approach", Proceed. 8th HIC, Concepcion, Chile, January, 2009

  3. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Asphalt Paving Material ... (United States)

    Technical Brief Validated rapid radiochemical methods for alpha and beta emitters in solid matrices that are commonly encountered in urban environments were previously unavailable for public use by responding laboratories. A lack of tested rapid methods would delay the quick determination of contamination levels and the assessment of acceptable site-specific exposure levels. Of special concern are matrices with rough and porous surfaces, which allow the movement of radioactive material deep into the building material making it difficult to detect. This research focuses on methods that address preparation, radiochemical separation, and analysis of asphalt paving materials and asphalt roofing shingles. These matrices, common to outdoor environments, challenge the capability and capacity of very experienced radiochemistry laboratories. Generally, routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques produce liquid samples (representative of the original sample material) that can be processed using available radiochemical methods. The asphalt materials are especially difficult because they do not readily lend themselves to these routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques. The HSRP and ORIA coordinate radiological reference laboratory priorities and activities in conjunction with HSRP’s Partner Process. As part of the collaboration, the HSRP worked with ORIA to publish rapid radioanalytical methods for selected radionuclides in building material matrice

  4. Pave Benedikt XVI som social kritiker og moderniseringsteoretiker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn


    Denne artikel har som formål, at diskutere akademikeren Joseph Ratzinger/Pave Benedikt VXI som social kritiker og globaliseringsdebattør, fra sin tidlige ungdom, til livet som Kardinal og Pave. Det vil i generelle træk blive fremhævet, hvorledes Paven har stået for en af efterkrigstidens vigtigste...

  5. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability (United States)

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom


    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  6. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Chapin, T.; Rockstrom, J.


    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change

  7. Demonstrating a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents. (United States)

    Amador, Luis; Willis, Christopher Joseph


    The objective of this study is to demonstrate a correlation between the maturity of a country's road safety practices and road safety incidents. Firstly, data on a number of road injuries and fatalities for 129 countries were extracted from the United Nations Global Status on Road Safety database. These data were subdivided according to road safety incident and accident causation factors and normalized based on vehicular fleet (per 1000 vehicles) and road network (per meter of paved road). Secondly, a road safety maturity model was developed based on an adaptation of the concept of process maturity modeling. The maturity of countries with respect to 10 road safety practices was determined through the identification of indicators recorded in the United Nations Global Status of Road Safety Database. Plots of normalized road safety performance of the 129 countries against their maturity scores for each road safety practice as well as an aggregation of the road safety practices were developed. An analysis of variance was done to determine the extent of the correlation between the road safety maturity of the countries and their performance. In addition, a full Bayesian analysis was done to confirm the correlation of each of the road safety practices with injuries and fatalities. Regression analysis for fatalities, injuries, and combined accidents identified maturity with respect to road safety practices associated with speed limits and use of alternative modes as being the most significant predictors of traffic fatalities. A full Bayesian regression confirms that there is a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents. Road safety practices associated with enforcement of speed limits and promotion of alternative modes are the most significant road safety practices toward which mature countries have concentrated their efforts, resulting in a lower frequency of fatalities, injury rates, and property damage accidents. The authors

  8. Road Damage Externalities and Road User Charges.


    Newbery, David M


    Vehicles damage roads and, thus, increase road repair costs and create a road damage externality by raising the operating costs of subsequent vehicles. The main result is that if periodic road maintenance is condition responsive and if all road damage is attributable to traffic, then, in steady state with zero traffic growth, the average road damage externality is zero a nd the appropriate road damage charge is the average maintenance cost. Where weather accounts for some road damage, the roa...

  9. Road works and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Roadworks can cause dangerous situations for both road users and road workers. In the period 2000-2009, 2% of all registered fatal crashes in the Netherlands took place at roadworks. In addition, roadworks seem to increase the crash rate. Lorries are relatively often involved in crashes at

  10. Effectiveness of best management practices that have application to forest roads: a literature synthesis (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Frederica Wood; Robin L. Quinlivan


    Literature describing the effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) applicable to forest roads is reviewed and synthesized. Effectiveness is considered from the perspective of protecting water quality and water resources. Both paved and unpaved forest roads are considered, but BMPs that involve substantial engineering are not considered. Some of the BMPs...

  11. Road Rage (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.


    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators. PMID:20805914

  12. GPS Roads (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a 1:100,000 scale vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads...

  13. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  14. Security Paving Company, Inc.: Consent Agreement and Proposed Final Order (United States)

    Consent Agreement and Proposed Final Order (“Proposed Consent Agreement”), between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 (“EPA”), and Security Paving Company (“Respondent”) to resolve a civil administrative penalty proceeding.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsa YÜKSEL


    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an experimental study about partial substitution of granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS as fine aggregate in production of concrete paving blocks and kerbs. GBFS is replaced sand for different GBFS/sand ratios in concrete during production of kerb and paving block specimens. Some tests orienting towards strength and durability were applied on these specimens including control specimens that are produced with normal concrete. Then, the results of tested properties of GBFS-replaced specimens and control specimens were compared. GBFS decreases the compressive strength of paving blocks and kerbs according to the results. However, some durability properties which are more important than strength for these elements are improved with GBFS replacement. The most improved property was abrasion resistance. It is concluded that it is feasible to use GBFS in paving block and kerb production with an optimum replacement ratio for these specimens.

  16. Statewide implementation of Pave-IR in the Texas Department of Transportation. (United States)


    This project conducted work to complement implementation of Pave-IR into the Texas Department of : Transportations hot-mix-asphalt quality control/quality assurance specification. Pave-IR provides real-time : thermal profiling of paving operations...

  17. Of resilient places: planning for urban resilience


    Mehmood, Abid


    This paper argues that resilience of a place cannot necessarily be associated only with the level of its vulnerability to the environment or security. A place-based perspective to resilience helps understand the capacity of communities to withstand or adapt with change. Resilience of a place does not only refer to contingencies—such as formulating immediate responses to crisis situations or incidents such as earthquakes, floods or other disasters in vulnerable areas—but also considers long-te...

  18. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke


    Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social-ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

  19. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning


    Wang, JYT


    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  20. Building Resilience in Children (United States)

    ... to succeed in life. That is why Kenneth Ginsburg, M.D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing ... resilience in children, teens, and young adults. Dr. Ginsburg has identified seven “C”s of resilience, recognizing that “ ...

  1. Resiliant Space Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task goal is to develop and demonstrate an innovative software architecture, the “Resilient Spacecraft Executive”, that will enable highly-resilient...

  2. Developing the resilience typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten


    There is a growing interest in resilience in internal crisis management and crisis communication. How an organization can build up resilience as a response to organisational crisis, at a time when the amount of crises seem only to increase, is more relevant than ever before. Nevertheless resilience...... is often perceived in the literature as something certain organisations have by definition, without further reflection on what it is that creates this resiliency. This article explores what it is that creates organisational resilience, and in view of the different understandings of the resilience...... phenomenon, develops a typology of resilience. Furthermore the resilience phenomenon is discussed against the definition of a crisis as a cosmological episode, and implications for future research is discussed and summarized....

  3. Resilience - A Concept (United States)


    Image designed by Diane Fleischer Resilience —A CONCEPT Col Dennis J. Rensel, USAF (Ret.) Resilience takes on many definitions and ideas depending...upon who is speaking. Taking this one step further, consider resiliency as a concept that provides a holistic view of a system or capability, just...the assessment of the health of a network or system. The hypothesis is: resiliency is meaningful in the context of holistic assessments of

  4. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  5. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...... and resources. This poster will present the conceptual framework for this project focusing on species resilience....

  6. Resilience among Military Youth (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.


    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  7. Paving the Road to Higher Ed for Students Hit by Homelessness (United States)

    Opper, Cheryl


    With higher education offering a potential avenue out of a bleak alternative, School on Wheels of Massachusetts (SOWMA) has devoted countless hours to increasing the educational opportunities for young people impacted by homelessness. SOWMA first meets a student when he or she is experiencing homelessness. Once part of the SOWMA family, the…

  8. The ToxCast Chemical Landscape - Paving the Road to 21st ... (United States)

    The ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) program within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was launched in 2007. Phase I of the program screened 310 chemicals, mostly pesticides, across hundreds of ToxCast assay endpoints. In Phase II, the ToxCast library was expanded to 1878 chemicals, culminating in public release of screening data at the end of 2013. Concurrently, a larger EPA library of 3726 chemicals (including the Phase II chemicals) was undergoing screening in the cross-federal agency Tox21 HTS project. Four years later, Phase III of EPA’s ToxCast program is actively screening a diverse library consisting of more than 3800 chemicals, 96% of which are also undergoing Tox21 screening. The majority of ToxCast studies, to date, have focused on using HTS results to build biologically based models for predicting in vivo toxicity endpoints. The focus of the present article, in contrast, is on the EPA chemical library underpinning these efforts. A history of the phased construction of EPA’s ToxCast library is presented, considering factors influencing chemical selection as well as the various quality measures implemented. Next, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Numbers (CASRN), which were used to compile initial chemical nominations for ToxCast testing, are used to assess overlaps of the current ToxCast library with important toxicity, regulatory, and exposure inventories. Lastly, ToxCast chemicals are described in terms of generaliz

  9. Regulation of autophagy by polyphenols: Paving the road for treatment of neurodegeneration. (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Shirooie, Samira; Silva, Ana Sanches; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Ahmed, Touqeer; Ishaq, Nafeesa; Hashim, Rabia; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Braidy, Nady; Volpicella, Mariateresa; Vacca, Rosa Anna; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad


    In the present paper, we will discuss on the importance of autophagy in the central nervous system, and outline the relation between autophagic pathways and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The potential therapeutic benefits of naturally occurring phytochemicals as pharmacological modulators of autophagy will also be addressed. Our findings provide renewed insight on the molecular modes of protection by polyphenols, which is likely to be at least in part mediated not only by their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, but also through modulation of autophagic processes to remove the aberrant protein aggregates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Body Fluids-Derived Exosomes: Paving the Novel Road to Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy. (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Li, Lin; Wang, Liang; Liu, Jing


    Lung cancer is a major human malignancy. Nowadays, the lack of specific diagnostic markers of lung cancer restricts the early diagnosis and therapy of patients. Exosomes, as spherical 30-100 nm microvesicles, are released by normal and cancer cells in both physiological and pathological circumstances. Exosomes carry various molecular cargos such as miRNA, proteins, mRNA, DNA and lipids. Therefore, analysis of the molecular profiles of exosomes may provide beneficial biomarkers for disease diagnosis. Exosomes can be transported by body fluids. The molecules (miRNAs and proteins) detected in body fluid exosomes may contribute to lung cancer diagnosis. In this review, we summarize typical molecules (miRNAs and proteins) in body fluids-derived exosomes to reveal the potential biomarkers in lung cancer. Besides, the role and the application of exosomes in chemotherapy and radiotherapy of lung cancer patients have also been discussed in this review. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  11. Paving the Road to Success: A Framework for Implementing the "Success Tutoring" Approach (United States)

    Spark, Linda; De Klerk, Danie; Maleswena, Tshepiso; Jones, Andrew


    The exponential growth of higher education enrolment in South Africa has resulted in increased diversity of the student body, leading to a proliferation of factors that affect student performance and success. Various initiatives have been adopted by tertiary institutions to mitigate the negative impact these factors may have on student success,…

  12. The ToxCast Chemical Landscape - Paving the Road to 21st Century Toxicology (United States)

    The ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) program within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was launched in 2007. Phase I of the program screened 310 chemicals, mostly pesticides, across hundreds of ToxCast assay endpoints. In Phase II, the ToxCast library was exp...

  13. Secreted Wnt antagonists in leukemia: A road yet to be paved. (United States)

    Pehlivan, Melek; Çalışkan, Ceyda; Yüce, Zeynep; Sercan, Hakki Ogun


    Wnt signaling has been a topic of research for many years for its diverse and fundamental functions in physiological (such as embryogenesis, organogenesis, proliferation, tissue repair and cellular differentiation) and pathological (carcinogenesis, congenital/genetic diseases, and tissue degeneration) processes. Wnt signaling pathway aberrations are associated with both solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Unregulated Wnt signaling observed in malignancies may be due to a wide spectrum of abnormalities, from mutations in the genes of key players to epigenetic modifications of Wnt antagonists. Of these, Wnt antagonists are gaining significant attention for their potential of being targets for treatment and inhibition of Wnt signaling. In this review, we discuss and summarize the significance of Wnt signaling antagonists in the pathogenesis and treatment of hematological malignancies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics? (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A


    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists' and the Nazi doctors' dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the 'collective' or 'greater good.' Thus in the 20(th) century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine.

  15. Paving In-Roads for Technology Integration--a Classroom Example. (United States)

    Wales, Carolyn; White, Charles, Ed.


    Presents an eight-step plan for implementing technology integration. Describes a sixth-grade social studies class that used hypermedia software to complete a research project about the Renaissance. Discusses software selection, teaching computer skills, and the CD-ROM map project. Benefits include positive group interaction, self-expression, and…

  16. Paving the road from transport models to “new mobilities” models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon; Jensen, Ole B.; Kaplan, Sigal


    For half a century, tremendous efforts have been invested in developing transport models as a decision aid for policy makers in designing effective policy interventions and deciding among costly public projects for the benefit of the population. Transport and activity-based models are often...... criticized for neglecting the “new mobilities” turn (Urry 2007, Cresswell 2006), namely multiple mobility aspects and rationales, including social, cultural, material, aesthetic and affective, in analyzing travel behavior. This paper aims at taking a tentative first step in bridging the gap between...... the traditional transport modeling approach and “new mobilities” research by suggesting a model framework that considers non-instrumental transport rationales, personal latent traits and intra-household decision dynamics....

  17. Paving the Road to Success: A Framework for Implementing the Success Tutoring Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spark Linda


    Full Text Available The exponential growth of higher education enrolment in South Africa has resulted in increased diversity of the student body, leading to a proliferation of factors that affect student performance and success. Various initiatives have been adopted by tertiary institutions to mitigate the negative impact these factors may have on student success, and it is suggested that interventions that include aspects of social integration are the most successful. This paper outlines an approach called Success Tutoring (a non-academic tutorial approach used as part of a student success and support programme in the Faculty of Commerce, Law, and Management at the University of the Witwatersrand, which is underscored by empirical evidence drawn from evaluation data collected during Success Tutor symposia. The authors draw conclusions and make recommendations based on a thematic analysis of the dataset, and ultimately provide readers with a framework for implementing Success Tutoring at their tertiary institutions.

  18. A history of diabetes insipidus: paving the road to internal water balance. (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed


    Diabetes insipidus is an ancient disease considered under the rubric of diabetes, the Greek descriptive term for polyuria, which was unrecognized even after the sweetness of urine was reported as a characteristic of diabetes mellitus in the 17th century. It would be another century before diabetes insipidus was identified from the insipid rather than saccharine taste of urine in cases of polyuria. After its increased recognition, pathologic observations and experimental studies connected diabetes insipidus to the pituitary gland in the opening decades of the 20th century. Simultaneously, posterior pituitary lobe extracts were shown to be vasoconstrictive (vasopressin) and antidiuretic (antidiuretic hormone). As vasopressin was purified and synthesized and its assay became available, it was shown to be released in response to both osmotic and volume stimuli that are integrated in the hypothalamus, and vasopressin thereby was essential to maintaining internal water balance. The antidiuretic properties of vasopressin to treat the rare cases of diabetes insipidus were of limited clinical utility until its vasoconstrictive effects were resuscitated in the 1970s, with the consequent increasing wider use of vasopressin for the treatment of compromised hemodynamic states. In addition, the discovery of antidiuretic hormone receptor blockers has led to their increasing use in managing hypo-osmolar states. Copyright © 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Promoting Second Generation Biofuels: Does the First Generation Pave the Road?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Eggert


    Full Text Available The U.S., Brazil and a number of European and other countries worldwide have introduced various support schemes for bioethanol and biodiesel. The advantage of these biofuels is that they are relatively easily integrated with the current fossil fuel-based transport sector, at least up to a certain point. However, recent studies point to various negative effects of expanding the production of first generation (1G biofuels further. 1G biofuels’ problems can be overcome by a transition to second generation (2G biofuels. So far, 2G biofuels are much more costly to produce. We therefore ask: to what extent is targeted support to 2G biofuels likely to bring costs down? Additionally, are current support schemes for biofuels well designed in order to promote the development of 2G biofuels? We find that the prospects for cost reduction look better for 2G bioethanol than for 2G biodiesel. Bioethanol made from cellulose is far from a ripe technology, with several cost-reducing opportunities yet to be developed. Hence, targeted support to cellulosic ethanol might induce a switch from 1G to 2G biofuels. However, we find little evidence that production and use of 1G bioethanol will bridge the conversion to 2G bioethanol. Hence, to the extent that private investment in the development of 2G bioethanol is too low, current support schemes for 1G biofuels may block 2G bioethanol instead of promoting it.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprescu Raluca


    Full Text Available In the attempt to boost its international competitiveness, the European Union realized that it should enrich the ways to achieve it by using the intangible assets that it holds. Knowledge and intellectual capital, innovation, science and entrepreneurship are key drivers of economic development and renewal. The traditional resources on which economies rely on are scarce, while these ones are abundant and steady. Moreover, this type of assets can easily increase their value through sharing and they trigger multiplicative effects in the economy. The paper tackles these issues and makes an assessment of the degree of innovation in the EU. The study aims to provide an answer to the question of whether EU's overall performance proves that it is truly driven by knowledge and innovation or not. Using a qualitative method of research, this paper identifies innovation patterns of the member states from a geographical perspective. In order to provide a compelling analysis, the data ranges from indicators capturing science and technology activities, firm innovation to the internationalization of research activities and the tertiary-level graduates. The results show substantial discrepancies between the European countries and reveal that knowledge flows scaled by the level of innovation are a localized phenomenon, therefore some countries are more innovation-oriented and they reap the benefits better.

  1. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories. (United States)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles


    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  2. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani* Hasan.H.Al-Baid


    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.  

  3. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.

  4. Validity of empirical models of exposure in asphalt paving (United States)

    Burstyn, I; Boffetta, P; Burr, G; Cenni, A; Knecht, U; Sciarra, G; Kromhout, H


    Aims: To investigate the validity of empirical models of exposure to bitumen fume and benzo(a)pyrene, developed for a historical cohort study of asphalt paving in Western Europe. Methods: Validity was evaluated using data from the USA, Italy, and Germany not used to develop the original models. Correlation between observed and predicted exposures was examined. Bias and precision were estimated. Results: Models were imprecise. Furthermore, predicted bitumen fume exposures tended to be lower (-70%) than concentrations found during paving in the USA. This apparent bias might be attributed to differences between Western European and USA paving practices. Evaluation of the validity of the benzo(a)pyrene exposure model revealed a similar to expected effect of re-paving and a larger than expected effect of tar use. Overall, benzo(a)pyrene models underestimated exposures by 51%. Conclusions: Possible bias as a result of underestimation of the impact of coal tar on benzo(a)pyrene exposure levels must be explored in sensitivity analysis of the exposure–response relation. Validation of the models, albeit limited, increased our confidence in their applicability to exposure assessment in the historical cohort study of cancer risk among asphalt workers. PMID:12205236

  5. Evaluation of fly ash in water reduced paving mixtures. (United States)


    Fly ash was used to replace 15% of the cement in C3WR and C6WR concrete : paving mixes containing ASTM C494 Type A water reducin9 admixtures. Two Class : C ashes and one Class F ash from Iowa approved sources were examined in each : mix. When Class C...

  6. A combination of Monte Carlo Temperature Basin Paving and Graph ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The knowledge of degree of completeness of energy landscape search by stochastic algorithms is often lacking. A graph theory based method is used to investigate the completeness of search performed by. Monte Carlo Temperature Basin Paving (MCTBP) algorithm for (H2O)n, (n=6, 7, and 20). In the second part.

  7. Feasibility study of two-lift concrete paving : technical report. (United States)


    Two-lift concrete paving (2LCP) involves placing two layers of concrete (wet-on-wet) instead of a single : homogeneous layer, as is typically done in the United States. 2LCP offers the opportunity to optimize the use of local : aggregates, recycled m...

  8. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel


    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  9. Road pricing policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, D.M.


    Urban areas suffer from the negative externalities of road transport like congested road networks, air pollution and road traffic accidents. A measure to reduce these negative externalities is road pricing, meaning policies that impose direct charges on road use (Jones and Hervik, 1992). Since the

  10. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE


    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  11. The psychobiology of resilience. (United States)

    Stein, Dan J


    Although adverse environments are well known to be a risk factor for psychopathology, many individuals respond adaptively to such environments. There is growing interest in the underlying mechanisms involved in such resilience. Several cognitive-affective processes may be involved, and these may be mediated by particular neuronal circuits and neurochemical systems. This article summarizes some of the relevant work on the role of fear conditioning, reward processing, and social behavior in resilience. There is a growing body of data on how particular gene-environment interactions affect these processes, and thus underpin resilience. Ultimately, a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning resilience may lead to novel interventions.

  12. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  13. Paving-stone CT finding in a pulmonary tuberculosis patient. (United States)

    Huang, Hua; Lu, Pu-Xuan


    Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) is a commen medical and social problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Accurate diagnosis is very important. Chest radiography is usually the first choice of diagnostic tool when there is a suspicion of pulmonary TB. A computed tomography (CT) scan provides more detailed information on the extent and distribution of pulmonary TB. Here we present a culture proved pulmonary TB with paving-stone CT finding in a young immunocompetent male patient.

  14. Reusing Ceramic Tile Polishing Waste In Paving Block Manufacturing


    Giordano Penteado; Carmenlucia Santos; de Carvalho; Eduardo Viviani; Cecche Lintz; Rosa Cristina


    Ceramic companies worldwide produce large amounts of polishing tile waste, which are piled up in the open air or disposed of in landfills. These wastes have such characteristics that make them potential substitutes for cement and sand in the manufacturing of concrete products. This paper investigates the use of ceramic tile polishing waste as a partial substitute for cement and sand in the manufacturer of concrete paving blocks. A concrete mix design was defined and then the sand was replaced...

  15. Paving Geopolimer Berbahan Dasar Bottom Ash dan Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Freddya Eka Prasandha


    Full Text Available Abstrak— Penelitian ini berfokus pada pemanfaatan bottom ash sebagai bahan dasar pembuatan paving geopolimer. Diketahui bahwa bottom ash merupakan limbah hasil pembakaran batu bara yang jarang dimanfaatkan dibandingkan dengan fly ash. Selain itu digunakan SCBA (Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash sebagai sumber silika aktif untuk menambah kandungan silika pada bottom ash. Agregat atau filler pada paving geopolimer menggunakan abu batu, sedangkan untuk binder (pengikat menggunakan larutan alkali aktifator. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa semakin banyak penambahan berat SCBA pada paving geopolimer justru menurunkan kualitas dari paving tersebut. Dari pengujian kuat tekan paving diperoleh hasil kuat tekan maksimal pada umur 28 hari dengan penambahan berat SCBA 0%, yaitu sebesar 11.60 MPa. Nilai keausan paling besar terjadi pada paving dengan penambahan berat SCBA 35%, yaitu yaitu sebesar 3.12 mm/menit, sedangkan keausan paling kecil terjadi pada paving dengan penambahan berat SCBA 30% yaitu sebesar 0.72 mm/menit, terjadi ketimpangan nilai keausan paving dikarenakan benda uji terendam banjir sehingga menyebabkan perbedaan kualitas antar paving dalam pengujian keausan, sedangkan resapan air paving paling kecil terjadi pada paving dengan penambahan berat SCBA 0% yaitu sebesar 10.58%. Sehingga diperoleh kesimpulan akhir bahwa paving geopolimer tidak memenuhi persyaratan standar paving berdasarkan SNI 03-0691-1996 namun memenuhi syarat untuk dijadikan bata sebagai pasangan dinding kelas I berdasarkan SNI 03-0349-1989.

  16. How Resilience Works. (United States)

    Coutu, Diane L.


    Looks at coping skills that carry people through life and why some have them and others do not. Suggests that resilience is a reflex, a way of facing and understanding the world, and that resilient people and companies face reality with staunchness, make meaning out of hardship, and improvise. (JOW)

  17. Multifractal resilience and viability (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.


    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  18. Resilient health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.

    . Whereas current safety approaches primarily aim to reduce or eliminate the number of things that go wrong, Resilient Health Care aims to increase and improve the number of things that go right. Just as the WHO argues that health is more than the absence of illness, so does Resilient Health Care argue...... rights reserved....

  19. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated


    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  20. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel


    of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature...

  1. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    -2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...

  2. The Resilient Leader (United States)

    Allison, Elle


    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  3. On street observations of particulate matter movement and dispersion due to traffic on an urban road (United States)

    Patra, Aditya; Colvile, Roy; Arnold, Samantha; Bowen, Emma; Shallcross, Dudley; Martin, Damien; Price, Catheryn; Tate, James; ApSimon, Helen; Robins, Alan

    Empirical models for particulate matter emissions from paved road surfaces have been criticised for their lack of realism and accuracy. To support the development of a less empirical model, a study was conducted in a busy street at the DAPPLE site in Central London to understand the processes and to identify important parameters that influence emission from paved roads. Ordinary road gritting salt was applied to the road and the particulate matter entering the air at near-road surface level was monitored using optical particle counters. The grit acted as a tracer. The grit moved rapidly along the road in the direction of traffic flow. Build-up of material at the kerb indicated material being thrown across the road by the traffic. Coarser particles were resuspended faster than the finer ones. A clear decay profile was seen in the case of particles larger than 2μm; particles smaller than 2μm did not show any decay pattern during the experiment duration. Grinding of material appears to control the reservoir of fine particles on the road surface. The amount of material resuspended by traffic is about 30% less than those removed along the road and a factor of 6 higher than the amount removed across the road. Resuspension accounts for 40% of the total material removed from a road segment and 70% of the material removed together along and across the road. On average a single vehicle pass removes 0.08% of material present on a road segment at that instant. The calculation scheme is obtained from a short-duration study and therefore further studies of long duration involving varying road geometry and different traffic and meteorological condition need to be carried out before applying parameter estimates presented in this paper.

  4. From Risk to Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    This thesis investigates unpredictability in contemporary disaster and emergency management. The thesis traces the shift from risk thinking towards the resilience approach that has recently characterized the field. It asks how resilience manifests itself in practice and discusses how to incorporate...... this approach into preparedness planning to improve the ability of socio-technological systems to cope with unexpected disruptions. Those working in the field understand resilience as a broad umbrella term linked to risk thinking and concerned with flexible systems that are able to absorb and adapt...... resilience and complexity discourses in an attempt to conjoin the two concepts. This broad discussion leads into a case study of resilience thinking in contemporary disaster and emergency management: preparedness planning for long-term disruptions of the Øresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden. Through...

  5. Zoogeomorphology and resilience theory (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Anzah, Faisal; Goff, Paepin D.; Villa, Jennifer


    Zoogeomorphology, the study of animals as geomorphic agents, has been largely overlooked in the context of resilience theory and biogeomorphic systems. In this paper, examples are provided of the interactions between external landscape disturbances and zoogeomorphological agents. We describe cases in which naturally occurring zoogeomorphological agents occupy a landscape, and examine whether those zoogeomorphic agents provide resilience to a landscape or instead serve as a landscape stress capable of inducing a phase-state shift. Several cases are described whereby the presence of exotic (introduced) zoogeomorphic agents overwhelms a landscape and induce collapse. The impact of climate change on species with zoogeomorphological importance is discussed in the context of resilience of a landscape. We conclude with a summary diagram illustrating the relationships existing between zoogeomorphic impacts and landscape resilience in the context of our case studies, and speculate about the future of the study of zoogeomorphology in the framework of resilience theory.

  6. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience (United States)

    Tourbier, J.


    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  7. Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian


    As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

  8. 14 CFR 151.80 - Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: Additional runway; other... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.80 Runway paving: Additional runway; other conditions. Paving an additional runway on an airport that does not qualify for a...

  9. 14 CFR 151.79 - Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runway paving: Second runway; wind... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.79 Runway paving: Second runway; wind conditions. (a) All airports. Paving a second runway on the basis of wind conditions...

  10. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel


    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  11. Foundations of resilience thinking. (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P


    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Resilience: Theory and Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Bassett, G.W.; Buehring, W.A.; Collins, M.J., III; Folga, S.M.; Petit, F.D.; Phillips, J.A.; Verner, D.R.; Whitfield, R.G. (Decision and Information Sciences)


    There is strong agreement among policymakers, practitioners, and academic researchers that the concept of resilience must play a major role in assessing the extent to which various entities - critical infrastructure owners and operators, communities, regions, and the Nation - are prepared to respond to and recover from the full range of threats they face. Despite this agreement, consensus regarding important issues, such as how resilience should be defined, assessed, and measured, is lacking. The analysis presented here is part of a broader research effort to develop and implement assessments of resilience at the asset/facility and community/regional levels. The literature contains various definitions of resilience. Some studies have defined resilience as the ability of an entity to recover, or 'bounce back,' from the adverse effects of a natural or manmade threat. Such a definition assumes that actions taken prior to the occurrence of an adverse event - actions typically associated with resistance and anticipation - are not properly included as determinants of resilience. Other analyses, in contrast, include one or more of these actions in their definitions. To accommodate these different definitions, we recognize a subset of resistance- and anticipation-related actions that are taken based on the assumption that an adverse event is going to occur. Such actions are in the domain of resilience because they reduce both the immediate and longer-term adverse consequences that result from an adverse event. Recognizing resistance- and anticipation-related actions that take the adverse event as a given accommodates the set of resilience-related actions in a clear-cut manner. With these considerations in mind, resilience can be defined as: 'the ability of an entity - e.g., asset, organization, community, region - to anticipate, resist, absorb, respond to, adapt to, and recover from a disturbance.' Because critical infrastructure resilience is important

  13. Toward a digital resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn J. Wright


    Full Text Available Abstract As we contend with human impacts on the biosphere, there is rightfully a great emphasis now on community adaptation and resilience to climate change. Recent innovations in information technologies and analyses are helping communities to become more resilient. However, not often discussed in this vein is a path toward digital resilience. If mapping and information tools are to help communities, it stands to reason that they must be resilient themselves, as well as the data that they are based on. In other words, digital tools can help make communities resilient by providing data, evidence-based advice on community decisions, etc., but the resilience of the tools themselves can also be an issue. Digital resilience means that to the greatest extent possible, data and tools should be freely accessible, interchangeable, operational, of high quality, and up-to-date so that they can help give rise to the resilience of communities or other entities using them. Given the speed at which humans are altering the biosphere, the usefulness and effectiveness of these technologies must keep pace. This article reviews and recommends three fundamental digital practices, particularly from the standpoint of geospatial data and for community resilience and policy-making. These are: (1 create and implement a culture that consistently shares not only data, but workflows and use cases with the data, especially within maps and geographic information systems or GIS; (2 use maps and other visuals to tell compelling stories that many different kinds of audiences will understand and remember; and (3 be more open to different kinds of partnerships to reduce project costs, yield better results, and foster public awareness and behavioral change.

  14. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  15. Resilience of the IMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.


    The paper focuses on end-to-end resilience analysis of the IMS based network through the principal resilience parameters by using OPNET. The resilience behaviours of communication across multiple IMS domains are investigated at different communication scenarios and compared with previous state......-of-the-art. Moreover, the resilience effects when adding a redundancy of the S-CSCF unit are examined. The results disclose interesting resilience behaviours for long distance communications....

  16. RFID on the Road-Some Considerations About Passive Tag Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Kyritsi, Persefoni; Pedersen, Gert Frølund


    This paper presents an investigation of tag antenna performance in the scenario of a passive RFID tag placed on an asphalt road and inquired by readers in vehicles. Three types of antennas were chosen and their properties were studied for various dielectric properties of the asphalt paving. Water...

  17. Characterization of crumb rubber from end-of-life tyres for paving applications. (United States)

    Zanetti, M C; Fiore, S; Ruffino, B; Santagata, E; Dalmazzo, D; Lanotte, M


    Crumb rubber (CR) derived from grinding of end-of-life tyres (ELTs) may be successfully used as a bitumen modifier or as a supplementary component in the production of bituminous mixtures employed for the construction and maintenance of road pavements. However, CRs deriving from different sources and production processes yield effects on performance of corresponding paving mixtures under traffic loading and on gaseous emissions produced during laying on site which may change considerably depending upon their physical and chemical properties. In order to quantitatively assess the possible variability of CR characteristics, 16 samples were taken from 9 Italian and 2 foreign ELT processing plants. Investigation activities included field surveys, during which plants were examined in detail, and laboratory tests, which focused on physical and chemical characterization of CR. Based on the analysis of available technical information and experimental data, it was possible to find relationships between the peculiar characteristics of treatment cycles and corresponding CR properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Portland cement hydration and early setting of cement stone intended for efficient paving materials (United States)

    Grishina, A.


    Due to the growth of load on automotive roads, modern transportation engineering is in need of efficient paving materials. Runways and most advanced highways require Portland cement concretes. This makes important the studies directed to improvement of binders for such concretes. In the present work some peculiarities of the process of Portland cement hydration and early setting of cement stone with barium hydrosilicate sol were examined. It was found that the admixture of said sol leads to a shift in the induction period to later times without significant change in its duration. The admixture of a modifier with nanoscale barium hydrosilicates increases the degree of hydration of the cement clinker minerals and changes the phase composition of the hydration products; in particular, the content of portlandite and tricalcium silicate decreases, while the amount of ettringite increases. Changes in the hydration processes of Portland cement and early setting of cement stone that are caused by the nanoscale barium hydrosilicates, allow to forecast positive technological effects both at the stage of manufacturing and at the stage of operation. In particular, the formwork age can be reduced, turnover of molds can be increased, formation of secondary ettringite and corrosion of the first type can be eliminated.

  19. Unconstrained paving and plastering method for generating finite element meshes (United States)

    Staten, Matthew L.; Owen, Steven J.; Blacker, Teddy D.; Kerr, Robert


    Computer software for and a method of generating a conformal all quadrilateral or hexahedral mesh comprising selecting an object with unmeshed boundaries and performing the following while unmeshed voids are larger than twice a desired element size and unrecognizable as either a midpoint subdividable or pave-and-sweepable polyhedra: selecting a front to advance; based on sizes of fronts and angles with adjacent fronts, determining which adjacent fronts should be advanced with the selected front; advancing the fronts; detecting proximities with other nearby fronts; resolving any found proximities; forming quadrilaterals or unconstrained columns of hexahedra where two layers cross; and establishing hexahedral elements where three layers cross.

  20. Spatial modelling of disaster resilience using infrastructure components of baseline resilience indicators for communities (BRIC) in special region of Yogyakarta (United States)

    Kuscahyadi, Febriana; Meilano, Irwan; Riqqi, Akhmad


    Special Region of Yogyakarta Province (DIY) is one of Indonesian regions that often harmed by varied natural disasters which caused huge negative impacts. The most catastrophic one is earthquake in May, 27th 2006 with 6.3 magnitude moment [1], evoked 5716 people died, and economic losses for Rp. 29.1 Trillion, [2]. Their impacts could be minimized by committing disaster risk reduction program. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the natural disaster resilience within a region. Since infrastructure are might be able as facilities that means for evacuations, distribute supplies, and post disaster recovery [3], this research concerns to establish spatial modelling of natural disaster resilience using infrastructure components based on BRIC in DIY Province. There are three infrastructure used in this model; they are school, health facilities, and roads. Distance analysis is used to determine the level of resilient zone. The result gives the spatial understanding as a map that urban areas have better disaster resilience than the rural areas. The coastal areas and mountains areas which are vulnerable towards disaster have less resilience since there are no enough facilities that will increase the disaster resilience

  1. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă


    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  2. Resilient Diffusive Clouds (United States)


    RESILIENT DIFFUSIVE CLOUDS TRUSTEES OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE FEBRUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...To) SEP 2011 – SEP 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RESILIENT DIFFUSIVE CLOUDS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-11-2-0257 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM...diversified virtual machines. The concepts lead to a view of cloud computing in which vulnerabilities are different at every host, attackers cannot

  3. Resilience and reworking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus; Fold, Niels


    of this article is to shed light on the agency of individual workers involved in rapid industrialization processes. In this endeavor we draw inspiration from recent contributions that have integrated Cindi Katz's threefold categorization of agency as reworking, resilience and resistance. In combination...... and resilience can be conceptualized as transformative trajectories - workers’ situated knowledge and practices evolve and change over time and is conditioned by the specific labor market contexts through which the individual moves....

  4. Vulnerability analysis methods for road networks (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Vodák, Rostislav; Kubeček, Jan; Rebok, Tomáš; Svoboda, Tomáš


    Road networks rank among the most important lifelines of modern society. They can be damaged by either random or intentional events. Roads are also often affected by natural hazards, the impacts of which are both direct and indirect. Whereas direct impacts (e.g. roads damaged by a landslide or due to flooding) are localized in close proximity to the natural hazard occurrence, the indirect impacts can entail widespread service disabilities and considerable travel delays. The change in flows in the network may affect the population living far from the places originally impacted by the natural disaster. These effects are primarily possible due to the intrinsic nature of this system. The consequences and extent of the indirect costs also depend on the set of road links which were damaged, because the road links differ in terms of their importance. The more robust (interconnected) the road network is, the less time is usually needed to secure the serviceability of an area hit by a disaster. These kinds of networks also demonstrate a higher degree of resilience. Evaluating road network structures is therefore essential in any type of vulnerability and resilience analysis. There are a range of approaches used for evaluation of the vulnerability of a network and for identification of the weakest road links. Only few of them are, however, capable of simulating the impacts of the simultaneous closure of numerous links, which often occurs during a disaster. The primary problem is that in the case of a disaster, which usually has a large regional extent, the road network may remain disconnected. The majority of the commonly used indices use direct computation of the shortest paths or time between OD (origin - destination) pairs and therefore cannot be applied when the network breaks up into two or more components. Since extensive break-ups often occur in cases of major disasters, it is important to study the network vulnerability in these cases as well, so that appropriate

  5. Pave-IR operator's manual version 1.3 : a thermal imaging system for evaluating hot-mix asphalt paving operations. (United States)


    This product updates the prior users manual for Pave-IR to reflect changes in hardware and software made : to accommodate collection of GPS data simultaneously during the collection of thermal profiles. The current : Pave-IR system described in th...

  6. Tomographic and pathological findings of crazy-paving pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vabo, Karen Amaral do; Damato, Simone Duarte [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology


    Objective: To describe high-resolution computed tomography findings in several diseases that run their course with the 'crazy-paving' pattern. Materials and Methods: The present study has evaluated seven patients with diagnoses of alveolar proteinosis, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, lipoid pneumonia and pneumocystosis, correlating tomographic and pathological findings. Results: In the cases of pneumocystosis, the alveolar spaces were filled with foamy material where parasitic organisms intermingled with surfactants, fibrin and cell debris were observed. In the cases of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, the septa were thickened by associated fibrosis or lymphangitis, with the alveolar walls internally lined with tumor cells, and production of mucus. In the patient with alveolar proteinosis, the septa were thickened by edema, with alveolar filling determined by lipoprotein. In the patient with mineral oil aspiration, the histopathological findings included alveolar septa thickening caused by cell proliferation, with presence of fat vacuoles in alveolar septa. Conclusion: The crazy-paving pattern offers a wide range of differential diagnoses and must be evaluated in conjunction with clinical findings. (author)

  7. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail:


    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  8. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.


    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m 2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m 2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter

  9. Financial Stress and Behavioral Health in Military Servicemembers: Risk, Resilience, Mechanisms and Targets for Intervention Stress, Resilience, and Well Being (United States)



  10. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI Excel database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  11. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI JPEG Maps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  12. Parallel paving: An algorithm for generating distributed, adaptive, all-quadrilateral meshes on parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lober, R.R.; Tautges, T.J.; Vaughan, C.T.


    Paving is an automated mesh generation algorithm which produces all-quadrilateral elements. It can additionally generate these elements in varying sizes such that the resulting mesh adapts to a function distribution, such as an error function. While powerful, conventional paving is a very serial algorithm in its operation. Parallel paving is the extension of serial paving into parallel environments to perform the same meshing functions as conventional paving only on distributed, discretized models. This extension allows large, adaptive, parallel finite element simulations to take advantage of paving`s meshing capabilities for h-remap remeshing. A significantly modified version of the CUBIT mesh generation code has been developed to host the parallel paving algorithm and demonstrate its capabilities on both two dimensional and three dimensional surface geometries and compare the resulting parallel produced meshes to conventionally paved meshes for mesh quality and algorithm performance. Sandia`s {open_quotes}tiling{close_quotes} dynamic load balancing code has also been extended to work with the paving algorithm to retain parallel efficiency as subdomains undergo iterative mesh refinement.

  13. Future Road Density (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  14. Future Roads Near Streams (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  15. Roads Near Streams (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  16. Road condition reporting. (United States)


    This report documents the findings of the road condition reporting project where the feasibility of live reporting of the road : conditions with an Android camera and computer vision algorithms was tested. An app was developed that can collect videos...

  17. VT Road Centerline (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  18. Determination of road dust loadings and chemical characteristics using resuspension. (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongjie; Ren, Lihong


    The contribution of fugitive dust from traffic to air pollution can no longer be ignored in China. In order to obtain the road dust loadings and to understand the chemical characteristics of PM(10) and PM(2.5) from typical road dust, different paved roads in eight districts of Beijing were selected for dust collection during the four seasons of 2005. Ninety-eight samples from 28 roads were obtained. The samples were resuspended using equipment assembled to simulate the rising process of road dust caused by the wind or wheels in order to obtain the PM(10) and PM(2.5) filter samples. The average road dust loading was 3.82 g m(-2), with the highest of 24.22 g m(-2) being in Hutongs in the rural-urban continuum during winter. The road dust loadings on higher-grade roads were lower than those on lower-grade roads. Attention should be paid to the pollution in the rural-urban continuum areas. The sums of element abundances measured were 16.17% and 18.50% for PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust. The average abundances of OC and EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust were 11.52%, 2.01% and 12.50%, 2.06%, respectively. The abundance of elements, water-soluble ions, and OC, EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) resuspended from road dust did not change greatly with seasons and road types. The soil dust, construction dust, dust emitted from burning coal, vehicle exhaust, and deposition of particles in the air were the main sources of road dust in Beijing. Affected by the application of snow-melting agents in Beijing during winter, the amount of Cl( - ) and Na( + ) was much higher during that time than in the other seasons. This will have a certain influence on roads, bridges, vegetations, and groundwater.

  19. Advancing empirical resilience research. (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver


    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically.

  20. Sound absorption and morphology characteristic of porous concrete paving blocks (United States)

    Halim, N. H. Abd; Nor, H. Md; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Mohamed, A.; Hassan, N. Abdul; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Ramli, N. I.; Nazri, F. Mohamed


    In this study, sound absorption and morphology characteristic of Porous Concrete Paving Blocks (PCPB) at different sizes of coarse aggregate were presented. Three different sizes of coarse aggregate were used; passing 10 mm retained 5 mm (as Control), passing 8 mm retained 5 mm (8 - 5) and passing 10 mm retained 8 mm (10 - 8). The sound absorption test was conducted through the impedance tube at different frequency. It was found that the size of coarse aggregate affects the level of absorption of the specimens. It also shows that PCPB 10 - 8 resulted in high sound absorption compared to the other blocks. On the other hand, microstructure morphology of PCPB shows a clearer version of existing micro-cracks and voids inside the specimens which affecting the results of sound absorption.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova


    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  2. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP


    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  3. Family Resilience in the Military (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan


    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  4. Testing Re-entrained Aerosol Kinetic Emissions from Roads : a new approach to infer silt loading on roadways (United States)

    Kuhns, H.; Etyemezian, V.; Landwehr, D.; MacDougall, C.; Pitchford, M.; Green, M.

    PM 10 and PM 2.5 emissions from roadways are currently estimated using the silt loading on the road surface as a surrogate for the emissions potential of road dust. While the United States Environmental Protection Agency prescribes this method in AP-42, there is considerable cost associated with silt loading measurements; it is feasible to sample only a small portion of a roadway network. A new approach for measuring the concentration of suspendable PM 10 above road surfaces has been developed to obtain a more spatially representative estimate of a road's potential to emit dust. The Testing Re-entrained Aerosols Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) system uses real-time aerosol sensors mounted on a vehicle to measure the concentration of dust suspended from the road while the vehicle is in motion. When coupled with a Global Positioning System (GPS) instrument, TRAKER can be used to efficiently survey the changes in suspendable particles due to varying road conditions over a large spatial domain. In a recent study on paved roads in Las Vegas, the TRAKER system was compared with collocated silt loading measurements. The TRAKER system was also used to survey the relative amounts of suspendable road dust on approximately 300 miles of paved roads. The system provides a unique perspective on road dust sources and their spatial distribution. Results of this study indicated that the difference of the PM 10 concentrations measured behind the tire and on the hood is exponentially related to vehicle speed. This was an interesting finding because current AP-42 road dust emissions estimation methods do not include vehicle speed as a factor in the emissions calculations. The experiment also demonstrated that the distribution of suspendable material on roadways is highly variable and that a large number of samples are needed to represent road dust emissions potential on an urban scale for a variety of road and activity conditions.

  5. Fishing for resilience (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.


    Management approaches that focus on social–ecological systems—systems comprised of ecosystems, landscapes, and humans—are needed to secure the sustainability of inland recreational fisheries without jeopardizing the integrity of the underlying social and ecological components. Resilience management can be useful because it focuses on providing recreational capacity for fishermen under a variety of conditions while assuring that the social–ecological system is not pushed to a critical threshold that would result in a new, undesired system regime. Resilience management is based on a system perspective that accounts for the possible regimes a system could manifest. It aims to enhance system properties that allow continued maintenance of the system in a desired regime in which multiple goods and services, including recreational capacity, are provided. In this forum paper, we provide an overview of the potential of a resilience approach to the management of recreational fisheries and highlight the scientific and administrative challenges to its successful implementation.

  6. Resilience in IMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.


    Reliability evaluation of systems has been widely researched for improving system resilience especially in designing processes of a complex system. The convergence of different access networks is possible via IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for development toward Next Generation Networks (NGNs......) and supporting always on services. Therefore, not only Quality of Service (QoS) but also resilience is required. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate and analyze end-to-end reliability of the IMS system using a model proposed as a combination of Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) and Markov Reward Models (MRMs......). The resilience of the IMS architecture is studied by applying 1:1 redundancy at different communication scenarios between end users within and across communication domains. The model analysis provides useful reliability characteristics of the system and can be further applied for system design processes....

  7. Resilience in adolescents with cancer


    ISHIBASHI, Akiko; UEDA, Reiko


    Children and adolescents with cancer experience multiple stressors, evertheless some function well or are "resilient." Focusing on resilience in childhood cancer patients and understanding why and how resilience develops during the cancer experience is of great value . This knowledge may provide information to health care professionals to facilitate intervention for promoting resilience and improving quality of life in adolescents with cancer . The purpose of thisarticle is to review the lite...

  8. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor


    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  9. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne


    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  10. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus


    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  11. Study on Stationarity of Random Load Spectrum Based on the Special Road (United States)

    Yan, Huawen; Zhang, Weigong; Wang, Dong


    In the special road quality assessment method, there is a method using a wheel force sensor, the essence of this method is collecting the load spectrum of the car to reflect the quality of road. According to the definition of stochastic process, it is easy to find that the load spectrum is a stochastic process. However, the analysis method and application range of different random processes are very different, especially in engineering practice, which will directly affect the design and development of the experiment. Therefore, determining the type of a random process has important practical significance. Based on the analysis of the digital characteristics of road load spectrum, this paper determines that the road load spectrum in this experiment belongs to a stationary stochastic process, paving the way for the follow-up modeling and feature extraction of the special road.

  12. Can Resilience Thinking Inform Resilience Investments? Learning from Resilience Principles for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Hill Clarvis


    Full Text Available As the human and financial costs of natural disasters rise and state finances continue to deplete, increasing attention is being placed on the role of the private sector to support disaster and climate resilience. However, not only is there a recognised lack of private finance to fill this gap, but international institutional and financing bodies tend to prioritise specific reactive response over preparedness and general resilience building. This paper utilises the central tenets of resilience thinking that have emerged from scholarship on social-ecological system resilience as a lens through which to assess investing in disaster risk reduction (DRR for resilience. It draws on an established framework of resilience principles and examples of resilience investments to explore how resilience principles can actually inform decisions around DRR and resilience investing. It proposes some key lessons for diversifying sources of finance in order to, in turn, enhance “financial resilience”. In doing so, it suggests a series of questions to align investments with resilience building, and to better balance the achievement of the resilience principles with financial requirements such as financial diversification and replicability. It argues for a critical look to be taken at how resilience principles, which focus on longer-term systems perspectives, could complement the focus in DRR on critical and immediate stresses.

  13. Resilience versus "Resilient Individual": What Exactly Do We Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný


    Full Text Available The nature and definition of resilience, despite the extensive 40 years of research, is still unclear. Currently is resilience seen as a personality trait, sum of the traits/factors, result of adaptation, or as a process. The concept of resilience as personality traits is usually tied to uni-dimensional or "simplex" theories of resistance as Hardiness, Sense of Control, Ego-Resiliency, Self-efficacy, Sense of Coherence, or specific personality traits. Multidimensional concepts see resilience as a complex of personality and social (environmental factors that work in interaction, complement or replace each other, and, in aggregate, create a comprehensive picture of resilience. The concept of resilience as the result of adaptation examines resilience in terms of the presence/absence of adverse/pathological manifestations, consequences and outcomes in relation to the earlier effect of stressful, risky or otherwise unfavorable situations. Finally, the concept of resilience as the process examines individual's response to risk factors or wounds that are present in the environment. Resilience is thus a process consisting of interactions between individual characteristics and the environment. Most experts and a large part of resilience research is based on the first three concepts that however explore how "resilient" the individual is rather than resilience itself, since they are based on "diagnosing" or at best dimensional, at worse dichotomous rating of the individual's resilience (within personality trait approach, or on the evaluation of the presence/absence of factors/source of resilience, thereby they are still holding the "diagnostic" approach (within multidimensional approach. Only the examination of processes, such as the ongoing interaction between these risk factors, resilience factors, outcomes (expressions of personality, behavior, presence of problems, etc. and other variables allows us to understand resilience (the true nature of how

  14. Measuring resilience in integrated planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apneseth, K.; Wahl, A. M.; Hollnagel, E.


    This chapter demonstrates how a Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG) can be used to profile the performance of a company in terms of the four abilities that characterize a resilient organization. It describes the development of a new, RAG-based tool founded on Resilience Engineering principles that can...... be used to assess an organization's resilience. The tool was tested in a case study involving a company in the offshore oil and gas industry. The company had decided to adopt an Integrated Operations (IO) approach to operations and maintenance planning and the tool was used to evaluate the impact...... of the Integrated Planning (IPL) process on its resilience....

  15. Optimal Resilient Dynamic Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel


    updates in $O(\\log n+\\delta)$ amortized time. Our dynamic dictionary also supports range queries in $O(\\log n+\\delta+t)$ worst case time, where $t$ is the size of the output. Finally, we show that every resilient search tree (with some reasonable properties) must take~$\\Omega(\\log n + \\delta)$ worst...

  16. [Resilience in old age]. (United States)

    Cárdenas-Jiménez, Andrea; López-Díaz, Alba L


    The aim of this study was to characterise and analyse articles published on resilience and old-age from 1990-2006. After a systematic search of five databases (Academic Search Premier-Ebsco Host, Medline, Psyc Articles, Ovid and Science Direct) 33 pieces of literature were included in the analysis. The selected articles had 31 different definitions of resilience, from eight disciplines, mainly health-related fields. It was also found that the research studied the association of resilience with individual (68 variables) and social/environmental factors (17 variables); the most frequent were age and health self-perception. Cultural and religious values were of special interest amongst the latter variables. The literature review demonstrated that resilience in old age is a topic having increasing research interest; this has been linked to various individual, social and cultural factors. However, this is a rapidly developing area that requires that a unified definition be established and that a theoretical and intervention model be created.

  17. Resilience of Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Flores, B.


    The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the

  18. Multi-Sited Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog


    Participatory methods to build local resilience often involve the organization of local community groups. When global organizations use such methods, it reflects a desire to incorporate local agency. They thereby acknowledge the ability of a society to be innovative and adapt when faced with natu......Participatory methods to build local resilience often involve the organization of local community groups. When global organizations use such methods, it reflects a desire to incorporate local agency. They thereby acknowledge the ability of a society to be innovative and adapt when faced...... with natural disasters and climate change. In a globalized world, however, it is hard to discern what is “local” as global organizations play an increasingly visible and powerful role. This paper will argue that local understandings and practices of resilience cannot be disentangled from global understandings...... flooding in northern Ghana, this paper examines the mutual construction of “local” and “global” notions and practices of resilience through multi-sited processes. It is based on interviews and participant observation in multiple sites at the “local,” “regional” and “global” levels....

  19. Wellbeing And Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Susanne; Davidsen, Kirstine; MacBeth, Angus


    , 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction. DISCUSSION: The study will provide data on very early risk...

  20. New pathways to resilience

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    droughts, floods, and heat waves, along with shifting rainfall patterns, threaten to overwhelm the natural resilience of African communities, risking livelihoods and food security. .... As of March 2012, 68Fellows have pursued advanced research through a scholarship program on adaptation to climate change. • 11people ...

  1. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  2. Resilient modulus characteristics of soil subgrade with geopolymer additive in peat (United States)

    Zain, Nasuhi; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Rahayu, Wiwik


    Resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil are generally very low with high potential of deformation and low bearing capacity. The efforts to improve the peat subgrade resilient modulus characteristics is required, one among them is by adding the geopolymer additive. Geopolymer was made as an alternative to replace portland cement binder in the concrete mix in order to promote environmentally friendly, low shrinkage value, low creep value, and fire resistant material. The use of geopolymer to improve the mechanical properties of peat as a road construction subgrade, hence it becomes important to identify the effect of geopolymer addition on the resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil. This study investigated the addition of 0% - 20% geopolymer content on peat soil derived from Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera Province. Resilient modulus measurement was performed by using cyclic triaxial test to determine the resilience modulus model as a function of deviator stresses and radial stresses. The test results showed that an increase in radial stresses did not necessarily lead to an increase in modulus resilient, and on the contrary, an increase in deviator stresses led to a decrease in modulus resilient. The addition of geopolymer in peat soil provided an insignificant effect on the increase of resilient modulus value.

  3. India and the 21st Century Power Partnership: Paving the Way to a Smarter, Cleaner, More Resilient System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The 21st Century Power Partnership (21CPP) aims to accelerate the global transformation of power systems. The Power Partnership is a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) and serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated policy, regulatory, financial, and technical solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy efficiency and smart grid solutions. This fact sheet details the 21CPP's work in India.

  4. South Africa and the 21st Century Power Partnership: Paving the Way to a Clean, Reliable, and Resilient Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The 21st Century Power Partnership (21CPP) serves as an open, collaborative platform for sharing policy and regulatory best practices in the service of power system transformation. Established in 2012, the 21CPP South Africa Programme is a global initiative that connects South African stakeholders with an international community of expertise. This fact sheet details the 21CPP South Africa Programme.

  5. South Africa and the 21st Century Power Partnership: Paving the Way to a Clean, Reliable, and Resilient Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Established in 2012, the 21CPP South Africa Programme is a global initiative that connects South African stakeholders with an international community
    of expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support South Africa's power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon power system. 21CPP activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing system planners, regulators, and operators.

  6. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant


    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  7. Treacherous Pavements: Paving Slab Patterns Modify Intended Walking Directions. (United States)

    Leonards, Ute; Fennell, John G; Oliva, Gaby; Drake, Alex; Redmill, David W


    Current understanding in locomotion research is that, for humans, navigating natural environments relies heavily on visual input; in contrast, walking on even ground in man-made obstacle and hazard-free environments is so highly automated that visual information derived from floor patterns should not affect locomotion and in particular have no impact on the direction of travel. The vision literature on motion perception would suggest otherwise; specifically that oblique floor patterns may induce substantial veering away from the intended direction of travel due to the so-called aperture problem. Here, we tested these contrasting predictions by letting participants walk over commonly encountered floor patterns (paving slabs) and investigating participants' ability to walk "straight ahead" for different pattern orientations. We show that, depending on pattern orientation, participants veered considerably over the measured travel distance (up to 8% across trials), in line with predictions derived from the literature on motion perception. We argue that these findings are important to the study of locomotion, and, if also observed in real world environments, might have implications for architectural design.

  8. PPAR agonists, - Could tissue targeting pave the way? (United States)

    Bugge, Anne; Holst, Dorte


    Over the last couple of decades, the PPAR family of transcription factors has received much attention from the pharmaceutical industry due to their profound ability to improve glucose and lipid metabolism upon agonist activation. However, more recently the interest in these nuclear receptors has faded because several clinical trials have shown that it is difficult to develop a ligand that significantly ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism disorders without concomitantly inducing unacceptable side-effects. Nevertheless, the data also suggests that tissue specific targeting could pave the way to renewed interest and clinical use of PPAR ligands. In this review we summarize the results and learnings from the clinical trials on PPAR agonism and discuss the possibilities for tissue targeting of PPAR ligands by using state of the art technology to fuse them to peptides homing selectively to tissues expressing the cognate surface receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of Concrete Paving Blocks Properties by Mineral Additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeel Hatem Chkheiwer


    Full Text Available This research presents the results of experimental work on the various properties concrete paving blocks (CPB made with concrete containing different mineral this study, three types of mineral additions;Fly Ash (FA,Metakaolin (MK and Silica Fume (SF were used. Thirteen concretes mixes were cast at a water/binder ratio of 0.45 with 0, 5, 10,15and 20% cement replaced by either Fly ash,Metakaolin or Silica Fume. Theconcrete mixes were tested for slump, compressive strength, water absorption, and abrasion resistance.Metakaolin-contained concrete showed a better workability than fly ash and silica fume concrete. As the replacement level wasincreased, the 28-days compressive strength of the CPB containing MK increased similarly to that of the silica fume-containedCPB up to 20% replacement ratio. The replacement ratio of MK and SF from 5 to 20 % reduced water absorptionof CPB from5 to 19 than that of control mix. The increase in replacement ratio of MK andSF from 5 to 20 % leads to increasing abrasion resistance from 8 to 18% that of control mix

  10. Do iconic gestures pave the way for children's early verbs? (United States)

    Ozçalışkan, Seyda; Gentner, Dedre; Goldin-Meadow, Susan


    Children produce a deictic gesture for a particular object (point at dog) approximately three months before they produce the verbal label for that object ("dog") (Iverson & Goldin-Meadow, 2005). Gesture thus paves the way for children's early nouns. We ask here whether the same pattern-gesture preceding and predicting speech-holds for iconic gestures-that is, do gestures that depict actions precede and predict early verbs? We observed spontaneous speech and gestures produced by 40 children (22 girls, 18 boys) from age 14 to 34 months. Children produced their first iconic gestures 6 months later than they produced their first verbs. Thus, unlike the onset of deictic gestures, the onset of iconic gestures conveying action meanings followed, rather than preceded, children's first verbs. However, iconic gestures increased in frequency at the same time as verbs did and, at that time, began to convey meanings not yet expressed in speech. Our findings suggest that children can use gesture to expand their repertoire of action meanings, but only after they have begun to acquire the verb system underlying their language.

  11. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yusria Darma


    Jul 14, 2017 ... road networks and designing roads, defects in existing roads and lack of remedial action at high-risk crash sites are the risk factors for crashes. Hence, this study is focussed on investigating the road environment elements that have a significant contribution on road traffic deaths in Malaysia. The findings of ...

  12. Hot mix asphalt - the "paving under sub-zero temperatures" experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Doree, Andries G.


    Rijkswaterstaat’s recent “Asfalteren onder het vriespunt (Paving under sub-zero temperatures)” provided an interesting research opportunity for the Asphalt Paving Research and Innovation (ASPARi) unit. The participating contractors both chose to adopt ASPARi’s Process Quality improvement (PQi)

  13. Performance of TenCate Paving interlayers in asphalt concrete pavements. (United States)


    As a continued effort of a previously completed project entitled Performance of TenCate Mirafi PGM-G4 Interlayer-Reinforced Asphalt Pavements in Alaska, this project evaluated two newly modified paving interlayers (TruPave and Mirapave) through...

  14. The Status of Road Safety in Iran during 2001 – 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Jafari


    .Result: The results revealed that during the period of 6 years, death toll has been increased by 9 deaths per 100000 person of the population. Moreover, application of seat belt and safety helmet has been increased by 20% and 18%, respectively. It also indicated that the number of motorists and the length of paved roads have been increased by 20%, and 10%, respectively. The net income per capita has also grown from 5884 US$ to 7968 US$ and the life expectancy has gone up from 68.9 years to 70.9 years, the percentage of the literate population has grown by 2% (from 76% to 78% and the human development index has increased from 0.721 to 0.759. The results of the present study showed that the increased level of death toll per 10000 vehicles and the increased level (% of seat belt as well as helmet application, paved roads, urbanization, the net income per capita, life expectancy, literacy and human development index were statistically significant and R2 coefficient for this factors was 0.84, 0.9, 0.994, 0.9, 0.97, 0.82, 0.69 and 0.84 respectively. .Conclusion: According to result of the present study, roads safety were not in an appropriate level. The roads safety status can be determined using road safety indicators to be applied for road safety promotion.

  15. Resilience in aging: literature review. (United States)

    Fontes, Arlete Portella; Neri, Anita Liberalesso


    Psychological resilience is comprised of an adaptive functioning standard before the current and accumulated risks of life. Furthermore, it has a comprehensive range of psychological resources which are essential to overcome adversities, such as personal competences, self-beliefs and interpersonal control which interact with the social networks support. The objectives are to show the concepts of psychological resilience in elderly, relative to dominant theoretical models and the main data about psychological resilience in aging, found in an international and Brazilian review from 2007 to 2013. The descriptors "resilience, psychological resilience and aging", "resiliência e envelhecimento, velhice e velho", were used in PubMed, PsychInfo, SciELO and Pepsic databases. Fifty three international and eleven national articles were selected. The international articles were classified in four categories: psychological and social coping resources, emotional regulation before stressing experiences, successful resilience and aging and correlates, and resilience measures. The Brazilian articles were grouped in three: psychological and social resources, resilience in carers and theory review. Articles on psychological resources and on emotional regulation prevailed as key factors associated with psychological resilience in aging.

  16. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems


    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander


    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  17. From resilience thinking to Resilience Planning: Lessons from practice. (United States)

    Sellberg, M M; Ryan, P; Borgström, S T; Norström, A V; Peterson, G D


    Resilience thinking has frequently been proposed as an alternative to conventional natural resource management, but there are few studies of its applications in real-world settings. To address this gap, we synthesized experiences from practitioners that have applied a resilience thinking approach to strategic planning, called Resilience Planning, in regional natural resource management organizations in Australia. This case represents one of the most extensive and long-term applications of resilience thinking in the world today. We conducted semi-structured interviews with Resilience Planning practitioners from nine organizations and reviewed strategic planning documents to investigate: 1) the key contributions of the approach to their existing strategic planning, and 2) what enabled and hindered the practitioners in applying and embedding the new approach in their organizations. Our results reveal that Resilience Planning contributed to developing a social-ecological systems perspective, more adaptive and collaborative approaches to planning, and that it clarified management goals of desirable resource conditions. Applying Resilience Planning required translating resilience thinking to practice in each unique circumstance, while simultaneously creating support among staff, and engaging external actors. Embedding Resilience Planning within organizations implied starting and maintaining longer-term change processes that required sustained multi-level organizational support. We conclude by identifying four lessons for successfully applying and embedding resilience practice in an organization: 1) to connect internal "entrepreneurs" to "interpreters" and "networkers" who work across organizations, 2) to assess the opportunity context for resilience practice, 3) to ensure that resilience practice is a learning process that engages internal and external actors, and 4) to develop reflective strategies for managing complexity and uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  18. Pocket facts 2009 : Swedish Road Administration, roads and traffic (United States)


    This publication offers an overall picture of the road transport : system. Here you will find a selection of brief facts about roads, : road transports, vehicles and people in traffic. In addition, it : includes an overview of SRA tasks and organisat...

  19. Pocket facts 2008 : Swedish Road Administration, roads and traffic (United States)


    Pocket Facts offers an overall picture of the road : transport system. Here you will find a selection of : brief facts about roads, road transports, vehicles and : people in traffic. In addition, it presents the functions : and organisation at the SR...

  20. Density of asphalt paving mixtures: Measurements, variations, and influencing factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaimanian, M.


    The first part describes the results of a research study to determine the effectiveness of the Troxler Model 4640 Thin Lift Nuclear Density Gauge. The densities obtained from cores and the nuclear density gauge from seven construction projects were compared. A linear regression technique was used to investigate how well the core densities could be predicted from nuclear densities. Correlation coefficients were determined to indicate the degree of correlation between the core and nuclear densities. Using a statistical analysis technique, the range of differences between core and nuclear measurements was established for specified confidence levels for each project. Analysis of the data indicated that the accuracy of this gauge is highly material dependent. While acceptable results were obtained with limestone mixtures, the gauge did not perform satisfactorily with mixtures containing siliceous aggregate. The data presented in this paper indicate that the gauge could be used as a quality control tool provided that a calibration is developed for each project. The maximum theoretical specific gravities of asphalt-aggregate paving mixtures obtained from different methods were compared. The study included experimental work and analysis of the resulting data. The agreement between results obtained from the Texas C-14 method and the Rice method were excellent. Results obtained by backcalculating theoretical maximum densities from a single Rice test were also found to be satisfactory. Theoretical approach based on bulk specific gravity of aggregate is not recommended because of yielding significantly low theoretical maximum specific gravities and high relative densities. The last two parts summarize density levels and corresponding variations obtained from fifty-seven construction projects throughout the state of Texas

  1. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny


    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...... and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions.” This paper will define resilience and business continuity management by retracing the origins of both concepts through time. It will then compare them by highlighting their similarities...

  2. Standardisation or Resilience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinck Pedersen, Kirstine


    stability and predictability is presently being challenged by critics who insist that healthcare systems are complex and changing entities, thereby shifting focus towards the healthcare organisation's resilient and adaptive capacities. Based on a close reading of predominant patient safety literature...... begin to address the uncertainty of medical practice as well as the necessary competences of healthcare professionals to act with ‘safety dispositions’ as a precondition for delivering safe care....

  3. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance


    Stachová Darina


    Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  4. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta


    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  5. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov


    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

  6. Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dunn cavelty, myriam; Kaufmann, Mareile; Kristensen, Kristian Søby


    Diverse, sometimes even contradictory concepts and practices of resilience have proliferated into a wide range of security policies. In introducing this special issue, we problematize and critically discuss how these forms of resilience change environments, create subjects, link temporalities......, and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...... to be conceptualized and investigated in plural terms. We use temporalities and subjectivities as key analytical aspects to investigate the plural instantiations of resilience in actual political practice. These two issues – subjectivity and temporality – form the overall context for the special issue and are core...

  7. Resilience in Homeland Security [video


    O'Connor, Dan; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School


    In this interview, Dan O'Connor, Director Field Operations for the Chief Security Officer at FEMA, talks about the importance of resilience in Homeland Security. The term "resilience" refers to the ability to adapt to changing conditions and withstand and rapidly recover from disruption due to emergencies. Whether it is resilience towards acts of terrorism, cyber attacks, pandemics, and catastrophic natural disasters, our national preparedness is the shared responsibility of all levels of gov...

  8. What is vision Hampton Roads? (United States)


    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  9. Road pricing and road safety : possible effects on road safety of 23 variants of road pricing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenink, R.G. Dijkstra, A. Wijnen, W. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.


    The Nouwen Committee (National Platform Paying Differently for Mobility) advised the Cabinet in 2005 about the introduction of a system of road pricing. Part of this advice consisted of a calculation of the expected road safety effects of such a system. In a letter to the Minister of Transport, SWOV

  10. Vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A group of road users can be defined as ‘vulnerable’ in a number of ways, such as by the amount of protection in traffic (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists) or by the amount of task capability (e.g. the young and the elderly). Vulnerable road users do not usually have a protective 'shell', and also the

  11. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or

  12. Road diet informational guide. (United States)


    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  13. Assessing Resilience in Stressed Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine T. Nemec


    Full Text Available Although several frameworks for assessing the resilience of social-ecological systems (SESs have been developed, some practitioners may not have sufficient time and information to conduct extensive resilience assessments. We have presented a simplified approach to resilience assessment that reviews the scientific, historical, and social literature to rate the resilience of an SES with respect to nine resilience properties: ecological variability, diversity, modularity, acknowledgement of slow variables, tight feedbacks, social capital, innovation, overlap in governance, and ecosystem services. We evaluated the effects of two large-scale projects, the construction of a major dam and the implementation of an ecosystem recovery program, on the resilience of the central Platte River SES (Nebraska, United States. We used this case study to identify the strengths and weaknesses of applying a simplified approach to resilience assessment. Although social resilience has increased steadily since the predam period for the central Platte River SES, ecological resilience was greatly reduced in the postdam period as compared to the predam and ecosystem recovery program time periods.

  14. Communal resilience: the Lebanese case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric BOUTIN


    Full Text Available In a turbulent and aggressive environment, organizations are subject to external events. They are sometimes destabilized and can disappear. This context explains the multiplication of works studying resilience of human organizations. Resilience is then defined as the ability of the organization studied to face an external shock.This paper proposes a state of the art of resilience concept and considers the interests of the transposition of the concept to the field of a territorial community. A case study will lead us to apply the concept of resilience to the Lebanese nation.

  15. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be dec...

  16. Paving Rough Roads: Transition to Life beyond the Classroom as Experienced by Students with Disabilities and Their Families (United States)

    Salmon, Nancy; Kinnealey, Moya


    This grounded theory study employed in-depth interviews with nine student/parent dyads from eastern Canada. Youth with disabilities, aged 16 to 21, contributed narratives describing high school transitions. Shared experience that transcends disability categories produced powerful results. Three categories emerged: (1) transition facilitators; (2)…

  17. Paved with good intentions: global financial integration, the eurozone, and the hellish road to the fabled gold standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.; Claes, D.H.; Knutsen, C.H.


    Regional systems of governance may resolve some of the dilemmas of global financial integration, and the eurozone is among the most advanced examples of attempts to do so. This paper argues that the recent Euroland sovereign debt crisis is a test of this proposition, and the outcome leaves the EU

  18. Paved with good intentions: global financial integration, the eurozone, and the imaginary road to the fabled gold standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, G.R.D.


    Regional systems of governance may resolve some of the dilemmas of global financial integration, and the eurozone is among the most advanced examples of attempts to do so. This paper argues that the recent Euroland sovereign debt crisis is a test of this proposition, and the outcome leaves the EU

  19. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells pave the road for a better understanding of motor neuron disease. (United States)

    Winner, Beate; Marchetto, Maria C; Winkler, Jürgen; Gage, Fred H


    While motor neuron diseases are currently incurable, induced pluripotent stem cell research has uncovered some disease-relevant phenotypes. We will discuss strategies to model different aspects of motor neuron disease and the specific neurons involved in the disease. We will then describe recent progress to investigate common forms of motor neuron disease: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hereditary spastic paraplegia and spinal muscular atrophy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  20. The road to understanding is paved with the speaker's intentions: cues to the speaker's attention and intentions affect pronoun comprehension. (United States)

    Nappa, Rebecca; Arnold, Jennifer E


    A series of experiments explore the effects of attention-directing cues on pronoun resolution, contrasting four specific hypotheses about the interpretation of ambiguous pronouns he and she: (1) it is driven by grammatical rules, (2) it is primarily a function of social processing of the speaker's intention to communicate, (3) it is modulated by the listener's own egocentric attention, and (4) it is primarily a function of learned probabilistic cues. Experiment 1 demonstrates that pronoun interpretation is guided by the well-known N1 (first-mention) bias, which is also modulated by both the speaker's gaze and pointing gestures. Experiment 2 demonstrates that a low-level visual capture cue has no effect on pronoun interpretation, in contrast with the social cue of pointing. Experiment 3 uses a novel intentional cue: the same attention-capture flash as in Experiment 2, but with instructions that the cue is intentionally created by the speaker. This cue does modulate the N1 bias, demonstrating the importance of information about the speaker's intentions to pronoun resolution. Taken in sum, these findings demonstrate that pronoun resolution is a process best categorized as driven by an appreciation of the speaker's communicative intent, which may be subserved by a sensitivity to predictive cues in the environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Ares I-1 Flight Test--Paving the Road for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Tuma, Meg


    In accordance with the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration and the nation's desire to again send humans to explore beyond Earth orbit, NASA has been tasked to send human beings to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It has been 30 years since the United States last designed and built a human-rated launch vehicle. NASA is now building the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will loft the Orion crew exploration vehicle into orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which will launch the Lunar Surface Access Module and Earth departure stage to rendezvous Orion for missions to the moon. NASA has marshaled unique resources from the government and private sectors to perform the technically and programmatically complex work of delivering astronauts to orbit early next decade, followed by heavy cargo late next decade. Our experiences with Saturn and the Shuttle have taught us the value of adhering to sound systems engineering, such as the "test as you fly" principle, while applying aerospace best practices and lessons learned. If we are to fly humans safely aboard a launch vehicle, we must employ a variety of methodologies to reduce the technical, schedule, and cost risks inherent in the complex business of space transportation. During the Saturn development effort, NASA conducted multiple demonstration and verification flight tests to prove technology in its operating environment before relying upon it for human spaceflight. Less testing on the integrated Shuttle system did not reduce cost or schedule. NASA plans a progressive series of demonstration (ascent), verification (orbital), and mission flight tests to supplement ground research and high-altitude subsystem testing with real-world data, factoring the results of each test into the next one. In this way, sophisticated analytical models and tools, many of which were not available during Saturn and Shuttle, will be calibrated and we will gain confidence in their predictions, as we gain hands-on experience in operating the first of two new launch vehicle systems. The Ares I-1 flight test vehicle (FTV) will incorporate a mix of flight and mockup hardware, reflecting a configuration similar in mass, weight, and shape (outer mold line or OML) to the operational vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB), which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will be modified to include a fifth, inert segment that makes it approximately the same size and weight as the five segment RSRB, which will be available for the second flight test in 2012. The Ares I-1 vehicle configuration is shown. Each test flight has specific objectives appropriate to the design analysis cycle in progress. The Ares I-1 demonstration test, slated for April 2009, gives NASA its first opportunity to gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack, understand how to control its roll during flight, and other characterize the severe stage separation environment that the upper stage will experience during future operational flights. NASA also will begin the process of modifying the launch infrastructure and fine-tuning ground and mission operational scenarios, as NASA transitions from the Shuttle to the Ares/Orion system.

  2. Access road reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, T.; Blok, M.


    A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  3. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    battery capacity required for electric vehicles if they are not installed. The electric road and battery electric vehicle scenarios are more efficient and produce less carbon dioxide emissions than their corresponding oil scenarios for two key reasons: 1) the vehicles are more efficient and 2) electric...... in the energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions, since they also enable heavy-duty transport to be electrified such as trucks and buses. It is unlikely that these forms of transport will be electrified without electric roads, due to the relatively high cost of on-board battery storage.......This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys...

  4. The International Resilience Project: Promoting Resilience in Children. (United States)

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    The International Resilience Project was intended to determine the multidimensional, reciprocal, and dynamic factors--and relationships of factors--that parents, teachers, caregivers, and children themselves use to promote resilience in children. The samples were 589 children and their caregivers from 14 countries: Lithuania, Russia, Costa Rica,…

  5. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.


    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what

  6. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than any other Igbo sub-group; the Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel economic enterprise with huge success. Some of these pioneer transport capitalists were J.C. Ulasi, L.P. Ojukwu, and A.E. Ilodibe. These indigenous entrepreneurs commercialized the revolution in ...

  7. Connectomic markers of disease expression, genetic risk and resilience in bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Dima, D; Roberts, R E; Frangou, S


    Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by emotional dysregulation and cognitive deficits associated with abnormal connectivity between subcortical-primarily emotional processing regions-and prefrontal regulatory areas. Given the significant contribution of genetic factors to BD, studies in unaffected first-degree relatives can identify neural mechanisms of genetic risk but also resilience, thus paving the way for preventive interventions. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and random-effects Bayesian model selection were used to define and assess connectomic phenotypes linked to facial affect processing and working memory in a demographically matched sample of first-degree relatives carefully selected for resilience (n=25), euthymic patients with BD (n=41) and unrelated healthy controls (n=46). During facial affect processing, patients and relatives showed similarly increased frontolimbic connectivity; resilient relatives, however, evidenced additional adaptive hyperconnectivity within the ventral visual stream. During working memory processing, patients displayed widespread hypoconnectivity within the corresponding network. In contrast, working memory network connectivity in resilient relatives was comparable to that of controls. Our results indicate that frontolimbic dysfunction during affect processing could represent a marker of genetic risk to BD, and diffuse hypoconnectivity within the working memory network a marker of disease expression. The association of hyperconnectivity within the affect-processing network with resilience to BD suggests adaptive plasticity that allows for compensatory changes and encourages further investigation of this phenotype in genetic and early intervention studies.

  8. Optimization of fly ash and bottom ash substitution against paving block manufacture according to SNI 03-0691-1996 (United States)

    Karolina, R.; Syahrizal; Bahri, N.


    The waste of coal burning has a very negative impact on the environment if the waste is not managed as well as possible. The remaining waste of coal combustion consists of fly ash and bottom ash. FA and BA can be developed into substitution materials in the process of making paving blocks. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of paving block in accordance with SK SNI 03-0691-1996 with optimization in the use of FA and BA. This study uses a 351 paving block sample size of 20x10x6 cm. Paving blocks are divided by 4 categories, namely normal paving block, paving block with FA substitution, BA substitution and combination of FA-BA with each variation 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. Each variation amounted to 27 samples. Paving block quality measurement is done through 4 tests: absorption, compressive strength, sodium sulphate resistance and Los Angeles tests. The result of the test shows the absorption of normal paving block is 3,229%, paving block with 25% FA is 3,889%, paving block with 50% BA is 5,560% and paving block with 25% FA-BA combination is 5,794%. Compressive strength in normal paving block is 25,50 MPa, paving block with 25% FA is 25,28 MPa, paving block with 25% BA is equal to 27,61 MPa and paving block with 25% FA-BA is 26, 00 MPa. In testing of sodium sulfate resistance, almost all test specimens are eligible except for paving block with 50% FA and 75% FA. In the test of wear resistance, no specimen is eligible according to SK SNI 03-0691-1996. The comparison of the strength of the test specimen can be seen in substitution with 25% BA which reaches maximum strength.

  9. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17888644 Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Marsla... Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? PubmedID 17888644 Title Toll-like recep...tors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Authors Marsland BJ, Kopf M.

  10. The quest for resilience. (United States)

    Hamel, Gary; Välikangas, Liisa


    In less turbulent times, executives had the luxury of assuming that business models were more or less immortal. Companies always had to work to get better, but they seldom had to get different--not at their core, not in their essence. Today, getting different is the imperative. It's the challenge facing Coca-Cola as it struggles to raise its "share of throat" in noncarbonated beverages. It's the task that bedevils McDonald's as it tries to restart its growth in a burger-weary world. It's the hurdle for Sun Microsystems as it searches for ways to protect its high-margin server business from the Linux onslaught. Continued success no longer hinges on momentum. Rather, it rides on resilience-on the ability to dynamically reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change. Strategic resilience is not about responding to a onetime crisis or rebounding from a setback. It's about continually anticipating and adjusting to deep, secular trends that can permanently impair the earning power of a core business. It's about having the capacity to change even before the case for change becomes obvious. To thrive in turbulent times, companies must become as efficient at renewal as they are at producing today's products and services. To achieve strategic resilience, companies will have to overcome the cognitive challenge of eliminating denial, nostalgia, and arrogance; the strategic challenge of learning how to create a wealth of small tactical experiments; the political challenge of reallocating financial and human resources to where they can earn the best returns; and the ideological challenge of learning that strategic renewal is as important as optimization.

  11. Potential of used frying oil in paving material: solution to environmental pollution problem. (United States)

    Singh-Ackbarali, Dimple; Maharaj, Rean; Mohamed, Nazim; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra


    The improper disposal of used frying oil (UFO) presents numerous ecological, environmental and municipal problems. Of great concern is the resultant blockage of municipal drainage systems and water treatment facilities, harm to wildlife when they become coated in it and detriment to aquatic life and ecosystems due to the depletion of the oxygen content in water bodies such as rivers and lakes that have become contaminated. Statistics show that in Trinidad and Tobago, in excess of one million liters of used cooking oil is collected annually from various restaurant chains. This paper investigated the potential of using UFO as a performance enhancing additive for road paving applications utilizing Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA) and Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB) as a mitigation strategy for improper UFO disposal. Modified blends containing various additions of UFO (2-10% wt) were prepared for the TLA and TPB asphaltic binders. Results demonstrated in terms of stiffness, increasing the dosage of UFO in TLA and TPB base binders resulted in a gradual decrease in stiffness (G* value decreased). In terms of elasticity, increasing the dosage of the UFO additive in TLA resulted in a general decrease in the elasticity of the blends indicated by an increase in phase angle or phase lag (δ). Increasing dosages of the UFO additive in TPB resulted in a significant decrease in δ where the most elastic blend was at the 6% UFO level. TLA and UFO-TLA modified blends exhibited significantly lower values of δ and higher values of G* confirming the superiority of the TLA material. Incorporation of the UFO in the blends led to a decrease in the rutting resistance and increase in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G*/sinδ and G*sinδ, respectively). This study highlighted the potential for the reuse of UFO as an asphalt modifier capable of producing customized UFO modified asphaltic blends for special applications and confirms its feasibility as an environmentally attractive

  12. Effects of road type during transport on lamb welfare and meat quality in dry hot climates. (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Monge, Paula; Villarroel, Morris; Olleta, Jose Luis; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; María, Gustavo A


    This study determined whether transporting lambs on paved (PR) or unpaved roads (UR) for 3 h had an effect on plasma stress indicators (cortisol, lactate, glucose, creatine kinase [CK], red blood cells, white blood cells, hematocrit, and neutrophil/lymphocyte [N/L] ratio) and instrumental meat quality (pH24, bruising score, water holding capacity [WHC], color, and texture). A total of 48 Rasa Aragonesa male lambs were used that were approximately 100 days old (12.5 kg ± 1.64, carcass weight). The results suggest that transport on unpaved roads had a significant influence on physiological and hematological stress parameters. Road type had a significant effect on all variables, except for white and red blood cells, and hematocrit levels. The UR lambs had significantly higher (at least p ≤ 0.01) cortisol, lactate, glucose, and CK levels and a higher N/L ratio than PR lambs. Meat from UR lambs had some dark-cutting characteristics, with a darker color, higher ultimate pH, and higher tenderness values than PR. In conclusion, lambs transported on unpaved roads had a more intense stress response and poorer meat quality than lambs transported on paved roads. An effort to improve the logistics associated with route planning is necessary to prevent welfare problems during transport to slaughter.

  13. Measuring Operational Resilience (United States)


    Julia Allen CERT Allen is a principal researcher within the CERT Program at the SEI. Allen’s areas of interest include operational resilience...funded research and development center. The government of the United States has a royalty-free government-purpose license to use, duplicate, or...Technologies Forum Twitter: #SEIVirtualForum We offer a diverse range of learning products—including classroom training, eLearning , certification, and more—to serve the needs of customers and partners worldwide.

  14. Stiffness, resilience, compressibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Bogdan M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source (United States); Sage, J. Timothy, E-mail: [Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems (United States)


    The flexibility of a protein is an important component of its functionality. We use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to quantify the flexibility of the heme iron environment in the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c by measuring the stiffness and the resilience. These quantities are sensitive to structural differences between the active sites of different proteins, as illustrated by a comparative analysis with myoglobin. The elasticity of the entire protein, on the other hand, can be probed quantitatively from NRVS and high energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements, an approach that we used to extract the bulk modulus of cytochrome c.

  15. Leakage resilient password systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H


    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  16. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands (United States)

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.


    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  17. Role of asphalt paver productivity in direction development of road mechanical engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpushko Marina


    Full Text Available Road construction machinery is one of the largest and stable sectors of national economy. With the help of road-building machinery, construction, maintenance and repair of highways are carried out. Modern system of road and building machines is a complex of high-performance machines and mechanisms, of large and small capacity and productivity. Expansion of paved roads network of both federal and local values, use of resource-saving technologies, increasing of pace and quality of work, ensuring of reliability and durability of highways have a major impact on the development of road construction machinery. The level of foreign road and construction machinery puts forward complex requirements for compliance with world safety and environmental standards, increasing equipment mobility, expanding areas of effective use and, finally, increasing its capacity and productivity. Article contains approach to the calculation of the operational productivity of asphalt pavers that takes into account technical characteristics and conditions of works production and contributes to the reliability of decisions on organization and management of road maintenance works on urban roads.

  18. Resilient ageing: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Hicks, Maxine M; Conner, Norma E


    This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept resilient ageing. Unique in comparison with other healthy ageing concepts, resilient ageing can be applied to all older people, regardless of age or affliction. The state of global population expansion in older people over the next 50 years calls for increased health promotion research efforts to ensure the maintenance of health and optimal quality of life for all older people. Literature for this concept analysis was retrieved from several databases, CINAHL, PubMed PsycINFO, for the years 1990-2012. Rodgers's evolutionary method of concept analysis was used because of its applicability to concepts that are still evolving. An integrative research review methodology was applied to peer-reviewed journal articles (n = 46) for an inductive analysis of the concept of resilient ageing. The antecedents, defining attributes, and consequence of resilient ageing were identified. Antecedents to resilient ageing were found to be adversity and protective factors, while the core attributes include coping, hardiness and self-concept. The consequence of the process of resilient ageing was optimal quality of life. Sense of coherence was found to be the surrogate term. The results obtained were further substantiated using Antonovsky's (1979) theory of salutogenesis. A theoretical definition and a model of resilient ageing were developed. In addition, a discussion was provided on the practice, policy and research implications for promoting the development of protective factors and resilient ageing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adventure Education and Resilience Enhancement (United States)

    Beightol, Jesse; Jevertson, Jenn; Carter, Susan; Gray, Sky; Gass, Michael


    This study assessed the effect of an experiential, adventure-based program on levels of resilience in fifth-grade Latino students. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental design was used to measure the impact of the Santa Fe Mountain Center's Anti-Bullying Initiative on internal assets commonly associated with resilient individuals. Results indicated…

  20. Resilia cyber resilience best practices

    CERN Document Server

    , AXELOS


    RESILIA™ Cyber Resilience Best Practices offers a practical approach to cyber resilience, reflecting the need to detect and recover from incidents, and not rely on prevention alone. It uses the ITIL® framework, which provides a proven approach to the provision of services that align to business outcomes.

  1. Developing a workplace resilience instrument. (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa


    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  2. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska


    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  3. Tiered Approach to Resilience Assessment. (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura; Allen, Craig R; Arnott, James C; Bellini, Emanuele; Coaffee, Jon; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Hatfield, Kirk; Hyde, Iain; Hynes, William; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Kasperson, Roger; Katzenberger, John; Keys, Patrick W; Lambert, James H; Moss, Richard; Murdoch, Peter S; Palma-Oliveira, Jose; Pulwarty, Roger S; Sands, Dale; Thomas, Edward A; Tye, Mari R; Woods, David


    Regulatory agencies have long adopted a three-tier framework for risk assessment. We build on this structure to propose a tiered approach for resilience assessment that can be integrated into the existing regulatory processes. Comprehensive approaches to assessing resilience at appropriate and operational scales, reconciling analytical complexity as needed with stakeholder needs and resources available, and ultimately creating actionable recommendations to enhance resilience are still lacking. Our proposed framework consists of tiers by which analysts can select resilience assessment and decision support tools to inform associated management actions relative to the scope and urgency of the risk and the capacity of resource managers to improve system resilience. The resilience management framework proposed is not intended to supplant either risk management or the many existing efforts of resilience quantification method development, but instead provide a guide to selecting tools that are appropriate for the given analytic need. The goal of this tiered approach is to intentionally parallel the tiered approach used in regulatory contexts so that resilience assessment might be more easily and quickly integrated into existing structures and with existing policies. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Limpopo PAVE strategy: a new approach to provincial traffic resource management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matsila, TA


    Full Text Available The PAVE (Professionalism, Awareness, Visibility, Education) was conceptualised with the objective to enhance the current traffic management strategies, especially with regard to the traffic law enforcement function in line with the key outcomes...

  5. Phase I: Evaluation of Low Flexural Strength for Northern Nevada Concrete Paving Mixtures (United States)


    Production paving grade concrete in Northern Nevada having acceptable strength is universally acknowledged to be difficult; however understanding why this is true remains elusive. Current practice is to meet flexural strength requirements by using mi...

  6. Investigation On The Properties Of Concrete Tactile Paving Blocks Made With Recycled Tire Rubber


    da Silva; Fabiana Maria; Barbosa; Luisa Andreia Gachet; Lintz; Rosa Cristina Cecche; Jacintho; Ana Elisabete P. G. A.


    Due to the increasing demand for buildings that meet accessibility standards and give access to all users, without restriction to people with a disability or reduced mobility, it arises the search for efficient and quality products. Aiming to develop a concrete paving block that contributes to sustainability in building and to accessibility in the built environment, in this paper recycled tire rubber (crumb rubber) was used as aggregate in concrete to produce tactile paving block. The replace...

  7. Pulmonary melanoma and "crazy paving" patterns in chest images: a case report and literature review. (United States)

    Feng, Yikuan; Zhao, Jianping; Yang, Qun; Xiong, Weining; Zhen, Guohua; Xu, Yongjian; Zhang, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Huilan


    In the lung, melanoma is mostly arranged as patterns of multiple nodules, solitary nodules, or miliary invasions. Very rarely, it also displays a "crazy paving" pattern (also described as a "paving stone," "flagstone," or "slabstone" pattern), which is rarer still in discrete bilateral nodules. This pattern is considered to be caused by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, but its association with various diseases is unclear. A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with pulmonary melanoma. Computed tomography revealed discrete bilateral nodules surrounded by a "paving" pattern. A literature review found more than 40 types of diseases that have presented with "paving" patterns in the lung-predominantly pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, viral pneumonia, exogenous lipoid pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, interstitial pneumonia, ARDS, squalene aspiration pneumonia, radiation pneumonitis, drug-induced pneumonitis, pulmonary leptospirosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and pulmonary nocardiosis. We describe the first case of pulmonary melanoma in the form of discrete bilateral nodules accompanied with a computed tomography paving pattern. Although pulmonary paving patterns are rare, more than 40 diseases reportedly display them; clinicians should consider melanoma of the lung in differential diagnoses for patients who show such a pattern.

  8. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  9. Resilient leadership and the organizational culture of resilience: construct validation. (United States)

    Everly, George S; Smith, Kenneth J; Lobo, Rachel


    Political, economic, and social unrest and uncertainty seem replete throughout the world. Within the United States, political vitriol and economic volatility have led to severe economic restrictions. Both government and private sector organizations are being asked to do more with less. The specter of dramatic changes in healthcare creates a condition of uncertainty affecting budget allocations and hiring practices. If ever there was a time when a "resilient culture" was needed, it is now. In this paper we shall discuss the application of "tipping point" theory (Gladwell, 2000) operationalized through a special form of leadership: "resilient leadership" (Everly, Strouse, Everly, 2010). Resilient leadership is consistent with Gladwells "Law of the Few" and strives to create an organizational culture of resilience by implementing an initial change within no more than 20% of an organization's workforce. It is expected that such a minority, if chosen correctly, will "tip" the rest of the organization toward enhanced resilience, ideally creating a self-sustaining culture of resilience. This paper reports on the empirical foundations and construct validation of "resilient leadership".

  10. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey


    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  11. Unsurfaced Road Maintenance Management (United States)


    This draft manual describes an unsurfaced road maintenance management system for use on military installations. This system is available in either a manual or computerized mode (Micro PAVER). The maintenance standards prescribed should protect Govern...

  12. Hydrologically Connected Road Segments (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Link it ArcGIS Item is HERE.The connectivity layer was created to assist municipalities in preparing for the forthcoming DEC Municipal Roads General Permit in 2018....

  13. NM GPS Roads (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains a vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads in New Mexico.

  14. State Forest Roads (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  15. Taos County Roads (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  16. Rapid road repair vehicle (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.


    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  17. Road rage and collision involvement. (United States)

    Mann, Robert E; Zhao, Jinhui; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Smart, Reginald G; Donovan, John E


    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and 2004. Perpetrators and victims of both any road rage and serious road rage had a significantly higher risk of collision involvement than did those without road rage experience. This study provides epidemiological evidence that both victims and perpetrators of road rage experience increased collision risk. More detailed studies of the contribution of road rage to traffic crashes are needed.

  18. Building rural roads


    Johannessen, B.


    Metadata only record Rural roads are the last link of the transport network, however, they often form the most important connection in terms of providing access for the rural population. The permanent or seasonal absence of road access is a constraining factor in terms of providing rural communities with essential services such as education, primary health care, water supply, local markets as well as economic opportunities. The availability of such services and opportunities are difficult ...

  19. Identifying resilient and non-resilient middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non- resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient ...

  20. Resilient response characterisation of hot-mix asphalt mixes for a new South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available The South Africa National Road Agency Ltd (SANRAL) is in the process of revising the South African Pavement Design Method (SAPDM). A necessary part of this programme is to develop resilient response models. Dynamic (complex) modulus has been used...

  1. Measurements for winter road maintenance


    Riehm, Mats


    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  2. State of the Art of Pavement Response Monitoring Systems for Roads and Airfields Symposium Held March 6-9, 1989 in West Lebanon, New Hampshire, (United States)


    Ithaca, New York 14853 72 Lyme Road 607-255-8465 Hanover, NH 03755-1290 603-646-4405 (Fax 603-646-4278) vii Bill McCall Stewart Osgood Reynaldo Roque...Response and Performance from Full Scale Testing", International Colloquium Full Scale Pave- ment Tests, Institut for Strassen-, Eisen- hahn - und Felsbau

  3. Filling the Potholes in the Road to Inclusion: Successful Research-Based Strategies for Intermediate and Middle School Students with Mild Disabilities (United States)

    Bucalos, Anne B.; Lingo, Amy S.


    Teachers have sought appropriate strategies to ensure that students with disabilities receive the support they need within the general education classroom (Klingner, Vaughn, Hughes, Schumm, & Elbaum, 1998). Paving the road to inclusion with successful academic experiences for students with mild disabilities has been especially challenging in the…

  4. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor


    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  5. Chemical profiling of PM10 from urban road dust. (United States)

    Alves, C A; Evtyugina, M; Vicente, A M P; Vicente, E D; Nunes, T V; Silva, P M A; Duarte, M A C; Pio, C A; Amato, F; Querol, X


    Road dust resuspension is one of the main sources of particulate matter with impacts on air quality, health and climate. With the aim of characterising the thoracic fraction, a portable resuspension chamber was used to collect road dust from five main roads in Oporto and an urban tunnel in Braga, north of Portugal. The PM 10 samples were analysed for: i) carbonates by acidification and quantification of the evolved CO 2 , ii) carbonaceous content (OC and EC) by a thermo-optical technique, iii) elemental composition by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion, and iv) organic speciation by GC-MS. Dust loadings of 0.48±0.39mgPM 10 m -2 were obtained for asphalt paved roads. A much higher mean value was achieved in a cobbled pavement (50mgPM 10 m -2 ). In general, carbonates were not detected in PM 10 . OC and EC accounted for PM 10 mass fractions up to 11% and 5%, respectively. Metal oxides accounted for 29±7.5% of the PM 10 mass from the asphalt paved roads and 73% in samples from the cobbled street. Crustal and anthropogenic elements, associated with tyre and brake wear, dominated the inorganic fraction. PM 10 comprised hundreds of organic constituents, including hopanoids, n-alkanes and other aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), alcohols, sterols, various types of acids, glycerol derivatives, lactones, sugars and derivatives, phenolic compounds and plasticizers. In samples from the cobbled street, these organic classes represented only 439μgg -1 PM 10 , while for other pavements mass fractions up to 65mgg -1 PM 10 were obtained. Except for the cobbled street, on average, about 40% of the analysed organic fraction was composed of plasticizers. Although the risk via inhalation of PAH was found to be insignificant, the PM 10 from some roads can contribute to an estimated excess of 332 to 2183 per million new cancer cases in adults exposed via ingestion and dermal contact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic, Socio-Political and Environmental Risks of Road Development in the Tropics. (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Campbell, Mason J; Sloan, Sean; Goosem, Miriam; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Mahmoud, Mahmoud I; Laurance, William F


    It is projected that 25 million km of new paved roads will be developed globally by 2050 - enough to encircle the planet more than 600 times. Roughly 90% of new roads will be built in developing nations, frequently in tropical and subtropical regions with high biodiversity and environmental values. Many developing nations are borrowing from international lenders or negotiating access to their natural resources in order to expand their transportation infrastructure. Given the unprecedented pace and extent of these initiatives, it is vital to thoroughly assess the potential consequences of large-scale road and highway projects. In appropriate contexts and locales, new roads can promote sizeable economic and social benefits. If poorly planned or implemented, however, new roads can provoke serious cost overruns, corruption and environmental impacts, while generating sparse economic benefits and intense social and political conflict. Using examples from developing nations, we identify risks that can hinder road projects in wet and dry tropical environments. Such risks, we assert, are often inadequately considered by project proponents, evaluators and the general public, creating a systematic tendency to overestimate project benefits while understating project risks. A more precautionary approach is needed to reduce risks while maximizing benefits of new road projects in the tropics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Satellite Remote Sensing and Transportation Lifelines: Safety and Risk Analysis Along Rural Roads (United States)

    Williamson, R.

    the application of satellite Earth Observation (EO) methods to the analysis of transportation networks. Other geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), sharply enhance the utility of EO data in identifying potential road hazards and providing an objective basis for allocating resources to reduce their risks. In combination, these powerful information technologies provide substantial public benefits and increased business opportunities to remote sensing value-added firms. departments in rural jurisdictions improve the trafficability of the roads under their management during severe weather. We are developing and testing these methods in the U.S. Southwest, where thousands of kilometers of unimproved and graded dirt roads cross Native American reservations. This generally arid region is nevertheless subject to periodic summer rainstorms and winter snow and ice, creating hazardous conditions for the region's transportation lifelines. Arizona and Southeast Utah, as well as digital terrain models from the U.S. Geological Survey. We have analyzed several risk factors, such as slope, road curvature, and intersections, by means of multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) on both unimproved and improved roads. In partnership with the Hopi Indian Nation in Arizona, we have acquired and analyzed GPS road centerline data and accident data that validate our methodology. hazards along paved and unpaved roads of the American Southwest. They are also transferable to the international settings, particularly in similarly arid climates.

  8. Resilient communities: implications for professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Neef, Martijn; Davis, Scott; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena


    As a result of societal changes like citizen empowerment and increasing attention for strengthening community resilience, relationships between citizens and professional responders in crisis management are changing. Citizens actively deal with crises themselves, implying adjustments to professional

  9. Assessment instruments of urban resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Saporiti


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to highlight the aspects related to the resilient capacity of a neoecosistema. Clarifying what does it means to speak about a resilient neoecosistema and which are the specific characters that make him capable of change and adaptation when facing an environmental, social or economic threat, it will be possible to understand the efficacy related to the model of urban development. From the individuation of perturbing factors of this capacity, it will be possible to generate a panel of the resilient capacity linked to three different ambits that represent the three characteristic elements of natural ecosystems: its physic structure, the persons and the interaction processes between them so we would be able to make explicit the specific characters of resilience distinguished from those of sustainability and urban quality.  

  10. Sociotechnical Resilience: A Preliminary Concept. (United States)

    Amir, Sulfikar; Kant, Vivek


    This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance. We propose that the triad of relations, structures, and practices are fundamental aspects required to comprehend the resilience of sociotechnical systems during times of crisis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Resilient retfærdighed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stefan Gaarsmand


    This article uses the idea of resilience as a point of departure for analysing some contemporary challenges to the climate justice movement posed by social-ecological sciences. Climate justice activists are increasingly rallying for a system-change, demanding fundamental changes to political bure...... is that the scientific framework behind resilience is not politically neutral and that this framework tends to weaken the activist’s demands for a just transition and place more emphasis on technical and bureaucratic processes....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra L. Smith


    Full Text Available The increased interdependence and complexity of modern societies have increased the need to involve all members of a community into solving problems. In times of great uncertainty, when communities face threats of different kinds and magnitudes, the traditional top-down approach where government provides solely for community wellbeing is no longer plausible. Crowdsourcing has emerged as an effective means of empowering communities with the potential to engage individuals in innovation, self-organization activities, informal learning, mutual support, and political action that can all lead to resilience. However, there remains limited resource on the topic. In this paper, we outline the various forms of crowdsourcing, economic and community resilience, crowdsourcing and economic resilience, and a case study of the Nepal earthquake. his article presents an exploratory perspective on the link can be found between crowdsourcing and economic resilience. It introduces and describes a framework that can be used to study the impact of crowdsourcing initiatives for economic resilience by future research. An initial a set of indicators to be used to measure the change in the level of resilience is presented.

  13. Resilience | Science Inventory | US EPA (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widely accepted (Gunderson 2000, cited under Original Definition). Currently, the concept is commonplace in academics, management, and policy. Although the idea has quantitative roots in the ecological sciences and was proposed as a measurable quality of ecosystems, the broad use of resilience led to an expansion of definitions and applications. Holling’s original definition, presented in 1973 (Holling 1973, cited under Original Definition), was simply the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain. Ecological resilience, therefore, emphasizes that the dynamics of complex systems are nonlinear, meaning that these systems can transition, often abruptly, between dynamic states with substantially different structures, functions, and processes. The transition of ecological systems from one state to another frequently has important repercussions for humans. Recent definitions are more normative and qualitative, especially in the social sciences, and a competing definition, that of engineering resilience, is still often used. Resilience is an emergent phenomenon of complex systems, which means it cannot be deduced from the behavior of t

  14. Roads as Drivers of Change: Trajectories across the Tri‑National Frontier in MAP, the Southwestern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenville Barnes


    Full Text Available Regional studies of land cover change are often limited by available data and in terms of comparability across regions, by the transferability of methods. This research addresses the role of roads and infrastructure improvements across a tri-national frontier region with similar climatic and biophysical conditions but very different trajectories of forest clearing. The standardization of methodologies and the extensive spatial and temporal framework of the analysis are exciting as they allow us to monitor a dynamic region with global significance as it enters an era of increased road connectivity and massive potential forest loss. Our study region is the “MAP” frontier, which covers Madre de Dios in Peru, Acre in Brazil, and Pando in Bolivia. This tri-national frontier is being integrated into the global economy via the paving of the Inter-Oceanic Highway which links the region to ports in the Atlantic and Pacific, constituting a major infrastructure change within just the last decade. Notably, there are differences in the extent of road paving among the three sides of the tri-national frontier, with paving complete in Acre, underway in Madre de Dios, and incipient in Pando. Through a multi-temporal analysis of land cover in the MAP region from 1986 to 2005, we found that rates of deforestation differ across the MAP frontier, with higher rates in Acre, followed by Madre de Dios and the lowest rates in Pando, although the dominant land cover across the region is still stable forest cover (89% overall. For all dates in the study period, deforestation rates drop with distance from major roads although the distance before this drop off appears to relate to development, with Acre influencing forests up to around 45 km out, Madre de Dios to about 18 km out and less of a discernable effect or distance value in Pando. As development occurs, the converted forest areas saturate close to roads, resulting in increasing rates of deforestation at further

  15. Gravel roads management : volume 3, gravel roads management : programming guide. (United States)


    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  16. Gravel roads management : volume 1, gravel roads management. (United States)


    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  17. Gravel roads management : volume 2, gravel roads management : implementation guide. (United States)


    This report establishes procedures for managing dirt and gravel roads, with a primary focus on smaller agencies, such as Wyoming counties, that must manage their roads with very limited resources. The report strives, first, to guide and assist smalle...

  18. Studies on resilient modulus value from cyclic loading tests for cohesive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Wojciech


    Full Text Available In this article the cyclic CBR test as a reference method in determination of resilient modulus (Mr is confronted with results of cyclic triaxial and unconfined uniaxial cyclic test. The main idea of conducted experiments is establish relationship between cyclic loading tests in testing of natural subsoil and road materials. The article shows results of investigation on cohesive soil, namely sandy silty clay, commonly problematic soil in Poland. The results of repeated loading triaxial test resilient modulus were displayed in order to compare them with cyclic CBR test results by using the Mr–Ө model. Some empirical correlation between factors obtained from triaxial test or uniaxial unconfined cyclic test and cyclic CBR test was introduced here. The behavior of resilient modulus was also examined in this paper.

  19. Symmetric road interchanges


    Kurauskas, Valentas; Šiurienė, Ugnė


    A road interchange where $n$ roads meet and in which the drivers are not allowed to change lanes can be modelled as an embedding of a 2-coloured (hence bipartite) multigraph $G$ with equal-sized colour classes into an orientable surface such that there is a face bounded by a Hamiltonian cycle (Kurauskas, 2017). The case of $G$ a complete bipartite graph $K_{n,n}$ corresponds to a complete $n$-way interchange where drivers approaching from each of $n$ directions can exit to any other direction...

  20. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... a competitive value proposition? We will illustrate the strategy-as-practice with two projects, and discuss implications in terms of capabilities needed to create an effective value proposition and hence competitiveness. The theoretical contribution is in theorizing haulier strategic development in which we...

  1. Aligning Organizational Pathologies and Organizational Resilience Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Morales Allende


    Full Text Available Developing resilient individuals, organizations and communities is a hot topic in the research agenda in Management, Ecology, Psychology or Engineering. Despite the number of works that focus on resilience is increasing, there is not completely agreed definition of resilience, neither an entirely formal and accepted framework. The cause may be the spread of research among different fields. In this paper, we focus on the study of organizational resilience with the aim of improving the level of resilience in organizations. We review the relation between viable and resilient organizations and their common properties. Based on these common properties, we defend the application of the Viable System Model (VSM to design resilient organizations. We also identify the organizational pathologies defined applying the VSM through resilience indicators. We conclude that an organization with any organizational pathology is not likely to be resilient because it does not fulfill the requirements of viable organizations.

  2. Crazy-paving sign in high-resolution computed tomography in parainfluenza virus pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Osamu [Department of Respiratory Disease, NHO National Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kido higashi machi 2-1, Kawachinagano City, Osaka 586-8521 (Japan)], E-mail:; Hayama, Yoshitomo; Honda, Hidehiro; Yamane, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Suguru; Ueno, Kiyonobu [Department of Respiratory Disease, NHO National Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kido higashi machi 2-1, Kawachinagano City, Osaka 586-8521 (Japan); Saeki, Yukihiko [Department of Clinical Research, NHO National Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kido higashi machi 2-1, Kawachinagano city, Osaka 586-8521 (Japan)


    The crazy-paving sign is the appearance of a smooth linear pattern superimposed on an area of ground-glass opacity on thin-section computed tomography (CT). A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for treatment of pneumonia. Thoracic CT showed a crazy-paving sign in the right lung field on admission. She received ceftriaxone and clarithromycin, and the symptoms and infiltration shadow promptly disappeared. Serologic testing revealed a greater than 4-fold increase in the IgG titer for parainfluenza virus I. To our knowledge, there is no previous report of the crazy-paving sign in associated with viral pneumonia in a non-immunocompromised host or with parainfluenza pneumonia.

  3. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.


    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The

  4. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this regard, it is imperative for all parties concerning road safety to determine the factors that significantly contribute to road traffic deaths. According to the Ministry of Works, Malaysia, the blackspot treatment programme (which is centred on the elimination of road hazards by engineering approaches) is successful in ...

  5. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yusria Darma


    Jul 14, 2017 ... According to the Ministry of Works, Malaysia, the blackspot treatment programme (which is centred on the elimination of road hazards by engineering approaches) is successful in reducing the number of injuries due to road traffic accidents up to a certain extent. This study is focussed on analysing road ...

  6. Development of Concrete Paving Blocks Prepared from Waste Materials without Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charin NAMARAK


    Full Text Available This experiment used three types of waste materials: calcium carbide residue, fly ash, and recycled concrete aggregate to develop concrete paving blocks. The blocks had calcium carbide residue and fly ash as a binder without ordinary Portland cement (OPC and combined with 100 % of recycled concrete aggregate. The concrete paving blocks were 10 × 10 × 20 cm and were formed using a pressure of 6 or 8 MPa. The binder-to-aggregate ratio was held constant at 1:3 by weight, while the water-to-binder ratios were 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40. The effects of the water-to-binder ratios and fineness of the binder on the compressive strength, flexural strength, abrasion resistance, and water absorption of the concrete paving blocks were determined and compared with those of TIS 827 and ASTM C1319 standards. The results revealed that by applying this procedure, we were able to produce an excellence concrete paving block without using OPC. The compressive strength of the concrete paving blocks made from these waste materials was 41.4 MPa at 28 days and increased to 45.3 MPa at 60 days. Therefore, these waste materials can be used as raw materials to manufacture concrete paving blocks without OPC that meet the requirements of 40 MPa and 35 MPa specified by the TIS 827 and ASTM C1319 standards, respectively.DOI:

  7. The use of coal mining wastes for manufacturing paving materials; Los Esteriles del Carbon como Materia Prima para la Fabricacion de Materiales para Pavimentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project was aimed at proving the technical feasibility of the use of coal mining wastes in the manufacturing of paving materials: floor-tiles, flags, paving-stones, grit stones, etc. The study proved that coal mining wastes in a mixture with other raw materials can be used in the manufacturing of paving materials: floor-tiles, paving-stones, grit stones.

  8. Sierra County E-911 Roads (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some city streets in...

  9. Standard road plans [English version]. (United States)


    The Standard Road Plans contained within this manual have been developed : to show standardized design features, construction methods and approved : materials to be used in design plans for Interstate, Primary, and Secondary : road construction in th...

  10. Grant County E-911 Roads (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and city...

  11. Multi-Image Road Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, W. A; Cochran, Steven D; McKeown, David M


    .... It also supports direct extraction of 3D information along the path of the road. Determination of road elevation has significant implications for reducing cost and time in applications requiring cartographic features with full 3D attribution...

  12. Valencia County E-911 Roads (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...

  13. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF) (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  14. A rare cause of crazy-paving and mediastinal lymphadenopathy: congestive heart failure. (United States)

    Senturk, Aysegul; Karalezli, Aysegul; Soyturk, Ayse Nur; Hasanoglu, H Canan


    Crazy-paving sign is a pattern seen on multislice computed tomography images of the lungs. It is characterized by a reticular pattern superimposed on ground-glass opacity. It was first described in the late 1980s in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, but has now been described in some other diseases of the lung. Enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes can be seen in infectious and specific inflammatory diseases and malignancies. The present report describes a case of a 44-year-old man in whom congestive heart failure presented with a crazy-paving appearance and enlarged lymph nodes of the lungs on the chest computed tomography scan.

  15. Pulmonary involvement of peripheral T-cell lymphoma manifesting as crazy paving pattern. (United States)

    Fraser, Traci; Nagarur, Amulya


    Crazy paving pattern is a finding on computed tomography of the chest that is characterized by interlobular septal thickening and ground-glass opacities. Though classically associated with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, the differential diagnosis for this pattern is broad, and initial workup includes bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage to evaluate for malignancy, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, infection, and eosinophilic pneumonia. Herein we present an unusual case of peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL NOS) with pulmonary involvement that demonstrated crazy paving pattern. The diagnosis was confirmed after cytology from bronchoalveolar lavage revealed atypical lymphocytes with an immunologic profile consistent with the patient's known PTCL NOS.

  16. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia


    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  17. On the Road (United States)

    Collins, Mary Ellen


    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  18. Eritrea - Road Sector Engineering


    P.C. Mohan


    The project, begun in 1997 and completed in mid-2002, responded to the key findings of the IDA Participatory Rural Assessment study undertaken in 1994, which identified isolation and lack of road links as substantial constraints to poverty alleviation. It comprised the following components: (1) Infrastructure strengthening studies: (a) a feasibility and environmental impact assessment to d...

  19. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor


    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negative...

  20. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing. (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C


    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  1. Tyre and road wear prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.


    Both tyre wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tyre. The both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (i.e.

  2. Low environmental impact technologies for road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Simone


    Full Text Available The “sustainability” concept relates to the prolonging of human economic systems with as little detrimental impact on ecological systems as possible. Construction that exhibits good environmental stewardship and practices that conserve resources in a manner that allow growth and development to be sustained for the long-term without degrading the environment are indispensable in a developed society.Past, current and future advancements in road construction as an environmentally sustainable paving material are especially important because the quantities of asphalt used annually in Europe as well as in the U.S. and all over the world are large. This research project is aimed to demonstrate the dual value of some new technologies in regards to the environmental and mechanical performance and to suggest a low environmental impact design procedure. In fact, the use of eco-friendly materials is the first phase towards an eco-compatible design but it cannot be the only step. The eco-compatible approach should be extended also to the design method and material characterization because only with these phases is it possible to exploit the maximum potential properties of the used materials.

  3. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci


    Full Text Available The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011. Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many researches. Of all this recent and varied range of literature, our focus is on those texts that combine resilience with strategies, processes and models for resilient cities, communities and regions. Starting from the resilience strategies developed as response for risks mitigation, the paper thus explores other approaches and experiences on cities resilience that have been conducted: the aim is to compare and identify innovation in the planning process towards risks mitigation. In this paper we present a summary of the initial survey stage of our research, with three main aims: understanding the approaches to resilience developed so far and identifying which aspects these approaches share (or not;understanding which strategies are being proposed for resilient regions, cities or social-ecological systems;understanding whether proposed resilience strategies involve innovations in urban and regional development disciplines. The aim is to understand whether the proposed concept of resilience, or rather strategies, constitute progress and contribute to innovation in the areas of urban planning and design in relation to risk mitigation. Three main families of literature have been identified from the recent literature promoting resilience as a key strategy. The first aim of the research is to understand which particular concept and which aspects of resilience are used, which resilience strategies are proposed, how the term ‘city’ is defined and interpreted

  4. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads. (United States)


    ... road, a strip right-of-way joining the main body of the airport to the nearest public road may be... acquired to provide an airport entrance road and was not, before the existence of the airport, a public... road extends only to the nearest public highway, road, or street. (c) An entrance road may be joined to...

  5. Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey


    Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

  6. Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives. (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen


    The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice.

  7. Military Climate Resilience Planning and Contemporary Urban Systems Thinking (United States)


    3 2.3 Psychological resilience...use of the term resilience must begin by asking core-level questions. A further overview of resilience in the areas of psychology , organizations, and...use of resilience during planning and design. 2.3 Psychological resilience While resilience is solidly rooted and established in the engineering

  8. Integrated Approach to a Resilient City: Associating Social, Environmental and Infrastructure Resilience in its Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Rising complexity, numbers and severity of natural and manmade disasters enhance the importance of reducing vulnerability, or on contrary – increasing resilience, of different kind of systems, including those of social, engineering (infrastructure, and environmental (ecological nature. The goal of this research is to explore urban resilience as an integral system of social, environmental, and engineering resilience. This report analyses the concepts of each kind of resilience and identifies key factors influencing social, ecological, and infrastructure resilience discussing how these factors relate within urban systems. The achievement of resilience of urban and regional systems happens through the interaction of the different elements (social, psychological, physical, structural, and environmental, etc.; therefore, resilient city could be determined by synergy of resilient society, resilient infrastructure and resilient environment of the given area. Based on literature analysis, the current research provides some insights on conceptual framework for assessment of complex urban systems in terms of resilience. To be able to evaluate resilience and define effective measures for prevention and risk mitigation, and thereby strengthen resilience, we propose to develop an e-platform, joining risk parameters’ Monitoring Systems, which feed with data Resiliency Index calculation domain. Both these elements result in Multirisk Platform, which could serve for awareness and shared decision making for resilient people in resilient city.

  9. Project 0-6749 : feasibility study of two-lift concrete paving : [project summary]. (United States)


    Two-lift concrete paving (2LCP) involves placing two layers of : concrete (wet-on-wet) instead of a single homogeneous layer, as is : typically done in the United States. 2LCP offers the opportunity to optimize the use of local aggregates and : recyc...

  10. Crazy paving pattern caused by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: CT findings and the pathologic basis. (United States)

    Luo, Jianguang; Yang, Dongyi; Zhou, Shunke; Xiao, Enhua; Chen, Ping; Fan, Songqing; Liu, Jun


    To explore CT findings and pathologic basis of crazy paving pattern caused by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed pathologically as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis by transbronchial lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from June 2006 to May 2012 were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent a 64-slice CT of the lungs. CT findings: crazy paving pattern was observed on CT imaging of all 24 patients. In 23 patients, crazy paving pattern displayed strip-shaped opacities with smooth edges, and there was a clear boundary between the pathological and normal lung tissues. The reticular opacities were connected with peripheral blood vessels and the branches were formed, and their diameters decreased slightly. Microscopically, hemangiectasis were seen in 17 patients. Crazy paving pattern caused by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis displayed clear edges, and smooth reticular opacities, most of which were due to hemangiectasis of interlobular, interacinar and interalveolar septa. These findings of CT are helpful for the specific diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

  11. The use of bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in concrete paving blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Bottom ash that results from coal burning for electrical generation is still much underutilized in Indonesia and it is necessary to increase the usage of this waste. The manufacture of paving blocks using bottom ash, which is normally associated with high water absorption due to its high porosity and carbon content, was examined in this study with the aim to increase the usage of this waste material. The study was done in three phases: (1 the mixture of cement and bottom ash passing sieves of 2 and 5 mm were done with ratios of 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5; from the best proportion, fly ash was used to replace the cement material from 10–80%, and (3 samples with 30% and 50% fly ash replacement ratios were used in combination with 5 mm and 10 mm sieved bottom ash. Compressive strength, water absorption, and abrasion resistance tests were conducted to assess the properties of the resultant paving block. From the result, bottom ash is used to replace natural sand in making paving blocks. By optimizing the particle packing density and using fly ash as a cement replacement, the compressive strength of paving blocks can exceed 40 MPa.

  12. Non-invasive imaging and assessment of active karst features in proximity to paved roadways. (United States)


    In an effort to better understand and define the lateral and vertical extent of active karst features in immediate proximity to paved : MoDOT roadways in Springfield Missouri, MS&T will acquire electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data. The intent...

  13. Self-consolidating concrete, applications for slip-form paving : phase II. (United States)


    The goal of the project was to develop a new type of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) for slip-form paving to simplify construction and make smoother pavements. Developing the new SCC involved two phases: a feasibility study (Phase I sponsored by TP...

  14. New technologies in the paving process need to be based on 'common practice' and 'operator's heuristics'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Doree, Andries G.; Lee, H-D.; Bhatti, M.A.


    This paper describes an initiative that aims to integrate process mod-eling with the tacit knowledge of site personnel in order to accelerate profes-sionalism and widen the application of technology in the asphalt paving proc-ess. A preparatory study was conducted to gain insight into operational

  15. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center (United States)

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  16. Influence of road transport infrastructure on agricultural sector development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunleye Olusogo


    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of road transport infrastructure on agricultural sector development in Nigeria from 1985 to 2014, using secondary annual time series data on agricultural development (proxy by gross domestic product in the Agric sector road transport infrastructure (proxy by length of paved road per square kilometer of area export and capital, all obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN [3], and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS [16], statistical bulletins. The data were analyzed using Granger Causality test and Ordinary Least Square estimation techniques. The study concluded that a positive and statistically significant relationship exists between road transport infrastructures (LRT also evidence was found of a unidirectional causality from agricultural sector development to transport infrastructure. The study, therefore, recommends that adequate and timely maintenance of existing roads should be carried out as well as enacting appropriate regulations that ensure proper implementation and completion of new road construction contracts in the country in order to boost agricultural sector development, reduce wastage of farm produce and increase the possibility of economic diversification.

  17. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement (III):. effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM 10 road dust emissions in the Treasure Valley, ID (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; Gillies, J.; Chow, J.; Hendrickson, K.; McGown, M.; Pitchford, M.

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER) road dust measurement system was used to survey more than 400 km of paved roads in southwestern Idaho during 3-week sampling campaigns in winter and summer, 2001. Each data point, consisting of a 1-s measurement of particle light scattering sampled behind the front tire, was associated with a link (section of road) in the traffic demand model network for the Treasure Valley, ID. Each link was in turn associated with a number of characteristics including posted speed limit, vehicle kilometers traveled (vkt), road class (local/residential, collector, arterial, and interstate), county, and land use (urban vs. rural). Overall, the TRAKER-based emission factors based on location, setting, season, and speed spanned a narrow range from 3.6 to 8.0 g/vkt. Emission factors were higher in winter compared to summer, higher in urban areas compared to rural, and lower for roads with fast travel speeds compared to slower roads. The inherent covariance between traffic volume and traffic speed obscured the assessment of the effect of traffic volume on emission potentials. Distance-based emission factors expressed in grams per kilometer traveled (g/vkt) for roads with low travel speeds (˜11 m/s residential roads) compared to those with high travel speeds (˜25 m/s interstates) were higher (5.2 vs. 3.0 g/vkt in summer and 5.9 vs. 4.9 g/vkt in winter). However, emission potentials which characterize the amount of suspendable material on a road were substantially higher on roads with low travel speeds (0.71 vs. 0.13 g/vkt/(m/s) in summer and 0.78 vs. 0.21 g/vkt/(m/s) in winter). This suggested that while high speed roads are much cleaner (factor of 5.4 in summer), on a vehicle kilometer traveled basis, emissions from high and low speed roads are of the same order. Emission inventories based on the TRAKER method, silt loadings obtained during the field study, and US EPA's AP-42 default values of silt loading were

  18. Concepts of Resilience for Coastal Systems (United States)


    Resilience Study Definition American Society of Civil Engineers (2006) “Resilience refers to the capability to...AR5/images/uploads/WGIIAR5-Glossary_FGD.pdf “The capacity of a social- ecological system to cope with a hazardous event or disturbance, responding or...dunes, wetlands Ecological Resilience The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change Ecological Resilience

  19. Can we prevent road rage? (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E


    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  20. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska


    CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  1. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang


    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...... that the availability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying relevant resilience techniques....

  2. Resilience in nursing students: An integrative review. (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Jean; Revell, Susan Hunter


    The aim of this integrative review was to investigate the state of knowledge on resilience in nursing students. Specifically the authors sought to define and describe the concept, and identify factors that affect and evaluate strategies to promote resilience in nursing students. Integrative literature review. Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINHAL), Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) and PsychINFO electronic databases were searched for publications between 1990 and 2014. Search terms included resilience, student, nurse, nursing student, hardiness, emotional resilience, research, resili*, and nurse*. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative approach was utilized to conduct the methodological review. Each article was assessed with an appraisal tool. The search resulted in the inclusion of nine articles. The majority of the literature utilized definitions of resilience from the discipline of psychology. One exception was a definition developed within nursing specific to nursing students. Factors that affect resilience were grouped into three themes: support, time, and empowerment. Strategies to promote resilience in nursing students were found in three of the nine articles, but their methods and findings were disparate. This review provides information about the concept of resilience in nursing students. Faculty awareness of the importance of resilience in nursing students can better prepare students for the role of the professional nurse. Support from family, friends and faculty impact a student's resilience. Through closely working with students in advisement, the clinical arena and the classroom faculty can promote resilience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra


    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  4. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance? (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George


    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  5. The importance of being resilient (United States)

    Mysiak, J.


    Despite many efforts to pin down resilience in terms of measurable indicators and indices, there is little agreement about what is the most appropriate scale, level of (dis)integration, functional relationship and trade-off between the various constituents of resilience. More than anything else, resilience is knowledge. Knowing how to prepare, respond and recover from hazard strikes. More than that, resilience is a capacity to deploy that knowledge. To help oneself to get back on feet after having sustained a blow. To learn how to. Resilience has many forms and manifestations. People convalescing after having lost what was dear to them. Communities recovering from shattering blows. Economies getting back on track after having sustained major shocks and losses. However, resilience has also negative connotation: the persistent overlooking of the threat and perceived powerlessness of individuals, in front of unacquainted community or nonsensical institutions, to make any difference. During the flood emergency situations, the community resilience is determined at individual level by the willpower and readiness of community members to help others in need ('we don't step away') and themselves, and the degree to which they know how to. In this sense, the preparedness comprises capability and experience that can be acquired or trained, and commitment which is transmitted by moral obligation and community membership. In the most cases it is not the professional staff trained for emergency situation which arrives as first at the place of disaster, however well the emergency response is organised. Before the professional rescue teams, the ordinary people intervene, or can do so, with positive or negative outcomes. The articles revisits recent flood events and identify factors and measures that boost community resilience to flood (REF). In Italy, the analysed events included 2000 Soverato, 2006 Vibo Valentia floods, both places situated in Calabria on Ionian and Tyrrhenian

  6. Fostering resilience through changing realities. Introduction to operational resilience capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, D.; Vorm, J. van der; Beek, F.A. van der; Veldhuis, G.J.


    The reality of operations does not always follow the book. Operational circumstances may develop into surprising situations that procedures have not accounted for. Still, we make things work. Resilient performance recognizes surprise early and acts upon it through adaptation, which is critical for

  7. Tweets on the road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Lenormand

    Full Text Available The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent.

  8. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva


    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  9. The road that's taken : Alberta's bitumen and the world of asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentein, J.


    Approximately one third of the bitumen produced by the oil sands industry in Canada is used as asphalt in roads and roofing materials. Crude oils used for asphalt production require very little refining. The asphalt market has become a key profit centre for some Cold Lake operators. Imperial Oil has established a research centre devoted to asphalt production at its Sarnia-based refinery. A decline in heavy oil supplies from Mexico and Venezuela has left Canada with a larger margin of the asphalt market. Industry leaders predict that demand for asphalt products will grow by 2.6 per cent per year. A sharp increase in asphalt prices led to many construction delays in 2007. Trials are now being conducted on a new warm mix paving technology that allows users to lower the temperature of asphalt by 20 to 30 degrees C when paving. 2 figs

  10. On the Road to Holistic Decision Making in Adaptive Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Emami-Taba


    Full Text Available Security is a critical concern in today's software systems. Besides the interconnectivity and dynamic nature of network systems, the increasing complexity in modern software systems amplifies the complexity of IT security. This fact leaves attackers one step ahead in exploiting vulnerabilities and introducing new cyberattacks. The demand for new methodologies in addressing cybersecurity is emphasized by both private and national corporations. A practical solution to dynamically manage the high complexity of IT security is adaptive security, which facilitates analysis of the system's behaviour and hence the prevention of malicious attacks in complex systems. Systems that feature adaptive security detect and mitigate security threats at runtime with little or no administrator involvement. In these systems, decisions at runtime are balanced according to quality and performance goals. This article describes the necessity of holistic decision making in such systems and paves the road to future research.

  11. Low Impact Development Intensive Rural Construction Planning in Xu Fu Village Ningbo, China: Planning Review through Rural Resilience Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmayri Lovina Hermaputi


    Full Text Available Xu Fu Village Ningbo LID Intensive Rural Construction Planning is a cooperation project between Zhejiang University and Ningbo Institute of Technology which named "12th Five-Year National Science and Technology support program-the comprehensive demonstration of the key technology of the beautiful rural construction in the rapid urbanization area of the Yangtze River Delta". This plan focuses on intensive rural construction as part of rural development and construction project that applies the principles of low impact development. Xu Fu Village located in the Yangtze River Delta Region. Currently, the rural growth brings the high impact of development, as a result of rapid urbanization growth arising several issues, such as low land use efficiency, dispersed rural residence, homestead occupies more, rural roads covering over, etc. Meanwhile, Xu Fu village wishes to develop its tourism potential. Thus, the intensive rural construction should be done to avoid the severe effect. The project result hopefully can improve the quality and level of rural residential planning, design, and construction; improve their living environment; save construction land and water use; and improve energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to review the Low Impact Development (LID Intensive Rural Construction in Xu Fu Village, Ningbo City through the rural resilience perspective. This paper will describe the project plan first, then review it through rural resilience perspective. This paper will elaborate the rural resilience theory and then review the rural resiliency through two parts; the first part is identifying rural resilience in rural infrastructure development based on the criteria created by Ayyob S. and Yoshiki Y. (2014, about urban resiliency criteria, and then the second part is reviewing Xu Fu Village resilience through Arup Resilience Qualities (2012, considering three rural resilience domain (economy, ecology, and cultural.

  12. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  13. Seeding Stress Resilience through Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Ashokan


    Full Text Available Stress is a generalized set of physiological and psychological responses observed when an organism is placed under challenging circumstances. The stress response allows organisms to reattain the equilibrium in face of perturbations. Unfortunately, chronic and/or traumatic exposure to stress frequently overwhelms coping ability of an individual. This is manifested as symptoms affecting emotions and cognition in stress-related mental disorders. Thus environmental interventions that promote resilience in face of stress have much clinical relevance. Focus of the bulk of relevant neurobiological research at present remains on negative aspects of health and psychological outcomes of stress exposure. Yet exposure to the stress itself can promote resilience to subsequent stressful episodes later in the life. This is especially true if the prior stress occurs early in life, is mild in its magnitude, and is controllable by the individual. This articulation has been referred to as “stress inoculation,” reminiscent of resilience to the pathology generated through vaccination by attenuated pathogen itself. Using experimental evidence from animal models, this review explores relationship between nature of the “inoculum” stress and subsequent psychological resilience.

  14. Cyber Resilience in de Boardroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Zielstra, A.


    The Grand Conference - Building a Resilient Digital Society - took place in Amsterdam on October 16, 2012. The international conference aimed for top decision-makers of industry government and other organisations. Two hundred participants from twenty-two nations participated. Three Dutch

  15. MSY from catch and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Chrysafi, Anna

    A simple Schaefer model was tested on the Greenland halibut stock offshore in NAFO SA 0 and 1. The minimum data required for this model is a catch time series and a measure of the resilience of the species. Other input parameters that had to be guessed were the carrying capacity, the biomass...

  16. Strengthening community resilience: a toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Scott; Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena


    While community resilience is said to have gained a lot of traction politically and given credence by disaster management professionals, this perception is not always shared by the individual members of communities. One solution to addressing the difficulty of individuals ‘conceptualising’ the

  17. Coral reef resilience through biodiversity (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.


    Irrefutable evidence of coral reef degradation worldwide and increasing pressure from rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification associated with climate change have led to a focus on reef resilience and a call to “manage” coral reefs for resilience. Ideally, global action to reduce emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will be accompanied by local action. Effective management requires reduction of local stressors, identification of the characteristics of resilient reefs, and design of marine protected area networks that include potentially resilient reefs. Future research is needed on how stressors interact, on how climate change will affect corals, fish, and other reef organisms as well as overall biodiversity, and on basic ecological processes such as connectivity. Not all reef species and reefs will respond similarly to local and global stressors. Because reef-building corals and other organisms have some potential to adapt to environmental changes, coral reefs will likely persist in spite of the unprecedented combination of stressors currently affecting them. The biodiversity of coral reefs is the basis for their remarkable beauty and for the benefits they provide to society. The extraordinary complexity of these ecosystems makes it both more difficult to predict their future and more likely they will have a future.

  18. Integrative approaches: promoting socioecological resilience (United States)

    J.W. Long; Carl Skinner; M. North; C.T. Hunsaker; L. Quinn-Davidson


    This chapter begins by discussing current challenges for ecosystem management that emerged from multiple chapters of the full synthesis. It then considers integrative approaches to promote resilience, including general strategies that recognize the integrated nature of socioecological systems, the importance of promoting disturbance regimes upon which these systems...

  19. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Southwick


    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1 how do we define resilience, (2 what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3 how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4 what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture.

  20. Transdisciplinary Application of Cross-Scale Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana M. Sundstrom


    Full Text Available The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems.

  1. What do you mean, 'resilient geomorphic systems'? (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Piégay, H.; Parsons, M.


    Resilience thinking has many parallels in the study of geomorphology. Similarities and intersections exist between the scientific discipline of geomorphology and the scientific concept of resilience. Many of the core themes fundamental to geomorphology are closely related to the key themes of resilience. Applications of resilience thinking in the study of natural and human systems have expanded, based on the fundamental premise that ecosystems, economies, and societies must be managed as linked social-ecological systems. Despite geomorphology and resilience sharing core themes, appreciation is limited of the history and development of geomorphology as a field of scientific endeavor by many in the field of resilience, as well as a limited awareness of the foundations of the former in the more recent emergence of resilience. This potentially limits applications of resilience concepts to the study of geomorphology. In this manuscript we provide a collective examination of geomorphology and resilience as a means to conceptually advance both areas of study, as well as to further cement the relevance and importance of not only understanding the complexities of geomorphic systems in an emerging world of interdisciplinary challenges but also the importance of viewing humans as an intrinsic component of geomorphic systems rather than just an external driver. The application of the concepts of hierarchy and scale, fundamental tenets of the study of geomorphic systems, provide a means to overcome contemporary scale-limited approaches within resilience studies. Resilience offers a framework for geomorphology to expand its application into the broader social-ecological domain.

  2. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Stefanovski, Petar; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Raleva, Marija; Dejanova, Beti


    A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. Two hundred eighteen (218) women, treated for early breast cancer responded to Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, in order to assess the level of psychological resilience and the level of depression. There is a significant negative correlation between depression and resilience in our sample (r = - 0.562, p resilience. There is no statistically significant correlation between the ages of the participants; time passed since diagnosis, cancer stage and resilience levels. This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  3. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M.; Bonanno, George A.; Masten, Ann S.; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel


    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  4. Multidimensional approach to complex system resilience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama Dessavre, Dante; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Barker, Kash


    Recent works have attempted to formally define a general metric for quantifying resilience for complex systems as a relationship of performance of the systems against time. The technical content in the proposed work introduces a new model that allows, for the first time, to compare the system resilience among systems (or different modifications to a system), by introducing a new dimension to system resilience models, called stress, to mimic the definition of resilience in material science. The applicability and usefulness of the model is shown with a new heat map visualization proposed in this work, and it is applied to a simulated network resilience case to exemplify its potential benefits. - Highlights: • We analyzed two of the main current metrics of resilience. • We create a new model that relates events with the effects they have. • We develop a novel heat map visualization to compare system resilience. • We showed the model and visualization usefulness in a simulated case.

  5. Bicycle facilities on distributor roads. [Formerly known as: Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any

  6. Providing Flood Risk Science for Resilient Transportation Infrastructure Decisions in Connecticut (United States)

    French, R.; Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A.; Kooris, D.; O'Donnell, J.


    The Connecticut Institute for Resilience and Climate Adaptation (CIRCA) provides actionable science to accelerate adaptation and resilience strategies for Connecticut's inland and coastal waterways communities. Connecticut's coastal area has some of the most valuable real estate in the United States due to the Metro North and Shoreline East commuter rail line that connects all 24 coastal municipalities through transit hubs to the New York City metropolitan region. On its way to NY, the rail runs through neighborhoods and coastal marshes and crosses local and state roads. During coastal storms and increasingly at high tides as the sea level rises, the rail line may act like a berm, but also cuts off coastal neighborhoods from the upland. When it crosses a road in a marsh setting, the clearance restriction also severely limits communities' options for moving or elevating the roadway. These flooded roadways and vulnerable transit hubs are already a challenge for municipalities and will continue to be in the future. However, given scarce resources, it is not sufficient to simply know that they are vulnerable using existing low resolution mapping tools. Communities need site-specific, exact estimates of frequency of flooding, incorporating future sea level rise, to make cost determinations and accurately project the useful life of their investment. To address this need CIRCA developed high-resolution dynamic coastal flood risk models and partnered with municipal staff, regional planning bodies and the state to apply them to infrastructure decision-making. We will present three case studies of this approach: 1) the implementation of the US HUD National Disaster Resilience Competition pilot project of road elevation and berm construction in partnership with the Department of Housing and the City of Bridgeport; 2) the City of New London's first rail and ferry transit hub vulnerability assessment for sea level rise and storms and 3) the flooding frequency of a state road

  7. Information technology road map 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.

  8. Moving research to practice through partnership: a case study in Asphalt Paving. (United States)

    Chang, Charlotte; Nixon, Laura; Baker, Robin


    Multi-stakeholder partnerships play a critical role in dissemination and implementation in health and safety. To better document and understand construction partnerships that have successfully scaled up effective interventions to protect workers, this case study focused on the collaborative processes of the Asphalt Paving Partnership. In the 1990s, this partnership developed, evaluated, disseminated, and achieved near universal, voluntary adoption of paver engineering controls to reduce exposure to asphalt fumes. We used in-depth interviews (n = 15) and document review in the case study. We describe contextual factors that both facilitated and challenged the formation of the collaboration, central themes and group processes, and research to practice (r2p) outcomes. The Asphalt Paving Partnership offers insight into how multi-stakeholder partnerships in construction can draw upon the strengths of diverse members to improve the dissemination and adoption of health and safety innovations and build a collaborative infrastructure to sustain momentum over time. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads. (United States)

    Amundsen, Astrid H; Elvik, Rune


    This paper presents an evaluation of the effects on road safety of new urban arterial roads in Oslo, Norway, and a synthesis of evidence from similar studies that have evaluated the safety effects of new urban arterial roads in other cities. A before-and-after study was made of four urban arterial road projects in Oslo. The study controlled for general accident trends in Oslo and for regression-to-the-mean. A statistically non-significant reduction of 9% in the number of injury accidents was found for all four projects combined. The effects on safety of new urban arterial roads were found to vary, depending on whether a new arterial road was built, or an existing arterial road upgraded by means of lane additions and reconstruction of junctions to interchanges. New arterial roads tend to induce more traffic, which tends to offset the benefits of a lower accident rate on the new roads. The results for other cities are very consistent with those for Oslo. For a total of seven cases in which new arterial roads were built, a statistically non-significant reduction of 1% in the number of injury accidents was found. Two cases that involved lane additions and converting at-grade junctions to interchanges resulted in a mean accident reduction of 51%, which was highly significant. On the average, the nine arterial road projects from which evidence was summarised resulted in a net induced traffic of 16%, and a net reduction in accident rate (accidents per million vehicle kilometres) of 18%. These effects almost cancel each other, leading to a very small net change in the expected number of accidents.

  10. Road traffic injuries in Colombia. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Deysi Yasmin; Fernández, Francisco José; Acero Velásquez, Hugo


    Road traffic injuries are a leading public health problem in Colombia. Pedestrians are the most vulnerable road users, especially in the main urban centers of Bogotá, Medellin and Cali. Data analyzed in this report include official statistics from the National Police and the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences for 1996-2000, and results of a study conducted at the National University of Colombia in 2000. Methods from the Highway Capacity Manual were used for determining physical and technical variables, and a Geographical Information System tool was used for the location and spatial analysis of the road traffic crashes. Pedestrians accounted for close to 32% of injuries and 40% of the deaths from road traffic crashes. The problem of road traffic crashes existed predominately in urban areas. In the main urban centers, pedestrians constituted nearly 68% of road traffic crash victims. The high level of risky road use behaviors demonstrated by pedestrians and drivers, and inadequate infrastructure for safe mobility of pedestrians in some sections of the road network were the main contributing factors. Major improvements were achieved in Bogotá following enhancements to the municipal transport system and other policies introduced since 1995. In conclusion, policies and programs for improving road safety, in particular pedestrian safety, and strengthening urban planning are top priority.

  11. In situ coronary stent paving by Pluronic F127-alginate gel blends: Formulation and erosion tests. (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Barba, Anna Angela; Grassi, Mario; Grassi, Gabriele; Lamberti, Gaetano


    In this work the development of an experimental protocol to perform the in situ gel-paving of coronary stent is presented. Biocompatible aqueous blends of Pluronic F127 and sodium alginates are used as potential drug dosage system for pharmacological in situ treatment of coronary in-stent restenosis. Pluronic F127/alginate aqueous blend has the unique characteristic to be liquid at room condition and to form gel at physiological temperature. The proposed protocol is based on the blend injection on stent wall previously implanted in a flexible silicon pipe mimicking the coronary artery. Injected blend is warmed up until human body temperature achieving a soft gel, then it is reticulated by copper bivalent ions to obtain an hard gel. To test the gel paving resistance to erosion phenomena when it is exposed to fluid flux (i.e. blood flux) a dedicated device, (the Simulated Artery Device, SAD), was built to simulate the human circulatory apparatus. The SAD is an hydraulic circuit in which a buffer solution (at pH 7.4) was fluxed by a peristaltic pump through the pipe hosting the covered stent. Erosion tests were performed monitoring, by gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods, the residual mass anchored to stent mesh after given times. The obtained results showed that the in situ gel-paving developed protocol was efficacious and reliable. The gel-paving was completely eroded in a time of the same order of magnitude of the physiological period required to restore the coronary lesion (subsequent to the atheroma removal) and of a pharmacological therapy to inhibit the in-stent-restenosis pathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1013-1022, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pemanfaatan Bottom Ash Dan Fly Ash Tipe C Sebagai Bahan Pengganti Dalam Pembuatan Paving Block


    Klarens, Kevin; Indranata, Michael; Antoni, Antoni; Hardjito, Djwantoro


    PT. PLTU Paiton menghasilkan 7.5 ton fly ash dan 2.5 ton bottom ash setiap jam. Pemanfaatan bottom ash masih sangat minimal, sehingga mengakibatkkan timbunan bottom ash yang semakin meningkat, dan cendrung mencemari lingkungan dan kesehatan. Berdasarkan alasan tersebut maka perlu adanya USAha untuk memanfaatkan limbah batu bara, salah satunya melalui pembuatan paving block. Sampel tahap pertama terbuat dari campuran semen dan bottom ash (lolos ayakan 2 atau 5 mm) dengan perbandingan massa 1:3...

  13. PAVE PAWS Early Warning Radar Operation Cape Cod Air Force Station, MA. Record of Decision (United States)


    Supplemei OET PAVE PAWS PCS PPPHSG RF RFE RFR rms ROD SATCOM SEIS SLBM SLEP SSPARS TV UEWR UHF VDT VHF V/m W/kg W/m2 Office of...Exempt Lasers, DOD 6055.11, February 21, 1996. • Air Force Occupational Safety and Health (AFOSH) Standard, Radio Frequency Radiation ( RFR ) Safety...other RFE emitters at Cape Cod AFS in accordance with Air Force Occupational Safety and Health (AFOSH) Standard 48-9, RFR Safety Program, which


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganjar Samudro


    Full Text Available Lumpur Lapindo (LL atau Lumpur Sidoarjo (Lusi merupakan lumpur panas, yang pemanfaatannya sangat terbatas dan menimbulkan dampak sosial dan lingkungan yang cukup besar. Karakteristik Lumpur Lapindo mengandung silikat (SiO2 dan kapur (CaO yang cukup tinggi dan bersifat pozoland. Selain kandungan kimia yang menguntungkan, Lumpur Lapindo juga bersifat B3 dengan kandungan logam berat Pb 35,41 ppm dan Cu 21,9 ppm yang melebihi baku mutu Kepmenkes no.907/2002, PP no.82/2001 dan PP no.18/1999. Teknik olidifikasi menjadi paving block dapat digunakan untuk mengubah watak fisik dan kimia limbah B3 dengan cara penambahan senyawa pengikat sehingga pergerakan senyawa-senyawa B3 dapat dihambat dan membentuk ikatan massa monolit dengan struktur yang kekar. Penambahan Lumpur Lapindo sebagai substitusi semen dan pasir ditentukan sebesar 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, dan 50%, dengan pengujian terhadap kuat tekan, daya serap air dan perlindian. Penelitian ini didapatkan variasi Lumpur Lapindo sebagai substitusi pasir dan semen optimum asingmasing sebesar 30% dengan kuat tekan 408 kg/cm2 , daya serap air 10,17% dan uji perlindian dihasilkan dibawah 0,03 ppm Pb dan Cu, serta biaya pembuatan 1 buah paving block berkurang dari Rp 1.302,86 per buah menjadi Rp 1.059,40 per buah. Lumpur Lapindo sebagai substitusi semen lebih baik penggunaannya dalam pembuatan paving block ramah ingkungan.

  15. Paving asphalt products exhibit a lack of carcinogenic and mutagenic activity. (United States)

    Goyak, Katy O; McKee, Richard H; Minsavage, Gary D; McGowan, Claude; Daughtrey, Wayne C; Freeman, James J


    A paving asphalt and a vacuum residuum (derived from crude oil by atmospheric and subsequent vacuum distillation and used as a blend stock for asphalt) were tested in skin carcinogenesis assays in mice and in optimized Ames assays for mutagenic activity. In the skin cancer tests, each substance was applied twice weekly for 104 weeks to the clipped backs of groups of 50 male C3H mice. Neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum (30% weight/volume and 75% weight/weight in US Pharmacopeia mineral oil, respectively) produced any tumors. The positive control benzo[a]pyrene (0.05% w/v in toluene) induced tumors in 46 of 50 mice, demonstrating the effectiveness of the test method. Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98 was used in the optimized Ames assay to evaluate mutagenic potential. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) extractions of the substances were not mutagenic when tested up to toxic limits. Thus, under the conditions of these studies, neither the paving asphalt nor the vacuum residuum was carcinogenic or mutagenic.

  16. Abu Terbang (Fly Ash Sebagai Bahan Tambah Untuk Meningkatkan Kuat Tekan Bata Beton (Paving Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gathot Heri Sudibyo


    Full Text Available This research was aimed to know the influence of fly ash addition at paving block stress strength. Variation of fly ash was 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% from weight of cement with water cement ratio 0,25. The speciment was hexagonal and cube with the comparison 1 cement : 6 sand. The result showed that the stress strength of hexagonal paving block at 56 days with fly ash 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% was increase to 37,166% (7,057 MPa, 18,248% (3,465 MPa, 8.110% (1,54 MPa, and 14,193% (2,695 MPa. The cubic paving block at 56 days with fly ash 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% was increase to 35,932% (5,969 MPa,15,135% (2,514 MPa, 9,534% (1,584 MPa, and 8,318% (1,382 MPa.

  17. Development of quiet and durable porous Portland cement concrete paving materials (United States)


    This report outlines the systematic research effort conducted in order to develop and characterize Enhanced Porosity Concrete (EPC) to mitigate the problem of tire-road interaction noise. The basic tenet of this research is that carefully introduced ...

  18. Effect of the Road Environment on Road Safety in Poland (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Antoniuk, Marcin


    Run-off-road accidents tend to be very severe because when a vehicle leaves the road, it will often crash into a solid obstacle (tree, pole, supports, front wall of a culvert, barrier). A statistical analysis of the data shows that Poland’s main roadside hazard is trees and the severity of vehicles striking a tree in a run-off-road crash. The risks are particularly high in north-west Poland with many of the roads lined up with trees. Because of the existing rural road cross-sections, i.e. having trees directly on road edge followed immediately by drainage ditches, vulnerable road users are prevented from using shoulders and made to use the roadway. With no legal definition of the road safety zone in Polish regulations, attempts to remove roadside trees lead to major conflicts with environmental stakeholders. This is why a compromise should be sought between the safety of road users and protection of the natural environment and the aesthetics of the road experience. Rather than just cut the trees, other road safety measures should be used where possible to treat the hazardous spots by securing trees and obstacles and through speed management. Accidents that are directly related to the road environment fall into the following categories: hitting a tree, hitting a barrier, hitting a utility pole or sign, vehicle rollover on the shoulder, vehicle rollover on slopes or in ditch. The main consequence of a roadside hazard is not the likelihood of an accident itself but of its severity. Poland’s roadside accident severity is primarily the result of poor design or operation of road infrastructure. This comes as a consequence of a lack of regulations or poorly defined regulations and failure to comply with road safety standards. The new analytical model was designed as a combination of the different factors and one that will serve as a comprehensive model. It was assumed that it will describe the effect of the roadside on the number of accidents and their consequences

  19. Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)


    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

  20. Resilience in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Yhojan; Pacheco, Yovana; Zapata, Elizabeth; Monsalve, Diana M; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rodríguez-Jimenez, Monica; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Molano-González, Nicolás; Anaya, Juan-Manuel


    To evaluate the relationship between resilience and clinical outcomes in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Focus groups, individual interviews, and chart reviews were done to collect data on 188 women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely rheumatoid arthritis (n=51), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=70), systemic sclerosis (n=35), and Sjögren's syndrome (n=32). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed including disease activity by patient reported outcomes. Resilience was evaluated by using the Brief Resilience Scale. Bivariate, multiple linear regression, and classification and regression trees were used to analyse data. Resilience was influenced by age, duration of disease, and socioeconomic status. Lower resilience scores were observed in younger patients (50years) had higher resilience scores regardless of socioeconomic status. There was no influence of disease activity on resilience. A particular behaviour was observed in systemic sclerosis in which patients with high socioeconomic status and regular physical activity had higher resilience scores. Resilience in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is a continuum process influenced by age and socioeconomic status. The ways in which these variables along with exercise influence resilience deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.


    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  2. Special Education Teacher Resilience: A Phenomenological Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Resilience of Highly Resilient Special Educators


    Downing, Brienne


    Abstract Of The DissertationSpecial Education Teacher Resilience: A Phenomenological Study of Factors Associated with Retention and Resilience of Highly Resilient Special EducatorsbyBrienne DowningDoctor of Education in Educational LeadershipUniversity of California, San Diego, 2017California State University, San Marcos, 2017Professor Jacqueline Thousand, ChairSpecial education teachers are in high demand and greatly needed to meet the needs of the growing population of students qualified fo...

  3. Improving road safety : Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.


    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  4. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.


    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the

  5. Road rage: a psychiatric phenomenon? (United States)

    Fong, G; Frost, D; Stansfeld, S


    Road rage is a concept recently popularised by the press. An association with psychiatric illness is implied from reports of such drivers being "mad". Previous literature has demonstrated a link between road traffic accidents and mental illness. This study examines the relationship between road rage and psychiatric morbidity. It aims to estimate the prevalence of road rage by self-report and elucidate demographic and psychiatric factors associated with road rage. This is a cross-sectional study of attendees at general practice clinics that examines self-reported road rage and psychiatric morbidity. Assessment was based on the total score on the Clinical Interview Schedule (revised version; CIS-R), Aggression Questionnaire, Screening Test for Comorbid Personality Disorders, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Life Events Schedule. Fifty-three percent of 131 subjects reported a recent incident of road rage. Perpetrator and victim groups differed from controls. Perpetrators had increased aggression scores and psychiatric morbidity. There was a strong association with male sex and illicit drug use, and a strong negative association with driving experience. A weaker association was found with youth. Victims showed increased psychiatric morbidity and were more likely than perpetrators to seek help for emotional problems. Life events stress, social class, alcohol use and personality disorder had no significant effect. There is an association between road rage and psychiatric morbidity.

  6. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J


    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  7. Building Resilient Communities Workshop Report (United States)


    University - Faculty of Liberal Arts Colleen Vaughan JIBC School of Public Safety Dan Sandink Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction Daniel...First Nations, Métis and Inuit people has been a very real positive outcome and the mini-poster carrying this focus will be an important step in...Executive Summary Promoting Canadian Aboriginal Disaster Resilience in First Nations, Métis and Inuit Communities Eric Bussey, Brenda L. Murphy

  8. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf


    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  9. Political Subculture: A Resilience Modifier (United States)


    A RESILIENCE MODIFIER by Gordon S. Hunter September 2011 Thesis Advisor: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr. Second Reader...Approved by: Samuel H. Clovis , Jr., DPA Thesis Advisor Lauren S. Fernandez, DSc Second Reader Harold A. Trinkunas, PhD Chair...addition, I must acknowledge the continued support, guidance, and encouragement of Dr. Sam Clovis and Dr. Lauren Fernandez who have led me on the path to

  10. Focusing the Meaning(s of Resilience: Resilience as a Descriptive Concept and a Boundary Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand


    Full Text Available This article reviews the variety of definitions proposed for "resilience" within sustainability science and suggests a typology according to the specific degree of normativity. There is a tension between the original descriptive concept of resilience first defined in ecological science and a more recent, vague, and malleable notion of resilience used as an approach or boundary object by different scientific disciplines. Even though increased conceptual vagueness can be valuable to foster communication across disciplines and between science and practice, both conceptual clarity and practical relevance of the concept of resilience are critically in danger. The fundamental question is what conceptual structure we want resilience to have. This article argues that a clearly specified, descriptive concept of resilience is critical in providing a counterbalance to the use of resilience as a vague boundary object. A clear descriptive concept provides the basis for operationalization and application of resilience within ecological science.

  11. Scale invariance in road networks. (United States)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher


    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2< or = alpha < or =2.4, and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  12. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  13. Identifying Resilient and Non-Resilient Middle-Adolescents in a Formerly Black-Only Urban School (United States)

    Mampane, Ruth; Bouwer, Cecilia


    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non-resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient and non-resilient…

  14. Migration, remittances, livelihood trajectories, and social resilience. (United States)

    Adger, W Neil; Kelly, P Mick; Winkels, Alexandra; Huy, Luong Quang; Locke, Catherine


    We argue that all aspects of demographic change, including migration, impact on the social resilience of individuals and communities, as well as on the sustainability of the underlying resource base. Social resilience is the ability to cope with and adapt to environmental and social change mediated through appropriate institutions. We investigate one aspect of the relationship between demographic change, social resilience, and sustainable development in contemporary coastal Vietnam: the effects of migration and remittances on resource-dependent communities in population source areas. We find, using longitudinal data on livelihood sources, that emigration and remittances have offsetting effects on resilience within an evolving social and political context. Emigration is occurring concurrently with, not driving, the expansion of unsustainable coastal aquaculture. Increasing economic inequality also undermines social resilience. At the same time diversification and increasing income levels are beneficial for resilience.

  15. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring


    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  16. 77 FR 50207 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Project: I-5: Glendale-Hugo Paving/Sexton Climbing Lane... (United States)


    ... Paving/Sexton Climbing Lane: Douglas and Josephine Counties, OR AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration... relate to a proposed highway project, I-5: Glendale-Hugo Paving/Sexton Climbing Lane, in Douglas and...) 231- 2336. The I-5: Glendale-Hugo Paving/Sexton Climbing Lane categorical exclusion and other project...

  17. Joint road safety operations in tunnels and open roads (United States)

    Adesiyun, Adewole; Avenoso, Antonio; Dionelis, Kallistratos; Cela, Liljana; Nicodème, Christophe; Goger, Thierry; Polidori, Carlo


    The objective of the ECOROADS project is to overcome the barrier established by the formal interpretation of the two Directives 2008/96/EC and 2004/54/EC, which in practice do not allow the same Road Safety Audits/Inspections to be performed inside tunnels. The projects aims at the establishment of a common enhanced approach to road infrastructure and tunnel safety management by using the concepts and criteria of the Directive 2008/96/CE on road infrastructure safety management and the results of related European Commission (EC) funded projects. ECOROADS has already implemented an analysis of national practices regarding Road Safety Inspections (RSI), two Workshops with the stakeholders, and an exchange of best practices between European tunnel experts and road safety professionals, which led to the definition of common agreed safety procedures. In the second phase of the project, different groups of experts and observers applied the above common procedures by inspecting five European road sections featuring both open roads and tunnels in Belgium, Albania, Germany, Serbia and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. This paper shows the feedback of the 5 joint safety operations and how they are being used for a set of - recommendations and guidelines for the application of the RSA and RSI concepts within the tunnel safety operations.

  18. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network. (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima


    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DDDAS-based Resilient Cyberspace (DRCS) (United States)


    using three Dell XPS 8700 towers with i7 4770 processors and 12GB memory, with Ubuntu 12.04 Server as a host operating system. We deployed OpenStack...resilient scientific and engineering applications. 15 . SUBJECT TERMS Dynamic Data-Driven Application Systems (DDDAS), resiliency, resilient DDDAS (rDDDAS...edition number, etc. 14. ABSTRACT. A brief (approximately 200 words) factual summary of the most significant information. 15 . SUBJECT TERMS. Key words

  20. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients


    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Stefanovski, Petar; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Raleva, Marija; Dejanova, Beti


    OBJECTIVE: A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred eighteen (218) ...

  1. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang


    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  2. Incorporating Resilience into Dynamic Social Models (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0258 Incorporating Resilience into Dynamic Social Models Eunice Santos UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT EL PASO 500 UNIV ST ADMIN BLDG...REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 3/1/13-12/31/14 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Incorporating Resilience into Dynamic Social Models 5a...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We propose an overarching framework designed to incorporate various aspects of social resilience

  3. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia


    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  4. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian


    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  5. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.; Harrison, K.; Pawlowski, J.A.


    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  6. Resilience to failure and breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der


    One should take into account inadvertent aberrations of the system (for example a broken signalling device) or of the road user (is not always paying full attention to the driving task). Inadvertent aberrations should not result in accidents (principle of graceful degradation).

  7. Teaching Resilience: A Narrative Inquiry into the Importance of Teacher Resilience (United States)

    Vance, Angela; Pendergast, Donna; Garvis, Susanne


    This study set out to explore how high school teachers perceive their resilience as they teach a scripted social and emotional learning program to students with the goal of promoting the resilience skills of the students in their pastoral care classes. In this emerging field of research on teacher resilience, there is a paucity of research…

  8. Reframing Resilience: Pilot Evaluation of a Program to Promote Resilience in Marginalized Older Adults (United States)

    Fullen, Matthew C.; Gorby, Sean R.


    Resilience has been described as a paradigm for aging that is more inclusive than models that focus on physiological and functional abilities. We evaluated a novel program, Resilient Aging, designed to influence marginalized older adults' perceptions of their resilience, self-efficacy, and wellness. The multiweek group program incorporated an…

  9. Degrees of Resilience: Profiling Psychological Resilience and Prospective Academic Achievement in University Inductees (United States)

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan


    University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…

  10. Priority Queues Resilient to Memory Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Moruz, Gabriel; Mølhave, Thomas


    In the faulty-memory RAM model, the content of memory cells can get corrupted at any time during the execution of an algorithm, and a constant number of uncorruptible registers are available. A resilient data structure in this model works correctly on the set of uncorrupted values. In this paper we...... introduce a resilient priority queue. The deletemin operation of a resilient priority queue returns either the minimum uncorrupted element or some corrupted element. Our resilient priority queue uses $O(n)$ space to store $n$ elements. Both insert and deletemin operations are performed in $O(\\log n...... queues storing only structural information in the uncorruptible registers between operations....

  11. Penggunaan Limbah Hasil Pembakaran Batu Bara dan Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA pada Paving Geopolimer dengan Proses Steam Curing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Setiyo Nugroho


    Full Text Available Bottom ash merupakan limbah sisa pembakaran batu bara disamping fly ash yang saat ini tidak banyak dimanfaatkan. Di dalam penelitian ini bahan dasar yang digunakan adalah bottom ash dan larutan alkali sebagai pengikat untuk membuat bahan dasar paving geopolimer. Abu batu digunakan sebagai filler. Selain itu bahan lain yang digunakan adalah SCBA (Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash / abu ampas tebu untuk menambah sumber silika aktif pada bottom ash. Sebelum digunakan SCBA dikalsinasi pada suhu 850oC selama 7 jam. Dalam penelitian ini, benda uji yang digunakan adalah paving berukuran 20cm x 10cm x 8cm. Selain itu dibuat variasi pembakaran SCBA antara lain 450oC selama 6 jam; 600oC selama 3 jam; dan 850oC selama 3 jam sebagai pembanding. Paving yang terbuat dari fly ash dari PT. Petrokimia digunakan sebagai pembanding terhadap bottom ash. Seluruh paving dicetak dengan menggunakan alat pres manual di laboratorium. Didapat hasil bahwa semakin banyak berat SCBA dalam campuran, akan menurunkan kualitas paving. Kuat tekan maksimum terdapat pada variasi 0% SCBA pada umur 28 hari dengan kuat tekan rata-rata sebesar 9.65 MPa, resapan air sebesar 8.68%, dan ketahanan aus sebesar 0.61 mm/menit. Disimpulkan bahwa, perawatan steam tidak memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan paving geopolimer yang tidak di-steam.

  12. Predictors of dermal exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds among hot-mix asphalt paving workers. (United States)

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Osborn, Linda V; Snawder, John E; Kriech, Anthony J; Olsen, Larry D; Herrick, Robert F; McClean, Michael D


    The primary objective of this study was to identify the source and work practices that affect dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) among hot-mix asphalt (HMA) paving workers. Four workers were recruited from each of three asphalt paving crews (12 workers) and were monitored for three consecutive days over 4 weeks for a total of 12 sampling days per worker (144 worker days). Two sampling weeks were conducted under standard conditions for dermal exposures. The third week included the substitution of biodiesel for diesel oil used to clean tools and equipment and the fourth week included dermal protection through the use of gloves, hat and neck cloth, clean pants, and long-sleeved shirts. Dermal exposure to PACs was quantified using two methods: a passive organic dermal (POD) sampler specifically developed for this study and a sunflower oil hand wash technique. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate predictors of PAC exposures. Dermal exposures measured under all conditions via POD and hand wash were low with most samples for each analyte being below the limit of the detection with the exception of phenanthrene and pyrene. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of phenanthrene were 0.69 ng cm(-2) on the polypropylene layer of the POD sampler and 1.37 ng cm(-2) in the hand wash sample. The GM concentrations of pyrene were 0.30 ng cm(-2) on the polypropylene layer of the POD sampler and 0.29 ng cm(-2) in the hand wash sample. Both the biodiesel substitution and dermal protection scenarios were effective in reducing dermal exposures. Based on the results of multivariate linear mixed-effects models, increasing frequency of glove use was associated with significant (P paving workers include requiring the use of dermal coverage (e.g. wearing gloves and/or long sleeves), substituting biodiesel for diesel oil as a cleaning agent, and decreasing the HMA application temperature.

  13. Investigation on the application of steel slag-fly ash-phosphogypsum solidified material as road base material. (United States)

    Shen, Weiguo; Zhou, Mingkai; Ma, Wei; Hu, Jinqiang; Cai, Zhi


    The aim of the present work is to prepare a new type of steel slag-fly ash-phosphogypsum solidified material totally composed with solid wastes to be utilized as road base material. The mix formula of this material was optimized, the solidified material with optimal mix formula (fly ash/steel slag=1:1, phosphogypsum dosage=2.5%) results in highest strength. The strength development, resilience modulus and splitting strength of this material were studied comparing with some typical road base materials, the 28- and 360-day strength of this material can reach 8MPa and 12MPa, respectively, its resilience modulus reaches 1987MPa and splitting strength reaches 0.82MPa, it has higher early strength than lime-fly ash and lime-soil road base material, its long-term strength is much higher than cement stabilized granular materials, the solidified material has best water stability among those road base materials, it can be engineered as road base material with competitive properties. The strength formation mechanism of this solidified material is discussed also.

  14. Natural Rubber Modification For Upper Layer Of Rubberized Asphalt Paving Block AS Shock Absorber


    Nasruddin, Nasruddin


    The research of rubber compounding modification for upper layer of rubberized asphalt paving block as shock absorber using natural rubber, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) as synthetic rubber, fly ash as filler and also vegetable oil as plasticizer has been conducted. The research design was varying the filler Si-69, fly ash and palm oil. The five formulas A, B, C, D, and E designed by varying the amount of Si-69 (48.5; 50.75; 53.00; 55.25; and 57.50) phr; coal fly ash (4.75, 7.00, 9.25, 11.50 ...

  15. Road Infrastructure Safety Management in Poland (United States)

    Budzynski, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Kustra, Wojciech; Michalski, Lech; Gaca, Stanislaw


    The objective of road safety infrastructure management is to ensure that when roads are planned, designed, built and used road risks can be identified, assessed and mitigated. Road transport safety is significantly less developed than that of rail, water and air transport. The average individual risk of being a fatality in relation to the distance covered is thirty times higher in road transport that in the other modes. This is mainly because the different modes have a different approach to safety management and to the use of risk management methods and tools. In recent years Poland has had one of the European Union’s highest road death numbers. In 2016 there were 3026 fatalities on Polish roads with 40,766 injuries. Protecting road users from the risk of injury and death should be given top priority. While Poland’s national and regional road safety programmes address this problem and are instrumental in systematically reducing the number of casualties, the effects are far from the expectations. Modern approaches to safety focus on three integrated elements: infrastructure measures, safety management and safety culture. Due to its complexity, the process of road safety management requires modern tools to help with identifying road user risks, assess and evaluate the safety of road infrastructure and select effective measures to improve road safety. One possible tool for tackling this problem is the risk-based method for road infrastructure safety management. European Union Directive 2008/96/EC regulates and proposes a list of tools for managing road infrastructure safety. Road safety tools look at two criteria: the life cycle of a road structure and the process of risk management. Risk can be minimized through the application of the proposed interventions during design process as reasonable. The proposed methods of risk management bring together two stages: risk assessment and risk response occurring within the analyzed road structure (road network, road

  16. Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools (REACT) Achieving resiliency in any system requires capabilities that are beyond the boundaries of currently...

  17. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia


    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.


    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Med...

  18. Road Service Performance Based On Integrated Road Design Consistency (IC Along Federal Road F0023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Zaffan Farhana


    Full Text Available Road accidents are one of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems. In Malaysia, the west coast area of Malaysia been stated as the highest motorcycle fatalities and road accidents are one of the factors that cause of death and injuries in this country. The most common fatal accident is between a motorcycle and passenger car. The most of the fatal accidents happened on Federal roads with 44 fatal accidents reported, which is equal to 29%. Lacks of road geometric designs consistency where the drivers make mistakes errors due to the road geometric features causes the accident kept rising in Malaysia. Hence, models are based on operating speed to calculate design consistency of road. The profiles were obtained by continuous speed profile using GPS data. The continuous operating speed profile models were plotted based on operating speed model (85th percentile. The study was conduct at F0023 from km 16 until km 20. The purpose of design consistency is to know the relationship between the operating speed and elements of geometric design on the road. As a result, the integrated design consistency motorcycle and cars along a segment at F0023, the threshold shows poor design quality for motorcycles and cars.

  19. Development of a framework for resilience measurement: Suggestion of fuzzy Resilience Grade (RG) and fuzzy Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG). (United States)

    Omidvar, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Mohammad Fam, Iraj; Nirumand, Fereshteh


    Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes. Considering the resilience potential measurement as a concern in complex working systems, the aim of this study was to quantify the resilience by the help of fuzzy sets and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques. In this paper, we adopted the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method to measure resilience in a gas refinery plant. A resilience assessment framework containing six indicators, each with its own sub-indicators, was constructed. Then, the fuzzy weights of the indicators and the sub-indicators were derived from pair-wise comparisons conducted by experts. The fuzzy evaluating vectors of the indicators and the sub-indicators computed according to the initial assessment data. Finally, the Comprehensive Resilience Index (CoRI), Resilience Grade (RG), and Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG) were established. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, an illustrative example in a gas refinery complex (an instance of socio-technical systems) was provided. CoRI of the refinery ranked as "III". In addition, for the six main indicators, RG and REWG ranked as "III" and "NEWZ", respectively, except for C3, in which RG ranked as "II", and REWG ranked as "OEWZ". The results revealed the engineering practicability and usefulness of the proposed method in resilience evaluation of socio-technical systems.

  20. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Maltby

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being.

  1. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie


    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being. PMID:26132197

  2. An overdue alignment of risk and resilience? A conceptual contribution to community resilience. (United States)

    Mochizuki, Junko; Keating, Adriana; Liu, Wei; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard


    A systematic review of literature on community resilience measurement published between 2005 and 2014 revealed that the profound lack of clarity on risk and resilience is one of the main reasons why confusion about terms such as adaptive capacity, resilience, and vulnerability persists, despite the effort spared to operationalise these concepts. Resilience is measured in isolation in some cases, where a shock is perceived to arise external to the system of interest. Problematically, this contradicts the way in which the climate change and disaster communities perceive risk as manifesting itself endogenously as a function of exposure, hazard, and vulnerability. The common conceptualisation of resilience as predominantly positive is problematic as well when, in reality, many undesirable properties of a system are resilient. Consequently, this paper presents an integrative framework that highlights the interactions between risk drivers and coping, adaptive, and transformative capacities, providing an improved conceptual basis for resilience measurement. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  3. Sustainable Resilient, Robust & Resplendent Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    to their impact. Resplendent enterprises are introduced with resplendence referring not to some sort of public or private façade, but instead refers to organizations marked by dual brilliance and nobility of strategy, governance and comportment that yields superior and sustainable triple bottom line performance....... Herein resilience, robustness, and resplendence (R3) are integrated with sustainable enterprise excellence (Edgeman and Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE and social-ecological innovation (Eskildsen and Edgeman, 2012) to aid progress of a firm toward producing continuously relevant performance that proceed from...

  4. Social vulnerability, age and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Pereira Patrocinio


    Full Text Available This article aims to present a conceptual exposition on social vulnerability and its implications for the aging process. We conducted a survey of theme in Latin American literature, considering the social reality of Latin America closer to the Brazilian social reality, with a higher probability of relationships and approaches to the issue at hand. The second part of the article discusses the situation of old age amid the existence of social vulnerability to, third party, presenting the importance of community resilience to overcome adversity in this way. With this, we hope that our reflections will contribute to the field of research and practice in the field of social gerontology.

  5. Adaptive, dynamic, and resilient systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suri, Niranjan


    As the complexity of today's networked computer systems grows, they become increasingly difficult to understand, predict, and control. Addressing these challenges requires new approaches to building these systems. Adaptive, Dynamic, and Resilient Systems supplies readers with various perspectives of the critical infrastructure that systems of networked computers rely on. It introduces the key issues, describes their interrelationships, and presents new research in support of these areas.The book presents the insights of a different group of international experts in each chapter. Reporting on r

  6. Road safety audits: The way forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ


    Full Text Available The South African Road Safety Manual (SARSM) was published in 1999 and includes guidelines on road safety audits (RSA). The development of SARSM was a proactive process for improving the road environment with respect to road safety but was never...

  7. Semantic objects and context for finding roads (United States)

    Baumgartner, Albert; Steger, Carsten T.; Mayer, Helmut; Eckstein, Wolfgang


    This paper presents a multi-resolution approach for automatic extraction of roads from digital aerial imagery. Roads are modeled as a network of intersections and links between the intersections. For different context regions, i.e., rural, forest, and urban areas, the model describes different relations between background objects, e.g., buildings or trees, and semantic road objects, e.g., road-parts, road- segments, road-links, and intersections. The classification of the image into context regions is done by texture analysis. The approach to detect roads is based on the extraction of edges in a high resolution image and the extraction of lines in an image of reduced resolution. Using both resolution levels and explicit knowledge about roads, hypotheses for roadsides are generated. The roadsides are used to construct quadrilaterals representing road-parts and polygons representing intersections. Neighboring road-parts are chained to road-segments. Road-links, i.e., the roads between two intersections, are built by grouping of road-segments and closing of gaps between road-segments. Road-links are constructed using knowledge about context.

  8. Surfacing Alternatives for Unsealed Rural Roads


    Henning, Theuns; Kadar, Peter; Bennett, Christopher R.


    Despite extensive road construction programs over the last century, a substantial proportion of roads remained unsealed especially in developing and emerging economies. As these economies develop, the demand arises to seal previously unsealed roads. The most economical transition point between unsealed and sealed roads depends on many conditions that need to be evaluated. The purpose of th...

  9. Data Collection Technologies for Road Management


    Christopher R. Bennett; Hernán De Solminihac; Alondra Chamorro


    Different types of data are required for managing the road infrastructure. Inventory data describe the physical elements of a road system. Condition data describe the condition of elements that can be expected to change over time. There are a wide range of technologies available to the road manager for measuring attributes of the road network. The challenge is to select the appropriate equ...

  10. Coping and resilience resources in early adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karaffová, Eva


    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2012), s. 240-240 ISSN 0887-0446. [Conference of European Health Psychology Society: Resilience and Health /26./. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * coping * adolescents Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  11. Preparing to be unprepared : Training for resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passenier, D; Pool, D.M.; Rankin, A; Sharpans'kykh, Alexei


    Training methods for operators working under high pressure and in dynamic, unpredictable settings could benefit from a focus on resilience. In such settings, formal training often focuses on procedural conformity to train for particular scenarios, but resilient performance taps into a wider

  12. Building Resiliency in Youth: Imagine the Difference. (United States)

    Baxley, Gladys B.

    Research indicates that children possess four important personality characteristics and abilities which define them as resilient. These characteristics and abilities are social competence, problem solving skills, autonomy, and a sense of purpose and future. In addition, several qualities of the environment of resilient youth tend to predict…

  13. Helping Children Develop Resiliency: Providing Supportive Relationships (United States)

    Kersey, Katharine C.; Malley, Catherine Robertson


    Helping children develop resiliency begins with positive, meaningful connections between teachers and students. This article defines the importance of encouraging children to develop characteristics related to resiliency including confidence in their ability to bounce back from setbacks, overcome challenges and frustrations. Furthermore, critical…

  14. Community Resilience and Resistance in Regulated Rivers. (United States)

    Noel, L.; Culp, J. M.


    Across diverse ecosystems, environmental factors such as nutrient loading have been shown to induce changes in state and reduce ecosystem resilience. Riverine communities are under increasing pressures from nutrient loading and fragmentation and it is unknown how these pressures will affect community resistance and resilience. This study focuses on determining 1) if nutrient loading and regulation change the resilience and resistance of rivers to further disturbances (floods); and 2) how particular community features create resilience and resistance. Along nutrient and algal biomass gradients in regulated and unregulated reaches of the Saint John River, Canada, community resilience (system capacity to return to its original state post disturbance) is examined both temporally and spatially. Resistance (ability to resist change) is measured by the nutrient concentration at which a change in ecological state occurs. State includes both community structure (species abundance and diversity of benthic algae and invertebrates) and community function (photosynthesis to respiration ratio). To determine how community features create resilience, trophic decoupling and food web connectance are examined along nutrient and physical disturbance gradients by comparing food webs constructed from stable isotope and biomass information. Because decreased resilience is linked with state shifts, strategies for sustainable ecosystem management should focus on maintaining resilience.

  15. Social Work, Pastoral Care and Resilience (United States)

    Considine, Tom; Hollingdale, Paul; Neville, Ruth


    This paper briefly examines the growing interest in developing resilience in the social work curricula as it is seen as a crucial quality necessary to cope with the increasing demands of the profession. The recent research into developing resilience is dominated by a psychological model which emphasises personal qualities. It runs the risk of…

  16. Putting resilience and resistance concepts into practice (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mike Pellant


    Land managers are increasingly interested in improving resilience to disturbances, such as wildfire, and resistance to invasive species, such as cheatgrass and medusahead. This factsheet is designed to assist land managers in using resilience and resistance concepts to assess risks, prioritize management activities, and select appropriate treatments.

  17. Enhancing Human Resilience : monitoring, sensing, and feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsch, O.; Wabeke, T.R.; Koot, G.; Venrooij, W.; Valk, P.J.L.


    The development of miniaturized monitoring technology represents the greatest opportunity for advancing Resilience and Mental Health in over a century. All experts of the Resilience- and Mental Health domain are contending with a significant mental health burden, e.g. almost half of all work

  18. Climate leadership program: Building Africa's resilience through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Africa's resilience to climate change will require designing and implementing effective climate adaptation strategies. Science-informed policy, planning, and practice will ensure that development is more resilient and less vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. However, the generation and use of ...

  19. Intelligence Preparation for Operational Resilience (IPOR) (United States)


    resilience, risk, and project management contain numerous touchpoints at which intelligence needs can be identified and products consumed in introducing touchpoints with the following resilience, risk, and project- management operational frameworks: • CERT-RMM • Operationally Critical

  20. Resilient Women Leaders: A Qualitative Investigation (United States)

    Baldwin, Julia; Maldonado, Nancy L.; Lacey, Candace H.; Efinger, Joan


    This qualitative study investigated perceptions of resilient, transformational, successful women leaders regarding their own resiliency and leadership. The ten participants provided information during semi-structured, open-ended, audio taped interviews which were transcribed, hand coded, and then analyzed with QSR N6 software. Findings indicated…

  1. Comparing factors of vulnerability and resilience of mountain communities affected by landslides in Eastern Nepal (United States)

    Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Dubois, Jerome; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    and coping strategies. Stone quarrying and road construction, offering economic opportunities, are aggravating landslide problems. The villages are faced with a delicate balance between economic development and physical risk in this fragile terrain. Based on our comparison, we discern which factors contribute to vulnerability and resilience, while drawing conclusions about the limitations of these concepts for developing risk management strategies. Our goal is to keep this method relatively simple, low cost and useful to decision-makers and communities for managing and designing integrated development and risk management approaches under changing climate conditions.

  2. Effects of ramp negotiation, paving type and shoe sole geometry on toe clearance in young adults. (United States)

    Thies, S B; Jones, R K; Kenney, L P J; Howard, D; Baker, R


    Trips are a major cause of falls and result from involuntary contact of the foot with the ground during the swing phase of gait. Adequate toe clearance during swing is therefore crucial for safe locomotion. To date, little is known about the effects of environmental factors and footwear on toe clearance. This study reports on modulation of toe clearance and toe clearance variability in response to changes in ground inclination, paving type, and shoe sole geometry. Toe clearance and toe clearance variability for ten healthy young adults were calculated two-fold: a) for the commonly-used position on the foremost part of the sole of the shoe and b) for the lowest of a total of 7 sole positions, located between the metatarsals and the toe tip across the entire width of the sole. Utilizing a full-factorial design we found that toe clearance was affected by ground inclination, paving type, and sole geometry regardless of the computational method used (with p-valuesimportance of considering footwear and environmental factors when assessing the risk of tripping. Future work needs to investigate to which extent the same factors affect toe clearance in more vulnerable parts of the population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Road weather management performance metrics. (United States)


    This report presents the results of a study to identify appropriate measures of performance that can be attributed to the Federal Highway Administrations (FHWA) Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) products and activities. Specifically, the stud...

  4. Investigate attractiveness of toll roads. (United States)


    HOT facilities are used as a solution for congestion mitigation instead of constructing or expanding the capacity of : existing roadways. Although toll roads modeling has been researched for a long time, High Occupancy Toll (HOT) : modeling is relati...

  5. Road Rage: What's Driving It? (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A


    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators.

  6. Curry County E-911 Roads (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  7. Torrance County E-911 Roads (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Torrance County digital road network wa created as part of the State of New Mexico Enhanced 911 Addressing Grant. The original primary function was to lay the...

  8. The Hospital System and the Urban Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pirlone


    Full Text Available The concept of resilience is critical when addressing the issue of natural hazards. The role of an urban planner is to analyze the territorial system, consisting of several functional sub-systems (housing, education, health, etc.. and its vulnerability. In order to have a specific knowledge of the territory in question, before the occurrence of a disaster it would be necessary, for each functional system, analyze various aspects and define risk simulations. In a city, in fact, there are strategic elements that should not lose functionality during or following a natural event; the definition of specific scenarios could put structures exposed to risk on safety in order not to compromise the system. In this paper I report a specific experience of research carried out within the hospital system that, in case of occurrence of a natural event, is often simultaneously exposed, and therefore need of rescue, and it is a dispenser of rescue. It’s considered strategic because it has to ensure the functionality of its service regardless of the occurrence of external events, such as natural ones; its functionality must be ensured in the continuum. In today is not very thorough the scientific literature about the analysis of the hospital system in respect of such events. Given the importance of the theme there are several initiatives, also promoted by The Italian Civil Protection, in particular the drafting of hospital emergency plans, which cover issues such as fire, road accidents, floods, ... Interesting was the collaboration between the Italian Civil Protection Department with Applied Technology Council for the planning of a background paper intended for the preparation of earthquake emergency plans, within which there are also aspects of prevention such as the evaluation of seismic vulnerability of hospitals themselves. The described methodology has allowed the definition of risk simulations for the hospital system, starting from the determination of

  9. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  10. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  11. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.


    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  12. Holocaust survivors: three waves of resilience research. (United States)

    Greene, Roberta R; Hantman, Shira; Sharabi, Adi; Cohen, Harriet


    Three waves of resilience research have resulted in resilience-enhancing educational and therapeutic interventions. In the first wave of inquiry, researchers explored the traits and environmental characteristics that enabled people to overcome adversity. In the second wave, researchers investigated the processes related to stress and coping. In the third wave, studies examined how people grow and are transformed following adverse events, often leading to self-actualize, client creativity and spirituality. In this article the authors examined data from a study, "Forgiveness, Resiliency, and Survivorship among Holocaust Survivors" funded by the John Templeton Foundation ( Greene, Armour, Hantman, Graham, & Sharabi, 2010 ). About 65% of the survivors scored on the high side for resilience traits. Of the survivors, 78% engaged in processes considered resilient and felt they were transcendent or had engaged in behaviors that help them grow and change over the years since the Holocaust, including leaving a legacy and contributing to the community.

  13. Resilience engineering and the built environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik


    The possible relations between resilience engineering and built environments are explored. Resilience engineering has been concerned with the safe and efficient functioning of large and small industrial systems. These may be described as built systems or artefacts. The resilience engineering...... approach argues that if the performance of systems is to be resilient, then they must be able to respond, monitor, learn and anticipate. The last ability in particular means that they must be able to consider themselves vis-a-vis their environment, i.e. be sentient and reflective systems. In practice...... important to understand the range of conditions about why and how the system functions in the desired' mode as well as unwanted' modes. Resilience is the capacity to sustain operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. The unexpected conditions are not only threats but also opportunities....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gomes


    Full Text Available Considering that SMEs need to embrace the drivers of resilience and that a well-defined and readily available Enterprise Architecture (EA supports enterprise integration by enabling the common view of business processes, data and systems across the enterprise and its partners, we can say that EA is one of the tracks making resilience predictable and it should support and collaborate with other resilience tracks. However, the EA frameworks do not give relevance to the activities that contribute most to business resilience, so this paper aims to clarify the dimensions and the activities related to the development of an EA and the touching points with other enterprise wide processes in order to guarantee that resilience requirements are met in SMEs. For this I propose an approach of ecological adaptation, and four architectures: business, organizational, information, and technological, although this paper only presents the Business and Organizational Architectures.

  15. How Robust is Your System Resilience? (United States)

    Homayounfar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.


    Robustness and resilience are concepts in system thinking that have grown in importance and popularity. For many complex social-ecological systems, however, robustness and resilience are difficult to quantify and the connections and trade-offs between them difficult to study. Most studies have either focused on qualitative approaches to discuss their connections or considered only one of them under particular classes of disturbances. In this study, we present an analytical framework to address the linkage between robustness and resilience more systematically. Our analysis is based on a stylized dynamical model that operationalizes a widely used concept framework for social-ecological systems. The model enables us to rigorously define robustness and resilience and consequently investigate their connections. The results reveal the tradeoffs among performance, robustness, and resilience. They also show how the nature of the such tradeoffs varies with the choices of certain policies (e.g., taxation and investment in public infrastructure), internal stresses and external disturbances.

  16. The Effect of Coloring and Compacting Pressure Paving Block by Adding 5 Wt.% Fly Ash in The Compressive Strength (United States)

    Nurzal; Nursyuhada, Aries


    This research aims based on SNI 03-0691-1996 to investigate the effect of coloring and compacting pressure with the addition of 5 wt.% fly ash (Fa) on compressive strength. Fa derived from waste material coal-fired Sijantang Sawahlunto thermal power plant. The growing production of Fa caused negative environmental impact. So, one of the solutions to overcome that effects is to use the Fa as a raw material for paving block mixture that can reduce the cost of raw material and increase its strength. Paving blocks are gray and red with 0 wt.%, 5 wt.% Fa + Pb composition. Compaction pressure variations 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 Kg/cm2. The drying time for 35 days. Specimens were produced in the form of rectangular bar (length, L = 20 cm, width, B = 10 cm, thickness, W = 6 cm). The test results showed that the addition of 5 wt% FA has a compressive strength value higher than 0 wt%. The red color has a compressive strength lower than the gray color paving block caused the red color (Iron Oxide) is less binding at the time of mixing the material. Gray and red Paving blocks both increase in each additional compaction pressure, because the higher the compaction pressure will increase the bond between the particles so porosity is reduced increased compressive strength. The overall data, the gray paving block with the composition of 5 wt% FA at compaction pressure 95 kg/cm2 with the optimal compressive strength value of 36.1 MPa and the lowest value is found in the red color paving block at 0 wt% FA at a pressure of 55 kg/cm2 with a value of 6.5 MPa. Gray and red Color paving blocks has a compressive strength quality based on SNI 03-0691-1996.

  17. Road rage victimization among adolescents. (United States)

    Smart, Reginald G; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Sharpley, Justin M


    Although much has been learned about road rage among adults, data on road rage experiences among adolescents has not been available previously. We examine the prevalence and demographic correlates of road rage victimization based on a population survey of Ontario students. Based on the 2005 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey, a self-administered survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12 (n = 7726), the contribution of demographic factors (gender, region, driver's license status, grade, overall marks) to three road rage victimization measures was examined with logistic regression analysis. Just over half of students (53.2%) had been victims of shouts, curses and rude gestures in the past year, 8.9% were threatened with damage to their vehicle or personal injury and 6.2% experienced an attempt or actual damage to their vehicle or personal injury. Logistic regression analyses revealed that being a victim of shouting was significantly related to region, driver's license status, and grade. Victimization by threats was significantly related to gender, driver's license, grade, and marks. Being a victim of attempts or actual vehicle damage or injury was significantly related to region, driver's license, and marks. This study provides the first indication of prevalence of road rage victimization among adolescents. Road rage victimization in its milder form is common, involving just over half of Ontario students in grades 7-12. About 1 in 10 students were threatened with vehicle damage or personal injury, and about 1 in 20 were victims of attempts or actual damage or injury.

  18. Tourist Assessment of Croatian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vurdelja


    Full Text Available As environmentally clean industry and as the most significantworld industry regarding the number of employees and theimpact on the social and economic development of a countTy,tourism represents an extremely important social and economicbranch for Croatia.As a functional unit of the mutually interweaving socialand economic relations, tourism is a complex phenomenonwhose development depends on a number of compatible factorsout of which the transport infrastructure is considered to bethe most obvious and almost the most significant one, i.e. thefirst among the equal. This is primarily true for road traffic infrastructure,since road trai!Sportation of tourists by passengercars, buses and motorcycles accounts for more than 90 percentof the overall tourist journeys in Croatia.The topic of this paper is precisely, among other things, thetourist assessment of the Croatian road network by means ofthe so-called econometric model regarding the contribution ofa certain road route to the overall tourist traffic.Practical implementation of the elaborated problematicshould result in the improvement of road infrastructure eitherby constructing new motonvays and/or roads, or by reconstructionand/or modernisation of the existing traffic routes.

  19. Innovation as Road Safety Felicitator (United States)

    Sahoo, S.; Mitra, A.; Kumar, J.; Sahoo, B.


    Transportation via Roads should only be used for safely commuting from one place to another. In 2015, when 1.5 Million people, across the Globe started out on a journey, it was meant to be their last. The Global Status Report on Road Safety, 2015, reflected this data from 180 countries as road traffic deaths, worldwide. In India, more than 1.37 Lakh[4] people were victims of road accidents in 2013 alone. That number is more than the number of Indians killed in all the wars put together. With these disturbing facts in mind, we found out some key ambiguities in the Indian Road Traffic Management systems like the non-adaptive nature to fluctuating traffic, pedestrians and motor vehicles not adhering to the traffic norms strictly, to name a few. Introduction of simple systems would greatly erase the effects of this silent epidemic and our Project aims to achieve the same. It would introduce a pair of Barricade systems to cautiously separate the pedestrians and motor vehicles to minimise road mishaps to the extent possible. Exceptional situations like that of an Ambulance or any emergency vehicles will be taken care off by the use of RFID tags to monitor the movement of the Barricades. The varied traffic scenario can be guided properly by using the ADS-B (Automatic Detection System-Broadcast) for monitoring traffic density according to the time and place.

  20. Road building, land use and climate change: prospects for environmental governance in the Amazon. (United States)

    Perz, Stephen; Brilhante, Silvia; Brown, Foster; Caldas, Marcellus; Ikeda, Santos; Mendoza, Elsa; Overdevest, Christine; Reis, Vera; Reyes, Juan Fernando; Rojas, Daniel; Schmink, Marianne; Souza, Carlos; Walker, Robert


    Some coupled land-climate models predict a dieback of Amazon forest during the twenty-first century due to climate change, but human land use in the region has already reduced the forest cover. The causation behind land use is complex, and includes economic, institutional, political and demographic factors. Pre-eminent among these factors is road building, which facilitates human access to natural resources that beget forest fragmentation. While official government road projects have received considerable attention, unofficial road building by interest groups is expanding more rapidly, especially where official roads are being paved, yielding highly fragmented forest mosaics. Effective governance of natural resources in the Amazon requires a combination of state oversight and community participation in a 'hybrid' model of governance. The MAP Initiative in the southwestern Amazon provides an example of an innovative hybrid approach to environmental governance. It embodies a polycentric structure that includes government agencies, NGOs, universities and communities in a planning process that links scientific data to public deliberations in order to mitigate the effects of new infrastructure and climate change.

  1. Investigation into the Application of Construction and Demolition Waste in Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyun Li


    Full Text Available The recycling and reuse of waste materials is a topic of global concern and great international interest for those interested in sustainable development and protecting the environment. In recent decades, global production of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste has significantly increased and became a worldwide problem. This research proposes to evaluate the feasibility of using aggregate from recycled C&D waste for urban road embankment applications based on the Sanhuan road construction project in eastern Xi’an. An extensive suite of laboratory and field compaction tests were carried out to determine the physical properties and engineering characteristics of the C&D waste. The effect of curing on the strength of the C&D waste was investigated using unconfined compression strength (UCS, California bearing ratio (CBR, and deflection tests. The results show that the C&D waste has the characteristics of high strength and significant stability after simple treatment and further suggest that the use of these materials for paving urban road embankments is feasible. This study is of value for the reasonable and effective promotion of using C&D waste recycled materials in road subgrade applications.

  2. Experimental studies about the impact of traction sand on urban road dust composition. (United States)

    Kupiainen, Kaarle; Tervahattu, Heikki; Räisänen, Mika


    Traffic causes enhanced PM(10) resuspension especially during spring in the US, Japan, Norway, Sweden and Finland, among other countries. The springtime PM(10) consists primarily of mineral matter from tyre-induced paved road surface wear and traction sand. In some countries, the majority of vehicles are equipped with studded tyres to enhance traction, which additionally increases road surface wear. Because the traction sand and the mineral matter from the pavement aggregate can have a similar mineralogical composition, it has been difficult to determine the source of the mineral fraction in the PM(10). In this study, homogenous traction sand and pavement aggregate with different mineralogical compositions were chosen to determine the sources of PM(10) particles by single particle analysis (SEM/EDX). This study was conducted in a test facility, which made it possible to rule out dust contributions from other sources. The ambient PM(10) concentrations were higher when traction sand was used, regardless of whether the tyres were studded or not. Surprisingly, the use of traction sand greatly increased the number of the particles originating from the pavement. It was concluded that sand must contribute to pavement wear. This phenomenon is called the sandpaper effect. An understanding of this is important to reduce harmful effects of springtime road dust in practical winter maintenance of urban roads

  3. Resilience and vision impairment in older people. (United States)

    Thetford, Clare; Bennett, Kate M; Hodge, Suzanne; Knox, Paul C; Robinson, Jude


    Some people fare better than others when faced with adversity; they appear to be more 'resilient'. This article explores the concept of resilience in the context of vision impairment using two linked sets of narrative interview data from 2007 to 2010. Three case studies were analysed in detail using a framework approach based upon a social-ecological model of resilience and vision impairment. Within the model a range of assets and resources are identified which influence an individual's capacity for resilience. A set of criteria were used to establish the extent to which each individual appeared to be resilient at each point in time. Analysis revealed that it is not merely the presence or absence of individual, social, and community resources - but how these resources interact with each other - that influences resilience and can create a risk to wellbeing. To possess only some of these resources is not sufficient; there is a co-dependency between these resources which requires the presence of other resources for resilience to be achieved. Resilience is not a fixed state; individuals can become more or less resilient as their circumstances and resources change over time. We suggest that the concept of resilience has much to offer the field of vision impairment as it allows the identification of enablers as well as areas of barriers to improving people's health and wellbeing and suggests further opportunities for service providers to engage with clients, even those who appear to be supported, as people's social, economic and emotional landscapes continue to change over time, rather than identifying deficit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index (United States)

    Thoms, Martin


    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  5. Road maintenance planning using network flow modelling


    Yang, Chao; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John


    This paper presents a road maintenance planning model that can be used to balance out maintenance cost and road user cost, since performing road maintenance at night can be convenient for road users but costly for highway agency. Based on the platform of the network traffic flow modelling, the traffic through the worksite and its adjacent road links is evaluated. Thus, maintenance arrangements at a worksite can be optimized considering the overall network performance. In addition, genetic alg...

  6. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity. (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B


    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  7. RNEDE: Resilient Network Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat Venkatasubramanian, Tanu Malik, Arun Giridh; Craig Rieger; Keith Daum; Miles McQueen


    Modern living is more and more dependent on the intricate web of critical infrastructure systems. The failure or damage of such systems can cause huge disruptions. Traditional design of this web of critical infrastructure systems was based on the principles of functionality and reliability. However, it is increasingly being realized that such design objectives are not sufficient. Threats, disruptions and faults often compromise the network, taking away the benefits of an efficient and reliable design. Thus, traditional network design parameters must be combined with self-healing mechanisms to obtain a resilient design of the network. In this paper, we present RNEDEa resilient network design environment that that not only optimizes the network for performance but tolerates fluctuations in its structure that result from external threats and disruptions. The environment evaluates a set of remedial actions to bring a compromised network to an optimal level of functionality. The environment includes a visualizer that enables the network administrator to be aware of the current state of the network and the suggested remedial actions at all times.

  8. Evaluating Application Resilience with XRay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sui [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bronevetsky, Greg [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Li, Bin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Casas-Guix, Marc [Barcelona Supercomputing Center (Spain); Peng, Lu [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)


    The rising count and shrinking feature size of transistors within modern computers is making them increasingly vulnerable to various types of soft faults. This problem is especially acute in high-performance computing (HPC) systems used for scientific computing, because these systems include many thousands of compute cores and nodes, all of which may be utilized in a single large-scale run. The increasing vulnerability of HPC applications to errors induced by soft faults is motivating extensive work on techniques to make these applications more resiilent to such faults, ranging from generic techniques such as replication or checkpoint/restart to algorithmspecific error detection and tolerance techniques. Effective use of such techniques requires a detailed understanding of how a given application is affected by soft faults to ensure that (i) efforts to improve application resilience are spent in the code regions most vulnerable to faults and (ii) the appropriate resilience technique is applied to each code region. This paper presents XRay, a tool to view the application vulnerability to soft errors, and illustrates how XRay can be used in the context of a representative application. In addition to providing actionable insights into application behavior XRay automatically selects the number of fault injection experiments required to provide an informative view of application behavior, ensuring that the information is statistically well-grounded without performing unnecessary experiments.

  9. Resilience in patients with psychotic disorder. (United States)

    Bozikas, V; Parlapani, E


    The recovery movement differentiated clinical, which is related to disorder's symptoms, from personal recovery, which is outlined by a subjectively defined wellness state, characterised by hope and self-management. Schizophrenia research has long focused on risk factors and symptoms. The recovery movement triggered a focus shift from psychopathology towards better adjustment and growth despite living with schizophrenia. The recovery movement flourished parallel with positive psychology, the scientific study of ordinary human strengths and virtues investigating human motives and potentials. Understanding of human strengths could contribute to prevention or lessening of psychiatric disorders' devastating consequences, since optimism, sense of personal control and many other positive processes promote psychological health. Lately, the concepts of positive psychology have been implemented in schizophrenia research. Positive self-appraisals moderated suicidal ideation, even when patients experienced high levels of hopelessness.1 Additionally, among other factors, better self-images, internal locus of control (i.e. the perception that events in one's life relate to one's actions) and emphasis on personal efforts predicted a more favourable outcome in functioning of unmedicated patients.2 The concept of "resilience" is closely related to positive psychology. The American Psychological Association defines resilience as ''the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, threats or significant sources of stress''. The concept of resilience includes rebound from adversity.3 Determinants of resilience include biological, psychological, social and cultural factors that interact in a complex manner. The major manifestations of personal resilience are social competence, problem solving, autonomy and sense of purpose.5 Personality strengths that relate to resilience include high self-esteem, extroversion and optimism. Internal assets and personal competencies

  10. Temperature-dependent emission concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in paving and built-up roofing asphalts. (United States)

    Cavallari, Jennifer M; Zwack, Leonard M; Lange, Clifford R; Herrick, Robert F; McClean, Michael D


    To characterize temperature-dependent emissions from paving and built-up roofing asphalt (BURA) and to quantify differences in temperature-related concentrations and composition. Using headspace gas chromatography, 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission concentrations were quantified over eight temperatures (120-315°C) for paving asphalt (n = 20) and Types II, III, and IV BURA (n = 5) and were summarized by geometric means (GMs) and geometric standard deviations (GSDs) at each temperature. The relationships between temperature and concentration were evaluated for PAH analytes using mixed-effects regression models. Temperature was categorized into regimes: Regime 1 (120-150°C) representing temperatures typical of paving asphalt application, Regime 2 (180-230°C) representing temperatures typical of BURA application, and Regime 3 (260-315°C) which were high temperatures outside typical application temperatures. An interaction term was used to evaluate differential effects of temperature on paving asphalt versus BURA. In the paving regime (120-150°C), paving asphalt emission concentrations were highest for 2- and 3-ring PAHs [GM (GSD) at 150°C of 4.51 (2.07), 3.77 (1.63), 2.26 (1.53), and 1.80 (1.66) μg m(-3) for 2-methyl naphthalene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene, respectively], with all the 4- and 5- to 6-ring individual PAHs mean concentrations below the detection limit, with the exception of benz[a]anthracene. In the BURA regime (180-230°C), BURA emission concentrations were highest for 2- and 3-ring PAHs [GM (GSD) at 205°C of 121.3 (1.37), 99.5 (1.31), 69.5 (1.32), and 68.1 (1.37) μg m(-3) for acenaphthene, anthracene, 2-methyl naphthalene, and phenanthrene, respectively], with lower but detectable concentrations for 4- and 5- to 6-ring PAHs. For both paving asphalt and BURA, concentrations increased log linearly with temperature. At a given temperature, the highest concentrations were observed for 2-ring PAHs with lower and

  11. Four concepts for resilience and the implications for the future of resilience engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, David D.


    The concept of system resilience is important and popular—in fact, hyper-popular over the last few years. Clarifying the technical meanings and foundations of the concept of resilience would appear to be necessary. Proposals for defining resilience are flourishing as well. This paper organizes the different technical approaches to the question of what is resilience and how to engineer it in complex adaptive systems. This paper groups the different uses of the label ‘resilience’ around four basic concepts: (1) resilience as rebound from trauma and return to equilibrium; (2) resilience as a synonym for robustness; (3) resilience as the opposite of brittleness, i.e., as graceful extensibility when surprise challenges boundaries; (4) resilience as network architectures that can sustain the ability to adapt to future surprises as conditions evolve. - Highlights: • There continues to be a wide diversity of definitions of the label resilience. • Research progress points to 4 basic concepts underneath diverse uses of. • Each of the four core concepts defines different research agendas. • The 4 concepts provide guides on how to engineer resilience for safety

  12. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.


    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  13. Biomechanics for inclusive urban design: Effects of tactile paving on older adults' gait when crossing the street. (United States)

    Thies, S B; Kenney, L P J; Howard, D; Nester, C; Ormerod, M; Newton, R; Baker, R; Faruk, M; MacLennan, H


    In light of our ageing population it is important that the urban environment is easily accessible and hence supports older adults' independence. Tactile 'blister' paving was originally designed to provide guidance for visually impaired people at pedestrian crossings. However, as research links irregular surfaces to falls in older adults, such paving may have an adverse effect on older people. We investigated the effects of tactile paving on older adults' gait in a scenario closely resembling crossing the street. Gait analysis of 32 healthy older adults showed that tactile, as compared to smooth, paving increases the variability in timing of foot placement by 20%, thereby indicating a disturbance of the rhythmic gait pattern. Moreover, toe clearance during the swing phase increased by 7% on tactile paving, and the ability to stop upon cue from the traffic light was compromised. These results need to be viewed under the consideration of limitations associated with laboratory studies and real world analysis is needed to fully understand their implications for urban design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "Crazy-paving" patterns on high-resolution CT scans in patients with pulmonary complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (United States)

    Marchiori, Edson; Escuissato, Dante L; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Considera, Daniela Peixoto; Franquet, Tomas


    To describe the pulmonary complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that can present with a "crazy-paving" pattern in high-resolution CT scans. Retrospective review of medical records from 2,537 patients who underwent HSCT. The "crazy-paving" pattern consists of interlobular and intralobular septal thickening superimposed on an area of ground-glass attenuation on high-resolution CT scans. The CT scans were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, who reached final decisions by consensus. We identified 10 cases (2.02%), seven male and three female, with pulmonary complications following HSCT that presented with the "crazy-paving" pattern. Seven (70%) patients had infectious pneumonia (adenovirus, herpes simplex, influenza virus, cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and toxoplasmosis), and three patients presented with non-infectious complications (idiopathic pneumonia syndrome and acute pulmonary edema). The "crazy-paving" pattern was bilateral in all cases, with diffuse distribution in nine patients (90%), predominantly in the middle and inferior lung regions in seven patients (70%), and involving the anterior and posterior regions of the lungs in nine patients (90%). The "crazy-paving" pattern is rare in HSCT recipients with pulmonary complications and is associated with infectious complications more commonly than non-infectious conditions.

  15. Ulysses' Return: Resilient Male Leaders Still at the Helm (United States)

    McClellan, Rhonda; Christman, Dana; Fairbanks, Anthony


    This study examined resilient men in higher education administration, educational leadership programs to determine how they identified components of their resiliency, how they described events that demonstrated their resiliency, and how they prescribed ways in which preparation programs can foster resiliency in students. Using masculinity…

  16. Educational Psychology and Resilience: New Concept, New Opportunities (United States)

    Toland, John; Carrigan, Donna


    Despite a growing literature on resilience in mainstream psychology, so far there has been very little discussion of resilience within educational psychology or how it might relate to practice. This article aims to bring resilience into the educational psychology literature and to show its potential to enhance service delivery. Resilience is…

  17. Resilience Training for Healthcare Staff (RTHS) Implementation Evaluation Phase 1 (United States)


    05-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 - JAN 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Resilience Training for...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Master Resilience ...Training (MRT) Medical Program includes a 2-hour Resilience Training for Healthcare Staff (RTHS) aimed to bolster resilience by preventing

  18. Reliability and Validity Testing of the Physical Resilience Measure (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Dorsey, Susan; Scheve, Ann; Gutkin, Susan


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test reliability and validity of the Physical Resilience Scale. Methods: A single-group repeated measure design was used and 130 older adults from three different housing sites participated. Participants completed the Physical Resilience Scale, Hardy-Gill Resilience Scale, 14-item Resilience Scale,…

  19. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Angeler, David G.; Herrmann, Dustin L.; Stow, Craig A.; Nystrom, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E.; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R.


    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  20. Resilience and Coping After Hospital Mergers. (United States)

    Russo, Cynthia; Calo, Oriana; Harrison, Georgia; Mahoney, Kathleen; Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between resilience and coping in frontline nurses working in a healthcare system that has recently undergone a merger. Hospital mergers are common in the current healthcare environment. Mergers can provide hospital nurses the opportunity to use and develop positive coping strategies to help remain resilient during times of change. An anonymous-survey, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study design was used. Data were obtained from an electronic survey that was made available to all nurses working in a 3-hospital system located in the northeast. Overall, the results showed that, when nurses reported using positive coping strategies, they report higher levels of resilience. The levels of resilience also varied from campus to campus. The campus that has been through 2 recent mergers reported the highest levels of resilience. This study suggests that, during times of change in the workplace, if nurses are encouraged to use positive coping strategies, they may have higher levels of resilience. This changing environment provides the clinical nurse specialists/clinical nurse educators the opportunity to foster and support frontline nurses in the use of healthy coping strategies and to help improve and maintain a high level of resilience, which is critical in today's healthcare environment.