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Sample records for resilience program prp

  1. PRP: a FORTRAN IV interactive plotting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, A. S.; Linde, J.

    A computer program, PRP, has been designed to plot any arithmetic combination selected from a set of major and trace element data on a y- x graph. y and x are defined and entered as a program string (y, x) which is interpreted sequentially. Operators ( +, -, ∗, /, ( unary) , square root, log 10, In c, antilog 10, exponential, integer, absolute value, (,),,) and integer or real numbers may be included. Axis lengths and scales are determined by the user. Five different plotting symbols are available.

  2. Preventing adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Cutuli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports secondary outcome analyses from a past study of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP, a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for middle-school aged children. Middle school students (N = 697 were randomly assigned to PRP, PEP (an alternate intervention, or control conditions. Gillham et al., (2007 reported analyses examining PRP’s effects on average and clinical levels of depression symptoms. We examine PRP’s effects on parent-, teacher-, and self-reports of adolescents’ externalizing and broader internalizing (depression/anxiety, somatic complaints, and social withdrawal symptoms over three years of follow-up. Relative to no intervention control, PRP reduced parent-reports of adolescents’ internalizing symptoms beginning at the first assessment after the intervention and persisting for most of the follow-up assessments. PRP also reduced parent-reported conduct problems relative to no-intervention. There was no evidence that the PRP program produced an effect on teacher- or self-report of adolescents’ symptoms. Overall, PRP did not reduce symptoms relative to the alternate intervention, although there is a suggestion of a delayed effect for conduct problems. These findings are discussed with attention to developmental trajectories and the importance of interventions that address common risk factors for diverse forms of negative outcomes.

  3. Resiliency Programming for Adult Offenders in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, E. Frances

    2000-01-01

    Discusses resiliency programming as an alternative approach to program development for incarcerated adults, and describes a pilot project in a Georgia prison, Leadership Development, that uses the concept of resiliency to frame inmate education. Discusses implications of this model of correctional education. (SLD)

  4. Reframing Resilience: Pilot Evaluation of a Program to Promote Resilience in Marginalized Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Matthew C.; Gorby, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Resilience has been described as a paradigm for aging that is more inclusive than models that focus on physiological and functional abilities. We evaluated a novel program, Resilient Aging, designed to influence marginalized older adults' perceptions of their resilience, self-efficacy, and wellness. The multiweek group program incorporated an…

  5. Assessment of military population-based psychological resilience programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brenda J; Bibb, Sandra C Garmon

    2011-09-01

    Active duty service members' (ADSMs) seemingly poor adaptability to traumatic stressors is a risk to force health. Enhancing the psychological resilience of ADSMs has become a key focus of Department of Defense (DoD) leaders and the numbers of military programs for enhancing psychological resilience have increased. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of an assessment conducted to determine comprehensiveness of current psychological resilience building programs that target ADSMs. A modified six-step, population-based needs assessment was used to evaluate resilience programs designed to meet the psychological needs of the ADSM population. The assessment results revealed a gap in published literature regarding program outcomes. DoD leaders may benefit from targeted predictive research that assesses program effectiveness outcomes. The necessity of including preventive, evidence-based interventions in new programs, such as positive emotion interventions shown to enhance psychological resilience in civilian samples, is also recommended.

  6. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  7. Burnout and Resiliency Among Family Medicine Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maribeth; Hagan, Helen; Klassen, Rosemary; Yang, Yang; Seehusen, Dean A; Carek, Peter J

    2018-02-01

    Nearly one-half (46%) of physicians report at least one symptom of burnout. Family medicine residency program directors may have similar and potentially unique levels of burnout as well as resiliency. The primary aims of this study were to examine burnout and resiliency among family medicine residency directors and characterize associated factors. The questions used were part of a larger omnibus survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine (CAFM) Educational Research Alliance (CERA) in 2016. Program and director-specific characteristics were obtained. Symptoms of burnout were assessed using two single-item measures adapted from the full Maslach Burnout Inventory, and level of resiliency was assessed using the Brief Resilience Scale. The overall response rate for the survey was 53.7% (245/465). Symptoms of high emotional exhaustion or high depersonalization were reported in 27.3% and 15.8% of program directors, respectively. More than two-thirds of program directors indicated that they associated themselves with characteristics of resiliency. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were significantly correlated with never having personal time, an unhealthy work-life balance, and the inability to stop thinking about work. The presence of financial stress was significantly correlated with higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. In contrast, the level of resiliency reported was directly correlated with having a moderate to great amount of personal time, healthy work-life balance, and ability to stop thinking about work, and negatively correlated with the presence of financial stress. Levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and resiliency are significantly related to personal characteristics of program directors rather than characteristics of their program.

  8. Portable Radiation Package (PRP) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R Michael [Remote Measurements and Research Company, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-08-03

    The Portable Radiation Package (PRP) was developed to provide basic radiation information in locations such as ships at sea where proper exposure is remote and difficult, the platform is in motion, and azimuth alignment is not fixed. Development of the PRP began at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1990s and versions of it were deployed on ships in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Nauru-99 project. The PRP was deployed on ships in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sensor Intercomparison for Marine Biological and Interdisciplinary Ocean Studies (SIMBIOS) program. Over the years the measurements have remained the same while the post-processing data analysis, especially for the FRSR, has evolved. This document describes the next-generation Portable Radiation Package (PRP2) that was developed for the DOE ARM Facility, under contract no. 9F-31462 from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The PRP2 has the same scientific principles that were well validated in prior studies, but has upgraded electronic hardware. The PRP2 approach is completely modular, both in hardware and software. Each sensor input is treated as a separate serial stream into the data collection computer. In this way the operator has complete access to each component of the system for purposes of error checking, calibration, and maintenance. The resulting system is more reliable, easier to install in complex situations, and more amenable to upgrade.

  9. New Pathways to Resilience: Interactive report on CCAA program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-11-08

    Nov 8, 2012 ... Throughout the report, you will find links to program and project resources, and directions for delving further into its scientific findings. Read the interactive report, New Pathways to Resilience (PDF, 2.96MB). A recent version of Adobe Reader is required to read the PDF. You can download the most recent ...

  10. Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widel...

  11. Designing and implementing a resiliency program for family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Julie; McGrady, Angele

    2015-01-01

    Family medicine residents are at risk for burnout due to extended work hours, lack of control over their work schedule, and challenging work situations and environments. Building resiliency can prevent burnout and may improve a resident's quality of life and health behavior. This report describes a program designed to build resiliency, the ability to bounce back from stress, in family medicine residents in a medium sized U.S. residency training program. Interactive sessions emphasized building self-awareness, coping skills, strengths and meaning in work, time management, self-care, and connections in and outside of medicine to support resident well-being. System changes which fostered wellness were also implemented. These changes included increasing the availability of fresh fruits in the conference and call room, purchasing an elliptical exercise machine for the on call room, and offering a few minutes of mindfulness meditation daily to the inpatient residents. Results to date show excellent acceptance of the program by trainees, increased consumption of nutritious foods, more personal exercise, and self-reported decreased overreactions to stress. Resiliency programs can effectively serve to meet accreditation requirements while fostering residents' abilities to balance personal and professional demands. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Hyperuricemic PRP in Tendon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is injected within tendons to stimulate healing. Metabolic alterations such as the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or hyperuricemia could hinder the therapeutic effect of PRP. We hypothesise that tendon cells sense high levels of uric acid and this could modify their response to PRP. Tendon cells were treated with allogeneic PRPs for 96 hours. Hyperuricemic PRP did not hinder the proliferative actions of PRP. The gene expression pattern of inflammatory molecules in response to PRP showed absence of IL-1b and COX1 and modest expression of IL6, IL8, COX2, and TGF-b1. IL8 and IL6 proteins were secreted by tendon cells treated with PRP. The synthesis of IL6 and IL8 proteins induced by PRP is decreased significantly in the presence of hyperuricemia (P = 0.017 and P = 0.012, resp.. Concerning extracellular matrix, PRP-treated tendon cells displayed high type-1 collagen, moderate type-3 collagen, decorin, and hyaluronan synthase-2 expression and modest expression of scleraxis. Hyperuricemia modified the expression pattern of extracellular matrix proteins, upregulating COL1 (P = 0.036 and COMP (P = 0.012 and downregulating HAS2 (P = 0.012. Positive correlations between TGF-b1 and type-1 collagen (R = 0.905, P = 0.002 and aggrecan (R = 0.833, P = 0.010 and negative correlations between TGF-b1 and IL6 synthesis (R = −0.857, P = 0.007 and COX2 (R = −0.810, P = 0.015 were found.

  13. Pathways of Risk and Resilience: Impact of a Family Resilience Program on Active-Duty Military Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, William R; Lester, Patricia; Milburn, Norweeta; Woodward, Kirsten; Stein, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, studies into the impact of wartime deployment and related adversities on service members and their families have offered empirical support for systemic models of family functioning and a more nuanced understanding of the mechanisms by which stress and trauma reverberate across family and partner relationships. They have also advanced our understanding of the ways in which families may contribute to the resilience of children and parents contending with the stressors of serial deployments and parental physical and psychological injuries. This study is the latest in a series designed to further clarify the systemic functioning of military families and to explicate the role of resilient family processes in reducing symptoms of distress and poor adaptation among family members. Drawing upon the implementation of the Families Overcoming Under Stress (FOCUS) Family Resilience Program at 14 active-duty military installations across the United States, structural equation modeling was conducted with data from 434 marine and navy active-duty families who participated in the FOCUS program. The goal was to better understand the ways in which parental distress reverberates across military family systems and, through longitudinal path analytic modeling, determine the pathways of program impact on parental distress. The findings indicated significant cross-influence of distress between the military and civilian parents within families, families with more distressed military parents were more likely to sustain participation in the program, and reductions in distress among both military and civilian parents were significantly mediated by improvements in resilient family processes. These results are consistent with family systemic and resilient models that support preventive interventions designed to enhance family resilient processes as an important part of comprehensive services for distressed military families. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  14. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  15. Can PRP effectively treat injured tendons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James H-C

    2014-01-01

    PRP is widely used to treat tendon and other tissue injuries in orthopaedics and sports medicine; however, the efficacy of PRP treatment on injured tendons is highly controversial. In this commentary, I reason that there are many PRP- and patient-related factors that influence the outcomes of PRP treatment on injured tendons. Therefore, more basic science studies are needed to understand the mechanism of PRP on injured tendons. Finally, I suggest that better understanding of the PRP action mechanism will lead to better use of PRP for the effective treatment of tendon injuries in clinics.

  16. Impact of resilience enhancing programs on youth surviving the Beslan school siege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallo William T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate a resilience-enhancing program for youth (mean age = 13.32 years from Beslan, North Ossetia, in the Russian Federation. The program, offered in the summer of 2006, combined recreation, sport, and psychosocial rehabilitation activities for 94 participants, 46 of who were taken hostage in the 2004 school tragedy and experienced those events first hand. Self-reported resilience, as measured by the CD-RISC, was compared within subjects at the study baseline and at two follow-up assessments: immediately after the program and 6 months later. We also compared changes in resilience levels across groups that differed in their traumatic experiences. The results indicate a significant intra-participant mean increase in resilience at both follow-up assessments, and greater self-reported improvements in resilience processes for participants who experienced more trauma events.

  17. Phase diagram of Pr-P system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    An area of the Pr-P system, adjoining to the Pr ordinate, is plotted up by the DTA method. Presence of P solid solution in Pr is established. Data on thermal stability of PrP, PrP 2 , PrP 5 and PrP 7 are generalized. The diagram of phase transformations in Pr-P system is plotted up proceeding from the whole complex of the data, presented. A supposition is made on a possible formation of solid solutions between the highest polyphosphide and phosphorus [ru

  18. Clemson University Science Master's Program in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure: A program evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sell, Elizabeth Eberhart

    The Clemson University Science Master's Program (SMP) in Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure is a program which aims to link engineering, materials, construction, environment, architecture, business, and public policy to produce graduates with unique holistic perspective and expertise to immediately contribute to the workforce in the area of sustainable and resilient infrastructure. A program evaluation of the SMP has been performed to study the effectiveness of the SMP and identify areas where the goals and vision of the SMP are achieved and areas where improvements can be made. This was completed by analysis of trends within survey responses, review of Master's thesis reports, and review of courses taken. It was found that the SMP has facilitated new interdisciplinary research collaborations of faculty in different concentration areas within the Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, as well as collaboration with faculty in other departments. It is recommended that a course which provides instruction in all eight competency areas be required for all SMP students to provide a comprehensive overview and ensure all students are exposed to concepts of all competency areas. While all stakeholders are satisfied with the program and believe it has been successful thus far, efforts do need to be made as the program moves forward to address and improve some items that have been mentioned as needing improvement. The concerns about concentration courses, internship planning, and advising should be addressed. This evaluation provides benefits to prospective students, current SMP participants, and outside program supporters. The goal of this evaluation is to provide support that the SMP is an effective and worthwhile program for participating students, while attempting to identify any necessary program improvements and provide recommendations for achieving these improvements. This goal has been accomplished.

  19. The Resilience Program: Preliminary evaluation of a mentalization-based education program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Lundgaard Bak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage with the burden of mental health problems in the world we need to develop cost-effective and safe preventive interventions. Education about resilience to support the ability to cope with life challenges in general, may be a useful strategy. We consider the concepts of Theory of Mind and Mentalization to be relevant in this context. In this paper we describe a simple modular intervention program based on these concepts which can be tailored to specific needs and situations in individual therapy as well as group levels. The program has shown promising results in pilot studies and is now tested in controlled trials in settings such as schools and educational institutions, adults diagnosed with ADHD and children in foster care.

  20. Effects of a Kundalini Yoga Program on Elementary and Middle School Students' Stress, Affect, and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissian, Meliné; Trent, Natalie L; Huchting, Karen; Singh Khalsa, Sat Bir

    2018-04-01

    The Your Own Greatness Affirmed (YOGA) for Youth program delivers yoga to urban inner-city schools with the goal of providing practical benefits that support underserved children at high risk of behavioral and emotional problems. A 10-week YOGA for Youth program delivered 1 to 2 times per week was implemented in 3 schools in urban neighborhoods to examine the effect of the program on student stress, affect, and resilience. Thirty children were administered the Perceived Stress Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Resilience Scale before and after the yoga program. After the program, informal qualitative interviews were conducted with school teachers, yoga teachers, and students to determine the overall impact of the yoga program. The quantitative results of this study indicated that the yoga program significantly improved students stress (p < 0.05), positive affect (p < 0.05), and resilience (p < 0.001). The qualitative results indicated that students, school teachers, and yoga teachers all found the program to be beneficial for students' well-being. Taken together, these data suggest that the YOGA for Youth program may provide students in low-income urban schools with behavioral skills that will protect against risk factors associated with the development of behavioral and emotional problems.

  1. [The Effects of Violence Coping Program Based on Middle-Range Theory of Resilience on Emergency Room Nurses' Resilience, Violence Coping, Nursing Competency and Burnout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Sung, Kyung Mi

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a violence coping program (VCP) based on Polk's middle-range theory of resilience on nursing competency, resilience, burnout, and the ability to cope with violence in nurses working in emergency rooms. A quasi-experimental study, with a nonequivalent control group and a pretest-posttest design, was conducted. Participants were 36 nurses who worked in emergency rooms and had experienced violence; 18 nurses from D hospital and 18 nurses from C hospital were assigned to the experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental group received the VCP twice per week for 8 weeks. Levels of resilience, F=59.41, pnursing competency, F=59.41 pburnout, F=52.74, pburnout and improving resilience, active coping behavior, and nursing competency. Therefore, it would be a useful intervention for improving the quality of nursing care provided in emergency rooms. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  2. Young driver education programs that build resilience have potential to reduce road crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane; Chen, Huei-Yang; Norton, Robyn; Stevenson, Mark; van Beurden, Eric; Zask, Avigdor

    2009-11-01

    The research aimed to explore associations between participation in 2 education programs for school-based learner drivers and subsequent road traffic offenses and crashes among a large cohort of newly licensed drivers. DRIVE is a prospective cohort study of 20822 first-year drivers aged 17 to 24 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Participants completed a detailed questionnaire and consented to data linkage in 2003-2004. Questionnaire items included year of participation in 2 specific education programs: a 1-day workshop-only program focusing on driving risks ("driver-focused") and a whole-of-community program also including a 1-day workshop but also longer term follow-up activities and a broader focus on reducing risk-taking and building resilience ("resilience-focused"). Survey data were subsequently linked to police-reported crash and offense data for 1996-2005. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore offenses and crashes as a driver (dichotomized as 0 vs >or=1) after program participation. Offenses did not differ between groups; however, whereas the driver-focused program was not associated with reduced crash risk, the resilience-focused program was associated with a 44% reduced relative risk for crash (0.56 [95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.93]). The large effect size observed and complementary findings from a comparable randomized, controlled trial in the United States suggest programs that focus more generally on reducing risks and building resilience have the potential to reduce crashes. A large, representative, randomized, controlled trial is urgently needed to confirm road safety benefits and ensure evidence-based spending and practitioner recommendations in this field.

  3. PrP Knockout Cells Expressing Transmembrane PrP Resist Prion Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karen E; Hughson, Andrew; Vascellari, Sarah; Priola, Suzette A; Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Baron, Gerald S

    2017-01-15

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of the prion protein (PrP C ) influences PrP C misfolding into the disease-associated isoform, PrP res , as well as prion propagation and infectivity. GPI proteins are found in cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane regions called rafts. Exchanging the GPI anchor for a nonraft transmembrane sequence redirects PrP C away from rafts. Previous studies showed that nonraft transmembrane PrP C variants resist conversion to PrP res when transfected into scrapie-infected N2a neuroblastoma cells, likely due to segregation of transmembrane PrP C and GPI-anchored PrP res in distinct membrane environments. Thus, it remained unclear whether transmembrane PrP C might convert to PrP res if seeded by an exogenous source of PrP res not associated with host cell rafts and without the potential influence of endogenous expression of GPI-anchored PrP C To further explore these questions, constructs containing either a C-terminal wild-type GPI anchor signal sequence or a nonraft transmembrane sequence containing a flexible linker were expressed in a cell line derived from PrP knockout hippocampal neurons, NpL2. NpL2 cells have physiological similarities to primary neurons, representing a novel and advantageous model for studying transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infection. Cells were infected with inocula from multiple prion strains and in different biochemical states (i.e., membrane bound as in brain microsomes from wild-type mice or purified GPI-anchorless amyloid fibrils). Only GPI-anchored PrP C supported persistent PrP res propagation. Our data provide strong evidence that in cell culture GPI anchor-directed membrane association of PrP C is required for persistent PrP res propagation, implicating raft microdomains as a location for conversion. Mechanisms of prion propagation, and what makes them transmissible, are poorly understood. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchoring of the prion protein (PrP C

  4. Decreasing Stress and Burnout in Nurses: Efficacy of Blended Learning With Stress Management and Resilience Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtibay, Donna L; Chesak, Sherry S; Coughlin, Kevin; Sood, Amit

    The study's purpose was to assess efficacy of blended learning to decrease stress and burnout among nurses through use of the Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program. Job-related stress in nurses leads to high rates of burnout, compromises patient care, and costs US healthcare organizations billions of dollars annually. Many mindfulness and resiliency programs are taught in a format that limits nurses' attendance. Consistent with blended learning, participants chose the format that met their learning styles and goals; Web-based, independent reading, facilitated discussions. The end points of mindfulness, resilience, anxiety, stress, happiness, and burnout were measured at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up to examine within-group differences. Findings showed statistically significant, clinically meaningful decreases in anxiety, stress, and burnout and increases in resilience, happiness, and mindfulness. Results support blended learning using SMART as a strategy to increase access to resiliency training for nursing staff.

  5. Perceived impact of an interprofessional education program on community resilience: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Marion Kimball; McEwen, Marylyn Morris

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived impact of an interprofessional education (IPE) program for health sciences students on two culturally diverse, underserved communities. A community resilience/capacity framework, consisting of catalysts (primarily the creation of awareness) and capital components: human (workforce development), social (networking and empowerment) and economic (volunteer labor and money spent by the program), provided the conceptual underpinnings for the study. Focus groups with stakeholders in two communities, one rural and one metropolitan, were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed by categorizing data according to each capital component. In addition to the concepts contained in the capacity framework a new category, informational capital (data specific to the community) emerged during the analysis. We suggest that by acting as a catalyst a community based interprofessional program can affect components of community resilience/capacity, primarily human, social, and informational capital. Using the community resilience/capacity framework facilitated exploration of the perceived impact of an educational program on one rural and one urban underserved community beyond assessing student outcomes or number of clients served.

  6. Urban Climate Change Resilience as a Teaching Tool for a STEM Summer Bridge Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Socha, A.; Corsi, F.

    2015-12-01

    Community colleges have been identified as important gateways for the United States' scientific workforce development. However, students who begin their higher education at community colleges often face barriers to developing the skills needed for higher-level STEM careers, including basic training in mathematics, programming, analytical problem solving, and cross-disciplinary communication. As part of the Business Higher Education Forum's Undergraduate STEM Interventions in Industry (USI2) Consortium, we are developing a summer bridge program for students in STEM fields transferring from community college to senior (4-year) colleges at the City University of New York. Our scientific research on New York City climate change resilience will serve as the foundation for the bridge program curriculum. Students will be introduced to systems thinking and improve their analytical skills through guided problem-solving exercises using the New York City Climate Change Resilience Indicators Database currently being developed by the CUNY Environmental Crossroads Initiative. Students will also be supported in conducting an introductory, independent research project using the database. The interdisciplinary nature of climate change resilience assessment will allow students to explore topics related to their STEM field of interest (i.e. engineering, chemistry, and health science), while working collaboratively across disciplines with their peers. We hope that students that participate in the bridge program will continue with their research projects through their tenure at senior colleges, further enhancing their academic training, while actively contributing to the study of urban climate change resilience. The effectiveness of this approach will be independently evaluated by NORC at the University of Chicago, as well as through internal surveying and long-term tracking of participating student cohorts.

  7. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Michielon, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory. PMID:26075244

  8. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marmotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory.

  9. Constructing a resilience index for the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. E.; Bassett, G. W.; Buehring, W. A.; Collins, M. J.; Dickinson, D. C.; Eaton, L. K.; Haffenden, R. A.; Hussar, N. E.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Millier, D. J.; Petit, F. D.; Peyton, S. M.; Wallace, K. E.; Whitfield, R. G.; Peerenboom, J P

    2010-10-14

    Following recommendations made in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, which established a national policy for the identification and increased protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) by Federal departments and agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2006 developed the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) program. The ECIP program aimed to provide a closer partnership with state, regional, territorial, local, and tribal authorities in fulfilling the national objective to improve CIKR protection. The program was specifically designed to identify protective measures currently in place in CIKR and to inform facility owners/operators of the benefits of new protective measures. The ECIP program also sought to enhance existing relationships between DHS and owners/operators of CIKR and to build relationships where none existed (DHS 2008; DHS 2009). In 2009, DHS and its protective security advisors (PSAs) began assessing CIKR assets using the ECIP program and ultimately produced individual protective measure and vulnerability values through the protective measure and vulnerability indices (PMI/VI). The PMI/VI assess the protective measures posture of individual facilities at their 'weakest link,' allowing for a detailed analysis of the most vulnerable aspects of the facilities (Schneier 2003), while maintaining the ability to produce an overall protective measures picture. The PMI has six main components (physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures assessments, and dependencies) and focuses on actions taken by a facility to prevent or deter the occurrence of an incident (Argonne National Laboratory 2009). As CIKR continue to be assessed using the PMI/VI and owners/operators better understand how they can prevent or deter incidents, academic research, practitioner emphasis, and public policy formation have increasingly focused on resilience as a

  10. Replacing stressful challenges with positive coping strategies: a resilience program for clinical placement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, C; Miller, K J; El-Ansary, D; Remedios, L; Hosseini, A; McLeod, S

    2015-12-01

    Clinical education is foundational to health professional training. However, it is also a time of increased stress for students. A student's perception of stressors and their capacity to effectively manage them is a legitimate concern for educators, because anxiety and decreased coping strategies can interfere with effective learning, clinical performance and capacity to care for patients. Resilience is emerging as a valuable construct to underpin positive coping strategies for learning and professional practice. We report the development and evaluation of a psycho-education resilience program designed to build practical skills-based resilience capacities in health science (physiotherapy) students. Six final year undergraduate physiotherapy students attended four action research sessions led by a clinical health psychologist. Resilience strategies drawn from cognitive behavioural therapy, and positive and performance psychology were introduced. Students identified personal learning stressors and their beliefs and responses. They chose specific resilience-based strategies to address them, and then reported their impact on learning performance and experiences. Thematic analysis of the audio-recorded and transcribed action research sessions, and students' de identified notes was conducted. Students' initial descriptions of stressors as 'problems' outside their control resulting in poor thinking and communication, low confidence and frustration, changed to a focus on how they managed and recognized learning challenges as normal or at least expected elements of the clinical learning environment. The research suggests that replacing stressful challenges with positive coping strategies offers a potentially powerful tool to build self-efficacy and cognitive control as well as greater self-awareness as a learner and future health practitioner.

  11. Developing a disaster education program for community safety and resilience: The preliminary phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Abbas, Sharima Ruwaida; Lin, Chong Khai; Othman, Siti Norezam

    2017-10-01

    Resilience encompasses both the principles of preparedness and reaction within the dynamic systems and focuses responses on bridging the gap between pre-disaster activities and post-disaster intervention and among structural/non-structural mitigation. Central to this concept is the ability of the affected communities to recover their livelihood and inculcating necessary safety practices during the disaster and after the disaster strikes. While these ability and practices are important to improve the community safety and resilience, such factors will not be effective unless the awareness is present among the community. There have been studies conducted highlighting the role of education in providing awareness for disaster safety and resilience from a very young age. However for Malaysia, these area of research has not been fully explored and developed based on the specific situational and geographical factors of high-risk flood disaster locations. This paper explores the importance of disaster education program in Malaysia and develops into preliminary research project which primary aim is to design a flood disaster education pilot program in Kampung Karangan Primary School, Kelantan, Malaysia.

  12. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment of sports-related severe acute hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillodo, Yannick; Madouas, Gwénaelle; Simon, Thomas; Le Dauphin, Hermine; Saraux, Alain

    2015-01-01

    hamstring injury is the most common musculoskeletal disorder and one of the main causes of missed sporting events. Shortening the time to return to play (TTRTP) is a priority for athletes and sports medicine practitioners. platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection at the site of severe acute hamstring injury increases the healing rate and shortens the TTRTP. Cohort study. all patients with ultrasonography and MRI evidence of severe acute hamstring injury between January 2012 and March 2014 were offered PRP treatment. Those who accepted received a single intramuscular PRP injection within 8 days post-injury; the other patients served as controls. The same standardized rehabilitation program was used in both groups. A physical examination and ultrasonography were performed 10 and 30 days post-injury, then a phone interview 120 days post-injury, to determine the TTRTP at the pre-injury level. of 34 patients, 15 received PRP and 19 did not. Mean TTRTP at the pre-injury level was 50.9±10.7 days in the PRP group and 52.8±15.7 days in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant. a single intramuscular PRP injection did not shorten the TTRTP in sports people with severe acute hamstring injuries.

  13. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunia, M; Phocas, F; Gourdine, J-L; Bijma, P; Mandonnet, N

    2013-02-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasite resistance and resilience traits. The overall breeding goal included traits for production, reproduction, and parasite resilience and resistance to ensure a balanced selection outcome. The production traits were BW and dressing percentage (DP). The reproduction trait was fertility (FER), which was the number of doe kiddings per mating. The resistance trait was worm fecal egg count (FEC), which is a measurement of the number of gastro-intestinal parasite eggs found in the feces. The resilience trait was the packed cell volume (PCV), which is a measurement of the volume of red blood cells in the blood. Dressing percentage, BW, and FEC were measured at 11 mo of age, which is the mating or selling age. Fertility and PCV were measured on females at each kidding period. The breeding program accounting for the overall breeding goal and a selection index including all traits gave annual selection responses of 800 g for BW, 3.75% for FER, 0.08% for DP, -0.005 ln(eggs/g) for FEC, and 0.28% for PCV. The expected selection responses for BW and DP in this breeding program were reduced by 2% and 6%, respectively, compared with a breeding program not accounting for FEC and PCV. The overall breeding program, proposed for the Creole breed, offers the best breeding strategy in terms of expected selection responses, making it possible to improve all traits together. It offers a good balance between production and adaptation traits and may present some interest for the selection of other goat breeds in the tropics.

  14. Prion protein (PrP) gene-knockout cell lines: insight into functions of the PrP

    OpenAIRE

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of prion protein (PrP) functions is crucial to fully understand prion diseases. A major approach to studying PrP functions is the use of PrP gene-knockout (Prnp ?/?) mice. So far, six types of Prnp ?/? mice have been generated, demonstrating the promiscuous functions of PrP. Recently, other PrP family members, such as Doppel and Shadoo, have been found. However, information obtained from comparative studies of structural and functional analyses of these PrP family proteins do not ...

  15. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t -test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence ( t =7.770, P Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program ( t =-6.506, P Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women.

  16. Dietary resilience in patients with severe COPD at the start of a pulmonary rehabilitation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Beek L

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lies ter Beek,1–3 Hester van der Vaart,2 Johan B Wempe,2 Aliaksandra O Dzialendzik,4 Jan LN Roodenburg,3 Cees P van der Schans,1,5,6 Heather H Keller,7,8 Harriët Jager-Wittenaar1,3 1Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Research Group Healthy Ageing, Allied Health Care and Nursing, Groningen, the Netherlands; 2University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis, Center for Rehabilitation, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Groningen, the Netherlands; 4Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Department of Applied Psychology, Groningen, the Netherlands; 5University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Groningen, the Netherlands; 6University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Health Psychology Research, Groningen, the Netherlands; 7University of Waterloo, Schlegel Research Institute for Aging, Waterloo, ON, Canada; 8University of Waterloo, Department of Kinesiology, Waterloo, ON, Canada Background: COPD may impact food-related activities, such as grocery shopping, cooking, and eating. Decreased food intake may result in an unhealthy diet, and in malnutrition, which is highly prevalent in patients with COPD. Malnutrition is known to negatively impact clinical outcome and quality of life. Aims: In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore strategies used to overcome food-related challenges, ie, dietary resilience, and whether these led to a healthy diet. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the key themes of motivation for dietary resilience in patients with severe COPD. Methods: In October 2015 to April 2016, 12 patients with severe COPD starting a pulmonary rehabilitation program were interviewed. Qualitative description and thematic analysis were performed. Results: All participants mentioned the use of strategies to overcome

  17. Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program among Department of Radiology faculty: a pilot randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Amit; Sharma, Varun; Schroeder, Darrell R; Gorman, Brian

    2014-01-01

    To test the efficacy of a Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program for decreasing stress and anxiety and improving resilience and quality of life among Department of Radiology physicians. The study was approved by the institutional review board. A total of 26 Department of Radiology physicians were randomized in a single-blind trial to either the SMART program or a wait-list control arm for 12 weeks. The program involved a single 90-min group session in the SMART training with two follow-up phone calls. Primary outcomes measured at baseline and week 12 included the Perceived Stress Scale, Linear Analog Self-Assessment Scale, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. A total of 22 physicians completed the study. A statistically significant improvement in perceived stress, anxiety, quality of life, and mindfulness at 12 weeks was observed in the study arm compared to the wait-list control arm; resilience also improved in the active arm, but the changes were not statistically significant when compared to the control arm. A single session to decrease stress among radiologists using the SMART program is feasible. Furthermore, the intervention afforded statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in anxiety, stress, quality of life, and mindful attention. Further studies including larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-10-20

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group.

  19. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group. (paper)

  20. Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: a randomized effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Jane E; Reivich, Karen J; Brunwasser, Steven M; Freres, Derek R; Chajon, Norma D; Kash-Macdonald, V Megan; Chaplin, Tara M; Abenavoli, Rachel M; Matlin, Samantha L; Gallop, Robert J; Seligman, Martin E P

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). We evaluated the effectiveness of the Penn Resiliency Program for adolescents (PRP-A), a school-based group intervention that targets cognitive behavioral risk factors for depression. We randomly assigned 408 middle school students (ages 10-15) to one of three conditions: PRP-A, PRP-AP (in which adolescents participated in PRP-A and parents were invited to attend a parent intervention component), or a school-as-usual control. Adolescents completed measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, cognitive style, and coping at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. PRP-A reduced depression symptoms relative to the school as usual control. Baseline levels of hopelessness moderated intervention effects. Among participants with average and high levels of hopelessness, PRP (A and AP) significantly improved depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and active coping relative to control. Among participants with low baseline hopelessness, we found no intervention effects. PRP-AP was not more effective than PRP-A alone. We found no intervention effects on clinical levels of depression or anxiety. These findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral interventions can be beneficial when delivered by school teachers and counselors. These interventions may be most helpful to students with elevated hopelessness.

  1. Prion protein (PrP) gene-knockout cell lines: insight into functions of the PrP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of prion protein (PrP) functions is crucial to fully understand prion diseases. A major approach to studying PrP functions is the use of PrP gene-knockout (Prnp−/−) mice. So far, six types of Prnp−/− mice have been generated, demonstrating the promiscuous functions of PrP. Recently, other PrP family members, such as Doppel and Shadoo, have been found. However, information obtained from comparative studies of structural and functional analyses of these PrP family proteins do not fully reveal PrP functions. Recently, varieties of Prnp−/− cell lines established from Prnp−/− mice have contributed to the analysis of PrP functions. In this mini-review, we focus on Prnp−/− cell lines and summarize currently available Prnp−/− cell lines and their characterizations. In addition, we introduce the recent advances in the methodology of cell line generation with knockout or knockdown of the PrP gene. We also discuss how these cell lines have provided valuable insights into PrP functions and show future perspectives. PMID:25642423

  2. Experimental Models of Inherited PrP Prion Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2017-11-01

    The inherited prion protein (PrP) prion disorders, which include familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, and fatal familial insomnia, constitute ∼10%-15% of all PrP prion disease cases in humans. Attempts to generate animal models of these disorders using transgenic mice expressing mutant PrP have produced variable results. Although many lines of mice develop spontaneous signs of neurological illness with accompanying prion disease-specific neuropathological changes, others do not. Furthermore, demonstrating the presence of protease-resistant PrP species and prion infectivity-two of the hallmarks of the PrP prion disorders-in the brains of spontaneously sick mice has proven particularly challenging. Here, we review the progress that has been made toward developing accurate mouse models of the inherited PrP prion disorders. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. PRP as an Adjunct to Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan

    2018-06-01

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a commonly performed repair. Technical developments provide surgeons the tools to create biomechanically robust repairs. How can the biological response mirror the strong and stable surgery? Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a supraphysiological platelet concentration which may positively augment rotator cuff healing. Not all PRPs are the same. High leukocyte levels and thrombin activation may be detrimental to tendon healing. Thrombin activation triggers an immediate release of growth factors and may actually inhibit some parts of the healing response. Clear differences exist between liquid PRP (products released within hours after activation) and solid fibrin PRP which slowly releases factors over days. The heterogenicity data and grouping liquid and solid PRP together make systematic reviews confusing. Solid PRP fibrin constructs are often associated with increased tendon healing. PRP fibrin matrix offers the greatest promise for improving clinical success after rotator cuff tendon repair.

  4. The Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence (BRAVE) Program: a violence-prevention and role model program for young, African American males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, James P

    2005-11-01

    There are sharp disparities between non-Hispanic Whites and African Americans in mortality and years of potential life lost for numerous health-related conditions, including HIV/AIDS. The Building Resiliency and Vocational Excellence (BRAVE) Program is an intervention using Resiliency Networking designed for use with African American young men to help offset these disparities. Resiliency Networking incorporates coaching, career planning, and re-definition of gender roles to help young men develop a sense of purpose and future and to manage their lifestyles effectively. In addition to fostering a strong link with an older mentor, the program fosters healthy peer-to-peer relationships. The paper reports on preliminary use of the intervention and recommends future applications.

  5. PRP in OA knee - update, current confusions and future options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Mandeep S; Patel, Sandeep; John, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Positive results have been uniformly observed by various researchers for platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in early osteoarthritis (OA) knee in the past few years. PRP has clearly demonstrated its supremacy in comparison to hyaluronic acid (HA) and placebo in various clinical trials and is undoubtedly the best option available for symptomatic treatment in early OA. The release of growth factors from PRP occurs immediately and lasts for around three weeks and the clinical effect tends to wane down by the end of the year. Prolonged and sustained release of growth factors from platelets could possibly help in much better biological healing and sustained clinical effects. PRP in combination with biocompatible carriers could be one way of achieving this. Gelatin hydrogel PRP and chitosan PRP seem to be promising based on early in vitro studies and animal studies. PRP in combination with hyaluronic acid also seems to be additive. This article intends to discuss the present status of the PRP, confusions surrounding its use, upcoming trends and ideas for improvising PRP for use early OA knees based on available evidence. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  6. A Framework For Evaluating Comprehensive Fault Resilience Mechanisms In Numerical Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Peng, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronevetsky, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-09

    As HPC systems approach Exascale, their circuit feature will shrink, while their overall size will grow, all at a fixed power limit. These trends imply that soft faults in electronic circuits will become an increasingly significant problem for applications that run on these systems, causing them to occasionally crash or worse, silently return incorrect results. This is motivating extensive work on application resilience to such faults, ranging from generic techniques such as replication or checkpoint/restart to algorithm-specific error detection and resilience techniques. Effective use of such techniques requires a detailed understanding of (1) which vulnerable parts of the application are most worth protecting (2) the performance and resilience impact of fault resilience mechanisms on the application. This paper presents FaultTelescope, a tool that combines these two and generates actionable insights by presenting in an intuitive way application vulnerabilities and impact of fault resilience mechanisms on applications.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid aluminum phosphate adjuvanted Haemophilus influenzae type b PRP-CRM197-conjugate vaccine in healthy Japanese children: A phase III, randomized, observer-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Takehiro; Mitsuya, Nodoka; Kogawara, Osamu; Sumino, Shuji; Takanami, Yohei; Sugizaki, Kayoko

    2016-08-31

    Broad use of monovalent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines based on the capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP), has significantly reduced invasive Hib disease burden in children worldwide, particularly in children aged vaccine has been widely used since the initiation of public funding programs followed by a routine vaccination designation in 2013. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of PRP conjugated to a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant (PRP-CRM197) vaccine with the PRP-T vaccine when administered subcutaneously to healthy Japanese children in a phase III study. Additionally, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety profiles of a diphtheria-tetanus acellular pertussis (DTaP) combination vaccine when concomitantly administered with either PRP-CRM197 or PRP-T vaccines. The primary endpoint was the "long-term seroprotection rate", defined as the group proportion with anti-PRP antibody titers ⩾1.0μg/mL, after the primary series. Long-term seroprotection rates were 99.3% in the PRP-CRM197 group and 95.6% in the PRP-T group. The intergroup difference (PRP-CRM197 group - PRP-T group) was 3.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.099-7.336), demonstrating that PRP-CRM197 vaccine was non-inferior to PRP-T vaccine (pvaccination was higher in the PRP-CRM197 group than in PRP-T. Concomitant administration of PRP-CRM197 vaccine with DTaP vaccine showed no differences in terms of immunogenicity compared with concomitant vaccination with PRP-T vaccine and DTaP vaccine. Although CRM197 vaccine had higher local reactogenicity, overall, both Hib vaccines had acceptable safety and tolerability profiles. The immunogenicity of PRP-CRM197 vaccine administered subcutaneously as a three-dose primary series in children followed by a booster vaccination 1year after the primary series induced protective levels of Hib antibodies with no safety or tolerability concerns. Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01379846. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  8. The Impact of Respite Programming on Caregiver Resilience in Dementia Care: A Qualitative Examination of Family Caregiver Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Emily; Struckmeyer, Kristopher M.

    2018-01-01

    Family members with a relative with dementia often experience what has been called the “unexpected career of caregiver” and face multifaceted, complex, and stressful life situations that can have important consequences. This exploratory study was designed to address this major public health challenge through the lens of caregiver resilience and caregiver respite programming. While many caregivers report that they derive significant emotional and spiritual rewards from their caregiving role, m...

  9. Building Inner Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantieri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The capacity to be in control of one's thoughts, emotions, and physiology can form an internal safety net preparing children to face the challenges and opportunities of life. This is the goal of the Inner Resilience Program in the New York City Schools. Teachers in the Inner Resilience Program's intervention are exposed to calming and focusing…

  10. Improving Risk Management and Resiliency: A Plan for a Proactive National Policy on Insurance Practices in FEMA’s Public Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and reduce insurance costs. 178 Department of Finance and Deregulation , “Managing the Cost of Damage to Road Infrastructure Caused by Natural...MANAGEMENT AND RESILIENCY: A PLAN FOR A PROACTIVE NATIONAL POLICY ON INSURANCE PRACTICES IN FEMA’S PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAM by Gregory W. Eaton...AND RESILIENCY: A PLAN FOR A PROACTIVE NATIONAL POLICY ON INSURANCE PRACTICES IN FEMA’S PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S

  11. Platlet Rich Plasma (PRP) Improves Fat Grafting Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarressi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer offers many qualities of a ideal soft tissue filler. Main advantages of fat grafting ensue from the fact that the lipoaspirate tissue is an abundant source of regenerative pluripotential cells. However, the reported rates of fat cell survival vary greatly in the medical literature (10-90%). Different techniques of harvesting, processing, and reinjecting the fat cells are so claimed to be responsible for these differences, without any agreement concerning the best way to process. To address this important disadvantage, we propose the addition of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) which is known as a natural reservoir of growth factors stimulating tissue repair and regeneration. This approach is completely autologous and immediately employed without any type of preconditioning. Platelets rich plasma (PRP) preparation included bleeding of 8 ml of blood from patient's peripheral vein in Regen Lab© tubes containing sodium citrate anticoagulant. The whole blood was centrifugated at 1500 g during 3 min. As Regen-tubes contained a special gel separator, 99 % of red blood cells were discarded from the plasma at the bottom of the gel, and >90% of platelets were harvested in 4 ml of plasma on the top of the gel, called the platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The purified fat prepared by Coleman technique was mixed with different amount of PRP for in vitro, in vivo (mice) and clinical experiments: >50% of PRP for skin rejuvenation, superficial scars correction, infraorbital region, ..., and for 20% of PRP with 80% of purified fat for deep filler indication (nasolabial folds, lips, or soft tissue defect). In vitro studies demonstrated that PRP increased fat cells survival rate and stem cells differentiation. Animal models showed that fat graft survival rate was significantly increased by addition of PRP. Several clinical cases confirmed the improvement of wound healing and fat grafting survival in facial reconstruction and aesthetic cases by association of

  12. Psychological health of military children: longitudinal evaluation of a family-centered prevention program to enhance family resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patricia; Stein, Judith A; Saltzman, William; Woodward, Kirsten; MacDermid, Shelley W; Milburn, Norweeta; Mogil, Catherine; Beardslee, William

    2013-08-01

    Family-centered preventive interventions have been proposed as relevant to mitigating psychological health risk and promoting resilience in military families facing wartime deployment and reintegration. This study evaluates the impact of a family-centered prevention program, Families OverComing Under Stress Family Resilience Training (FOCUS), on the psychological adjustment of military children. Two primary goals include (1) understanding the relationships of distress among family members using a longitudinal path model to assess relations at the child and family level and (2) determining pathways of program impact on child adjustment. Multilevel data analysis using structural equation modeling was conducted with deidentified service delivery data from 280 families (505 children aged 3-17) in two follow-up assessments. Standardized measures included service member and civilian parental distress (Brief Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist-Military), child adjustment (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family functioning (McMaster Family Assessment Device). Distress was significantly related among the service member parent, civilian parent, and children. FOCUS improved family functioning, which in turn significantly reduced child distress at follow-up. Salient components of improved family functioning in reducing child distress mirrored resilience processes targeted by FOCUS. These findings underscore the public health potential of family-centered prevention for military families and suggest areas for future research. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. The Impact of Respite Programming on Caregiver Resilience in Dementia Care: A Qualitative Examination of Family Caregiver Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Emily; Struckmeyer, Kristopher M.

    2018-01-01

    Family members with a relative with dementia often experience what has been called the “unexpected career of caregiver” and face multifaceted, complex, and stressful life situations that can have important consequences. This exploratory study was designed to address this major public health challenge through the lens of caregiver resilience and caregiver respite programming. While many caregivers report that they derive significant emotional and spiritual rewards from their caregiving role, many also experience physical and emotional problems directly related to the stress and demands of daily care. One way to alleviate these demands is the growing respite care field, providing services in a variety of settings for caregiver. Through qualitative analysis from face-to-face interviews with 33 family caregivers of individuals with dementia, several themes emerged describing the path to caregiver resilience which include family dynamics, isolation, financial struggles, seeking respite, and acceptance. While much research focuses on a caregiving burden perspective, the innovation of the present study is applying the resilience framework to outcomes from respite programming. PMID:29424252

  14. The Effects of an Online Mind-Body Training Program on Stress, Coping Strategies, Emotional Intelligence, Resilience and Psychological State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Ha, Tae Min; Oh, Chang Young; Lee, Ui Soon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kim, Jungwon; Park, Jae-Oh; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of an online mind-body training (MBT) program on participants' stress, anger, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive and negative affect. Forty-two healthy women participated in an online MBT program for approximately 8-10 minutes a day for 8 weeks; a control group of 45 healthy women did not participate in the program. Self-report psychological questionnaires were administered before the beginning of the program and at 4 and 8 weeks following its onset. Data from the MBT group and the control group were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t-tests. Significant time x group interaction effects were found with respect to stress, coping strategies, anger, emotional intelligence, negative affect and resilience. These results demonstrate beneficial effects of the online MBT program and significant improvements in the psychological capabilities of participants compared with the control group. The effects of online MBT program were similar with those of the previous offline MBT in psychological aspects, suggesting further studies for neuroscientific evidence related stress and emotion of online MBT effects.

  15. The Effects of an Online Mind-Body Training Program on Stress, Coping Strategies, Emotional Intelligence, Resilience and Psychological State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Ha Jung

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of an online mind-body training (MBT program on participants' stress, anger, coping strategies, emotional intelligence, resilience, and positive and negative affect. Forty-two healthy women participated in an online MBT program for approximately 8-10 minutes a day for 8 weeks; a control group of 45 healthy women did not participate in the program. Self-report psychological questionnaires were administered before the beginning of the program and at 4 and 8 weeks following its onset. Data from the MBT group and the control group were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t-tests. Significant time x group interaction effects were found with respect to stress, coping strategies, anger, emotional intelligence, negative affect and resilience. These results demonstrate beneficial effects of the online MBT program and significant improvements in the psychological capabilities of participants compared with the control group. The effects of online MBT program were similar with those of the previous offline MBT in psychological aspects, suggesting further studies for neuroscientific evidence related stress and emotion of online MBT effects.

  16. Small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis through negatively regulating pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a regulated cellular suicide program that is critical for the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. Previous studies have shown that small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP cooperates with kinetochore and mitotic spindle proteins to regulate mitosis. However, the role of SKAP in apoptosis has not been investigated. We have identified a new interaction involving SKAP, and we propose a mechanism through which SKAP regulates cell apoptosis. Our experiments demonstrate that both overexpression and knockdown of SKAP sensitize cells to UV-induced apoptosis. Further study has revealed that SKAP interacts with Pre-mRNA processing Factor 19 (Prp19. We find that UV-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by ectopic expression of Prp19, whereas silencing Prp19 has the opposite effect. Additionally, SKAP negatively regulates the protein levels of Prp19, whereas Prp19 does not alter SKAP expression. Finally, rescue experiments demonstrate that the pro-apoptotic role of SKAP is executed through Prp19. Taken together, these findings suggest that SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis by negatively regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Prp19.

  17. Integrating a Career Planning and Development Program into the Baccalaureate Nursing Curriculum: Part I. Impact on Students' Career Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Janice; Spalding, Karen; Canizares, Genevieve; Navarro, Justine; Connell, Michelle; Jancar, Sonya; Stinson, Jennifer; Victor, Charles

    2015-11-24

    Student nurses often embark on their professional careers with a lack of the knowledge and confidence necessary to navigate them successfully. An ongoing process of career planning and development (CPD) is integral to developing career resilience, one key attribute that may enable nurses to respond to and influence their ever-changing work environments with the potential outcome of increased job satisfaction and commitment to the profession. A longitudinal mixed methods study of a curriculum-based CPD program was conducted to determine the program's effects on participating students, new graduate nurses, and faculty. This first in a series of three papers about the overall study's components reports on undergraduate student outcomes. Findings demonstrate that the intervention group reported higher perceived career resilience than the control group, who received the standard nursing curriculum without CPD. The program offered students the tools and resources to become confident, self-directed, and active in shaping their engagement in their academic program to help achieve their career goals, whereas control group students continued to look uncertainly to others for answers and direction. The intervention group recognized the value of this particular CPD program and both groups, albeit differently, highlighted the key role that faculty played in students' career planning.

  18. Strong Military Families Program: A Multifamily Group Approach to Strengthening Family Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Kate; Muzik, Maria; Waddell, Rachel; Thompson, Stephanie; Rosenberg, Lauren; Masini, Gabriella; Smith, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Military families frequently display remarkable resilience in the face of significant challenges, and yet deployment and parental separation are significant stressors for parents, particularly those with infants and young children. The Strong Military Families preventive intervention is a multifamily parenting and self-care skills group that aims…

  19. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    recovery is both time and budget sensitive, it is imperative that the community address these values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. A key...agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is key to a community’s resiliency and speedy recovery. As such, technical and...Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ). Another group contains documents relevant to site survey 3 procedures

  20. The effect of the support program on the resilience of female family caregivers of stroke patients: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnci, Fadime Hatice; Temel, Ayla Bayik

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of a support program on the resilience of female family caregivers of stroke patients. This is a randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted 70 female family caregivers (34 experimental, 36 control group). Data were collected three times (pretest-posttest, follow-up test). Data were collected using the demographical data form, the Family Index of Regenerativity and Adaptation-General. A significant difference was determined between the experimental and control group's follow-up test scores for relative and friend support, social support and family-coping coherence. A significant difference was determined between the experimental group's mean pretest, posttest and follow-up test scores in terms of family strain, relative and friend support, social support, family coping-coherence, family hardiness and family distress. These results suggest that the Support Program contributes to the improvement of the components of resilience of family caregivers of stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Family Resilience in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  2. Integrated Economic and Financial Analysis of China’s Sponge City Program for Water-resilient Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve Chinese cities’ resilience to climate change, the Sponge City Program, which was designed to tackle water pollution, storm water management, and flooding, was initiated in 2014. Being a major policy initiative, the Sponge City Program raises heated discussions among Chinese academics; however, no relevant extensive economic or financial analysis has been conducted. The research carries out an integrated economic and financial analysis on the Sponge City Program from the perspectives of two stakeholders: the government and the project manager. Different stakeholders have unique perspectives on the management of water projects. This study has two parts: economic analysis and financial analysis. The economic analysis is from the government perspective, and considers all the economic, environmental, and social effects. The financial analysis is from the project manager’s perspective, and judges the financial feasibility of projects. Changde city, one of the demo cities of Sponge City Program, is chosen for the research. The results show that from the perspective of the government, the Sponge City Program should be promoted, because most water projects are economically feasible. From the perspective of the project manager, the program should not be invested in, because the water projects are financially infeasible. A more comprehensive and integrated plan for developing and managing the water projects of the Sponge City Program is required. Otherwise, the private sector may not be interested in investing in the water projects, and the water projects may not be operational in the long term.

  3. Building Resilience in Families, Communities, and Organizations: A Training Program in Global Mental Health and Psychosocial Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Jack; Simon, Winnifred

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the Summer Institute in Global Mental Health and Psychosocial Support, a brief immersion training program for mental health, health, and allied professionals who work with populations that have endured severe adversities and trauma, such as domestic and political violence, extreme poverty, armed conflict, epidemics, and natural disasters. The course taught participants to apply collaborative and contextually sensitive approaches to enhance social connectedness and resilience in families, communities, and organizations. This article presents core training principles and vignettes which illustrate how those engaging in such interventions must: (1) work in the context of a strong and supportive organization; (2) appreciate the complexity of the systems with which they are engaging; and (3) be open to the possibilities for healing and transformation. The program utilized a combination of didactic presentations, hands-on interactive exercises, case studies, and experiential approaches to organizational team building and staff stress management. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  4. [Platelet rich plasma (PRP): potentialities and techniques of extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, L; Casella, F; Maggiore, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the various techniques of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extraction codified in recent years and their use potential is evaluated. PRP is one of the techniques with which at the moment it is attempted to modulate and facilitate the cure of a wound. The use of PRP is based on the theoretical premise that by concentrating platelets the effects of the growth factors (PDGF, TGF-beta, IGF-I and -II) so released will be increased. Marx's original technique is described above all. This prescribes the sampling of a unit of blood (450-500 ml) and the use of a cell separator. We then analysed the technique of Marx and Hannon in which the quantity of blood sampled is reduced to 150 ml, and the two simplified techniques of the Sacchi and Bellanda group. Finally, a new PRP extraction technique is described. We conclude that platelet gel allows access to autologous growth factors which by definition are neither toxic nor immunogenic and are capable of accelerating the normal processes of bone regeneration. PRP can thus be considered a useful instrument for increasing the quality and final quantity of regenerated bone in oral and maxillo-facial surgery operations.

  5. NRSF-dependent epigenetic mechanisms contribute to programming of stress-sensitive neurons by neonatal experience, promoting resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Taylor, A; Molet, J; Jiang, S; Korosi, A; Bolton, J L; Noam, Y; Simeone, K; Cope, J; Chen, Y; Mortazavi, A; Baram, T Z

    2018-03-01

    Resilience to stress-related emotional disorders is governed in part by early-life experiences. Here we demonstrate experience-dependent re-programming of stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons, which takes place through modification of neuronal gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Specifically, we found that augmented maternal care reduced glutamatergic synapses onto stress-sensitive hypothalamic neurons and repressed expression of the stress-responsive gene, Crh. In hypothalamus in vitro, reduced glutamatergic neurotransmission recapitulated the repressive effects of augmented maternal care on Crh, and this required recruitment of the transcriptional repressor repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor/neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF). Increased NRSF binding to chromatin was accompanied by sequential repressive epigenetic changes which outlasted NRSF binding. chromatin immunoprecipitation-seq analyses of NRSF targets identified gene networks that, in addition to Crh, likely contributed to the augmented care-induced phenotype, including diminished depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors. Together, we believe these findings provide the first causal link between enriched neonatal experience, synaptic refinement and induction of epigenetic processes within specific neurons. They uncover a novel mechanistic pathway from neonatal environment to emotional resilience.

  6. Long-term trends in invasive Haemophilus influenzae type B disease among indigenous Australian children following use of PRP-OMP and PRP-T vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert Ian; Bremner, Kyla Margaret; Wang, Han; Beard, Frank Hudson; McIntyre, Peter Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Among indigenous populations with high incidence and early onset of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, PRP-OMP vaccines are used in the United States and PRP-T vaccines in Canada. In Australia, PRP-OMP vaccines were exclusively used in indigenous children from 1993 until they were replaced by PRP-T between late 2005 and 2009. Analytic descriptive study of 20 years of enhanced surveillance data (1993-2013) for invasive Hib disease in Australian children PRP-OMP period (1993-1996) to 6.2 (95% CI: 4.0, 9.2) and 4.7 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.3) in the later PRP-OMP (1996-2009) and PRP-T periods (2009-2013), respectively. The indigenous:nonindigenous incidence rate ratio increased to 43 (95% CI: 16, 145) and 58 (95% CI: 7, 2660) in the later PRP-OMP and PRP-T periods, respectively, more than 10-fold higher than in lesser-incidence Australian regions. We found no change in Hib incidence among indigenous Australian children living in high-incidence regions in the first 4 years following a change to PRP-T-containing combination vaccines. This may be of relevance to North American indigenous populations characterized by suboptimal living conditions and young age of onset for whom PRP-OMP continues to be recommended, such as Alaska Natives.

  7. [Effects of a Positive Psychotherapy Program on Positive Affect, Interpersonal Relations, Resilience, and Mental Health Recovery in Community-Dwelling People with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Na, Hyunjoo

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the interest in positive psychotherapy is growing, which can help to encourage positive relationships and develop strengths of people. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a positive psychotherapy program on positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery in community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. The research was conducted using a randomized control group pretest-posttest design. A total of 57 adults with schizophrenia participated in this study. The study participants in experimental group received a positive psychotherapy program (n=28) and the participants in control group received only the usual treatment in community centers (n=29). The positive psychotherapy program was provided for 5 weeks (of 10 sessions, held twice/week, for 60 minutes). The study outcomes included positive affect, interpersonal relations, resilience, and mental health recovery. The collected data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA for examining study hypothesis. Results showed that interpersonal relations (F=11.83, p=.001) and resilience (F=9.62, p=.003) significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. Although experimental group showed a slight increase in positive affect, it was not significant. The study findings confirm that the positive psychotherapy program is effective for improving interpersonal relations and resilience of community-dwelling people with schizophrenia. Based on the findings, we believe that the positive psychotherapy program would be acceptable and helpful to improve recovery of mental health in schizophrenia. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  8. Caregiver Resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Al

    2002-01-01

    This article argues that school counselors cannot teach and preach resilient behavior if they are not models of resiliency themselves. Examines why some people come through challenging times more emotionally intact than others and suggests some tips for increasing one's resilience potential. (GCP)

  9. PRP Comments for ICF Q1/Q2 FY17 Experiments 3/10/16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The PRP generally endorsed the Program plan during the short time for discussions. We agree that the strategy to develop a hohlraum that is symmetric and has low laser-plasma instabilities and to develop an alternative method for supporting the capsule is the best path forward for making progress in understanding ignition performance. The Program is oriented toward a milestone in 2020 for “determining the efficacy of NIF for ignition and credible physics-scaling to multi-megajoule yields for all ICF approaches.” We are concerned that the time and resources are not sufficient to vet all of the various approaches that are being pursued to make an informed decision by this date. For NIF to meet this goal, a process will be needed to to select the most promising paths forward. We recommend that the Program develop this process for selecting the path forward to optimize resources. We were glad to see that the direct drive program took our comments under consideration. We think that the proposed experiments have the program headed in a better direction. The PRP had only a short time to discuss the detailed experimental proposals. The following are comments on the detailed proposals. We did not have time to discuss them as a group. They represent individual opinions and provided to you as feedback to your proposals.

  10. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  11. Intra-articular laser treatment plus Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) significantly reduces pain in many patients who had failed prior PRP treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromos, Chadwick C.; Finkle, Susan; Dawes, Alexander; Dizon, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: In our practice Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections effectively reduce pain in most but not all arthritic patients. However, for patients who fail PRP treatment, no good alternative currently exists except total joint replacement surgery. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the surface of the skin has not been helpful for arthritis patients in our experience. However, we hypothesized that intra-articular laser treatment would be an effective augmentation to PRP injection and would increase its efficacy in patients who had failed prior PRP injection alone. METHODS: We offered Intra-articular Low Level Laser Therapy (IAL) treatment in conjunction with repeat PRP injection to patients who had received no benefit from PRP injection alone at our center. They were the treatment group. They were not charged for PRP or IAL. They also served as a historical control group since they had all had failed PRP treatment alone. 28 patients (30 joints) accepted treatment after informed consent. 22 knees, 4 hips, 2 shoulder glenohumeral joints and 1 first carpo-metacarpal (1st CMC) joint were treated RESULTS: All patients were followed up at 1 month and no adverse events were seen from the treatment. At 6 months post treatment 46% of patients had good outcomes, and at 1 year 17% still showed improvement after treatment. 11 patients failed treatment and went on to joint replacement. DISCUSSION: A single treatment of IAL with PRP salvaged 46% of patients who had failed PRP treatment alone, allowing avoidance of surgery and good pain control.

  12. Purification and Fibrillation of Full-Length Recombinant PrP

    OpenAIRE

    Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V.

    2012-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of prion protein (PrP) is related to several neurodegenerative diseases in humans such as Creutzfeldt–Jacob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and Gerstmann–Straussler–Sheinker disease. Certain applications in prion area require recombinant PrP of high purity and quality. Here, we report an experimental procedure for expression and purification of full-length mammalian PrP. This protocol has been proved to yield PrP of extremely high purity that lac...

  13. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  14. PrP Conformational Transitions Alter Species Preference of a PrP-specific antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, W.Q.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Xiao, X.; Chen, S.; McGeer, P.L.; Yuan, J.; Payne, M.C.; Kang, H.E.; McGeehan, J.M.; Sy, M.S.; Greenspan, N.S.; Kaplan, D.; Wang, G.X.; Parchi, P.; Hoover, E.A.; Kneale, G.; Telling, G.; Surewicz, W.; Kong, Q.; Guo, J.

    2010-01-01

    The epitope of the 3F4 antibody most commonly used in human prion disease diagnosis is believed to consist of residues Met-Lys-His-Met (MKHM) corresponding to human PrP-(109–112). This assumption is based mainly on the observation that 3F4 reacts with human and hamster PrP but not with PrP from

  15. Quantitating PrP Polymorphisms Present in Prions from Heterozygous Scrapie-Infected Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Christopher J; Erickson-Beltran, Melissa L; Hui, Colleen; Badiola, Juan José; Nicholson, Eric M; Requena, Jesús R; Bolea, Rosa

    2017-01-03

    Scrapie is a prion (PrP Sc ) disease of sheep. The incubation period of sheep scrapie is strongly influenced by polymorphisms at positions 136, 154, and 171 of a sheep's normal cellular prion protein (PrP C ). Chymotrypsin was used to digest sheep recombinant PrP to identify a set of characteristic peptides [M 132 LGSXMSRPL 141 (X = A or V), Y 153 XENMY 158 (X,= H or R), and Y 166 RPVDXY 172 (X = H, K, Q, or R)] that could be used to detect and quantitate polymorphisms at positions 136, 154, and 171 of sheep PrP C or PrP Sc . These peptides were used to develop a multiple reaction monitoring method (MRM) to detect the amounts of a particular polymorphism in a sample of PrP Sc isolated from sheep heterozygous for their PrP C proteins. The limit of detection for these peptides was less than 50 attomole. Spinal cord tissue from heterozygous (ARQ/VRQ or ARH/ARQ) scrapie-infected Rasa Aragonesa sheep was analyzed using this MRM method. Both sets of heterozygotes show the presence of both polymorphisms in PrP Sc . This was true for samples containing both proteinase K (PK)-sensitive and PK-resistant PrP Sc and samples containing only the PK-resistant PrP Sc . These results show that heterozygous animals contain PrP Sc that is composed of significant amounts of both PrP polymorphisms.

  16. Evidence for Ancestral Programming of Resilience in a Two-Hit Stress Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Faraji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a continuously stressful environment, the effects of recurrent prenatal stress (PS may accumulate across generations and alter stress vulnerability and resilience. Here, we report in female rats that a family history of recurrent ancestral PS facilitates certain aspects of movement performance, and that these benefits are abolished by the experience of a second hit, induced by a silent ischemia during adulthood. Female F4-generation rats with and without a family history of cumulative multigenerational PS (MPS were tested for skilled motor function before and after the induction of a minor ischemic insult by endothelin-1 infusion into the primary motor cortex. MPS resulted in improved skilled motor abilities and blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function compared to non-stressed rats. Deep sequencing revealed downregulation of miR-708 in MPS rats along with upregulation of its predicted target genes Mapk10 and Rasd2. Through miR-708 stress may regulate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway activity. Hair trace elemental analysis revealed an increased Na/K ratio, which suggests a chronic shift in adrenal gland function. The ischemic lesion activated the HPA axis in MPS rats only; the lesion, however, abolished the advantage of MPS in skilled reaching. The findings indicate that MPS generates adaptive flexibility in movement, which is challenged by a second stressor, such as a neuropathological condition. Thus, a second “hit” by a stressor may limit behavioral flexibility and neural plasticity associated with ancestral stress.

  17. Ulysses' Return: Resilient Male Leaders Still at the Helm

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Rhonda; Christman, Dana; Fairbanks, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This study examined resilient men in higher education administration, educational leadership programs to determine how they identified components of their resiliency, how they described events that demonstrated their resiliency, and how they prescribed ways in which preparation programs can foster resiliency in students. Using masculinity…

  18. Identification of PrP sequences essential for the interaction between the PrP polymers and Aβ peptide in a yeast-based assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rubel, Aleksandr A; Ryzhova, Tatyana A; Antonets, Kirill S; Chernoff, Yury O; Galkin, Alexey P

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is associated with the accumulation of oligomeric amyloid β peptide (Aβ), accompanied by synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Polymeric form of prion protein (PrP), PrPSc, is implicated in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Recently, it was shown that the monomeric cellular form of PrP (PrPC), located on the neuron surface, binds Aβ oligomers (and possibly other β-rich conformers) via the PrP23–27 and PrP90–110 segments, acting as Aβ receptor. On the other...

  19. Ubiquitin Ligase gp78 Targets Unglycosylated Prion Protein PrP for Ubiquitylation and Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Jia; Choe, Vitnary; Cheng, Haili; Tsai, Yien Che; Weissman, Allan M.; Luo, Shiwen; Rao, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Prion protein PrP is a central player in several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including mad cow disease and Creutzfeltd-Jacob disease. Conformational alteration of PrP into an aggregation-prone infectious form PrPSc can trigger pathogenic events. How levels of PrP are regulated is poorly understood. Human PrP is known to be degraded by the proteasome, but the specific proteolytic pathway responsible for PrP destruction remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligas...

  20. From posttrauma intervention to immunization of the social body: pragmatics and politics of a resilience program in Israel's periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Peleg, Keren; Goodman, Yehuda C

    2010-09-01

    This article traces a critical change in the professional therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): from treatment of a disorder borne by individuals to treatment of an anticipated disorder to be prevented by fortifying the entire population. A community resilience program in the city of Sderot in southern Israel, which has been subjected to Qassam rockets by its Palestinian neighbors across the border, serves as our case study. Drawing on an ethnographic study of this new therapeutic program, we analyze how the social body that the professionals attempt to immunize against trauma was treated. In particular, we follow the various practices used to expand the clinical. We found that the population was split into several groups on a continuum between the clinical and the preclinical, each receiving different treatment. Moreover, the social body managed according to this new form of PTSD was articulated through ethnic and geopolitical power relations between professionals from the country's center and professionals from its periphery, and between the professionals and the city's residents. Finally, we discuss how this Israeli case compares with other national sites of the growing globalization of PTSD, like Bali, Haiti and Ethiopia, which anthropologists have been exploring in recent years.

  1. Assessing Resilience in Stressed Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine T. Nemec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several frameworks for assessing the resilience of social-ecological systems (SESs have been developed, some practitioners may not have sufficient time and information to conduct extensive resilience assessments. We have presented a simplified approach to resilience assessment that reviews the scientific, historical, and social literature to rate the resilience of an SES with respect to nine resilience properties: ecological variability, diversity, modularity, acknowledgement of slow variables, tight feedbacks, social capital, innovation, overlap in governance, and ecosystem services. We evaluated the effects of two large-scale projects, the construction of a major dam and the implementation of an ecosystem recovery program, on the resilience of the central Platte River SES (Nebraska, United States. We used this case study to identify the strengths and weaknesses of applying a simplified approach to resilience assessment. Although social resilience has increased steadily since the predam period for the central Platte River SES, ecological resilience was greatly reduced in the postdam period as compared to the predam and ecosystem recovery program time periods.

  2. Bio-Psycho-Spiritual Modeling in Drug Dependents and Compiling of Intervention Program for Promotion of Resiliency Based on Cognitive Narratology and Positive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezat ollah Kordmirza Nikoozadeh

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since the past few decades, the concentration of researches on drug abuse and drugs dependency have shift from risk factor to protective factors. In the past two decades, the concept of resiliency was increasingly considered by developmental psychology. The concentration shifted from risk to resiliency originates from disadvantage in emphasizing on identification of risk factors. Method: Target population was all volunteer addicts who referred to clinics in Tehran city. The group selected based on random cluster sampling. In total 319 persons (male composed of two groups, dependent to drug (150 persons and independent to drug (169 persons were participated in research and in general, 108 questionnaires of non-addicts and 126 of addicts were analyzed. In order to determine the fit model based on assumed variables in the research, by utilizing LISREL softwar99e, initially the relation between primary fundamental variables and final endogenous variables were reviewed. In continuation, the - relations between intermediary and endogenous variables were determined. Results: The results showed the fitting of predicted model of resiliency. Conclusion: In this research the program based on bio-psycho-spiritual model for instructional intervention in order to enhance of resiliency of addict people provided.

  3. Two New PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Minimization Optimization Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonglin Yuan

    Full Text Available Two new PRP conjugate Algorithms are proposed in this paper based on two modified PRP conjugate gradient methods: the first algorithm is proposed for solving unconstrained optimization problems, and the second algorithm is proposed for solving nonlinear equations. The first method contains two aspects of information: function value and gradient value. The two methods both possess some good properties, as follows: 1 βk ≥ 0 2 the search direction has the trust region property without the use of any line search method 3 the search direction has sufficient descent property without the use of any line search method. Under some suitable conditions, we establish the global convergence of the two algorithms. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate our algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the first algorithm is effective and competitive for solving unconstrained optimization problems and that the second algorithm is effective for solving large-scale nonlinear equations.

  4. Two New PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Minimization Optimization Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gonglin; Duan, Xiabin; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cui, Zengru; Sheng, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Two new PRP conjugate Algorithms are proposed in this paper based on two modified PRP conjugate gradient methods: the first algorithm is proposed for solving unconstrained optimization problems, and the second algorithm is proposed for solving nonlinear equations. The first method contains two aspects of information: function value and gradient value. The two methods both possess some good properties, as follows: 1) βk ≥ 0 2) the search direction has the trust region property without the use of any line search method 3) the search direction has sufficient descent property without the use of any line search method. Under some suitable conditions, we establish the global convergence of the two algorithms. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate our algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the first algorithm is effective and competitive for solving unconstrained optimization problems and that the second algorithm is effective for solving large-scale nonlinear equations.

  5. Conceptualizing Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Birkland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary provides an overview of the idea of resilience, and acknowledges the challenges of defining and applying the idea in practice. The article summarizes a way of looking at resilience called a “resilience delta”, that takes into account both the shock done to a community by a disaster and the capacity of that community to rebound from that shock to return to its prior functionality. I show how different features of the community can create resilience, and consider how the developed and developing world addresses resilience. I also consider the role of focusing events in gaining attention to events and promoting change. I note that, while focusing events are considered by many in the disaster studies field to be major drivers of policy change in the United States disaster policy, most disasters have little effect on the overall doctrine of shared responsibilities between the national and subnational governments.

  6. Study of PrP - I heterogeneous equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, I.G.; Mironov, K.E.; Tarasenko, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Using static methods the authors have measured the equilibrium vapor pressure in the system PrP+I 2 at different temperatures and different initial iodine concentrations. The equilibrium reactions in the system have been determined. The reaction of PrP with iodine is irreversible. The content of PrI 3 and I 2 in the gas phase is negligible. The pressure in the system is determined by the partial pressure of phosphorus

  7. Report for the ASC CSSE L2 Milestone (4873) - Demonstration of Local Failure Local Recovery Resilient Programming Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen; Teranishi, Keita

    2014-06-01

    Recovery from process loss during the execution of a distributed memory parallel application is presently achieved by restarting the program, typically from a checkpoint file. Future computer system trends indicate that the size of data to checkpoint, the lack of improvement in parallel file system performance and the increase in process failure rates will lead to situations where checkpoint restart becomes infeasible. In this report we describe and prototype the use of a new application level resilient computing model that manages persistent storage of local state for each process such that, if a process fails, recovery can be performed locally without requiring access to a global checkpoint file. LFLR provides application developers with an ability to recover locally and continue application execution when a process is lost. This report discusses what features are required from the hardware, OS and runtime layers, and what approaches application developers might use in the design of future codes, including a demonstration of LFLR-enabled MiniFE code from the Matenvo mini-application suite.

  8. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  9. A DTAP–IPV//PRP~T VACCINE: A REVIEW OF 16 YEARS’ CLINICAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley A. Plotkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their low reactogenicity, confirmed efficacy and availability in combination vaccines, acellular pertussis (aP-inactivated poliovirus (IPV combined vaccines are now included in various national immunization programs worldwide. We provide an overview of 16 years of clinical experience with a diphtheria (D, tetanus (T, aP, IPV and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus protein (PRP~T combined vaccine (DTaP–IPV//PRP~T — Pentaxim, Sanofi Pasteur, France. Good immunogenicity has been demonstrated after primary vaccination with Pentaxim, regardless of the population ethnicity and primary vaccination schedule. A booster vaccination in the second year of life also resulted in a high immune response for each antigen. Furthermore, 10 years of national surveillance in Sweden has demonstrated the effectiveness of Pentaxim in controlling pertussis. As is the case for other aP-containing combined vaccines, Pentaxim is well tolerated, with the safety profile being better than for whole-cell pertussiscontaining combination vaccines for primary and booster vaccinations.

  10. Impact of local anaesthetics and needle calibres used for painless PRP injections on platelet functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausset, Olivier; Magalon, Jeremy; Giraudo, Laurent; Louis, Marie-Laure; Serratrice, Nicolas; Frere, Corrine; Magalon, Guy; Dignat-George, Françoise; Sabatier, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous biotherapy commonly used for its healing properties. Once activated, platelets released a real "cocktail" of growth factor and cytokines implied in numerous regenerative processes. However the impact of medical practices associated to PRP therapeutic use on platelets functionality remains poorly known. we evaluated the in vitro effects of two commonly used local anesthetics (Xylocaine(*) and Naropin(*)) on PRP functionality. We also investigated the quantity and quality of PRP that passed through the smallest gauge needle commercialized. PRP from 9 healthy volunteers were prepared using our previously described home made purification protocol. Platelet aggregation capacity was evaluated by aggregometry assays and the growth factor release was determined by ELISA after platelet activation. We also evaluated the platelet activation status, reactivity and stability of platelets by flow cytometry using the P-selectin expression marker. the association of local anaesthetics with PRP injections resulted in a significant decrease of platelets functionality, assessed by their capacity of aggregating. Local anaesthetics did not interfere with the growth factor release. The different needle sizes and calibres tested for PRP injections did not influence the platelet functionality. the use of local anaesthetics to prevent pain during PRP injections could compromise the therapeutic potential of PRP. These results suggest using carefully local anaesthetics or limiting their use as often is possible. To minimize injection pain, we recommend using 30 G needles. These data will lead to clinical recommendations for painless and controlled PRP injections.

  11. The development of an RDoC based treatment program for adolescent depression Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eHenje Blom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8-20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression – Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action (TARA – that is based on current understanding of developmental and depression neurobiology. The TARA model is aligned with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC of the National Institute of Mental Health. In this article, we first address the relevance of RDoC to adolescent depression. Second, we identify the major RDoC domains of function involved in adolescent depression and organize them in a way that gives priority to domains thought to be driving the psychopathology. Third, we select therapeutic training strategies for TARA based on current scientific evidence of efficacy for the prioritized domains of function in a manner that maximizes time, resources, and feasibility. The TARA model takes into consideration the developmental limitation in top-down cognitive control in adolescence and promotes bottom-up strategies such as vagal afference to decrease limbic hyperactivation and its secondary effects. The program has been informed by mindfulness-based therapy and yoga, as well as modern psychotherapeutic techniques. The treatment program is semi-manualized, progressive, and applied in a module-based approach designed for a group setting that is to be conducted one session per week for 12 weeks. We hope that this work may form the basis for a novel and more effective treatment strategy for adolescent depression, as well as broaden the discussion on how to address this challenge.

  12. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...

  13. Interaction between 14-3-3β and PrP influences the dimerization of 14-3-3 and fibrillization of PrP106-126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Song, Qin-Qin; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Xu; Song, Juan; Li, Gong-Qi; Liu, Ying-Hui; Mei, Guo-Yong; Shi, Qi; Tian, Chan; Chen, Cao; Gao, Chen; Zhao, Bo; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Proteins of the 14-3-3 family are universal participate in multiple cellular processes. However, their exact role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases remains unclear. In this study, we proposed that human PrP was able to form molecular complex with 14-3-3β. The domains responsible for the interactions between PrP and 14-3-3β were mapped at the segments of amino acid (aa) residues 106-126 within PrP and aa 1-38 within 14-3-3β. Homology modeling revealed that the key aa residues for molecular interaction were D22 and D23 in 14-3-3β as well as K110 in PrP. Mutations in these aa residues inhibited the interaction between the two proteins in vitro. Our results also showed that recombinant PrP encouraged 14-3-3β dimer formation, whereas PrP106-126 peptide inhibited it. Recombinant 14-3-3β disaggregated the mature PrP106-126 fibrils in vitro. Moreover, the PrP-14-3-3 protein complexes were observed in the brain tissues of normal and scrapie agent 263K infected hamsters. Colocalization of PrP and 14-3-3 was seen in the cytoplasm of human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, as well as human cervical cancer cell line HeLa transiently expressing full-length human PrP. Our current data suggest the neuroprotection of PrPC and neuron damage caused by PrPSc may be associated with their functions of 14-3-3 dimerization regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Building Psychological Health: The Services’ Perspectives on Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    program; medical supported • Doctrine signed Dec 2010 • Training: > 200,000 trained to date • 8 courses on Navy eLearning • Formal curriculum delivered...Address future concerns and build psychological resiliency 10 Reserve Resilience Initiatives 2011 MHS Conference NSW Resilience Enterprise  Resilience

  15. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  16. HGF Mediates the Anti-inflammatory Effects of PRP on Injured Tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Middleton, Kellie K.; Fu, Freddie H.; Im, Hee-Jeong; Wang, James H-C.

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2. PMID:23840657

  17. HGF mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of PRP on injured tendons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Zhang

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2.

  18. Enhanced healing of mitomycin C-treated healing-impaired wounds in rats with PRP-containing fragmin/protamine microparticles (PRP&F/P MPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Takabayashi, Yuki; Sumi, Yuki; Takikawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shingo; Hattori, Hidemi; Yanagibayashi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accelerating effects of platelet-rich plasma-containing (PRP&) fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) for repairing mitomycin C-treated healing-impaired wounds. Staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL-staining) showed that apoptosis of dermal fibroblast cells (DFCs) and epidermal keratinocyte cells (EKCs) were significantly induced in the skin of the mitomycin C-treated rats. Full-thickness skin defects were made on the back of rats and mitomycin C was applied on the wounds to prepare a healing-impaired wound. After washing out the mitomycin C, saline (control), F/P MPs alone, PRP alone, and PRP&F/P MPs were injected around the wounds. The rats were later euthanised and histological sections of the wounds were then prepared at indicated time periods after the treatment. These results indicated the numbers of large, medium, and small capillary lumens 7 days after injection of PRP&F/P MPs were significantly higher than those after injection of PRP or F/P MPs alone. Furthermore, epithelium and granulation tissue formations were significantly stimulated in the healing-impaired wounds treated with PRP&F/P MPs 3, 7 and 14 days after injection of PRP&F/P MPs.

  19. Cytosolic PrP Can Participate in Prion-Mediated Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alana M.; Zhang, Chang; Arndt, Tina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion diseases are characterized by a conformational change in the normal host protein PrPC. While the majority of mature PrPC is tethered to the plasma membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, topological variants of this protein can arise during its biosynthesis. Here we have generated Drosophila transgenic for cytosolic ovine PrP in order to investigate its toxic potential in flies in the absence or presence of exogenous ovine prions. While cytosolic ovine PrP expressed in Drosophila was predominantly detergent insoluble and showed resistance to low concentrations of proteinase K, it was not overtly detrimental to the flies. However, Drosophila transgenic for cytosolic PrP expression exposed to classical or atypical scrapie prion inocula showed a faster decrease in locomotor activity than similar flies exposed to scrapie-free material. The susceptibility to classical scrapie inocula could be assessed in Drosophila transgenic for panneuronal expression of cytosolic PrP, whereas susceptibility to atypical scrapie required ubiquitous PrP expression. Significantly, the toxic phenotype induced by ovine scrapie in cytosolic PrP transgenic Drosophila was transmissible to recipient PrP transgenic flies. These data show that while cytosolic PrP expression does not adversely affect Drosophila, this topological PrP variant can participate in the generation of transmissible scrapie-induced toxicity. These observations also show that PrP transgenic Drosophila are susceptible to classical and atypical scrapie prion strains and highlight the utility of this invertebrate host as a model of mammalian prion disease. IMPORTANCE During prion diseases, the host protein PrPC converts into an abnormal conformer, PrPSc, a process coupled to the generation of transmissible prions and neurotoxicity. While PrPC is principally a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, the role of topological variants, such as cytosolic PrP, in prion-mediated toxicity and

  20. Glycan-deficient PrP stimulates VEGFR2 signaling via glycosaminoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenxing; Zhang, Huixia; Hu, Fei; Yang, Liheng; Yang, Xiaowen; Zhu, Ying; Sy, Man-Sun; Li, Chaoyang

    2016-06-01

    Whether the two N-linked glycans are important in prion, PrP, biology is unresolved. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the two glycans are clearly not important in the cell surface expression of transfected human PrP. Compared to fully-glycosylated PrP, glycan-deficient PrP preferentially partitions to lipid raft. In CHO cells glycan-deficient PrP also interacts with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), resulting in VEGFR2 activation and enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Accordingly, CHO cells expressing glycan-deficient PrP lacking the GAG binding motif or cells treated with heparinase to remove GAG show diminished Akt signaling. Being in lipid raft is critical, chimeric glycan-deficient PrP with CD4 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains is absent in lipid raft and does not activate Akt signaling. CHO cells bearing glycan-deficient PrP also exhibit enhanced cellular adhesion and migration. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which glycan-deficient PrP, GAG, and VEGFR2 interact, activating VEGFR2 and resulting in changes in cellular behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Purification and Fibrillation of Full-Length Recombinant PrP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarava, Natallia; Savtchenko, Regina; Baskakov, Ilia V

    2017-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of prion protein are related to several neurodegenerative diseases in humans such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease. A growing number of applications in the prion field including assays for detection of PrP Sc and methods for production of PrP Sc de novo require recombinant prion protein (PrP) of high purity and quality. Here, we report an experimental procedure for expression and purification of full-length mammalian prion protein. This protocol has been proved to yield PrP of extremely high purity that lacks PrP adducts, oxidative modifications, or truncation, which is typically generated as a result of spontaneous oxidation or degradation. We also describe methods for preparation of amyloid fibrils from recombinant PrP in vitro. Recombinant PrP fibrils can be used as a noninfectious synthetic surrogate of PrP Sc for development of prion diagnostics including generation of PrP Sc -specific antibody.

  2. Characterization of barley Prp1 gene and its expression during seed development and under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian-Tao; Liu, Tao; Ma, Jian; Wei, Yu-Ming; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2011-10-01

    The pre-mRNA processing (Prp1) gene encodes a spliceosomal protein. It was firstly identified in fission yeast and plays a regular role during spliceosome activation and cell cycle. Plant Prp1 genes have only been identified from rice, Sorghum and Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we reported the identification and isolation of a novel Prp1 gene from barley, and further explored its expressional pattern by using real-time quantitative RTPCR, promoter prediction and analysis of microarray data. The putative barley Prp1 protein has a similar primary structure features to those of other known Prp1 protein in this family. The results of amino acid comparison indicated that Prp1 protein of barley and other plant species has a highly conserved 30 termnal region while their 50 sequences greatly varied. The results of expressional analysis revealed that the expression level of barley Prp1 gene is always stable in different vegetative tissues, except it is up-regulated at the mid- and late stages of seed development or under the condition of cold stress. This kind of expressional pattern for barley Prp1 is also supported by our results of comparison of microarray data from barley, rice and Arabidopsis. For the molecular mechanism of its expressional pattern, we conclude that the expression of Prp1 gene may be up-regulated by the increase of pre-mRNAs and not be constitutive or ubiquitous.

  3. An introduction to application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP in skin rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Banihashemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is an autologous concentration of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma characterized by haemostatic and tissue repairing effects. Tissue repairing effects and being enriched by various kind of growth factors, has made them the focus of attention for different procedures. PRP has been effective in bony defects, wound healing and recently for aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the applications of PRP in the dermatology literature, with particular focus on rejuvenizaton process, advances and limitations of current PRP therapies. We studied literature related to PRP therapy, these include regeneration of soft tissue, skin aging mechanisms, as well as wound healing. Some studies have shown promising results, with favorable outcomes about PRP clinical application for skin rejuvenization. This article summarizes our current understanding regarding photoaging process and the role of PRP in the skin rejuvenization process. PRP has been shown to be useful in skin rejuvenization. Further studies are needed to elucidate both basic and clinical aspects of PRP therapies. In particular, platelet preparation methods, different application methods, platelet mechanism of action in rejuvenation field, interactions with the skin components, long-term efficacy and safety are necessary to be determined.

  4. Performance related pay (PRP) to social workers in Danish Job Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg Jensen, Maya; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?......This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?...

  5. Prion propagation in cells expressing PrP glycosylation mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Muhammad K; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-04-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrP(C)) to a disease-related isoform (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrP(C) glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrP(Sc) and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrP(Sc), while PrP(C) with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrP(C), were able to form infectious PrP(Sc). Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection.

  6. Teaching Resilience: A Narrative Inquiry into the Importance of Teacher Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Angela; Pendergast, Donna; Garvis, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This study set out to explore how high school teachers perceive their resilience as they teach a scripted social and emotional learning program to students with the goal of promoting the resilience skills of the students in their pastoral care classes. In this emerging field of research on teacher resilience, there is a paucity of research…

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial resilience training for heart health, and the added value of promoting physical activity: a cluster randomized trial of the READY program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakenham Kenneth I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and poor social support are significant risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD, and stress and anxiety can trigger coronary events. People experiencing such psychosocial difficulties are more likely to be physically inactive, which is also an independent risk factor for CHD. Resilience training can target these risk factors, but there is little research evaluating the effectiveness of such programs. This paper describes the design and measures of a study to evaluate a resilience training program (READY to promote psychosocial well-being for heart health, and the added value of integrating physical activity promotion. Methods/Design In a cluster randomized trial, 95 participants will be allocated to either a waitlist or one of two intervention conditions. Both intervention conditions will receive a 10 × 2.5 hour group resilience training program (READY over 13 weeks. The program targets five protective factors identified from empirical evidence and analyzed as mediating variables: positive emotions, cognitive flexibility, social support, life meaning, and active coping. Resilience enhancement strategies reflect the six core Acceptance and Commitment Therapy processes (values, mindfulness, defusion, acceptance, self-as-context, committed action and Cognitive Behavior Therapy strategies such as relaxation training and social support building skills. Sessions include psychoeducation, discussions, experiential exercises, and home assignments. One intervention condition will include an additional session and ongoing content promoting physical activity. Measurement will occur at baseline, two weeks post intervention, and at eight weeks follow-up, and will include questionnaires, pedometer step logs, and physical and hematological measures. Primary outcome measures will include self-reported indicators of psychosocial well-being and depression. Secondary outcome measures will include self-reported indicators of

  8. Performance assessment and optimisation of a large information system by combined customer relationship management and resilience engineering: a mathematical programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadeh, A.; Foroozan, H.; Ashjari, B.; Motevali Haghighi, S.; Yazdanparast, R.; Saberi, M.; Torki Nejad, M.

    2017-10-01

    ISs and ITs play a critical role in large complex gas corporations. Many factors such as human, organisational and environmental factors affect IS in an organisation. Therefore, investigating ISs success is considered to be a complex problem. Also, because of the competitive business environment and the high amount of information flow in organisations, new issues like resilient ISs and successful customer relationship management (CRM) have emerged. A resilient IS will provide sustainable delivery of information to internal and external customers. This paper presents an integrated approach to enhance and optimise the performance of each component of a large IS based on CRM and resilience engineering (RE) in a gas company. The enhancement of the performance can help ISs to perform business tasks efficiently. The data are collected from standard questionnaires. It is then analysed by data envelopment analysis by selecting the optimal mathematical programming approach. The selected model is validated and verified by principle component analysis method. Finally, CRM and RE factors are identified as influential factors through sensitivity analysis for this particular case study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study for performance assessment and optimisation of large IS by combined RE and CRM.

  9. Depoliticizing Public Action by Politicizing Issues, Practices and Actors. The Role of Resilience Thinking in a Program of the Cariplo Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto d'Albergo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We are apparently living in an age of "hyperdepoliticisation". But what is meant today by de-politicization and how does this phenomenon impact upon the forms taken by political functions in con-temporary complex societies? The aim of this article is that of answering these questions through a re-search-based analysis of the specific role played in depoliticization processes by the use of the concept of resilience and resilience thinking, analyzing the "Resilient Communities" (Comunità Resilienti program of the Cariplo Foundation. We argue that an intertwined and complementary movement between the depo-liticization of public action and politicization of collective action carried out by non-political actors exists, which does not extirpate the political from social processes, but alters its qualities, characteristics and borders. Such dual movement is composed of pro-active and reactive forms of both depoliticization and politicization, which are defined and investigated in the article, putting empirical evidence against the background of theoretical discussion.

  10. Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Electrospun PES/PVA/PRP Nanofibrous Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef-Saberi, Mahshid Sadat; Roodbari, Nasim Hayati; Parivar, Kazem; Vakilian, Saeid; Hanee-Ahvaz, Hana

    2018-03-28

    Over the last few decades, great advancements have been achieved in the field of bone tissue engineering (BTE). Containing a great number of growth factors needed in the process of osteogenesis, platelet rich plasma (PRP) has gained a great deal of attention. However, due to the contradictory results achieved in different studies, its effectiveness remains a mystery. Therefore, in this study, we investigated in vitro performance of co-electrospun PRP/poly ether sulfone/poly(vinyl) alcohol (PRP/PES/PVA) composite scaffolds for the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The activated PRP was mixed with PVA solution to be used alongside PES solution for the electrospinning process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile tests were performed to evaluate the scaffolds. After confirmation of sustained release of protein, osteogenic potential of the co-electrospun PRP/polymer scaffolds was evaluated by measuring relative gene expression, calcium content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Alizarin red and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining were performed as well. The results of ALP activity and calcium content demonstrated the effectiveness of PRP when combined with PRP-incorporated scaffold in comparison with the other tested groups. In addition, the results of tensile mechanical testing indicated that addition of PRP improves the mechanical properties. Taking these results into account, it appears PES/PVA/PRP scaffold treated with PRP 5% enhances osteogenic differentiation most. In conclusion, incorporation of PRP into electrospun PES/PVA scaffold in this study had a positive influence on osteogenic differentiation of AdMSCs, and thus it may have great potential for BTE applications.

  11. The concept of resilience- the scientific adaptation for society health

    OpenAIRE

    Svence, Guna

    2015-01-01

    The main idea of the paper to indicate the factors of resilience indicators. The task of the research - a theoretical analysis of the latest research resilience factors and resilience risk factors and to analyze the theory of the intervention of positive psychology and development programs. Based on quantitative methods (narrative content analysis) recognise the contents of resilience and create the resilience factor model. Author together with students form RTTEMA master study programme “Psy...

  12. Redox induces diverse effects on recombinant human wild-type PrP and mutated PrP with inserted or deleted octarepeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Chen, Cao; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Kang; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Normal prion protein (PrP) contains two cysteines at amino acids 179 and 214, which may form intra‑ and interpeptide disulfide bonds. To determine the possible effects of this disulfide bridge on the biochemical features of PrP, prokaryotic recombinant human wild‑type PrP (PG5), and mutated PrPs with seven extra octarepeats (PG12) or with all five octarepeats removed (PG0), were subjected to redox in vitro. Sedimentation assays revealed a large portion of aggregation in redox‑treated PG5, but not in PG0 and PG12. Circular dichroism analysis detected increased β‑sheet and decreased α‑helix in PG5 subjected to redox, increased random‑coil and decreased β‑sheet in PG0, and increased random‑coil, but limited changes to β‑sheet content, in PG12. Thioflavin T fluorescence tests indicated that fluorescent value was increased in PG5 subjected to redox. In addition, proteinase K (PK) digestions indicated that PK resistance was stronger in PG12 and PG0 compared with in PG5; redox enhanced the PK resistance of all three PrP constructs, particularly PG0 and PG12. These data indicated that formation of a disulfide bond induces marked alterations in the secondary structure and biochemical characteristics of PrP. In addition, the octarepeat region within the PrP peptide markedly influences the effects of redox on the biochemical phenotypes of PrP, thus highlighting the importance of the number of octarepeats in the biological functions of PrP.

  13. Recommendations for the Involvement of Patient Research Partners (PRP) in OMERACT Working Groups. A Report from the OMERACT 2014 Working Group on PRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peter P; de Wit, Maarten; Bingham, Clifton O; Kirwan, John R; Leong, Amye; March, Lyn M; Montie, Pam; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Patient participation in research is increasing; however, practical guidelines to enhance this participation are lacking. Specifically within the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) organization, although patients have participated in OMERACT meetings since 2002, consensus about the procedures for involving patients in working groups has not been formalized. The objective is to develop a set of recommendations regarding patient research partner (PRP) involvement in research working groups. We conducted a systematic literature review on recommendations/guidelines of PRP involvement in research; elaborated a structured consensus process involving multiple participants to develop a set of recommendations; and sought endorsement of recommendations by OMERACT. In the 18 articles included in the literature review, there was general agreement on the broad concepts for recommendations covering PRP involvement in research although they were heterogeneous in detail. Most considered PRP involvement in all phases of research with early engagement, training, and support important, but details on the content were scarce. This review informed a larger consensus-building process regarding PRP inclusion in OMERACT research. Three overarching principles and 8 recommendations were developed, discussed, and refined at OMERACT 2014. The guiding principles were endorsed during the OMERACT plenary session. These recommendations for PRP involvement in OMERACT research reinforce the importance of patient participation throughout the research process as integral members. Although the applicability of the recommendations in other research contexts should be assessed, the generalizability is expected to be high. Future research should evaluate their implementation and their effect on outcome development.

  14. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  15. Expressions of pathologic markers in PRP based chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakfar, Arezou; Irani, Shiva; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana

    2017-02-01

    Optimization of the differentiation medium through using autologous factors such as PRP is of great consideration, but due to the complex, variable and undefined composition of PRP on one hand and lack of control over the absolute regulatory mechanisms in in vitro conditions or disrupted and different mechanisms in diseased tissue microenvironments in in vivo conditions on the other hand, it is complicated and rather unpredictable to get the desired effects of PRP making it inevitable to monitor the possible pathologic or undesired differentiation pathways and therapeutic effects of PRP. Therefore, in this study the probable potential of PRP on inducing calcification, inflammation and angiogenesis in chondrogenically-differentiated cells was investigated. The expressions of chondrogenic, inflammatory, osteogenic and angiogenic markers from TGFβ or PRP-treated cells during chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) was evaluated. Expressions of Collagen II (Col II), Aggrecan, Sox9 and Runx2 were quantified using q-RT PCR. Expression of Col II and X was investigated by immunocytochemistry as well. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) production was also determined by GAG assay. Possible angiogenic/inflammatory potential was determined by quantitatively measuring the secreted VEGF, TNFα and phosphorylated VEGFR2 via ELISA. In addition, the calcification of the construct was monitored by measuring ALP activity and calcium deposition. Our data showed that PRP positively induced chondrogenesis; meanwhile the secretion of angiogenic and inflammatory markers was decreased. VEGFR2 phosphorylation and ALP activity had a decreasing trend, but tissue mineralization was enhanced upon treating with PRP. Although reduction in inflammatory/angiogenic potential of the chondrogenically differentiated constructs highlights the superior effectiveness of PRP in comparison to TGFβ for chondrogenic differentiation, yet further improvement of the PRP

  16. Structural and functional analysis of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box helicase Prp28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möhlmann, Sina [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mathew, Rebecca [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Neumann, Piotr; Schmitt, Andreas [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Lührmann, Reinhard [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ficner, Ralf, E-mail: rficner@uni-goettingen.de [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    The crystal structure of the helicase domain of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box protein Prp28 was solved by SAD. The binding of ADP and ATP by Prp28 was studied biochemically and analysed with regard to the crystal structure. The DEAD-box protein Prp28 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing as it plays a key role in the formation of an active spliceosome. Prp28 participates in the release of the U1 snRNP from the 5′-splice site during association of the U5·U4/U6 tri-snRNP, which is a crucial step in the transition from a pre-catalytic spliceosome to an activated spliceosome. Here, it is demonstrated that the purified helicase domain of human Prp28 (hPrp28ΔN) binds ADP, whereas binding of ATP and ATPase activity could not be detected. ATP binding could not be observed for purified full-length hPrp28 either, but within an assembled spliceosomal complex hPrp28 gains ATP-binding activity. In order to understand the structural basis for the ATP-binding deficiency of isolated hPrp28, the crystal structure of hPrp28ΔN was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. In the crystal the helicase domain adopts a wide-open conformation, as the two RecA-like domains are extraordinarily displaced from the productive ATPase conformation. Binding of ATP is hindered by a closed conformation of the P-loop, which occupies the space required for the γ-phosphate of ATP.

  17. The composite of bone marrow concentrate and PRP as an alternative to autologous bone grafting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohssen Hakimi

    Full Text Available One possible alternative to the application of autologous bone grafts represents the use of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potency of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP in combination with BMC. In 32 mini-pigs a metaphyseal critical-size defect was surgically created at the proximal tibia. The animals were allocated to four treatment groups of eight animals each (1. BMC+CPG group, 2. BMC+CPG+PRP group, 3. autograft group, 4. CPG group. In the BMC+CPG group the defect was filled with autologous BMC in combination with calcium phosphate granules (CPG, whereas in the BMC+CPG+PRP group the defect was filled with the composite of autologous BMC, CPG and autologous PRP. In the autograft group the defect was filled with autologous cancellous graft, whereas in the CPG group the defect was filled with CPG solely. After 6 weeks radiological and histomorphometrical analysis showed significantly more new bone formation in the BMC+CPG+PRP group compared to the BMC+CPG group and the CPG group. There were no significant differences between the BMC+CPG+PRP group and the autograft group. In the PRP platelets were enriched significantly about 4.7-fold compared to native blood. In BMC the count of mononuclear cells increased significantly (3.5-fold compared to the bone marrow aspirate. This study demonstrates that the composite of BMC+CPG+PRP leads to a significantly higher bone regeneration of critical-size defects at the proximal tibia in mini-pigs than the use of BMC+CPG without PRP. Furthermore, within the limits of the present study the composite BMC+CPG+PRP represents a comparable alternative to autologous bone grafting.

  18. What About the Rheological Properties of PRP/Microfat Mixtures in Fat Grafting Procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouane, R; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Veran, J; Abellan, M; Francois, P; Velier, M; Orneto, C; Piccerelle, P; Magalon, J

    2017-10-01

    Fat grafting has emerged as a reference procedure in daily plastic surgery practice. Unpredictable fat resorption is the main clinical problem. For this purpose, the addition of PRP to enhance fat revascularization is now an easy and popular procedure. However, no consensus exists regarding the respective volume of fat and PRP used to obtain the ideal mixture. This study investigated the rheological properties of microfat mixed with different proportions of PRP. Results obtained were compared with commercialized hyaluronic acid fillers. Microfat and PRP preparations were performed using standardized techniques. Lipoaspirate residue and blood were obtained from six patients undergoing aesthetic facial microlipofilling. Elastic modulus G' and tan δ (proportion of elasticity versus fluidity) were obtained for the following conditions: microfat alone and microfat mixed with 10, 30 or 50% of PRP. An expected decrease in elastic modulus was observed by adding increase volumes of PRP. Two groups of products with different rheological properties were considered based on statistical differences highlighted regarding the value of G'. Mean tan δ varied from 0.20 ± 0.04 (microfat alone) to 0.28 ± 0.08 (50% microfat/50% PRP). Microfat mixed with 10% of PRP presents consistency comparable to stiffer fillers, whereas microfat mixed with 30 or 50% corresponds to softer fillers. Rheological differences were highlighted given the proportion of PRP added to the microfat. Further studies assessing the impact of increased doses of platelets in microfat/PRP mixtures on clinical outcomes should also be investigated. Our findings will help clinicians to choose a mixture that meets their specific needs for a given indication. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  19. Semisynthetic prion protein (PrP) variants carrying glycan mimics at position 181 and 197 do not form fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araman, Can; Thompson, Robert E; Wang, Siyao; Hackl, Stefanie; Payne, Richard J; Becker, Christian F W

    2017-09-01

    The prion protein (PrP) is an N -glycosylated protein attached to the outer leaflet of eukaryotic cell membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Different prion strains have distinct glycosylation patterns and the extent of glycosylation of potentially pathogenic misfolded prion protein (PrP Sc ) has a major impact on several prion-related diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, TSEs). Based on these findings it is hypothesized that posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of PrP influence conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP C ) into PrP Sc and, as such, modified PrP variants are critical tools needed to investigate the impact of PTMs on the pathogenesis of TSEs. Here we report a semisynthetic approach to generate PrP variants modified with monodisperse polyethyleneglycol (PEG) units as mimics of N-glycans. Incorporating PEG at glycosylation sites 181 and 197 in PrP induced only small changes to the secondary structure when compared to unmodified, wildtype PrP. More importantly, in vitro aggregation was abrogated for all PEGylated PrP variants under conditions at which wildtype PrP aggregated. Furthermore, the addition of PEGylated PrP as low as 10 mol% to wildtype PrP completely blocked aggregation. A similar effect was observed for synthetic PEGylated PrP segments comprising amino acids 179-231 alone if these were added to wildtype PrP in aggregation assays. This behavior raises the question if large N-glycans interfere with aggregation in vivo and if PEGylated PrP peptides could serve as potential therapeutics.

  20. The differential effects of leukocyte-containing and pure platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on tendon stem/progenitor cells - implications of PRP application for the clinical treatment of tendon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiqin; Zhang, Jianying; Wu, Haishan; Hogan, MaCalus V; Wang, James H-C

    2015-09-15

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used to treat tendon injuries in clinics. These PRP preparations often contain white blood cells or leukocytes, and the precise cellular effects of leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP) on tendons are not well defined. Therefore, in this study, we determined the effects of L-PRP on tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs), which play a key role in tendon homeostasis and repair. TSCs isolated from the patellar tendons of rabbits were treated with L-PRP or P-PRP (pure PRP without leukocytes) in vitro, followed by measuring cell proliferation, stem cell marker expression, inflammatory gene expression, and anabolic and catabolic protein expression by using immunostaining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Cell proliferation was induced by both L-PRP and P-PRP in a dose-dependent manner with maximum proliferation at a 10 % PRP dose. Both PRP treatments also induced differentiation of TSCs into active tenocytes. Nevertheless, the two types of PRP largely differed in several effects exerted on TSCs. L-PRP induced predominantly catabolic and inflammatory changes in differentiated tenocytes; its treatment increased the expression of catabolic marker genes, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-13, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and their respective protein expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2) production. In contrast, P-PRP mainly induced anabolic changes; that is, P-PRP increased the gene expression of anabolic genes, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen types I and III. These findings indicate that, while both L-PRP and P-PRP appear to be "safe" in inducing TSC differentiation into active tenocytes, L-PRP may be detrimental to the healing of injured tendons because it induces catabolic and inflammatory effects on tendon cells and may prolong the effects in healing tendons. On the other hand, when P-PRP is used to

  1. Effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on human gingival fibroblast, osteoblast and periodontal ligament cell behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Sculean, Anton; Chappuis, Vivianne; Buser, Daniel; Schaller, Benoit; Dőri, Ferenc; Miron, Richard J

    2017-06-02

    The use of platelet rich plasma (PRP, GLO) has been used as an adjunct to various regenerative dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to characterize the influence of PRP on human gingival fibroblasts, periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and osteoblast cell behavior in vitro. Human gingival fibroblasts, PDL cells and osteoblasts were cultured with conditioned media from PRP and investigated for cell migration, proliferation and collagen1 (COL1) immunostaining. Furthermore, gingival fibroblasts were tested for genes encoding TGF-β, PDGF and COL1a whereas PDL cells and osteoblasts were additionally tested for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining and mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers including Runx2, COL1a2, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). It was first found that PRP significantly increased cell migration of all cells up to 4 fold. Furthermore, PRP increased cell proliferation at 3 and 5 days of gingival fibroblasts, and at 3 days for PDL cells, whereas no effect was observed on osteoblasts. Gingival fibroblasts cultured with PRP increased TGF-β, PDGF-B and COL1 mRNA levels at 7 days and further increased over 3-fold COL1 staining at 14 days. PDL cells cultured with PRP increased Runx2 mRNA levels but significantly down-regulated OCN mRNA levels at 3 days. No differences in COL1 staining or ALP staining were observed in PDL cells. Furthermore, PRP decreased mineralization of PDL cells at 14 days post seeding as assessed by alizarin red staining. In osteoblasts, PRP increased COL1 staining at 14 days, increased COL1 and ALP at 3 days, as well as increased ALP staining at 14 days. No significant differences were observed for alizarin red staining of osteoblasts following culture with PRP. The results demonstrate that PRP promoted gingival fibroblast migration, proliferation and mRNA expression of pro-wound healing molecules. While PRP induced PDL cells and osteoblast migration and proliferation, it tended to have

  2. Comparison of the Efficacy of Homologous and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) for Treating Androgenic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Mehmet Emin Cem; Dadaci, Mehmet; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Savaci, Nedim

    2018-02-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), the most common cause of hair loss in both sexes, accounts for 95% of all cases of hair loss. Although the literature has suggested that both nonactivated (n-PRP) and activated autologous (a-PRP) PRP can be used to treat AGA, we did not find any study investigating the use of homologous PRP (h-PRP) for this purpose. Also, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies comparing the efficacy of h-PRP, a-PRP, or n-PRP on AGA therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the increase in hair density, average number of platelets, complications, preparation, and duration of application in the treatment of AGA using a-PRP, n-PRP, and h-PRP. Between 2014 and 2015, we studied male patients who had experienced increased hair loss in the last year. Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1 received n-PRP, Group 2 received active PRP, and Group 3 received h-PRP. For Group 1, PRP was prepared by a single centrifugation prepared from the patient's own blood. For Group 2, the PRP was prepared from the patient's own blood, but a second centrifugation was applied for platelet activation with calcium chloride. For Group 3, the PRP was prepared from pooled platelets with the same blood group as the patient from the blood center. PRP was injected at 1, 2, and 6 months. The hair density (n/cm 2 ) of each patient before and after injection was calculated. Each patient was assigned a fixed evaluation point at the time of application to calculate hair density. At 2, 6, and 12 months after the first treatment, the increase in hair density was calculated as 11.2, 26.1, and 32.4%, respectively, in Group 1; 8.1, 12.5, and 20.8%, respectively, in Group 2; and 16.09, 36.41, and 41.76%, respectively, in Group 3. The increase in hair density was statistically significantly greater in Group 1 than in Group 2 and more so in Group 3 than in both groups among all controls (p PRP was greater than with autologous PRP groups. We believe that h-PRP therapy can

  3. PrP N-terminal domain triggers PrPSc-like aggregation of Dpl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlich, Paul; Cesbron, Jean-Yves; Lemaire-Vieille, Catherine; Curt, Aurelie; Andrieu, Jean-Pierre; Schoehn, Guy; Jamin, Marc; Gagnon, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative disorders thought to be transmitted by self-perpetuating conformational conversion of a neuronal membrane glycoprotein (PrP C , for 'cellular prion protein') into an abnormal state (PrP Sc , for 'scrapie prion protein'). Doppel (Dpl) is a protein that shares significant biochemical and structural homology with PrP C . In contrast to its homologue PrP C , Dpl is unable to participate in prion disease progression or to achieve an abnormal PrP Sc -like state. We have constructed a chimeric mouse protein, composed of the N-terminal domain of PrP C (residues 23-125) and the C-terminal part of Dpl (residues 58-157). This chimeric protein displays PrP-like biochemical and structural features; when incubated in presence of NaCl, the α-helical monomer forms soluble β-sheet-rich oligomers which acquire partial resistance to pepsin proteolysis in vitro, as do PrP oligomers. Moreover, the presence of aggregates akin to protofibrils is observed in soluble oligomeric species by electron microscopy

  4. Quantifying resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The biosphere is under unprecedented pressure, reflected in rapid changes in our global ecological, social, technological and economic systems. In many cases, ecological and social systems can adapt to these changes over time, but when a critical threshold is surpassed, a system under stress can undergo catastrophic change and reorganize into a different state. The concept of resilience, introduced more than 40 years ago in the ecological sciences, captures the behaviour of systems that can occur in alternative states. The original definition of resilience forwarded by Holling (1973) is still the most useful. It defines resilience as the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stable state. The idea of alternative stable states has clear and profound implications for ecological management. Coral reefs, for example, are high-diversity systems that provide key ecosystem services such as fisheries and coastal protection. Human impacts are causing significant, ongoing reef degradation, and many reefs have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states in response to anthropogenic pressures such as elevated water temperatures and overfishing. Understanding and differentiating between the factors that help maintain reefs in coral-dominated states vs. those that facilitate a shift to an undesired algal-dominated state is a critical step towards sound management and conservation of these, and other, important social–ecological systems.

  5. PRP for Degenerative Cartilage Disease: A Systematic Review of Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Lior; Marom, Niv; Dnyanesh, Lad; Mei-Dan, Omer; Espregueira-Mendes, João; Gobbi, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    To explore the utilization of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for degenerative cartilage processes and evaluate whether there is sufficient evidence to better define its potential effects. Systematic literature reviews were conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane electronic databases till May 2015, using the keywords "platelet-rich plasma OR PRP OR autologous conditioned plasma OR ACP AND cartilage OR chondrocyte OR chondrogenesis OR osteoarthritis (OA) OR arthritis." The final result yielded 29 articles. Twenty-six studies examined PRP administration for knee OA and 3 involved PRP administration for hip OA. The results included 9 prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (8 knee and 1 hip), 4 prospective comparative studies, 14 case series, and 2 retrospective comparative studies. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was used as a control in 11 studies (7 RCTs, 2 prospective comparative studies, and 2 retrospective cohort). Overall, all RCTs reported on improved symptoms compared to baseline scores. Only 2 RCTs-one for knee and one for hip-did not report significant superiority of PRP compared to the control group (HA). Nine out of 11 HA controlled studies showed significant better results in the PRP groups. A trend toward better results for PRP injections in patients with early knee OA and young age was observed; however, lack of uniformity was evident in terms of indications, inclusion criteria, and pathology definitions in the different studies. Current clinical evidence supports the benefit in PRP treatment for knee and hip OA, proven to temporarily relieve pain and improve function of the involved joint with superior results compared with several alternative treatments. Further research to establish the optimal preparation protocol and characteristics of PRP injections for OA is needed.

  6. Kartogenin with PRP promotes the formation of fibrocartilage zone in the tendon-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiqin; Zhang, Jianying; Yang, Jinsong; Narava, Manoj; Zhao, Guangyi; Yuan, Ting; Wu, Haishan; Zheng, Nigel; Hogan, MaCalus V; Wang, James H-C

    2017-12-01

    Treatment of tendon-bone junction injuries is a challenge because tendon-bone interface often heals poorly and the fibrocartilage zone, which reduces stress concentration, at the interface is not formed. In this study, we used a compound called kartogenin (KGN) with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to induce the formation of fibrocartilage zone in a rat tendon graft-bone tunnel model. The experimental rats received KGN-PRP or PRP injections in the tendon graft-bone tunnel interface. The control group received saline. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks, Safranin O staining of the tendon graft-bone tunnels revealed abundant proteoglycans in the KGN-PRP group indicating the formation of cartilage-like transition zone. Immunohistochemical and immuno-fluorescence staining revealed collagen types I (Col-I) and II (Col-II) in the newly formed fibrocartilage zone. Both fibrocartilage zone formation and maturation were healing time dependent. In contrast, the PRP and saline control groups had no cartilage-like tissues and minimal Col-I and Col-II staining. Some gaps were also present in the saline control group. Finally, pull-out strength in the KGN-PRP-treated group at 8 weeks was 1.4-fold higher than the PRP-treated group and 1.6-fold higher than the saline control group. These findings indicate that KGN, with PRP as a carrier, promotes the formation of fibrocartilage zone between the tendon graft and bone interface. Thus, KGN-PRP may be used as a convenient cell-free therapy in clinics to promote fibrocartilage zone formation in rotator calf repair and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, thereby enhancing the mechanical strength of the tendon-bone interface and hence the clinical outcome of these procedures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. CD36 participates in PrP(106-126-induced activation of microglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kouadir

    Full Text Available Microglial activation is a characteristic feature of the pathogenesis of prion diseases. The molecular mechanisms that underlie prion-induced microglial activation are not very well understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of the class B scavenger receptor CD36 in microglial activation induced by neurotoxic prion protein (PrP fragment 106-126 (PrP(106-126. We first examined the time course of CD36 mRNA expression upon exposure to PrP(106-126 in BV2 microglia. We then analyzed different parameters of microglial activation in PrP(106-126-treated cells in the presence or not of anti-CD36 monoclonal antibody (mAb. The cells were first incubated for 1 h with CD36 monoclonal antibody to block the CD36 receptor, and were then treated with neurotoxic prion peptides PrP(106-126. The results showed that PrP(106-126 treatment led to a rapid yet transitory increase in the mRNA expression of CD36, upregulated mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, increased iNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO production, stimulated the activation of NF-κB and caspase-1, and elevated Fyn activity. The blockade of CD36 had no effect on PrP(106-126-stimulated NF-κB activation and TNF-α protein release, abrogated the PrP(106-126-induced iNOS stimulation, downregulated IL-1β and IL-6 expression at both mRNA and protein levels as well as TNF-α mRNA expression, decreased NO production and Fyn phosphorylation, reduced caspase-1 cleavage induced by moderate PrP(106-126-treatment, but had no effect on caspase-1 activation after treatment with a high concentration of PrP(106-126. Together, these results suggest that CD36 is involved in PrP(106-126-induced microglial activation and that the participation of CD36 in the interaction between PrP(106-126 and microglia may be mediated by Src tyrosine kinases. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the activation of microglia by neurotoxic prion peptides

  8. Singlet ground-state fluctuations in praseodymium observed by muon spin relaxation in PrP and PrP0.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, D R; Waeppling, R; Kalvius, G M; Jr, M F White; Stronach, C E

    2005-01-01

    Muon spin relaxation (μSR) in the singlet ground-state compounds PrP and PrP 0.9 reveals the unusual situation of a Lorentzian local field distribution with fast-fluctuation-limit strong-collision dynamics, a case that does not show motional narrowing. Contrary to publications by others, where PrP 0.9 was asserted to have vacancy-induced spin-glass freezing, no spin-glass freezing is seen in PrP 0.9 or PrP down to ≤100mK. This was confirmed by magnetization measurements on these same samples. In both compounds, the muon spin relaxation rate does increase as temperature decreases, demonstrating increasing strength of the paramagnetic response. A Monte Carlo model of fluctuations of Pr ions out of their crystalline-electric-field singlet ground states into their magnetic excited states (and back down again) produces the strong-collision-dynamic Lorentzian relaxation functions observed at each individual temperature but not the observed temperature dependence. This model contains no exchange interaction, and so predicts decreasing paramagnetic response as the temperature decreases, contrary to the temperature dependence observed. Comparison of the simulations to the data suggests that the exchange interaction is causing the system to approach magnetic freezing (by mode softening), but fails to complete the process

  9. A call for a standard classification system for future biologic research: the rationale for new PRP nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Kenneth; Malanga, Gerard A; Smith, Jay; Shiple, Brian; Ibrahim, Victor; Sampson, Steven; Bowen, Jay E

    2015-04-01

    Autologous cell therapies including platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow concentrate (BMC) are increasingly popular options for soft tissue and joint-related diseases. Despite increased clinical application, conflicting research has been published regarding the efficacy of PRP, and few clinical publications pertaining to BMC are available. Preparations of PRP (and BMC) can vary in many areas, including platelet concentration, number of white blood cells, presence or absence of red blood cells, and activation status of the preparation. The potential effect of PRP characteristics on PRP efficacy is often not well understood by the treating clinician, and PRP characteristics, as well as the volume of PRP delivered, are unfortunately not included in the methods of many published research articles. It is essential to establish a standard reporting system for PRP that facilitates communication and the interpretation and synthesis of scientific investigations. Herein, the authors propose a new PRP classification system reflecting important PRP characteristics based on contemporary literature and recommend adoption of minimal standards for PRP reporting in scientific investigations. Widespread adoption of these recommendations will facilitate interpretation and comparison of clinical studies and promote scientifically based progress in the field of regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of hyaluronic acid and PRP intra-articular injection with combined intra-articular and intraosseous PRP injections to treat patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ke; Bai, Yuming; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Haisen; Liu, Hao; Ma, Shiyun

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit provided by intraosseous infiltration combined with intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma to treat mild and moderate stages of knee joint degeneration (Kellgren-Lawrence score II-III) compared with other treatments, specifically intra-articular injection of PRP and of HA. Eighty-six patients with grade II to grade III knee OA according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification were randomly assigned to intra-articular combined with intraosseous injection of PRP (group A), intra-articular PRP (group B), or intra-articular HA (group C). Patients in group A received intra-articular combined with intraosseous injection of PRP (administered twice, 2 weeks apart). Patients in group B received intra-articular injection of PRP every 14 days. Patients in group C received a series of five intra-articular injections of HA every 7 days. All patients were evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) score before the treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after treatment. There were significant improvements at the end of the 1st month. Notably, group A patients had significantly superior VAS and WOMAC scores than were observed in groups B and C. The VAS scores were similar in groups B and group C after the 6th month. Regarding the WOMAC scores, groups B and C differed at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months; however, no significant difference was observed at the 18th month. The combination of intraosseous with intra-articular injections of PRP resulted in a significantly superior clinical outcome, with sustained lower VAS and WOMAC scores and improvement in quality of life within 18 months.

  11. Experimental conditions and monitoring items of the prototype repository project (PRP). Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Ito, Akira; Kawakami, Susumu

    2003-03-01

    Various experiments are ongoing in the underground research facility 'the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL)' of SKB in Sweden for the geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste. International joint project Prototype Repository Project (PRP) is one of the experiments in the HRL which has some engineered barrier systems and to study the coupled behavior happening in and around the engineered barrier system. JNC has joined this international joint project PRP to obtain the information of the coupled behavior on such systematic engineered barrier system and to apply the JNC's coupled THMC analytical code to the prediction and back analysis of the PRP. The analytical code will be verified through these analyses in this project. JNC can apply the verified analytical code to assess the coupled behavior in Japan. This report summarizes the experimental conditions and monitoring items of the PRP. (author)

  12. Role of Ultrasound Guided Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP Injection in Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enass M. Khattab

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that US-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP injection for treatment of lateral epicondylitis was a safe, minimally invasive and effective procedure in improving the sonographic and pathological changes of common extensor tendon (CET.

  13. PrP aggregation can be seeded by pre-formed recombinant PrP amyloid fibrils without the replication of infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Rona M; King, Declan; Jeffrey, Martin; McGovern, Gillian; Agarwal, Sonya; Gill, Andrew C; Piccardo, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    Mammalian prions are unusual infectious agents, as they are thought to consist solely of aggregates of misfolded prion protein (PrP). Generation of synthetic prions, composed of recombinant PrP (recPrP) refolded into fibrils, has been utilised to address whether PrP aggregates are, indeed, infectious prions. In several reports, neurological disease similar to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) has been described following inoculation and passage of various forms of fibrils in transgenic mice and hamsters. However, in studies described here, we show that inoculation of recPrP fibrils does not cause TSE disease, but, instead, seeds the formation of PrP amyloid plaques in PrP-P101L knock-in transgenic mice (101LL). Importantly, both WT-recPrP fibrils and 101L-recPrP fibrils can seed plaque formation, indicating that the fibrillar conformation, and not the primary sequence of PrP in the inoculum, is important in initiating seeding. No replication of infectious prions or TSE disease was observed following both primary inoculation and subsequent subpassage. These data, therefore, argue against recPrP fibrils being infectious prions and, instead, indicate that these pre-formed seeds are acting to accelerate the formation of PrP amyloid plaques in 101LL Tg mice. In addition, these data reproduce a phenotype which was previously observed in 101LL mice following inoculation with brain extract containing in vivo-generated PrP amyloid fibrils, which has not been shown for other synthetic prion models. These data are reminiscent of the "prion-like" spread of aggregated forms of the beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ), α-synuclein and tau observed following inoculation of transgenic mice with pre-formed seeds of each misfolded protein. Hence, even when the protein is PrP, misfolding and aggregation do not reproduce the full clinicopathological phenotype of disease. The initiation and spread of protein aggregation in transgenic mouse lines following inoculation with pre

  14. Lumbar Intradiskal Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injections: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa A; Terry, Alon; Boachie-Adjei, Kwadwo; Harrison, Julian R; Gribbin, Caitlin K; LaSalle, Elizabeth E; Nguyen, Joseph T; Solomon, Jennifer L; Lutz, Gregory E

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether single injections of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) into symptomatic degenerative intervertebral disks will improve participant-reported pain and function. Prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Outpatient physiatric spine practice. Adults with chronic (≥6 months), moderate-to-severe lumbar diskogenic pain that was unresponsive to conservative treatment. Participants were randomized to receive intradiskal PRP or contrast agent after provocative diskography. Data on pain, physical function, and participant satisfaction were collected at 1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. Participants in the control group who did not improve at 8 weeks were offered the option to receive PRP and subsequently followed. Functional Rating Index (FRI), Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, the pain and physical function domains of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, and the modified North American Spine Society (NASS) Outcome Questionnaire were used. Forty-seven participants (29 in the treatment group, 18 in the control group) were analyzed by an independent observer with a 92% follow-up rate. Over 8 weeks of follow-up, there were statistically significant improvements in participants who received intradiskal PRP with regards to pain (NRS Best Pain) (P = .02), function (FRI) (P = .03), and patient satisfaction (NASS Outcome Questionnaire) (P = .01) compared with controls. No adverse events of disk space infection, neurologic injury, or progressive herniation were reported following the injection of PRP. Participants who received intradiskal PRP showed significant improvements in FRI, NRS Best Pain, and NASS patient satisfaction scores over 8 weeks compared with controls. Those who received PRP maintained significant improvements in FRI scores through at least 1 year of follow-up. Although these results are promising, further studies are needed to define the subset of participants most likely to respond to biologic intradiskal

  15. DEPA classification: a proposal for standardising PRP use and a retrospective application of available devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalon, J; Chateau, A L; Bertrand, B; Louis, M L; Silvestre, A; Giraudo, L; Veran, J; Sabatier, F

    2016-01-01

    Significant biological differences in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations have been highlighted and could explain the large variability in the clinical benefit of PRP reported in the literature. The scientific community now recommends the use of classification for PRP injection; however, these classifications are focused on platelet and leucocyte concentrations. This presents the disadvantages of (1) not taking into account the final volume of the preparation; (2) omitting the presence of red blood cells in PRP and (3) not assessing the efficiency of production. On the basis of standards classically used in the Cell Therapy field, we propose the DEPA (Dose of injected platelets, Efficiency of production, Purity of the PRP, Activation of the PRP) classification to extend the characterisation of the injected PRP preparation. We retrospectively applied this classification on 20 PRP preparations for which biological characteristics were available in the literature. Dose of injected platelets varies from 0.21 to 5.43 billion, corresponding to a 25-fold increase. Only a Magellan device was able to obtain an A score for this parameter. Assessments of the efficiency of production reveal that no device is able to recover more than 90% of platelets from the blood. Purity of the preparation reveals that a majority of the preparations are contaminated by red blood cells as only three devices reach an A score for this parameter, corresponding to a percentage of platelets compared with red blood cells and leucocytes over 90%. These findings should provide significant help to clinicians in selecting a system that meets their specific needs for a given indication.

  16. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Chapin, T.; Rockstrom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change

  17. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  18. Effectiveness of PRP Injection in Reducing Recovery Time of Acute Hamstring Injury: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Mary Lynn; Straub, Stephen J

    2017-07-17

    Clinical Scenario Hamstring strains are common athletic injuries, with a high recurrence rate (34%). 2 Recently, platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections have gained popularity as a potential treatment option to accelerate healing of hamstring injury. 3 Focused Clinical Question Does the combination of PRP injection and rehabilitation decrease recovery time of acute hamstring injury as compared to rehabilitation alone in collegiate athletes? Summary of Key Findings A literature search resulted in three randomized controlled trials (RCT). One study showed benefits in various outcome measures with PRP, compared to rehabilitation alone, while two showed no benefits. One study reported improved pain, ultrasonography regenerative indications, and recovery time with PRP injection following acute hamstring injury 1 , however, larger studies have shown no benefits. 7-9 The literature demonstrates conflicting evidence regarding benefits of PRP injections in hamstring injuries. Clinical Bottom Line At this time, PRP injections cannot be recommended as having value for hamstring injuries, compared to rehabilitation alone. Strength of Recommendation Due to inconsistent or limited quality patient-oriented evidence in existing literature, the strength of this recommendation is grade B, based on the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT). 7 .

  19. Cytosolically expressed PrP GPI-signal peptide interacts with mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizzunti, Gianni; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that PrP GPI-anchor signal peptide (GPI-SP) is specifically degraded by the proteasome. Additionally, we showed that the point mutation P238S, responsible for a genetic form of prion diseases, while not affecting the GPI-anchoring process, results in the accumulation of PrP GPI-SP, suggesting the possibility that PrP GPI-anchor signal peptide could play a role in neurodegenerative prion diseases. We now show that PrP GPI-SP, when expressed as a cytosolic peptide, is able to localize to the mitochondria and to induce mitochondrial fragmentation and vacuolarization, followed by loss in mitochondrial membrane potential, ultimately resulting in apoptosis. Our results identify the GPI-SP of PrP as a novel candidate responsible for the impairment in mitochondrial function involved in the synaptic pathology observed in prion diseases, establishing a link between PrP GPI-SP accumulation and neuronal death.

  20. Polymorphisms at Amino Acid Residues 141 and 154 Influence Conformational Variation in Ovine PrP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sujeong; Thackray, Alana M.; Hopkins, Lee; Monie, Tom P.; Burke, David F.; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 141 and 154 are associated with susceptibility to ovine prion disease: Leu141Arg154 with classical scrapie and Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 with atypical scrapie. Classical scrapie is naturally transmissible between sheep, whereas this may not be the case with atypical scrapie. Critical amino acid residues will determine the range or stability of structural changes within the ovine prion protein or its functional interaction with potential cofactors, during conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in these different forms of scrapie disease. Here we computationally identified that regions of ovine PrP, including those near amino acid residues 141 and 154, displayed more conservation than expected based on local structural environment. Molecular dynamics simulations showed these conserved regions of ovine PrP displayed genotypic differences in conformational repertoire and amino acid side-chain interactions. Significantly, Leu141Arg154 PrP adopted an extended beta sheet arrangement in the N-terminal palindromic region more frequently than the Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 variants. We supported these computational observations experimentally using circular dichroism spectroscopy and immunobiochemical studies on ovine recombinant PrP. Collectively, our observations show amino acid residues 141 and 154 influence secondary structure and conformational change in ovine PrP that may correlate with different forms of scrapie. PMID:25126555

  1. Mechanical and Controlled PRP Injections in Patients Affected by Androgenetic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Garcovich, Simone; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Bielli, Alessandra; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2018-01-27

    23 patients (18 male and 5 female) aged 21-70 years who displayed male pattern hair loss (MPHL) in Stage 1 to Stage 5 as determined by the Norwood-Hamilton classification scale, and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in Stage 1 to Stage 2 as determined by the Ludwig classification scale, were treated with non-activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (A-PRP). Autologous blood (55 mL) was harvested using sodium citrate as an anticoagulant. A-PRP (23 mL) was produced for all cases using a closed system according to the transfusion service protocol. Following centrifugation (260 x g for 10 min) the A-PRP was inserted in a laser light selector device, and after the centrifugation, 9 mL of A-PRP was collected. The scalp of the patients affected by androgenetic alopecia (AGA) was divided into four areas (frontal, parietal, vertex, and occipital); local anesthesia was not performed. Interfollicular A-PRP injections (0.2 mL x cm 2 ) were performed by controlled and mechanical injections scheduled at a depth of 5 mm using a medical injector gun. Treatment sessions were performed with a 30-day interval. For each patient, three treatment sessions were performed. PRP was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp affected by hair loss. Placebo (normal saline solution) was loaded in another syringe (10 mL) and injected on the adjacent side in a similar fashion.

  2. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  3. Clarifying Resilience in the Context of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Resilience Is a Complex Adaptive System of Systems ( CASoS ) ....60 4. Resilience Is Experienced and Demonstrated in Different Ways ..60 5. Resilience Is...The inclusion of a resilience module into existing homeland security training programs broadens the practitioner’s knowledge base from a basic level...psychology offer several considerations for the homeland security practitioner. The first consideration maintains that a de -emphasis on the

  4. Mouse homologue of yeast Prp19 interacts with mouse SUG1, the regulatory subunit of 26S proteasome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Cho, Si Young; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Yeast Prp19 has been shown to involve in pre-mRNA splicing and DNA repair as well as being an ubiquitin ligase. Mammalian homologue of yeast Prp19 also plays on similar functional activities in cells. In the present study, we isolated mouse SUG1 (mSUG1) as binding partner of mouse Prp19 (mPrp19) by the yeast two-hybrid system. We confirmed the interaction of mPrp9 with mSUG1 by GST pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay. The N-terminus of mPrp19 including U-box domain was associated with the C-terminus of mSUG1. Although, mSUG1 is a regulatory subunit of 26S proteasome, mPrp19 was not degraded in the proteasome-dependent pathway. Interestingly, GFP-mPrp19 fusion protein was co-localized with mSUG1 protein in cytoplasm as the formation of the speckle-like structures in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, the activity of proteasome was increased in cells transfected with mPrp19. Taken together, these results suggest that mPrp19 involves the regulation of protein turnover and may transport its substrates to 26S proteasome through mSUG1 protein

  5. A Whole Community Approach toward Child and Youth Resilience Promotion: A Review of Resilience Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlou, Nazilla; Wray, Ron

    2014-01-01

    A literature review of child and youth resilience with a focus on: definitions and factors of resilience; relationships between resilience, mental health and social outcomes; evidence for resilience promoting interventions; and implications for reducing health inequities. To conduct the review, the first two following steps were conducted iteratively and informed the third step: 1) Review of published peer-review literature since 2000; and 2) Review of grey literature; and 3) Quasi-realist synthesis of evidence. Evidence from three perspectives were examined: i) whether interventions can improve 'resilience' for vulnerable children and youth; ii) whether there is a differential effect among different populations; and, iii) whether there is evidence that resilience interventions 'close the gap' on health and social outcome measures. Definitions of resilience vary as do perspectives on it. We argue for a hybrid approach that recognizes the value of combining multiple theoretical perspectives, epistemologies (positivistic and constructivist/interpretive/critical) in studying resilience. Resilience is: a) a process (rather than a single event), b) a continuum (rather than a binary outcome), and c) likely a global concept with specific dimensions. Individual, family and social environmental factors influence resilience. A social determinants perspective on resilience and mental health is emphasized. Programs and interventions to promoting resilience should be complimentary to public health measures addressing the social determinants of health. A whole community approach to resilience is suggested as a step toward closing the public health policy gap. Local initiatives that stimulate a local transformation process are needed. Recognition of each child's or youth's intersections of gender, lifestage, family resources within the context of their identity markers fits with a localized approach to resilience promotion and, at the same time, requires recognition of the

  6. Resilience - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    the assessment of the health of a network or system. The hypothesis is: resiliency is meaningful in the context of holistic assessments of... health , holistic , Resiliency Tier, Resiliency Tier Matrix, State of Resiliency 295Defense ARJ, July 2015, Vol. 22 No. 3 : 294–324 296 Defense ARJ, July...upon who is speaking. Taking this one step further, consider resiliency as a concept that provides a holistic view of a system or capability, just

  7. Exercise and the platelet activator calcium chloride both influence the growth factor content of platelet-rich plasma (PRP): overlooked biochemical factors that could influence PRP treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, Bruce; Tol, Johannes L.; Knez, Wade; Chalabi, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise affects platelet haemostasis factors, but this potential effect on growth factor concentrations in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has never been studied. In addition, there is a paucity of studies focusing on the effects of activating agents used in conjunction

  8. The influence of using anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate acid 3.8% toward the quantity of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilies Anggarwati Astuti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP is a blood concentrate that has a thrombocytes concentration several time higher than normal concentration of thrombocytes in normal human blood. PRP is a promising alternative to surgery with a safe and natural healing. The standard protocol for PRP preparation must be determined to get the right quantity and quality of the matrix of fibrin, leukocytes, platelets and growth factors. It could not be separated from the number of PRP produced. The use of PRP in the success of periodontal treatment would not be separated from methods to obtain it. To detect the influence of using anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate acid 3.8% toward the quantity of PRP. There are 41 subjects studied by taking 21 ml of venous blood in each of the seven tubes. Centrifugation performed twice with different speed, duration, use of anticoagulants then analyzed. This quantity between the two groups differed significantly between the PRP in EDTA group is higher 322.2 ml rather than citrate acid 3.8% group, then control group is higher 329.5 ml rather than citrate acid 3.8% group, while there is no difference between EDTA and control group. There is effect of the use of anticoagulants EDTA compared with citrate acid 3.8% in the quantity of PRP, and there was no effect using citrate acid 3.8% as anticoagulants in quantity of PRP.

  9. Reducing primary and secondary traumatic stress symptoms among educators by training them to deliver a resiliency program (ERASE-Stress) following the Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rony; Abu-Raiya, Hisham; Benatov, Joy

    2016-03-01

    The current investigation evaluated the impact of a universal school-based resiliency intervention (ERASE-Stress) on educators who were working with elementary schoolchildren exposed to the Canterbury earthquake in New Zealand. In the context of major disasters, educators may suffer from "dual trauma"; they can experience symptoms of both primary trauma (as a result of the disaster itself) and secondary trauma (as a result of working with traumatized students). Sixty-three educators were randomly assigned to either the ERASE-Stress intervention or an alternative Managing Emergencies and Traumatic Incidents (METI) program which served as a control group. Efficacy of the program was evaluated at the end of the training as well as at 8 months follow-up. Compared with educators in the control group, those in the ERASE-Stress intervention significantly reduced their posttraumatic distress and secondary traumatization symptoms, improved their perceived level of professional self-efficacy as a helper of earthquake survivors, developed an optimistic outlook regarding their personal future and enhanced their sense of hope, and honed some of their positive coping strategies and reduced the utilization of some maladaptive coping methods. These beneficial consequences of the ERASE-Stress training make it a potentially useful tool for educators working with traumatized students in the context of major disasters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Early Delivery of Misfolded PrP from ER to Lysosomes by Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Constanza J.; Qin, Kefeng; Norstrom, Eric M.; Green, William N.; Bindokas, Vytautas P.; Mastrianni, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are linked to the accumulation of a misfolded isoform (PrPSc) of prion protein (PrP). Evidence suggests that lysosomes are degradation endpoints and sites of the accumulation of PrPSc. We questioned whether lysosomes participate in the early quality control of newly generated misfolded PrP. We found PrP carrying the disease-associated T182A mutation (Mut-PrP) was delivered to lysosomes in a Golgi-independent manner. Time-lapse live cell imaging revealed early formation and uptake of GFP-tagged Mut-PrP aggregates into LysoTracker labeled vesicles. Compared with Wt-PrP, Mut-PrP expression was associated with an elevation in several markers of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, and it extensively colocalized with the autophagosome-specific marker, LC3B. In autophagy deficient (ATG5−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, or in normal cells treated with the autophagy-inhibitor 3-MA, Mut-PrP colocalization with lysosomes was reduced to a similar extent. Additionally, 3-MA selectively impaired the degradation of insoluble Mut-PrP, resulting in an increase in protease-resistant PrP, whereas the induction of autophagy by rapamycin reduced it. These findings suggest that autophagy might function as a quality control mechanism to limit the accumulation of misfolded PrP that normally leads to the generation of PrPSc. PMID:24454378

  11. Report focuses on improving resilience to disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    “Disaster resilience is everyone's business,” states a new report that calls for a series of local and national measures to increase resilience in the face of an increasingly costly toll from natural disasters to human lives and the economy. In 2011 natural disasters were responsible for damages in the United States exceeding $55 billion, and costs could increase with more people and structures located in harm's way and with the effects of extreme events, according to the report, Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, issued by a committee of the U.S. National Academies on 1 August. Among the recommendations is for federal government agencies to incorporate national resilience as an organizing principle to guide federal government actions and programs. The report defines resilience as “the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events.”

  12. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social-ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

  13. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  14. Challenges of Climate Change: Resilience Efforts in Rural Communities of Kaliwlingi Village based on Pengembangan Kawasan Pesisir Tangguh (PKPT Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustovia Azahro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaliwlingi Village in Brebes City has experienced climate change impacts such as tidal flood and land abrasion. The climate change causes the dynamics of the coast and sea levels dramatically and fosters the coastal communities to have adaptation strategies. This paper aims to identify how the community of Kaliwlingi Village adapts to the climate change that affects to a social economic condition of the inhabitants. The study used qualitative method by interpreting data taken from PengembanganKawasanPesisirTangguh (PKPT program, interviews, and observations.The study highlights that PKPT program has a significant impact, especially regarding disaster mitigation. PKPT program is successful in collecting the common rules of the community to become social capital accommodated in the local institution. Furthermore, the PKPT Program is also fostering the local economy.

  15. Successful treatment of radiation retinopathy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in a patient of orbital MALT lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Makoto; Kadoya, Kouji

    2012-01-01

    Report a case of satisfactory progress radiation retinopathy after radiation for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A 26-year-old male patient, referred to our department for lacrimal sac tumor. Biopsy was done by otolaryngology and radiation therapy was performed (total irradiation of 41.4 Gy) as pathological examination revealed MALT lymphoma. Soft exudates and macula edema appeared in posterior pole of the right fundus after radiotherapy. Right vision became 0.5 because of macula edema, and panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) was performed. After PRP, macula edema withdrew and right vision improved to 1.2. It is suggested that the fundus must be monitored after radiation therapy, and early treatment, such as PRP is effective in radiation retinopathy. (author)

  16. Characterization of PhPRP1, a histidine domain arabinogalactan protein from Petunia hybrida pistils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Megan C; Brooks, Jenna K; Corey, Jillaine M; Singh-Cundy, Anu

    2013-10-15

    An arabinogalactan protein, PhPRP1, was purified from Petunia hybrida pistils and shown to be orthologous to TTS-1 and TTS-2 from Nicotiana tabacum and NaTTS from Nicotiana alata. Sequence comparisons among these proteins, and CaPRP1 from Capsicum annuum, reveal a conserved histidine-rich domain and two hypervariable domains. Immunoblots show that TTS-1 and PhPRP1 are also expressed in vegetative tissues of tobacco and petunia respectively. In contrast to the molecular mass heterogeneity displayed by the pistil proteins, the different isoforms found in seedlings, roots, and leaves each has a discrete size (37, 80, 160, and 200 kDa) on SDS-PAGE gels. On the basis of their chemistry, distinctive domain architecture, and the unique pattern of expression, we have named this group of proteins HD-AGPs (histidine domain-arabinogalactan proteins). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Transmission Properties of Human PrP 102L Prions Challenge the Relevance of Mouse Models of GSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Emmanuel A; Grimshaw, Andrew; Smidak, Michelle; Jakubcova, Tatiana; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jeelani, Asif; Hamdan, Shyma; Powell, Caroline; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2015-07-01

    Inherited prion disease (IPD) is caused by autosomal-dominant pathogenic mutations in the human prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP). A proline to leucine substitution at PrP residue 102 (P102L) is classically associated with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease but shows marked clinical and neuropathological variability within kindreds that may be caused by variable propagation of distinct prion strains generated from either PrP 102L or wild type PrP. To-date the transmission properties of prions propagated in P102L patients remain ill-defined. Multiple mouse models of GSS have focused on mutating the corresponding residue of murine PrP (P101L), however murine PrP 101L, a novel PrP primary structure, may not have the repertoire of pathogenic prion conformations necessary to accurately model the human disease. Here we describe the transmission properties of prions generated in human PrP 102L expressing transgenic mice that were generated after primary challenge with ex vivo human GSS P102L or classical CJD prions. We show that distinct strains of prions were generated in these mice dependent upon source of the inoculum (either GSS P102L or CJD brain) and have designated these GSS-102L and CJD-102L prions, respectively. GSS-102L prions have transmission properties distinct from all prion strains seen in sporadic and acquired human prion disease. Significantly, GSS-102L prions appear incapable of transmitting disease to conventional mice expressing wild type mouse PrP, which contrasts strikingly with the reported transmission properties of prions generated in GSS P102L-challenged mice expressing mouse PrP 101L. We conclude that future transgenic modeling of IPDs should focus exclusively on expression of mutant human PrP, as other approaches may generate novel experimental prion strains that are unrelated to human disease.

  18. Collaboration in Action: Working with Indigenous peoples and Tribal communities to navigate climate decision support organizations and programs to assist Tribal communities in addressing climate resilience and sustainability efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Creating opportunities and appropriate spaces with Tribal communities to engage with western scientists on climate resiliency is a complex endeavor. The shifting of seasons predicted by climate models and the resulting impacts that climate scientists investigate often verify what Traditional knowledge has already revealed to Indigenous peoples as they continue to live on, manage, and care for the environment they have been a part of for thousands of years. However, this convergence of two ways of knowing about our human environmental relationships is often difficult to navigate because of the ongoing impacts of colonialism and the disadvantage that Tribes operate from as a result. Day to day priorities of the Tribe are therefore reflective of more immediate issues rather than specifically considering the uncertainties of climate change. The College of Menominee Nation Sustainable Development Institute has developed a climate resilience program aimed at combining western science methodologies with indigenous ways of knowing as a means to assist Tribes in building capacity to address climate and community resiliency through culturally appropriate activities led by the Tribes. The efforts of the Institute, as guided by the SDI theoretical model of sustainability, have resulted in a variety of research, education and outreach projects that have provided not only the Menominee community, but other Tribal communities with opportunities to address climate resiliency as they see fit.

  19. Developing the resilience typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in resilience in internal crisis management and crisis communication. How an organization can build up resilience as a response to organisational crisis, at a time when the amount of crises seem only to increase, is more relevant than ever before. Nevertheless resilience...... is often perceived in the literature as something certain organisations have by definition, without further reflection on what it is that creates this resiliency. This article explores what it is that creates organisational resilience, and in view of the different understandings of the resilience...... phenomenon, develops a typology of resilience. Furthermore the resilience phenomenon is discussed against the definition of a crisis as a cosmological episode, and implications for future research is discussed and summarized....

  20. Resilience Training for Healthcare Staff (RTHS) Implementation Evaluation Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    healthcare, Master Resilience Training, MRT, MTF, medical treatment facility, program evaluation , implementation evaluation , OPORD 14-43, resilience...RTHS-certified Master Resilience Trainers (MRTs) among 73 MRTs whose status was confirmed. Seventy-one percent (n = 52) of these MRTs were fulfilling...Healthcare Staff (RTHS) Implementation Evaluation Phase 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Start, Amanda

  1. Effect of Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in Skin with Intrinsic Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-de-Sá, Luiz; Gontijo-de-Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Borojevic, Radovan; Benati, Donatella; Bernardi, Paolo; Sbarbati, Andrea; Rigotti, Gino

    2018-02-15

    In previous papers, we demonstrated that the treatment of human photoaged skin with stromal-vascular fraction-enriched fat or expanded adipose-derived stem cells showed a decrease of elastosis and the appearance of new oxytalan elastic fibers in dermis and an increase in the vascular network. The utilization of fat plus platelet-rich plasma (PRP) led to an increase in the vascular permeability and reactivity of the nervous component. The purpose of this study was to analyze the histologic and ultrastructural changes of human skin after the injection of only PRP in the retroauricular area that was not exposed to sun and did not present the photoaging process, in comparison with our previous results. This study was performed in 13 patients who were candidates for facelift and whose ages ranged between 45 and 65 years. The PRP injection was performed in the mastoidea area. Fragments of skin were removed before and 3 months after treatment and analyzed by optical and electron microscopy. After the injection of PRP, we observed an increase of reticular dermis thickness because of the deposition of elastic fibers and collagen, with a fibrotic aspect. A modified pattern of adipose tissue was also found at the dermohypodermal junction. Significative regenerative aspects were not found at histologic and ultrastructural analysis. The presence of foci of moderate inflammation and microangiopathy were observed. Treatment with PRP increased reticular dermis thickness with a fibrotic aspect. In the long term, the presence of inflammation and microangiopathy caused by PRP injection could lead to trophic alteration of the skin and the precocious aging process. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Genetic human prion disease modelled in PrP transgenic Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alana M; Cardova, Alzbeta; Wolf, Hanna; Pradl, Lydia; Vorberg, Ina; Jackson, Walker S; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2017-09-20

    Inherited human prion diseases, such as fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), are associated with autosomal dominant mutations in the human prion protein gene PRNP and accumulation of PrP Sc , an abnormal isomer of the normal host protein PrP C , in the brain of affected individuals. PrP Sc is the principal component of the transmissible neurotoxic prion agent. It is important to identify molecular pathways and cellular processes that regulate prion formation and prion-induced neurotoxicity. This will allow identification of possible therapeutic interventions for individuals with, or at risk from, genetic human prion disease. Increasingly, Drosophila has been used to model human neurodegenerative disease. An important unanswered question is whether genetic prion disease with concomitant spontaneous prion formation can be modelled in Drosophila We have used pUAST/PhiC31-mediated site-directed mutagenesis to generate Drosophila transgenic for murine or hamster PrP (prion protein) that carry single-codon mutations associated with genetic human prion disease. Mouse or hamster PrP harbouring an FFI (D178N) or fCJD (E200K) mutation showed mild Proteinase K resistance when expressed in Drosophila Adult Drosophila transgenic for FFI or fCJD variants of mouse or hamster PrP displayed a spontaneous decline in locomotor ability that increased in severity as the flies aged. Significantly, this mutant PrP-mediated neurotoxic fly phenotype was transferable to recipient Drosophila that expressed the wild-type form of the transgene. Collectively, our novel data are indicative of the spontaneous formation of a PrP-dependent neurotoxic phenotype in FFI- or CJD-PrP transgenic Drosophila and show that inherited human prion disease can be modelled in this invertebrate host. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Recombinant PrP and Its Contribution to Research on Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charco, Jorge M; Eraña, Hasier; Venegas, Vanessa; García-Martínez, Sandra; López-Moreno, Rafael; González-Miranda, Ezequiel; Pérez-Castro, Miguel Ángel; Castilla, Joaquín

    2017-12-14

    The misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) into the disease-associated isoform (PrP Sc ) and its accumulation as amyloid fibrils in the central nervous system is one of the central events in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Due to the proteinaceous nature of the causal agent the molecular mechanisms of misfolding, interspecies transmission, neurotoxicity and strain phenomenon remain mostly ill-defined or unknown. Significant advances were made using in vivo and in cellula models, but the limitations of these, primarily due to their inherent complexity and the small amounts of PrP Sc that can be obtained, gave rise to the necessity of new model systems. The production of recombinant PrP using E. coli and subsequent induction of misfolding to the aberrant isoform using different techniques paved the way for the development of cell-free systems that complement the previous models. The generation of the first infectious recombinant prion proteins with identical properties of brain-derived PrP Sc increased the value of cell-free systems for research on TSEs. The versatility and ease of implementation of these models have made them invaluable for the study of the molecular mechanisms of prion formation and propagation, and have enabled improvements in diagnosis, high-throughput screening of putative anti-prion compounds and the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we provide an overview of the resultant advances in the prion field due to the development of recombinant PrP and its use in cell-free systems.

  4. Distribution, recovery and concentration of platelets and leukocytes in L-PRP prepared by centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Bruna Alice Gomes; Martins Shimojo, Andréa Arruda; Marcelino Perez, Amanda Gomes; Duarte Lana, José Fabio Santos; Andrade Santana, Maria Helena

    2018-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product prepared from whole blood (WB) that is widely used in regenerative medicine. In clinical practice, discontinuous centrifugation is used for both hand- and machine-prepared PRP. However, separation of WB fractions via centrifugation is a complex process, and the lack of clear mechanisms limits the understanding and evaluation of PRP preparation methods This paper focuses on the distribution, recovery and concentration factor of platelets and leukocytes in L-PRP (leukocyte and platelet-rich plasma) to define a concentration pattern for these blood components due to centrifugation conditions. WB collected from three healthy donors was centrifuged for 10min at 50-800 xg in a first step and then at 400 xg in a second step. The results from the first centrifugation step showed most platelets to be distributed in the upper layer (UL) and the buffy coat (BC), with approximately 14.5±5.2% retained in the bottom layer (BL). Most leukocytes were present in the BL. The greatest platelet recoveries from L-PRP were obtained at up to 150 xg (88.5±16.9%). The cumulative concentration factors with respect to the WB from the second centrifugation step were 6 and 1.2 for platelets and leukocytes, respectively. Thus, the concentration patterns delineated three centrifugation ranges with platelet/leukocyte ratios of 205±18, 325±15 and 107±4 and lymphocyte/granulocyte ratios of 1.54±0.74, 0.90±0.08 and 0.42±0.07. These findings contribute to a scientifically based standardization of L-PRP preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rewarding Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffins, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how the Ron Brown Scholars program has helped many students of color persist and fit in at elite institutions. Established in 1996 to honor the memory of Ron Brown, the first Black Secretary of Commerce who died in a 1996 military plane crash in Croatia while on a trade mission to Europe, the program each year awards $40,000…

  6. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  7. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  8. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  9. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  10. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  11. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  12. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  13. Superfund TIO videos. Set B. Basics of administrative law, and prp search process: PRP search, information exchange and access. Part 3. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The videotape is divided into two sections. Section 1 identifies the various types of administrative hearings, including quasi-legislative, quasi-judicial, and hybrid types. Section 2 provides an overview of the PRP search process; explains how and when to issue Section 104(e) letters and administrative subpoenas; outlines the enforcement authorities available in cases of non-compliance; and describes the types of information that can be released to PRPs

  14. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  15. Can platelet-rich plasma (PRP) improve bone healing? A comparison between the theory and experimental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Angad; Pelletier, Matthew H; Yu, Yan; Walsh, William R

    2013-02-01

    The increased concentration of platelets within platelet-rich plasma (PRP) provides a vehicle to deliver supra-physiologic concentrations of growth factors to an injury site, possibly accelerating or otherwise improving connective tissue regeneration. This potential benefit has led to the application of PRP in several applications; however, inconsistent results have limited widespread adoption in bone healing. This review provides a core understanding of the bone healing mechanisms, and corresponds this to the factors present in PRP. In addition, the current state of the art of PRP preparation, the key aspects that may influence its effectiveness, and treatment outcomes as they relate specifically to bone defect healing are presented. Although PRP does have a sound scientific basis, its use for bone healing appears only beneficial when used in combination with osteoconductive scaffolds; however, neither allograft nor autograft appear to be appropriate carriers. Aggressive processing techniques and very high concentrations of PRP may not improve healing outcomes. Moreover, many other variables exist in PRP preparation and use that influence its efficacy; the effect of these variables should be understood when considering PRP use. This review includes the essentials of what has been established, what is currently missing in the literature, and recommendations for future directions.

  16. Fostering resilience in National Guard and Reserve families: A contextual adaptation of an evidence-based parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila; Zhang, Na; Gewirtz, Abigail H

    2017-01-01

    Military deployment of a parent is a risk factor for children's internalizing and externalizing problems. This risk may be heightened in National Guard and Reserve (NG/R) families who tend to be isolated from other NG/R families and do not benefit from the centralized support system available to active duty families living on military bases. Isolation and trauma-related disorders may complicate the adjustment of military families during reintegration. An evidence-based parent training intervention was modified to meet the unique needs of recently deployed NG/R parents and their spouses, and the modified program was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. The current study examines engagement and satisfaction with the program. Modifications such as employment of military-connected facilitators sought to maximize engagement in and satisfaction with the program. Engagement and satisfaction were examined between mothers and fathers, as well as between groups led by a military-connected facilitator and those led by civilian facilitators. Significantly greater engagement was noted for groups that were led by a military-connected facilitator (p = .01). There were no differences between genders in attendance rates, though greater positive group experiences were reported by mothers versus fathers (p = .01). Results are discussed in the context of engagement and satisfaction reported for similar programs. Implications for working with military families are also considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Fiscal and Operational Impacts of Standardizing US Military Resiliency Programs to Minimize Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    symptoms—which can often lead to substance abuse . Negative thoughts—another result of PTSD—can lead to irrita- bility, depression, and suicide .2...separate programs aimed at decreasing the rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and suicide . The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the current...experience PTSD also are susceptible to other de- structive behaviors such as self-medication—the use of drugs and/or al- cohol to alleviate PTSD

  18. A comparison between platelet-rich plasma (PRP and hyaluronate acid on the healing of cartilage defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Liu

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has offered great promise for the treatment of cartilage degradation, and has been proved to have positive effects on the restoration of cartilage lesions. But no comparative work has been done between PRP and hyaluronate acid (HA concerning their restoring effect on cartilage defect, especially by means of animal experiments and histologic assessments. The purpose of the study was to compare the therapeutic effects of P-PRP and HA on osteoarthritis in rabbit knees. Thirty rabbits were used to establish the animal models by creating a cartilage defect of 5 mm in diameter on the condyles of the femurs, and were randomly divided into three groups: the P-PRP group, HA group and the control group. Then each group was treated with P-PRP, HA or saline solution, respectively. Six and twelve weeks later the rabbits were sacrificed and the samples were collected. The platelet number, the concentrations of growth factors of P-PRP and whole blood, and the IL-1β concentration in the joint fluid were investigated, and the histological assessment of the cartilage were performed according to Mankin's scoring system. Micro-CT was also used to evaluate the restoration of subchondral bone. The platelet concentration in P-PRP is 6.8 fold of that in the whole blood. The IL-1β level in the P-PRP group was lower than in the HA group (p<0.01 and in the control group (p<0.01. The restoration of the defected cartilage as well as the subchondral bone was better in the P-PRP group than in the HA group or the control group (P<0.05. Our data showed that P-PRP is better than HA in promoting the restoration of the cartilage and alleviating the arthritis caused by cartilage damage.

  19. Splicing Factor Prp8 Interacts With NES(AR) and Regulates Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Nguyen, Minh M; Masoodi, Khalid Z; Singh, Prabhpreet; Jing, Yifeng; O'Malley, Katherine; Dar, Javid A; Dhir, Rajiv; Wang, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a pivotal role in the development of primary as well as advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. Previous work in our lab identified a novel nuclear export signal (NES) (NES(AR)) in AR ligand-binding domain essential for AR nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. By characterizing the localization of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged NES(AR), we designed and executed a yeast mutagenesis screen and isolated 7 yeast mutants that failed to display the NES(AR) export function. One of those mutants was identified as the splicing factor pre-mRNA processing factor 8 (Prp8). We further showed that Prp8 could regulate NES(AR) function using short hairpin RNA knockdown of Prp8 coupled with a rapamycin export assay in mammalian cells and knockdown of Prp8 could induce nuclear accumulation of GFP-tagged AR in PC3 cells. Prp8 expression was decreased in castration-resistant LuCaP35 xenograft tumors as compared with androgen-sensitive xenografts. Laser capture microdissection and quantitative PCR showed Prp8 mRNA levels were decreased in human prostate cancer specimens with high Gleason scores. In prostate cancer cells, coimmunoprecipitation and deletion mutagenesis revealed a physical interaction between Prp8 and AR mainly mediated by NES(AR). Luciferase assay with prostate specific antigen promoter-driven reporter demonstrated that Prp8 regulated AR transcription activity in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, Prp8 knockdown also increased polyubiquitination of endogenous AR. This may be 1 possible mechanism by which it modulates AR activity. These results show that Prp8 is a novel AR cofactor that interacts with NES(AR) and regulates AR function in prostate cancer cells.

  20. Ionic mechanisms of action of prion protein fragment PrP(106-126) in rat basal forebrain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alier, Kwai; Li, Zongming; Mactavish, David; Westaway, David; Jhamandas, Jack H

    2010-08-01

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by the presence of the misfolded prion protein (PrP). Neurotoxicity in these diseases may result from prion-induced modulation of ion channel function, changes in neuronal excitability, and consequent disruption of cellular homeostasis. We therefore examined PrP effects on a suite of potassium (K(+)) conductances that govern excitability of basal forebrain neurons. Our study examined the effects of a PrP fragment [PrP(106-126), 50 nM] on rat neurons using the patch clamp technique. In this paradigm, PrP(106-126) peptide, but not the "scrambled" sequence of PrP(106-126), evoked a reduction of whole-cell outward currents in a voltage range between -30 and +30 mV. Reduction of whole-cell outward currents was significantly attenuated in Ca(2+)-free external media and also in the presence of iberiotoxin, a blocker of calcium-activated potassium conductance. PrP(106-126) application also evoked a depression of the delayed rectifier (I(K)) and transient outward (I(A)) potassium currents. By using single cell RT-PCR, we identified the presence of two neuronal chemical phenotypes, GABAergic and cholinergic, in cells from which we recorded. Furthermore, cholinergic and GABAergic neurons were shown to express K(v)4.2 channels. Our data establish that the central region of PrP, defined by the PrP(106-126) peptide used at nanomolar concentrations, induces a reduction of specific K(+) channel conductances in basal forebrain neurons. These findings suggest novel links between PrP signalling partners inferred from genetic experiments, K(+) channels, and PrP-mediated neurotoxicity.

  1. In vitro study of the role of thrombin in platelet rich plasma (PRP) preparation: utility for gel formation and impact in growth factors release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephany Cares; Cunha Júnior, José Luiz Rosenberis; Montalvão, Silmara; da Silva, Letícia Queiroz; Paffaro, Aline Urban; da Silva, Francesca Aparecida Ramos; Rodrigues, Bruno Lima; Lana, José Fabio Santos Duarte; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria

    2016-01-01

    The use of PRP has been studied for different fields, with promising results in regenerative medicine. Until now, there is no study in the literature evaluating thrombin levels in serum, used as autologous thrombin preparation. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the role played by different thrombin concentrations in PRP and the impact in the release of growth factors. Also, different activators for PRP gel formation were evaluated. Thrombin levels were measured in different autologous preparations: serum, L-PRP (PRP rich in leukocytes) and T-PRP (thrombin produced through PRP added calcium gluconate). L-PRP was prepared according to the literature, with platelets and leukocytes being quantified. The effect of autologous thrombin associated or not with calcium in PRP gel was determined by measuring the time of gel formation. The relationship between thrombin concentration and release of growth factors was determined by growth factors (PDGF-AA, VEGF and EGF) multiplex analysis. A similar concentration of thrombin was observed in serum, L-PRP and T-PRP (8.13 nM, 8.63 nM and 7.56 nM, respectively) with a high variation between individuals (CV%: 35.07, 43 and 58.42, respectively). T-PRP and serum with calcium chloride showed similar results in time to promote gel formation. The increase of thrombin concentrations (2.66, 8 and 24 nM) did not promote an increase in growth factor release. The technique of using serum as a thrombin source proved to be the most efficient and reproducible for promoting PRP gel formation, with some advantages when compared to other activation methods, as this technique is easier and quicker with no need of consuming part of PRP. Noteworthy, PRP activation using different thrombin concentrations did not promote a higher release of growth factors, appearing not to be necessary when PRP is used as a suspension.

  2. Exceptions to the PRP Effect? A Comparison of Prepared and Unconditioned Reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczyk, Markus; Pfister, Roland; Wallmeier, Gloria; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Psychological research has documented again and again marked performance decrements whenever humans perform 2 or more tasks at the same time. In fact, the available evidence seems to suggest that any type of behavior is subject to such limitations. The present experiments employed the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm to identify a…

  3. No effects of PRP on ultrasonographic tendon structure and neovascularisation in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, R. J.; Weir, A.; Tol, J. L.; Verhaar, J. A. N.; Weinans, H.; van Schie, H. T. M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection leads to an enhanced tendon structure and neovascularisation, measured with ultrasonographic techniques, in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sports medical department of The

  4. Acetylcholinesterase triggers the aggregation of PrP 106-126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pera, M.; Roman, S.; Ratia, M.; Camps, P.; Munoz-Torrero, D.; Colombo, L.; Manzoni, C.; Salmona, M.; Badia, A.; Clos, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a senile plaque component, promotes amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) fibril formation in vitro. The presence of prion protein (PrP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) senile plaques prompted us to assess if AChE could trigger the PrP peptides aggregation as well. Consequently, the efficacy of AChE on the PrP peptide spanning-residues 106-126 aggregation containing a coumarin fluorescence probe (coumarin-PrP 106-126) was studied. Kinetics of coumarin-PrP 106-126 aggregation showed a significant increase of maximum size of aggregates (MSA), which was dependent on AChE concentration. AChE-PrP 106-126 aggregates showed the tinctorial and optical amyloid properties as determined by polarized light and electronic microscopy analysis. A remarkable inhibition of MSA was obtained with propidium iodide, suggesting that AChE triggers PrP 106-126 and Aβ aggregation through a similar mechanism. Huprines (AChE inhibitors) also significantly decreased MSA induced by AChE as well, unveiling the potential interest for some AChE inhibitors as a novel class of potential anti-prion drugs

  5. High-risk adolescent girls, resiliency and a ropes course | Bloemhoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... of an outdoor adventure-based recreation programme (ropes course) on the resiliency of ... potential benefits of adventure-based recreation programming in developing resiliency in ...

  6. Determination of resilient modulus values for typical plastic soils in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The objectives of this research are to establish a resilient modulus test results database and to develop : correlations for estimating the resilient modulus of Wisconsin fine-grained soils from basic soil properties. A : laboratory testing program ...

  7. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects. PMID:25904890

  8. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  9. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Psychological Refractory Period (PRP paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and 2 are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e. decreasing SOAs do not increase RTs and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/ or error rates in Task 1. This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  10. From academic to applied: Operationalising resilience in river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Melissa; Thoms, Martin C.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of resilience acknowledges the ability of societies to live and develop with dynamic environments. Given the recognition of the need to prepare for anticipated and unanticipated shocks, applications of resilience are increasing as the guiding principle of public policy and programs in areas such as disaster management, urban planning, natural resource management, and climate change adaptation. River science is an area in which the adoption of resilience is increasing, leading to the proposition that resilience may become a guiding principle of river policy and programs. Debate about the role of resilience in rivers is part of the scientific method, but disciplinary disunity about the ways to approach resilience application in policy and programs may leave river science out of the policy process. We propose six elements that need to be considered in the design and implementation of resilience-based river policy and programs: rivers as social-ecological systems; the science-policy interface; principles, capacities, and characteristics of resilience; cogeneration of knowledge; adaptive management; and the state of the science of resilience.

  11. Rights for resilience: food sovereignty, power, and resilience in development practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marygold Walsh-Dilley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Even as resilience thinking becomes evermore popular as part of strategic programming among development and humanitarian organizations, uncertainty about how to define, operationalize, measure, and evaluate resilience for development goals prevails. As a result, many organizations and institutions have undertaken individual, collective, and simultaneous efforts toward clarification and definition. This has opened up a unique opportunity for a rethinking of development practices. The emergent consensus about what resilience means within development practice will have important consequences both for development practitioners and the communities in which they work. Incorporating resilience thinking into development practice has the potential to radically transform this arena in favor of social and environmental justice, but it could also flounder as a way to dress old ideas in new clothes or, at worst, to further exploit, disempower, and marginalize the world's most vulnerable populations. We seek to make an intervention into the definitional debates surrounding resilience that supports the former and helps prevent the latter. We argue that resilience thinking as it has been developed in social-ecological systems and allied literatures has a lot in common with the concept of food sovereignty and that paying attention to some of the lessons and claims of food sovereignty movements could contribute toward building a consensus around resilience that supports social and environmental justice. In particular, the food sovereignty movement relies on a strategy that elevates rights. We suggest that a rights-based approach to resilience-oriented development practice could contribute to its application in just and equitable ways.

  12. Comparison of the effect of activated or non-activated PRP in various concentrations on osteoblast and fibroblast cell line proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Surena; Yadegari, Zahra; Mohammad-Rahimi, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors which positively affect cell proliferation, cell differentiation, chemotaxis and intracellular matrix synthesis. All these processes are involved in wound healing and tissue regeneration; thus, PRP as a source of growth factors can be used in periodontal regenerative therapies. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of various concentrations of activated and non-activated PRP on proliferation of osteoblasts and fibroblasts in vitro. PRP was obtained from three healthy volunteers. 75, 50, 25, and 10% concentrations of f PRP were prepared by dilution in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. In activated PRP groups, PRP concentrations were activated by adding calcium gluconate. Human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cell line and MG-63 (osteosarcoma) human osteoblast-like cell line were used in the study. The MTT proliferation assay was used to assess the effect of different types of PRP concentrates on proliferation of HGF and MG-63 cells, in 24, 48 and 72 h. After 24, 48, and 72 h, the proliferation rate of both cell lines was higher in the positive control group, except in 72 h in HGF cell lines, that 10% non-activated PRP group and 10 and 25% activated PRP groups has higher proliferation rate than the positive control group, which it was not significant. Proliferation rate in cells with 10% activated PRP was highest among samples containing PRP. The current study failed to show the significant effect of activated or non-activated PRP on proliferation of HGFs or MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. However, our results showed that activated PRP had a greater effect than non-activated PRP.

  13. Effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) concentration on proliferation, neurotrophic function and migration of Schwann cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Canbin; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Xijun; He, Caifeng; Jiang, Li; Quan, Daping; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Zhaowei

    2016-05-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains various growth factors and appears to have the potential to promote peripheral nerve regeneration, but evidence is lacking regarding its biological effect on Schwann cells (SCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of PRP concentration on SCs in order to determine the plausibility of using this plasma-derived therapy for peripheral nerve injury. PRP was obtained from rats by double-step centrifugation and was characterized by determining platelet numbers and growth factor concentrations. Primary cultures of rat SCs were exposed to various concentrations of PRP (40%, 20%, 10%, 5% and 2.5%). Cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry were performed to study to assess SC proliferation. Quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA analysis were performed to determine the ability of PRP to induce SCs to produce nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Microchemotaxis assay was used to analyse the cell migration capacity. The results obtained indicated that the platelet concentration and growth factors in our PRP preparations were significantly higher than in whole blood. Cell culture experiments showed that 2.5-20% PRP significantly stimulated SC proliferation and migration compared to untreated controls in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the expression and secretion of NGF and GDNF were significantly increased. However, the above effects of SCs were suppressed by high PRP concentrations (40%). In conclusion, the appropriate concentration of PRP had the potency to stimulate cell proliferation, induced the synthesis of neurotrophic factors and significantly increased migration of SCs dose-dependently. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification induces the conversion of recombinant prion protein to PrP oligomers causing neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Yang, Lifeng; Chen, Baian; Zhu, Ting; Hassan, Mohammad Farooque; Yin, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiangmei; Zhao, Deming

    2015-06-01

    The formation of neurotoxic prion protein (PrP) oligomers is thought to be a key step in the development of prion diseases. Recently, it was determined that the sonication and shaking of recombinant PrP can convert PrP monomers into β-state oligomers. Herein, we demonstrate that β-state oligomeric PrP can be generated through protein misfolding cyclic amplification from recombinant full-length hamster, human, rabbit, and mutated rabbit PrP, and that these oligomers can be used for subsequent research into the mechanisms of PrP-induced neurotoxicity. We have characterized protein misfolding cyclic amplification-induced monomer-to-oligomer conversion of PrP from three species using western blotting, circular dichroism, size-exclusion chromatography, and resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion. We have further shown that all of the resulting β-oligomers are toxic to primary mouse cortical neurons independent of the presence of PrP(C) in the neurons, whereas the corresponding monomeric PrP were not toxic. In addition, we found that this toxicity is the result of oligomer-induced apoptosis via regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in both wild-type and PrP(-/-) cortical neurons. It is our hope that these results may contribute to our understanding of prion transformation within the brain. We found that β-state oligomeric PrPs can be generated through protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) from recombinant full-length hamster, human, rabbit, and mutated rabbit PrP. β-oligomers are toxic to primary mouse cortical neurons independent of the presence of PrP(C) in the neurons, while the corresponding monomeric PrPs were not toxic. This toxicity is the result of oligomers-induced apoptosis via regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3. These results may contribute to our understanding of prion transformation within the brain. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  16. Na+/K+-ATPase is present in scrapie-associated fibrils, modulates PrP misfolding in vitro and links PrP function and dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Graham

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterised by widespread deposition of fibrillar and/or plaque-like forms of the prion protein. These aggregated forms are produced by misfolding of the normal prion protein, PrP(C, to the disease-associated form, PrP(Sc, through mechanisms that remain elusive but which require either direct or indirect interaction between PrP(C and PrP(Sc isoforms. A wealth of evidence implicates other non-PrP molecules as active participants in the misfolding process, to catalyse and direct the conformational conversion of PrP(C or to provide a scaffold ensuring correct alignment of PrP(C and PrP(Sc during conversion. Such molecules may be specific to different scrapie strains to facilitate differential prion protein misfolding. Since molecular cofactors may become integrated into the growing protein fibril during prion conversion, we have investigated the proteins contained in prion disease-specific deposits by shotgun proteomics of scrapie-associated fibrils (SAF from mice infected with 3 different strains of mouse-passaged scrapie. Concomitant use of negative control preparations allowed us to identify and discount proteins that are enriched non-specifically by the SAF isolation protocol. We found several proteins that co-purified specifically with SAF from infected brains but none of these were reproducibly and demonstrably specific for particular scrapie strains. The α-chain of Na(+/K(+-ATPase was common to SAF from all 3 strains and we tested the ability of this protein to modulate in vitro misfolding of recombinant PrP. Na(+/K(+-ATPase enhanced the efficiency of disease-specific conversion of recombinant PrP suggesting that it may act as a molecular cofactor. Consistent with previous results, the same protein inhibited fibrillisation kinetics of recombinant PrP. Since functional interactions between PrP(C and Na(+/K(+-ATPase have previously been reported in astrocytes, our data highlight this molecule as

  17. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE

    2015-01-01

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  18. Interaction between Shadoo and PrP Affects the PrP-Folding Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Danica; Richard, Charles-Adrien; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Sibille, Pierre; Daude, Nathalie; Westaway, David; Adrover, Miguel; Béringue, Vincent; Martin, Davy; Rezaei, Human

    2015-06-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by conformational changes of a cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a β-sheet-enriched and aggregated conformer (PrP(Sc)). Shadoo (Sho), a member of the prion protein family, is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and is highly conserved among vertebrates. On the basis of histoanatomical colocalization and sequence similarities, it is suspected that Sho and PrP may be functionally related. The downregulation of Sho expression during prion pathology and the direct interaction between Sho and PrP, as revealed by two-hybrid analysis, suggest a relationship between Sho and prion replication. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that Sho forms a 1:1 complex with full-length PrP with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range, and this interaction consequently modifies the PrP-folding pathway. Using a truncated PrP that mimics the C-terminal C1 fragment, an allosteric binding behavior with a Hill number of 4 was observed, suggesting that at least a tetramerization state occurs. A cell-based prion titration assay performed with different concentrations of Sho revealed an increase in the PrP(Sc) conversion rate in the presence of Sho. Collectively, our observations suggest that Sho can affect the prion replication process by (i) acting as a holdase and (ii) interfering with the dominant-negative inhibitor effect of the C1 fragment. Since the inception of the prion theory, the search for a cofactor involved in the conversion process has been an active field of research. Although the PrP interactome presents a broad landscape, candidates corresponding to specific criteria for cofactors are currently missing. Here, we describe for the first time that Sho can affect PrP structural dynamics and therefore increase the prion conversion rate. A biochemical characterization of Sho-PrP indicates that Sho acts as an ATP-independent holdase. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  19. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC): Linking Climate Literacy, Resilience Thinking and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and

  20. Tendinopathies and platelet-rich plasma (PRP: from pre-clinical experiments to therapeutic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaux JF

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to platelet-rich plasma applied to tendinous lesions. Materials and method: Articles in French and English, published between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014. dealing with PRP and tendons were searched for using the Medline and Scopus data bases. Results: Forty-seven articles were identified which addressed pre-clinical and clinical studies: 27 relating to in vitro and in vivo animal studies and 20 relating to human studies. Of these, five addressed lateral epicondylitis, two addressed rotator cuff tendinopathies, ten dealt with patellar tendinopathies and three looked at Achilles tendinopathies. Conclusions: The majority of pre-clinical studies show that PRP stimulates the tendon's healing process. However, clinical series remain more controversial and level 1, controlled, randomised studies are still needed.

  1. Is PRP useful in alveolar cleft reconstruction? Platelet-rich plasma in secondary alveoloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luaces-Rey, Ramon; Arenaz-Búa, Jorge; Lopez-Cedrún-Cembranos, José-Luis; Herrero-Patiño, Susana; Sironvalle-Soliva, Sheyla; Iglesias-Candal, Emma; Pombo-Castro, María

    2010-07-01

    Cleft lip and palate is a congenital facial malformation with an established treatment protocol. Mixed dentition period is the best moment for correct maxillary bone defect with an alveoloplasty. The aim of this surgical procedure is to facilitate dental eruption, re-establish maxillary arch, close any oro-nasal communication, give support to nasal ala, and in some cases allow dental rehabilitation with osteointegrated implants. Twenty cleft patients who underwent secondary alveoloplasty were included. In 10 of them autogenous bone graft were used and in other 10 autogenous bone and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained from autogenous blood. Bone formation was compared by digital orthopantomography made on immediate post-operatory and 3 and 6 months after the surgery. No significant differences were found between both therapeutic groups on bone regeneration. We do not find justified the use of PRP for alveoloplasty in cleft patients' treatment protocol.

  2. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP for the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus in a premenopausal woman: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Franic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP for the treatment of lichen sclerosus (LS in a 38-year-old premenopausal woman is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically and the symptoms documented using the ICIQ Vaginal Symptoms Questionnaire (ICIQ-VS and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. PRP was prepared from autologous blood using the Regen Cellular Matrix Kit. PRP was administered twice over two months. Histology at follow-up one month after the second administration showed the epidermis was nearly normal and upper dermal cellularity had been restored. The patient was symptom-free and both her ICIQ-VS and her FSFI scores had improved significantly. PRP is a potential new treatment option for LS which needs further assessment in randomized controlled trials. Keywords: Platelet-rich plasma, Vulvar lichen sclerosus, Premenopause, Treatment

  3. SPARCHS: Symbiotic, Polymorphic, Automatic, Resilient, Clean-Slate, Host Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    SPARCHS: SYMBIOTIC , POLYMORPHIC, AUTOMATIC, RESILIENT, CLEAN-SLATE, HOST SECURITY COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2016 FINAL... SYMBIOTIC , POLYMORPHIC, AUTOTOMIC, RESILIENT, CLEAN-SLATE, HOST SECURITY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-10-2-0253 5c. PROGRAM...17 4.2.3 SYMBIOTIC EMBEDDED MACHINES

  4. Using PRP and human amniotic fluid combination for osteogenesis in rabbit socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is used as an adjunct treatment during periodontal grafting surgery because of its capability of enhancing healing process. Amniotic fluid is a rich source of growth factors and hyaluronic acid (HA and a good point to study its properties of wound healing and bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of a combination of amniotic fluid and PRP in rabbit′s dental socket preservation. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 24 healthy male laboratory rabbits (average weight 3,125 ± 185 gr that were randomly allocated into four groups. PRP for the first group, human amniotic fluid (HAF for the second group, a combination of PRP and HAF (PRHA for the third group was used. In the fourth (control group, no biomaterial was used. In each group, half of the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks following surgery and the rest were sacrificed after 8 weeks. Histological analysis of biopsies of the sockets was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software (version 16 and P-value <0.05 was considered significance. Results: All three experimental groups showed positive effect on bone formation in terms of area of trabecular bone and number of osteocytes and also vessel formation. Socket preservation using HAF and PRHA showed the highest impact on bone formation. Socket preservation using HAF also had the highest impact on vessel formation. Conclusion: PRHA and HAF appear to be useful for enhancing bone formation. Since there was no difference between HAF and PRHA, it seems beneficial to use HAF due to its simplicity of application.

  5. Oxidation of Helix-3 methionines precedes the formation of PK resistant PrP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Canello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available While elucidating the peculiar epitope of the alpha-PrP mAb IPC2, we found that PrPSc exhibits the sulfoxidation of residue M213 as a covalent signature. Subsequent computational analysis predicted that the presence of sulfoxide groups at both Met residues 206 and 213 destabilize the alpha-fold, suggesting oxidation may facilitate the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc. To further study the effect of oxidation on prion formation, we generated pAbs to linear PrP peptides encompassing the Helix-3 region, as opposed to the non-linear complexed epitope of IPC2. We now show that pAbs, whose epitopes comprise Met residues, readily detected PrPC, but could not recognize most PrPSc bands unless they were vigorously reduced. Next, we showed that the alpha-Met pAbs did not recognize newly formed PrPSc, as is the case for the PK resistant PrP present in lines of prion infected cells. In addition, these reagents did not detect intermediate forms such as PK sensitive and partially aggregated PrPs present in infected brains. Finally, we show that PrP molecules harboring the pathogenic mutation E200K, which is linked to the most common form of familial CJD, may be spontaneously oxidized. We conclude that the oxidation of methionine residues in Helix-3 represents an early and important event in the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. We believe that further investigation into the mechanism and role of PrP oxidation will be central in finally elucidating the mechanism by which a normal cell protein converts into a pathogenic entity that causes fatal brain degeneration.

  6. Efectividad del PRP en el tratamiento de la artrosis de rodilla: Estudio de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Valverde, Noelia; Fidalgo González, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    La artrosis es una enfermedad degenerativa de elevada prevalencia para la cual, en la actualidad, no hay tratamiento curativo. Una de las localizaciones más frecuentes es la rodilla. La utilización de infiltraciones de plasma rico en plaquetas constituye una alternativa en el tratamiento de esta patología. Objetivo: demostrar la efectividad y la seguridad de las infiltraciones con PRP en el tratamiento de pacientes con artrosis de rodilla. Resultado: este trabajo muestra una...

  7. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in dental and oral surgery: from the wound healing to bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new approach to tissue regeneration and it is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote healing in many procedures in dental and oral surgery, especially in aging patients. PRP derives from the centrifugation of the patient's own blood and it contains growth factors that influence wound healing, thereby playing an important role in tissue repairing mechanisms. The use of PRP in surgical practice could have beneficial outcomes, reducing bleeding and enhancing soft tissue healing and bone regeneration. Studies conducted on humans have yielded promising results regarding the application of PRP to many dental and oral surgical procedures (i.e. tooth extractions, periodontal surgery, implant surgery). The use of PRP has also been proposed in the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) with the aim of enhancing wound healing and bone maturation. The aims of this narrative review are: i) to describe the different uses of PRP in dental surgery (tooth extractions and periodontal surgery) and oral surgery (soft tissues and bone tissue surgery, implant surgery and BRONJ surgery); and ii) to discuss its efficacy, efficiency and risk/benefit ratio. This review suggests that the use of PRP in the alveolar socket after tooth extractions is certainly capable of improving soft tissue healing and positively influencing bone regeneration but the latter effect seems to decrease a few days after the extraction. PRP has produced better results in periodontal therapy in association with other materials than when it is used alone. Promising results have also been obtained in implant surgery, when PRP was used in isolation as a coating material. The combination of necrotic bone curettage and PRP application seem to be encouraging for the treatment of refractory BRONJ, as it has proven successful outcomes with minimal invasivity. Since PRP is free from potential risks for patients, not difficult to obtain and use, it can be employed

  8. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in dental and oral surgery: from the wound healing to bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonino; Licata, Maria E; Polizzi, Bianca; Campisi, Giuseppina

    2013-06-13

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new approach to tissue regeneration and it is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote healing in many procedures in dental and oral surgery, especially in aging patients. PRP derives from the centrifugation of the patient's own blood and it contains growth factors that influence wound healing, thereby playing an important role in tissue repairing mechanisms. The use of PRP in surgical practice could have beneficial outcomes, reducing bleeding and enhancing soft tissue healing and bone regeneration. Studies conducted on humans have yielded promising results regarding the application of PRP to many dental and oral surgical procedures (i.e. tooth extractions, periodontal surgery, implant surgery). The use of PRP has also been proposed in the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) with the aim of enhancing wound healing and bone maturation. The aims of this narrative review are: i) to describe the different uses of PRP in dental surgery (tooth extractions and periodontal surgery) and oral surgery (soft tissues and bone tissue surgery, implant surgery and BRONJ surgery); and ii) to discuss its efficacy, efficiency and risk/benefit ratio. This review suggests that the use of PRP in the alveolar socket after tooth extractions is certainly capable of improving soft tissue healing and positively influencing bone regeneration but the latter effect seems to decrease a few days after the extraction. PRP has produced better results in periodontal therapy in association with other materials than when it is used alone. Promising results have also been obtained in implant surgery, when PRP was used in isolation as a coating material. The combination of necrotic bone curettage and PRP application seem to be encouraging for the treatment of refractory BRONJ, as it has proven successful outcomes with minimal invasivity. Since PRP is free from potential risks for patients, not difficult to obtain and use, it can be employed

  9. The Resilient Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Longhurst, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Brain research opens new frontiers in working with children and youth experiencing conflict in school and community. Blending this knowledge with resilience science offers a roadmap for reclaiming those identified as "at risk." This article applies findings from resilience research and recent brain research to identify strategies for reaching…

  10. How Resilience Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at coping skills that carry people through life and why some have them and others do not. Suggests that resilience is a reflex, a way of facing and understanding the world, and that resilient people and companies face reality with staunchness, make meaning out of hardship, and improvise. (JOW)

  11. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  12. Building Resilience through Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Debra Vande; Van Brockern, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Research on resilience suggests that a sense of humor helps to stress-proof children in conflict. Reports on a workshop for educators and youth workers convened to explore ways humor is being used to foster positive development and resilience with troubled youth. Describes applications of humor front-line professionals report as useful in their…

  13. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  14. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mayssam; Lajeunesse, Daniel; Hilal, George; El Atat, Oula; Haykal, Gaby; Serhal, Rim; Chalhoub, Antonio; Khalil, Charbel; Alaaeddine, Nada

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1-2-3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of PRP and adipose tissue-derived keratinocytes on burn wound healing in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Mansoub, Navid; Gürdal, Mehmet; Karadadaş, Elif; Kabadayi, Hilal; Vatansever, Seda; Ercan, Gulinnaz

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetic burn wounds and ulcers are significant complications of diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of platelet rich-plasma (PRP) and/or keratinocyte-like cells (KLCs) in diabetic thermal wound rat model and to evaluate EGF, FGF-2, TGF-β1, COL1α2, MCP-1 and VEGF-α as wound healing markers at gene expression level. Method: In this study, we used adipose tissue as the source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and differentiated MSCs into KLCs. KLCs were characterized and transferred to the burn areas on the dorsum of streptozotocine (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. We prepared PRP from rat blood and evaluated its effect alone or in combination with KLCs. On 3 rd , 7 th , 10 th and 14 th days after treatment, wound areas were measured and biopsy samples were excised from the wound areas of the KLCs and/or PRP-treated and untreated diabetic rats to analyze gene expression levels of wound healing markers by qPCR. Results: We observed that, wound contraction started earlier in the PRP and/or KLCs-treated groups in comparison to the control group. However, PRP and KLCs when applied in combination showed additive affect in wound healing. In all groups treated with KLCs and/or PRP, the gene expression levels of evaluated growth factors and COL1α2 increased, while MCP-1 levels decreased when compared to the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the most prominent difference in qPCR results belongs to combined PRP and KLCs-treated group. Conclusion: We demonstrated that applying PRP and KLCs in combination has a greater potential for treatment of diabetic burn wounds.

  16. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP for acute muscle injury: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Shariff A Hamid

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute muscle injury is one of the commonest injuries that often result in loss of training and competition time. The best management for muscle injury has not been identified. Sports medicine practitioners used several approaches in attempt to accelerate time to recovery from muscle injury. More recently growing interest focussed on autologous blood product injection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted systematically using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published until December 2012. Controlled trials and controlled laboratory studies comparing different strategies to promote early recovery of muscle injury were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed. RESULTS: There are limited studies on the effects of PRP therapy for muscle injury. Three in vivo laboratory studies and one pilot human study were reviewed. The laboratory studies reported histological evidence on significant acceleration of muscle healing in animals treated with autologous conditioned serum (ACS, platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet rich fibrin matrix (PRFM. A pilot human study found athletes treated with repeated ACS injection recovers significantly faster than retrospective controls. CONCLUSION: Several in vivo laboratory studies suggest beneficial effects of ACS, PRP and PRFM in accelerating muscle recovery. Evidence to suggest similar effects on humans is however limited, as valuable information from robust human controlled trials is still not available at this moment. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with platelet-rich plasma interventions on muscle injury are justified.

  17. Comparison between PRP, PRGF and PRF: lights and shadows in three similar but different protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, S; Cielo, A; Bonanome, L; Rastelli, C; Derla, C; Corpaci, F; Falisi, G

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the modern surgery is to get a low invasiveness and a high rate of clinical healing: in the last years, it has been introduced the concept of a "regenerative surgery", and many techniques has been widely described in the literature. The most used are PRP, PRGF and PRF techniques. Aim of this research is to compare the three protocol of PRP, PRF and PRGF in their essential features, so to suggest to the practitioners the best blood product to use in the regenerative surgery. Among the advantages that shows the PRF, compared to PRP and PRGF, we can cite a greater simplicity of production for the absence of manipulation that leads to a reduced possibility of alteration of the protocol due to an error of the operator. The special texture of the PRF and its biological features shows clearly an interesting surgical versatility and all the characteristics that can support a faster tissues regeneration and high-quality clinical outcomes.

  18. Zoogeomorphology and resilience theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Anzah, Faisal; Goff, Paepin D.; Villa, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Zoogeomorphology, the study of animals as geomorphic agents, has been largely overlooked in the context of resilience theory and biogeomorphic systems. In this paper, examples are provided of the interactions between external landscape disturbances and zoogeomorphological agents. We describe cases in which naturally occurring zoogeomorphological agents occupy a landscape, and examine whether those zoogeomorphic agents provide resilience to a landscape or instead serve as a landscape stress capable of inducing a phase-state shift. Several cases are described whereby the presence of exotic (introduced) zoogeomorphic agents overwhelms a landscape and induce collapse. The impact of climate change on species with zoogeomorphological importance is discussed in the context of resilience of a landscape. We conclude with a summary diagram illustrating the relationships existing between zoogeomorphic impacts and landscape resilience in the context of our case studies, and speculate about the future of the study of zoogeomorphology in the framework of resilience theory.

  19. Intervention studies to foster resilience - A systematic review and proposal for a resilience framework in future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmitorz, A; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Tüscher, O; Kalisch, R; Kubiak, T; Wessa, M; Lieb, K

    2018-02-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the phenomenon that many people are able to adapt to the challenges of life and maintain mental health despite exposure to adversity. This has stimulated research on training programs to foster psychological resilience. We evaluated concepts, methods and designs of 43 randomized controlled trials published between 1979 and 2014 which assessed the efficacy of such training programs and propose standards for future intervention research based on recent developments in the field. We found that concepts, methods and designs in current resilience intervention studies are of limited use to properly assess efficacy of interventions to foster resilience. Major problems are the use of definitions of resilience as trait or a composite of resilience factors, the use of unsuited assessment instruments, and inappropriate study designs. To overcome these challenges, we propose 1) an outcome-oriented definition of resilience, 2) an outcome-oriented assessment of resilience as change in mental health in relation to stressor load, and 3) methodological standards for suitable study designs of future intervention studies. Our proposals may contribute to an improved quality of resilience intervention studies and may stimulate further progress in this growing research field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. In Vitro Studies on the Degradability, Bioactivity, and Cell Differentiation of PRP/AZ31B Mg Alloys Composite Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more methods have been developed to improve the bioactivity of the biodegradable materials in bone tissue regeneration. In present study, we used rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs to evaluate the outcomes of Mg alloys (AZ31B, Magnesium, and Aluminum and Platelet-rich plasma (PRP/Mg alloys on rMSCs biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Water absorption experiments indicated that both bare AZ31B and PRP/AZ31B were capable of absorbing large amounts of water. But the water absorption ratio for PRP/AZ31B was significantly higher than that for bare AZ31B. The degradability experiments implied that both samples degraded at same speed. rMSCs on the surface of AZ31B distributed more and better than those on the AZ31B scaffold. In ALP activity experiment, the activity of rMSCs on the PRP/AZ31B was markedly higher than that on the AZ31B scaffolds on the 7th day and 14th day. qRT-PCR also showed that OPN and OCN were expressed in both samples. OPN and OCN expression in PRP/AZ31B sample were higher than those in bare AZ31B samples. In summary, the in vitro study implied that AZ31B combined with PRP could remarkably improve cell seeding, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.

  1. Impacto de un programa recreativo en la resiliencia de estudiantes de 7° grado de un colegio primario / Impact of a recreational program in the resilience of 7th grade students at elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Enith Romero Barquero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La investigación tuvo como objetivos medir el impacto de un programa recreativo en la promoción de la resiliencia, así como sus dimensiones, según sexo, y determinar si las horas de participación, el número de actividades recreativas y el número de sesiones se relacionaba con los niveles de resiliencia y sus dimensiones. El grupo experimental estuvo conformado por 19 sujetos, con una edad promedio de 12.9 años. Todos cursaban el sétimo grado en un colegio primario de la región de Talca en Chile. El diseño fue cuasiexperimental de grupo control no equivalente preprueba-posprueba. Se utilizó un análisis de varianza mixto de tres vías con medidas repetidas en un factor y correlación parcial. Los resultados permiten observar la ausencia de una interacción significativa (p < .05 entre el grupo por medición por sexo, respecto de la resiliencia y sus dimensiones. Por otro lado, sí se observa interacción significativa (p < .05 entre mediciones por grupo, en la resiliencia y en cuatro dimensiones. El grupo experimental aumentó significativamente el valor de la resiliencia luego de la intervención. Por último, la dimensión redes-modelos se relacionó significativa y negativamente con el número de horas. ABSTRACT : The investigation had the objectives of measuring the impact of a recreational program in the promotion of resilience, as well as its dimensions according to sex, and determine if the hours of participation, the number of recreational activities and the number of sessions was related to the levels of resilience and its dimensions. The experimental group was composed of 19 subjects, with an average age of 12.9. All attended were in seventh grade in an elementary school in the Talca region, Chile. The design was quasi-experimental of a non-equivalent pre-test-posttest control group. We used a mixed variance analysis of three tracks with repeated measures in a factor, and partial correlation. The results allowed us

  2. Evaluation of the Kòts'iìhtła (“We Light the Fire” Project: building resiliency and connections through strengths-based creative arts programming for Indigenous youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Fanian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The creative arts – music, film, visual arts, dance, theatre, spoken word, literature, among others – are gradually being recognised as effective health promotion tools to empower, engage and improve the health and well-being in Indigenous youth communities. Arts-based programming has also had positive impacts in promoting health, mental wellness and resiliency amongst youth. However, often times the impacts and successes of such programming are not formally reported on, as reflected by the paucity of evaluations and reports in the literature. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate a creative arts workshop for Tłįchǫ youth where youth explored critical community issues and found solutions together using the arts. We sought to identify the workshop’s areas of success and challenge. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a community-led, youth-driven model to strengthen resiliency through youth engagement in the arts in circumpolar regions. Design: Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted observational field notes, focus groups, questionnaires, and reflective practice to evaluate the workshop. Four youth and five facilitators participated in this process overall. Results: Youth reported gaining confidence and new skills, both artistic and personal. Many youth found the workshop to be engaging, enjoyable and culturally relevant. Youth expressed an interest in continuing their involvement with the arts and spreading their messages through art to other youth and others in their communities. Conclusions: Engagement and participation in the arts have the potential to build resiliency, form relationships, and stimulate discussions for community change amongst youth living in the North.

  3. Evaluation of the Kòts'iìhtła ("We Light the Fire") Project: building resiliency and connections through strengths-based creative arts programming for Indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanian, Sahar; Young, Stephanie K; Mantla, Mason; Daniels, Anita; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The creative arts - music, film, visual arts, dance, theatre, spoken word, literature, among others - are gradually being recognised as effective health promotion tools to empower, engage and improve the health and well-being in Indigenous youth communities. Arts-based programming has also had positive impacts in promoting health, mental wellness and resiliency amongst youth. However, often times the impacts and successes of such programming are not formally reported on, as reflected by the paucity of evaluations and reports in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate a creative arts workshop for Tłįchǫ youth where youth explored critical community issues and found solutions together using the arts. We sought to identify the workshop's areas of success and challenge. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a community-led, youth-driven model to strengthen resiliency through youth engagement in the arts in circumpolar regions. Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted observational field notes, focus groups, questionnaires, and reflective practice to evaluate the workshop. Four youth and five facilitators participated in this process overall. Youth reported gaining confidence and new skills, both artistic and personal. Many youth found the workshop to be engaging, enjoyable and culturally relevant. Youth expressed an interest in continuing their involvement with the arts and spreading their messages through art to other youth and others in their communities. Engagement and participation in the arts have the potential to build resiliency, form relationships, and stimulate discussions for community change amongst youth living in the North.

  4. Evaluation of the K[Formula: see text]ts'iìhtła ("We Light the Fire") Project: building resiliency and connections through strengths-based creative arts programming for Indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanian, Sahar; Young, Stephanie K; Mantla, Mason; Daniels, Anita; Chatwood, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background The creative arts - music, film, visual arts, dance, theatre, spoken word, literature, among others - are gradually being recognised as effective health promotion tools to empower, engage and improve the health and well-being in Indigenous youth communities. Arts-based programming has also had positive impacts in promoting health, mental wellness and resiliency amongst youth. However, often times the impacts and successes of such programming are not formally reported on, as reflected by the paucity of evaluations and reports in the literature. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate a creative arts workshop for Tłįchǫ youth where youth explored critical community issues and found solutions together using the arts. We sought to identify the workshop's areas of success and challenge. Ultimately, our goal is to develop a community-led, youth-driven model to strengthen resiliency through youth engagement in the arts in circumpolar regions. Design Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted observational field notes, focus groups, questionnaires, and reflective practice to evaluate the workshop. Four youth and five facilitators participated in this process overall. Results Youth reported gaining confidence and new skills, both artistic and personal. Many youth found the workshop to be engaging, enjoyable and culturally relevant. Youth expressed an interest in continuing their involvement with the arts and spreading their messages through art to other youth and others in their communities. Conclusions Engagement and participation in the arts have the potential to build resiliency, form relationships, and stimulate discussions for community change amongst youth living in the North.

  5. Tratamiento de quemaduras mediante plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP: parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rossani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar la eficacia clínica del plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP en las quemaduras de segundo grado. Estudiamos el tiempo requerido en la reepitelización del tejido dañado, la estancia hospitalaria asociada a la curación de las lesiones y la satisfacción del paciente. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo, observacional y longitudinal, en una muestra de 115 pacientes con quemaduras de segundo grado según la clasificación de Converse-Smith. Las lesiones fueron de menos de 48 horas de evolución, en diferentes zonas de cara y cuerpo. A todos los pacientes se les aplicó de forma ambulatoria PRP por goteo, completándose el tratamiento con la aplicación de gasas parafinadas. El estudio se realizó entre marzo de 2011 y agosto de 2013. Las quemaduras que evolucionaron mejor y de forma más rápida fueron las de cara, seguidas por las de abdomen y, por último, las de extremidades inferiores. En todas, el tiempo de epitelización fue un 30 % inferior que en quemaduras de similar extensión, profundidad y localización, en pacientes anteriormente tratados sin PRP. Los pacientes fueron atendidos ambulatoriamente cuando las lesiones lo permitieron, y si presentaban lesiones más extensas fueron hospitalizados. El tiempo de internamiento en estos casos se redujo como promedio 18 días con respecto al grupo no tratado con PRP. El tiempo de reepitelización, estancia hospitalaria y la satisfacción de los pacientes, alcanzaron significación estadística p< 0,05. En conclusión, creemos que el uso de PRP acorta el tiempo de recuperación en quemaduras de segundo grado, reduce el tiempo de hospitalización y conlleva un alto grado de satisfacción de los pacientes por los resultados obtenidos.

  6. Parenting Resilient Kids (PaRK), an online parenting program to prevent anxiety and depression problems in primary school-aged children: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Luwishennadige Madhawee N; Sim, Wan Hua; Jorm, Anthony F; Rapee, Ron; Lawrence, Katherine A; Yap, Marie B H

    2018-04-19

    Preventive efforts targeting childhood anxiety and depression symptoms have the potential to alter the developmental trajectory of depression and anxiety disorders across the lifespan. Substantial previous research suggests that modifiable parenting factors such as parental aversiveness and over-involvement are associated with childhood anxiety, depressive and internalising symptoms, indicating that parents can play a critical role in prevention. The Parenting Resilient Kids study is a new evidence-based online parenting program designed to prevent anxiety and depression problems in primary school-aged children by reducing family-based risk factors and enhancing protective factors through increased positive interactions between parent and child. The current study is a parallel group superiority randomised controlled trial with parent-child dyads randomised to the intervention or active-control group in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention group will receive the Parenting Resilient Kids program consisting of a feedback report on parenting behaviours and up to 12 interactive online modules personalised based on responses to the parent survey. The active-control group will receive a standardised package of online educational materials about child development and wellbeing. The trial website is programmed to run a stratified random allocation sequence (based on parent gender) to determine group membership. We aim to recruit 340 parent-child dyads (170 dyads per group). We hypothesise that the intervention group will show greater improvement in parenting risk and protective factors from baseline to 3-month follow-up (primary outcome), which will in turn mediate changes in child depressive and anxiety symptoms from baseline to 12 and 24 months (co-primary outcomes). We also hypothesise that the intervention group will show greater benefits from baseline to 3-, 12- and 24-month follow-up, with regard to: child depressive and anxiety symptoms (co-primary outcomes); and child and

  7. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  8. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Resilience: Theory and Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Bassett, G.W.; Buehring, W.A.; Collins, M.J., III; Folga, S.M.; Petit, F.D.; Phillips, J.A.; Verner, D.R.; Whitfield, R.G. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-03

    There is strong agreement among policymakers, practitioners, and academic researchers that the concept of resilience must play a major role in assessing the extent to which various entities - critical infrastructure owners and operators, communities, regions, and the Nation - are prepared to respond to and recover from the full range of threats they face. Despite this agreement, consensus regarding important issues, such as how resilience should be defined, assessed, and measured, is lacking. The analysis presented here is part of a broader research effort to develop and implement assessments of resilience at the asset/facility and community/regional levels. The literature contains various definitions of resilience. Some studies have defined resilience as the ability of an entity to recover, or 'bounce back,' from the adverse effects of a natural or manmade threat. Such a definition assumes that actions taken prior to the occurrence of an adverse event - actions typically associated with resistance and anticipation - are not properly included as determinants of resilience. Other analyses, in contrast, include one or more of these actions in their definitions. To accommodate these different definitions, we recognize a subset of resistance- and anticipation-related actions that are taken based on the assumption that an adverse event is going to occur. Such actions are in the domain of resilience because they reduce both the immediate and longer-term adverse consequences that result from an adverse event. Recognizing resistance- and anticipation-related actions that take the adverse event as a given accommodates the set of resilience-related actions in a clear-cut manner. With these considerations in mind, resilience can be defined as: 'the ability of an entity - e.g., asset, organization, community, region - to anticipate, resist, absorb, respond to, adapt to, and recover from a disturbance.' Because critical infrastructure resilience is important

  10. PrP P102L and Nearby Lysine Mutations Promote Spontaneous In Vitro Formation of Transmissible Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Allison; Raymond, Gregory J; Race, Brent; Campbell, Katrina J; Hughson, Andrew G; Anson, Kelsie J; Raymond, Lynne D; Caughey, Byron

    2017-11-01

    Accumulation of fibrillar protein aggregates is a hallmark of many diseases. While numerous proteins form fibrils by prion-like seeded polymerization in vitro , only some are transmissible and pathogenic in vivo To probe the structural features that confer transmissibility to prion protein (PrP) fibrils, we have analyzed synthetic PrP amyloids with or without the human prion disease-associated P102L mutation. The formation of infectious prions from PrP molecules in vitro has required cofactors and/or unphysiological denaturing conditions. Here, we demonstrate that, under physiologically compatible conditions without cofactors, the P102L mutation in recombinant hamster PrP promoted prion formation when seeded by minute amounts of scrapie prions in vitro Surprisingly, combination of the P102L mutation with charge-neutralizing substitutions of four nearby lysines promoted spontaneous prion formation. When inoculated into hamsters, both of these types of synthetic prions initiated substantial accumulation of prion seeding activity and protease-resistant PrP without transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) clinical signs or notable glial activation. Our evidence suggests that PrP's centrally located proline and lysine residues act as conformational switches in the in vitro formation of transmissible PrP amyloids. IMPORTANCE Many diseases involve the damaging accumulation of specific misfolded proteins in thread-like aggregates. These threads (fibrils) are capable of growing on the ends by seeding the refolding and incorporation of the normal form of the given protein. In many cases such aggregates can be infectious and propagate like prions when transmitted from one individual host to another. Some transmitted aggregates can cause fatal disease, as with human iatrogenic prion diseases, while other aggregates appear to be relatively innocuous. The factors that distinguish infectious and pathogenic protein aggregates from more innocuous ones are poorly understood

  11. Resilience in Utility Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Roger

    The following sections are included: * Scope of paper * Preamble * Background to the case-study projects * Source projects * Resilience * Case study 1: Electricity generation * Context * Model * Case study 2: Water recycling * Context * Model * Case study 3: Ecotechnology and water treatment * Context * The problem of classification: Finding a classificatory solution * Application of the new taxonomy to water treatment * Concluding comments and questions * Conclusions * Questions and issues * Purposive or Purposeful? * Resilience: Flexibility and adaptivity? * Resilience: With respect of what? * Risk, uncertainty, surprise, emergence - What sort of shock, and who says so? * Co-evolutionary friction * References

  12. Resilience of the IMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on end-to-end resilience analysis of the IMS based network through the principal resilience parameters by using OPNET. The resilience behaviours of communication across multiple IMS domains are investigated at different communication scenarios and compared with previous state......-of-the-art. Moreover, the resilience effects when adding a redundancy of the S-CSCF unit are examined. The results disclose interesting resilience behaviours for long distance communications....

  13. Split face comparative study of microneedling with PRP versus microneedling with vitamin C in treating atrophic post acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Chawla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne scars are largely preventable complications of acne. 95% of the scars occur over the face thus impacting the quality of life. Correction of scars is the priority for acne patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with post acne atrophic facial scars attending the OPD during the period from April to October 2013 were offered four sittings of microneedling with PRP on one side and microneedling with vitamin C on other side of the face at an interval of 1 month. Results: Twenty-seven out of the total 30 patients completed the treatment schedule. Two patients were lost to follow up and one dropped out of the study due to severe PIH. Mean age of the patients was 27.5 years. Out of 30 patients, 23 achieved reduction in scarring by one or two grades. Excellent response was seen in five (18.5% patients with platelet-rich plasma (PRP as compared to two (7% patients who received treatment with vitamin C according to physician′s assessment. As far as up gradation by 1 score is considered, i.e., good response, it was similar in both cases. Vitamin C did not prove to be as efficacious as PRP since 10 (37% patients had poor response in vitamin C-treated area compared to only 6 (22.2% patients who underwent PRP therapy, but vitamin C proved to be efficacious in dealing with post inflammatory hyper-pigmentation secondary to acne. Patients were more satisfied with PRP as compared to vitamin C. The results were evaluated and statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16.0.2. Conclusions: Overall results were better with microneedling and PRP. Vitamin C combined with microneedling also showed improvement with respect to firmness and smoothness of skin; as well as post inflammatory hyper-pigmentation. Microneedling combined with PRP proved to be good in treating boxcar and rolling scars but had limited efficacy in dealing with ice pick scars.

  14. The USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance: Using Disaster Risk Reduction Programs to Increase Community Resiliency to Geologic Hazards and Promote Sustained Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, G. C.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) supports several geologic-hazard related projects that help reduce the impact of geologic disasters by utilizing advances in science to monitor hazards and mitigate their effects. OFDA’s main responsibility is to rapidly respond to disasters, but OFDA also supports disaster risk reduction activities that aim to ultimately decrease the need for external responders and help to sustain development efforts by lessening the impact of potential disasters and strengthening at-risk community’s resiliency. One of OFDA’s success stories in geologic hazard risk reduction is the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP). Following the deadly 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano in Colombia that killed about 25,000 people, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and OFDA formed the VDAP team to provide technical assistance worldwide when potentially dangerous volcanoes show signs of unrest. VDAP also provides technical assistance for capacity-building projects at foreign observatories in order to strengthen their volcano monitoring networks and better prepare them for future activity. VDAP has deployed to 24 major crises in the past 23 years and helped to build infrastructure in 12 countries. They have helped their local counterparts save tens of thousands of lives, and hundreds of millions of dollars in property. Several factors contribute to VDAP’s success: sustained technical assistance allows VDAP to build upon previous efforts, working in the background with counterparts promotes independence, and addressing response and capacity-building needs leads to sustained development among counterpart agencies. Some of the lessons learned from VDAP will be parlayed into the newly formed OFDA-USGS Earthquake Disaster Assistance Team (EDAT), which will provide technical assistance to scientists shortly after large earthquakes occur in foreign countries so that they can

  15. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  16. Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 2: Building Partnerships for Resilient Watersheds, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquat

  17. Prion Propagation in Cells Expressing PrP Glycosylation Mutants ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Muhammad K.; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrPC) to a disease-related isoform (PrPSc). PrPC carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrPC glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrPSc and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrPSc, while PrPC with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrPC, were able to form infectious PrPSc. Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection. PMID:21248032

  18. Tratamiento de quemaduras mediante plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP): parte I

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rossani; I. Hernández; J.M. Alcolea; R. Castro-Sierra; W. Pérez-Soto; M.A. Trelles

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar la eficacia clínica del plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP) en las quemaduras de segundo grado. Estudiamos el tiempo requerido en la reepitelización del tejido dañado, la estancia hospitalaria asociada a la curación de las lesiones y la satisfacción del paciente. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo, observacional y longitudinal, en una muestra de 115 pacientes con quemaduras de segundo grado según la clasificación de Converse-Smith. Las lesiones fueron ...

  19. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Rinses for the Treatment of Non-Responding Oral Lichen Planus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Oppici, Aldo; Parlatore, Anna; Cella, Luigi; Clini, Fabio; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2018-02-06

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed for different applications in the medical field and in maxillofacial surgery thanks to its many growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a disease that affects the oral mucosa in a chronic way. This disease frequently worsens the quality of life of patients, particularly when clinical manifestations are of the erythematous or erosive/ulcerative type. The properties of PRP that are supported by scientific literature in both oral medicine and other medical fields have suggested the introduction of PRP in clinical practice for the medical treatment of different soft tissues diseases, such as when OLP patients do not respond to conventional therapies, or when conventional treatments have some contraindications or side effects. The aim of this work is to describe the use of PRP used as an oral rinse for the treatment of a patient diagnosed as affected by OLP at the Dentistry, Special Needs and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Piacenza. PRP protocol was started after the failure of conventional therapies based on the use of topical and systemic corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, and low-level laser therapy applications.

  20. Truncated forms of the prion protein PrP demonstrate the need for complexity in prion structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, William; Stöhr, Jan; Kendall, Amy; Stubbs, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    Self-propagation of aberrant protein folds is the defining characteristic of prions. Knowing the structural basis of self-propagation is essential to understanding prions and their related diseases. Prion rods are amyloid fibrils, but not all amyloids are prions. Prions have been remarkably intractable to structural studies, so many investigators have preferred to work with peptide fragments, particularly in the case of the mammalian prion protein PrP. We compared the structures of a number of fragments of PrP by X-ray fiber diffraction, and found that although all of the peptides adopted amyloid conformations, only the larger fragments adopted conformations that modeled the complexity of self-propagating prions, and even these fragments did not always adopt the PrP structure. It appears that the relatively complex structure of the prion form of PrP is not accessible to short model peptides, and that self-propagation may be tied to a level of structural complexity unobtainable in simple model systems. The larger fragments of PrP, however, are useful to illustrate the phenomenon of deformed templating (heterogeneous seeding), which has important biological consequences.

  1. Truncated forms of the prion protein PrP demonstrate the need for complexity in prion structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, William; Stöhr, Jan; Kendall, Amy; Stubbs, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Self-propagation of aberrant protein folds is the defining characteristic of prions. Knowing the structural basis of self-propagation is essential to understanding prions and their related diseases. Prion rods are amyloid fibrils, but not all amyloids are prions. Prions have been remarkably intractable to structural studies, so many investigators have preferred to work with peptide fragments, particularly in the case of the mammalian prion protein PrP. We compared the structures of a number of fragments of PrP by X-ray fiber diffraction, and found that although all of the peptides adopted amyloid conformations, only the larger fragments adopted conformations that modeled the complexity of self-propagating prions, and even these fragments did not always adopt the PrP structure. It appears that the relatively complex structure of the prion form of PrP is not accessible to short model peptides, and that self-propagation may be tied to a level of structural complexity unobtainable in simple model systems. The larger fragments of PrP, however, are useful to illustrate the phenomenon of deformed templating (heterogeneous seeding), which has important biological consequences.

  2. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP Rinses for the Treatment of Non-Responding Oral Lichen Planus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Merigo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been proposed for different applications in the medical field and in maxillofacial surgery thanks to its many growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a disease that affects the oral mucosa in a chronic way. This disease frequently worsens the quality of life of patients, particularly when clinical manifestations are of the erythematous or erosive/ulcerative type. The properties of PRP that are supported by scientific literature in both oral medicine and other medical fields have suggested the introduction of PRP in clinical practice for the medical treatment of different soft tissues diseases, such as when OLP patients do not respond to conventional therapies, or when conventional treatments have some contraindications or side effects. The aim of this work is to describe the use of PRP used as an oral rinse for the treatment of a patient diagnosed as affected by OLP at the Dentistry, Special Needs and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Piacenza. PRP protocol was started after the failure of conventional therapies based on the use of topical and systemic corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, and low-level laser therapy applications.

  3. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  4. The Importance of Resilience for Well-Being in Retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Nalin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.

  5. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI JPEG Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  6. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI Excel database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  7. Prediction and optimization of the recovery rate in centrifugal separation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Linfeng; Park, Hyungmin; Jo, Chris

    2016-11-01

    We present a theoretical model of the recovery rate of platelet and white blood cell in the process of centrifugal separation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). For the practically used conditions in the field, the separation process is modeled as a one-dimensional particle sedimentation; a quasi-linear partial differential equation is derived based on the kinematic-wave theory. This is solved to determine the interface positions between supernatant-suspension and suspension-sediment, used to estimate the recovery rate of the plasma. While correcting the Brown's hypothesis (1989) claiming that the platelet recovery is linearly proportional to that of plasma, we propose a new correlation model for prediction of the platelet recovery, which is a function of the volume of whole blood, centrifugal acceleration and time. For a range of practical parameters, such as hematocrit, volume of whole blood and centrifugation (time and acceleration), the predicted recovery rate shows a good agreement with available clinical data. We propose that this model is further used to optimize the preparation method of PRP that satisfies the customized case. Supported by a Grant (MPSS-CG-2016-02) through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  8. CLINICAL RESULTS FROM THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SKIN WOUNDS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kossev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To show platelet rich plasma (PRP application of chronic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2009 to December 2014 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients - 5 and female patients - 9. Average age - 48,5 (30-76. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 4, with decubitus ulcers - 6, traumatic - 8, with infection - 5. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 - 6 months (4,5 on average. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score - 12 p.; Total anatomic score - 10 p., Total score - 17 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  9. A modified three-term PRP conjugate gradient algorithm for optimization models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanlin

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm is a very effective method for optimization, especially for large-scale problems, because of its low memory requirement and simplicity. Zhang et al. (IMA J. Numer. Anal. 26:629-649, 2006) firstly propose a three-term CG algorithm based on the well known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) formula for unconstrained optimization, where their method has the sufficient descent property without any line search technique. They proved the global convergence of the Armijo line search but this fails for the Wolfe line search technique. Inspired by their method, we will make a further study and give a modified three-term PRP CG algorithm. The presented method possesses the following features: (1) The sufficient descent property also holds without any line search technique; (2) the trust region property of the search direction is automatically satisfied; (3) the steplengh is bounded from below; (4) the global convergence will be established under the Wolfe line search. Numerical results show that the new algorithm is more effective than that of the normal method.

  10. Implementation and Sustainability of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Nuclear Personnel Reliability Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, Vasiliy; Coates, Cameron W.

    2010-01-01

    Through a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy and the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for the nuclear handlers within the RF MOD is at the stage of implementation. Sustaining the program is of major significance for long term success. This paper will discuss the elements of the RF PRP and the equipment needs for implementation. Program requirements, documentation needs, training, and assurances of appropriate equipment use will be addressed.

  11. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (OA is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients with knee OA, including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc. New studies have focused on modern therapeutic methods that stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP as a complex of growth factors. Due to the high incidence of OA and its consequences, we decided to study the long-term effect of intraarticular injection of PRP and HA on clinical outcome and quality of life of patients with knee OA. Method This non-placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial involved 160 patients affected by knee OA, grade 1–4 of Kellgren–Lawrence scale. In the PRP group ( n = 87, two intra-articular injections at 4-week interval were applied, and in the HA group ( n = 73, three doses of intra-articular injection at 1-week interval were applied. All patients were prospectively evaluated before and at 12 months after the treatment by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and SF-36 questionnaires. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.1 software (RCT code: IRCT2014012113442N5. Results At the 12-month follow-up, WOMAC pain score and bodily pain significantly improved in both groups; however, better results were determined in the PRP group compared to the HA group ( P < 0.001. Other WOMAC and SF-36 parameters improved only in the PRP group. More improvement (but not statistically significant was achieved in patients with grade 2 OA in both the groups. Conclusion This study suggests that PRP injection is more efficacious than HA injection in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee OA who have not responded to conventional treatment.

  12. On the extent of homogeneity region of PrP phase in the system praseodymium-phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    For constructed by ion type compounds in the metal or metalloid systems homogeneity region boundary position can be observed at different compositions depending on which side the approximation to it occurs: on the metal or compound side. As an example the PrP homogeneity region in the praseodymium-phosphorus system is considered. An assumption is made on the prevalence of this phenomenon among rare earth monopnictides and monochalcogenides. For the PrP phase it is indicated that the monophopshide cell parameter depends on content of impurities in the initial metal, oxygen, in particular

  13. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Mayssam, E-mail: Moussa-mayssam@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Lajeunesse, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lajeunesse@umontreal.ca [Research Centre in Osteoarthritis, Research Centre in Monteral University (Canada); Hilal, George, E-mail: George2266@gmail.com [Cancer and metabolism Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); El Atat, Oula, E-mail: oulaatat@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Haykal, Gaby, E-mail: Gaby.haykal@hdf.usj.edu.lb [Hotel Dieu de France, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Serhal, Rim, E-mail: rim.basbous@gmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Chalhoub, Antonio, E-mail: Mava.o@hotmail.com [Carantina Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalil, Charbel, E-mail: charbelk3@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Alaaeddine, Nada, E-mail: Nada.aladdin@gmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2017-03-01

    Objectives: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Methods: Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1–2–3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. Results: PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Conclusion: These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. - Highlights: • Platelet Rich Plasma is suggested as a new treatment for osteoarthritis. • The proposed therapeutic effect is

  14. Oxidation reduces the fibrillation but not the neurotoxicity of the prion peptide PrP106-126

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm, Linda Alice; Chabry, J.; Bastholm, L.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that soluble oligomers of misfolded protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of protein misfolding diseases including the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) where the protein involved is the prion protein, PrP. The effect of oxidation on fibrillation...... tendency and neurotoxicity of different molecular variants of the prion peptide PrP106-126 was investigated. It was found that methionine oxidation significantly reduced amyloid fibril formation and proteinase K resistance, but it did not reduce (but rather increase slightly) the neurotoxicity...

  15. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, Mayssam; Lajeunesse, Daniel; Hilal, George; El Atat, Oula; Haykal, Gaby; Serhal, Rim; Chalhoub, Antonio; Khalil, Charbel; Alaaeddine, Nada

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Methods: Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1–2–3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. Results: PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Conclusion: These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. - Highlights: • Platelet Rich Plasma is suggested as a new treatment for osteoarthritis. • The proposed therapeutic effect is

  16. Resilience in IMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    ) and supporting always on services. Therefore, not only Quality of Service (QoS) but also resilience is required. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate and analyze end-to-end reliability of the IMS system using a model proposed as a combination of Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) and Markov Reward Models (MRMs......Reliability evaluation of systems has been widely researched for improving system resilience especially in designing processes of a complex system. The convergence of different access networks is possible via IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for development toward Next Generation Networks (NGNs......). The resilience of the IMS architecture is studied by applying 1:1 redundancy at different communication scenarios between end users within and across communication domains. The model analysis provides useful reliability characteristics of the system and can be further applied for system design processes....

  17. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  18. PRP19 transforms into a sensor of RPA-ssDNA after DNA damage and drives ATR activation via a ubiquitin-mediated circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Alexandre; Li, Ju-Mei; Ji, Xiao Ye; Wu, Ching-Shyi; Yazinski, Stephanie A; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Liu, Shizhou; Jiménez, Amanda E; Jin, Jianping; Zou, Lee

    2014-01-23

    PRP19 is a ubiquitin ligase involved in pre-mRNA splicing and the DNA damage response (DDR). Although the role for PRP19 in splicing is well characterized, its role in the DDR remains elusive. Through a proteomic screen for proteins that interact with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA), we identified PRP19 as a sensor of DNA damage. PRP19 directly binds RPA and localizes to DNA damage sites via RPA, promoting RPA ubiquitylation in a DNA-damage-induced manner. PRP19 facilitates the accumulation of ATRIP, the regulatory partner of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase, at DNA damage sites. Depletion of PRP19 compromised the phosphorylation of ATR substrates, recovery of stalled replication forks, and progression of replication forks on damaged DNA. Importantly, PRP19 mutants that cannot bind RPA or function as an E3 ligase failed to support the ATR response, revealing that PRP19 drives ATR activation by acting as an RPA-ssDNA-sensing ubiquitin ligase during the DDR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Comparison of Platelet Count and Enrichment Percentages in the Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Obtained Following Preparation by Three Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarish, Ram; Lavu, Vamsi; Rao, Suresh Ranga

    2015-02-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) represents an easily accessible and rich source of autologous growth factors. Different manual methods for the preparation of PRP have been suggested. Lacuna in knowledge exists about the efficacy of PRP preparation by these different manual methods. This study was performed to determine the effects of centrifugation rate revolutions per minute (RPM) and time on the platelet count and enrichment percentages in the concentrates obtained following the three different manual methods of PRP preparation. In vitro experimental study. This was an experimental study in which platelet concentration was assessed in the PRP prepared by three different protocols as suggested by Marx R (method 1), Okuda K (method 2) and Landesberg R (method 3). A total of 60 peripheral blood samples, (n=20 per method) were obtained from healthy volunteers. Baseline platelet count was assessed for all the subjects following which PRP was prepared. The platelet count in the PRP was determined using coulter counter (Sysmex XT 2000i). The mean of the platelet count obtained and their enrichment percentage were calculated and intergroup comparison was done (Tukey's HSD test). The number of platelets and enrichment percentage in PRP prepared by method 1 was higher compared to method 2 and method 3; this difference in platelet concentrates was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). The centrifugation rate and time appear to be important parameters, which influence the platelet yield. Method 1 which had lower centrifugation rate and time yielded a greater platelet count and enrichment percentage.

  20. The application of PRP combined with TCP in repairing avascular necrosis of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-L; Wang, Y-M; Chu, K; Wang, Z-H; Liu, Y-H; Jiang, L-H; Chen, X; Zhou, Z-Y; Yin, G

    2018-02-01

    In view of the high occurrence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) after femoral neck fracture and the difficulties in the treatment, our work aimed to explore the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) on the repair of ANFH after femoral neck fracture and to provide reference for clinical treatment. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, TCP group, and PRP+TCP group. The rabbit ANFH model was established and femoral head tissues were collected. HE staining was used for histological observation. Image analysis and statistical analysis were used to calculate the New Bone Area fraction (NBA %). The levels of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in serum were detected by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The new bone area of TCP group was significantly lower than that of PRP+TCP group (pPRP+TCP groups (pPRP+TCP group was higher than that in TCP group. TCP and PRP+TCP can both significantly reduce the content of IL-6 and TNF-a (pPRP+TCP group compared with the TCP group at 8 weeks after injection. PRP combined with TCP, which can promote new bone formation and inhibit inflammatory response, showed higher efficiency in repairing ANFH than internal fixation alone.

  1. PrP protein is associated with follicular dendritic cells of spleens and lymph nodes in uninfected and scrapie-infected mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, P. A.; Eikelenboom, P.; Kraal, G.; Fraser, H.; Bruce, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Abnormal forms of a host protein, PrP, accumulate in the central nervous system in scrapie-affected animals. Here, PrP protein was detected immunocytochemically in tissue sections of spleen, lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and pancreas from uninfected mice and from mice infected with a range of

  2. Investigation of modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs have great potential to treat various dental-related diseases in regenerative medicine. They are usually maintained with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS in vitro. Modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP would be a safe alternative to 10% FBS during SHEDs culture. Therefore, our study aimed to compare the proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs cultured in mPRP and FBS medium to explore an optimal concentration of mPRP for SHEDs maintenance. Platelets were harvested by automatic blood cell analyzer and activated by repeated liquid nitrogen freezing and thawing. The platelet-related cytokines were examined and analyzed by ELISA. SHEDs were extracted and cultured with different concentrations of mPRP or 10% FBS medium. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was measured. Mineralization factors, RUNX2 and OCN, were measured by real-time PCR. SHEDs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs markers including vimentin, CD44, and CD105. mPRP at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 20% enhanced the growth of SHEDs. Moreover, mPRP significantly stimulated ALP activity and promoted expression of RUNX2 and OCN compared with 10% FBS. mPRP could efficiently facilitate proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs, and 2% mPRP would be an optimal substitute for 10% FBS during SHEDs expansion and differentiation in clinical scale manufacturing.

  3. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  4. Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dunn cavelty, myriam; Kaufmann, Mareile; Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    2015-01-01

    , and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...

  5. New Orleans' Resilience Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, J.

    2017-12-01

    New Orleans has had unique experience in dealing with and recovering from major urban emergencies. From Hurricanes Katrina and Isaac to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill to the city's frequent boil water advisories, New Orleans has learned important lessons about what it takes to become a vibrant, resilient city that serves all its residents — particularly its most vulnerable. The city of New Orleans released its Resilience Strategy on August 28, 2015. On September 12, 2016, the city released its One-Year Progress Update, sharing its key milestones.

  6. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  7. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe

    2016-11-01

    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  8. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963......-2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...... in new resources to the cluster but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  9. Multi-Sited Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2012-01-01

    with natural disasters and climate change. In a globalized world, however, it is hard to discern what is “local” as global organizations play an increasingly visible and powerful role. This paper will argue that local understandings and practices of resilience cannot be disentangled from global understandings...... flooding in northern Ghana, this paper examines the mutual construction of “local” and “global” notions and practices of resilience through multi-sited processes. It is based on interviews and participant observation in multiple sites at the “local,” “regional” and “global” levels....

  10. Viscoelastic dynamic models of resilient elements used in railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbiciak Artur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected theoretical aspects concerning viscoelastic dynamic modelling of resilient elements used in railway tracks. In order to characterize the research methodology for resilient mats in railway tracks, German Standards [1-4] are used herein. The main goal of the paper is to demonstrate the procedure of insertion loss calculation for a single degree of freedom truck system containing under-ballast mats. Selected results of certain dynamic characteristics of resilient truck systems (transmissibility, Bode and Nyquist plots etc. are also discussed. The results of calculations visualized in graphs, were obtained by using own applications written in programming language MATLAB.

  11. Building Ecological and Community Resilience and Measuring Success of the Department of Interior Hurricane Sandy Resilience Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. M.; Worman, S. L.; Bennett, R.; Bassow, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) partnered with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) to administer an external funding competition to support coastal resilience projects in the region affected by Hurricane Sandy. The projects complement the DOI Bureau-led projects, but are led by state and local governments, universities, non-profits, community groups, tribes, and other non-Federal entities. In total, the Hurricane Sandy Resilience Program invested over $750 million in approximately 180 projects to repair damage and improve the resilience of habitats, communities and infrastructure to future storms and sea level rise. Project activities include waterway connection and opening, living shoreline, marsh restoration, community resilience planning, data/mapping/modeling, and beach and dune restoration. DOI and NFWF initiated a resilience assessment in 2015 to evaluate the impact of this investment. The assessment began by clarifying the program's resilience goals and the development of ecological and socio-economic metrics across the project activities. Using these metrics, the evaluation is assessing the ecological and community outcomes, cost effectiveness of activities, improved scientific understanding, and temporal and spatial scaling of benefits across resilience activities. Recognizing the unique opportunity afforded by the scale and distribution of projects, NFWF and DOI have invested in monitoring through 2024 to better understand how these projects perform over time. This presentation will describe the evaluation questions, approach, long-term monitoring, online metrics portal, and findings to date.

  12. Can Resilience Thinking Inform Resilience Investments? Learning from Resilience Principles for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Hill Clarvis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the human and financial costs of natural disasters rise and state finances continue to deplete, increasing attention is being placed on the role of the private sector to support disaster and climate resilience. However, not only is there a recognised lack of private finance to fill this gap, but international institutional and financing bodies tend to prioritise specific reactive response over preparedness and general resilience building. This paper utilises the central tenets of resilience thinking that have emerged from scholarship on social-ecological system resilience as a lens through which to assess investing in disaster risk reduction (DRR for resilience. It draws on an established framework of resilience principles and examples of resilience investments to explore how resilience principles can actually inform decisions around DRR and resilience investing. It proposes some key lessons for diversifying sources of finance in order to, in turn, enhance “financial resilience”. In doing so, it suggests a series of questions to align investments with resilience building, and to better balance the achievement of the resilience principles with financial requirements such as financial diversification and replicability. It argues for a critical look to be taken at how resilience principles, which focus on longer-term systems perspectives, could complement the focus in DRR on critical and immediate stresses.

  13. Protecting effect of PrP codons M142 and K222 in goats orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, C; Goldmann, W; Berthon, P; Tauscher, K; Andréoletti, O; Lantier, I; Rossignol, C; Bossers, A; Jacobs, J G; Hunter, N; Groschup, M H; Lantier, F; Langeveld, J P M

    2017-09-19

    Breeding towards genetic resistance to prion disease is effective in eliminating scrapie. In sheep, classical forms of scrapie have been eradicated almost completely in several countries by breeding programs using a prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) amino acid polymorphism. For goats, field and experimental studies have provided evidence for several amino acid polymorphisms that are associated with resistance to scrapie, but only limited data are available concerning the susceptibility of caprine PRNP genotypes to BSE. In this study, goat kids representing five PRNP genotypes based on three polymorphisms (M142, Q211 and K222 and the wild type I142, R211 and Q222) were orally challenged with bovine or goat BSE. Wild type goats were killed with clinical signs between 24-28 months post inoculation (mpi) to both challenges, and goats with genotype R/Q211 succumbed between 29-36 mpi. I/M142 goats developed clinical signs at 44-45 mpi and M/M142 goats remained healthy until euthanasia at 48 mpi. None of the Q/K222 goats showed definite clinical signs. Taken together the highest attack ratios were seen in wild type and R/Q211 goats, and the lowest in I/M142, M/M142 and Q/K222. In all genotype groups, one or more goats remained healthy within the incubation period in both challenges and without detectable PrP deposition in the tissues. Our data show that both the K222 and M142 polymorphisms lengthen the incubation period significantly compared to wild type animals, but only K222 was associated with a significant increase in resistance to BSE infection after oral exposure to both BSE sources.

  14. Resilience versus "Resilient Individual": What Exactly Do We Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature and definition of resilience, despite the extensive 40 years of research, is still unclear. Currently is resilience seen as a personality trait, sum of the traits/factors, result of adaptation, or as a process. The concept of resilience as personality traits is usually tied to uni-dimensional or "simplex" theories of resistance as Hardiness, Sense of Control, Ego-Resiliency, Self-efficacy, Sense of Coherence, or specific personality traits. Multidimensional concepts see resilience as a complex of personality and social (environmental factors that work in interaction, complement or replace each other, and, in aggregate, create a comprehensive picture of resilience. The concept of resilience as the result of adaptation examines resilience in terms of the presence/absence of adverse/pathological manifestations, consequences and outcomes in relation to the earlier effect of stressful, risky or otherwise unfavorable situations. Finally, the concept of resilience as the process examines individual's response to risk factors or wounds that are present in the environment. Resilience is thus a process consisting of interactions between individual characteristics and the environment. Most experts and a large part of resilience research is based on the first three concepts that however explore how "resilient" the individual is rather than resilience itself, since they are based on "diagnosing" or at best dimensional, at worse dichotomous rating of the individual's resilience (within personality trait approach, or on the evaluation of the presence/absence of factors/source of resilience, thereby they are still holding the "diagnostic" approach (within multidimensional approach. Only the examination of processes, such as the ongoing interaction between these risk factors, resilience factors, outcomes (expressions of personality, behavior, presence of problems, etc. and other variables allows us to understand resilience (the true nature of how

  15. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P; Cole, Megan A; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-02-14

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  16. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Gentile

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma (PRP was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System. For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2, whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2 were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex. Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  17. A Randomized, Controlled Study of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, a Fully Liquid Hexavalent Vaccine, Administered in a 3-, 5- and 11- to 12-month Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Jordanov, Emilia; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    To assess the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid, ready-to-use hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine when administered in a 2 + 1 schedule at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, observer-blind, multicenter study. Infants were randomized to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 275) or a licensed control hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T: N = 275), both given in coadministration with Prevenar 13. Serum was analyzed for immune responses to all vaccine antigens. Noninferiority of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T to the control vaccine was tested at completion of the primary series using predefined seroprotection (SP) rate and vaccine response (VR) rates. Safety was assessed using parental reports. Noninferiority of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T to the control vaccine was demonstrated postdose 3 for each antigen, and the SP (for D, T, poliovirus 1, 2 and 3, hepatitis B and polyribosylribitol phosphate) and VR rates (for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin) were high in each group. SP rates for D, T, polio 1, 2, 3 and VR rates for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin were similar in each group. For hepatitis B, SP rate was slightly higher for DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T (99.6%) than DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (96.4%), and for PRP, SP rate was higher for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (93.5%) than DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T (85.2%). For Prevenar 13, the SP rate was high for each serotype and similar for both groups. All vaccines were well tolerated. These study findings confirm the safety and immunogenicity and thus the suitability of this fully liquid hexavalent vaccine for administration in a 2 + 1 schedule.

  18. Measuring resilience in integrated planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apneseth, K.; Wahl, A. M.; Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how a Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG) can be used to profile the performance of a company in terms of the four abilities that characterize a resilient organization. It describes the development of a new, RAG-based tool founded on Resilience Engineering principles that can...... be used to assess an organization's resilience. The tool was tested in a case study involving a company in the offshore oil and gas industry. The company had decided to adopt an Integrated Operations (IO) approach to operations and maintenance planning and the tool was used to evaluate the impact...... of the Integrated Planning (IPL) process on its resilience....

  19. Experimenting for resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter; Dupret, Katia

    Focusing on how an experimental approach to organizing may pave the way for organizational resilience, we explore opportunities and barriers of experimental organizing by following a concrete social experiment in civil society and discuss its adaptability in traditional organizations. The social ...... through balancing a strategic and anticipatory strategy with experimental setups inspired by civil society organizing initiatives....

  20. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  1. Wellbeing And Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Susanne; Davidsen, Kirstine Agnete; MacBeth, Angus

    2015-01-01

    , 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction. DISCUSSION: The study will provide data on very early risk...

  2. Resilience through adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus A Ten Broeke

    Full Text Available Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  3. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Resilience through adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten Guus; Voorn, van George A.K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations

  5. Resilience through adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Broeke, Guus A; van Voorn, George A K; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  6. Epigenetic Programming of Synthesis, Release, and/or Receptor Expression of Common Mediators Participating in the Risk/Resilience for Comorbid Stress-Related Disorders and Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Zapata-Martín del Campo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Corticotrophin releasing factor, vasopressin, oxytocin, natriuretic hormones, angiotensin, neuregulins, some purinergic substances, and some cytokines contribute to the long-term modulation and restructuring of cardiovascular regulation networks and, at the same time, have relevance in situations of comorbid abnormal stress responses. The synthesis, release, and receptor expression of these mediators seem to be under epigenetic control since early stages of life, possibly underlying the comorbidity to coronary artery disease (CAD and stress-related disorders (SRD. The exposure to environmental conditions, such as stress, during critical periods in early life may cause epigenetic programming modifying the development of pathways that lead to stable and long-lasting alterations in the functioning of these mediators during adulthood, determining the risk of or resilience to CAD and SRD. However, in contrast to genetic information, epigenetic marks may be dynamically altered throughout the lifespan. Therefore, epigenetics may be reprogrammed if the individual accepts the challenge to undertake changes in their lifestyle. Alternatively, epigenetics may remain fixed and/or even be inherited in the next generation. In this paper, we analyze some of the common neuroendocrine functions of these mediators in CAD and SRD and summarize the evidence indicating that they are under early programming to put forward the theoretical hypothesis that the comorbidity of these diseases might be epigenetically programmed and modified over the lifespan of the individual.

  7. Epigenetic Programming of Synthesis, Release, and/or Receptor Expression of Common Mediators Participating in the Risk/Resilience for Comorbid Stress-Related Disorders and Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Martín del Campo, Carlos Manuel; Martínez-Rosas, Martín

    2018-01-01

    Corticotrophin releasing factor, vasopressin, oxytocin, natriuretic hormones, angiotensin, neuregulins, some purinergic substances, and some cytokines contribute to the long-term modulation and restructuring of cardiovascular regulation networks and, at the same time, have relevance in situations of comorbid abnormal stress responses. The synthesis, release, and receptor expression of these mediators seem to be under epigenetic control since early stages of life, possibly underlying the comorbidity to coronary artery disease (CAD) and stress-related disorders (SRD). The exposure to environmental conditions, such as stress, during critical periods in early life may cause epigenetic programming modifying the development of pathways that lead to stable and long-lasting alterations in the functioning of these mediators during adulthood, determining the risk of or resilience to CAD and SRD. However, in contrast to genetic information, epigenetic marks may be dynamically altered throughout the lifespan. Therefore, epigenetics may be reprogrammed if the individual accepts the challenge to undertake changes in their lifestyle. Alternatively, epigenetics may remain fixed and/or even be inherited in the next generation. In this paper, we analyze some of the common neuroendocrine functions of these mediators in CAD and SRD and summarize the evidence indicating that they are under early programming to put forward the theoretical hypothesis that the comorbidity of these diseases might be epigenetically programmed and modified over the lifespan of the individual. PMID:29670001

  8. Epigenetic Programming of Synthesis, Release, and/or Receptor Expression of Common Mediators Participating in the Risk/Resilience for Comorbid Stress-Related Disorders and Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Martín Del Campo, Carlos Manuel; Martínez-Rosas, Martín; Guarner-Lans, Verónica

    2018-04-18

    Corticotrophin releasing factor, vasopressin, oxytocin, natriuretic hormones, angiotensin, neuregulins, some purinergic substances, and some cytokines contribute to the long-term modulation and restructuring of cardiovascular regulation networks and, at the same time, have relevance in situations of comorbid abnormal stress responses. The synthesis, release, and receptor expression of these mediators seem to be under epigenetic control since early stages of life, possibly underlying the comorbidity to coronary artery disease (CAD) and stress-related disorders (SRD). The exposure to environmental conditions, such as stress, during critical periods in early life may cause epigenetic programming modifying the development of pathways that lead to stable and long-lasting alterations in the functioning of these mediators during adulthood, determining the risk of or resilience to CAD and SRD. However, in contrast to genetic information, epigenetic marks may be dynamically altered throughout the lifespan. Therefore, epigenetics may be reprogrammed if the individual accepts the challenge to undertake changes in their lifestyle. Alternatively, epigenetics may remain fixed and/or even be inherited in the next generation. In this paper, we analyze some of the common neuroendocrine functions of these mediators in CAD and SRD and summarize the evidence indicating that they are under early programming to put forward the theoretical hypothesis that the comorbidity of these diseases might be epigenetically programmed and modified over the lifespan of the individual.

  9. Microbicidal properties of Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma/Fibrin (L-PRP/L-PRF): new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslik-Bielecka, A; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M; Lubkowska, A; Bielecki, T

    2012-01-01

    Platelets, as main actors of the first stage of the healing process, play an important role in tissue repair. Their granules contain many active substances, particularly over 30 growth factors with significant effects on the resident cells at the site of injury, such as mesenchymal stem cells, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts. This potential may be increased by the concentration of the platelets, using platelet-rich plasma/fibrin products. In the four families of platelet concentrates, 2 families contain also significant concentrations of leukocytes: L-PRP (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma) and L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin). Inductive properties of platelet concentrates were widely described. However, they present also antimicrobial effects. The antibacterial effects of L-PRP were highlighted in only a few in vitro studies. Strong activity comparable to gentamicin and oxacillin for L-PRP against methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was already demonstrated. L-PRP also inhibited the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli. Some authors also reported clinical observations about the reduction of infections and the induction of healing processes after the use of platelet concentrates in cardiac, orthopaedic, oral and maxillofacial surgery. However, very little is yet known about the antibacterial effects of these concentrates. In this manuscript, the current data about the antimicrobial agents and cells present in the platelet-rich plasma/fibrin are highlighted and discussed, in order to introduce this new key chapter of the platelet concentrate technology history.

  10. Ovine recombinant PrP as an inhibitor of ruminant prion propagation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Rob G; Maddison, Ben C; Gough, Kevin C

    2017-07-04

    Prion diseases are fatal and incurable neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals. Despite years of research, no therapeutic agents have been developed that can effectively manage or reverse disease progression. Recently it has been identified that recombinant prion proteins (rPrP) expressed in bacteria can act as inhibitors of prion replication within the in vitro prion replication system protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). Here, within PMCA reactions amplifying a range of ruminant prions including distinct Prnp genotypes/host species and distinct prion strains, recombinant ovine VRQ PrP displayed consistent inhibition of prion replication and produced IC50 values of 122 and 171 nM for ovine scrapie and bovine BSE replication, respectively. These findings illustrate the therapeutic potential of rPrPs with distinct TSE diseases.

  11. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  12. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP FOR THE TREATMENT OF PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show platelet-rich plasma (PRP application of problematic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2010 to September 2015 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients– 13 and female patients– 18. Average age– 46,5 (22-82. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes– 10, with decubitus ulcers– 2, traumatic– 29, with infection– 12, acute– 15, chronic– 16. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score – 10 p.; Total anatomic score – 8 p., Total score – 15 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  13. The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP on Improvement in Pain and Symptoms of Shoulder Subacromial Impingement Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Nejati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Subacromial impingement is one of the most common complaints of shoulder. Treatments include avoiding of painful activities, oral anti-pain drugs, physical therapy modalities, corticosteroid injection and exercise therapy. Some studies have shown that platelet- rich plasma(PRP is effective on tendinitis and tearing of tendons, ligaments and muscles, but evidence that has proved PRP as a conservative treatment in shoulder pathologies is very limited. This study aims to investigate the effect of PRP injection on relieving pain and improving daily function of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, patients older than 40 with pain more than three months were included. If they had three of four positive diagnostic clinical tests of shoulder impingement that were confirmed by shoulder MRI, could be injected PRP twice. The time between injections was 1 month. Pain was measured by visual analog scale (VAS and function was measured by two questionnaires named disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH and western Ontario rotator cuff index (WORC. Range of motion (ROM of shoulder was measured in five directions by goniometry . All of these parameters were evaluated before intervention and in 1, 3, 6 months later. Results: with due attention to a six-month folloe-up, PRR injection was effective in pain reduction and improvement of patient's function (p<0.05. Shoulder Rom increased in all directions except external rotation and the power of shoulder muscles was evidently improved statistically in flexion, abduction and internal toration. Conclusion: PRP injection could effectively reduce pain and improve daily activities in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.

  14. Adjunctive Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP in Infrabony Regenerative Treatment: A Systematic Review and RCT’s Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Saleem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. The purpose of this study was to highlight the clinical performance of platelet-rich plasma (PRP used as an adjunctive tool for regeneration in infrabony periodontal defects using different biomaterials or performing different surgical flap approaches. Comparative evaluation of main clinical outcomes as probing pocket depth reduction, clinical attachment gain, and recession reduction with and without the use of PRP has been analysed. Materials and Methods. According to the focused question, an electronic and hand searching has been performed up to December 2016. From a batch of 73 articles, the selection strategy and Jadad quality assessment led us to include 15 studies for the meta-analysis. Results. Despite the high heterogeneity found and the lack of complete data regarding the selected clinical outcomes, a comparative analysis has been possible by the categorization of used biomaterials and surgical flap approaches. This method led us to observe the best performance of grafts with the use of adjunctive PRP in CAL gain and PPD reduction. No difference has been outlined with a specific surgical flap. Conclusions. Although PRP is considered a cheap and patient’s derived growth factor, the not conclusive data reported would suggest that its use in addition to bone substitutes could be of some clinical benefit in the regenerative treatment of infrabony defects. Clinical Relevance. This systematic review was intended to sort out the huge controversial debate in the field about the possible use of PRP in regenerative surgery in infrabony defect. The clinical relevance of using blood-borne growth factors to conventional procedures is effective as these could determine a better performance and outcomes despite the surgical approach adopted and limit the use of additional biomaterials for the blood clot stabilization.

  15. CONTAMINATED PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP on contaminated problematic skin ulcers in patients with diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 6 patients had been treated within the period from 2012 to 2014; they had various types of problematic wounds and diabetes type 2. Patients’ distribution by sex was as follows: 1 man and 5 women; mean age- 68 years. Ulcer types: acute (2 patients, hard-to-heal (2 patients and chronic (2 patients ulcers. The mean size of the skin and soft tissue defect was 9,5 cm2. Pathogenic microflora was isolated in 4 patients - S. aureus in three and Е. Coli in one. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: Application of PRP allowed successful closure of all wounds. There were no complications associated with treatment of PRP. Epithelialization of the wound took 15 weeks on average for all patients. One patient presented with hyperkeratosis. Initial score of followed wounds, based on the scales are as follows: Total wound score – 10 p. Total anatomic score – 8 p. Total score – 15 p. at the initial stage. At the end of the treatment period scores were as follows - 0 p., which means excellent results CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of contaminated problematic wounds in diabetic patients. PRP not only stimulates wound healing, but also has antimicrobial properties, which may contribute to the prevention of infections.

  16. Resilience Attributes of Social-Ecological Systems: Framing Metrics for Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Kerner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available If resilience theory is to be of practical value for policy makers and resource managers, the theory must be translated into sensible decision-support tools. We present herein a set of resilience attributes, developed to characterize human-managed systems, that helps system stakeholders to make practical use of resilience concepts in tangible applications. In order to build and maintain resilience, these stakeholders must be able to understand what qualities or attributes enhance—or detract from—a system’s resilience. We describe standardized resilience terms that can be incorporated into resource management plans and decision-support tools to derive metrics that help managers assess the current resilience status of their systems, make rational resource allocation decisions, and track progress toward meeting goals. Our intention is to provide an approachable set of terms for both specialists and non-specialists alike to apply to programs that would benefit from a resilience perspective. These resilience terms can facilitate the modeling of resilience behavior within systems, as well as support those lacking access to sophisticated models. Our goal is to enable policy makers and resource managers to put resilience theory to work in the real world.

  17. Resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native Public Health: An Underexplored Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Tippens, Julie A; McCrary, Hilary C; Ehiri, John E; Sanderson, Priscilla R

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review to assess the conceptualization, application, and measurement of resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health promotion. We searched 9 literature databases to document how resilience is discussed, fostered, and evaluated in studies of AIAN health promotion in the United States. The article had to (1) be in English; (2) peer reviewed, published from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015; (3) identify the target population as predominantly AIANs in the United States; (4) describe a nonclinical intervention or original research that identified resilience as an outcome or resource; and (5) discuss resilience as related to cultural, social, and/or collective strengths. Sixty full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion by 3 reviewers. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and verified for relevance to inclusion criteria by the third reviewer. Attributes of resilience that appeared repeatedly in the literature were identified. Findings were categorized across the lifespan (age group of participants), divided by attributes, and further defined by specific domains within each attribute. Nine articles (8 studies) met the criteria. Currently, resilience research in AIAN populations is limited to the identification of attributes and pilot interventions focused on individual resilience. Resilience models are not used to guide health promotion programming; collective resilience is not explored. Attributes of AIAN resilience should be considered in the development of health interventions. Attention to collective resilience is recommended to leverage existing assets in AIAN communities.

  18. Initial Characterization of Internal Medicine Resident Resilience and Association with Stress and Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber-Nicole Bird

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Burnout is prevalent in medical trainees. Little data exists on resident resilience. Methods. Anonymous surveys were provided to a convenience sample of internal medicine residents. Resilience was assessed using the Connor-Davidson resilience scale. Responses were categorized into low (<70, intermediate (70–79, and high (80–100 resilience. Results. 77 residents from six institutions completed surveys. 26% of residents had high resilience, 43% intermediate, and 31% low. The mean resilience score was 73.6±9.6 and lower than the general population (mean 80.4±12.5, p<0.001. Trainees with high resilience were more likely to never have stress interfere with their relationships outside of work (high: 40%; low: 0%; p<0.001. High resilience residents were more likely to have the skills to manage stress and burnout (high: 80%; low: 46%; p=0.02 and less likely to feel inferior to peers (high: 20.0%; low: 70.8%; p<0.001. There was a trend towards those with high resilience reporting less burnout (high: 40.0%; intermediate: 27%; low: 16.7%; p=0.08. Only 60% report a program outlet to discuss burnout. Conclusions. There is a wide range of resilience among IM residents and scores were lower than the general population. Low resilience is associated with more stress interfering with relationships, feeling inferior to peers, and fewer skills to manage stress and burnout.

  19. Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mohammad Kais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, disaster risk reduction programs and climate initiatives across the globe have focused largely on the intimate connections between vulnerability, recovery, adaptation, and coping mechanisms. Recent focus, however, is increasingly paid to community resilience. Community, placed at the intersection between the household and national levels of social organization, is crucial in addressing economic, social, or environmental disturbances disrupting human security. Resilience measures a community’s capability of bouncing back—restoring the original pre-disaster state, as well as bouncing forward—the capacity to cope with emerging post-disaster situations and changes. Both the ‘bouncing back’ and ‘moving forward’ properties of a community are shaped and reshaped by internal and external shocks such as climate threats, the community’s resilience dimensions, and the intensity of economic, social, and other community capitals. This article reviews (1 the concept of resilience in relation to climate change and vulnerability; and (2 emerging perspectives on community-level impacts of climate change, resilience dimensions, and community capitals. It argues that overall resilience of a place-based community is located at the intersection of the community’s resilience dimensions, community capitals, and the level of climate disruptions.

  20. Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Shaikh Mohammad; Islam, Md Saidul

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, disaster risk reduction programs and climate initiatives across the globe have focused largely on the intimate connections between vulnerability, recovery, adaptation, and coping mechanisms. Recent focus, however, is increasingly paid to community resilience. Community, placed at the intersection between the household and national levels of social organization, is crucial in addressing economic, social, or environmental disturbances disrupting human security. Resilience measures a community’s capability of bouncing back—restoring the original pre-disaster state, as well as bouncing forward—the capacity to cope with emerging post-disaster situations and changes. Both the ‘bouncing back’ and ‘moving forward’ properties of a community are shaped and reshaped by internal and external shocks such as climate threats, the community’s resilience dimensions, and the intensity of economic, social, and other community capitals. This article reviews (1) the concept of resilience in relation to climate change and vulnerability; and (2) emerging perspectives on community-level impacts of climate change, resilience dimensions, and community capitals. It argues that overall resilience of a place-based community is located at the intersection of the community’s resilience dimensions, community capitals, and the level of climate disruptions. PMID:27929448

  1. Mainstreaming Low-Carbon Climate-Resilient growth pathways into Development Finance Institutions' activities A research program on the standards, tools and metrics to support transition to the low-carbon climate-resilient development model. Paper 3 - Case Study: Integration of Climate Change into the operational activities of Agence Francaise de Developpement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschalier, Claire; Deheza, Mariana; Cochran, Ian; Risler, Ophelie; Forestier, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    This case study examines the AFD's integration of climate and transition-related information and tools into its activities. It first presents the general investment process and the range of financial instruments used by AFD. Second, the framework elaborated in paper 2 of this series is used to analyze the upstream and downstream integration of long-term climate and transition objectives. It begins with the analysis of the upstream standards and information that are applied to transpose AFD's global strategy and Climate Action Plan into local and sectoral intervention plans and to guide AFD's initial project screening. It then explores the tools and instruments that are used during downstream process for project and program level assessments and optimization, before the final investment decision is made. Although the tools and standards implemented by AFD constitute a solid base for mainstreaming climate considerations into its activities, it seems that they could be further developed to allow for a more qualitative assessment of a project's contribution to 'low-carbon transformation' of a given country's economy. A number of opportunities and challenges to build on AFD's existing tools are identified to take this next step - first among which is the need to work with recipient countries and other development finance institutions to identify country-specific low-carbon climate resilient development pathways. (authors)

  2. Comparison between Conventional Mechanical Fixation and Use of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in Wound Beds Prior to Resurfacing with Split Thickness Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Waiker, Veena; Shivalingappa, Shanthakumar

    2015-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma is known for its hemostatic, adhesive and healing properties in view of the multiple growth factors released from the platelets to the site of wound. The primary objective of this study was to use autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in wound beds for anchorage of skin grafts instead of conventional methods like sutures, staplers or glue. In a single center based randomized controlled prospective study of nine months duration, 200 patients with wounds were divided into two equal groups. Autologous PRP was applied on wound beds in PRP group and conventional methods like staples/sutures used to anchor the skin grafts in a control group. Instant graft adherence to wound bed was statistically significant in the PRP group. Time of first post-graft inspection was delayed, and hematoma, graft edema, discharge from graft site, frequency of dressings and duration of stay in plastic surgery unit were significantly less in the PRP group. Autologous PRP ensured instant skin graft adherence to wound bed in comparison to conventional methods of anchorage. Hence, we recommend the use of autologous PRP routinely on wounds prior to resurfacing to ensure the benefits of early healing.

  3. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in chronic penile lichen sclerosus: the impact on tissue repair and patient quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabona, Francesco; Gambelli, Ilaria; Casabona, Federica; Santi, Pierluigi; Santori, Gregorio; Baldelli, Ilaria

    2017-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that frequently involves the anogenital region. Ongoing research is focused on finding more effective treatments for tissue repair and reducing symptoms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) local injections in penile LS. Forty-five male patients affected by penile LS underwent injections of autologous PRP in the affected skin areas. Age at diagnosis and at first treatment, number of treatments, clinical conditions (phimosis, splitting, inflammation, synechiae, meatus stenosis), symptoms (pain, burning, itching), and functional impairment were considered. Treatment efficacy was also evaluated through the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) on a six-point Likert scale and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The patient age at LS diagnosis was 36.20 ± 9.19 years, while the mean age at the first PRP treatment was 42.96 ± 11.32 years (p PRP injections, it was observed in all patients a significant improvement in clinical conditions, with reduction/disappearance of symptoms. Topical steroid therapy, interrupted before PRP treatment, was not restarted by any patient. Only one patient underwent a later circumcision procedure. Both IGA scale and DLQI score showed a significant difference (p PRP treatment. PRP treatment in penile LS seems to be helpful to regenerate scarring, reduce symptoms, and improve patient quality of life. Further studies are necessary to evaluate long-term results.

  4. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  5. From resilience thinking to Resilience Planning: Lessons from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellberg, M M; Ryan, P; Borgström, S T; Norström, A V; Peterson, G D

    2018-07-01

    Resilience thinking has frequently been proposed as an alternative to conventional natural resource management, but there are few studies of its applications in real-world settings. To address this gap, we synthesized experiences from practitioners that have applied a resilience thinking approach to strategic planning, called Resilience Planning, in regional natural resource management organizations in Australia. This case represents one of the most extensive and long-term applications of resilience thinking in the world today. We conducted semi-structured interviews with Resilience Planning practitioners from nine organizations and reviewed strategic planning documents to investigate: 1) the key contributions of the approach to their existing strategic planning, and 2) what enabled and hindered the practitioners in applying and embedding the new approach in their organizations. Our results reveal that Resilience Planning contributed to developing a social-ecological systems perspective, more adaptive and collaborative approaches to planning, and that it clarified management goals of desirable resource conditions. Applying Resilience Planning required translating resilience thinking to practice in each unique circumstance, while simultaneously creating support among staff, and engaging external actors. Embedding Resilience Planning within organizations implied starting and maintaining longer-term change processes that required sustained multi-level organizational support. We conclude by identifying four lessons for successfully applying and embedding resilience practice in an organization: 1) to connect internal "entrepreneurs" to "interpreters" and "networkers" who work across organizations, 2) to assess the opportunity context for resilience practice, 3) to ensure that resilience practice is a learning process that engages internal and external actors, and 4) to develop reflective strategies for managing complexity and uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  6. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what resilience-building contributes to, what the problems, causes and solutions are, and what trade-offs, side-effects and other normative choices are acceptable. These different ways of ‘framing’ climate res...

  7. What do we know about student resilience in health professional education? A scoping review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Brooke; Brewer, Margo

    2017-11-01

    Resilience has been identified as a key capability to thrive in the complex changing work environment of the 21st century. Therefore, the aim of this scoping review was to investigate how resilience is understood in the context of pre-qualifying health education, if there is a need to build student resilience, and what approaches to enhancing student resilience are described in the literature. Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) literature scoping review design was adopted as it enables researchers to review, summarise and analyse the literature on a given topic. The databases searched were Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus, Proquest, Medline, Science Direct, and Education Resources Information Centre. Four research questions informed the literature review: (1) how is resilience conceptualised in the literature?, (2) what evidence exists for the need for resilience enhancement?, (3) what resilience factors should inform resilience enhancement?, and (4) what resilience enhancement programs are described in the literature? A total of 36 papers were reviewed in detail. Whilst the need for a focus on resilience across the health professions was evident an array of definitions and conceptualisations of resilience were described. A small number of approaches to enhancing resilience were identified. Whilst widespread recognition of the importance of resilience in the health professions exists the area remains under theorised with limited conceptual models and robust interventions published to date. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of healthy Turkish infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Yıldırım, İnci; Tezer, Hasan; Devrim, İlker; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: Immunogenicity and safety of a primary series of a fully liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine given at 2, 3, and 4 months of age compared to licensed comparators and a DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster at 15?18 months were evaluated. Materials and methods: This was a Phase III, randomized, open-label trial. Primary series (no hepatitis B [HB] at birth) of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 155) (group 1) or licensed control vaccines (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and standalone HB: N = 155) (group 2) and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster were administered. Noninferiority was evaluated 1 month postprimary series for anti-HB seroprotection (SP). All other analyses were descriptive. Safety was assessed from parental reports. Results: Postprimary series noninferiority of anti-HB ≥ 10 mIU/mL was demonstrated for the DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine (94.0%) compared to the licensed control (96.1%). Postprimary series primary SP and seroconversion (SC) rates were high and similar for both groups. Antibody persistence (prebooster) was high for each antigen and similar between groups except for HB, which was lower for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T than for standalone HB. For each antigen except HB, DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster responses were high and similar in each group. Safety was good for primary and booster series and similar between groups. Conclusion: The DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine is immunogenic and safe when administered in a challenging primary series schedule without HB vaccination at birth.

  9. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia....... They are considered more vulnerable to disasters because of their size. This paper argues, on the contrary, that SMEs also can be less vulnerable to sudden change than large corporations, drawing upon the ideas of Hayek and Taleb, and that networks of SMEs may contribute to the overall resilience of society...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...

  10. Resistance and resilience: the final frontier in traumatic stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Welzant, Victor; Jacobson, Jodi M

    2008-01-01

    This paper asserts that the constructs of resistance and resilience represent a domain rich in potential for a wide variety of applications in the field of traumatic stress. Resilience holds great potential for those working in applied settings such as public health planning and preparedness, Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) and business continuity, as well as transportation, law enforcement, fire suppression, emergency medical services, pre-deployment training for military and other high risk professional groups. Additionally, its application to "the war on terrorism" cannot be denied. Finally, the construct of resilience may have direct applicability to businesses and organizations wherein there is perceived value in preparing a workforce to effectively function under adverse or high stress conditions. The putative value of resistance and resiliency in such applied settings resides in their ability to protect against stress-related behavioral morbidity, as well as counterproductive behavioral reactions. Given its importance, the question arises as to whether resilience is an innate trait or an acquired skill. This paper will report on preliminary data suggesting resiliency may be an attribute that can be acquired through participation in a relatively brief training program.

  11. The Potential to Promote Resilience: Piloting a Minority Stress-Informed, GSA-Based, Mental Health Promotion Program for LGBTQ Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the results of a pilot study to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a mental health promotion program that was developed to address minority stressors and promote coping skills among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. It was hypothesized that the program would be feasible to implement within the context of a gay-straight alliance (GSA) and that GSA members would find the program acceptable (e.g., educational, enjoyable, helpful, and relevant). Participants included ten members of a high school GSA in the northeastern United States. The program sessions were delivered during GSA meetings. The first session emphasized the identification of minority and general stressors, which was followed by a discussion of coping strategies. The remaining sessions emphasized the development of cognitive coping, affect regulation, and problem-solving skills. After each session, participants completed a 13-item feedback form. Ten items assessed acceptability and three open-ended items allowed participants to provide constructive feedback. Although the program was feasible to implement within the GSA setting, attendance at the sessions was variable. Those who attended the sessions reported them to be enjoyable, informative, relevant to their lives, and potentially helpful for other LGBTQ students. After revising the program, future research is needed to investigate its dissemination potential and determine whether the program can disrupt the minority stress-psychiatric distress relationship.

  12. Communal resilience: the Lebanese case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric BOUTIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a turbulent and aggressive environment, organizations are subject to external events. They are sometimes destabilized and can disappear. This context explains the multiplication of works studying resilience of human organizations. Resilience is then defined as the ability of the organization studied to face an external shock.This paper proposes a state of the art of resilience concept and considers the interests of the transposition of the concept to the field of a territorial community. A case study will lead us to apply the concept of resilience to the Lebanese nation.

  13. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be de...

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase content and activity in low-platelet, low-leukocyte and high-platelet, high-leukocyte platelet rich plasma (PRP) and the biologic response to PRP by human ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Matthew A; Maerz, Tristan; Baker, Kevin C; Anderson, Kyle

    2014-05-01

    Recent work has shown the presence of catabolic cytokines in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), but little is known about endogenous catabolic proteases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Hypothesis/ To quantify MMP content in 2 commercially available PRP preparation systems: Arthrex Double Syringe System autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) and Biomet GPS (GPS). The hypothesis was that MMPs are actively secreted from PRP immediately after preparation. Controlled laboratory study. PRP was prepared using either ACP (low platelet, low leukocyte) or GPS (high platelet, high leukocyte). MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 concentrations were measured using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for up to 6 days in 2 donors, and MMP activity was measured in 3 donors using kinetic activity kits able to detect the enzymatic cleavage of a fluorogenic peptide. Human ligament fibroblasts were cultured and exposed to both ACP and GPS from 1 donor each. MMP-2, -3, and -9 concentrations were assayed in culture media at 24 and 48 hours after exposure. GPS exhibited higher total MMP-2, -3, and -9 concentrations for up to 144 hours of release, while ACP had higher platelet-normalized MMP-2 and MMP-3 concentrations. GPS had significantly higher total and endogenous MMP-2 activity (P = .004 and .014, respectively), MMP-3 activity (P = .020 and .015, respectively), and MMP-9 activity (P = .004 and .002, respectively) compared with ACP. Once normalized to platelet count, differences in MMP activity were not significant between ACP and GPS. Compared with controls, cells stimulated with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and treated with ACP showed significantly higher fold changes of MMP-2 (P = .001) and MMP-3 (P = .003) concentrations at 24 hours than did cells treated with GPS. Total MMP-9 content was higher in the media of GPS-treated, IL-1β-stimulated cells compared with ACP-treated cells (P = .001). At 48 hours, IL-1β-stimulated cells treated with GPS exhibited higher fold changes of MMP-2

  15. Dynamic Contacts of U2, RES, Cwc25, Prp8 and Prp45 Proteins with the Pre-mRNA Branch-Site and 3' Splice Site during Catalytic Activation and Step 1 Catalysis in Yeast Spliceosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Schneider

    Full Text Available Little is known about contacts in the spliceosome between proteins and intron nucleotides surrounding the pre-mRNA branch-site and their dynamics during splicing. We investigated protein-pre-mRNA interactions by UV-induced crosslinking of purified yeast B(act spliceosomes formed on site-specifically labeled pre-mRNA, and analyzed their changes after conversion to catalytically-activated B* and step 1 C complexes, using a purified splicing system. Contacts between nucleotides upstream and downstream of the branch-site and the U2 SF3a/b proteins Prp9, Prp11, Hsh49, Cus1 and Hsh155 were detected, demonstrating that these interactions are evolutionarily conserved. The RES proteins Pml1 and Bud13 were shown to contact the intron downstream of the branch-site. A comparison of the B(act crosslinking pattern versus that of B* and C complexes revealed that U2 and RES protein interactions with the intron are dynamic. Upon step 1 catalysis, Cwc25 contacts with the branch-site region, and enhanced crosslinks of Prp8 and Prp45 with nucleotides surrounding the branch-site were observed. Cwc25's step 1 promoting activity was not dependent on its interaction with pre-mRNA, indicating it acts via protein-protein interactions. These studies provide important insights into the spliceosome's protein-pre-mRNA network and reveal novel RNP remodeling events during the catalytic activation of the spliceosome and step 1 of splicing.

  16. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what

  17. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170 from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data were collected on demographics and constructs of academic stress, family support, friend support, and resilience. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to show the composite impact of demographic and model factors on the resilience outcome. Moderation was tested using a traditional regression series as guidelines of moderation with continuous variables. Path analyses illustrated main effects and moderation in the study’s conceptual model. Results: The sample reported moderate levels of academic stress and social support, and a fairly high level of resilience. Academic stress negatively related to social support and resilience. Social support positively influenced resilience. Academic stress accounted for the most variation in resilience scores. Friend support significantly moderated the negative relationship between academic stress and resilience. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated the likelihood that friend support plays a protective role with resilience amid an environment of academic stress. Implications for social work faculty and internship agency practitioners are discussed.

  18. The Relationship between Parental Rearing Behavior, Resilience, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Ryoung Moon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesParental rearing behavior is one factor that influences the strength of resilience. In turn, resilience influences depression. However, it is unclear whether resilience has a mediating effect on the relationship between parental rearing and depression in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD. Therefore, the associations between parental rearing behavior and resilience and between rearing behavior and symptoms of depression were investigated with respect to age, gender and disease severity.Subjects and methodsPatients completed a parental rearing behavior questionnaire, a resilience scale and the Children’s Depression Inventory during a routine clinic visit. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe median age of the 180 patients included in the study was 17.8 years, and 64% were male. Lower resilience was found to be associated with overprotection, punishment, rejection, and control. There was a strong relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression. Resilience varied according to gender, age group, and disease severity.ConclusionParental rearing behaviors such as emotional warmth, rejection, punishment, control, and overprotection have a significant influence on adolescent’s resilience. When developing intervention programs to increase resilience and reduce depression in adolescents with CHD, parenting attitudes, gender, age, and CHD severity should be considered.

  19. Midwives׳ experiences of workplace resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Billie; Warren, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    many UK midwives experience workplace adversity resulting from a national shortage of midwives, rise in birth rate and increased numbers of women entering pregnancy with complex care needs. Research evidence suggests that workplace pressures, and the emotional demands of the job, may increase midwives׳ experience of stress and contribute to low morale, sickness and attrition. Much less is known about midwives who demonstrate resilience in the face of adversity. Resilience has been investigated in studies of other health and social care workers, but there is a gap in knowledge regarding midwives׳ experiences. to explore clinical midwives׳ understanding and experience of professional resilience and to identify the personal, professional and contextual factors considered to contribute to or act as barriers to resilience. an exploratory qualitative descriptive study. In Stage One, a closed online professional discussion group was conducted over a one month period. Midwives discussed workplace adversity and their resilient responses to this. In Stage Two, the data were discussed with an Expert Panel with representatives from midwifery workforce and resilience research, in order to enhance data interpretation and refine the concept modelling. the online discussion group was hosted by the Royal College of Midwives, UK online professional networking hub: 'Communities'. 11 practising midwives with 15 or more years of 'hands on clinical experience', and who self-identified as being resilient, took part in the online discussion group. thematic analysis of the data identified four themes: challenges to resilience, managing and coping, self-awareness and building resilience. The participants identified 'critical moments' in their careers when midwives were especially vulnerable to workplace adversity. Resilience was seen as a learned process which was facilitated by a range of coping strategies, including accessing support and developing self-awareness and protection of self

  20. Literature Review of Concepts: Psychological Resiliency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wald, Jaye; Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J; Jang, Kerry L; Stapleton, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    ...; and resiliency measures, their development and validation. Existing definitions implicate resiliency with the ability to adapt and successfully cope with adversity, life stressors, and traumatic events...

  1. Substitutions of PrP N-terminal histidine residues modulate scrapie disease pathogenesis and incubation time in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrod, Sabina; Frick, Petra; Bertsch, Uwe; Mitteregger-Kretzschmar, Gerda; Mielke, Janina; Maringer, Marko; Piening, Niklas; Hepp, Alexander; Daude, Nathalie; Windl, Otto; Levin, Johannes; Giese, Armin; Sakthivelu, Vignesh; Tatzelt, Jörg; Kretzschmar, Hans; Westaway, David

    2017-01-01

    Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC) at octapeptide repeat (OR) and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele) or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele) and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo. Novel transgenic mice expressing PrP(TetraH>G) at levels comparable to wild-type (wt) controls were susceptible to mouse-adapted scrapie strain RML but showed significantly prolonged incubation times. In contrast, amino acid replacement at residue 95 accelerated disease progression in corresponding PrP(H95G) mice. Neuropathological lesions in terminally ill transgenic mice were similar to scrapie-infected wt controls, but less severe. The pattern of PrPSc deposition, however, was not synaptic as seen in wt animals, but instead dense globular plaque-like accumulations of PrPSc in TgPrP(TetraH>G) mice and diffuse PrPSc deposition in (TgPrP(H95G) mice), were observed throughout all brain sections. We conclude that OR and site 5 histidine substitutions have divergent phenotypic impacts and that cis interactions between the OR region and the site 5 region modulate pathogenic outcomes by affecting the PrP globular domain.

  2. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Rinses for the Treatment of Non-Responding Oral Lichen Planus: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Merigo; Aldo Oppici; Anna Parlatore; Luigi Cella; Fabio Clini; Matteo Fontana; Carlo Fornaini

    2018-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed for different applications in the medical field and in maxillofacial surgery thanks to its many growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a disease that affects the oral mucosa in a chronic way. This disease frequently worsens the quality of life of patients, particularly when clinical manifestations are of the erythematous or erosive/ulce...

  3. Effect of intralesional platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment on clinical and ultrasonographic parameters in equine naturally occurring superficial digital flexor tendinopathies - a randomized prospective controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, Florian; Gaus, Moritz; van Schie, Hans T M; Rohn, Karl; Stadler, Peter M

    2016-09-07

    Regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects on tendinopathies have been attributed to blood-derived biologicals. To date the evidence for the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment of naturally occurring equine tendinopathies is limited. The purpose of this placebo-controlled clinical trial was to describe the effect of a single treatment of equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) disease with PRP on clinical and ultrasonographic parameters. Twenty horses with naturally occurring tendinopathies of forelimb SDFTs were randomly assigned to the PRP-treated group (n = 10) or control group (n = 10) after clinical and ultrasonographic examination. The SDFTs received an intralesional treatment with autologous PRP or were injected with saline, respectively (day 0). All horses participated in a standardized exercise programme and were re-examined clinically, with B-mode ultrasonography (5 times at regular intervals) and ultrasound tissue characterization (week 12 and 24 after treatment) until week 24. Long-term performance was estimated via telephone inquiry. Compared to day 0, lameness decreased significantly by week 8 after treatment with PRP and by week 12 in the control group. Ultrasonographically there was no difference in the summarized cross sectional area between the groups at any time point. Ultrasound tissue characterization showed that echo types representing disorganized matrix decreased significantly throughout the observation period in the PRP-treated group. Echo type II, representing discontinuous fascicles, not yet aligned into lines of stress was significantly higher 24 weeks after PRP treatment. Eighty percent of the PRP treated horses reached their previous or a higher level of performance after 12 months compared to 50 % in the CG. After 24 months these proportions were 60 % and 50 %, respectively. A single intralesional treatment with PRP up to 8 weeks after onset of clinical signs of tendinopathy contributes

  4. [Profiles of resilience and quality of life in people with acquired disability due to traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriá Martínez, Raquel

    2015-09-01

    To identify distinct profiles of resilience in people with spinal cord injuries due to traffic accidents and to determine whether the profiles identified are related to differences in subjective well-being. The Resilience Scale (Wagnild and Young, 1993) and an adapted quality of life scale (GENCAT) were administered to 98 people with physical disabilities due to traffic accidents. Cluster analyses identified three different resilience profiles: a high-resilience group, a low-resilience group, and a group showing a predominance of high scores in self and life acceptance and social competence. The results also revealed statistically significant differences among profiles in most domains of subjective well-being. The results suggest the need to study resilience in greater depth and to design programs to enhance quality of life among people with disabilities due to traffic accidents. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. The quest for resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Gary; Välikangas, Liisa

    2003-09-01

    In less turbulent times, executives had the luxury of assuming that business models were more or less immortal. Companies always had to work to get better, but they seldom had to get different--not at their core, not in their essence. Today, getting different is the imperative. It's the challenge facing Coca-Cola as it struggles to raise its "share of throat" in noncarbonated beverages. It's the task that bedevils McDonald's as it tries to restart its growth in a burger-weary world. It's the hurdle for Sun Microsystems as it searches for ways to protect its high-margin server business from the Linux onslaught. Continued success no longer hinges on momentum. Rather, it rides on resilience-on the ability to dynamically reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change. Strategic resilience is not about responding to a onetime crisis or rebounding from a setback. It's about continually anticipating and adjusting to deep, secular trends that can permanently impair the earning power of a core business. It's about having the capacity to change even before the case for change becomes obvious. To thrive in turbulent times, companies must become as efficient at renewal as they are at producing today's products and services. To achieve strategic resilience, companies will have to overcome the cognitive challenge of eliminating denial, nostalgia, and arrogance; the strategic challenge of learning how to create a wealth of small tactical experiments; the political challenge of reallocating financial and human resources to where they can earn the best returns; and the ideological challenge of learning that strategic renewal is as important as optimization.

  6. Multiple PRP injections are more effective than single injections and hyaluronic acid in knees with early osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görmeli, Gökay; Görmeli, Cemile Ayşe; Ataoglu, Baybars; Çolak, Cemil; Aslantürk, Okan; Ertem, Kadir

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of intraarticular (IA) multiple and single platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as well as hyaluronic acid (HA) injections in different stages of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A total of 162 patients with different stages of knee OA were randomly divided into four groups receiving 3 IA doses of PRP, one dose of PRP, one dose of HA or a saline injection (control). Then, each group was subdivided into two groups: early OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0 with cartilage degeneration or grade I-III) and advanced OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade IV). The patients were evaluated before the injection and at the 6-month follow-ups using the EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores. Adverse events and patient satisfaction were recorded. There was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and EQ-VAS scores in all the treatment groups compared with the control group. The knee scores of patients treated with three PRP injections were significantly better than those patients of the other groups. There was no significant difference in the scores of patients injected with one dose of PRP or HA. In the early OA subgroups, significantly better clinical results were achieved in the patients treated with three PRP injections, but there was no significant difference in the clinical results of patients with advanced OA among the treatment groups. The clinical results of this study suggest IA PRP and HA treatment for all stages of knee OA. For patients with early OA, multiple (3) PRP injections are useful in achieving better clinical results. For patients with advanced OA, multiple injections do not significantly improve the results of patients in any group. I.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma: why intra-articular? A systematic review of preclinical studies and clinical evidence on PRP for joint degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, G; Kon, E; Roffi, A; Di Matteo, B; Merli, M L; Marcacci, M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this review was to analyze the available evidence on the clinical application of this biological approach for the injective treatment of cartilage lesions and joint degeneration, together with preclinical studies to support the rationale for the use of platelet concentrates, to shed some light and give indications on what to treat and what to expect from intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). All in vitro, in vivo preclinical and clinical studies on PRP injective treatment in the English language concerning the effect of PRP on cartilage, synovial tissue, menisci, and mesenchymal stem cells were considered. A systematic review on the PubMed database was performed using the following words: (platelet-rich plasma or PRP or platelet concentrate or platelet lysate or platelet supernatant) and (cartilage or chondrocytes or synoviocytes or menisci or mesenchymal stem cells). Fifty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria: 26 were in vitro, 9 were in vivo, 2 were both in vivo and in vitro, and 22 were clinical studies. The analysis showed an increasing number of published studies over time. Preclinical evidence supports the use of PRP injections that might promote a favourable environment for joint tissues healing. Only a few high-quality clinical trials have been published, which showed a clinical improvement limited over time and mainly documented in younger patients not affected by advanced knee degeneration. Besides the limits and sometimes controversial findings, the preclinical literature shows an overall support toward this PRP application. An intra-articular injection does not just target cartilage; instead, PRP might influence the entire joint environment, leading to a short-term clinical improvement. Many biological variables might influence the clinical outcome and have to be studied to optimize PRP injective treatment of cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis.

  8. A fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of healthy Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Amalia Guadalupe Becerra; Brito, Maricruz Gutiérrez; Doniz, Carlos E Aranza; Herrera, Juan Francisco Galán; Macias, Mercedes; Zambrano, Betzana; Plennevaux, Eric; Santos-Lima, Eduardo

    2012-10-05

    To evaluate an investigational, fully liquid hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T: Hexaxim™) vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of healthy children in Mexico. Infants (N=1189) were randomized to receive one of three lots of the DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine or a licensed hexavalent control vaccine (Infanrix™ hexa) for primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months. All participants who completed the primary series and agreed to participate in the booster part of the study received a dose of the investigational vaccine at 15-18 months of age. Validated serological assays and parental reports were used to assess immunogenicity and safety, respectively. Post-primary vaccination, ≥95.8% of participants in both the DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T and control groups were seroprotected (SP) against diphtheria, tetanus, poliovirus, hepatitis B and PRP, or had seroconverted (SC) to the pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) pertussis antigens. The SP/SC rates induced by the three DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T lots were equivalent. No differences in SP/SC rates were observed between the pooled lots of investigational vaccine and the control vaccine. Antibody persistence at 15-18 months was comparable between groups, with strong increases in all antibody concentrations post-DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T booster. Both vaccines were well tolerated for primary vaccination, as was the booster dose of DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T. These study findings confirm the suitability of the combined, fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine for inclusion in routine childhood vaccination schedules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resilience and reworking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus; Fold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    of this article is to shed light on the agency of individual workers involved in rapid industrialization processes. In this endeavor we draw inspiration from recent contributions that have integrated Cindi Katz's threefold categorization of agency as reworking, resilience and resistance. In combination...... the labor market. The empirical part of the article draws on interviews with local and migrant first-generation workers in two settlements located next to an industrial zone in Can Tho Province in the Mekong River Delta Region of Vietnam. It is suggested that the alternating practices of reworking...

  10. Stiffness, resilience, compressibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Bogdan M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source (United States); Sage, J. Timothy, E-mail: jtsage@neu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The flexibility of a protein is an important component of its functionality. We use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to quantify the flexibility of the heme iron environment in the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c by measuring the stiffness and the resilience. These quantities are sensitive to structural differences between the active sites of different proteins, as illustrated by a comparative analysis with myoglobin. The elasticity of the entire protein, on the other hand, can be probed quantitatively from NRVS and high energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements, an approach that we used to extract the bulk modulus of cytochrome c.

  11. Leakage resilient password systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  12. Team Resilience Training in the Workplace: E-Learning Adaptation, Measurement Model, and Two Pilot Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joel B; Neeper, Michael; Linde, Brittany D; Lucas, Gale M; Simone, Lindsay

    2018-05-02

    The majority of resilience interventions focus on the individual. Workplace resilience is a growing field of research. Given the ever-increasing interconnectedness in businesses, teamwork is a guarantee. There is also growing recognition that resilience functions at the team level. The objective of our work was to address three shortcomings in the study of workplace resilience interventions: lack of interventions focusing on group-level or team resilience, the need for brief interventions, and the need for more theoretical precision in intervention studies. The authors took an established evidence-based program (Team Resilience) and modified it based on these needs. A working model for brief intervention evaluation distinguishes outcomes that are proximal (perceptions that the program improved resilience) and distal (dispositional resilience). A total of 7 hypotheses tested the model and program efficacy. Two samples (n=118 and n=181) of engineering firms received the Web-based training and provided immediate reactions in a posttest-only design. The second sample also included a control condition (n=201). The findings support the model and program efficacy. For example, workplace resilience was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. Other findings suggest social dissemination effects, equal outcomes for employees at different stress levels, and greater benefit for females. This preliminary research provides evidence for the capabilities of e-learning modules to effectively promote workplace resilience and a working model of team resilience. ©Joel B Bennett, Michael Neeper, Brittany D Linde, Gale M Lucas, Lindsay Simone. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 02.05.2018.

  13. Evidence for a central role of PrP helix 2 in the nucleation of amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ryo; Kuwata, Kazuo

    2018-02-01

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates associated with the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human diseases. The formation of such aggregates typically follows nucleation-dependent kinetics, wherein the assembly and structural conversion of amyloidogenic proteins into oligomeric aggregates (nuclei) is the rate-limiting step of the overall reaction. In this study, we sought to gain structural insights into the oligomeric nuclei of the human prion protein (PrP) by preparing a series of deletion mutants lacking 14-44 of the C-terminal 107 residues of PrP and examined the kinetics and thermodynamics of these mutants in amyloid formation. An analysis of the experimental data using the concepts of the Φ-value analysis indicated that the helix 2 region (residues 168-196) acquires an amyloid-like β-sheet during nucleation, whereas the other regions preserves a relatively disordered structure in the nuclei. This finding suggests that the helix 2 region serves as the nucleation site for the assembly of amyloid fibrils.-Honda, R., Kuwata, K. Evidence for a central role of PrP helix 2 in the nucleation of amyloid fibrils.

  14. Behavior of Gingival Fibroblasts on Titanium Implant Surfaces in Combination with either Injectable-PRF or PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhu Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Various strategies have been employed to speed tissue regeneration using bioactive molecules. Interestingly, platelet concentrates derived from a patient’s own blood have been utilized as a regenerative strategy in recent years. In the present study, a novel liquid platelet formulation prepared without the use of anti-coagulants (injectable-platelet-rich fibrin, i-PRF was compared to standard platelet-rich plasma (PRP with gingival fibroblasts cultured on smooth and roughened titanium implant surfaces. Standard PRP and i-PRF (centrifuged at 700 rpm (60× g for 3 min were compared by assays for fibroblast biocompatibility, migration, adhesion, proliferation, as well as expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, collagen1 (COL1 and fibronectin (FN. The results demonstrate that i-PRF induced significantly higher cell migration, as well as higher messenger RNA (mRNA levels of PDGF, TGF-β, collagen1 and fibronectin when compared to PRP. Furthermore, collagen1 synthesis was highest in the i-PRF group. These findings demonstrate that liquid platelet concentrates can be formulated without the use of anticoagulants and present much translational potential for future research. Future animal and clinical trials are now necessary to further investigate the potential of utilizing i-PRF for soft tissue regenerative protocols in combination with various biomaterials.

  15. The Effect of Autologous Activated Platelet Rich Plasma (AA-PRP Injection on Pattern Hair Loss: Clinical and Histomorphometric Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cervelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of AA-PRP injections for pattern hair loss. AA-PRP, prepared from a small volume of blood, was injected on half of the selected patients’ scalps with pattern hair loss. The other half was treated with placebo. Three treatments were given for each patient, with intervals of 1 month. The endpoints were hair re-growth, hair dystrophy as measured by dermoscopy, burning or itching sensation, and cell proliferation as measured by Ki-67 evaluation. At the end of the 3 cycles of treatment, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 18.0 hairs in the target area, and a mean increase in total hair density of 27.7 ( number of hairs/cm2 compared with baseline values. Microscopic evaluation showed the increase of epidermis thickness and of the number of hair follicles two weeks after the last AA-PRP treatment compared to baseline value (P<0.05. We also observed an increase of Ki67+ keratinocytes of epidermis and of hair follicular bulge cells and a slight increase of small blood vessels around hair follicles in the treated skin compared to baseline (P<0.05.

  16. On Undecidability Aspects of Resilient Computations and Implications to Exascale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Future Exascale computing systems with a large number of processors, memory elements and interconnection links, are expected to experience multiple, complex faults, which affect both applications and operating-runtime systems. A variety of algorithms, frameworks and tools are being proposed to realize and/or verify the resilience properties of computations that guarantee correct results on failure-prone computing systems. We analytically show that certain resilient computation problems in presence of general classes of faults are undecidable, that is, no algorithms exist for solving them. We first show that the membership verification in a generic set of resilient computations is undecidable. We describe classes of faults that can create infinite loops or non-halting computations, whose detection in general is undecidable. We then show certain resilient computation problems to be undecidable by using reductions from the loop detection and halting problems under two formulations, namely, an abstract programming language and Turing machines, respectively. These two reductions highlight different failure effects: the former represents program and data corruption, and the latter illustrates incorrect program execution. These results call for broad-based, well-characterized resilience approaches that complement purely computational solutions using methods such as hardware monitors, co-designs, and system- and application-specific diagnosis codes.

  17. Resilient mounting systems in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, R.; Tukker, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The basic elements of resilient mounting systems are described and various measures for quantifying the effect of such systems defined. Using electrical analogue circuits, the calculation of these measures is illustrated. With special reference to resilient mounting systems in buildings, under

  18. Tiered Approach to Resilience Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura; Allen, Craig R; Arnott, James C; Bellini, Emanuele; Coaffee, Jon; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Hatfield, Kirk; Hyde, Iain; Hynes, William; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Kasperson, Roger; Katzenberger, John; Keys, Patrick W; Lambert, James H; Moss, Richard; Murdoch, Peter S; Palma-Oliveira, Jose; Pulwarty, Roger S; Sands, Dale; Thomas, Edward A; Tye, Mari R; Woods, David

    2018-04-25

    Regulatory agencies have long adopted a three-tier framework for risk assessment. We build on this structure to propose a tiered approach for resilience assessment that can be integrated into the existing regulatory processes. Comprehensive approaches to assessing resilience at appropriate and operational scales, reconciling analytical complexity as needed with stakeholder needs and resources available, and ultimately creating actionable recommendations to enhance resilience are still lacking. Our proposed framework consists of tiers by which analysts can select resilience assessment and decision support tools to inform associated management actions relative to the scope and urgency of the risk and the capacity of resource managers to improve system resilience. The resilience management framework proposed is not intended to supplant either risk management or the many existing efforts of resilience quantification method development, but instead provide a guide to selecting tools that are appropriate for the given analytic need. The goal of this tiered approach is to intentionally parallel the tiered approach used in regulatory contexts so that resilience assessment might be more easily and quickly integrated into existing structures and with existing policies. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  20. Resilia cyber resilience best practices

    CERN Document Server

    , AXELOS

    2015-01-01

    RESILIA™ Cyber Resilience Best Practices offers a practical approach to cyber resilience, reflecting the need to detect and recover from incidents, and not rely on prevention alone. It uses the ITIL® framework, which provides a proven approach to the provision of services that align to business outcomes.

  1. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  2. The International Resilience Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    Resilience is defined as "the human capacity to face, overcome, and be strengthened by experiences of adversity." This study used an Eriksonian developmental model to examine parents', caregivers', and children's resilience-promotion in children up to 12 years of age. Age and gender differences and cultural/ethnic similarities and…

  3. RESILIENCE THEORY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CHINESE ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Zhang, Da-Jun; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, resilience theory has attracted great attention from both researchers and mental health practitioners. Resilience is defined as a process of overcoming the negative effects of risk exposure, coping successfully with traumatic experiences, or avoiding the negative trajectories associated with risks. Three basic models of resilience have been proposed to account for the mechanism whereby promotive factors operate to alter the trajectory from risk exposure to negative consequences: compensatory model, protective model, and inoculation model. Assets and resources are two types of promotive factors found to be effective in decreasing internalizing and externalizing problems. Considering the protective or compensatory role of assets and resources in helping youth be resilient against negative effects of adversity, resilience could be applied to Chinese migrant and left-behind children who are at risk for internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety) and externalizing problems (e.g., delinquent behaviors, cigarette and alcohol use). Additionally, psychological suzhi-based interventions, a mental health construct for individuals that focuses on a strengths-based approach, can be integrated with resilience-based approach to develop more balanced programs for positive youth development.

  4. Problem-based learning: Developing resilience in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Yuan Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A society needs mature and confident nurse practitioners, who are able to think analytically and flexibly, recognize needs for further preparation, and willing to engage in self-development. Concern is raised regarding how educators will build the capacity of resilient students with a knowledge base and a minimum set of skills in responding to various issues and for engaging in self-reflection. Drawing on the framework of nursing competencies and global standards for the education of professional nurses, resilient students may contribute through their social competence, problem-solving ability, sense of purpose, and persistence in the process to achieve the goal of the project. Educators should know how to build the resilient attribute in students by encouraging them to engage in self-reflection. This article discusses four areas that help students build resilience from project-based learning of a small group: the impact of problem-based learning at clinical practice, project/problem-based learning, resilient nursing student, and developing nursing students’ resilience. Self-assessment to check the promoting skills for teaching in a problem-based learning program helps the faculty holding the empowerment to encourage or support the students to face the challenge within the small team.

  5. Minority faculty members' resilience and academic productivity: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora-Bramble, Denice; Zhang, Kehua; Castillo-Page, Laura

    2010-09-01

    To explore whether there is a relationship between resilience and academic productivity of minority faculty members in U.S. academic health centers. For the purposes of the study, the authors defined academic productivity as peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed publications, grants, and academic promotion. In 2007, the authors simultaneously collected quantitative and qualitative data by using a triangulation (mixed-method) design. Past participants in the Association of American Medical Colleges' Minority Faculty Career Development Seminar completed the Web-based 70-item Personal Resilience Questionnaire (PRQ). In addition, two focus groups were conducted with past seminar participants. Seventy-four minority faculty members completed the PRQ, and 15 participated in the two focus groups. The quantitative data showed a positive correlation between demographic, educational, and academic productivity variables and certain resilience subscale scores. Common themes that emerged from the qualitative data were categorized under four major domains: existing barriers to academic advancement, internal protective factors or cultural buffers, external institutional or environmental facilitators, and necessary attributes for ensuring academic productivity and advancement. Certain resilience subscales showed correlation with academic productivity of minority faculty members, and specific personal and/or cultural characteristics were identified as enablers. Minority faculty members may benefit from skill development and coaching that extends beyond the traditional scope of faculty development programs and that specifically targets modifiable resilience characteristics. Additional research is needed, but such nontraditional, resilience-centered intervention strategies may positively affect the advancement of minority faculty in academic medicine.

  6. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups during a 2-month followup. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS, modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow, and pressure pain threshold (PPT at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Results. All pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain scores in 4-week follow-up examination (P>0.05. At 8-week reevaluations, VAS and Mayo scores improved only in PRP group (P<0.05. Conclusion. PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. PRP might be slightly superior in 8-week followup. However, further studies are suggested to get definite conclusion.

  7. Mutant PrP Suppresses Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in Cerebellar Granule Neurons by Impairing Membrane Delivery of VGCC α2δ-1 Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Assunta; Colleoni, Simona; Verderio, Claudia; Restelli, Elena; Morini, Raffaella; Condliffe, Steven B.; Bertani, Ilaria; Mantovani, Susanna; Canovi, Mara; Micotti, Edoardo; Forloni, Gianluigi; Dolphin, Annette C.; Matteoli, Michela; Gobbi, Marco; Chiesa, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary How mutant prion protein (PrP) leads to neurological dysfunction in genetic prion diseases is unknown. Tg(PG14) mice synthesize a misfolded mutant PrP which is partially retained in the neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As these mice age, they develop ataxia and massive degeneration of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Here, we report that motor behavioral deficits in Tg(PG14) mice emerge before neurodegeneration and are associated with defective glutamate exocytosis from granule neurons due to impaired calcium dynamics. We found that mutant PrP interacts with the voltage-gated calcium channel α2δ-1 subunit, which promotes the anterograde trafficking of the channel. Owing to ER retention of mutant PrP, α2δ-1 accumulates intracellularly, impairing delivery of the channel complex to the cell surface. Thus, mutant PrP disrupts cerebellar glutamatergic neurotransmission by reducing the number of functional channels in CGNs. These results link intracellular PrP retention to synaptic dysfunction, indicating new modalities of neurotoxicity and potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:22542184

  8. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells: stimulatory effects on proliferation and migration of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessuk, Talita; Puzzi, Maria Beatriz; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Alves, Paulo César Martins; de Paula, Erich Vinicius; Forte, Andresa; Izumizawa, Juliana Massae; Oliveira, Carolina Caliári; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2016-09-01

    The clinical use of tissue engineering associated with cell therapy is considered a new alternative therapy for the repair of chronic lesions with potential application in different medical areas, mostly in orthopedic and dermatological diseases. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a rich source of growth factors and cytokines important for wound healing. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have shown potential to accelerate the resolution of ulcers, to stimulate cell proliferation, and to benefit the quality of skin repair. This study aims to determine the effect of PRP and conditioned medium (CM) from ADSC on fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. Migration and proliferation assays were performed to evaluate the growth of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the presence of PRP, CM, and CM + PRP. Significant proliferative stimulation was observed after 48 h of culture (p PRP, 100 % CM, and 25 % PRP + 25 % CM, if compared with control. Keratinocyte proliferation was stimulated after 48 h in cultures with 25, 50, and 100 % CM, and growth was compared with controls. The migration assay detected a significant migratory stimulus in fibroblasts cultured with 10 % PRP + 10 % CM after 48 h. These in vitro results suggest that PRP and ADSC have therapeutic potential for healing and re-epithelialization of chronic wounds in vivo.

  9. Comparative assessment of prophylactic transfusions of platelet concentrates obtained by the PRP or buffy-coat methods, in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Muñoz, Hermógenes; Plaza, Eva M; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Candela, María José; Romera, Marta; De Arriba, Felipe; Lozano, María L; Vicente, Vicente; Heras, Inmaculada; Castilla-Llorente, Cristina; Rivera, José

    2018-03-27

    Whole blood-derived platelet concentrates can be obtained by the platelet-rich plasma (PRP-PCs) or the buffy-coat (BC-PCs) method. Few studies have shown that BC-PCs display lower in vitro platelet activation, but scarce information exists regarding transfusion efficacy. We have performed a retrospective study assessing platelet transfusion in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) in our clinic, before and after the implementation of BC-PCs. We reviewed clinical records corresponding to 70 PRP-PCs and 86 BC-PCs prophylactic transfusions, which were performed to 55 AHCT patients. Transfusion efficacy was assessed by the 24-h post-transfusion corrected count increment (24-h CCI) and bleeding events. Clinical factors affecting transfusion outcome were also investigated. Clinical characteristics and the total number of platelet transfusions were similar among groups. Mean donor exposure was 5.8 and 5.0 in each single PRP-PCs and BC-PCs transfusion, respectively (p PRP-PCs (8.3[2.7-13.4] vs. 4.7[1.3-8.1]; p PRP-PCs transfusion (HR 4.54; 95% CI 1.72-12.01; p = 0.002). There were no differences between both groups regarding the bleeding events. In the AHCT setting, we hypothesize that BC-PCs transfusion, when compared to PRP-PCs, results in higher CCI and reduced donor exposure, but provides no significant benefit regarding bleeding outcome.

  10. Clinical-grade quality platelet-rich plasma releasate (PRP-R/SRGF) from CaCl2 -activated platelet concentrates promoted expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, C; Agostini, F; Durante, C; Colombatti, A; Mazzucato, M; Aldinucci, D

    2016-08-01

    The aim of our study was to test a platelet-rich plasma releasate (PRP-R/SRGF) from CaCl2 -activated platelets as a source of growth factors for the expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). PRP-R/SRGF, obtained with a low-cost procedure, is characterized by a reduced variability of growth factor release. PRP-R/SRGF is a clinical-grade quality solution obtained from CaCl2 -activated platelets. Its activity was evaluated by measuring the proliferation, the phenotype, the differentiation potential and the immunosuppressive properties of MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM) and adipose tissue (AT). PRP-R/SRGF was more active than FBS to expand BM- and AT-derived MSCs. PRP-R/SRGF treatment did not affect the expression of typical MSCs surface markers, neither MSCs differentiation potential nor their capability to inhibit activated T-cell proliferation. The clinical-grade PRP-R/SRGF may be used in the clinical setting for the expansion of MSCs. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Prion disease susceptibility is affected by β-structure folding propensity and local side-chain interactions in PrP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Qasim; Sweeting, Braden; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Arslan, Pharhad Eli; Cashman, Neil R.; Pai, Emil F.; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases occur when the normally α-helical prion protein (PrP) converts to a pathological β-structured state with prion infectivity (PrPSc). Exposure to PrPSc from other mammals can catalyze this conversion. Evidence from experimental and accidental transmission of prions suggests that mammals vary in their prion disease susceptibility: Hamsters and mice show relatively high susceptibility, whereas rabbits, horses, and dogs show low susceptibility. Using a novel approach to quantify conformational states of PrP by circular dichroism (CD), we find that prion susceptibility tracks with the intrinsic propensity of mammalian PrP to convert from the native, α-helical state to a cytotoxic β-structured state, which exists in a monomer–octamer equilibrium. It has been controversial whether β-structured monomers exist at acidic pH; sedimentation equilibrium and dual-wavelength CD evidence is presented for an equilibrium between a β-structured monomer and octamer in some acidic pH conditions. Our X-ray crystallographic structure of rabbit PrP has identified a key helix-capping motif implicated in the low prion disease susceptibility of rabbits. Removal of this capping motif increases the β-structure folding propensity of rabbit PrP to match that of PrP from mouse, a species more susceptible to prion disease. PMID:21041683

  12. Prion disease susceptibility is affected by beta-structure folding propensity and local side-chain interactions in PrP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Qasim; Sweeting, Braden; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Arslan, Pharhad Eli; Cashman, Neil R; Pai, Emil F; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2010-11-16

    Prion diseases occur when the normally α-helical prion protein (PrP) converts to a pathological β-structured state with prion infectivity (PrP(Sc)). Exposure to PrP(Sc) from other mammals can catalyze this conversion. Evidence from experimental and accidental transmission of prions suggests that mammals vary in their prion disease susceptibility: Hamsters and mice show relatively high susceptibility, whereas rabbits, horses, and dogs show low susceptibility. Using a novel approach to quantify conformational states of PrP by circular dichroism (CD), we find that prion susceptibility tracks with the intrinsic propensity of mammalian PrP to convert from the native, α-helical state to a cytotoxic β-structured state, which exists in a monomer-octamer equilibrium. It has been controversial whether β-structured monomers exist at acidic pH; sedimentation equilibrium and dual-wavelength CD evidence is presented for an equilibrium between a β-structured monomer and octamer in some acidic pH conditions. Our X-ray crystallographic structure of rabbit PrP has identified a key helix-capping motif implicated in the low prion disease susceptibility of rabbits. Removal of this capping motif increases the β-structure folding propensity of rabbit PrP to match that of PrP from mouse, a species more susceptible to prion disease.

  13. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  14. Resilient leadership and the organizational culture of resilience: construct validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Smith, Kenneth J; Lobo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Political, economic, and social unrest and uncertainty seem replete throughout the world. Within the United States, political vitriol and economic volatility have led to severe economic restrictions. Both government and private sector organizations are being asked to do more with less. The specter of dramatic changes in healthcare creates a condition of uncertainty affecting budget allocations and hiring practices. If ever there was a time when a "resilient culture" was needed, it is now. In this paper we shall discuss the application of "tipping point" theory (Gladwell, 2000) operationalized through a special form of leadership: "resilient leadership" (Everly, Strouse, Everly, 2010). Resilient leadership is consistent with Gladwells "Law of the Few" and strives to create an organizational culture of resilience by implementing an initial change within no more than 20% of an organization's workforce. It is expected that such a minority, if chosen correctly, will "tip" the rest of the organization toward enhanced resilience, ideally creating a self-sustaining culture of resilience. This paper reports on the empirical foundations and construct validation of "resilient leadership".

  15. Identifying resilient and non-resilient middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non- resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient ...

  16. Using Photo-Elicitation Methods to Understand Resilience among Ultra-Poor Youth and Their Caregivers in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Clare; Villa-Torres, Laura; Abdoulayi, Sara; Tsoka, Maxton Grant; Mvula, Peter Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Unconditional cash transfer programs are a form of structural intervention to address poverty, a "fundamental cause" of disease. Such programs increasingly aim to build resilience to sustain improved outcomes and provide a solid foundation for longer term transformations. As such, there is a need to understand what resilience means in…

  17. The folding mechanism and key metastable state identification of the PrP127-147 monomer studied by molecular dynamics simulations and Markov state model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangyan; Wang, Qianqian; Wang, Yuwei; Yao, Xiaojun; Han, Wei; Liu, Huanxiang

    2017-05-10

    The structural transition of prion proteins from a native α-helix (PrP C ) to a misfolded β-sheet-rich conformation (PrP Sc ) is believed to be the main cause of a number of prion diseases in humans and animals. Understanding the molecular basis of misfolding and aggregation of prion proteins will be valuable for unveiling the etiology of prion diseases. However, due to the limitation of conventional experimental techniques and the heterogeneous property of oligomers, little is known about the molecular architecture of misfolded PrP Sc and the mechanism of structural transition from PrP C to PrP Sc . The prion fragment 127-147 (PrP127-147) has been reported to be a critical region for PrP Sc formation in Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome and thus has been used as a model for the study of prion aggregation. In the present study, we employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques to study the conformational change of this fragment that could be relevant to the PrP C -PrP Sc transition. Employing extensive replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) and conventional MD simulations, we sample a huge number of conformations of PrP127-147. Using the Markov state model (MSM), we identify the metastable conformational states of this fragment and the kinetic network of transitions between the states. The resulting MSM reveals that disordered random-coiled conformations are the dominant structures. A key metastable folded state with typical extended β-sheet structures is identified with Pro137 being located in a turn region, consistent with a previous experimental report. Conformational analysis reveals that intrapeptide hydrophobic interaction and two key residue interactions, including Arg136-His140 and Pro137-His140, contribute a lot to the formation of ordered extended β-sheet states. However, network pathway analysis from the most populated disordered state indicates that the formation of extended β-sheet states is quite slow (at the millisecond

  18. EXAMINING LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF AN INFANT MENTAL HEALTH HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START PROGRAM ON FAMILY STRENGTHS AND RESILIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckelvey, Lorraine; Schiffman, Rachel F; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Bocknek, Erika London; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Reischl, Thomas M; Hawver, Shelley; Cunningham Deluca, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Infant Mental Health based interventions aim to promote the healthy development of infants and toddlers through promoting healthy family functioning to foster supportive relationships between the young child and his or her important caregivers. This study examined impacts of an Infant Mental Health home-based Early Head Start (IMH-HB EHS) program on family functioning. The sample includes 152 low-income families in the Midwestern United States, expectant or parenting a child younger than 1 year of age, who were randomly assigned to receive IMH-HB EHS services (n = 75) or to a comparison condition (n = 77). Mothers who received IMH-HB EHS services reported healthier psychological and family functioning, outcomes that are consistent with the IMH focus, when their children were between the ages of 3 and 7 years of age. Specifically, mothers in the IMH-HB EHS group reported healthier family functioning and relationships, better coping skills needed to advocate for their families, and less stress in the parenting role versus those in the comparison condition. The study also examined support seeking coping, some of which changed differently over time based on program group assignment. Overall, findings suggest that the gains families achieve from participating in IMH-HB EHS services are maintained after services cease. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Personal resilience and coping Part II: Identifying resilience and coping among U.S. military service members and veterans with implications for work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Valerie; Liu, Baoxia

    2016-05-27

    U.S. military personnel face challenging situations including frequent deployments, family separations, and exposure to war. Identifying coping strategies used by the most resilient service members and veterans could positively influence military resiliency training programs. The purposes of this paper are to investigate the relationship between coping and resilience among U.S. military active service members and veterans, to identify the coping strategies used by those considered most resilient, and to discuss coping and resilience as they relate to the workplace. U.S. military active service members and veterans (N = 191) completed a demographic survey and two self-report questionnaires: The 14-Item Resilience Scale [1] and the Brief COPE [2]. Active duty service members had higher resilience scores than veterans (p  0.05). Active service members' resilience was predicted by their use of positive reframing and less use of self-blame as coping strategies, accounting for 52.3% of the variance (R2 = 0.523, F(2, 60) = 32.92, p = 0.000). Veterans' resilience was predicted by longer time-in-service, greater use of humor, and less use of self-blame as coping strategies, explaining 44.8% of the variance (R2 = 0.448, F(3, 116) = 31.408, p = 0.000). This research identifies the positive coping strategies, and least-used negative coping strategies, of the U.S. service members and veterans in our study population with higher resilience scores. Incorporating this information into military- or veteran-based resilience training is likely to increase training effectiveness.

  20. Information Risk Management and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Scott

    Are the levels of information risk management efforts within and between firms correlated with the resilience of the firms to information disruptions? This paper examines the question by considering the results of field studies of information risk management practices at organizations and in supply chains. The organizations investigated differ greatly in the degree of coupling from a general and information risk management standpoint, as well as in the levels of internal awareness and activity regarding information risk management. The comparison of the levels of information risk management in the firms and their actual or inferred resilience indicates that a formal information risk management approach is not necessary for resilience in certain sectors.

  1. Resilient health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.

    Health care is everywhere under tremendous pressure with regard to efficiency, safety, and economic viability - to say nothing of having to meet various political agendas - and has responded by eagerly adopting techniques that have been useful in other industries, such as quality management, lean...... production, and high reliability. This has on the whole been met with limited success because health care as a non-trivial and multifaceted system differs significantly from most traditional industries. In order to allow health care systems to perform as expected and required, it is necessary to have...... engineering's unique approach emphasises the usefulness of performance variability, and that successes and failures have the same aetiology. This book contains contributions from acknowledged international experts in health care, organisational studies and patient safety, as well as resilience engineering...

  2. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  3. Remarkable resilience of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-05-05

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel-dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by "stress shielding" from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet.

  4. Burnout and health among critical care professionals: The mediational role of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, Oscar; Aparicio-Zaldivar, Eva

    2017-10-01

    To analyse the mediational role of resilience in relationships between burnout and health in critical care professionals; to determine relationships among resilience level, three burnout dimensions, and physical/mental health; and to establish demographic differences in psychological variables evaluated. Cross-sectional study. A total of 52 critical care professionals, mainly nurses, were recruited from an intensive care unit of Madrid (Spain). All participants were assessed with the questionnaires 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey, and Short Form-12 Health Survey. No demographic differences were found. Three burnout dimensions were negatively associated with mental health and resilience. Mediational analyses revealed resilience mediated 1) the relationships between emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation with mental health (partial mediations) and 2) the relationship between personal accomplishment and mental health (total mediation). Resilience minimises and buffers the impact of negative outcomes of workplace stress on mental health of critical care professionals. As a result, resilience prevents the occurrence of burnout syndrome. Resilience improves not only their mental health, but also their ability to practice effectively. It is therefore imperative to develop resilience programs for critical care nurses in nursing schools, universities and health centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Associated With Caregivers' Resilience in a Terminal Cancer Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Cheol; Kim, Young Sung; Lee, Yong Joo; Choi, Youn Seon; Hwang, Sun Wook; Kim, Hyo Min; Koh, Su-Jin

    2018-04-01

    Resilience implies characteristics such as self-efficacy, adaptability to change, optimism, and the ability to recover from traumatic stress. Studies on resilience in family caregivers (FCs) of patients with terminal cancer are rare. This study aims to examine the factors associated with FCs' resilience in a terminal cancer care setting. This is a cross-sectional study of 273 FCs from 7 hospice and palliative care units in Korea. Resilience was categorized as high and low, and factors associated with resilience were grouped or categorized into subscales. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine relevant factors. High FCs' resilience was significantly associated with FCs' health status, depression, and social support. In a multivariate regression model, FCs' perception of good health (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-4.40), positive social support (aOR = 3.70, 95% CI = 1.07-12.87), and absence of depression (aOR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.59-6.13) remained significantly associated with high FCs' resilience. Lack of family support is associated with and may be a cause of diminished resilience. And more concern should be paid to FCs to improve FCs' health and emotional status. Education programs might be effective for improving caregivers' resilience. Further research with supportive interventions is indicated.

  6. Business resilience: Reframing healthcare risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    The responsibility of risk management in healthcare is fractured, with multiple stakeholders. Most hospitals and healthcare systems do not have a fully integrated risk management system that spans the entire organizational and operational structure for the delivery of key services. This article provides insight toward utilizing a comprehensive Business Resilience program and associated methodology to understand and manage organizational risk leading to organizational effectiveness and operational efficiencies, with the fringe benefit of realizing sustainable operational capability during adverse conditions. © 2015 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  7. The α-helical C-terminal domain of full-length recombinant PrP converts to an in-register parallel β-sheet structure in PrP fibrils: evidence from solid state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycko, Robert; Savtchenko, Regina; Ostapchenko, Valeriy G; Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V

    2010-11-09

    We report the results of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on amyloid fibrils formed by the full-length prion protein PrP (residues 23−231, Syrian hamster sequence). Measurements of intermolecular 13C−13C dipole−dipole couplings in selectively carbonyl-labeled samples indicate that β-sheets in these fibrils have an in-register parallel structure, as previously observed in amyloid fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes and in yeast prion fibrils. Two-dimensional 13C−13C and 15N−13C solid state NMR spectra of a uniformly 15N- and 13C-labeled sample indicate that a relatively small fraction of the full sequence, localized to the C-terminal end, forms the structurally ordered, immobilized core. Although unique site-specific assignments of the solid state NMR signals cannot be obtained from these spectra, analysis with a Monte Carlo/simulated annealing algorithm suggests that the core is comprised primarily of residues in the 173−224 range. These results are consistent with earlier electron paramagnetic resonance studies of fibrils formed by residues 90−231 of the human PrP sequence, formed under somewhat different conditions [Cobb, N. J., Sonnichsen, F. D., McHaourab, H., and Surewicz, W. K. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 18946−18951], suggesting that an in-register parallel β-sheet structure formed by the C-terminal end may be a general feature of PrP fibrils prepared in vitro.

  8. Rethinking the Effects of Homelessness on Children: Resiliency and Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Reviews discrepancies in the research on the learning and development of homeless children. Describes a child care program at a homeless shelter that enrolls both homeless and nonhomeless children; and presents case studies of two successfully adjusted homeless children. Discusses homeless children's resiliency and the need to assess their…

  9. Macroecological patterns of resilience inferred from a multinational, synchronized experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baho, D.L.; Tavşanoğlu, Ü.N.; Šorf, Michal; Stefanidis, K.; Drakare, S.; Scharfenberger, U.; Agasild, H.; Beklioglu, M.; Hejzlar, Josef; Adrian, R.; Papastergiadou, E.; Zingel, P.; Sondergaard, M.; Jeppesen, E.; Angeler, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2015), s. 1142-1160 ISSN 2071-1050 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 244121 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : climate change * eutrophication * zooplankton * ecological resilience * synchronized mesocosm experiment * discontinuity analysis Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2015

  10. Creating Resiliency and Pathways to Opportunity. Strategies for Transformative Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M.; Hatch, M. A.; Fians, E.; Shinert, A.; Richie, D.

    2016-01-01

    Like many colleges funded by the U.S. Department of Labor's TAACCCT program, the goal of the Northeast Resiliency Consortium (NRC) (a Round Three grantee) was to enhance the capacity of colleges to accelerate learning, ensure that students attain industry-recognized credentials, foster innovative employer partnerships, use new technologies, and…

  11. Sociotechnical Resilience: A Preliminary Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Sulfikar; Kant, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance. We propose that the triad of relations, structures, and practices are fundamental aspects required to comprehend the resilience of sociotechnical systems during times of crisis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Assessment instruments of urban resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Saporiti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to highlight the aspects related to the resilient capacity of a neoecosistema. Clarifying what does it means to speak about a resilient neoecosistema and which are the specific characters that make him capable of change and adaptation when facing an environmental, social or economic threat, it will be possible to understand the efficacy related to the model of urban development. From the individuation of perturbing factors of this capacity, it will be possible to generate a panel of the resilient capacity linked to three different ambits that represent the three characteristic elements of natural ecosystems: its physic structure, the persons and the interaction processes between them so we would be able to make explicit the specific characters of resilience distinguished from those of sustainability and urban quality.  

  13. Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 1: Resilient Watersheds for a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Estuary 2100 Project, Phase 1: Resilient Watersheds for a Changing Climate , part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  14. Why is Coastal Community Resilience Important in the Gulf of Mexico Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Gulf of Mexico Program supports the regional collaborative approach and efforts of the Coastal Community Resilience Priority Issue Team of the Gulf of Mexico Governors’ Alliance and its broad spectrum of partners and stakeholders.

  15. Exploring resilience in rural GP registrars--implications for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Lucie; Laurence, Caroline O; Dollard, Joanne; Elliott, Taryn; Eley, Diann S

    2015-07-02

    Resilience can be defined as the ability to rebound from adversity and overcome difficult circumstances. General Practice (GP) registrars face many challenges in transitioning into general practice, and additional stressors and pressures apply for those choosing a career in rural practice. At this time of international rural generalist medical workforce shortages, it is important to focus on the needs of rural GP registrars and how to support them to become resilient health care providers. This study sought to explore GP registrars' perceptions of their resilience and strategies they used to maintain resilience in rural general practice. In this qualitative interpretive research, semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive approach. Initial coding resulted in a coding framework which was refined using constant comparison and negative case analysis. Authors developed consensus around the final conceptual model. Eighteen GP registrars from: Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine Independent Pathway, and three GP regional training programs with rural training posts. Six main themes emerged from the data. Firstly, rural GP registrars described four dichotomous tensions they faced: clinical caution versus clinical courage; flexibility versus persistence; reflective practice versus task-focused practice; and personal connections versus professional commitment. Further themes included: personal skills for balance which facilitated resilience including optimistic attitude, self-reflection and metacognition; and finally GP registrars recognised the role of their supervisors in supporting and stretching them to enhance their clinical resilience. Resilience is maintained as on a wobble board by balancing professional tensions within acceptable limits. These limits are unique to each individual, and may be expanded through personal growth and professional development as part of rural general practice training.

  16. Constructing Resilience: The Wellington Studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Allan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a design studio on climate change at Victoria University of Wellington (VUW, New Zealand, in 2007. It discusses the processes and outcomes of the studio and the subsequent testing of student work against a resilience model developed by Canadian ecologist CS Holling (1973, 1998; Walker et al, 2004 to create a framework for the design of resilient cities.

  17. Resilient retfærdighed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stefan Gaarsmand

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the idea of resilience as a point of departure for analysing some contemporary challenges to the climate justice movement posed by social-ecological sciences. Climate justice activists are increasingly rallying for a system-change, demanding fundamental changes to political bure...... is that the scientific framework behind resilience is not politically neutral and that this framework tends to weaken the activist’s demands for a just transition and place more emphasis on technical and bureaucratic processes....

  18. Resilience among old Sami women

    OpenAIRE

    Aléx, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Artikkel som utforsker hvordan eldre kvinner forteller om sine erfaringer med helse og mangel på helse. There is lack of research on old indigenous women’s experiences. The aim of this study was to explore how old women narrate their experiences of wellbeing and lack of wellbeing using the salutogenetic concept of resilience. Interviews from nine old Sami women were analysed according to grounded theory with the following themes identified: contributing to resilience and wellbeing built up...

  19. Measuring resilience to energy shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, Lynette; Brown, Colin; Foster, John; Wagner, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Measuring energy security or resilience in energy is, in the main, confined to indicators which are used for comparative purposes or to show trends rather than provide empirical evidence of resilience to unpredicted crises. In this paper, the electricity systems of the individual states within the United States of America are analysed for their response to the 1973-1982 and the 2003-2012 oil price shocks. Empirical evidence is sought for elements which are present in systems that experience r...

  20. Effects of individual resilience intervention on indigenous people who experienced Typhoon Morkot in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Fen Cheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan and caused serious harm to the indigenous peoples living in the southern mountainous regions. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of and the factors involved in individual resilience intervention of typhoon victims. Quantitative research was performed from October 2009 through September 2010. Purposive sampling yielded 77 indigenous persons who were willing to serve as participants in this study. These participants all maintained legal or actual residence in the areas of Kaohsiung that were affected by the typhoon. An individual resilience intervention program was implemented. The findings show the following: (1 after completing the individual resilience intervention program, the participants had higher individual resilience scores than before participating in the intervention program; and (2 individual resilience scores were significantly affected by residency after the typhoon. These findings suggest that an individual resilience intervention program is a useful approach that can be used to enhance the individual resilience of a victim and that professionals should pay more attention to victims who have to leave their hometowns after disasters.

  1. Adaptation of failure scenario based resilience schemes toward availability guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Matthias

    2006-07-01

    Various resilience schemes have been proposed to allow for fault-tolerant transport networks. Their common aim is to survive certain failure patterns such as node or span failures by providing alternative transmission paths. However, network operators guarantee the resulting network reliability in terms of service availability to their business customers. A maximum duration of service disruption per year must not be exceeded. We investigate an optimal design of resilient network configurations that adapts to end-to-end availability requirements. We formulate an integer linear program that minimizes the resource utilization and investigate a case study.

  2. In search of a consensus terminology in the field of platelet concentrates for surgical use: platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), fibrin gel polymerization and leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Bielecki, Tomasz; Mishra, Allan; Borzini, Piero; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Rasmusson, Lars; Everts, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    In the field of platelet concentrates for surgical use, most products are termed Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP). Unfortunately, this term is very general and incomplete, leading to many confusions in the scientific database. In this article, a panel of experts discusses this issue and proposes an accurate and simple terminology system for platelet concentrates for surgical use. Four main categories of products can be easily defined, depending on their leukocyte content and fibrin architecture: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP), such as cell separator PRP, Vivostat PRF or Anitua's PRGF; Leukocyteand Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP), such as Curasan, Regen, Plateltex, SmartPReP, PCCS, Magellan, Angel or GPS PRP; Pure Plaletet-Rich Fibrin (P-PRF), such as Fibrinet; and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF), such as Choukroun's PRF. P-PRP and L-PRP refer to the unactivated liquid form of these products, their activated versions being respectively named P-PRP gels and L-PRP gels. The purpose of this search for a terminology consensus is to plead for a more serious characterization of these products. Researchers have to be aware of the complex nature of these living biomaterials, in order to avoid misunderstandings and erroneous conclusions. Understanding the biomaterials or believing in the magic of growth factors ? From this choice depends the future of the field.

  3. Integrity of Helix 2-Helix 3 Domain of the PrP Protein Is Not Mandatory for Prion Replication*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Khalid; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Béringue, Vincent; Rezaei, Human; Pastore, Annalisa; Laude, Hubert; Dron, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The process of prion conversion is not yet well understood at the molecular level. The regions critical for the conformational change of PrP remain mostly debated and the extent of sequence change acceptable for prion conversion is poorly documented. To achieve progress on these issues, we applied a reverse genetic approach using the Rov cell system. This allowed us to test the susceptibility of a number of insertion mutants to conversion into prion in the absence of wild-type PrP molecules. We were able to propagate several prions with 8 to 16 extra amino acids, including a polyglycine stretch and His or FLAG tags, inserted in the middle of the protease-resistant fragment. These results demonstrate the possibility to increase the length of the loop between helices H2 and H3 up to 4-fold, without preventing prion replication. They also indicate that this loop probably remains unstructured in PrPSc. We also showed that bona fide prions can be produced following insertion of octapeptides in the two C-terminal turns of H2. These insertions do not interfere with the overall fold of the H2-H3 domain indicating that the highly conserved sequence of the terminal part of H2 is not critical for the conversion. Altogether these data showed that the amplitude of modifications acceptable for prion conversion in the core of the globular domain of PrP is much greater than one might have assumed. These observations should help to refine structural models of PrPSc and elucidate the conformational changes underlying prions generation. PMID:22511770

  4. Integrity of helix 2-helix 3 domain of the PrP protein is not mandatory for prion replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Khalid; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Béringue, Vincent; Rezaei, Human; Pastore, Annalisa; Laude, Hubert; Dron, Michel

    2012-06-01

    The process of prion conversion is not yet well understood at the molecular level. The regions critical for the conformational change of PrP remain mostly debated and the extent of sequence change acceptable for prion conversion is poorly documented. To achieve progress on these issues, we applied a reverse genetic approach using the Rov cell system. This allowed us to test the susceptibility of a number of insertion mutants to conversion into prion in the absence of wild-type PrP molecules. We were able to propagate several prions with 8 to 16 extra amino acids, including a polyglycine stretch and His or FLAG tags, inserted in the middle of the protease-resistant fragment. These results demonstrate the possibility to increase the length of the loop between helices H2 and H3 up to 4-fold, without preventing prion replication. They also indicate that this loop probably remains unstructured in PrP(Sc). We also showed that bona fide prions can be produced following insertion of octapeptides in the two C-terminal turns of H2. These insertions do not interfere with the overall fold of the H2-H3 domain indicating that the highly conserved sequence of the terminal part of H2 is not critical for the conversion. Altogether these data showed that the amplitude of modifications acceptable for prion conversion in the core of the globular domain of PrP is much greater than one might have assumed. These observations should help to refine structural models of PrP(Sc) and elucidate the conformational changes underlying prions generation.

  5. Resilience | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widely accepted (Gunderson 2000, cited under Original Definition). Currently, the concept is commonplace in academics, management, and policy. Although the idea has quantitative roots in the ecological sciences and was proposed as a measurable quality of ecosystems, the broad use of resilience led to an expansion of definitions and applications. Holling’s original definition, presented in 1973 (Holling 1973, cited under Original Definition), was simply the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain. Ecological resilience, therefore, emphasizes that the dynamics of complex systems are nonlinear, meaning that these systems can transition, often abruptly, between dynamic states with substantially different structures, functions, and processes. The transition of ecological systems from one state to another frequently has important repercussions for humans. Recent definitions are more normative and qualitative, especially in the social sciences, and a competing definition, that of engineering resilience, is still often used. Resilience is an emergent phenomenon of complex systems, which means it cannot be deduced from the behavior of t

  6. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC AND HARD-TO-HEAL SKIN WOUNDS. A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years various methods are being applied in the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP during treatment in different orthopedic disease. They allow improvement of local biological condition and regeneration of different types of tissues. PRP is a modern treatment strategy with worldwide recognition. There is a high concentration of platelet growth factors in small amounts of plasma. PRP and its various forms have become one of the best methods to support the healing process of various tissues. PRP is used in regenerative medicine, because it provides two of three components (growth factors and scaffolds necessary for complete tissue regeneration. The particular reason for the appearance of lesions is important in order to select an appropriate treatment method and technical application. PRP may be used for treatment of various chronic and hard-to-heal cutaneous wounds, especially when standard conventional therapy is not good enough and surgical treatment is not possible. It reduces the duration, cost of treatment and the hospital stay. There is reduction of wound pain after starting the treatment, reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission, wound healing is restored, and local immunity is activated.

  7. Aligning Organizational Pathologies and Organizational Resilience Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Morales Allende

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing resilient individuals, organizations and communities is a hot topic in the research agenda in Management, Ecology, Psychology or Engineering. Despite the number of works that focus on resilience is increasing, there is not completely agreed definition of resilience, neither an entirely formal and accepted framework. The cause may be the spread of research among different fields. In this paper, we focus on the study of organizational resilience with the aim of improving the level of resilience in organizations. We review the relation between viable and resilient organizations and their common properties. Based on these common properties, we defend the application of the Viable System Model (VSM to design resilient organizations. We also identify the organizational pathologies defined applying the VSM through resilience indicators. We conclude that an organization with any organizational pathology is not likely to be resilient because it does not fulfill the requirements of viable organizations.

  8. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has become a center of excellence for critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the field of cyber security. It is one of only a few national laboratories that have enhanced the nation's cyber security posture by performing industrial control system (ICS) vendor assessments as well as user on-site assessments. Not only are vulnerabilities discovered, but described actions for enhancing security are suggested - both on a system-specific basis and from a general perspective of identifying common weaknesses and their corresponding corrective actions. These cyber security programs have performed over 40 assessments to date which have led to more robust, secure, and resilient monitoring and control systems for the US electrical grid, oil and gas, chemical, transportation, and many other sectors. In addition to cyber assessments themselves, the INL has been engaged in outreach to the ICS community through vendor forums, technical conferences, vendor user groups, and other special engagements as requested. Training programs have been created to help educate all levels of management and worker alike with an emphasis towards real everyday cyber hacking methods and techniques including typical exploits that are used. The asset owner or end user has many products available for its use created from these programs. One outstanding product is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems document that provides insight to the user when specifying a new monitoring and control system, particularly concerning security requirements. Employing some of the top cyber researchers in the nation, the INL can leverage this talent towards many applications other than critical infrastructure. Monitoring and control systems are used throughout the world to perform simple tasks such as cooking in a microwave to complex ones such as the monitoring and control of the

  9. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has become a center of excellence for critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the field of cyber security. It is one of only a few national laboratories that have enhanced the nation’s cyber security posture by performing industrial control system (ICS) vendor assessments as well as user on-site assessments. Not only are vulnerabilities discovered, but described actions for enhancing security are suggested – both on a system-specific basis and from a general perspective of identifying common weaknesses and their corresponding corrective actions. These cyber security programs have performed over 40 assessments to date which have led to more robust, secure, and resilient monitoring and control systems for the US electrical grid, oil and gas, chemical, transportation, and many other sectors. In addition to cyber assessments themselves, the INL has been engaged in outreach to the ICS community through vendor forums, technical conferences, vendor user groups, and other special engagements as requested. Training programs have been created to help educate all levels of management and worker alike with an emphasis towards real everyday cyber hacking methods and techniques including typical exploits that are used. The asset owner or end user has many products available for its use created from these programs. One outstanding product is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems document that provides insight to the user when specifying a new monitoring and control system, particularly concerning security requirements. Employing some of the top cyber researchers in the nation, the INL can leverage this talent towards many applications other than critical infrastructure. Monitoring and control systems are used throughout the world to perform simple tasks such as cooking in a microwave to complex ones such as the monitoring and control of the

  10. A practitioner’s experiences operationalizing Resilience Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lay, E.; Branlat, M.; Woods, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Resilience Engineering (RE) is a reframed perspective. This begs the question, “How to operationalize a shift in perspective?” We share strategies, tactics, experiences, and observations from implementing Resilience Engineering in power generation equipment maintenance. Use of Resilience Engineering principles shifts focus to the future, to systems, and to how people really work (not the idealized version of work). We more effectively shape outcomes as we pay attention to what’s coming, looking for signs we’re outside normal work or running out of margins that enable us to adapt and respond. Use of these principles opens new possibilities grounded in theoretical fields of biology, cognitive and system sciences (understand Cartesian views of the world work well for machines but not for people) and underlain by core principles (e.g., people fundamentally want to do a good job, actions taken make sense at the time, and system factors are tremendously influential on outcomes). This paper presents a practitioner’s account of a Resilience Engineering approach in the context of power plant maintenance. The paper will describe how the introduction of RE principles was made possible through supporting/fostering shifts in perspective and gaining buy-in at various levels of the organization. - Highlights: • Resilience Engineering is a shifted perspective as compared to a new program. • RE is grounded in fields of biology, cognitive and system sciences. • We share strategies, tactics, experiences, and observations for implementing RE. • We used a middle out approach

  11. Social Networks, Engagement and Resilience in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fernández-Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of social networks may be a useful tool for understanding the relationship between resilience and engagement, and this could be applied to educational methodologies, not only to improve academic performance, but also to create emotionally sustainable networks. This descriptive study was carried out on 134 university students. We collected the network structural variables, degree of resilience (CD-RISC 10, and engagement (UWES-S. The computer programs used were excel, UCINET for network analysis, and SPSS for statistical analysis. The analysis revealed results of means of 28.61 for resilience, 2.98 for absorption, 4.82 for dedication, and 3.13 for vigour. The students had two preferred places for sharing information: the classroom and WhatsApp. The greater the value for engagement, the greater the degree of centrality in the friendship network among students who are beginning their university studies. This relationship becomes reversed as the students move to later academic years. In terms of resilience, the highest values correspond to greater centrality in the friendship networks. The variables of engagement and resilience influenced the university students’ support networks.

  12. Social Networks, Engagement and Resilience in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Elena; Andina-Díaz, Elena; Fernández-Peña, Rosario; García-López, Rosa; Fulgueiras-Carril, Iván; Liébana-Presa, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of social networks may be a useful tool for understanding the relationship between resilience and engagement, and this could be applied to educational methodologies, not only to improve academic performance, but also to create emotionally sustainable networks. This descriptive study was carried out on 134 university students. We collected the network structural variables, degree of resilience (CD-RISC 10), and engagement (UWES-S). The computer programs used were excel, UCINET for network analysis, and SPSS for statistical analysis. The analysis revealed results of means of 28.61 for resilience, 2.98 for absorption, 4.82 for dedication, and 3.13 for vigour. The students had two preferred places for sharing information: the classroom and WhatsApp. The greater the value for engagement, the greater the degree of centrality in the friendship network among students who are beginning their university studies. This relationship becomes reversed as the students move to later academic years. In terms of resilience, the highest values correspond to greater centrality in the friendship networks. The variables of engagement and resilience influenced the university students' support networks.

  13. Reconnecting Social and Ecological Resilience in Salmon Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Bottom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosystem resilience that have been overlooked by traditional salmon management approaches. The dynamics of salmon ecosystems involve social-ecological interactions across multiple scales that create difficult mismatches with the many jurisdictions that manage fisheries and other natural resources. Of particular importance to ecosystem resilience are large-scale shifts in oceanic and climatic regimes or in global economic conditions that unpredictably alter social and ecological systems. Past management actions that did not account for such changes have undermined salmon population resilience and increased the risk of irreversible regime shifts in salmon ecosystems. Because salmon convey important provisioning, cultural, and supporting services to their local watersheds, widespread population decline has undermined both human well-being and ecosystem resilience. Strengthening resilience will require expanding habitat opportunities for salmon populations to express their maximum life-history variation. Such actions also may benefit the "response diversity" of local communities by expanding the opportunities for people to express diverse social and economic values. Reestablishing social-ecological connections in salmon ecosystems will provide important ecosystem services, including those that depend on clean water, ample stream flows, functional wetlands and floodplains, intact riparian systems, and abundant fish populations.

  14. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  15. Resilience and precarious success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Mary D; Wears, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical case study to illustrate, corroborate, and perhaps extend some key generalizations about resilient performance in complex adaptive systems. The setting is a pediatric hematology/oncology pharmacy, a complex system embedded in the larger complex of the hospital, which provides chemotherapy and other high risk medications to children with cancer, sickle cell disease and autoimmune disorders. Recently the demands placed on this system have dramatically intensified while the resources allocated to the system have remained static. We describe the adaptations of this system in response to this additional stress. In addition, we discuss the risks associated with miscalibration about the system's adaptive capacity, and the tradeoff between the need to invest in adaptive capacity (to sustain performance when the system is stressed) versus the need to invest in efficient production (to sustain performance under normal circumstances and economic pressures). - Highlights: • We describe a complex adaptive system: a pediatric hematology/oncology pharmacy. • Work in this system has changed and intensified, but resources have remained static. • Staff's adaptive behaviors demonstrate graceful extensibility and fluency. • The HO staff has demonstrated extraordinary adaptive behaviors. • Leadership miscalibrates the efforts required to perform the pharmacy's work

  16. Community resiliency as a measure of collective health status: perspectives from rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Judith C; Edge, Dana; Joyce, Brenda

    2008-12-01

    Community resiliency is a theoretical framework useful for describing the process used by communities to address adversity. A mixed-method 2-year case study was conducted to gather information about community resiliency in 2 rural communities. This article focuses on the themes generated from qualitative interviews with 55 members of these communities. The participants viewed community as a place of interdependence and interaction. The majority saw community resiliency as the ability to address challenges. Characteristics included physical and social infrastructure, population characteristics, conceptual characteristics, and problem-solving processes. Barriers included negative individual attitudes and lack of infrastructure in rural communities. Nurses could play a key role in enhancing the resiliency of rural communities by developing and implementing programs based on the Community Resiliency Model, which was supported in this study.

  17. Does integration matter? A holistic model for building community resilience in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanta Kafle, Shesh

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses an integrated communitybased risk reduction model adopted by the Pakistan Red Crescent. The paper analyses the model's constructs and definitions, and provides a conceptual framework and a set of practical recommendations for building community resilience. The study uses the process of outcome-based resilience index to assess the effectiveness of the approach. The results indicate that the integrated programming approach is an effective way to build community resilience as it offers a number of tangible and longlasting benefits, including effective and efficient service delivery, local ownership, sustainability of results, and improved local resilience with respect to the shock and stress associated with disaster. The paper also outlines a set of recommendations for the effective and efficient use of the model for building community resilience in Pakistan.

  18. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C

    2017-12-01

    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  19. Physician resilience: what it means, why it matters, and how to promote it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ronald M; Krasner, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    Resilience is the capacity to respond to stress in a healthy way such that goals are achieved at minimal psychological and physical cost; resilient individuals "bounce back" after challenges while also growing stronger. Resilience is a key to enhancing quality of care, quality of caring, and sustainability of the health care workforce. Yet, ways of identifying and promoting resilience have been elusive. Resilience depends on individual, community, and institutional factors. The study by Zwack and Schweitzer in this issue of Academic Medicine illustrates that individual factors of resilience include the capacity for mindfulness, self-monitoring, limit setting, and attitudes that promote constructive and healthy engagement with (rather than withdrawal from) the often-difficult challenges at work. Cultivating these specific skills, habits, and attitudes that promote resilience is possible for medical students and practicing clinicians alike. Resilience-promoting programs should also strive to build community among clinicians and other members of the health care workforce. Just as patient safety is the responsibility of communities of practice, so is clinician well-being and support. Finally, it is in the self-interest of health care institutions to support the efforts of all members of the health care workforce to enhance their capacity for resilience; it will increase quality of care while reducing errors, burnout, and attrition. Successful organizations outside of medicine offer insight about institutional structures and values that promote individual and collective resilience. This commentary proposes methods for enhancing individuals' resilience while building community, as well as directions for future interventions, research, and institutional involvement.

  20. Hierarchical resilience with lightweight threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes methodology for providing robustness and resilience for a highly threaded distributed- and shared-memory environment based on well-defined inputs and outputs to lightweight tasks. These inputs and outputs form a failure 'barrier', allowing tasks to be restarted or duplicated as necessary. These barriers must be expanded based on task behavior, such as communication between tasks, but do not prohibit any given behavior. One of the trends in high-performance computing codes seems to be a trend toward self-contained functions that mimic functional programming. Software designers are trending toward a model of software design where their core functions are specified in side-effect free or low-side-effect ways, wherein the inputs and outputs of the functions are well-defined. This provides the ability to copy the inputs to wherever they need to be - whether that's the other side of the PCI bus or the other side of the network - do work on that input using local memory, and then copy the outputs back (as needed). This design pattern is popular among new distributed threading environment designs. Such designs include the Barcelona STARS system, distributed OpenMP systems, the Habanero-C and Habanero-Java systems from Vivek Sarkar at Rice University, the HPX/ParalleX model from LSU, as well as our own Scalable Parallel Runtime effort (SPR) and the Trilinos stateless kernels. This design pattern is also shared by CUDA and several OpenMP extensions for GPU-type accelerators (e.g. the PGI OpenMP extensions).

  1. Resilience in nurses: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Patricia L; Brannan, Jane D; De Chesnay, Mary

    2014-09-01

    To describe nursing research that has been conducted to understand the phenomenon of resilience in nurses. Resilience is the ability to bounce back or cope successfully despite adverse circumstances. Nurses deal with modern-day problems that affect their abilities to remain resilient. Nursing administrators/managers need to look for solutions not only to recruit nurses, but to become knowledgeable about how to support and retain nurses. A comprehensive search was undertaken for nursing research conducted between 1990 and 2011. Key search terms were nurse, resilience, resiliency and resilient. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative approach was used to conduct the methodological review. Challenging workplaces, psychological emptiness, diminishing inner balance and a sense of dissonance are contributing factors for resilience. Examples of intrapersonal characteristics include hope, self-efficacy and coping. Cognitive reframing, toughening up, grounding connections, work-life balance and reconciliation are resilience building strategies. This review provides information about the concept of resilience. Becoming aware of contributing factors to the need for resilience and successful strategies to build resilience can help in recruiting and retaining nurses. Understanding the concept of resilience can assist in providing support and developing programmes to help nurses become and stay resilient. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Community Resilience Education: Lessons Learned from an Emerging Community of Practice - NOAA's Environmental Literacy Grantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; McDougall, C.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA supports community resilience to extreme weather events, climate change and other environmental hazards by preparing communities through Weather Ready Nation and through programs addressing coastal community needs. These programs primarily target adult decisions makers in a professional capacity (emergency managers, city planners, et al.), leaving non-professional audiences without opportunities to understand and develop the skills to prepare for the threats and vulnerabilities that their communities face. As a result, resilience became the focus of NOAA's Environmental Literacy Grants in 2015. The goal of these investments is to strengthen the public's and/or K-12 students' environmental literacy to enable informed decision-making necessary for community resilience to extreme weather events and other environmental hazards. Funded projects build an understanding of Earth systems and the threats and vulnerabilities that are associated with a community's location, are aligned with existing adaptation/resilience plans, and connect audiences to relevant tools and resources to prepare for and respond to these hazards. These first few years of investment will create new models for how education can improve community resilience. Although these projects incorporate a variety of approaches, a few common themes stand out: empowering youth and adults to increase their understanding of locally relevant natural hazards and stresses; giving youth a voice in resilience planning; and student-led vulnerability assessments of their schools and communities. In this session we will report on the first convening of the principal investigators of our 13 funded projects, which represents the beginning of a new community of practice focused on resilience education. We will specifically share lessons learned about: engaging youth and adults about climate change and resiliency; working with local resilience/adaptation planners; and case studies on the use of NOAA's Digital Coast and

  3. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011. Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many researches. Of all this recent and varied range of literature, our focus is on those texts that combine resilience with strategies, processes and models for resilient cities, communities and regions. Starting from the resilience strategies developed as response for risks mitigation, the paper thus explores other approaches and experiences on cities resilience that have been conducted: the aim is to compare and identify innovation in the planning process towards risks mitigation. In this paper we present a summary of the initial survey stage of our research, with three main aims: understanding the approaches to resilience developed so far and identifying which aspects these approaches share (or not;understanding which strategies are being proposed for resilient regions, cities or social-ecological systems;understanding whether proposed resilience strategies involve innovations in urban and regional development disciplines. The aim is to understand whether the proposed concept of resilience, or rather strategies, constitute progress and contribute to innovation in the areas of urban planning and design in relation to risk mitigation. Three main families of literature have been identified from the recent literature promoting resilience as a key strategy. The first aim of the research is to understand which particular concept and which aspects of resilience are used, which resilience strategies are proposed, how the term ‘city’ is defined and interpreted

  4. PrPST, a Soluble, Protease Resistant and Truncated PrP Form Features in the Pathogenesis of a Genetic Prion Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Kati; Binyamin, Orli; Gabizon, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    While the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc in the transmissible form of prion disease requires a preexisting PrPSc seed, in genetic prion disease accumulation of disease related PrP could be associated with biochemical and metabolic modifications resulting from the designated PrP mutation. To investigate this possibility, we looked into the time related changes of PrP proteins in the brains of TgMHu2ME199K/wt mice, a line modeling for heterozygous genetic prion disease linked to the E200K PrP mutation. We found that while oligomeric entities of mutant E199KPrP exist at all ages, aggregates of wt PrP in the same brains presented only in advanced disease, indicating a late onset conversion process. We also show that most PK resistant PrP in TgMHu2ME199K mice is soluble and truncated (PrPST), a pathogenic form never before associated with prion disease. We next looked into brain samples from E200K patients and found that both PK resistant PrPs, PrPST as in TgMHu2ME199K mice, and “classical” PrPSc as in infectious prion diseases, coincide in the patient's post mortem brains. We hypothesize that aberrant metabolism of mutant PrPs may result in the formation of previously unknown forms of the prion protein and that these may be central for the fatal outcome of the genetic prion condition. PMID:23922744

  5. PrP(ST), a soluble, protease resistant and truncated PrP form features in the pathogenesis of a genetic prion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Levi, Yael; Mizrahi, Michal; Frid, Kati; Binyamin, Orli; Gabizon, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    While the conversion of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc) in the transmissible form of prion disease requires a preexisting PrP(Sc) seed, in genetic prion disease accumulation of disease related PrP could be associated with biochemical and metabolic modifications resulting from the designated PrP mutation. To investigate this possibility, we looked into the time related changes of PrP proteins in the brains of TgMHu2ME199K/wt mice, a line modeling for heterozygous genetic prion disease linked to the E200K PrP mutation. We found that while oligomeric entities of mutant E199KPrP exist at all ages, aggregates of wt PrP in the same brains presented only in advanced disease, indicating a late onset conversion process. We also show that most PK resistant PrP in TgMHu2ME199K mice is soluble and truncated (PrP(ST)), a pathogenic form never before associated with prion disease. We next looked into brain samples from E200K patients and found that both PK resistant PrPs, PrP(ST) as in TgMHu2ME199K mice, and "classical" PrP(Sc) as in infectious prion diseases, coincide in the patient's post mortem brains. We hypothesize that aberrant metabolism of mutant PrPs may result in the formation of previously unknown forms of the prion protein and that these may be central for the fatal outcome of the genetic prion condition.

  6. PrP(ST, a soluble, protease resistant and truncated PrP form features in the pathogenesis of a genetic prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Friedman-Levi

    Full Text Available While the conversion of PrP(C into PrP(Sc in the transmissible form of prion disease requires a preexisting PrP(Sc seed, in genetic prion disease accumulation of disease related PrP could be associated with biochemical and metabolic modifications resulting from the designated PrP mutation. To investigate this possibility, we looked into the time related changes of PrP proteins in the brains of TgMHu2ME199K/wt mice, a line modeling for heterozygous genetic prion disease linked to the E200K PrP mutation. We found that while oligomeric entities of mutant E199KPrP exist at all ages, aggregates of wt PrP in the same brains presented only in advanced disease, indicating a late onset conversion process. We also show that most PK resistant PrP in TgMHu2ME199K mice is soluble and truncated (PrP(ST, a pathogenic form never before associated with prion disease. We next looked into brain samples from E200K patients and found that both PK resistant PrPs, PrP(ST as in TgMHu2ME199K mice, and "classical" PrP(Sc as in infectious prion diseases, coincide in the patient's post mortem brains. We hypothesize that aberrant metabolism of mutant PrPs may result in the formation of previously unknown forms of the prion protein and that these may be central for the fatal outcome of the genetic prion condition.

  7. What Do We Mean by 'Community Resilience'? A Systematic Literature Review of How It Is Defined in the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonny S; Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James

    2017-02-01

    Government, industry and charitable organisations have an increasing focus on programs intended to support community resilience to disasters. But has consensus been reached as to what defines 'community resilience' and what its core characteristics are? We undertook a systematic literature review of definitions of community resilience related to disasters. We conducted an inductive thematic analysis of the definitions and descriptions that we identified, in order to determine the proposed characteristics of community resilience prior to, during and after a disaster. We identified 80 relevant papers. There was no evidence of a common, agreed definition of community resilience. In spite of this, evidence was found of nine core elements of community resilience that were common among the definitions. The core elements were: local knowledge, community networks and relationships, communication, health, governance and leadership, resources, economic investment, preparedness, and mental outlook. Within these core elements, we identified 19 sub-elements linked to community resilience. Our findings show that community resilience remains an amorphous concept that is understood and applied differently by different research groups. Yet in spite of the differences in conception and application, there are well-understood elements that are widely proposed as important for a resilient community. A focus on these individual elements may be more productive than attempting to define and study community resilience as a distinct concept.

  8. Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

  9. Center for Evaluation of Resilience Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Employment  o Work/Life Satisfaction; Work/Life Conflict; Role Strain  o Work  Stress / Burnout   o Work Performance  o Sociodemographics   Community...appropriate venue for publication. We also explored publishing it  in the Journal of Advanced  Nursing  in September 2014.      The concept analysis was a...clearance of infection and healing of damaged tissues. However, when either overly or  insufficiently robust, inflammation can drive further cell  stress

  10. Climate leadership program: Building Africa's resilience through ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Activities include training, research, testing of climate solutions in local communities, and coaching and mentorship in the area of policy development and advocacy. Emphasis will be placed on building leadership capacity among women. This is a collaborative effort between the University of Nairobi and the Institute of ...

  11. Integrated Approach to a Resilient City: Associating Social, Environmental and Infrastructure Resilience in its Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising complexity, numbers and severity of natural and manmade disasters enhance the importance of reducing vulnerability, or on contrary – increasing resilience, of different kind of systems, including those of social, engineering (infrastructure, and environmental (ecological nature. The goal of this research is to explore urban resilience as an integral system of social, environmental, and engineering resilience. This report analyses the concepts of each kind of resilience and identifies key factors influencing social, ecological, and infrastructure resilience discussing how these factors relate within urban systems. The achievement of resilience of urban and regional systems happens through the interaction of the different elements (social, psychological, physical, structural, and environmental, etc.; therefore, resilient city could be determined by synergy of resilient society, resilient infrastructure and resilient environment of the given area. Based on literature analysis, the current research provides some insights on conceptual framework for assessment of complex urban systems in terms of resilience. To be able to evaluate resilience and define effective measures for prevention and risk mitigation, and thereby strengthen resilience, we propose to develop an e-platform, joining risk parameters’ Monitoring Systems, which feed with data Resiliency Index calculation domain. Both these elements result in Multirisk Platform, which could serve for awareness and shared decision making for resilient people in resilient city.

  12. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  13. A Predictive Model on North Korean Refugees' Adaptation to South Korean Society: Resilience in Response to Psychological Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hee Lim, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that resilience can be improved through self-efficacy. It was the most significant factor decreasing psychological trauma and increasing resilience. Therefore, we need to develop programs for self-efficacy. The results also provide basic data for policy making for North Korean refugees.

  14. C2R2: Training Students To Build Coastal Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, C.; Kopp, R. E.; Jordan, R.; Gong, J.; Andrews, C.; Auermuller, L. M.; Herb, J.; McDonnell, J. D.; Bond, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the United States, about 23 million people live within 6 meters of sea level. In many parts of the country, sea-level rise between 1960 and 2010 has already led to a 2-5-fold increase in the rate of `nuisance' flooding. On top of rising seas, intensifying hurricanes and more frequent extremes of heat, humidity and precipitation pose additional risks to coastal societies, economies and ecosystems. Addressing risks posed by changing climate conditions in coastal areas demands innovative strategies that intersect multiple disciplines including engineering, ecology, communication, climate science, and community planning. To be usable, it also requires engaging coastal stakeholders in the development of research questions, the assessment of implications of research for planning and policy, and the communication of research results. Yet traditional, disciplinary programs are poorly configured to train the workforce needed to assess coastal climate risk and to develop and deploy integrated strategies for increasing coastal climate resilience. Coastal Climate Risk & Resilience (C2R2) is an NSF Research Traineeship (NRT) working to prepare the workforce that will build coastal resilience in the face of climate risks. Through its trainee and certificate programs, C2R2 works with graduate students at Rutgers University from multiple disciplines to better integrate all the elements of coastal systems and to communicate effectively with coastal stakeholders. C2R2 students will acquire the knowledge and practical skills needed to become leading researchers and practitioners tackling the critical challenges of coastal resilience.

  15. Codesigning a resilient food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari J. Himanen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global changes, especially the progression of climate change, create a plethora of adaptation needs for social-ecological systems. With increasing uncertainty, more resilient food systems that are able to adapt and shape their operations in response to emerging challenges are required. Most of the research on this subject has been focused on developing countries; however, developed countries also face increasing environmental, economic, and social pressures. Because food systems are complex and involve multiple actors, using codesign might be the most productive way to develop desirable system characteristics. For this study, we engaged food system actors in a scenario-planning exercise to identify means of building more resilient food systems. In particular, the actors focused on determinants of adaptive capacity in developed countries, with Finland as a case study. The brainstorming session followed by a two-round Delphi study raised three main characteristics for effective food system resilience, namely, energy and nutrient sovereignty, transparency and dialogue in the food chain, and continuous innovativeness and evidence-based learning. In addition, policy interventions were found instrumental for supporting such food system resilience. The main actor-specific determinants of adaptive capacity identified included the farmers' utilization of agri-technology and expertise; energy and logistic efficiency of the input and processing industry; and for retail, communication to build consumer trust and environmental awareness, and effective use of information and communication technology. Of the food system actors, farmers and the processing industry were perceived to be the closest to reaching the limits of their adaptive capacities. The use of adaptive capacity as a proxy seemed to concretize food system resilience effectively. Our study suggests that the resilience approach generates new perspectives that can guide actors in developing food

  16. [Leisure activities, resilience and mental stress in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinski, Norbert; Popal, Narges; Plück, Julia; Petermann, Franz; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    To date, the factors contributing to emergence of resilience in different stages of adolescence have yet to be sufficiently examined. This study looks at the influence of extracurricular activities on resilience. The sample consists of 413 adolescents (f = 14.8) reporting personal problems (mood, concentration problems, behavior). The effect of extracurricular activities on resilience (gathered by the RS25) was analyzed by linear regression models. Predictor variables in these models were extracurricular activities (sport, hobbies, club memberships, household duties) and the subscales of the SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Because of the lack of homoscedasticity, two different regression models (model A: Realschule and Grammar School. Model B: Hauptschule) were specified. The explained variance of both models (model A: R = .516; model B: R = .643) is satisfactory. In both models “prosocial behavior” (SDQ) turns out to be a significant positive predictor for resilience (model A: b = 2.815; model B; b = 3.577) and emotional symptoms (model A: b = -1.697; model B: b = -2.596) are significant negative predictors for resilience. In addition, model A presents significant positive influences of sport (b = 16,314) and significant negative influences of “hyperactivity” (SDQ). In contrast, in model B “club memberships” (b = 15.775) and” peer relationship problems” (b = 1.508) are additional positive predictors. The results of the study demonstrate the important role of prosocial behavior and emotional competence in the manifestation of resilience. The effect of extracurricular activities proves to depend on the social environment (type of school). Thus, these results could form the basis for further more specific developmental programs.

  17. Teaching Resiliency Theory to Substance Abuse Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Resiliency is the ability to cope in the face of adversity. One protective factor that promotes resiliency in substance-abusing dysfunctional families is family rituals and traditions. Social workers and substance abuse counselors can teach family members how to instill resiliency in their families and themselves through rituals and traditions. To…

  18. The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Saklofske, Donald H.; Nordstokke, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults (RSYA) is presented as an upward extension of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA). The RSYA is based on the "three-factor model of personal resiliency" including "mastery," "relatedness," and "emotional reactivity." Several stages of scale…

  19. A comprehensive approach to assess operational resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, R.J.M.; Karydas, D.M.; Rouvroye, J.L.; Hollnagel, E.; Pieri, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a first attempt to apply Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) to the concept of resilience. The focus of this paper is measuring the management performance of operational resilience in an organization. Operational resilience refers to the ability of an organization to prevent

  20. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  1. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska

    2015-11-01

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  2. Business resiliency and stakeholder management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Noel; Perry, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The authors facilitated separate round table discussions at the City and Financial Conference in London on 29th January, 2014. The theme of these discussions was business resiliency and stakeholder management. This topic attracted the largest group of all the breakout sessions, as the issue continues to generate much interest across the business resilience community. In this paper, the authors summarise the discussions held at the event and add their own insights into the subject of who are stakeholders, and the different means and messages to communicate to them.

  3. Transparent Seismic Mitigation for Community Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, C. D.; Pekelnicky, R.

    2008-12-01

    the standards needed for new buildings and lifelines and the rehabilitation programs needed for existing buildings and systems. Earthquake professionals -- Emergency Response Planners, Earth Scientists, and Earthquake Engineers - need to embrace this level of transparency and work with their communities to craft the policies needed to instill change and achieve disaster resilience.

  4. Fostering resilience through changing realities. Introduction to operational resilience capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, D.; Vorm, J. van der; Beek, F.A. van der; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    The reality of operations does not always follow the book. Operational circumstances may develop into surprising situations that procedures have not accounted for. Still, we make things work. Resilient performance recognizes surprise early and acts upon it through adaptation, which is critical for

  5. Adolescent fatherhood: Risk factor or resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Benatuil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the adolescent pregnancy has been historically centered in the mother, the preponderant focus has been considers the maternity in this stage of the vital cycle as a factor of risk. Nowadays, have begun some studies that focus the problem of the adolescent pregnancy being centered in the father’s figure to appear and proposing a healthy focus, starting from the introduction of such concepts like Resilience. The present article, is a theoretical work, it is carried out to leave of secondary data. The objective is the compilation of studies and information on the subject of adolescent fatherhood from a less explored focus, considering the factors of risk and resilience. Different studies are raised with Latin American youths. Also are analyzed the access possibilities to the sanitary system from the youths, the knowledge of birth-control methods and the participation in programs of reproductive health. It outlines the importance of including the males in the whole process of procreation and the boy’s upbringing. 

  6. New pathways to resilience

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    the knowledge base of African scientists in ways that would ... Structure. The program was delivered by IDRC, an organization with over 40 years of experience in ..... and private sector seed and equipment suppliers resulted in new tools and ...

  7. Social Resilience and Commercial Fishers' Responses to Management Changes in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Sutton

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how social resilience influences resource users' responses to policy change is important for ensuring the sustainability of social-ecological systems and resource-dependent communities. We use the conceptualization and operationalization of social resilience proposed by Marshall and Marshall (2007 to investigate how resilience level influenced commercial fishers' perceptions about and adaptation to the 2004 rezoning of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. We conducted face-to-face interviews with 114 commercial and charter fishers to measure their social resilience level and their responses and adaptation strategies to the 2004 zoning plan. Fishers with higher resilience were more likely to believe that the zoning plan was necessary, more likely to be supportive of the plan, and more likely to have adapted their fishing business and fishing activity to the plan than were fishers with lower social resilience. High-resilience fishers were also less likely to perceive negative impacts of the plan on their fishing business, less likely to have negative attitudes toward the consultation process used to develop and implement the plan, and less likely to have applied for financial compensation under the structural adjustment program. Results confirm the utility of the social resilience construct for identifying fishers who are likely to be vulnerable to changes, and those who are struggling to cope with change events. We conclude that managing for social resilience in the GBR would aid in the design and implementation of policies that minimize the impacts on resource users and lead to more inclusive and sustainable management, but that further research is necessary to better understand social resilience, how it can be fostered and sustained, and how it can be effectively incorporated into management.

  8. The Resilience Assessment Framework: a common indicator for land management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Annette; Metternicht, Graciela; O'Connell, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    applicable to all agro-ecosystems, and that involvement of stakeholders is critical to discerning the critical variables to be assessed, the proposed framework uses an iterative participatory approach to characterise the system, considering also interactions across and within scales; identify the controlling variables, and assess proximity to thresholds, and adaptive capacity. The framework consists of four elements: Element A: System description; Element B Assessing the system; Element C Adaptive governance and management; Element D Participatory process. Element D is intended as a cross-cutting element, applying across Elements A to C, although Elements A and B can be applied as a desktop activity in a preliminary assessment. The results of the assessment are synthesised in "Resilience action indicators", that summarise the state of the system with respect to the need to adapt or transform. The presentation will summarise the framework and the responses of expert reviewers who identified strengths of the approach, and challenges for implementation, particularly at program and national scales. The presentation will emphasise the conceptual basis for the approach, and the role of scientists in testing, refining and operationalizing the approach.

  9. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  10. Evaluation of the effect of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on enhancement of bone healing in diaphyseal bone defects by radiography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özak, Ahmet; Yardimci, Cenk; Nİsbet, Özlem H.; Bayrak, İlkay Koray; Nİsbet, Cevat

    2010-01-01

    The effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with autogenous cancellous bone graft on enhancement of bone healing in diaphyseal bone defects was evaluated. A 4-mm defect was created in the middiaphysis of the tibias of 20 rabbits. Rabbits were divided into two groups of ten animals each: only autogenous cancellous graft, PRP and autogenous cancellous graft. In animals of group 1, only autogenous cancellous grafts, and to those in group 2, PRP and autogenous cancellous grafts, were applied to the defect. Radiographical and computed tomography (CT) views were taken and evaluated on postoperative days 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90. According to the bone formation, union, and remodeling scores, group 1 had better scores than group 2 on days 30, 60, and 90. The density was significantly increased on day 60 than on days 0, 15, and 30 in group 1. In conclusion, it was evaluated that PRP could not enhance the bone regeneration in diaphyseal defects when used with autogenous cancellous bone graft

  11. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  12. Amidation and structure relaxation abolish the neurotoxicity of the prion peptide PrP106-126 in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm, Linda Alice; Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Zsurger, N.

    2005-01-01

    One of the major pathological hallmarks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is the accumulation of a pathogenic (scrapie) isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) primarily in the central nervous system. The synthetic prion peptide PrP106-126 shares many characteristics...

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal domain of the human spliceosomal DExD/H-box protein hPrp22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudlinzki, Denis; Nagel, Christian; Ficner, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The cloning, purification and crystallization of the C-terminal domain of human hPrp22 are reported. This communication also contains data for the preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. The Homo sapiens DExD/H-box protein hPrp22 is a crucial component of the eukaryotic pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Within the splicing cycle, it is involved in the ligation of exons and generation of the lariat and it additionally catalyzes the release of mature mRNA from the spliceosomal U5 snRNP. The yeast homologue of this protein, yPrp22, shows ATP-dependent RNA-helicase activity and is capable of unwinding RNA/RNA duplex molecules. A truncated construct coding for residues 950–1183 of human Prp22, comprising the structurally and functionally uncharacterized C-terminal domain, was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector. The protein was subsequently overproduced, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution, belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 1 2 1 2 or P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.2, c = 88.4 Å, and contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit

  14. PrP0\\0 mice show behavioral abnormalities that suggest PrPC has a role in maintaining the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Introduction. PrPC is highly conserved among mammals, but its natural function is unclear. Prnp ablated mice (PrP0/0) appear to develop normally and are able to reproduce. These observations seem to indicate that the gene is not essential for viability, in spite of it being highly conse...

  15. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project — A Community-Level, Public Health Initiative to Build Community Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eisenman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR, a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest–posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  16. Seeding Stress Resilience through Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Ashokan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generalized set of physiological and psychological responses observed when an organism is placed under challenging circumstances. The stress response allows organisms to reattain the equilibrium in face of perturbations. Unfortunately, chronic and/or traumatic exposure to stress frequently overwhelms coping ability of an individual. This is manifested as symptoms affecting emotions and cognition in stress-related mental disorders. Thus environmental interventions that promote resilience in face of stress have much clinical relevance. Focus of the bulk of relevant neurobiological research at present remains on negative aspects of health and psychological outcomes of stress exposure. Yet exposure to the stress itself can promote resilience to subsequent stressful episodes later in the life. This is especially true if the prior stress occurs early in life, is mild in its magnitude, and is controllable by the individual. This articulation has been referred to as “stress inoculation,” reminiscent of resilience to the pathology generated through vaccination by attenuated pathogen itself. Using experimental evidence from animal models, this review explores relationship between nature of the “inoculum” stress and subsequent psychological resilience.

  17. MSY from catch and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Chrysafi, Anna

    A simple Schaefer model was tested on the Greenland halibut stock offshore in NAFO SA 0 and 1. The minimum data required for this model is a catch time series and a measure of the resilience of the species. Other input parameters that had to be guessed were the carrying capacity, the biomass...

  18. Strengthening community resilience: a toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Scott; Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    While community resilience is said to have gained a lot of traction politically and given credence by disaster management professionals, this perception is not always shared by the individual members of communities. One solution to addressing the difficulty of individuals ‘conceptualising’ the

  19. Interprofessionals' definitions of moral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Heidi; Heinze, Katherine; Rushton, Cynda

    2018-02-01

    To describe common characteristics and themes of the concept of moral resilience as reported by interprofessional clinicians in health care. Research has provided an abundance of data on moral distress with limited research to resolve and help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress. This reveals a critical need for research on how to mitigate the negative consequences of moral distress that plague nurses and other healthcare providers. One promising direction is to build resilience as an individual strategy concurrently with interventions to build a culture of ethical practice. Qualitative descriptive methods were used to analyse descriptive definitions provided by 184 interprofessional clinicians in health care attending educational programmes in various locations as well as a small group of 23 professionals with backgrounds such as chaplaincy and nonhealthcare providers. Three primary themes and three subthemes emerged from the data. The primary themes are integrity-personal and relational, and buoyancy. The subthemes are self-regulation, self-stewardship and moral efficacy. Individual healthcare providers and healthcare systems can use this research to help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress by finding ways to develop interventions to cultivate moral resilience. Moral resilience involves not only building and fostering the individual's capacity to navigate moral adversity but also developing systems that support a culture of ethical practice for healthcare providers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cyber Resilience in de Boardroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Zielstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Grand Conference - Building a Resilient Digital Society - took place in Amsterdam on October 16, 2012. The international conference aimed for top decision-makers of industry government and other organisations. Two hundred participants from twenty-two nations participated. Three Dutch

  1. Resilience amid Academic Stress: The Moderating Impact of Social Support among Social Work Students

    OpenAIRE

    Scott E. Wilks

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic stress and perceived resilience among social work students, and to identify social support as a protective factor of resilience on this relationship. A conceptual model of moderation was used to test the role of social support as protective. Methods: The sample consisted of 314 social work students (BSW=144; MSW=170) from three accredited schools/programs in the southern United States. Voluntary survey data we...

  2. Robust nonlinear PID-like fuzzy logic control of a planar parallel (2PRP-PPR) manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londhe, P S; Singh, Yogesh; Santhakumar, M; Patre, B M; Waghmare, L M

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a robust nonlinear proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-like fuzzy control scheme is presented and applied to complex trajectory tracking control of a 2PRP-PPR (P-prismatic, R-revolute) planar parallel manipulator (motion platform) with three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The proposed control law consists of mainly two parts: first part uses a feed forward term to enhance the control activity and estimated perturbed term to compensate for the unknown effects namely external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics, and the second part uses a PID-like fuzzy logic control as a feedback portion to enhance the overall closed-loop stability of the system. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. What do you mean, 'resilient geomorphic systems'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Piégay, H.; Parsons, M.

    2018-03-01

    Resilience thinking has many parallels in the study of geomorphology. Similarities and intersections exist between the scientific discipline of geomorphology and the scientific concept of resilience. Many of the core themes fundamental to geomorphology are closely related to the key themes of resilience. Applications of resilience thinking in the study of natural and human systems have expanded, based on the fundamental premise that ecosystems, economies, and societies must be managed as linked social-ecological systems. Despite geomorphology and resilience sharing core themes, appreciation is limited of the history and development of geomorphology as a field of scientific endeavor by many in the field of resilience, as well as a limited awareness of the foundations of the former in the more recent emergence of resilience. This potentially limits applications of resilience concepts to the study of geomorphology. In this manuscript we provide a collective examination of geomorphology and resilience as a means to conceptually advance both areas of study, as well as to further cement the relevance and importance of not only understanding the complexities of geomorphic systems in an emerging world of interdisciplinary challenges but also the importance of viewing humans as an intrinsic component of geomorphic systems rather than just an external driver. The application of the concepts of hierarchy and scale, fundamental tenets of the study of geomorphic systems, provide a means to overcome contemporary scale-limited approaches within resilience studies. Resilience offers a framework for geomorphology to expand its application into the broader social-ecological domain.

  4. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M.; Bonanno, George A.; Masten, Ann S.; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  5. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Bonanno, George A; Masten, Ann S; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture).

  6. Is Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Effective in the Treatment of Acute Muscle Injuries? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Alberto; Napoli, Francesca; Romandini, Iacopo; Samuelsson, Kristian; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Candrian, Christian; Filardo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Muscle lesions account for one-third of sport-related injuries, thus representing a substantial problem for both players and their teams. The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections is rapidly growing in clinical practice, prompted by an unmet clinical need with a large commercial market. However, after early reports of positive preliminary experience, higher quality studies recently questioned the real benefit provided by PRP injections to promote muscle healing and return to sport. To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections on outcomes following acute muscle injuries. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs), Level I. PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane (CENTRAL), Web of Science, clinicaltrials.gov, who.int, isrctn.com, greylit.org, opengrey.eu. RCTs investigating the effect of PRP for the treatment of acute muscle injuries against at least one control group including patients treated with placebo injection or physical therapy. The outcomes evaluated were time to return to sport, re-injuries, complications, pain, muscle strength, range of motion (ROM)/flexibility, muscle function, and imaging. Six studies, involving 374 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The time to return to sport evaluated in all six studies was significantly shorter in patients treated with PRP (mean difference = - 7.17 days). However, if only the double-blind studies (n = 2) or studies including only hamstring injuries (n = 3) were considered, non-significant differences were found. Re-injuries (relative risk = - 0.03) and complications (relative risk = 0.01) were also similar between the two groups (p > 0.05), nor were any substantial differences found regarding pain, muscle strength, ROM/flexibility, muscle function, and imaging. The performance bias was high risk due to the lack of patient blinding in four studies. The quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was

  7. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    The peak of biological activities in Arctic ecosystems is characterized by a relative short and intense period between the start of snowmelt until the onset of frost. Recent climate changes have induced larger seasonal variation in both timing of snowmelt as well as changes mean temperatures......, an extensive monitoring program has been conducted in the North Eastern Greenland National Park, the Zackenberg Basic. The objective of the program is to provide long time series of data on the natural innate oscillations and plasticity of a High Arctic ecosystem. With offset in the data provided through...

  8. Multidimensional approach to complex system resilience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama Dessavre, Dante; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Barker, Kash

    2016-01-01

    Recent works have attempted to formally define a general metric for quantifying resilience for complex systems as a relationship of performance of the systems against time. The technical content in the proposed work introduces a new model that allows, for the first time, to compare the system resilience among systems (or different modifications to a system), by introducing a new dimension to system resilience models, called stress, to mimic the definition of resilience in material science. The applicability and usefulness of the model is shown with a new heat map visualization proposed in this work, and it is applied to a simulated network resilience case to exemplify its potential benefits. - Highlights: • We analyzed two of the main current metrics of resilience. • We create a new model that relates events with the effects they have. • We develop a novel heat map visualization to compare system resilience. • We showed the model and visualization usefulness in a simulated case.

  9. PrP expression, PrPSc accumulation and innervation of splenic compartments in sheep experimentally infected with scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Sørby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In prion disease, the peripheral expression of PrP(C is necessary for the transfer of infectivity to the central nervous system. The spleen is involved in neuroinvasion and neural dissemination in prion diseases but the nature of this involvement is not known. The present study undertook the investigation of the spatial relationship between sites of PrP(Sc accumulation, localisation of nerve fibres and PrP(C expression in the tissue compartments of the spleen of scrapie-inoculated and control sheep. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laser microdissection and quantitative PCR were used to determine PrP mRNA levels and results were compared with immunohistochemical protocols to distinguish PrP(C and PrP(Sc in tissue compartments of the spleen. In sheep experimentally infected with scrapie, the major sites of accumulation of PrP(Sc in the spleen, namely the lymphoid nodules and the marginal zone, expressed low levels of PrP mRNA. Double immunohistochemical labelling for PrP(Sc and the pan-nerve fibre marker, PGP, was used to evaluate the density of innervation of splenic tissue compartments and the intimacy of association between PrP(Sc and nerves. Some nerve fibres were observed to accompany blood vessels into the PrP(Sc-laden germinal centres. However, the close association between nerves and PrP(Sc was most apparent in the marginal zone. Other sites of close association were adjacent to the wall of the central artery of PALS and the outer rim of germinal centres. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that the degree of PrP(Sc accumulation does not depend on the expression level of PrP(C. Though several splenic compartments may contribute to neuroinvasion, the marginal zone may play a central role in being the compartment with most apparent association between nerves and PrP(Sc.

  10. Familial CJD Associated PrP Mutants within Transmembrane Region Induced Ctm-PrP Retention in ER and Triggered Apoptosis by ER Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Qi; Xu, Kun; Gao, Chen; Chen, Cao; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Gui-Rong; Tian, Chan; Han, Jun; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic prion diseases are linked to point and inserted mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene that are presumed to favor conversion of the cellular isoform of PrP (PrPC) to the pathogenic one (PrPSc). The pathogenic mechanisms and the subcellular sites of the conversion are not completely understood. Here we introduce several PRNP gene mutations (such as, PrP-KDEL, PrP-3AV, PrP-A117V, PrP-G114V, PrP-P102L and PrP-E200K) into the cultured cells in order to explore the pathogenic mechanism of familial prion disease. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the roles of aberrant retention of PrP in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the recombinant plasmids expressing full-length human PrP tailed with an ER signal peptide at the COOH-terminal (PrP-KDEL) and PrP with three amino acids exchange in transmembrane region (PrP-3AV) were constructed. In the preparations of transient transfections, 18-kD COOH-terminal proteolytic resistant fragments (Ctm-PrP) were detected in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV. Analyses of the cell viabilities in the presences of tunicamycin and brefeldin A revealed that expressions of PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV sensitized the transfected cells to ER stress stimuli. Western blots and RT-PCR identified the clear alternations of ER stress associated events in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV that induced ER mediated apoptosis by CHOP and capase-12 apoptosis pathway. Moreover, several familial CJD related PrP mutants were transiently introduced into the cultured cells. Only the mutants within the transmembrane region (G114V and A117V) induced the formation of Ctm-PrP and caused the ER stress, while the mutants outside the transmembrane region (P102L and E200K) failed. Conclusions/Significance The data indicate that the retention of PrP in ER through formation of Ctm-PrP results in ER stress and cell apoptosis. The cytopathic activities caused by different familial CJD associated PrP mutants may vary, among them the mutants

  11. Familial CJD associated PrP mutants within transmembrane region induced Ctm-PrP retention in ER and triggered apoptosis by ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic prion diseases are linked to point and inserted mutations in the prion protein (PrP gene that are presumed to favor conversion of the cellular isoform of PrP (PrP(C to the pathogenic one (PrP(Sc. The pathogenic mechanisms and the subcellular sites of the conversion are not completely understood. Here we introduce several PRNP gene mutations (such as, PrP-KDEL, PrP-3AV, PrP-A117V, PrP-G114V, PrP-P102L and PrP-E200K into the cultured cells in order to explore the pathogenic mechanism of familial prion disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the roles of aberrant retention of PrP in endoplasmic reticulum (ER, the recombinant plasmids expressing full-length human PrP tailed with an ER signal peptide at the COOH-terminal (PrP-KDEL and PrP with three amino acids exchange in transmembrane region (PrP-3AV were constructed. In the preparations of transient transfections, 18-kD COOH-terminal proteolytic resistant fragments (Ctm-PrP were detected in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV. Analyses of the cell viabilities in the presences of tunicamycin and brefeldin A revealed that expressions of PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV sensitized the transfected cells to ER stress stimuli. Western blots and RT-PCR identified the clear alternations of ER stress associated events in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV that induced ER mediated apoptosis by CHOP and caspase-12 apoptosis pathway. Moreover, several familial CJD related PrP mutants were transiently introduced into the cultured cells. Only the mutants within the transmembrane region (G114V and A117V induced the formation of Ctm-PrP and caused the ER stress, while the mutants outside the transmembrane region (P102L and E200K failed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data indicate that the retention of PrP in ER through formation of Ctm-PrP results in ER stress and cell apoptosis. The cytopathic activities caused by different familial CJD associated PrP mutants may vary, among them

  12. Superior integrin activating capacity and higher adhesion to fibrinogen matrix in buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs) compared to PRP-PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkar, Pezhman; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Ghasemzadeh, Mehran

    2018-02-01

    Regardless of different sources, methods or devices which are applied for preparation of therapeutic platelets, these products are generally isolated from whole blood by the sedimentation techniques which are based on PRP or buffy coat (BC) separation. As a general fact, platelet preparation and storage are also associated with some deleterious changes that known as platelet storage lesion (PSL). Although these alternations in platelet functional activity are aggravated during storage, whether technical issues within preparation can affect integrin activation and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen were investigated in this study. PRP- and BC-platelet concentrates (PCs) were subjected to flowcytometry analysis to examine the expression of platelet activation marker, P-selectin as well as active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa (α IIb β 3 ) on day 0, 1, 3 and 5 post-storage. Platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Glucose concentration and LDH activity were also measured by colorimetric methods. The increasing P-selectin expression during storage was in a reverse correlation with PAC-1 binding (r = -0.67; p = .001). PRP-PCs showed the higher level of P-selectin expression than BC-PCs, whereas the levels of PAC-1 binding and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix were significantly lower in PRP-PCs. Higher levels of active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa in BC-PCs were also associated with greater concentration of glucose in these products. We demonstrated the superior capacities of integrin activation and adhesion to fibrinogen for BC-PCs compared to those of PRP-PCs. These findings may provide more advantages for BC method of platelet preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional assessment of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) after long-term storage at -20 °C without any preservation agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosnuter, Mubin; Aslan, Cem; Isik, Daghan; Caliskan, Gorkem; Arslan, Banu; Durgun, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly being used in the treatment of chronic wounds, pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, and in cosmetic medicine; however, the preparation of platelet-rich plasma is both time-consuming and requires invasive intervention. Additional costs are introduced if special equipment is used during preparation. The aim of the present study is to test whether autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preserves the feature of growth factor release when stored at -20 °C after preparation. Autologous PRP concentrates were prepared using whole blood samples obtained from 20 healthy subjects and divided into three parts to form three groups. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and P-Selectin levels were immediately analysed in the control group. The other groups were defined as the experimental groups and were stored at -20 °C and analysed on the 7th and the 14th days. The same growth factors were tested in the experimental groups. The growth factors (EGF, VEGF, PDGF-AB, IGF-1, TGF-β) and P-selectin levels were significantly decreased in the autologous PRP samples stored at -20 °C compared to the control group. The growth factor levels on days 7 and 14 suggest that autologous PRP can be stored at -20 °C without preservative agents, although in vivo studies are required in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the detected growth factor levels.

  14. Quantification of platelets and platelet derived growth factors from platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) prepared at different centrifugal force (g) and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Satyam; Doda, Veena; Kotwal, Urvershi; Dogra, Mitu

    2016-02-01

    Platelet derived biomaterials represent a key source of cytokines and growth factors extensively used for tissue regeneration; wound healing and tissue repair. Our study was to quantify platelets and growth factors released by PRP when prepared at different centrifugal force (g) and time. Our study was approved by the institutional ethical committee. One hundred millilitres of whole blood (WB) was collected in bag with CPDA as the anticoagulant(AC); (14 mL for 100 mL WB ratio). Nine aliquots of 10 mL each were made from the bag and set of three aliquots were made a group. PRP was prepared at varying centrifugal force (group A: -110 g, group B: -208 g & group C: -440 g) & time (1: -5 min, 2: -10 min & 3: -20 min). Contents of each PRP prepared were analysed. Commercial sandwich ELISA kits were used to quantify the concentrations of CD62P (Diaclone SAS; France), Platelet derived growth factors-AB (Qayee-Bio; China), transforming growth factor-β1 (DRG; Germany) and vascular endothelial growth factor (Boster Immuno Leader; USA) released in each PRP prepared. Eight volunteers were enrolled in the study (24-30 years). The baseline blood counts of all the volunteers were comparable (p ≥ 0.05). Mean ± SD of platelet yield of all nine groups ranged from 17.2 ± 4.2% to 78.7 ± 5.7%. Each PRP was activated with calcified thromboplastin to quantify the growth factors released by them. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor were released compared to the baseline. Our study highlights the variation in both force (g) and time results in changes at cellular level and growth factor concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fostering resilience: Empowering rural communities in the face of hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Maybery

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Australian rural communities are experiencing some of the worst climactic and economic conditions in decades. Unfortunately, the multiple government and non-government agency responses have reportedly been uncoordinated, sometimes losing sight of their consumers. This article describes a program designed to strengthen and empower resilience in small rural communities and summarises the outcomes, including needs and action planning undertaken. The 97 participants were from eight outer regional or remote towns and communities in the northern Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. As groups representing their communities, they attended meetings and responded to a series of questions regarding issues arising from the drought, community needs, and actions their community could take to address these issues and needs. The study findings highlight the stress and strain of the climatic conditions and the insecurity of rural incomes, as well as problems with the high cost of transport. The communities recognised a degree of social disintegration but also expressed considerable hope that, by working together and better utilising social agencies, they could develop a social connectedness that would make their communities more resilient. Approaches that empower and facilitate community resilience are suggested as an effective model that governments and non-government agencies can use to encourage social groups that are struggling to build resilience.

  16. Sustainable and Resilient Supply Chain Network Design under Disruption Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Irshad Mari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable supply chain network design is a rich area for academic research that is still in its infancy and has potential to affect supply chain performance. Increasing regulations for carbon and waste management are forcing firms to consider their supply chains from ecological and social objectives, but in reality, however, facilities and the links connecting them are disrupted from time to time, due to poor weather, natural or manmade disasters or a combination of any other factors. Supply chain systems drop their sustainability objectives while coping with these unexpected disruptions. Hence, the new challenges for supply chain managers are to design an efficient and effective supply chain network that will be resilient enough to bounce back from any disruption and that also should have sufficient vigilance to offer same sustainability under a disruption state. This paper focuses on ecological sustainability, because an environmental focus in a supply chain system is more important and also links with other pillars of sustainability, as the products need to be produced, packed and transported in an ethical way, which should not harm social balance and the environment. Owing to importance of the considered issue, this paper attempts to introduce a network optimization model for a sustainable and resilient supply chain network by incorporating (1 sustainability via carbon emissions and embodied carbon footprints and (2 resilience by incorporating location-specific risks. The proposed goal programming (GP model optimizes the total cost, while considering the resilience and sustainability of the supply chain network.

  17. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  18. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  19. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D. Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  20. Resilience and protective factors among people with a history of child maltreatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; Fleury, Marie-Josee; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Li, Muzi; D'Arcy, Carl

    2018-05-01

    To provide an overview of resilience and protective factors associated with a better life following child maltreatment exposure, to compare protective factors across specific subtypes of maltreatment, and to explore existing issues in the current state of the literature. Electronic databases and grey literature up to October 2017 were systematically searched for English language with observational study designs for the research on resilience and childhood maltreatment. Systematic review and qualitative approaches were used to synthesize the results. Study quality and heterogeneity were also examined. Initial screening of titles and abstracts resulted in 247 papers being reviewed. A total of 85 articles met eligibility criteria of this review. Most of these studies had low or middle study quality. There were two subgroups of studies reviewed: (1) 11 studies examined whether resilience protected against the negative consequence of childhood maltreatment, and, (2) 75 studies explored what protective factor was associated with a kind of adaptive functioning. Although the conceptualization of resilience significantly varied from study to study, protective factors associated with resilience at individual, familial, and societal levels reduced the likelihood of negative consequences of childhood maltreatment. Negative consequences following childhood maltreatment can be prevented or moderated if protective factors are provided in time. Future research needs to address the conceptualization issue of resilience. Public and population mental health preventions should focus on early childhood and apply preventive strategies as early as possible. Cost-effective studies should be considered in the evaluation of resilience prevention program.

  1. Narrative construction of resilience: stories of older Czech adults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubovská, E.; Chrz, Vladimír; Tavel, P.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Růžička, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 9 (2017), s. 1849-1873 ISSN 0144-686X Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/14 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * ageing * older adults * narrative * narrative gerontology * agency Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 1.386, year: 2016

  2. Family Resilience in the Military: Definitions, Models, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    data to measure and improve efficiency, effectiveness, performance, accountability , outcomes, and other indicators of quality program processes...strengths contribute to a sense of family well-being and offset difficulties in other areas of family functioning.” Heru and Drury (2011, p. 45) “The...resilience: Integrating life­span and family perspectives,” Family Process, 35(3), 1996, 283–298. Heru, A., and L. M. Drury , “Developing family

  3. Resilience in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Yhojan; Pacheco, Yovana; Zapata, Elizabeth; Monsalve, Diana M; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rodríguez-Jimenez, Monica; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Molano-González, Nicolás; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate the relationship between resilience and clinical outcomes in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Focus groups, individual interviews, and chart reviews were done to collect data on 188 women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely rheumatoid arthritis (n=51), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=70), systemic sclerosis (n=35), and Sjögren's syndrome (n=32). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed including disease activity by patient reported outcomes. Resilience was evaluated by using the Brief Resilience Scale. Bivariate, multiple linear regression, and classification and regression trees were used to analyse data. Resilience was influenced by age, duration of disease, and socioeconomic status. Lower resilience scores were observed in younger patients (50years) had higher resilience scores regardless of socioeconomic status. There was no influence of disease activity on resilience. A particular behaviour was observed in systemic sclerosis in which patients with high socioeconomic status and regular physical activity had higher resilience scores. Resilience in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is a continuum process influenced by age and socioeconomic status. The ways in which these variables along with exercise influence resilience deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Mainstreaming Low-Carbon Climate-Resilient growth pathways into Development Finance Institutions' activities. A research program on the standards, tools and metrics to support transition to the low-carbon climate-resilient development models. Paper 2 - Lessons from the use of climate-related decision-making standards and tools by DFIs to facilitate the transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, Ian; Eschalier, Claire; Deheza, Mariana

    2015-10-01

    The integration or 'mainstreaming' of climate change into development finance decisions poses a broad number of operational challenges. Drawing from the current practice of Development Finance Institutions (DFIs), this paper first identifies three families of tools and metrics used by DFIs to integrate both mitigation and adaptation objectives into investment decision making. Based on this analysis, it then establishes a framework for integrating carbon standards and tools into the upstream strategic and downstream assessment stages of investment decision making. It principally considers the integration into the assessment of direct project finance and investment, but also looks at budget support, programmatic and indirect interventions. Finally, the paper identifies the next steps to build on existing tools and indicators that currently focus on climate finance tracking to those that foster the alignment of long-term development with the 2 deg. C climate objective. This alignment implies moving from 'static' assessment tools - that identify whether or not emissions are reduced or resiliency is increased by an action - to a 'dynamic' process within which the 'transition impact' is assessed. (authors)

  5. Effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient modulus of subgrade soils predicted by cone penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient characteristics of subgrade soil predicted by the cone penetration test. An experimental program was conducted in which cone penetratio...

  6. An interprofessional palliative care oncology rehabilitation program: effects on function and predictors of program completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, M R; Feldstain, A; Gravelle, D; Macdonald, N; Pereira, J

    2013-12-01

    After treatment, patients with active cancer face a considerable burden from the effects of both the disease and its treatment. The Palliative Rehabilitation Program (prp) is designed to ameliorate disease effects and to improve the patient's functioning. The present study evaluated predictors of program completion and changes in functioning, symptoms, and well-being after the program. The program received referrals for 173 patients who had finished anticancer therapy. Of those 173 patients, 116 with advanced cancer were eligible and enrolled in the 8-week interprofessional prp; 67 completed it. Measures of physical, nutritional, social, and psychological functioning were evaluated at entry to the program and at completion. Participants experienced significant improvements in physical performance (p program not challenging enough), death, and personal or unknown reasons. A normal level of C-reactive protein (program completion. Patients living with advanced cancers who underwent the interprofessional prp experienced significant improvement in functioning across several domains. Program completion can be predicted by a normal level of C-reactive protein.

  7. Combined use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts in vitro: new therapeutic perspectives for skeletal muscle repair/regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Vallone, Larissa; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia; Nosi, Daniele; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra

    2018-02-05

    Satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle repair/regeneration is compromised in cases of extended damage. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) hold promise for muscle healing but some criticisms hamper their clinical application, including the need to avoid animal serum contamination for expansion and the scarce survival after transplant. In this context, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could offer advantages. Here, we compare the effects of PRP or standard culture media on C2C12 myoblast, satellite cell and BM-MSC viability, survival, proliferation and myogenic differentiation and evaluate PRP/BM-MSC combination effects in promoting myogenic differentiation. PRP induced an increase of mitochondrial activity and Ki67 expression comparable or even greater than that elicited by standard media and promoted AKT signaling activation in myoblasts and BM-MSCs and Notch-1 pathway activation in BM-MSCs. It stimulated MyoD, myogenin, α-sarcomeric actin and MMP-2 expression in myoblasts and satellite cell activation. Notably, PRP/BM-MSC combination was more effective than PRP alone. We found that BM-MSCs influenced myoblast responses through a paracrine activation of AKT signaling, contributing to shed light on BM-MSC action mechanisms. Our results suggest that PRP represents a good serum substitute for BM-MSC manipulation in vitro and could be beneficial towards transplanted cells in vivo. Moreover, it might influence muscle resident progenitors' fate, thus favoring the endogenous repair/regeneration mechanisms. Finally, within the limitations of an in vitro experimentation, this study provides an experimental background for considering the PRP/BM-MSC combination as a potential therapeutic tool for skeletal muscle damage, combining the beneficial effects of BM-MSCs and PRP on muscle tissue, while potentiating BM-MSC functionality.

  8. Convening Young Leaders for Climate Resilience in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretser, J.

    2017-12-01

    This project, led by The Wild Center, will partner with Cornell Cooperative Extension of Delaware County, the Kurt Hahn Expeditionary Learning School in Brooklyn, and the Alliance for Climate Education to do the following over three years: 1) increase climate literacy and preparedness planning in high school students through place-based Youth Climate Summits in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and New York City; 2) enhance young people's capacity to lead on climate issues through a Youth Climate Leadership Practicum 3) increase teacher comprehension and understanding of climate change through a Teacher Climate Institute and 4) communicate climate change impacts and resilience through student-driven Community Climate Outreach activities. The project will align with New York State's climate resiliency planning by collaborating with the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Office of Climate (OCC), NYS Energy Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), and NOAA's Climate Program Office to provide accurate scientific information, resources, and tools. This collaboration will result in an increase in understanding of the impacts of climate change in rural (Adirondacks, Catskills) and urban (New York City) regions of New York State; a wider awareness of the threats and vulnerabilities that are associated with a community's location; and a stronger connection between current community resilience initiatives, educators, and youth. All three of the project sites are critically underserved in both climate literacy and action, making addressing the need of these sites to be resilient and proactive in the face of climate change critical. Our model will provide pilot lessons for how youth in both rural and urban areas can draw on local assets to address resiliency in ways appropriate for their own areas, and these lessons may be able to be applied across the United States.The proposed project is informed by best practices and specifically strengthens and replicates The Wild

  9. Stress From Uncertainty and Resilience Among Depressed and Burned Out Residents: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkin, Arabella L; Khan, Alisa; West, Daniel C; Garcia, Briana M; Sectish, Theodore C; Spector, Nancy D; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2018-03-07

    Depression and burnout are highly prevalent among residents, but little is known about modifiable personality variables, such as resilience and stress from uncertainty, that may predispose to these conditions. Residents are routinely faced with uncertainty when making medical decisions. To determine how stress from uncertainty is related to resilience among pediatric residents and whether these attributes are associated with depression and burnout. We surveyed 86 residents in pediatric residency programs from 4 urban freestanding children's hospitals in North America in 2015. Stress from uncertainty was measured with the use of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty Scale, resilience with the use of the 14-item Resilience Scale, depression with the use of the Harvard National Depression Screening Scale; and burnout with the use of single-item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Fifty out of 86 residents responded to the survey (58.1%). Higher levels of stress from uncertainty correlated with lower resilience (r = -0.60; P resilience (56.6 ± 10.7 vs 85.4 ± 8.0; P resilience (76.7 ± 14.8 vs 85.0 ± 9.77; P = .02) compared with residents who were not burned out. We found high levels of stress from uncertainty, and low levels of resilience were strongly correlated with depression and burnout. Efforts to enhance tolerance of uncertainty and resilience among residents may provide opportunities to mitigate resident depression and burnout. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring disaster-resilient communities: a case study of coastal communities in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Shesh Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability reduction and resilience building of communities are central concepts in recent policy debates. Although there are fundamental linkages, and complementarities exist between the two concepts, recent policy and programming has focused more on the latter. It is assumed here that reducing underlying causes of vulnerabilities and their interactions with resilience elements is a prerequisite for obtaining resilience capabilities. An integrated approach, incorporating both the vulnerability and resilience considerations, has been taken while developing an index for measuring disaster-resilient communities. This study outlines a method for measuring community resilience capabilities using process and outcome indicators in 43 coastal communities in Indonesia. An index was developed using ten process and 25 outcome indicators, selected on the basis of the ten steps of the Integrated Community Based Risk Reduction (ICBRR) process, and key characteristics of disaster resilient communities were taken from various literatures. The overall index value of all 43 communities was 63, whereas the process and outcome indicator values were measured as 63 and 61.5 respectively. The core components of this index are process and outcome indicators. The tool has been developed with an assumption that both the process and outcome indicators are equally important in building disaster-resilient communities. The combination of both indicators is an impetus to quality change in the community. Process indicators are important for community understanding, ownership and the sustainability of the programme; whereas outcome indicators are important for the real achievements in terms of community empowerment and capacity development. The process of ICBRR approach varies by country and location as per the level of community awareness and organisational strategy. However, core elements such as the formation of community groups, mobilising those groups in risk assessment and planning

  11. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  12. Focusing the Meaning(s of Resilience: Resilience as a Descriptive Concept and a Boundary Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the variety of definitions proposed for "resilience" within sustainability science and suggests a typology according to the specific degree of normativity. There is a tension between the original descriptive concept of resilience first defined in ecological science and a more recent, vague, and malleable notion of resilience used as an approach or boundary object by different scientific disciplines. Even though increased conceptual vagueness can be valuable to foster communication across disciplines and between science and practice, both conceptual clarity and practical relevance of the concept of resilience are critically in danger. The fundamental question is what conceptual structure we want resilience to have. This article argues that a clearly specified, descriptive concept of resilience is critical in providing a counterbalance to the use of resilience as a vague boundary object. A clear descriptive concept provides the basis for operationalization and application of resilience within ecological science.

  13. Resilient modulus for unbound granular materials and subgrade soils in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Rabah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic Empirical (ME pavement design methods started to gain attention especially the last couple of years in Egypt and the Middle East. One of the challenges facing the spread of these methods in Egypt is lack of advanced properties of local soil and asphalt, which are needed as input data in ME design. Resilient modulus (Mr for example is an important engineering property that expresses the elastic behavior of soil/unbound granular materials (UGMs under cyclic traffic loading for ME design. In order to overcome the scarcity of the resilient modulus data for soil/UGMs in Egypt, a comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted to measure resilient modulus of typical UGMs and subgrade soils typically used in pavement construction in Egypt. The factors that affect the resilient modulus of soil/UGMs were reviewed, studied and discussed. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the most well-known Mr Prediction models for the locally investigated materials was investigated.

  14. Resilience influence, goals and social context in the academic achievement of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Concepción Gaxiola Romero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The academic achievement in high school students of Mexico, according to national and international evaluations has been insufficient. In spite of this situation, is possible to find excellent students, even in the context of sharing negative contextual and physical conditions. There are few investigations that describe the variables associated to resilient students. The alumni that are beyond the risks are called resilient (Rutter, 2007. The aim of this research was to explore and identify the internal variables: goals and resilience, and the external variables: risky neighborhood and risky friends that predicted the scholar achievement of high school students. To measure those variables, was used a compilation of scales validated in the region. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, and show that resilience predicted indirectly the scholar achievement trough the academic goals. The results could be used in programs to improve the academic achievement of this group of students.

  15. Influence of Social Support and Self-Efficacy on Resilience of Early Career Registered Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Tao, Hong; Bowers, Barbara J; Brown, Roger; Zhang, Yaqing

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among social support, self-efficacy, and resilience in early career registered nurses. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 747 early career registered nurses. Data collection was performed between August and November 2015. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Among the three factors of social support, only the impact of coworker support on nurse resilience is fully mediated by self-efficacy; friend support had a significant positive direct effect on self-efficacy and an indirect effect on nurse resilience. This would suggest the importance of administrators/managers understanding how to promote coworker support, increase self-efficacy, foster a positive work climate, and develop effective mentorship programs to improve early career registered nurses resilience and mitigate factors leading to turnover.

  16. Beyond Disaster Preparedness: Building a Resilience-Oriented Workforce for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigano, Jaime; Chandra, Anita; Costigan, Tracy; Acosta, Joie D

    2017-12-13

    Enhancing citizens' and communities' resilience is critical to adapt successfully to ongoing challenges faced by communities, as well as acute shocks resulting from disasters. While significant progress has been made in this area, several research and practice gaps remain. A crucial next step to advance resilience is the development of a resilience-oriented workforce. This narrative review examines existing literature to determine key components of a resilience-oriented workforce, with a focus on organizational structures, training and education, and leadership models. Reviewed articles spanned a variety of study types, including needs assessments of existing workforce, program evaluations, and reviews/commentaries. A resilience-oriented workforce spans many disciplines and training programs will need to reflect that. It requires a collaborative organizational model that promotes information sharing structures. Leadership models should foster a balance between workforce autonomy and operation as a collective entity. Optimal strategies to develop a resilience-oriented workforce have yet to be realized and future research will need to collect and synthesize data to promote and evaluate the growth of this field.

  17. Beyond Disaster Preparedness: Building a Resilience-Oriented Workforce for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Madrigano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing citizens’ and communities’ resilience is critical to adapt successfully to ongoing challenges faced by communities, as well as acute shocks resulting from disasters. While significant progress has been made in this area, several research and practice gaps remain. A crucial next step to advance resilience is the development of a resilience-oriented workforce. This narrative review examines existing literature to determine key components of a resilience-oriented workforce, with a focus on organizational structures, training and education, and leadership models. Reviewed articles spanned a variety of study types, including needs assessments of existing workforce, program evaluations, and reviews/commentaries. A resilience-oriented workforce spans many disciplines and training programs will need to reflect that. It requires a collaborative organizational model that promotes information sharing structures. Leadership models should foster a balance between workforce autonomy and operation as a collective entity. Optimal strategies to develop a resilience-oriented workforce have yet to be realized and future research will need to collect and synthesize data to promote and evaluate the growth of this field.

  18. Incorporating Resilience into Dynamic Social Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    form contains classified information, stamp classification level on the top and bottom of this page. 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT. This block must be...resilience as a multi- level resilience and study their resilience at individual, family and society levels . However, having more than one level on a...4] U. Fischbacher, S. Gächter, and E. Fehr, “Are People Conditionally Cooperative ? Evidence from a Public Goods Experiment,” Econ . Lett., vol

  19. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  20. Engaging Youth on Climate & Health to Cultivate Community Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, D. B.; Gray, K. M.; Chang, D.; Morton, T.; Steele, B.; Backus, A.; Hauptman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cultivating climate literacy among youth positions them to develop solutions and advocate for actions that prepare communities to adapt to climate change, mitigate emissions and ultimately protect human health and well-being, with an eye towards protecting the most vulnerable populations. This presentation will describe an innovative partnership among three university environmental health programs—based at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Columbia University and Harvard University—and their community collaborators: the Alliance for Climate Education, Boston Children's Hospital Pediatric Environmental Health Center and WE ACT for Environmental Justice. This project engages youth through non-formal educational programming that promotes climate literacy while also building the capacity of today's youth to promote community resilience. This partnership led to the development and implementation of two, long-duration extracurricular youth science enrichment programs in 2017, one in North Carolina (NC) and one in New York, with joint activities conducted virtually and in person to connect students with each other and with leading public health professionals and others working to promote community resilience and climate justice. Forty high school students, 20 from central NC and 20 from West Harlem in New York City, are enrolled in each program. In July 2017, students came together for a 3-day summer institute in NC. This session will feature the strategies, STEM-based activities and resources used in this project to engage students in the examination of their communities, identification and evaluation of climate adaptation and mitigation strategies and promotion of community resilience. Programming entailed having students interact with public health professionals, scientists and others to learn about climate impacts to public health and its infrastructure, vulnerable populations and planning for resilient communities. Ultimately, we sought to promote

  1. A Comprehensive Model for Promoting Resiliency and Preventing Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Olivo, Sara Maria; Tran, Oanh Kim; Begum, Gazi Ferdousi; Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle; Garcia, Nicole Marie; Tung, Catherine Yang

    2013-01-01

    Implementing violence prevention programs has become a priority for schools; however, most programs used for this purpose are limited in the skills they teach. In this study, two different resiliency building/violence prevention models were evaluated to assess their effectiveness at preventing violent and maladaptive behaviors in youth. Data from…

  2. Degrees of Resilience: Profiling Psychological Resilience and Prospective Academic Achievement in University Inductees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…

  3. Priority Queues Resilient to Memory Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Moruz, Gabriel; Mølhave, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In the faulty-memory RAM model, the content of memory cells can get corrupted at any time during the execution of an algorithm, and a constant number of uncorruptible registers are available. A resilient data structure in this model works correctly on the set of uncorrupted values. In this paper we...... introduce a resilient priority queue. The deletemin operation of a resilient priority queue returns either the minimum uncorrupted element or some corrupted element. Our resilient priority queue uses $O(n)$ space to store $n$ elements. Both insert and deletemin operations are performed in $O(\\log n...... queues storing only structural information in the uncorruptible registers between operations....

  4. Enhancing quantitative approaches for assessing community resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, W. C.; Garmestani, A.S.; Eason, T. N.; Spanbauer, T. L.; Fried-Peterson, H. B.; Roberts, C.P.; Sundstrom, Shana M.; Burnett, J.L.; Angeler, David G.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Gunderson, L.; Twidwell, Dirac; Allen, Craig R.

    2018-01-01

    Scholars from many different intellectual disciplines have attempted to measure, estimate, or quantify resilience. However, there is growing concern that lack of clarity on the operationalization of the concept will limit its application. In this paper, we discuss the theory, research development and quantitative approaches in ecological and community resilience. Upon noting the lack of methods that quantify the complexities of the linked human and natural aspects of community resilience, we identify several promising approaches within the ecological resilience tradition that may be useful in filling these gaps. Further, we discuss the challenges for consolidating these approaches into a more integrated perspective for managing social-ecological systems.

  5. Practical Leakage-Resilient Symmetric Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Krzysztof; Schipper, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount of arbitr......Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount...

  6. Resilience to Surprises through Communicative Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Evan. Goldstein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinkers share an interest in collaborative deliberation with communicative planners, who aim to accommodate different forms of knowledge and styles of reasoning to promote social learning and yield creative and equitable agreements. Members of both fields attended a symposium at Virginia Tech in late 2008, where communicative planners considered how social-ecological resilience informed new possibilities for planning practice beyond disaster mitigation and response. In turn, communicative planners offered resilience scholars ideas about how collaboration could accomplish more than enhance rational decision making of the commons. Through these exchanges, the symposium fostered ideas about collaborative governance and the critical role of expertise in fostering communicative resilience.

  7. Fate control and well-being in Chinese rural people living with HIV: mediation effect of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Zhang, Jianxin; Chow, Amy Y M; Chan, Celia H Y; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2017-01-01

    Fate control has been often misconceptualized as a superstitious belief and overlooked in health psychology. It is not known how this cultural belief might impact the well-being of Chinese people living with HIV. This study examined the protective role of fate control for well-being and the potential mediation effect of resilience. Participants in this study were rural patients who contracted HIV via commercial blood donation. In this cross-sectional survey, 250 participants completed measures of fate control, well-being, and resilience. The results showed that fate control and resilience were positively associated with well-being. Resilience mediated the association between fate control and well-being. Our findings provide insight into the adaptive function of fate control as a cognitive defensive mechanism and highlight the need to incorporate this cultural belief in developing culturally sensitive intervention programs for resilience enhancement tailored for this understudied population infected with HIV living in rural China.

  8. Building Visual Artists’ Resilience Capabilities: Current Educator Strategies and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Maree Siddins

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Enrolments in higher education programs in the creative and performing arts are increasing in many countries. Yet graduates of these degrees, who enter the broad sector known as the creative industries, face particular challenges in terms of securing long-term and sustainable employment. In addition, creative and performing artists face a range of mental challenges, caused by such factors as: the solitary nature of much creative practice, critical feedback by audiences and gatekeepers, or the general pressures associated with maintaining artistic relevance or integrity. The concepts of resilience and professional wellbeing are therefore highly relevant to those who pursue a career in creative industries, and while there has been an emerging body of work in this area, to date it has focussed on the performing arts area (e.g. music, theatre. Hence, in order to expand knowledge relevant to resilience and artists, this paper sets out to explore the extent to which current educators in the Australian context specifically address these issues within higher visual arts curricula; specifically the areas of illustration, design, film and photography. This was achieved via interviews with seventeen current academics working in these areas. The findings propose that higher education providers of programs in the visual arts consider placing a stronger emphasis on the embedded development of resilience and professional wellbeing capacities.

  9. A general method for the purification of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing strong secondary structure by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on PRP-1 resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, M W; Pon, R T; van de Sande, J H

    1987-09-01

    Synthetic 5'-dimethoxytritylated oligodeoxyribonucleotides, which contained strong secondary structure, were satisfactorily denatured and purified by reversed-phase HPLC on PRP-1 columns when strongly alkaline conditions (0.05 M NaOH) were employed. This procedure was suitable for the purification of hairpin structures, e.g., d(CG)nT4(CG)n (n = 4, 5, 6), and oligo(dG) sequences, e.g., d(G)24, as well as oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes which contained degenerate base sites. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides as long as 50 bases in length were purified. Recovery of injected oligonucleotides was typically 90% or better. The high capacity of the PRP-1 resin also allowed purification to be performed on a preparative scale (2-8 mg per injection). Enzymatic degradation and HPLC analysis indicated that no modification of the heterocyclic bases occurred under the alkaline conditions described.

  10. Reduced response of splenocytes after mitogen-stimulation in the prion protein (PrP) gene-deficient mouse: PrPLP/Doppel production and cerebral degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi-Kyeong; Hirose, Yuko; Sakudo, Akikazu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kang, Chung-Boo; Taniuchi, Yojiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Onodera, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Splenocytes of wild-type (Prnp +/+ ) and prion protein gene-deficient (Prnp -/- ) mice were treated with various activation stimuli such as T cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) + ionomycin (Io), or B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cellular prion protein (PrP C ) expression was enhanced following ConA stimulation, but not PMA + Io or LPS in Prnp +/+ splenocytes. Rikn Prnp -/- splenocytes elicited lower cell proliferations than Prnp +/+ or Zrch I Prnp -/- splenocytes after LPS stimulation and showed sporadic nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and deeper structure. Around the degenerated nerve cells, mild vacuolation in the neuropil was observed. This neural alteration correlated well to the suppressed response of B cells in the spleen. The finding that discrete lesions within the central nervous systems induced marked modulation of immune function probably indicates the existence of a delicately balanced neural-endocrine network by PrP C and PrPLP/Doppel

  11. Low fraction of the 222K PrP variant in the protease-resistant moiety of PrPres in heterozygous scrapie positive goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Maria; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Ingravalle, Francesco; Brusadore, Sonia; Langeveld, Jan P M; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Andréoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2017-07-01

    The presence of lysine (K) at codon 222 has been associated with resistance to classical scrapie in goats, but few scrapie cases have been identified in 222Q/K animals. To investigate the contribution of the 222K variant to PrPres formation in natural and experimental Q/K scrapie cases, we applied an immunoblotting method based on the use of two different monoclonal antibodies, F99/97.6.1 and SAF84, chosen for their different affinities to 222K and 222Q PrP variants. Our finding that PrPres seems to be formed nearly totally by the 222Q variant provides evidence that the 222K PrP variant confers resistance to conversion to PrPres formation and reinforces the view that this mutation has a protective role against classical scrapie in goats.

  12. Building Resilience for Palliative Care Clinicians: An Approach to Burnout Prevention Based on Individual Skills and Workplace Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Anthony L; Steinhauser, Karen E; Kamal, Arif H; Jackson, Vicki A

    2016-08-01

    For palliative care (PC) clinicians, the work of caring for patients with serious illness can put their own well-being at risk. What they often do not learn in training, because of the relative paucity of evidence-based programs, are practical ways to mitigate this risk. Because a new study indicates that burnout in PC clinicians is increasing, we sought to design an acceptable, scalable, and testable intervention tailored to the needs of PC clinicians. In this article, we describe our paradigm for approaching clinician resilience, our conceptual model, and curriculum for a workplace resilience intervention for hospital-based PC teams. Our paradigm for approaching resilience is based on upstream, early intervention. Our conceptual model posits that clinician well-being is influenced by personal resources and work demands. Our curriculum for increasing clinician resilience is based on training in eight resilience skills that are useful for common challenges faced by clinicians. To address workplace issues, our intervention also includes material for the team leader and a clinician perception survey of work demands and workplace engagement factors. The intervention will focus on individual skill building and will be evaluated with measures of resilience, coping, and affect. For PC clinicians, resilience skills are likely as important as communication skills and symptom management as foundations of expertise. Future work to strengthen clinician resilience will likely need to address system issues more directly. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools (REACT) Achieving resiliency in any system requires capabilities that are beyond the boundaries of currently...

  14. PrP mRNA and protein expression in brain and PrP(c) in CSF in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease MM1 and VV2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Franc; Ansoleaga, Belén; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Zafar, Saima; Grau-Rivera, Oriol; López-González, Irene; Blanco, Rosi; Carmona, Margarita; Yagüe, Jordi; Nos, Carlos; Del Río, José Antonio; Gelpí, Ellen; Zerr, Inga; Ferrer, Isidre

    2013-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a heterogenic neurodegenerative disorder associated with abnormal post-translational processing of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)). CJD displays distinctive clinical and pathological features which correlate with the genotype at the codon 129 (methionine or valine: M or V respectively) in the prion protein gene and with size of the protease-resistant core of the abnormal prion protein PrP(sc) (type 1: 20/21 kDa and type 2: 19 kDa). MM1 and VV2 are the most common sporadic CJD (sCJD) subtypes. PrP mRNA expression levels in the frontal cortex and cerebellum are reduced in sCJD in a form subtype-dependent. Total PrP protein levels and PrP(sc) levels in the frontal cortex and cerebellum accumulate differentially in sCJD MM1 and sCJD VV2 with no relation between PrP(sc) deposition and spongiform degeneration and neuron loss, but with microgliosis, and IL6 and TNF-α response. In the CSF, reduced PrP(c), the only form present in this compartment, occurs in sCJD MM1 and VV2. PrP mRNA expression is also reduced in the frontal cortex in advanced stages of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and frontotemporal lobe degeneration, but PrP(c) levels in brain varies from one disease to another. Reduced PrP(c) levels in CSF correlate with PrP mRNA expression in brain, which in turn reflects severity of degeneration in sCJD.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Study of a Fully Liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T Hexavalent Vaccine for Primary and Booster Vaccinations of Healthy Infants and Toddlers in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pío; Arguedas Mohs, Adriano; Abdelnour Vásquez, Arturo; Consuelo-Miranda, Maria; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Noriega, Fernando; Jordanov, Emilia; B Chir, Siham; Zambrano, Betzana

    2017-11-01

    Hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. Infants (N = 1375) received hepatitis B vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of 3 batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4 to 6 months of age, coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months). A booster of either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or control was given at 12-24 months, coadministered with PCV7. Immunogenicity was assessed by validated assays and safety from parental reports. Primary series seroprotection and vaccine response rates were equivalent for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T batches. For pooled batches, noninferiority to the control vaccine was demonstrated for each antigen. There were no descriptive differences in antibody persistence or booster response between DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T and the control. The booster responses to either vaccine following DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T primary series or to DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T following a control vaccine primary series were similar. The anti-aP component (filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA] and pertussis toxin [PT]) vaccine response and anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP) series seroprotection (≥0.15 µg/mL) rates were ≥73.0% after 2 primary series doses. Antipyretics had no effect on the immune response, and an extra (oral) polio vaccination had no effect on the antipolio booster response. Responses to PCV7 and rotavirus vaccine were similar for each coadministration. There were no safety concerns observed with any vaccine. These results confirm the suitability of the fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of infants.

  16. Reduced Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Contributes to Enhanced Intrinsic Excitability in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from PrP(-/-) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Stemkowski, Patrick L; Gandini, Maria A; Black, Stefanie A; Zhang, Zizhen; Souza, Ivana A; Chen, Lina; Zamponi, Gerald W

    2016-01-01

    Genetic ablation of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been linked to increased neuronal excitability and synaptic activity in the hippocampus. We have previously shown that synaptic activity in hippocampi of PrP-null mice is increased due to enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. Here, we focused on the effect of PRNP gene knock-out (KO) on intrinsic neuronal excitability, and in particular, the underlying ionic mechanism in hippocampal neurons cultured from P0 mouse pups. We found that the absence of PrP(C) profoundly affected the firing properties of cultured hippocampal neurons in the presence of synaptic blockers. The membrane impedance was greater in PrP-null neurons, and this difference was abolished by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel blocker ZD7288 (100 μM). HCN channel activity appeared to be functionally regulated by PrP(C). The amplitude of voltage sag, a characteristic of activating HCN channel current (I h), was decreased in null mice. Moreover, I h peak current was reduced, along with a hyperpolarizing shift in activation gating and slower kinetics. However, neither HCN1 nor HCN2 formed a biochemical complex with PrP(C). These results suggest that the absence of PrP downregulates the activity of HCN channels through activation of a cell signaling pathway rather than through direct interactions. This in turn contributes to an increase in membrane impedance to potentiate neuronal excitability.

  17. Peroxiredoxin 6 promotes upregulation of the prion protein (PrP in neuronal cells of prion-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Wibke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been widely established that the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC into its abnormal isoform (PrPSc is responsible for the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. However, the knowledge of the detailed molecular mechanisms and direct functional consequences within the cell is rare. In this study, we aimed at the identification of deregulated proteins which might be involved in prion pathogenesis. Findings Apolipoprotein E and peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 were identified as upregulated proteins in brains of scrapie-infected mice and cultured neuronal cell lines. Downregulation of PrP gene expression using specific siRNA did not result in a decrease of PRDX6 amounts. Interestingly, selective siRNA targeting PRDX6 or overexpression of PRDX6