WorldWideScience

Sample records for resilience biser technique

  1. Extending the Binomial Checkpointing Technique for Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, Andrea; Narayanan, Sri Hari Krishna

    2016-10-10

    In terms of computing time, adjoint methods offer a very attractive alternative to compute gradient information, re- quired, e.g., for optimization purposes. However, together with this very favorable temporal complexity result comes a memory requirement that is in essence proportional with the operation count of the underlying function, e.g., if algo- rithmic differentiation is used to provide the adjoints. For this reason, checkpointing approaches in many variants have become popular. This paper analyzes an extension of the so-called binomial approach to cover also possible failures of the computing systems. Such a measure of precaution is of special interest for massive parallel simulations and adjoint calculations where the mean time between failure of the large scale computing system is smaller than the time needed to complete the calculation of the adjoint information. We de- scribe the extensions of standard checkpointing approaches required for such resilience, provide a corresponding imple- mentation and discuss numerical results.

  2. Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widel...

  3. SRAM Design for Wireless Sensor Networks Energy Efficient and Variability Resilient Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Vibhu; Dehaene, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This book features various, ultra low energy, variability resilient SRAM circuit design techniques for wireless sensor network applications. Conventional SRAM design targets area efficiency and high performance at the increased cost of energy consumption, making it unsuitable for computation-intensive sensor node applications.  This book, therefore, guides the reader through different techniques at the circuit level for reducing   energy consumption and increasing the variability resilience. It includes a detailed review of the most efficient circuit design techniques and trade-offs, introduces new memory architecture techniques, sense amplifier circuits and voltage optimization methods for reducing the impact of variability for the advanced technology nodes.    Discusses fundamentals of energy reduction for SRAM circuits and applies them to energy limitation challenges associated with wireless sensor  nodes; Explains impact of variability resilience in reducing the energy consumption; Describes various...

  4. Moving Target Techniques: Cyber Resilience throught Randomization, Diversity, and Dynamism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-03

    attacks. Simply put, these techniques turn systems into moving targets that will be hard for cyber attackers to compromise. MT techniques leverage...been diversified, they can attack it as if it was not diversified at all. Dynamic Data: Techniques in the dynamic data domain change the format

  5. A probabilistic technique for the assessment of complex dynamic system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchanos, Michael Gregory

    techniques for total system resilience evaluation, based on scenario-based, dynamic system simulations. Physics-based Modeling and Simulation (M&S) is applied for dynamical system behavior analysis, which includes system performance, health monitoring, damage propagation and overall mission capability. For the development of the assessment framework and testing of a resilience assessment technique, a small-scale canonical problem has been formulated, involving a computational model of a degradable and reconfigurable spring-mass-damper SDOF system, in a multiple main and redundant spring configuration. A rule-based feedback controller is responsible for system performance recovery, through the application of different reconfiguration strategies and strategic activation of the necessary main or redundant springs. Uncertainty effects on system operation are introduced through disturbance factors, such as external forces with varying magnitude, input frequency, event duration and occurrence time. Such factors are the basis for scenario formulation, in support of a Monte Carlo simulation analysis. Case studies with varying levels of damping and different reconfiguration strategies, involve the investigation of operational uncertainty effects on system performance, mission capability, and system survivability. These studies furthermore explore uncertainty effects on resilience functions that describe the system's capacities on "restoring" mission capability, on "absorbing" the effects of changing conditions, and on "adapting" to the occurring change. The proposed resilience assessment technique or the Topological Investigation for Resilient and Effective Systems, through Increased Architecture Survivability (TIRESIAS) is then applied and demonstrated for a naval system application, in the form of a reduced scale, reconfigurable cooling network of a naval combatant. Uncertainty effects are modeled through combinations of different number of network fluid leaks. The TIRESIAS

  6. Evaluation of Anomaly Detection Techniques for SCADA Communication Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Shirazi, Syed Noor Ul Hassan; Gouglidis, Antonios; Syeda, Kanza Noor; Simpson, Steven; Mauthe, Andreas Ulrich; Stephanakis, Ioannis M.; Hutchison, David

    2016-01-01

    Attacks on critical infrastructures’ Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are beginning to increase. They are often initiated by highly skilled attackers, who are capable of deploying sophisticated attacks to exfiltrate data or even to cause physical damage. In this paper, we rehearse the rationale for protecting against cyber attacks and evaluate a set of Anomaly Detection (AD) techniques in detecting attacks by analysing traffic captured in a SCADA network. For this purp...

  7. A Technique for Designing Variation Resilient Subthreshold Sram Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminul Islam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for designing a variability aware subthreshold SRAM cell. The architecture of the proposed cell is similar to the standard read-decoupled 8-transistor (RD8T SRAM cell with the exception that the access FETS are replaced with transmission gates (TGs. In this work, various design metrics are assessed and compared with RD8T SRAM cell. The proposed design offers 2.14× and 1.75× improvement in TRA (read access time and TWA (write access time respectively compared with RD8T. It proves its robustness against process variations by featuring narrower spread in TRA distribution (2.35× and TWA distribution (3.79× compared with RD8T. The proposed bitcell offers 1.16× higher read current (IREAD and 1.64× lower bitline leakage current (ILEAK respectively compared with RD8T. It also shows its robustness by offering 1.34× (1.58× tighter spread in IREAD (ILEAK compared with RD8T. It exhibits 1.42× larger IREAD to ILEAK ratio. It shows 2.2× higher frequency @ 250 mV with read bitline capacitance of 10 fF. Besides, the proposed bitcell achieves same read stability and write-ability as that of RD8T at the cost of 3 extra transistors. The leakage power of the proposed design is close to that of RD8T.   ABSTRAK: Kertas kerja ini membentangkan teknik merekabentuk sel bawah ambang SRAM yang bolehubah. Senibina sel yang dicadangkan adalah sama dengan sel SRAM 8-transistor (RD8T “pisahan-bacaan” piawai kecuali FET akses  digantikan dengan sel pintu transmisi (TGs. Di dalam kajian ini, beberapa metrik rekabentuk dinilai dan dibandingkan dengan sel RD8T SRAM. Rekabentuk yang dicadangkan menawarkan  peningkatan 2.14× dan 1.75×  dalam TRA (masa akses baca dan TWA (masa akses tulis berbanding dengan RD8T. Ia membuktikan kekukuhan variasi proses dengan menampilkan tebaran yang lebih sempit dalam pengagihan TRA (2.35 × dan pengagihan TWA (3.79 × berbanding dengan RD8T. Sel-Bit yang dicadangkan mempunyai arus baca 1.16

  8. EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) and Resiliency in Veterans at Risk for PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Dawson; Sparks, Terry; Clond, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Prior research indicates elevated but subclinical posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a risk factor for a later diagnosis of PTSD. This study examined the progression of symptoms in 21 subclinical veterans. Participants were randomized into a treatment as usual (TAU) wait-list group and an experimental group, which received TAU plus six sessions of clinical emotional freedom techniques (EFT). Symptoms were assessed using the PCL-M (Posttraumatic Checklist-Military) on which a score of 35 or higher indicates increased risk for PTSD. The mean pretreatment score of participants was 39 ± 8.7, with no significant difference between groups. No change was found in the TAU group during the wait period. Afterward, the TAU group received an identical clinical EFT protocol. Posttreatment groups were combined for analysis. Scores declined to a mean of 25 (-64%, P < .0001). Participants maintained their gains, with mean three-month and six-month follow-up PCL-M scores of 27 (P < .0001). Similar reductions were noted in the depth and breadth of psychological conditions such as anxiety. A Cohen's d = 1.99 indicates a large treatment effect. Reductions in traumatic brain injury symptoms (P = .045) and insomnia (P = .004) were also noted. Symptom improvements were similar to those assessed in studies of PTSD-positive veterans. EFT may thus be protective against an increase in symptoms and a later PTSD diagnosis. As a simple and quickly learned self-help method, EFT may be a clinically useful element of a resiliency program for veterans and active-duty warriors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Better BAT to Bolster Ecosystem Resilience : Operationalizing Ecological Governance through the Concept of Best Available Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giljam, Renske A.

    This article examines to what extent ecological governance can be implemented by extending the concept of Best Available Techniques (BAT) at the European Union level. It therefore firstly analyses what ecological governance would require and what this implies for employing the use of BAT. The

  10. On resilience studies of system detection and recovery techniques against stealthy insider attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sixiao; Zhang, Hanlin; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Yu, Wei; Pham, Khanh D.; Blasch, Erik P.; Cruz, Jose B.

    2016-05-01

    With the explosive growth of network technologies, insider attacks have become a major concern to business operations that largely rely on computer networks. To better detect insider attacks that marginally manipulate network traffic over time, and to recover the system from attacks, in this paper we implement a temporal-based detection scheme using the sequential hypothesis testing technique. Two hypothetical states are considered: the null hypothesis that the collected information is from benign historical traffic and the alternative hypothesis that the network is under attack. The objective of such a detection scheme is to recognize the change within the shortest time by comparing the two defined hypotheses. In addition, once the attack is detected, a server migration-based system recovery scheme can be triggered to recover the system to the state prior to the attack. To understand mitigation of insider attacks, a multi-functional web display of the detection analysis was developed for real-time analytic. Experiments using real-world traffic traces evaluate the effectiveness of Detection System and Recovery (DeSyAR) scheme. The evaluation data validates the detection scheme based on sequential hypothesis testing and the server migration-based system recovery scheme can perform well in effectively detecting insider attacks and recovering the system under attack.

  11. Caregiver Resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Al

    2002-01-01

    This article argues that school counselors cannot teach and preach resilient behavior if they are not models of resiliency themselves. Examines why some people come through challenging times more emotionally intact than others and suggests some tips for increasing one's resilience potential. (GCP)

  12. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  13. Conceptualizing Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Birkland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary provides an overview of the idea of resilience, and acknowledges the challenges of defining and applying the idea in practice. The article summarizes a way of looking at resilience called a “resilience delta”, that takes into account both the shock done to a community by a disaster and the capacity of that community to rebound from that shock to return to its prior functionality. I show how different features of the community can create resilience, and consider how the developed and developing world addresses resilience. I also consider the role of focusing events in gaining attention to events and promoting change. I note that, while focusing events are considered by many in the disaster studies field to be major drivers of policy change in the United States disaster policy, most disasters have little effect on the overall doctrine of shared responsibilities between the national and subnational governments.

  14. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...

  15. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  16. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  17. Quantifying resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The biosphere is under unprecedented pressure, reflected in rapid changes in our global ecological, social, technological and economic systems. In many cases, ecological and social systems can adapt to these changes over time, but when a critical threshold is surpassed, a system under stress can undergo catastrophic change and reorganize into a different state. The concept of resilience, introduced more than 40 years ago in the ecological sciences, captures the behaviour of systems that can occur in alternative states. The original definition of resilience forwarded by Holling (1973) is still the most useful. It defines resilience as the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stable state. The idea of alternative stable states has clear and profound implications for ecological management. Coral reefs, for example, are high-diversity systems that provide key ecosystem services such as fisheries and coastal protection. Human impacts are causing significant, ongoing reef degradation, and many reefs have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states in response to anthropogenic pressures such as elevated water temperatures and overfishing. Understanding and differentiating between the factors that help maintain reefs in coral-dominated states vs. those that facilitate a shift to an undesired algal-dominated state is a critical step towards sound management and conservation of these, and other, important social–ecological systems.

  18. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Chapin, T.; Rockstrom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change

  19. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  20. Resilience - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    the assessment of the health of a network or system. The hypothesis is: resiliency is meaningful in the context of holistic assessments of... health , holistic , Resiliency Tier, Resiliency Tier Matrix, State of Resiliency 295Defense ARJ, July 2015, Vol. 22 No. 3 : 294–324 296 Defense ARJ, July...upon who is speaking. Taking this one step further, consider resiliency as a concept that provides a holistic view of a system or capability, just

  1. Development of a framework for resilience measurement: Suggestion of fuzzy Resilience Grade (RG) and fuzzy Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Mohammad Fam, Iraj; Nirumand, Fereshteh

    2017-01-01

    Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes. Considering the resilience potential measurement as a concern in complex working systems, the aim of this study was to quantify the resilience by the help of fuzzy sets and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques. In this paper, we adopted the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method to measure resilience in a gas refinery plant. A resilience assessment framework containing six indicators, each with its own sub-indicators, was constructed. Then, the fuzzy weights of the indicators and the sub-indicators were derived from pair-wise comparisons conducted by experts. The fuzzy evaluating vectors of the indicators and the sub-indicators computed according to the initial assessment data. Finally, the Comprehensive Resilience Index (CoRI), Resilience Grade (RG), and Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG) were established. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, an illustrative example in a gas refinery complex (an instance of socio-technical systems) was provided. CoRI of the refinery ranked as "III". In addition, for the six main indicators, RG and REWG ranked as "III" and "NEWZ", respectively, except for C3, in which RG ranked as "II", and REWG ranked as "OEWZ". The results revealed the engineering practicability and usefulness of the proposed method in resilience evaluation of socio-technical systems.

  2. Physical disease and resilient outcomes: a systematic review of resilience definitions and study methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marjorie C; Porteous, Terry; Crilly, Michael A; Burton, Christopher D; Elliott, Alison; Iversen, Lisa; McArdle, Karen; Murray, Alison; Phillips, Louise H; Black, Corri

    2015-01-01

    Findings from physical disease resilience research may be used to develop approaches to reduce the burden of disease. However, there is no consensus on the definition and measurement of resilience in the context of physical disease. The aim was to summarize the range of definitions of physical disease resilience and the approaches taken to study it in studies examining physical disease and its relationship to resilient outcomes. Electronic databases were searched from inception to March 2013 for studies in which physical disease was assessed for its association with resilient outcomes. Article screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were carried out independently by 2 reviewers, with disagreements being resolved by a third reviewer. The results were combined using a narrative technique. Of 2280 articles, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 1 was of high quality, 9 were of moderate quality, and 2 were low quality. The common findings were that resilience involves maintaining healthy levels of functioning following adversity and that it is a dynamic process not a personality trait. Studies either assessed resilience based on observed outcomes or via resilience measurement scales. They either considered physical disease as an adversity leading to resilience or as a variable modifying the relationship between adversity and resilience. This work begins building consensus as to the approach to take when defining and measuring physical disease resilience. Resilience should be considered as a dynamic process that varies across the life-course and across different domains, therefore the choice of a resilience measure should reflect this. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social-ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

  4. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  5. Developing the resilience typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in resilience in internal crisis management and crisis communication. How an organization can build up resilience as a response to organisational crisis, at a time when the amount of crises seem only to increase, is more relevant than ever before. Nevertheless resilience...... is often perceived in the literature as something certain organisations have by definition, without further reflection on what it is that creates this resiliency. This article explores what it is that creates organisational resilience, and in view of the different understandings of the resilience...... phenomenon, develops a typology of resilience. Furthermore the resilience phenomenon is discussed against the definition of a crisis as a cosmological episode, and implications for future research is discussed and summarized....

  6. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  7. Resilient health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.

    Health care is everywhere under tremendous pressure with regard to efficiency, safety, and economic viability - to say nothing of having to meet various political agendas - and has responded by eagerly adopting techniques that have been useful in other industries, such as quality management, lean...... production, and high reliability. This has on the whole been met with limited success because health care as a non-trivial and multifaceted system differs significantly from most traditional industries. In order to allow health care systems to perform as expected and required, it is necessary to have...... engineering's unique approach emphasises the usefulness of performance variability, and that successes and failures have the same aetiology. This book contains contributions from acknowledged international experts in health care, organisational studies and patient safety, as well as resilience engineering...

  8. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  9. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE

    2015-01-01

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  10. A quantitative method for assessing resilience of interdependent infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan, Cen; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The importance of understanding system resilience and identifying ways to enhance it, especially for interdependent infrastructures our daily life depends on, has been recognized not only by academics, but also by the corporate and public sectors. During recent years, several methods and frameworks have been proposed and developed to explore applicable techniques to assess and analyze system resilience in a comprehensive way. However, they are often tailored to specific disruptive hazards/events, or fail to properly include all the phases such as absorption, adaptation, and recovery. In this paper, a quantitative method for the assessment of the system resilience is proposed. The method consists of two components: an integrated metric for system resilience quantification and a hybrid modeling approach for representing the failure behavior of infrastructure systems. The feasibility and applicability of the proposed method are tested using an electric power supply system as the exemplary infrastructure. Simulation results highlight that the method proves effective in designing, engineering and improving the resilience of infrastructures. Finally, system resilience is proposed as a proxy to quantify the coupling strength between interdependent infrastructures. - Highlights: • A method for quantifying resilience of interdependent infrastructures is proposed. • It combines multi-layer hybrid modeling and a time-dependent resilience metric. • The feasibility of the proposed method is tested on the electric power supply system. • The method provides insights to decision-makers for strengthening system resilience. • Resilience capabilities can be used to engineer interdependencies between subsystems.

  11. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Therefore the resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. Also, due to practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems future systems are likely to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. As a result the techniques that seek to improve resilience must navigate the complex trade-off space between resilience and the overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power efficiency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience using the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. Each established solution is described in the form of a pattern that

  12. The Resilient Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Longhurst, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Brain research opens new frontiers in working with children and youth experiencing conflict in school and community. Blending this knowledge with resilience science offers a roadmap for reclaiming those identified as "at risk." This article applies findings from resilience research and recent brain research to identify strategies for reaching…

  13. How Resilience Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at coping skills that carry people through life and why some have them and others do not. Suggests that resilience is a reflex, a way of facing and understanding the world, and that resilient people and companies face reality with staunchness, make meaning out of hardship, and improvise. (JOW)

  14. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  15. Building Inner Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantieri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The capacity to be in control of one's thoughts, emotions, and physiology can form an internal safety net preparing children to face the challenges and opportunities of life. This is the goal of the Inner Resilience Program in the New York City Schools. Teachers in the Inner Resilience Program's intervention are exposed to calming and focusing…

  16. Building Resilience through Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Debra Vande; Van Brockern, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Research on resilience suggests that a sense of humor helps to stress-proof children in conflict. Reports on a workshop for educators and youth workers convened to explore ways humor is being used to foster positive development and resilience with troubled youth. Describes applications of humor front-line professionals report as useful in their…

  17. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  18. Zoogeomorphology and resilience theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Anzah, Faisal; Goff, Paepin D.; Villa, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Zoogeomorphology, the study of animals as geomorphic agents, has been largely overlooked in the context of resilience theory and biogeomorphic systems. In this paper, examples are provided of the interactions between external landscape disturbances and zoogeomorphological agents. We describe cases in which naturally occurring zoogeomorphological agents occupy a landscape, and examine whether those zoogeomorphic agents provide resilience to a landscape or instead serve as a landscape stress capable of inducing a phase-state shift. Several cases are described whereby the presence of exotic (introduced) zoogeomorphic agents overwhelms a landscape and induce collapse. The impact of climate change on species with zoogeomorphological importance is discussed in the context of resilience of a landscape. We conclude with a summary diagram illustrating the relationships existing between zoogeomorphic impacts and landscape resilience in the context of our case studies, and speculate about the future of the study of zoogeomorphology in the framework of resilience theory.

  19. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  20. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Resilience: Theory and Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Bassett, G.W.; Buehring, W.A.; Collins, M.J., III; Folga, S.M.; Petit, F.D.; Phillips, J.A.; Verner, D.R.; Whitfield, R.G. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-03

    There is strong agreement among policymakers, practitioners, and academic researchers that the concept of resilience must play a major role in assessing the extent to which various entities - critical infrastructure owners and operators, communities, regions, and the Nation - are prepared to respond to and recover from the full range of threats they face. Despite this agreement, consensus regarding important issues, such as how resilience should be defined, assessed, and measured, is lacking. The analysis presented here is part of a broader research effort to develop and implement assessments of resilience at the asset/facility and community/regional levels. The literature contains various definitions of resilience. Some studies have defined resilience as the ability of an entity to recover, or 'bounce back,' from the adverse effects of a natural or manmade threat. Such a definition assumes that actions taken prior to the occurrence of an adverse event - actions typically associated with resistance and anticipation - are not properly included as determinants of resilience. Other analyses, in contrast, include one or more of these actions in their definitions. To accommodate these different definitions, we recognize a subset of resistance- and anticipation-related actions that are taken based on the assumption that an adverse event is going to occur. Such actions are in the domain of resilience because they reduce both the immediate and longer-term adverse consequences that result from an adverse event. Recognizing resistance- and anticipation-related actions that take the adverse event as a given accommodates the set of resilience-related actions in a clear-cut manner. With these considerations in mind, resilience can be defined as: 'the ability of an entity - e.g., asset, organization, community, region - to anticipate, resist, absorb, respond to, adapt to, and recover from a disturbance.' Because critical infrastructure resilience is important

  2. Resilience in Utility Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Roger

    The following sections are included: * Scope of paper * Preamble * Background to the case-study projects * Source projects * Resilience * Case study 1: Electricity generation * Context * Model * Case study 2: Water recycling * Context * Model * Case study 3: Ecotechnology and water treatment * Context * The problem of classification: Finding a classificatory solution * Application of the new taxonomy to water treatment * Concluding comments and questions * Conclusions * Questions and issues * Purposive or Purposeful? * Resilience: Flexibility and adaptivity? * Resilience: With respect of what? * Risk, uncertainty, surprise, emergence - What sort of shock, and who says so? * Co-evolutionary friction * References

  3. Resilience of the IMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on end-to-end resilience analysis of the IMS based network through the principal resilience parameters by using OPNET. The resilience behaviours of communication across multiple IMS domains are investigated at different communication scenarios and compared with previous state......-of-the-art. Moreover, the resilience effects when adding a redundancy of the S-CSCF unit are examined. The results disclose interesting resilience behaviours for long distance communications....

  4. Assessing the outcomes of school-based partnership resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a ... resilience in relation to educational psychology-rural school intervention. ... The data analysis techniques consist of descriptive statistics and t-tests on the sampled ...

  5. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  6. Personal Factors Underlying Resilience in Adolescence: Cross-Cultural Validity of the Prince-Embury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasana, Mercedes; Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2017-09-25

    Resiliency personality factors are supposed to underlie resilience. To get evidence on this supposition, the Prince-Embury scales (PES) for adolescents were adapted to the Spanish population. Then, the relationship between the resiliency variables sense of mastery, sense of relatedness and emotional reactivity -assessed with the PES- with resilience -assessed with the Subjective Resilience Questionnaire (SRQ)- were analyzed, as well as the role of social integration within this relationship. Data from 1083 adolescents were analyzed using confirmatory techniques (CFA, PALV). CFA of PES displayed a good fit to the model (CFI: .95). Path-analysis showed that sense of mastery and emotional reactivity predict resilience as expected, but also that, contrary to expectations based on Prince-Embury's theory, sense of relatedness and resilience are not related, either directly, or through social integration. Being related and socially integrated probably favors well-being, but it may not favor resilience unless associated to Sense of Mastery, at least in adolescence.

  7. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI JPEG Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  8. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI Excel database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  9. Family Resilience in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  10. Resilience in IMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    ) and supporting always on services. Therefore, not only Quality of Service (QoS) but also resilience is required. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate and analyze end-to-end reliability of the IMS system using a model proposed as a combination of Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) and Markov Reward Models (MRMs......Reliability evaluation of systems has been widely researched for improving system resilience especially in designing processes of a complex system. The convergence of different access networks is possible via IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for development toward Next Generation Networks (NGNs......). The resilience of the IMS architecture is studied by applying 1:1 redundancy at different communication scenarios between end users within and across communication domains. The model analysis provides useful reliability characteristics of the system and can be further applied for system design processes....

  11. Resilience Design Patterns: A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, Christian; Hukerikar, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to integrate the various HPC resilience techniques into composite solutions, nor are there methods to holistically evaluate the adequacy and efficacy of such solutions in terms of their protection coverage, and their performance \\& power efficiency characteristics. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this paper, we develop a structured approach to the design, evaluation and optimization of HPC resilience using the concept of design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the problems caused by various types of faults, errors and failures in HPC systems and the techniques used to deal with these events. Each well-known solution that addresses a specific HPC resilience challenge is described in the form of a pattern. We develop a complete catalog of such resilience design patterns, which may be used by system architects, system software and tools developers, application programmers, as well as users and operators as essential building blocks when designing and deploying resilience solutions. We also develop a design framework that enhances a designer's understanding the opportunities for integrating multiple patterns across layers of the system stack and the important constraints during implementation of the individual patterns. It is also useful for defining mechanisms and interfaces to coordinate flexible fault management across

  12. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  13. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  14. Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dunn cavelty, myriam; Kaufmann, Mareile; Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    2015-01-01

    , and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...

  15. New Orleans' Resilience Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, J.

    2017-12-01

    New Orleans has had unique experience in dealing with and recovering from major urban emergencies. From Hurricanes Katrina and Isaac to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill to the city's frequent boil water advisories, New Orleans has learned important lessons about what it takes to become a vibrant, resilient city that serves all its residents — particularly its most vulnerable. The city of New Orleans released its Resilience Strategy on August 28, 2015. On September 12, 2016, the city released its One-Year Progress Update, sharing its key milestones.

  16. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  17. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe

    2016-11-01

    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  18. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963......-2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...... in new resources to the cluster but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  19. Multi-Sited Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2012-01-01

    with natural disasters and climate change. In a globalized world, however, it is hard to discern what is “local” as global organizations play an increasingly visible and powerful role. This paper will argue that local understandings and practices of resilience cannot be disentangled from global understandings...... flooding in northern Ghana, this paper examines the mutual construction of “local” and “global” notions and practices of resilience through multi-sited processes. It is based on interviews and participant observation in multiple sites at the “local,” “regional” and “global” levels....

  20. Can Resilience Thinking Inform Resilience Investments? Learning from Resilience Principles for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Hill Clarvis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the human and financial costs of natural disasters rise and state finances continue to deplete, increasing attention is being placed on the role of the private sector to support disaster and climate resilience. However, not only is there a recognised lack of private finance to fill this gap, but international institutional and financing bodies tend to prioritise specific reactive response over preparedness and general resilience building. This paper utilises the central tenets of resilience thinking that have emerged from scholarship on social-ecological system resilience as a lens through which to assess investing in disaster risk reduction (DRR for resilience. It draws on an established framework of resilience principles and examples of resilience investments to explore how resilience principles can actually inform decisions around DRR and resilience investing. It proposes some key lessons for diversifying sources of finance in order to, in turn, enhance “financial resilience”. In doing so, it suggests a series of questions to align investments with resilience building, and to better balance the achievement of the resilience principles with financial requirements such as financial diversification and replicability. It argues for a critical look to be taken at how resilience principles, which focus on longer-term systems perspectives, could complement the focus in DRR on critical and immediate stresses.

  1. Resilience versus "Resilient Individual": What Exactly Do We Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature and definition of resilience, despite the extensive 40 years of research, is still unclear. Currently is resilience seen as a personality trait, sum of the traits/factors, result of adaptation, or as a process. The concept of resilience as personality traits is usually tied to uni-dimensional or "simplex" theories of resistance as Hardiness, Sense of Control, Ego-Resiliency, Self-efficacy, Sense of Coherence, or specific personality traits. Multidimensional concepts see resilience as a complex of personality and social (environmental factors that work in interaction, complement or replace each other, and, in aggregate, create a comprehensive picture of resilience. The concept of resilience as the result of adaptation examines resilience in terms of the presence/absence of adverse/pathological manifestations, consequences and outcomes in relation to the earlier effect of stressful, risky or otherwise unfavorable situations. Finally, the concept of resilience as the process examines individual's response to risk factors or wounds that are present in the environment. Resilience is thus a process consisting of interactions between individual characteristics and the environment. Most experts and a large part of resilience research is based on the first three concepts that however explore how "resilient" the individual is rather than resilience itself, since they are based on "diagnosing" or at best dimensional, at worse dichotomous rating of the individual's resilience (within personality trait approach, or on the evaluation of the presence/absence of factors/source of resilience, thereby they are still holding the "diagnostic" approach (within multidimensional approach. Only the examination of processes, such as the ongoing interaction between these risk factors, resilience factors, outcomes (expressions of personality, behavior, presence of problems, etc. and other variables allows us to understand resilience (the true nature of how

  2. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest that very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems will require future systems to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. The resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. These techniques must seek to improve resilience at reasonable overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various solutions, application-level as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power eciency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software ecosystems, which are expected to be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience based on the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. The catalog of resilience design patterns provides designers with reusable design elements. We define a design framework that enhances our understanding of the important

  3. Measuring resilience in integrated planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apneseth, K.; Wahl, A. M.; Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how a Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG) can be used to profile the performance of a company in terms of the four abilities that characterize a resilient organization. It describes the development of a new, RAG-based tool founded on Resilience Engineering principles that can...... be used to assess an organization's resilience. The tool was tested in a case study involving a company in the offshore oil and gas industry. The company had decided to adopt an Integrated Operations (IO) approach to operations and maintenance planning and the tool was used to evaluate the impact...... of the Integrated Planning (IPL) process on its resilience....

  4. Experimenting for resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter; Dupret, Katia

    Focusing on how an experimental approach to organizing may pave the way for organizational resilience, we explore opportunities and barriers of experimental organizing by following a concrete social experiment in civil society and discuss its adaptability in traditional organizations. The social ...... through balancing a strategic and anticipatory strategy with experimental setups inspired by civil society organizing initiatives....

  5. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  6. Wellbeing And Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Susanne; Davidsen, Kirstine Agnete; MacBeth, Angus

    2015-01-01

    , 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction. DISCUSSION: The study will provide data on very early risk...

  7. Resilience through adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus A Ten Broeke

    Full Text Available Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  8. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Resilience through adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten Guus; Voorn, van George A.K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations

  10. Resilience through adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Broeke, Guus A; van Voorn, George A K; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  11. Risk and/or resilience management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Louisot

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk management aims at managing all the uncertainties that may interfere with the objectives and missions of the organization. Resilience engineering aims at building its capacity to get over disturbances or stress while keeping the functionalities needed to survive, and possibly thrive. A recently open debate on an Internet blog launched by the risk managers of the Scottish Widows Bank seems to arise from what some professionals see as two competing branches of the management sciences. Whereas through the development of ERM – Enterprise-wide Risk Management – risk management is emerging at last to become a science, as well as an art and a practice, the mentioned above centered on the role of a newly forged name “resilience management”. This opens a new front of the many debates that could derail the path to maturity of Risk Management as a science and reopen new silos much as Business Impact Analysis, BIA, or continuity management, might do if a clear distinction is not made between science, objectives and tools. However, because organizations are so interconnected today in the supply cloud that it is inevitable that they will face catastrophic risk and this is why resilience needs to be a core objective of any risk management plan? Whereas traditional risk management techniques alone may not be adequate to deal with such pervasive and insipient risk scenarios, resilience is ingrained into ERM

  12. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  13. Resiliency as a component importance measure in network reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, John C.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to define the concept of resiliency as a component importance measure related to network reliability. Resiliency can be defined as a composite of: (1) the ability of a network to provide service despite external failures and (2) the time to restore service when in the presence of such failures. Although, Resiliency has been extensively studied in different research areas, this paper will study the specific aspects of quantifiable network resiliency when the network is experiencing potential catastrophic failures from external events and/or influences, and when it is not known a priori which specific components within the network will fail. A formal definition for Category I resiliency is proposed and a step-by-step approach based on Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate it is defined. To illustrate the approach, two-terminal networks with varying degrees of redundancy, have been considered. The results obtained for test networks show that this new quantifiable concept of resiliency provides insight into the performance and topology of the network. Future use for this work could include methods for safeguarding critical network components and optimizing the use of redundancy as a technique to improve network resiliency.

  14. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  15. From resilience thinking to Resilience Planning: Lessons from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellberg, M M; Ryan, P; Borgström, S T; Norström, A V; Peterson, G D

    2018-07-01

    Resilience thinking has frequently been proposed as an alternative to conventional natural resource management, but there are few studies of its applications in real-world settings. To address this gap, we synthesized experiences from practitioners that have applied a resilience thinking approach to strategic planning, called Resilience Planning, in regional natural resource management organizations in Australia. This case represents one of the most extensive and long-term applications of resilience thinking in the world today. We conducted semi-structured interviews with Resilience Planning practitioners from nine organizations and reviewed strategic planning documents to investigate: 1) the key contributions of the approach to their existing strategic planning, and 2) what enabled and hindered the practitioners in applying and embedding the new approach in their organizations. Our results reveal that Resilience Planning contributed to developing a social-ecological systems perspective, more adaptive and collaborative approaches to planning, and that it clarified management goals of desirable resource conditions. Applying Resilience Planning required translating resilience thinking to practice in each unique circumstance, while simultaneously creating support among staff, and engaging external actors. Embedding Resilience Planning within organizations implied starting and maintaining longer-term change processes that required sustained multi-level organizational support. We conclude by identifying four lessons for successfully applying and embedding resilience practice in an organization: 1) to connect internal "entrepreneurs" to "interpreters" and "networkers" who work across organizations, 2) to assess the opportunity context for resilience practice, 3) to ensure that resilience practice is a learning process that engages internal and external actors, and 4) to develop reflective strategies for managing complexity and uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  16. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what resilience-building contributes to, what the problems, causes and solutions are, and what trade-offs, side-effects and other normative choices are acceptable. These different ways of ‘framing’ climate res...

  17. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia....... They are considered more vulnerable to disasters because of their size. This paper argues, on the contrary, that SMEs also can be less vulnerable to sudden change than large corporations, drawing upon the ideas of Hayek and Taleb, and that networks of SMEs may contribute to the overall resilience of society...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...

  18. Analyzing Resiliency of the Smart Grid Communication Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-08-01

    Smart grids are susceptible to cyber-attack as a result of new communication, control and computation techniques employed in the grid. In this paper, we characterize and analyze the resiliency of smart grid communication architecture, specifically an RF mesh based architecture, under cyber attacks. We analyze the resiliency of the communication architecture by studying the performance of high-level smart grid functions such as metering, and demand response which depend on communication. Disrupting the operation of these functions impacts the operational resiliency of the smart grid. Our analysis shows that it takes an attacker only a small fraction of meters to compromise the communication resiliency of the smart grid. We discuss the implications of our result to critical smart grid functions and to the overall security of the smart grid.

  19. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  20. Communal resilience: the Lebanese case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric BOUTIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a turbulent and aggressive environment, organizations are subject to external events. They are sometimes destabilized and can disappear. This context explains the multiplication of works studying resilience of human organizations. Resilience is then defined as the ability of the organization studied to face an external shock.This paper proposes a state of the art of resilience concept and considers the interests of the transposition of the concept to the field of a territorial community. A case study will lead us to apply the concept of resilience to the Lebanese nation.

  1. Assessing Resilience in Stressed Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine T. Nemec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several frameworks for assessing the resilience of social-ecological systems (SESs have been developed, some practitioners may not have sufficient time and information to conduct extensive resilience assessments. We have presented a simplified approach to resilience assessment that reviews the scientific, historical, and social literature to rate the resilience of an SES with respect to nine resilience properties: ecological variability, diversity, modularity, acknowledgement of slow variables, tight feedbacks, social capital, innovation, overlap in governance, and ecosystem services. We evaluated the effects of two large-scale projects, the construction of a major dam and the implementation of an ecosystem recovery program, on the resilience of the central Platte River SES (Nebraska, United States. We used this case study to identify the strengths and weaknesses of applying a simplified approach to resilience assessment. Although social resilience has increased steadily since the predam period for the central Platte River SES, ecological resilience was greatly reduced in the postdam period as compared to the predam and ecosystem recovery program time periods.

  2. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be de...

  3. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what

  4. A Framework For Evaluating Comprehensive Fault Resilience Mechanisms In Numerical Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Peng, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronevetsky, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-09

    As HPC systems approach Exascale, their circuit feature will shrink, while their overall size will grow, all at a fixed power limit. These trends imply that soft faults in electronic circuits will become an increasingly significant problem for applications that run on these systems, causing them to occasionally crash or worse, silently return incorrect results. This is motivating extensive work on application resilience to such faults, ranging from generic techniques such as replication or checkpoint/restart to algorithm-specific error detection and resilience techniques. Effective use of such techniques requires a detailed understanding of (1) which vulnerable parts of the application are most worth protecting (2) the performance and resilience impact of fault resilience mechanisms on the application. This paper presents FaultTelescope, a tool that combines these two and generates actionable insights by presenting in an intuitive way application vulnerabilities and impact of fault resilience mechanisms on applications.

  5. Midwives׳ experiences of workplace resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Billie; Warren, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    many UK midwives experience workplace adversity resulting from a national shortage of midwives, rise in birth rate and increased numbers of women entering pregnancy with complex care needs. Research evidence suggests that workplace pressures, and the emotional demands of the job, may increase midwives׳ experience of stress and contribute to low morale, sickness and attrition. Much less is known about midwives who demonstrate resilience in the face of adversity. Resilience has been investigated in studies of other health and social care workers, but there is a gap in knowledge regarding midwives׳ experiences. to explore clinical midwives׳ understanding and experience of professional resilience and to identify the personal, professional and contextual factors considered to contribute to or act as barriers to resilience. an exploratory qualitative descriptive study. In Stage One, a closed online professional discussion group was conducted over a one month period. Midwives discussed workplace adversity and their resilient responses to this. In Stage Two, the data were discussed with an Expert Panel with representatives from midwifery workforce and resilience research, in order to enhance data interpretation and refine the concept modelling. the online discussion group was hosted by the Royal College of Midwives, UK online professional networking hub: 'Communities'. 11 practising midwives with 15 or more years of 'hands on clinical experience', and who self-identified as being resilient, took part in the online discussion group. thematic analysis of the data identified four themes: challenges to resilience, managing and coping, self-awareness and building resilience. The participants identified 'critical moments' in their careers when midwives were especially vulnerable to workplace adversity. Resilience was seen as a learned process which was facilitated by a range of coping strategies, including accessing support and developing self-awareness and protection of self

  6. Literature Review of Concepts: Psychological Resiliency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wald, Jaye; Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J; Jang, Kerry L; Stapleton, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    ...; and resiliency measures, their development and validation. Existing definitions implicate resiliency with the ability to adapt and successfully cope with adversity, life stressors, and traumatic events...

  7. Use of Model-Based Design Methods for Enhancing Resiliency Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Lenora A.

    The most common traditional non-functional requirement analysis is reliability. With systems becoming more complex, networked, and adaptive to environmental uncertainties, system resiliency has recently become the non-functional requirement analysis of choice. Analysis of system resiliency has challenges; which include, defining resilience for domain areas, identifying resilience metrics, determining resilience modeling strategies, and understanding how to best integrate the concepts of risk and reliability into resiliency. Formal methods that integrate all of these concepts do not currently exist in specific domain areas. Leveraging RAMSoS, a model-based reliability analysis methodology for Systems of Systems (SoS), we propose an extension that accounts for resiliency analysis through evaluation of mission performance, risk, and cost using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) modeling and design trade study variability modeling evaluation techniques. This proposed methodology, coined RAMSoS-RESIL, is applied to a case study in the multi-agent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) domain to investigate the potential benefits of a mission architecture where functionality to complete a mission is disseminated across multiple UAVs (distributed) opposed to being contained in a single UAV (monolithic). The case study based research demonstrates proof of concept for the proposed model-based technique and provides sufficient preliminary evidence to conclude which architectural design (distributed vs. monolithic) is most resilient based on insight into mission resilience performance, risk, and cost in addition to the traditional analysis of reliability.

  8. The quest for resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Gary; Välikangas, Liisa

    2003-09-01

    In less turbulent times, executives had the luxury of assuming that business models were more or less immortal. Companies always had to work to get better, but they seldom had to get different--not at their core, not in their essence. Today, getting different is the imperative. It's the challenge facing Coca-Cola as it struggles to raise its "share of throat" in noncarbonated beverages. It's the task that bedevils McDonald's as it tries to restart its growth in a burger-weary world. It's the hurdle for Sun Microsystems as it searches for ways to protect its high-margin server business from the Linux onslaught. Continued success no longer hinges on momentum. Rather, it rides on resilience-on the ability to dynamically reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change. Strategic resilience is not about responding to a onetime crisis or rebounding from a setback. It's about continually anticipating and adjusting to deep, secular trends that can permanently impair the earning power of a core business. It's about having the capacity to change even before the case for change becomes obvious. To thrive in turbulent times, companies must become as efficient at renewal as they are at producing today's products and services. To achieve strategic resilience, companies will have to overcome the cognitive challenge of eliminating denial, nostalgia, and arrogance; the strategic challenge of learning how to create a wealth of small tactical experiments; the political challenge of reallocating financial and human resources to where they can earn the best returns; and the ideological challenge of learning that strategic renewal is as important as optimization.

  9. Resilience and reworking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus; Fold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    of this article is to shed light on the agency of individual workers involved in rapid industrialization processes. In this endeavor we draw inspiration from recent contributions that have integrated Cindi Katz's threefold categorization of agency as reworking, resilience and resistance. In combination...... the labor market. The empirical part of the article draws on interviews with local and migrant first-generation workers in two settlements located next to an industrial zone in Can Tho Province in the Mekong River Delta Region of Vietnam. It is suggested that the alternating practices of reworking...

  10. Stiffness, resilience, compressibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Bogdan M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source (United States); Sage, J. Timothy, E-mail: jtsage@neu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The flexibility of a protein is an important component of its functionality. We use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to quantify the flexibility of the heme iron environment in the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c by measuring the stiffness and the resilience. These quantities are sensitive to structural differences between the active sites of different proteins, as illustrated by a comparative analysis with myoglobin. The elasticity of the entire protein, on the other hand, can be probed quantitatively from NRVS and high energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements, an approach that we used to extract the bulk modulus of cytochrome c.

  11. Leakage resilient password systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  12. Towards Smart and Resilient City: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafah, Y.; Winarso, H.; Suroso, D. S. A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper aims to compare five smart city models selected based on a number of specific criteria. Following the comparison and assessment performed, we draw conclusions and further linkages identifying the components and characters found in resilient cities. The purpose of this analysis is to produce a new approach and concept: the “smart and resilient city.” Through in-depth literature study, this paper analyzes five conceptual smart city models deemed to have a background, point of view, and benchmark towards software group, as they focus on welfare, inclusion, social equality, and competitiveness. Analyzing the strategies, methods, and techniques of five smart city models, this paper concludes that there has been no inclusion of resilience concepts in the assessment, especially in the context of natural disasters. Basically, the models are also interrelated and there are some things that overlap. As a recommendation, there is a model that tries to combine the components and character of smart city and resilient city into one entity that is embedded as a whole in a conceptual picture towards the new concept, the “smart and resilient city”. The concept of smart city and resilient city go hand in hand with each other and thus are interrelated. Therefore, it is imperative to study that concept deeper, in this case primarily in the context of disaster.

  13. Caregiver resilience in palliative care: a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardi, Stefano; Stievano, Alessandro; Rocco, Gennaro; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2016-02-01

    To describe a research protocol designed to formulate a conceptual framework of informal caregiver resilience in palliative care. Resilience is the ability to adapt or to improve one's own conditions following experiences of adversity. The end-of-life care provided by informal caregivers is a form of adversity because it entails objective difficulties, emotional involvement and deep levels of introspection that have been stimulated by the death event. Resilience has not yet been addressed in association with end-of-life care. This is a multicentre cross-sectional study. We will administer a questionnaire to a sample of informal end-of-life caregivers to collect data about the main psychological, behavioural and healthcare factors that impact resilience. Data analysis will include descriptive and correlational statistical techniques, multiple linear regressions and structural equation modelling. Data will be collected in multiple palliative care centres and statistical analysis will be carried out using software: SPSS version 19.0 and MPlus version 7.3. The study is supported by a grant from the Centre of Excellence for Nursing Scholarship in Italy (Research Grant number 2.13.10) that was awarded in March 2013. The study seeks to identify the predictive, mediating and moderating roles of select variables: caregivers' self-efficacy, burdens of caregiving, depression and resilience. The results of this analysis will impact the theoretical study of resilience in palliative care and will have practical implications for interventions aimed at supporting caregivers through healthcare teams. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Resilience-based optimal design of water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-11-01

    Optimal design of water distribution network is generally aimed to minimize the capital cost of the investments on tanks, pipes, pumps, and other appurtenances. Minimizing the cost of pipes is usually considered as a prime objective as its proportion in capital cost of the water distribution system project is very high. However, minimizing the capital cost of the pipeline alone may result in economical network configuration, but it may not be a promising solution in terms of resilience point of view. Resilience of the water distribution network has been considered as one of the popular surrogate measures to address ability of network to withstand failure scenarios. To improve the resiliency of the network, the pipe network optimization can be performed with two objectives, namely minimizing the capital cost as first objective and maximizing resilience measure of the configuration as secondary objective. In the present work, these two objectives are combined as single objective and optimization problem is solved by differential evolution technique. The paper illustrates the procedure for normalizing the objective functions having distinct metrics. Two of the existing resilience indices and power efficiency are considered for optimal design of water distribution network. The proposed normalized objective function is found to be efficient under weighted method of handling multi-objective water distribution design problem. The numerical results of the design indicate the importance of sizing pipe telescopically along shortest path of flow to have enhanced resiliency indices.

  15. Resilient mounting systems in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, R.; Tukker, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The basic elements of resilient mounting systems are described and various measures for quantifying the effect of such systems defined. Using electrical analogue circuits, the calculation of these measures is illustrated. With special reference to resilient mounting systems in buildings, under

  16. Tiered Approach to Resilience Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura; Allen, Craig R; Arnott, James C; Bellini, Emanuele; Coaffee, Jon; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Hatfield, Kirk; Hyde, Iain; Hynes, William; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Kasperson, Roger; Katzenberger, John; Keys, Patrick W; Lambert, James H; Moss, Richard; Murdoch, Peter S; Palma-Oliveira, Jose; Pulwarty, Roger S; Sands, Dale; Thomas, Edward A; Tye, Mari R; Woods, David

    2018-04-25

    Regulatory agencies have long adopted a three-tier framework for risk assessment. We build on this structure to propose a tiered approach for resilience assessment that can be integrated into the existing regulatory processes. Comprehensive approaches to assessing resilience at appropriate and operational scales, reconciling analytical complexity as needed with stakeholder needs and resources available, and ultimately creating actionable recommendations to enhance resilience are still lacking. Our proposed framework consists of tiers by which analysts can select resilience assessment and decision support tools to inform associated management actions relative to the scope and urgency of the risk and the capacity of resource managers to improve system resilience. The resilience management framework proposed is not intended to supplant either risk management or the many existing efforts of resilience quantification method development, but instead provide a guide to selecting tools that are appropriate for the given analytic need. The goal of this tiered approach is to intentionally parallel the tiered approach used in regulatory contexts so that resilience assessment might be more easily and quickly integrated into existing structures and with existing policies. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  18. Resilia cyber resilience best practices

    CERN Document Server

    , AXELOS

    2015-01-01

    RESILIA™ Cyber Resilience Best Practices offers a practical approach to cyber resilience, reflecting the need to detect and recover from incidents, and not rely on prevention alone. It uses the ITIL® framework, which provides a proven approach to the provision of services that align to business outcomes.

  19. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  20. The International Resilience Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    Resilience is defined as "the human capacity to face, overcome, and be strengthened by experiences of adversity." This study used an Eriksonian developmental model to examine parents', caregivers', and children's resilience-promotion in children up to 12 years of age. Age and gender differences and cultural/ethnic similarities and…

  1. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  2. Resilient leadership and the organizational culture of resilience: construct validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Smith, Kenneth J; Lobo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Political, economic, and social unrest and uncertainty seem replete throughout the world. Within the United States, political vitriol and economic volatility have led to severe economic restrictions. Both government and private sector organizations are being asked to do more with less. The specter of dramatic changes in healthcare creates a condition of uncertainty affecting budget allocations and hiring practices. If ever there was a time when a "resilient culture" was needed, it is now. In this paper we shall discuss the application of "tipping point" theory (Gladwell, 2000) operationalized through a special form of leadership: "resilient leadership" (Everly, Strouse, Everly, 2010). Resilient leadership is consistent with Gladwells "Law of the Few" and strives to create an organizational culture of resilience by implementing an initial change within no more than 20% of an organization's workforce. It is expected that such a minority, if chosen correctly, will "tip" the rest of the organization toward enhanced resilience, ideally creating a self-sustaining culture of resilience. This paper reports on the empirical foundations and construct validation of "resilient leadership".

  3. Identifying resilient and non-resilient middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non- resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient ...

  4. Information Risk Management and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Scott

    Are the levels of information risk management efforts within and between firms correlated with the resilience of the firms to information disruptions? This paper examines the question by considering the results of field studies of information risk management practices at organizations and in supply chains. The organizations investigated differ greatly in the degree of coupling from a general and information risk management standpoint, as well as in the levels of internal awareness and activity regarding information risk management. The comparison of the levels of information risk management in the firms and their actual or inferred resilience indicates that a formal information risk management approach is not necessary for resilience in certain sectors.

  5. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  6. Remarkable resilience of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-05-05

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel-dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by "stress shielding" from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet.

  7. Introduction to noise-resilient computing

    CERN Document Server

    Yanushkevich, Svetlana N; Tangim, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Noise abatement is the key problem of small-scaled circuit design. New computational paradigms are needed -- as these circuits shrink, they become very vulnerable to noise and soft errors. In this lecture, we present a probabilistic computation framework for improving the resiliency of logic gates and circuits under random conditions induced by voltage or current fluctuation. Among many probabilistic techniques for modeling such devices, only a few models satisfy the requirements of efficient hardware implementation -- specifically, Boltzman machines and Markov Random Field (MRF) models. These

  8. Improving the Career Resilience of a Survivor of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Venter, Cobus J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined whether life design counselling can enhance the career resilience of a sexual abuse survivor. One participant was selected through purposive sampling. Five life design sessions occurred over a period of three months. Various (postmodern) qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to gather data while data analysis was…

  9. Sociotechnical Resilience: A Preliminary Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Sulfikar; Kant, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance. We propose that the triad of relations, structures, and practices are fundamental aspects required to comprehend the resilience of sociotechnical systems during times of crisis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Assessment instruments of urban resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Saporiti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to highlight the aspects related to the resilient capacity of a neoecosistema. Clarifying what does it means to speak about a resilient neoecosistema and which are the specific characters that make him capable of change and adaptation when facing an environmental, social or economic threat, it will be possible to understand the efficacy related to the model of urban development. From the individuation of perturbing factors of this capacity, it will be possible to generate a panel of the resilient capacity linked to three different ambits that represent the three characteristic elements of natural ecosystems: its physic structure, the persons and the interaction processes between them so we would be able to make explicit the specific characters of resilience distinguished from those of sustainability and urban quality.  

  11. Constructing Resilience: The Wellington Studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Allan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a design studio on climate change at Victoria University of Wellington (VUW, New Zealand, in 2007. It discusses the processes and outcomes of the studio and the subsequent testing of student work against a resilience model developed by Canadian ecologist CS Holling (1973, 1998; Walker et al, 2004 to create a framework for the design of resilient cities.

  12. Resilient retfærdighed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stefan Gaarsmand

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the idea of resilience as a point of departure for analysing some contemporary challenges to the climate justice movement posed by social-ecological sciences. Climate justice activists are increasingly rallying for a system-change, demanding fundamental changes to political bure...... is that the scientific framework behind resilience is not politically neutral and that this framework tends to weaken the activist’s demands for a just transition and place more emphasis on technical and bureaucratic processes....

  13. Resilience among old Sami women

    OpenAIRE

    Aléx, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Artikkel som utforsker hvordan eldre kvinner forteller om sine erfaringer med helse og mangel på helse. There is lack of research on old indigenous women’s experiences. The aim of this study was to explore how old women narrate their experiences of wellbeing and lack of wellbeing using the salutogenetic concept of resilience. Interviews from nine old Sami women were analysed according to grounded theory with the following themes identified: contributing to resilience and wellbeing built up...

  14. Measuring resilience to energy shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, Lynette; Brown, Colin; Foster, John; Wagner, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Measuring energy security or resilience in energy is, in the main, confined to indicators which are used for comparative purposes or to show trends rather than provide empirical evidence of resilience to unpredicted crises. In this paper, the electricity systems of the individual states within the United States of America are analysed for their response to the 1973-1982 and the 2003-2012 oil price shocks. Empirical evidence is sought for elements which are present in systems that experience r...

  15. Resilience | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widely accepted (Gunderson 2000, cited under Original Definition). Currently, the concept is commonplace in academics, management, and policy. Although the idea has quantitative roots in the ecological sciences and was proposed as a measurable quality of ecosystems, the broad use of resilience led to an expansion of definitions and applications. Holling’s original definition, presented in 1973 (Holling 1973, cited under Original Definition), was simply the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain. Ecological resilience, therefore, emphasizes that the dynamics of complex systems are nonlinear, meaning that these systems can transition, often abruptly, between dynamic states with substantially different structures, functions, and processes. The transition of ecological systems from one state to another frequently has important repercussions for humans. Recent definitions are more normative and qualitative, especially in the social sciences, and a competing definition, that of engineering resilience, is still often used. Resilience is an emergent phenomenon of complex systems, which means it cannot be deduced from the behavior of t

  16. Resilient controls for ordering uncertain prospects change and response

    CERN Document Server

    Pham, Khanh D

    2014-01-01

    Providing readers with a detailed examination of resilient controls in risk-averse decision, this monograph is aimed toward researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics and electrical engineering with a systems-theoretic concentration. This work contains a timely and responsive evaluation of reforms on the use of asymmetry or skewness pertaining to the restrictive family of quadratic costs that have been appeared in various scholarly forums.  Additionally, the book includes a discussion of the current and ongoing efforts in the usage of risk, dynamic game decision optimization and disturbance mitigation techniques with output feedback measurements tailored toward the worst-case scenarios. This work encompasses some of the current changes across uncertainty quantification, stochastic control communities, and the creative efforts that are being made to increase the understanding of resilient controls. Specific considerations are made in this book for the application of decision theory to resilient ...

  17. Probabilistic Modelling of Robustness and Resilience of Power Grid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jianjun; Sansavini, Giovanni; Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber

    2017-01-01

    The present paper proposes a framework for the modeling and analysis of resilience of networked power grid systems. A probabilistic systems model is proposed based on the JCSS Probabilistic Model Code (JCSS, 2001) and deterministic engineering systems modeling techniques such as the DC flow model...... cascading failure event scenarios (Nan and Sansavini, 2017). The concept of direct and indirect consequences proposed by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS, 2008) is utilized to model the associated consequences. To facilitate a holistic modeling of robustness and resilience, and to identify how...... these characteristics may be optimized these characteristics, the power grid system is finally interlinked with its fundamental interdependent systems, i.e. a societal model, a regulatory system and control feedback loops. The proposed framework is exemplified with reference to optimal decision support for resilience...

  18. Aligning Organizational Pathologies and Organizational Resilience Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Morales Allende

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing resilient individuals, organizations and communities is a hot topic in the research agenda in Management, Ecology, Psychology or Engineering. Despite the number of works that focus on resilience is increasing, there is not completely agreed definition of resilience, neither an entirely formal and accepted framework. The cause may be the spread of research among different fields. In this paper, we focus on the study of organizational resilience with the aim of improving the level of resilience in organizations. We review the relation between viable and resilient organizations and their common properties. Based on these common properties, we defend the application of the Viable System Model (VSM to design resilient organizations. We also identify the organizational pathologies defined applying the VSM through resilience indicators. We conclude that an organization with any organizational pathology is not likely to be resilient because it does not fulfill the requirements of viable organizations.

  19. Selectively Fortifying Reconfigurable Computing Device to Achieve Higher Error Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of 10 nm CMOS devices and “exotic” nanodevices, the location and occurrence time of hardware defects and design faults become increasingly unpredictable, therefore posing severe challenges to existing techniques for error-resilient computing because most of them statically assign hardware redundancy and do not account for the error tolerance inherently existing in many mission-critical applications. This work proposes a novel approach to selectively fortifying a target reconfigurable computing device in order to achieve hardware-efficient error resilience for a specific target application. We intend to demonstrate that such error resilience can be significantly improved with effective hardware support. The major contributions of this work include (1 the development of a complete methodology to perform sensitivity and criticality analysis of hardware redundancy, (2 a novel problem formulation and an efficient heuristic methodology to selectively allocate hardware redundancy among a target design’s key components in order to maximize its overall error resilience, and (3 an academic prototype of SFC computing device that illustrates a 4 times improvement of error resilience for a H.264 encoder implemented with an FPGA device.

  20. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  1. Telling stories and adding scores: Measuring resilience in young children affected by maternal HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel; Eloff, Irma; Finestone, Michelle; Grobler, Adri; Moen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    "Telling stories and adding scores: Measuring resilience in young children affected by maternal HIV and AIDS", demonstrates how a concurrent mixed method design assisted cross-cultural comparison and ecological descriptions of resilience in young South African children, as well as validated alternative ways to measure resilience in young children. In a longitudinal randomised control trial, which investigated psychological resilience in mothers and children affected by HIV/AIDS, we combined a qualitative projective story-telling technique (Düss Fable) with quantitative data (Child Behaviour Checklist). The children mostly displayed adaptive resilience-related behaviours, although maladaptive behaviours were present. Participating children use internal (resolve/agency, positive future expectations, emotional intelligence) and external protective resources (material resources, positive institutions) to mediate adaptation. Children's maladaptive behaviours were exacerbated by internal (limited problem-solving skills, negative emotions) and external risk factors (chronic and cumulative adversity).

  2. Resilience and precarious success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Mary D; Wears, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical case study to illustrate, corroborate, and perhaps extend some key generalizations about resilient performance in complex adaptive systems. The setting is a pediatric hematology/oncology pharmacy, a complex system embedded in the larger complex of the hospital, which provides chemotherapy and other high risk medications to children with cancer, sickle cell disease and autoimmune disorders. Recently the demands placed on this system have dramatically intensified while the resources allocated to the system have remained static. We describe the adaptations of this system in response to this additional stress. In addition, we discuss the risks associated with miscalibration about the system's adaptive capacity, and the tradeoff between the need to invest in adaptive capacity (to sustain performance when the system is stressed) versus the need to invest in efficient production (to sustain performance under normal circumstances and economic pressures). - Highlights: • We describe a complex adaptive system: a pediatric hematology/oncology pharmacy. • Work in this system has changed and intensified, but resources have remained static. • Staff's adaptive behaviors demonstrate graceful extensibility and fluency. • The HO staff has demonstrated extraordinary adaptive behaviors. • Leadership miscalibrates the efforts required to perform the pharmacy's work

  3. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C

    2017-12-01

    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  4. A Framework and Metric for resilience concept in water infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouz, M.; Olyaei, M.

    2017-12-01

    The collaborators of water industries are looking for ways and means to bring resilience into our water infrastructure systems. The key to this conviction is to develop a shared vision among the engineers, builders and decision makers of our water executive branch and policy makers, utilities, community leaders, players, end users and other stakeholders of our urban environment. Among water infrastructures, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have a significant role on urban systems' serviceability. These facilities, especially when located in coastal regions, are vulnerable to heavy rain, surface runoff, storm surges and coastal flooding. Flooding can cause overflows from treatment facilities into the natural water bodies and result in environmental predicament of significant proportions. In order to minimize vulnerability to flood, a better understanding of flood risk must be realized. Vulnerability to floods frequency and intensity is increasing by external forcing such as climate change, as well as increased interdependencies in urban systems. Therefore, to quantify the extent of efforts for flood risk management, a unified index is needed for evaluating resiliency of infrastructure. Resiliency is a key concept in understanding vulnerability in dealing with flood. New York City based on its geographic location, its urbanized nature, densely populated area, interconnected water bodies and history of the past flooding events is extremely vulnerable to flood and was selected as the case study. In this study, a framework is developed to evaluate resiliency of WWTPs. An analysis of the current understanding of vulnerability is performed and a new perspective utilizing different components of resiliency including resourcefulness, robustness, rapidity and redundancy is presented. To quantify resiliency and rank the wastewater treatment plants in terms of how resilient they are, an index is developed using Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique. Moreover

  5. Resilience in nurses: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Patricia L; Brannan, Jane D; De Chesnay, Mary

    2014-09-01

    To describe nursing research that has been conducted to understand the phenomenon of resilience in nurses. Resilience is the ability to bounce back or cope successfully despite adverse circumstances. Nurses deal with modern-day problems that affect their abilities to remain resilient. Nursing administrators/managers need to look for solutions not only to recruit nurses, but to become knowledgeable about how to support and retain nurses. A comprehensive search was undertaken for nursing research conducted between 1990 and 2011. Key search terms were nurse, resilience, resiliency and resilient. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative approach was used to conduct the methodological review. Challenging workplaces, psychological emptiness, diminishing inner balance and a sense of dissonance are contributing factors for resilience. Examples of intrapersonal characteristics include hope, self-efficacy and coping. Cognitive reframing, toughening up, grounding connections, work-life balance and reconciliation are resilience building strategies. This review provides information about the concept of resilience. Becoming aware of contributing factors to the need for resilience and successful strategies to build resilience can help in recruiting and retaining nurses. Understanding the concept of resilience can assist in providing support and developing programmes to help nurses become and stay resilient. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011. Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many researches. Of all this recent and varied range of literature, our focus is on those texts that combine resilience with strategies, processes and models for resilient cities, communities and regions. Starting from the resilience strategies developed as response for risks mitigation, the paper thus explores other approaches and experiences on cities resilience that have been conducted: the aim is to compare and identify innovation in the planning process towards risks mitigation. In this paper we present a summary of the initial survey stage of our research, with three main aims: understanding the approaches to resilience developed so far and identifying which aspects these approaches share (or not;understanding which strategies are being proposed for resilient regions, cities or social-ecological systems;understanding whether proposed resilience strategies involve innovations in urban and regional development disciplines. The aim is to understand whether the proposed concept of resilience, or rather strategies, constitute progress and contribute to innovation in the areas of urban planning and design in relation to risk mitigation. Three main families of literature have been identified from the recent literature promoting resilience as a key strategy. The first aim of the research is to understand which particular concept and which aspects of resilience are used, which resilience strategies are proposed, how the term ‘city’ is defined and interpreted

  7. [Evaluation of ecosystem resilience in the regions across Qinghai-Tibet railway based on GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiang-bo; Zhao, Zhi-qiang; Li, Shuang-cheng

    2008-11-01

    Based on GIS technique and the methods of mean-squared deviation weight decision and catastrophe progression, a more clear definition and associated evaluation for ecosystem resilience were given, with a case study in the regions across Qinghai-Tibet railway by using the indices of plant community coverage, species diversity, and biomass. It was shown that the areas with high ecosystem resilience were mainly located in the Qilian Mountain meadow grassland, Huangshui Valley needle-leaved and deciduous broad-leaved forest, and south Tanggula Mountain kobresia swamp meadow, while those with the lowest resilience were in the central part of Qaidam Basin, and the Kunlun Mountains. Most areas in the regions had higher or medium ecosystem resilience, with a trend of that in the south of Kunlun Mountains, the resilience in the north of the railway was lower, while in the east of Qaidam Basin (especially in the Qinghai Lake area), the resilience was lower in the south than in the north of the railway. Through the evaluation of ecosystem resilience, the key issues in the process of ecological resilience could be found, and corresponding effective measures would be pointed out to manage alpine ecosystems. Moreover, combining with the evaluation of vulnerability, scientific basis for regional development could be provided to avoid or mitigate the negative effects of human activities on eco-environment.

  8. Resilience of Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Country Contexts: A Framework and Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Vroegindewey

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although agricultural value chain resilience is a crucial component to food security and sustainable food systems in developing countries, it has received little attention. This paper synthesizes knowledge from the social-ecological systems (SES, supply chain management, and value chain development literature to make three contributions to this research gap. First, we conceptualize agricultural value chain resilience and relate it to overall food system resilience. Second, we identify seven principles that are hypothesized to contribute to SES resilience, relate them to supply chain management theory, and discuss their application in agricultural value chains. A key insight is that the appropriateness of these principles are important to assess on a case-by-case basis, and depend in part on trade-offs between resilience and other dimensions of value chain performance. Third, we integrate two common tools, the Resilience Alliance’s assessment framework and value chain analysis techniques, to outline an adaptable participatory approach for assessing the resilience of agricultural value chains in developing countries. The objectives of the approach are to cultivate a chain-wide awareness for past and potential disturbances that could affect food security and other essential services provided by the value chain, and to identify upgrades that can build resilience against these key disturbances.

  9. Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

  10. Thinning increases climatic resilience of red pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Matthew; Chhin, Sophan; Palik, Brian; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Forest management techniques such as intermediate stand-tending practices (e.g., thinning) can promote climatic resiliency in forest stands by moderating tree competition. Residual trees gain increased access to environmental resources (i.e., soil moisture, light), which in turn has the potential to buffer trees from stressful climatic conditions. The influences of climate (temperature and precipitation) and forest management (thinning method and intensity) on the productivity of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in Michigan were examined to assess whether repeated thinning treatments were able to increase climatic resiliency (i.e., maintaining productivity and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress). The cumulative productivity of each thinning treatment was determined, and it was found that thinning from below to a residual basal area of 14 m2·ha−1 produced the largest average tree size but also the second lowest overall biomass per acre. On the other hand, the uncut control and the thinning from above to a residual basal area of 28 m2·ha−1 produced the smallest average tree size but also the greatest overall biomass per acre. Dendrochronological methods were used to quantify sensitivity of annual radial growth to monthly and seasonal climatic factors for each thinning treatment type. Climatic sensitivity was influenced by thinning method (i.e., thinning from below decreased sensitivity to climatic stress more than thinning from above) and by thinning intensity (i.e., more intense thinning led to a lower climatic sensitivity). Overall, thinning from below to a residual basal area of 21 m2·ha−1 represented a potentially beneficial compromise to maximize tree size, biomass per acre, and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress, and, thus, the highest level of climatic resilience.

  11. Integrated Approach to a Resilient City: Associating Social, Environmental and Infrastructure Resilience in its Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising complexity, numbers and severity of natural and manmade disasters enhance the importance of reducing vulnerability, or on contrary – increasing resilience, of different kind of systems, including those of social, engineering (infrastructure, and environmental (ecological nature. The goal of this research is to explore urban resilience as an integral system of social, environmental, and engineering resilience. This report analyses the concepts of each kind of resilience and identifies key factors influencing social, ecological, and infrastructure resilience discussing how these factors relate within urban systems. The achievement of resilience of urban and regional systems happens through the interaction of the different elements (social, psychological, physical, structural, and environmental, etc.; therefore, resilient city could be determined by synergy of resilient society, resilient infrastructure and resilient environment of the given area. Based on literature analysis, the current research provides some insights on conceptual framework for assessment of complex urban systems in terms of resilience. To be able to evaluate resilience and define effective measures for prevention and risk mitigation, and thereby strengthen resilience, we propose to develop an e-platform, joining risk parameters’ Monitoring Systems, which feed with data Resiliency Index calculation domain. Both these elements result in Multirisk Platform, which could serve for awareness and shared decision making for resilient people in resilient city.

  12. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  13. Mapping media representation of the Seine river flood to assess the impact of communication on Paris resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, Rosa; Tchiguirisnkaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    By the 2000s increasing attention among academics, as well as practitioners, has been devoted to the implementation of resilience. Putting the concept of social-ecological resilience (Holling, 1973) into practice involves relevant changes in policy and decision-making. Indeed, the social-ecological resilience approach emphasizes the need to apply the principle of subsidiarity, i.e. to decentralize risk management, to encourage citizen participation and share responsibilities (Tanguy, 2015). The concept of social-ecological resilience draws attention to the the impact of social construction of the reality- and therefore of the influence of media and other cultural contents, individual and groups knowledge, perceptions, emotions - on urban development. In this framework, communication between municipalities and citizens, especially a two-ways dialogue (i.e. participatory communication), has become a keystone of resilience strategies since it facilitates mutual understanding, shared goals identification and cooperation. Going beyond theory and implementing resilience requires resilience metrics: such indexes allow decision makers to compare the costs of resilience enhancement actions with the economic, environmental, social, and sanitary costs of non-action. However important gaps persists between theories and applied metrics of resilience. For instance, operational resilience metrics are usually defined with the help of semi-quantitative indicators that are applied to variables aggregated up to the outer scale of the system, not across the various spatial scales of the system. This research exploits recent computer aided text mining techniques to explore web communications and map press and social media representation of flood resilience, as well as identify the main opinion makers in the city of Paris. This approach allows a quantitative analysis of communication impacts, in terms of frequency and quality, and it is meant to be a basis to define new resilience

  14. Codesigning a resilient food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari J. Himanen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global changes, especially the progression of climate change, create a plethora of adaptation needs for social-ecological systems. With increasing uncertainty, more resilient food systems that are able to adapt and shape their operations in response to emerging challenges are required. Most of the research on this subject has been focused on developing countries; however, developed countries also face increasing environmental, economic, and social pressures. Because food systems are complex and involve multiple actors, using codesign might be the most productive way to develop desirable system characteristics. For this study, we engaged food system actors in a scenario-planning exercise to identify means of building more resilient food systems. In particular, the actors focused on determinants of adaptive capacity in developed countries, with Finland as a case study. The brainstorming session followed by a two-round Delphi study raised three main characteristics for effective food system resilience, namely, energy and nutrient sovereignty, transparency and dialogue in the food chain, and continuous innovativeness and evidence-based learning. In addition, policy interventions were found instrumental for supporting such food system resilience. The main actor-specific determinants of adaptive capacity identified included the farmers' utilization of agri-technology and expertise; energy and logistic efficiency of the input and processing industry; and for retail, communication to build consumer trust and environmental awareness, and effective use of information and communication technology. Of the food system actors, farmers and the processing industry were perceived to be the closest to reaching the limits of their adaptive capacities. The use of adaptive capacity as a proxy seemed to concretize food system resilience effectively. Our study suggests that the resilience approach generates new perspectives that can guide actors in developing food

  15. Teaching Resiliency Theory to Substance Abuse Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Resiliency is the ability to cope in the face of adversity. One protective factor that promotes resiliency in substance-abusing dysfunctional families is family rituals and traditions. Social workers and substance abuse counselors can teach family members how to instill resiliency in their families and themselves through rituals and traditions. To…

  16. The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Saklofske, Donald H.; Nordstokke, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults (RSYA) is presented as an upward extension of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA). The RSYA is based on the "three-factor model of personal resiliency" including "mastery," "relatedness," and "emotional reactivity." Several stages of scale…

  17. A comprehensive approach to assess operational resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, R.J.M.; Karydas, D.M.; Rouvroye, J.L.; Hollnagel, E.; Pieri, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a first attempt to apply Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) to the concept of resilience. The focus of this paper is measuring the management performance of operational resilience in an organization. Operational resilience refers to the ability of an organization to prevent

  18. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  19. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska

    2015-11-01

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  20. Business resiliency and stakeholder management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Noel; Perry, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The authors facilitated separate round table discussions at the City and Financial Conference in London on 29th January, 2014. The theme of these discussions was business resiliency and stakeholder management. This topic attracted the largest group of all the breakout sessions, as the issue continues to generate much interest across the business resilience community. In this paper, the authors summarise the discussions held at the event and add their own insights into the subject of who are stakeholders, and the different means and messages to communicate to them.

  1. Fostering resilience through changing realities. Introduction to operational resilience capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, D.; Vorm, J. van der; Beek, F.A. van der; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    The reality of operations does not always follow the book. Operational circumstances may develop into surprising situations that procedures have not accounted for. Still, we make things work. Resilient performance recognizes surprise early and acts upon it through adaptation, which is critical for

  2. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  3. Real-time monitoring, prognosis, and resilient control for wind turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiwei; Sheng, Shuangwen

    2018-02-01

    This special issue aims to provide a platform for academic and industrial communities to report recent results and emerging research in real-time monitoring, fault diagnosis, prognosis, and resilient control and design of wind turbine systems. After a strict peer-review process, 20 papers were selected, which represent the most recent progress of the real-time monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and resilient control methods/techniques in wind turbine systems.

  4. Seeding Stress Resilience through Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Ashokan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generalized set of physiological and psychological responses observed when an organism is placed under challenging circumstances. The stress response allows organisms to reattain the equilibrium in face of perturbations. Unfortunately, chronic and/or traumatic exposure to stress frequently overwhelms coping ability of an individual. This is manifested as symptoms affecting emotions and cognition in stress-related mental disorders. Thus environmental interventions that promote resilience in face of stress have much clinical relevance. Focus of the bulk of relevant neurobiological research at present remains on negative aspects of health and psychological outcomes of stress exposure. Yet exposure to the stress itself can promote resilience to subsequent stressful episodes later in the life. This is especially true if the prior stress occurs early in life, is mild in its magnitude, and is controllable by the individual. This articulation has been referred to as “stress inoculation,” reminiscent of resilience to the pathology generated through vaccination by attenuated pathogen itself. Using experimental evidence from animal models, this review explores relationship between nature of the “inoculum” stress and subsequent psychological resilience.

  5. MSY from catch and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Chrysafi, Anna

    A simple Schaefer model was tested on the Greenland halibut stock offshore in NAFO SA 0 and 1. The minimum data required for this model is a catch time series and a measure of the resilience of the species. Other input parameters that had to be guessed were the carrying capacity, the biomass...

  6. Strengthening community resilience: a toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Scott; Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    While community resilience is said to have gained a lot of traction politically and given credence by disaster management professionals, this perception is not always shared by the individual members of communities. One solution to addressing the difficulty of individuals ‘conceptualising’ the

  7. Interprofessionals' definitions of moral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Heidi; Heinze, Katherine; Rushton, Cynda

    2018-02-01

    To describe common characteristics and themes of the concept of moral resilience as reported by interprofessional clinicians in health care. Research has provided an abundance of data on moral distress with limited research to resolve and help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress. This reveals a critical need for research on how to mitigate the negative consequences of moral distress that plague nurses and other healthcare providers. One promising direction is to build resilience as an individual strategy concurrently with interventions to build a culture of ethical practice. Qualitative descriptive methods were used to analyse descriptive definitions provided by 184 interprofessional clinicians in health care attending educational programmes in various locations as well as a small group of 23 professionals with backgrounds such as chaplaincy and nonhealthcare providers. Three primary themes and three subthemes emerged from the data. The primary themes are integrity-personal and relational, and buoyancy. The subthemes are self-regulation, self-stewardship and moral efficacy. Individual healthcare providers and healthcare systems can use this research to help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress by finding ways to develop interventions to cultivate moral resilience. Moral resilience involves not only building and fostering the individual's capacity to navigate moral adversity but also developing systems that support a culture of ethical practice for healthcare providers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cyber Resilience in de Boardroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Zielstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Grand Conference - Building a Resilient Digital Society - took place in Amsterdam on October 16, 2012. The international conference aimed for top decision-makers of industry government and other organisations. Two hundred participants from twenty-two nations participated. Three Dutch

  9. What do you mean, 'resilient geomorphic systems'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Piégay, H.; Parsons, M.

    2018-03-01

    Resilience thinking has many parallels in the study of geomorphology. Similarities and intersections exist between the scientific discipline of geomorphology and the scientific concept of resilience. Many of the core themes fundamental to geomorphology are closely related to the key themes of resilience. Applications of resilience thinking in the study of natural and human systems have expanded, based on the fundamental premise that ecosystems, economies, and societies must be managed as linked social-ecological systems. Despite geomorphology and resilience sharing core themes, appreciation is limited of the history and development of geomorphology as a field of scientific endeavor by many in the field of resilience, as well as a limited awareness of the foundations of the former in the more recent emergence of resilience. This potentially limits applications of resilience concepts to the study of geomorphology. In this manuscript we provide a collective examination of geomorphology and resilience as a means to conceptually advance both areas of study, as well as to further cement the relevance and importance of not only understanding the complexities of geomorphic systems in an emerging world of interdisciplinary challenges but also the importance of viewing humans as an intrinsic component of geomorphic systems rather than just an external driver. The application of the concepts of hierarchy and scale, fundamental tenets of the study of geomorphic systems, provide a means to overcome contemporary scale-limited approaches within resilience studies. Resilience offers a framework for geomorphology to expand its application into the broader social-ecological domain.

  10. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M.; Bonanno, George A.; Masten, Ann S.; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  11. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Bonanno, George A; Masten, Ann S; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture).

  12. Multidimensional approach to complex system resilience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama Dessavre, Dante; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Barker, Kash

    2016-01-01

    Recent works have attempted to formally define a general metric for quantifying resilience for complex systems as a relationship of performance of the systems against time. The technical content in the proposed work introduces a new model that allows, for the first time, to compare the system resilience among systems (or different modifications to a system), by introducing a new dimension to system resilience models, called stress, to mimic the definition of resilience in material science. The applicability and usefulness of the model is shown with a new heat map visualization proposed in this work, and it is applied to a simulated network resilience case to exemplify its potential benefits. - Highlights: • We analyzed two of the main current metrics of resilience. • We create a new model that relates events with the effects they have. • We develop a novel heat map visualization to compare system resilience. • We showed the model and visualization usefulness in a simulated case.

  13. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has become a center of excellence for critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the field of cyber security. It is one of only a few national laboratories that have enhanced the nation's cyber security posture by performing industrial control system (ICS) vendor assessments as well as user on-site assessments. Not only are vulnerabilities discovered, but described actions for enhancing security are suggested - both on a system-specific basis and from a general perspective of identifying common weaknesses and their corresponding corrective actions. These cyber security programs have performed over 40 assessments to date which have led to more robust, secure, and resilient monitoring and control systems for the US electrical grid, oil and gas, chemical, transportation, and many other sectors. In addition to cyber assessments themselves, the INL has been engaged in outreach to the ICS community through vendor forums, technical conferences, vendor user groups, and other special engagements as requested. Training programs have been created to help educate all levels of management and worker alike with an emphasis towards real everyday cyber hacking methods and techniques including typical exploits that are used. The asset owner or end user has many products available for its use created from these programs. One outstanding product is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems document that provides insight to the user when specifying a new monitoring and control system, particularly concerning security requirements. Employing some of the top cyber researchers in the nation, the INL can leverage this talent towards many applications other than critical infrastructure. Monitoring and control systems are used throughout the world to perform simple tasks such as cooking in a microwave to complex ones such as the monitoring and control of the

  14. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson

    2009-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has become a center of excellence for critical infrastructure protection, particularly in the field of cyber security. It is one of only a few national laboratories that have enhanced the nation’s cyber security posture by performing industrial control system (ICS) vendor assessments as well as user on-site assessments. Not only are vulnerabilities discovered, but described actions for enhancing security are suggested – both on a system-specific basis and from a general perspective of identifying common weaknesses and their corresponding corrective actions. These cyber security programs have performed over 40 assessments to date which have led to more robust, secure, and resilient monitoring and control systems for the US electrical grid, oil and gas, chemical, transportation, and many other sectors. In addition to cyber assessments themselves, the INL has been engaged in outreach to the ICS community through vendor forums, technical conferences, vendor user groups, and other special engagements as requested. Training programs have been created to help educate all levels of management and worker alike with an emphasis towards real everyday cyber hacking methods and techniques including typical exploits that are used. The asset owner or end user has many products available for its use created from these programs. One outstanding product is the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Cyber Security Procurement Language for Control Systems document that provides insight to the user when specifying a new monitoring and control system, particularly concerning security requirements. Employing some of the top cyber researchers in the nation, the INL can leverage this talent towards many applications other than critical infrastructure. Monitoring and control systems are used throughout the world to perform simple tasks such as cooking in a microwave to complex ones such as the monitoring and control of the

  15. Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K

    2015-01-01

    We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erdős–Rényi random graphs, Erdős–Rényi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10 −160 . We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links. (paper)

  16. Cooperative Spatial Retreat for Resilient Drone Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Hyeok; Kwon, Young-Min; Park, Kyung-Joon

    2017-05-03

    Drones are broadening their scope to various applications such as networking, package delivery, agriculture, rescue, and many more. For proper operation of drones, reliable communication should be guaranteed because drones are remotely controlled. When drones experience communication failure due to bad channel condition, interference, or jamming in a certain area, one existing solution is to exploit mobility or so-called spatial retreat to evacuate them from the communication failure area. However, the conventional spatial retreat scheme moves drones in random directions, which results in inefficient movement with significant evacuation time and waste of battery lifetime. In this paper, we propose a novel spatial retreat technique that takes advantage of cooperation between drones for resilient networking, which is called cooperative spatial retreat (CSR). Our performance evaluation shows that the proposed CSR significantly outperforms existing schemes.

  17. Resilience in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Yhojan; Pacheco, Yovana; Zapata, Elizabeth; Monsalve, Diana M; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rodríguez-Jimenez, Monica; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Molano-González, Nicolás; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate the relationship between resilience and clinical outcomes in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Focus groups, individual interviews, and chart reviews were done to collect data on 188 women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely rheumatoid arthritis (n=51), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=70), systemic sclerosis (n=35), and Sjögren's syndrome (n=32). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed including disease activity by patient reported outcomes. Resilience was evaluated by using the Brief Resilience Scale. Bivariate, multiple linear regression, and classification and regression trees were used to analyse data. Resilience was influenced by age, duration of disease, and socioeconomic status. Lower resilience scores were observed in younger patients (50years) had higher resilience scores regardless of socioeconomic status. There was no influence of disease activity on resilience. A particular behaviour was observed in systemic sclerosis in which patients with high socioeconomic status and regular physical activity had higher resilience scores. Resilience in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is a continuum process influenced by age and socioeconomic status. The ways in which these variables along with exercise influence resilience deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Resilience 2.0: social media use and (self-)care during the 2011 Norway attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Departing from the understanding that resilience is a technique of self-organization during emergencies, this article provides a study on the way in which the use of social media influenced and engendered societal resilience practices during the 2011 Norway attacks. It builds on the concepts of governmentality and mediality to discuss how the interplay between social media and its users created new forms of self-initiated and mediated emergency governance. Empirically, it draws on material from 20 in-depth interviews with Norwegians who explained and reflected upon their social media use during the attacks. The article presents an overview of the different functions that social media assumed in the process of dealing with the attacks and discusses these vis-à-vis their related challenges. It draws conclusions about the way in which resilience practices and the resilient subject are influenced by the networked character of 2.0 technologies. PMID:29708120

  19. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  20. Focusing the Meaning(s of Resilience: Resilience as a Descriptive Concept and a Boundary Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the variety of definitions proposed for "resilience" within sustainability science and suggests a typology according to the specific degree of normativity. There is a tension between the original descriptive concept of resilience first defined in ecological science and a more recent, vague, and malleable notion of resilience used as an approach or boundary object by different scientific disciplines. Even though increased conceptual vagueness can be valuable to foster communication across disciplines and between science and practice, both conceptual clarity and practical relevance of the concept of resilience are critically in danger. The fundamental question is what conceptual structure we want resilience to have. This article argues that a clearly specified, descriptive concept of resilience is critical in providing a counterbalance to the use of resilience as a vague boundary object. A clear descriptive concept provides the basis for operationalization and application of resilience within ecological science.

  1. Incorporating Resilience into Dynamic Social Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    form contains classified information, stamp classification level on the top and bottom of this page. 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT. This block must be...resilience as a multi- level resilience and study their resilience at individual, family and society levels . However, having more than one level on a...4] U. Fischbacher, S. Gächter, and E. Fehr, “Are People Conditionally Cooperative ? Evidence from a Public Goods Experiment,” Econ . Lett., vol

  2. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  3. Degrees of Resilience: Profiling Psychological Resilience and Prospective Academic Achievement in University Inductees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…

  4. Teaching Resilience: A Narrative Inquiry into the Importance of Teacher Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Angela; Pendergast, Donna; Garvis, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This study set out to explore how high school teachers perceive their resilience as they teach a scripted social and emotional learning program to students with the goal of promoting the resilience skills of the students in their pastoral care classes. In this emerging field of research on teacher resilience, there is a paucity of research…

  5. Reframing Resilience: Pilot Evaluation of a Program to Promote Resilience in Marginalized Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Matthew C.; Gorby, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Resilience has been described as a paradigm for aging that is more inclusive than models that focus on physiological and functional abilities. We evaluated a novel program, Resilient Aging, designed to influence marginalized older adults' perceptions of their resilience, self-efficacy, and wellness. The multiweek group program incorporated an…

  6. Priority Queues Resilient to Memory Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Moruz, Gabriel; Mølhave, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In the faulty-memory RAM model, the content of memory cells can get corrupted at any time during the execution of an algorithm, and a constant number of uncorruptible registers are available. A resilient data structure in this model works correctly on the set of uncorrupted values. In this paper we...... introduce a resilient priority queue. The deletemin operation of a resilient priority queue returns either the minimum uncorrupted element or some corrupted element. Our resilient priority queue uses $O(n)$ space to store $n$ elements. Both insert and deletemin operations are performed in $O(\\log n...... queues storing only structural information in the uncorruptible registers between operations....

  7. Enhancing quantitative approaches for assessing community resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, W. C.; Garmestani, A.S.; Eason, T. N.; Spanbauer, T. L.; Fried-Peterson, H. B.; Roberts, C.P.; Sundstrom, Shana M.; Burnett, J.L.; Angeler, David G.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Gunderson, L.; Twidwell, Dirac; Allen, Craig R.

    2018-01-01

    Scholars from many different intellectual disciplines have attempted to measure, estimate, or quantify resilience. However, there is growing concern that lack of clarity on the operationalization of the concept will limit its application. In this paper, we discuss the theory, research development and quantitative approaches in ecological and community resilience. Upon noting the lack of methods that quantify the complexities of the linked human and natural aspects of community resilience, we identify several promising approaches within the ecological resilience tradition that may be useful in filling these gaps. Further, we discuss the challenges for consolidating these approaches into a more integrated perspective for managing social-ecological systems.

  8. Practical Leakage-Resilient Symmetric Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Krzysztof; Schipper, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount of arbitr......Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount...

  9. Resilience to Surprises through Communicative Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Evan. Goldstein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinkers share an interest in collaborative deliberation with communicative planners, who aim to accommodate different forms of knowledge and styles of reasoning to promote social learning and yield creative and equitable agreements. Members of both fields attended a symposium at Virginia Tech in late 2008, where communicative planners considered how social-ecological resilience informed new possibilities for planning practice beyond disaster mitigation and response. In turn, communicative planners offered resilience scholars ideas about how collaboration could accomplish more than enhance rational decision making of the commons. Through these exchanges, the symposium fostered ideas about collaborative governance and the critical role of expertise in fostering communicative resilience.

  10. Changes in tree resistance, recovery and resilience across three successive extreme droughts in the northeast Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Maluquer, X; Mencuccini, M; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2018-05-01

    Understanding which variables affect forest resilience to extreme drought is key to predict future dynamics under ongoing climate change. In this study, we analyzed how tree resistance, recovery and resilience to drought have changed along three consecutive droughts and how they were affected by species, tree size, plot basal area (as a proxy for competition) and climate. We focused on the three most abundant pine species in the northeast Iberian Peninsula: Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris during the three most extreme droughts recorded in the period 1951-2010 (occurred in 1986, 1994, and 2005-2006). We cored trees from permanent sample plots and used dendrochronological techniques to estimate resistance (ability to maintain growth level during drought), recovery (growth increase after drought) and resilience (capacity to recover pre-drought growth levels) in terms of tree stem basal area increment. Mixed-effects models were used to determine which tree- and plot-level variables were the main determinants of resistance, recovery and resilience, and to test for differences among the studied droughts. Larger trees were significantly less resistant and resilient. Plot basal area effects were only observed for resilience, with a negative impact only during the last drought. Resistance, recovery and resilience differed across the studied drought events, so that the studied populations became less resistant, less resilient and recovered worse during the last two droughts. This pattern suggests an increased vulnerability to drought after successive drought episodes.

  11. Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools (REACT) Achieving resiliency in any system requires capabilities that are beyond the boundaries of currently...

  12. An overdue alignment of risk and resilience? A conceptual contribution to community resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Junko; Keating, Adriana; Liu, Wei; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard

    2018-04-01

    A systematic review of literature on community resilience measurement published between 2005 and 2014 revealed that the profound lack of clarity on risk and resilience is one of the main reasons why confusion about terms such as adaptive capacity, resilience, and vulnerability persists, despite the effort spared to operationalise these concepts. Resilience is measured in isolation in some cases, where a shock is perceived to arise external to the system of interest. Problematically, this contradicts the way in which the climate change and disaster communities perceive risk as manifesting itself endogenously as a function of exposure, hazard, and vulnerability. The common conceptualisation of resilience as predominantly positive is problematic as well when, in reality, many undesirable properties of a system are resilient. Consequently, this paper presents an integrative framework that highlights the interactions between risk drivers and coping, adaptive, and transformative capacities, providing an improved conceptual basis for resilience measurement. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  13. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being. PMID:26132197

  14. Psychological Trait Resilience Within Ecological Systems Theory: The Resilient Systems Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Flowe, Heather D; Vostanis, Panos; Chivers, Sally

    2017-07-14

    This project describes the development of the Resilient Systems Scales, created to address conceptual and methodological ambiguities in assessing the ecological systems model of resilience. Across a number of samples (total N = 986), our findings suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales show equivalence to a previously reported assessment (Maltby, Day, & Hall, 2015 ) in demonstrating the same factor structure, adequate intercorrelation between the 2 measures of resilience, and equivalent associations with personality and well-being. The findings also suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales demonstrate adequate test-retest reliability, compare well with other extant measures of resilience in predicting well-being, and map, to varying degrees, onto positive expression of several cognitive, social, and emotional traits. The findings suggest that the new measure can be used alongside existing measures of resilience, or singly, to assess positive life outcomes within psychology research.

  15. Design of resilient consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Consumer product sustainability is a topic that has been of increasing interest to practice and academia in recent decades. In this context, a widely discussed means of achieving sustainability is to design more durable products, thereby reducing the need for the production of new products....... In particular, the emotional perspective on product durability has received attention in recent design literature, since consumer products are often replaced long before they become physically non-functioning. However, the literature does not provide a full account of the causes of product replacement...... for designers to design resilient consumer products and for researchers to engage in further studies....

  16. Adaptive, dynamic, and resilient systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suri, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of today's networked computer systems grows, they become increasingly difficult to understand, predict, and control. Addressing these challenges requires new approaches to building these systems. Adaptive, Dynamic, and Resilient Systems supplies readers with various perspectives of the critical infrastructure that systems of networked computers rely on. It introduces the key issues, describes their interrelationships, and presents new research in support of these areas.The book presents the insights of a different group of international experts in each chapter. Reporting on r

  17. Sustainable Resilient, Robust & Resplendent Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    to their impact. Resplendent enterprises are introduced with resplendence referring not to some sort of public or private façade, but instead refers to organizations marked by dual brilliance and nobility of strategy, governance and comportment that yields superior and sustainable triple bottom line performance....... Herein resilience, robustness, and resplendence (R3) are integrated with sustainable enterprise excellence (Edgeman and Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE and social-ecological innovation (Eskildsen and Edgeman, 2012) to aid progress of a firm toward producing continuously relevant performance that proceed from...

  18. Resilience, self-esteem and self-compassion in adults with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, M R; Dorstyn, D S

    2014-02-01

    Cross-sectional survey. To examine factors that may enhance and promote resilience in adults with spina bifida. Community-based disability organisations within Australia. Ninety-seven adults with a diagnosis of spina bifida (SB) completed a survey comprising of demographic questions in addition to standardised self-report measures of physical functioning (Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique), resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, 10 item), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale), self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale) and psychological distress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, 21 item). The majority (66%) of respondents reported moderate to high resilience. Physical disability impacted on coping, with greater CD-RISC 10 scores reported by individuals who were functionally independent in addition to those who experienced less medical co-morbidities. Significant correlations between resilience and psychological traits (self-esteem r=0.36, Pself-esteem and self-compassion. It follows that cognitive behavioural strategies with a focus on self-management may, in part, contribute to the process of resilience in this group. Further large-scale and longitudinal research will help to confirm these findings.

  19. Challenges to Teacher Resilience: Conditions Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Day, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon findings of a four-year national research project on variations in the work and lives of teachers in England, this paper provides empirical evidence which contributes to understandings about the importance of resilience in teachers' work. The experience of resilience as perceived by teachers in this research was that it was neither…

  20. Helping Children Develop Resiliency: Providing Supportive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Katharine C.; Malley, Catherine Robertson

    2005-01-01

    Helping children develop resiliency begins with positive, meaningful connections between teachers and students. This article defines the importance of encouraging children to develop characteristics related to resiliency including confidence in their ability to bounce back from setbacks, overcome challenges and frustrations. Furthermore, critical…

  1. Resiliency Programming for Adult Offenders in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, E. Frances

    2000-01-01

    Discusses resiliency programming as an alternative approach to program development for incarcerated adults, and describes a pilot project in a Georgia prison, Leadership Development, that uses the concept of resiliency to frame inmate education. Discusses implications of this model of correctional education. (SLD)

  2. Social Work, Pastoral Care and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Tom; Hollingdale, Paul; Neville, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the growing interest in developing resilience in the social work curricula as it is seen as a crucial quality necessary to cope with the increasing demands of the profession. The recent research into developing resilience is dominated by a psychological model which emphasises personal qualities. It runs the risk of…

  3. Enhancing Human Resilience : monitoring, sensing, and feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsch, O.; Wabeke, T.R.; Koot, G.; Venrooij, W.; Valk, P.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of miniaturized monitoring technology represents the greatest opportunity for advancing Resilience and Mental Health in over a century. All experts of the Resilience- and Mental Health domain are contending with a significant mental health burden, e.g. almost half of all work

  4. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  5. A method to assess maritime resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rypkema, J.A.; Beek, F.A. van der; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Winkelman, J.W.; Wijngaarden, M. van

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a multi-level resilience analysis method (RAM) to assess risk and performance variability in current maritime socio-technical systems (STSs). The method integrates Hollnagel’s four resilience abilities to assess a system’s ability to effectively cope with

  6. Resilience to Maternal Depression in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargas, Rebecca Cristina Malvar; Brennan, Patricia A.; Hammen, Constance; Le Brocque, Robyne

    2010-01-01

    Using a prospective longitudinal design, this study investigated factors associated with resilience in 20-year-old offspring of depressed mothers (n = 648). Resilient youth were operationally defined as those whose mothers were depressed but who themselves had no history of recurrent depression and currently evidenced adequate academic or work and…

  7. Coping and resilience resources in early adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karaffová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2012), s. 240-240 ISSN 0887-0446. [Conference of European Health Psychology Society: Resilience and Health /26./. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * coping * adolescents Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  8. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  9. the Pathways to Resilience Project Advisory Panel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its express focus is the exploration of how at-risk youths use formal services ... the South African Pathways to Resilience Project, between 2008 and the present, .... included daily, meaningful interaction with the local youth; and (iii) willingness to be ..... the theory of resilience that Khazimula advocated (see Theron, in press, ...

  10. A Whole Community Approach toward Child and Youth Resilience Promotion: A Review of Resilience Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlou, Nazilla; Wray, Ron

    2014-01-01

    A literature review of child and youth resilience with a focus on: definitions and factors of resilience; relationships between resilience, mental health and social outcomes; evidence for resilience promoting interventions; and implications for reducing health inequities. To conduct the review, the first two following steps were conducted iteratively and informed the third step: 1) Review of published peer-review literature since 2000; and 2) Review of grey literature; and 3) Quasi-realist synthesis of evidence. Evidence from three perspectives were examined: i) whether interventions can improve 'resilience' for vulnerable children and youth; ii) whether there is a differential effect among different populations; and, iii) whether there is evidence that resilience interventions 'close the gap' on health and social outcome measures. Definitions of resilience vary as do perspectives on it. We argue for a hybrid approach that recognizes the value of combining multiple theoretical perspectives, epistemologies (positivistic and constructivist/interpretive/critical) in studying resilience. Resilience is: a) a process (rather than a single event), b) a continuum (rather than a binary outcome), and c) likely a global concept with specific dimensions. Individual, family and social environmental factors influence resilience. A social determinants perspective on resilience and mental health is emphasized. Programs and interventions to promoting resilience should be complimentary to public health measures addressing the social determinants of health. A whole community approach to resilience is suggested as a step toward closing the public health policy gap. Local initiatives that stimulate a local transformation process are needed. Recognition of each child's or youth's intersections of gender, lifestage, family resources within the context of their identity markers fits with a localized approach to resilience promotion and, at the same time, requires recognition of the

  11. Enhancing resilience in registered aged care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Fiona; Brownie, Sonya

    2010-06-01

    To identify the factors that impact the resilience of registered aged care nurses, that is their capacity to adapt to the physical, mental and emotional demands of working in aged care facilities. This study explored the lived experience of nine registered nurses working in residential aged care facilities on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, who were asked to reflect on the phenomenon of resilience in the workplace. This study found that clinical expertise, a sense of purpose in a holistic care environment, a positive attitude and work-life balance are important determinants of resilience in aged care nurses. Resilience in nurses in residential aged care facilities is enhanced when they are able to maintain long-term, meaningful relationships with residents. Collegial support that provides opportunities to debrief and validate experiences as well as the use of humour to defuse stress promotes well-being and builds resilience in the workplace.

  12. How Robust is Your System Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounfar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.

    2017-12-01

    Robustness and resilience are concepts in system thinking that have grown in importance and popularity. For many complex social-ecological systems, however, robustness and resilience are difficult to quantify and the connections and trade-offs between them difficult to study. Most studies have either focused on qualitative approaches to discuss their connections or considered only one of them under particular classes of disturbances. In this study, we present an analytical framework to address the linkage between robustness and resilience more systematically. Our analysis is based on a stylized dynamical model that operationalizes a widely used concept framework for social-ecological systems. The model enables us to rigorously define robustness and resilience and consequently investigate their connections. The results reveal the tradeoffs among performance, robustness, and resilience. They also show how the nature of the such tradeoffs varies with the choices of certain policies (e.g., taxation and investment in public infrastructure), internal stresses and external disturbances.

  13. RESILIENCE AND ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE IN SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that SMEs need to embrace the drivers of resilience and that a well-defined and readily available Enterprise Architecture (EA supports enterprise integration by enabling the common view of business processes, data and systems across the enterprise and its partners, we can say that EA is one of the tracks making resilience predictable and it should support and collaborate with other resilience tracks. However, the EA frameworks do not give relevance to the activities that contribute most to business resilience, so this paper aims to clarify the dimensions and the activities related to the development of an EA and the touching points with other enterprise wide processes in order to guarantee that resilience requirements are met in SMEs. For this I propose an approach of ecological adaptation, and four architectures: business, organizational, information, and technological, although this paper only presents the Business and Organizational Architectures.

  14. Priority Queues Resilient to Memory Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Moruz, Gabriel; Mølhave, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In the faulty-memory RAM model, the content of memory cells can get corrupted at any time during the execution of an algorithm, and a constant number of uncorruptible registers are available. A resilient data structure in this model works correctly on the set of uncorrupted values. In this paper we...... introduce a resilient priority queue. The deletemin operation of a resilient priority queue returns either the minimum uncorrupted element or some corrupted element. Our resilient priority queue uses $O(n)$ space to store $n$ elements. Both insert and deletemin operations are performed in $O(\\log n......+\\delta)$ time amortized, where $\\delta$ is the maximum amount of corruptions tolerated. Our priority queue matches the performance of classical optimal priority queues in the RAM model when the number of corruptions tolerated is $O(\\log n)$. We prove matching worst case lower bounds for resilient priority...

  15. Distributed Energy Planning for Climate Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, Sherry R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hotchkiss, Elizabeth L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-01

    At various levels of government across the United States and globally climate resilient solutions are being adopted and implemented. Solutions vary based on predicted hazards, community context, priorities, complexity, and available resources. Lessons are being learned through the implementation process, which can be replicated regardless of level or type of government entity carrying out the resiliency planning. Through a number of analyses and technical support across the world, NREL has learned key lessons related to resilience planning associated with power generation and water distribution. Distributed energy generation is a large factor in building resilience with clean energy technologies and solutions. The technical and policy solutions associated with distributed energy implementation for resilience fall into a few major categories, including spatial diversification, microgrids, water-energy nexus, policy, and redundancy.

  16. Report focuses on improving resilience to disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    “Disaster resilience is everyone's business,” states a new report that calls for a series of local and national measures to increase resilience in the face of an increasingly costly toll from natural disasters to human lives and the economy. In 2011 natural disasters were responsible for damages in the United States exceeding $55 billion, and costs could increase with more people and structures located in harm's way and with the effects of extreme events, according to the report, Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, issued by a committee of the U.S. National Academies on 1 August. Among the recommendations is for federal government agencies to incorporate national resilience as an organizing principle to guide federal government actions and programs. The report defines resilience as “the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events.”

  17. Holocaust survivors: three waves of resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Roberta R; Hantman, Shira; Sharabi, Adi; Cohen, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Three waves of resilience research have resulted in resilience-enhancing educational and therapeutic interventions. In the first wave of inquiry, researchers explored the traits and environmental characteristics that enabled people to overcome adversity. In the second wave, researchers investigated the processes related to stress and coping. In the third wave, studies examined how people grow and are transformed following adverse events, often leading to self-actualize, client creativity and spirituality. In this article the authors examined data from a study, "Forgiveness, Resiliency, and Survivorship among Holocaust Survivors" funded by the John Templeton Foundation ( Greene, Armour, Hantman, Graham, & Sharabi, 2010 ). About 65% of the survivors scored on the high side for resilience traits. Of the survivors, 78% engaged in processes considered resilient and felt they were transcendent or had engaged in behaviors that help them grow and change over the years since the Holocaust, including leaving a legacy and contributing to the community.

  18. Resilience engineering and the built environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    important to understand the range of conditions about why and how the system functions in the desired' mode as well as unwanted' modes. Resilience is the capacity to sustain operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. The unexpected conditions are not only threats but also opportunities.......The possible relations between resilience engineering and built environments are explored. Resilience engineering has been concerned with the safe and efficient functioning of large and small industrial systems. These may be described as built systems or artefacts. The resilience engineering...... approach argues that if the performance of systems is to be resilient, then they must be able to respond, monitor, learn and anticipate. The last ability in particular means that they must be able to consider themselves vis-a-vis their environment, i.e. be sentient and reflective systems. In practice...

  19. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  20. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  1. Novelty, Adaptive Capacity, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a conceptual framework that explores some of the forces creating innovation and novelty in complex systems. Understanding the sources of variability and novelty may help us better understand complex systems. Understanding complex phenomena such as invasions, migration, and nomadism may provide insight into the structure of ecosystems and other complex systems, and aid our attempts to cope with and mitigate these phenomena, in the case of invasions, and better understand and or predict them. Our model is broadly applicable to ecological theory, including community ecology, resilience, restoration, and policy. Characterizing the link between landscape change and the composition of species communities may help policymakers in their decision-making processes. Understanding how variability is related to system structure, and how that generates novelty, may help us understand how resilience is generated. We suggest that there are three primary opportunities for the generation of novelty into complex systems. These sources of novelty are inherent in the cross-scale structure of complex systems, and are critical for creating adaptive capacity. Novelty originates from the inherent variability present in cross scale structures, within scale reorganization associated with adaptive cycles, and whole-scale transformations resulting from regime shifts. Although speculative, our ideas are grounded in research and observation, and they may provide insight into the evolution of complex systems.

  2. RNEDE: Resilient Network Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat Venkatasubramanian, Tanu Malik, Arun Giridh; Craig Rieger; Keith Daum; Miles McQueen

    2010-08-01

    Modern living is more and more dependent on the intricate web of critical infrastructure systems. The failure or damage of such systems can cause huge disruptions. Traditional design of this web of critical infrastructure systems was based on the principles of functionality and reliability. However, it is increasingly being realized that such design objectives are not sufficient. Threats, disruptions and faults often compromise the network, taking away the benefits of an efficient and reliable design. Thus, traditional network design parameters must be combined with self-healing mechanisms to obtain a resilient design of the network. In this paper, we present RNEDEa resilient network design environment that that not only optimizes the network for performance but tolerates fluctuations in its structure that result from external threats and disruptions. The environment evaluates a set of remedial actions to bring a compromised network to an optimal level of functionality. The environment includes a visualizer that enables the network administrator to be aware of the current state of the network and the suggested remedial actions at all times.

  3. Market Intelligence Precursors for the Entrepreneurial Resilience Approach: The Case of the Romanian Eco-Label Product Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Micu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurial resilience of eco-label product retailers emphasises their adaptive capability for renewal after the economic crisis. This paper explores the resilience of the market intelligence techniques adopted by the eco-label product retailers in order to contribute to sustainable development of this market in Romania. The research, conducted on a sample of Romanian retailers of eco-label products, analyses the main sources for gathering data about their competitors, the reasons for monitoring the strategic options of their competitors and the specific market intelligence techniques employed within the entrepreneurial resilience approach, aiming to overcome the negative crisis effects. The research outlines, from an entrepreneurial resilience perspective, several positioning opportunities of the eco-label product retailers after the crisis, which have affected the Romanian economy in the period 2008–2009 and have implicitly affected the eco-label market.

  4. Resilience in patients with psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozikas, V; Parlapani, E

    2016-01-01

    The recovery movement differentiated clinical, which is related to disorder's symptoms, from personal recovery, which is outlined by a subjectively defined wellness state, characterised by hope and self-management. Schizophrenia research has long focused on risk factors and symptoms. The recovery movement triggered a focus shift from psychopathology towards better adjustment and growth despite living with schizophrenia. The recovery movement flourished parallel with positive psychology, the scientific study of ordinary human strengths and virtues investigating human motives and potentials. Understanding of human strengths could contribute to prevention or lessening of psychiatric disorders' devastating consequences, since optimism, sense of personal control and many other positive processes promote psychological health. Lately, the concepts of positive psychology have been implemented in schizophrenia research. Positive self-appraisals moderated suicidal ideation, even when patients experienced high levels of hopelessness.1 Additionally, among other factors, better self-images, internal locus of control (i.e. the perception that events in one's life relate to one's actions) and emphasis on personal efforts predicted a more favourable outcome in functioning of unmedicated patients.2 The concept of "resilience" is closely related to positive psychology. The American Psychological Association defines resilience as ''the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, threats or significant sources of stress''. The concept of resilience includes rebound from adversity.3 Determinants of resilience include biological, psychological, social and cultural factors that interact in a complex manner. The major manifestations of personal resilience are social competence, problem solving, autonomy and sense of purpose.5 Personality strengths that relate to resilience include high self-esteem, extroversion and optimism. Internal assets and personal competencies

  5. An Architecture, System Engineering, and Acquisition Approach for Space System Software Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dewanne Marie

    Software intensive space systems can harbor defects and vulnerabilities that may enable external adversaries or malicious insiders to disrupt or disable system functions, risking mission compromise or loss. Mitigating this risk demands a sustained focus on the security and resiliency of the system architecture including software, hardware, and other components. Robust software engineering practices contribute to the foundation of a resilient system so that the system "can take a hit to a critical component and recover in a known, bounded, and generally acceptable period of time". Software resiliency must be a priority and addressed early in the life cycle development to contribute a secure and dependable space system. Those who develop, implement, and operate software intensive space systems must determine the factors and systems engineering practices to address when investing in software resiliency. This dissertation offers methodical approaches for improving space system resiliency through software architecture design, system engineering, increased software security, thereby reducing the risk of latent software defects and vulnerabilities. By providing greater attention to the early life cycle phases of development, we can alter the engineering process to help detect, eliminate, and avoid vulnerabilities before space systems are delivered. To achieve this objective, this dissertation will identify knowledge, techniques, and tools that engineers and managers can utilize to help them recognize how vulnerabilities are produced and discovered so that they can learn to circumvent them in future efforts. We conducted a systematic review of existing architectural practices, standards, security and coding practices, various threats, defects, and vulnerabilities that impact space systems from hundreds of relevant publications and interviews of subject matter experts. We expanded on the system-level body of knowledge for resiliency and identified a new software

  6. Four concepts for resilience and the implications for the future of resilience engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of system resilience is important and popular—in fact, hyper-popular over the last few years. Clarifying the technical meanings and foundations of the concept of resilience would appear to be necessary. Proposals for defining resilience are flourishing as well. This paper organizes the different technical approaches to the question of what is resilience and how to engineer it in complex adaptive systems. This paper groups the different uses of the label ‘resilience’ around four basic concepts: (1) resilience as rebound from trauma and return to equilibrium; (2) resilience as a synonym for robustness; (3) resilience as the opposite of brittleness, i.e., as graceful extensibility when surprise challenges boundaries; (4) resilience as network architectures that can sustain the ability to adapt to future surprises as conditions evolve. - Highlights: • There continues to be a wide diversity of definitions of the label resilience. • Research progress points to 4 basic concepts underneath diverse uses of. • Each of the four core concepts defines different research agendas. • The 4 concepts provide guides on how to engineer resilience for safety

  7. Immediate effects of EVA midsole resilience and upper shoe structure on running biomechanics: a machine learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    Onodera, Andrea N.; Gavi?o Neto, Wilson P.; Roveri, Maria Isabel; Oliveira, Wagner R.; Sacco, Isabel CN

    2017-01-01

    Background Resilience of midsole material and the upper structure of the shoe are conceptual characteristics that can interfere in running biomechanics patterns. Artificial intelligence techniques can capture features from the entire waveform, adding new perspective for biomechanical analysis. This study tested the influence of shoe midsole resilience and upper structure on running kinematics and kinetics of non-professional runners by using feature selection, information gain, and artificial...

  8. Building Psychological Health: The Services’ Perspectives on Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    program; medical supported • Doctrine signed Dec 2010 • Training: > 200,000 trained to date • 8 courses on Navy eLearning • Formal curriculum delivered...Address future concerns and build psychological resiliency 10 Reserve Resilience Initiatives 2011 MHS Conference NSW Resilience Enterprise  Resilience

  9. Ulysses' Return: Resilient Male Leaders Still at the Helm

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Rhonda; Christman, Dana; Fairbanks, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This study examined resilient men in higher education administration, educational leadership programs to determine how they identified components of their resiliency, how they described events that demonstrated their resiliency, and how they prescribed ways in which preparation programs can foster resiliency in students. Using masculinity…

  10. Resilience, Bullying, and Mental Health: Factors Associated with Improved Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian; Woodcock, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Resilience is associated with bouncing back from adversity, and the term currently enjoys significant popular appeal. However, understanding of resilience is often superficial. The current paper examined 105 primary and high school students' experiences of resilience and bullying, and considered resilience as a hierarchical factorial model. The…

  11. Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state. It is fundamental for growth of positive psychology which deals with satisfaction, adaptability, contentment, and optimism in people's life. Of late, there has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience in context of stress risk vulnerability dimension. It is a neurobiological construct with significant neurobehavioral and emotional features which plays important role in deconstructing mechanism of biopsychosocial model of mental disorders. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide. Available information from scientific studies points out that resilience is modifiable factor which opens up avenues for a number of newer psychosocial as well as biological therapies. Early identification of vulnerable candidates and effectiveness of resilience-based intervention may offer more clarity in possibility of prevention. Future research may be crucial for preventive psychiatry. In this study, we aim to examine whether resilience is a psychopathological construct for mental disorder. PMID:26985103

  12. [Perspectives on resilience : trait or aptitude ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, H; Fossion, P; Kotsou, I; Leys, C

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss various issues related to the concept of resilience, which is conventionally defined as a dynamic process allowing for a positive adaptation in a context of significant adversity. First, we try to draw the reader's attention to the importance of the concept of resilience in terms of public health. Second, we address the difficulty of measuring resilience in a relevant and operational manner. Third, we then address the question of whether resilience can be conceived only in the context of a confrontation with trauma, or whether its application can be relevant to the everyday nontraumatic adversity. In this regard, we introduce and define another coping strategy which is the Sense of Coherence (SOC). Fourth, we discuss the nature of resilience, that is to say, whether it should be considered as a personality trait or as an aptitude. We try to show that this problem arises from the difficulty to specify the emotional processes involved in resilience. Finally, we propose future research perspectives that should allow us to better understand the concept of resilience.

  13. A resilience markers framework for small teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furniss, Dominic, E-mail: d.furniss@ucl.ac.u [UCL Interaction Centre, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Back, Jonathan; Blandford, Ann [UCL Interaction Centre, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hildebrandt, Michael; Broberg, Helena [OECD Halden Reactor Project, PO Box 173, 1751 Halden (Norway)

    2011-01-15

    Processes that enable an effective response to unexpected events and vulnerabilities that lie outside the scope of formal procedures can be described as being resilient. There are many such descriptions of resilience within and across different domains. Comparison and generalisation is difficult because resilience is not a component of a system and should be understood as an emergent property. Here we provide a framework for reasoning about resilience that requires representation of the level of analysis (from the individual to operational), a traceable link from abstract theory to specific observations, resilience mechanisms, and contextual factors. This moves forward an agenda to systematically observe concrete manifestations of resilience within and across domains. We illustrate the application of the framework by considering a case study of the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in an experimental scenario. This paper focuses on the small team level of analysis. The framework presented here provides the basis for developing concrete measures for improving the resilience of organisations through training, system design, and organisational learning.

  14. A resilience markers framework for small teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furniss, Dominic; Back, Jonathan; Blandford, Ann; Hildebrandt, Michael; Broberg, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Processes that enable an effective response to unexpected events and vulnerabilities that lie outside the scope of formal procedures can be described as being resilient. There are many such descriptions of resilience within and across different domains. Comparison and generalisation is difficult because resilience is not a component of a system and should be understood as an emergent property. Here we provide a framework for reasoning about resilience that requires representation of the level of analysis (from the individual to operational), a traceable link from abstract theory to specific observations, resilience mechanisms, and contextual factors. This moves forward an agenda to systematically observe concrete manifestations of resilience within and across domains. We illustrate the application of the framework by considering a case study of the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in an experimental scenario. This paper focuses on the small team level of analysis. The framework presented here provides the basis for developing concrete measures for improving the resilience of organisations through training, system design, and organisational learning.

  15. Resilience and Coping After Hospital Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cynthia; Calo, Oriana; Harrison, Georgia; Mahoney, Kathleen; Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between resilience and coping in frontline nurses working in a healthcare system that has recently undergone a merger. Hospital mergers are common in the current healthcare environment. Mergers can provide hospital nurses the opportunity to use and develop positive coping strategies to help remain resilient during times of change. An anonymous-survey, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study design was used. Data were obtained from an electronic survey that was made available to all nurses working in a 3-hospital system located in the northeast. Overall, the results showed that, when nurses reported using positive coping strategies, they report higher levels of resilience. The levels of resilience also varied from campus to campus. The campus that has been through 2 recent mergers reported the highest levels of resilience. This study suggests that, during times of change in the workplace, if nurses are encouraged to use positive coping strategies, they may have higher levels of resilience. This changing environment provides the clinical nurse specialists/clinical nurse educators the opportunity to foster and support frontline nurses in the use of healthy coping strategies and to help improve and maintain a high level of resilience, which is critical in today's healthcare environment.

  16. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Angeler, David G; Herrmann, Dustin L; Stow, Craig A; Nyström, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Regional employment growth, shocks and regional industrial resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter

    2013-01-01

    The resilience of regional industries to economic shocks has gained a lot of attention in evolutionary economic geography recently. This paper uses a novel quantitative approach to investigate the regional industrial resilience of the Danish ICT sector to the shock following the burst of the dot......-com bubble. It is shown that regions characterised by small and young ICT service companies were more adaptable and grew more than others, while diversity and urbanisation increased the sensitivity to the business cycle after the shock. Different types of resilient regions are found: adaptively resilient......, rigidly resilient, entrepreneurially resilient and non-resilient regions....

  18. Regional Employment Growth, Shocks and Regional Industrial Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, J.R.; Østergaard, Christian Richter

    2015-01-01

    The resilience of regional industries to economic shocks has gained a lot of attention in evolutionary economic geography recently. This paper uses a novel quantitative approach to investigate the regional industrial resilience of the Danish information and communication technology (ICT) sector...... to the shock following the burst of the dot.com bubble. It is shown that regions characterized by small and young ICT service companies were more adaptable and grew more than others, while diversity and urbanization increased the sensitivity to the business cycle after the shock. Different types of resilient...... regions are found: adaptively resilient, rigidly resilient, entrepreneurially resilient and non-resilient regions....

  19. Inferring the relative resilience of alternative states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Rojo, Carmen; Alvarez-Cobelas, Miguel; Rodrigo, Maria A.; Sanchez-Carrillo, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Ecological systems may occur in alternative states that differ in ecological structures, functions and processes. Resilience is the measure of disturbance an ecological system can absorb before changing states. However, how the intrinsic structures and processes of systems that characterize their states affects their resilience remains unclear. We analyzed time series of phytoplankton communities at three sites in a floodplain in central Spain to assess the dominant frequencies or “temporal scales” in community dynamics and compared the patterns between a wet and a dry alternative state. The identified frequencies and cross-scale structures are expected to arise from positive feedbacks that are thought to reinforce processes in alternative states of ecological systems and regulate emergent phenomena such as resilience. Our analyses show a higher species richness and diversity but lower evenness in the dry state. Time series modeling revealed a decrease in the importance of short-term variability in the communities, suggesting that community dynamics slowed down in the dry relative to the wet state. The number of temporal scales at which community dynamics manifested, and the explanatory power of time series models, was lower in the dry state. The higher diversity, reduced number of temporal scales and the lower explanatory power of time series models suggest that species dynamics tended to be more stochastic in the dry state. From a resilience perspective our results highlight a paradox: increasing species richness may not necessarily enhance resilience. The loss of cross-scale structure (i.e. the lower number of temporal scales) in community dynamics across sites suggests that resilience erodes during drought. Phytoplankton communities in the dry state are therefore likely less resilient than in the wet state. Our case study demonstrates the potential of time series modeling to assess attributes that mediate resilience. The approach is useful for assessing

  20. Interrogating resilience in health systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Remco; Ashour, Majdi; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    The Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research was themed around 'Resilient and responsive health systems for a changing world.' This commentary is the outcome of a panel discussion at the symposium in which the resilience discourse and its use in health systems development was critically interrogated. The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West-Africa added momentum for the wider adoption of resilient health systems as a crucial element to prepare for and effectively respond to crisis. The growing salience of resilience in development and health systems debates can be attributed in part to development actors and philanthropies such as the Rockefeller Foundation. Three concerns regarding the application of resilience to health systems development are discussed: (1) the resilience narrative overrules certain democratic procedures and priority setting in public health agendas by 'claiming' an exceptional policy space; (2) resilience compels accepting and maintaining the status quo and excludes alternative imaginations of just and equitable health systems including the socio-political struggles required to attain those; and (3) an empirical case study from Gaza makes the case that resilience and vulnerability are symbiotic with each other rather than providing a solution for developing a strong health system. In conclusion, if the normative aim of health policies is to build sustainable, universally accessible, health systems then resilience is not the answer. The current threats that health systems face demand us to imagine beyond and explore possibilities for global solidarity and justice in health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  2. A Measure of Team Resilience: Developing the Resilience at Work Team Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Kathryn; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2018-03-01

    This study develops, and initial evaluates, a new measure of team-based resilience for use in research and practice. We conducted preliminary analyses, based on a cross-sectional sample of 344 employees nested within 31 teams. Seven dimensions were identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The measure had high reliability and significant discrimination to indicate the presence of a unique team-based aspect of resilience that contributed to higher work engagement and higher self-rated team performance, over and above the effects of individual resilience. Multilevel analyses showed that team, but not individual, resilience predicted self-rated team performance. Practice implications include a need to focus on collective as well as individual behaviors in resilience-building. The measure provides a diagnostic instrument for teams and a scale to evaluate organizational interventions and research the relationship of resilience to other constructs.

  3. Social-ecological resilience and law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental law envisions ecological systems as existing in an equilibrium state, reinforcing a rigid legal framework unable to absorb rapid environmental changes and innovations in sustainability. For the past four decades, “resilience theory,” which embraces uncertainty and nonlinear dynamics in complex adaptive systems, has provided a robust, invaluable foundation for sound environmental management. Reforming American law to incorporate this knowledge is the key to sustainability. This volume features top legal and resilience scholars speaking on resilience theory and its legal applications to climate change, biodiversity, national parks, and water law.

  4. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  5. Climate change and forest resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan; Vermeulen, Sonja

    2006-10-15

    Significant global climate change is inevitable. Tree species have a limited capacity to tolerate climate change or migrate through natural or artificial means. We do not know enough about the comparative resilience of forest-based, agricultural, marine or fresh water ecosystems. But it is clear that biodiverse forest ecosystems are under threat. And the threat extends beyond forests themselves. An estimated 60 million indigenous people are heavily dependent on the world's rainforests. Some 350 million people live in or close to dense forests and rely on them for subsistence or income. A further 1.2 billion people in developing countries depend on trees on farm to generate food or cash.

  6. The concept of resilience- the scientific adaptation for society health

    OpenAIRE

    Svence, Guna

    2015-01-01

    The main idea of the paper to indicate the factors of resilience indicators. The task of the research - a theoretical analysis of the latest research resilience factors and resilience risk factors and to analyze the theory of the intervention of positive psychology and development programs. Based on quantitative methods (narrative content analysis) recognise the contents of resilience and create the resilience factor model. Author together with students form RTTEMA master study programme “Psy...

  7. Resilience Management System And Development Of Resilience Capability On Site Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsubara, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    When we consider the safety of socio-technical or safety critical systems, discussions from three layers are required; safety strategy, safety management and safety activity. In this study, development of resilience safety from the three layers is discussed. For the safety management layer, this study proposes resilience management system (RMS) as the style of safety management system (SMS) for resilience safety approach. Two cases at Japanese companies to enhance attitude and non-technical s...

  8. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  9. Adaptation and Livelihood Resilience | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... intervention strategies based on income diversification, environmental management and multi-purpose ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that. ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  10. the Pathways to Resilience Project Advisory Panel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the South African Pathways to Resilience Project, between 2008 and the present, in order to ... vice versa, and divergent objectives (e.g. building community infrastructure versus ... inadequate time and resources and associated risks. A review ...

  11. Nurse leader resilience: career defining moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is an essential component of effective nursing leadership. It is defined as the ability to survive and thrive in the face of adversity. Resilience can be developed and internalized as a measure to improve retention and reduce burnout. Nurse leaders at all levels should develop these competencies to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex health care environment. Building positive relationships, maintaining positivity, developing emotional insight, creating work-life balance, and reflecting on successes and challenges are effective strategies for resilience building. Nurse leaders have a professional obligation to develop resilience in themselves, the teams they supervise, and the organization as a whole. Additional benefits include reduced turnover, reduced cost, and improved quality outcomes through organizational mindfulness.

  12. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  13. Proceedings "… Towards Resilient Honey Bees …"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.A.; Zweep, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Research Roadmap is a co-creation by Bees@wur and the Dutch government, and the (inter)national researchers participating in the workshop Resilient Honey bees 23-24 November 2015, Castle Hoekelum, Bennekom, The Netherlands

  14. Resilient Afforable Cubesat Processor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Applications, LLC (AMA) proposes the Resilient Affordable Computing Platform (RACP), a power-efficient high-performance space computer design for...

  15. Climate Change Resilience in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Tristan

    2017-12-01

    Between 1930 and 2030, the world's population will have flipped from 70% rural to 70% urban. While much has been written about the impacts of climate change and mitigation of its effects on individual buildings or infrastructure, this book is one of the first to focus on the resilience of whole cities. It covers a broad range of area-wide disaster-level impacts, including drought, heatwaves, flooding, storms and air quality, which many of our cities are ill-adapted to cope with, and unless we can increase the resilience of our urban areas then much of our current building stock may become uninhabitable. Climate Resilience in Urban Environments provides a detailed overview of the risks for urban areas, including those risks to human health as well as to building integrity, the physical processes involved, and presents key information in which way the risks can be reduced and urban areas made more resilient.

  16. Does resilient mean eco-inefficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    as long-term perfomance. Resilience is not explicitly taken into account within life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA determines the eco-efficiency of product systems, i.e. the ratio between the function provided by the product and its impact on the environment. The question is whether a product system which...... structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will not only be more inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when studied by means of LCA. In this work a two steps approach is proposed to study resilience of product systems: 1) assessment of disturbance conditions and their inclusion within the scope......, because the redundant connections between elements of a system make it less efficient but also more flexible and adaptable and allow to perform a function even if some connections are interrupted or missing. Balancing between resilience and efficiency seems to be the key for sustainability intended...

  17. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  18. Introduction: Social-Ecological Resilience and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental law envisions ecological systems as existing in an equilibrium state, reinforcing a rigid legal framework unable to absorb rapid environmental changes and innovations in sustainability. For the past four decades, "resilience theory," which embraces uncertainty and n...

  19. Drinking Water Earthquake Resilience Paper Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data for the 9 figures contained in the paper, A SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS TO DISASTERS WITH AN EXAMPLE EARTHQUAKE...

  20. International co-operation in cyber resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielstra, A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Duijnhoven, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    All stakeholders in cyber security and resilience have obligations; it is time to end the period of loose, non-binding collaborations, say Annemarie Zielstra, Eric Luiijf and Hanneke Duijnhoven, in this call for nations to work more closely together

  1. Can Law Foster Social-Ecological Resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahjond S. Garmestani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Law plays an essential role in shaping natural resource and environmental policy, but unfortunately, many environmental laws were developed around the prevailing scientific understanding that there was a "balance of nature" that could be managed and sustained. This view assumes that natural resource managers have the capacity to predict the behavior of ecological systems, know what its important functional components are, and successfully predict the outcome of management interventions. This paper takes on this problem by summarizing and synthesizing the contributions to this Special Feature (Law and Social-Ecological Resilience, Part I: Contributions from Resilience 2011, focusing on the interaction of law and social-ecological resilience, and then offering recommendations for the integration of law and social-ecological resilience.

  2. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Colucci

    2012-01-01

    The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011). Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many ...

  3. Proceedings of the third resilience engineering symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Pieri, Francois; Rigaud, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The proceeding from Third Resilience Engineering Symposium collects the papers presented on October 28-30, 2008, in Antibes-Juan-les-Pins, France. The Symposium provided a much appreciated forum for people working within the area of Resilience Engineering to become updated with the latest scientific achievements as well as more practical oriented applications, and exchange views and idea within the area. Resilience Engineering represents a new way of thinking about safety that has already given rise to several practical applications. In contrast to established risk management approaches that are based on hindsight and emphasise error tabulation and calculation of failure probabilities, Resilience Engineering looks for ways to enhance the ability of organisations to create processes that are robust yet flexible, to monitor and revise risk models, and to use resources pro-actively in the face of disruptions or ongoing production and economic pressures. In Resilience Engineering failures do not stand for a breakdown or malfunctioning of normal system functions, but rather represent the converse of the adaptations necessary to cope with the real world complexity. Individuals and organisations must always adjust their performance to the current conditions; and because resources and time are finite it is inevitable that such adjustments are approximate. Success has been ascribed to the ability of groups, individuals, and organisations to anticipate the changing shape of risk before damage occurs; failure is simply the temporary or permanent absence of that. Three papers were selected for INIS, these are: - Resilience and Brittleness in a Nuclear Emergency Response Simulation: Focusing on Team Coordination Activity (Costa, W.S. et al.); - Resilience and the Training of Nuclear Operators - A View from the Shop Floor (Hildebrandt, M. et al.); and - Complexity of Resilient Power Distribution Networks (May, M.)

  4. The politics of vulnerability and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Frerks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much conceptual confusion exists over the concepts of vulnerability and (social resilience, reinforced by the different paradigms (the article identifies four and disciplinary traditions underlying their use. While since the 1980s the social construction of "vulnerability" as a driver for disaster received considerable attention, in recent years we have seen increased attention to people's capacities and resilience. The currently popular "complexity" approach to risk moreover appears to offer ways of breaking through entrenched vulnerabilities. Resilience however is also a political project which, we argue, also has its dark, conservative overtones and overlooks structural sources of vulnerability that continue to affect hazard-prone actors. We may therefore need to conceive resilience as the potential for social transformation after disaster.Existe muita confusão conceitual em torno dos conceitos de vulnerabilidade e resiliência (social, reforçada pela diferença de paradigmas (este artigo identifica quarto e tradições disciplinares subjacentes à sua utilização. Enquanto desde os anos 80 a construção social de "vulnerabilidade" como condutor para desastres recebeu atenção considerável, nos últimos anos temos visto maior atenção às capacidades e resiliência das pessoas. Atualmente popular, a abordagem da "complexidade" do risco, além disso, parece oferecer maneiras transformadoras através das vulnerabilidades enraizadas. No entanto, defendemos que a resiliência é um projeto político que também tem seus sombrios sobretons conservadores e omite fontes estruturais de vulnerabilidade que continuam a afetar os atores propensos ao risco. Podemos, portanto, precisar conceber a resiliência como potencial para transformação social depois de desastres.

  5. Defining resilience: A preliminary integrative literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Bonnie; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The term “resilience” is ubiquitous in technical literature; it appears in numerous forms, such as resilience, resiliency, or resilient, and each use may have a different definition depending on the interpretation of the writer. This creates difficulties in understanding what is meant by ‘resilience’ in any given use case, especially in discussions of interdisciplinary research. To better understand this problem, this research constructs a preliminary integrative literature review to map different definitions, applications and calculation methods of resilience invoked within critical infrastructure applications. The preliminary review uses a State-of-the-Art Matrix (SAM) analysis to characterize differences in definition across disciplines and between regions. Qualifying the various usages of resilience will produce a greater precision in the literature and a deeper insight into types of data required for its evaluation, particularly with respect to critical infrastructure calculations and how such data may be analyzed. Results from this SAM analysis will create a framework of key concepts as part of the most common applications for “resilient critical infrastructure” modeling.

  6. Developing Mathematical Resilience of Prospective Math Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, L.; Herman, T.; Sumarmo, U.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Prospective math teachers need to develop positive adaptive attitudes toward mathematics that will enable them to continue learning despite having to deal with obstacles and difficulties. This research focuses on the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers after being treated using problem-based learning based on their basic knowledge on mathematic and their overall knowledge on math. This research used only one group for pre-test and post-test. The result of this research shows that there is improvement on prospective teachers’ resilience after they were given treatment using problem-based learning. One of the factors causing the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers is the instructions on students’ work sheet. In the instructions, stud ents were asked to write difficulties in solving math problems as well as write down the solution they take to overcome them. This research can be used as a reference for other researchers who want to do the same research related on students’ resiliency o n math and or math lecturers to improve the resilience of prospective teachers to be resilient teachers on math in the future.

  7. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  8. Resilient children of injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilowsky, Daniel J; Zybert, Patricia A; Vlahov, David

    2004-11-01

    To examine associations between resilience in children of injection drug users and children's coping strategies, parenting stress, and children's social support. Injection drug-using parents (n=91) and their children aged 6 to 11 (n=117) were recruited in Baltimore (1997-1999). Resilience was defined as scoring in the lowest quartile of the Child Behavior Checklist total psychopathology score. Coping strategies used by resilient and nonresilient children, the extent and types of social support that they received, and the level of parenting stress reported by their parents were compared and contrasted. Rates of depressive, anxiety, and disruptive behavior disorders were 15.4%, 22.2%, and 21.4%, respectively, for the entire sample. Compared with the nonresilient, resilient children were less likely to use two avoidance coping strategies (internalizing [p=.002] and externalizing [p=.017]). The level of actual support received by resilient and nonresilient children did not differ significantly (p=.202). Perceived support was greater among resilient children (as reported by their parents; p parents reported lower parenting stress (p=.042). A significant proportion of children of injection drug users are in need of clinical care. Interventions to help children of substance-abusing parents modify their coping style merit exploration.

  9. Ego-resiliency the female students of the University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw - pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sadziak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE             The concept of resiliency assumes that it is an adaptive flexibility, ability to adjust the impulse level to a situation. In a detailed approach, resiliency is a personality trait that is of significance in the process of coping with traumatic events. It promotes persistence and facilitates mobilization to undertake preventive measures in difficult situations. Every person has a specific level of resiliency, however due to the specific nature of some fields of study and our professional practice, it may be sometimes especially highly – regarded. OBJECTIVES             The cognitive purpose is to identity and compare the levels of resiliency in women who study in different fields at University School of Physical Education in Wrocław. MATERIALS AND METHODS             The study was carried out among 145 female students at University School of Physical Education in Wrocław in the field of physiotherapy, cosmetology, tourism and recreation and physical education within the specialization of physical education for persons with intellectual disability. The research method was a diagnostic poll, the technique applied – questionnaire, the tool – Polish adaption of the Ego Resiliency Scale, the statistical method – variance analysis. RESULTS             Women who study physical education for persons with intellectual disability exhibit the highest level of resiliency in women who study physiotherapy and cosmetology and does not differ significantly from the level of resiliency represented by female students of tourism and recreation. Women studying physiotherapy have the lowest level of psychological resilience. CONCLUSIONS             In is assumed that a higher level of resiliency is a desirable personality trait which is helpful in working with people with intellectual disability (disabilities.

  10. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ADOLESCENT GIRLS' RESILIENCE TO TEENAGE PREGNANCY IN BEGORO, GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyan, Sylvia Esther; Ahorlu, Collins; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S; Fayorsey, Clara K

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on how older adolescent girls access and utilize social capital to develop resilience against teenage pregnancy in Begoro, Ghana. A survey of 419 non-pregnant girls aged 15-19 years, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique, was conducted in 2012. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth interviews with ten girls purposively selected from the survey respondents. Parents, relatives, teachers and religious groups were found to be important sources of social capital for the non-pregnant girls in developing resilience against teenage pregnancy. In addition, resilient girls tended to rely on multiple sources of social capital. It is recommended that stakeholders and policymakers in Ghana ensure that these significant sources of social capital in adolescent girls' sexual experience are equipped with the right information to help girls decrease the risk of teenage pregnancy.

  11. Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of the upstream automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azevedo, S.G.; Govindan, Kannan; Carvalho, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests an Ecosilient Index to assess the greenness and resilience of automotive companies and the corresponding supply chain. An integrated assessment model is proposed based on green and resilient practices. The Delphi technique is used to obtain the weights of the supply chain para...... sector; this constitutes an initial effort to close the gap between theory and practice. Future research is needed to investigate the index applicability in different industry contexts........ to the greenness of this industry is to reduce energy consumption. The significant contributions to resilience are sourcing strategies that allow switching of suppliers, flexible supply base/flexible sourcing and creating total supply chain visibility. The proposed index was developed in the context of automotive...

  12. Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbesville, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff

  13. Expanding Resilience Indicators: A Case Study on Buffering Capacity Indicator in a Process Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The complexity of modern sociotechnical systems has created new challenges for safety, so that traditional approaches are not able to cope with them. Resilience engineering (RE is a good alternative to traditional approaches for safety management, however resilience is still a difficult concept to measure, and indicators such as buffering capacity, flexibility, and so on, which are thought to contribute to it, are undeveloped. Objectives This study aimed at expanding buffering capacity as one of the main indicators in order to facilitate measurement of resilience of a system. Materials and Methods We used the Delphi method in order to identify indicators, and data related to all the indicators were gathered by observation and interview. In this line, 32 of the experienced operators with at least 15 years of operational record were selected for semi-structured interviews. Gathered data was processed by the principal component analysis technique. The results were processed by the Minitab 15 software. Results In this study, 29 factors affecting this indicator were determined using the Delphi method; the scores of all factors were less than the scores of the best practice. On the other hand, the state of this indicator was poor in plant included in the study. Conclusions This was the first study that focused on expanding resilience indicators, and presents a new framework to simplify assessment of resilience and safety of a complex system.

  14. Social-ecological resilience and geomorphic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Scown, Murray

    2018-03-01

    Governance of coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) and the underlying geomorphic processes that structure and alter Earth's surface is a key challenge for global sustainability amid the increasing uncertainty and change that defines the Anthropocene. Social-ecological resilience as a concept of scientific inquiry has contributed to new understandings of the dynamics of change in SESs, increasing our ability to contextualize and implement governance in these systems. Often, however, the importance of geomorphic change and geomorphological knowledge is somewhat missing from processes employed to inform SES governance. In this contribution, we argue that geomorphology and social-ecological resilience research should be integrated to improve governance toward sustainability. We first provide definitions of engineering, ecological, community, and social-ecological resilience and then explore the use of these concepts within and alongside geomorphology in the literature. While ecological studies often consider geomorphology as an important factor influencing the resilience of ecosystems and geomorphological studies often consider the engineering resilience of geomorphic systems of interest, very few studies define and employ a social-ecological resilience framing and explicitly link the concept to geomorphic systems. We present five key concepts-scale, feedbacks, state or regime, thresholds and regime shifts, and humans as part of the system-which we believe can help explicitly link important aspects of social-ecological resilience inquiry and geomorphological inquiry in order to strengthen the impact of both lines of research. Finally, we discuss how these five concepts might be used to integrate social-ecological resilience and geomorphology to better understand change in, and inform governance of, SESs. To compound these dynamics of resilience, complex systems are nested and cross-scale interactions from smaller and larger scales relative to the system of interest

  15. Toward quantifying metrics for rail-system resilience : Identification and analysis of performance weak resilience signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regt, A. de; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to enhance tangibility of the resilience engineering concept by facilitating understanding and operationalization of weak resilience signals (WRSs) in the rail sector. Within complex socio-technical systems, accidents can be seen as unwanted outcomes emerging from uncontrolled

  16. Understanding individual resilience in the workplace: the international collaboration of workforce resilience model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Cusack, Lynette; Hegney, Desley

    2015-01-01

    When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as "resilient." A number of studies have found relationships between levels of individual resilience and specific negative outcomes such as burnout and compassion fatigue. However, because psychological resilience is a multi-dimensional construct it is necessary to more clearly delineate it from other related and overlapping constructs. The creation of a testable theoretical model of individual workforce resilience, which includes both stable traits (e.g., neuroticism) as well as more malleable intrapersonal factors (e.g., coping style), enables information to be derived that can eventually inform interventions aimed at enhancing individual resilience in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new theoretical model of individual workforce resilience that includes several intrapersonal constructs known to be central in the appraisal of and response to stressors and that also overlap with the construct of psychological resilience. We propose a model in which psychological resilience is hypothesized to mediate the relationship between neuroticism, mindfulness, self-efficacy, coping, and psychological adjustment.

  17. Access and Resilience: Analyzing the Construction of Social Resilience to the Threat of Water Scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Langridge

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is a vital attribute that characterizes a system's capacity to cope with stress. Researchers have examined the measurement of resilience in ecosystems and in social-ecological systems, and the comparative vulnerability of social groups. Our paper refocuses attention on the processes and relations that create social resilience. Our central proposition is that the creation of social resilience is linked to a community's ability to access critical resources. We explore this proposition through an analysis of how community resilience to the stress of water scarcity is influenced by historically contingent mechanisms to gain, control, and maintain access to water. Access is defined broadly as the ability of a community to actually benefit from a resource, and includes a wider range of relations than those derived from property rights alone. We provide a framework for assessing the construction of social resilience and use it to examine, first, the different processes and relations that enabled four communities in northern California to acquire access to water, and second, how access contributed to their differential levels of resilience to potential water scarcity. Legal water rights are extremely difficult to alter, and given the variety of mechanisms that can generate access, our study suggests that strengthening and diversifying a range of structural and relational mechanisms to access water can enhance a community's resilience to water scarcity.

  18. Rights for resilience: food sovereignty, power, and resilience in development practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marygold Walsh-Dilley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Even as resilience thinking becomes evermore popular as part of strategic programming among development and humanitarian organizations, uncertainty about how to define, operationalize, measure, and evaluate resilience for development goals prevails. As a result, many organizations and institutions have undertaken individual, collective, and simultaneous efforts toward clarification and definition. This has opened up a unique opportunity for a rethinking of development practices. The emergent consensus about what resilience means within development practice will have important consequences both for development practitioners and the communities in which they work. Incorporating resilience thinking into development practice has the potential to radically transform this arena in favor of social and environmental justice, but it could also flounder as a way to dress old ideas in new clothes or, at worst, to further exploit, disempower, and marginalize the world's most vulnerable populations. We seek to make an intervention into the definitional debates surrounding resilience that supports the former and helps prevent the latter. We argue that resilience thinking as it has been developed in social-ecological systems and allied literatures has a lot in common with the concept of food sovereignty and that paying attention to some of the lessons and claims of food sovereignty movements could contribute toward building a consensus around resilience that supports social and environmental justice. In particular, the food sovereignty movement relies on a strategy that elevates rights. We suggest that a rights-based approach to resilience-oriented development practice could contribute to its application in just and equitable ways.

  19. The Resilience-Enabling Value of African Folktales: The Read-Me-To-Resilience Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Linda; Cockcroft, Kate; Wood, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    Resilience, or the process of adjusting well to adversity, draws on personal and social ecological resources (i.e., caregiving and community supports). Previous research--conducted mostly in the Global North--has shown that bibliotherapy offers a way to support children in identifying and utilizing resilience-enabling resources. In so doing,…

  20. Children's resilience and trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy: Comparing resilience as an outcome, a trait, and a process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happer, Kaitlin; Brown, Elissa J; Sharma-Patel, Komal

    2017-11-01

    Resilience, which is associated with relatively positive outcomes following negative life experiences, is an important research target in the field of child maltreatment (Luthar et al., 2000). The extant literature contains multiple conceptualizations of resilience, which hinders development in research and clinical utility. Three models emerge from the literature: resilience as an immediate outcome (i.e., behavioral or symptom response), resilience as a trait, and resilience as a dynamic process. The current study compared these models in youth undergoing trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy. Results provide the most support for resilience as a process, in which increase in resilience preceded associated decrease in posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. There was partial support for resilience conceptualized as an outcome, and minimal support for resilience as a trait. Results of the models are compared and discussed in the context of existing literature and in light of potential clinical implications for maltreated youth seeking treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trichoderma for climate resilient agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Pallavi; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sudheer

    2017-08-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of the twenty-first century for sustainable agricultural production. Several reports highlighted the need for better agricultural practices and use of eco-friendly methods for sustainable crop production under such situations. In this context, Trichoderma species could be a model fungus to sustain crop productivity. Currently, these are widely used as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation. They are reported to improve photosynthetic efficiency, enhance nutrient uptake and increase nitrogen use efficiency in crops. Moreover, they can be used to produce bio-energy, facilitate plants for adaptation and mitigate adverse effect of climate change. The technological advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing and biotechnology provided deep insight into the complex and diverse biotic interactions established in nature by Trichoderma spp. and efforts are being made to translate this knowledge to enhance crop growth, resistance to disease and tolerance to abiotic stresses under field conditions. The discovery of several traits and genes that are involved in the beneficial effects of Trichoderma spp. has resulted in better understanding of the performance of bioinoculants in the field, and will lead to more efficient use of these strains and possibly to their improvement by genetic modification. The present mini-review is an effort to elucidate the molecular basis of plant growth promotion and defence activation by Trichoderma spp. to garner broad perspectives regarding their functioning and applicability for climate resilient agriculture.

  2. Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.

  3. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

    2013-01-01

    Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action.

  4. Imaging resilience and recovery in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Rosenthal, Annika; Lohoff, Falk W; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne

    2018-05-09

    Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review. Findings deriving from (f)MRI and PET studies have identified links between increased resilience and less task-elicited neural activation within the basal ganglia, and benefits of heightened neural prefrontal cortex (PFC) engagement regarding resilience in a broader sense, namely resilience against relapse in early abstinence of AD. Furthermore, findings consistently propose at least partial recovery of brain glucose metabolism and executive and general cognitive functioning, as well as structural plasticity effects throughout the brain of alcohol-dependent patients during the course of short, medium and long-term abstinence, even when patients only lowered their alcohol consumption to a moderate level. Additionally, specific factors were found that appear to influence these observed brain recovery processes in AD, e.g. genotype-dependent neuronal (re)growth, gender-specific neural recovery effects, critical interfering effects of psychiatric comorbidities, additional smoking or marijuana influences, or adolescent alcohol abuse. Neuroimaging research has uncovered neurobiological markers that appear to be linked to resilience and improved recovery capacities that are furthermore influenced by various factors such as gender or genetics. Consequently, future system-oriented approaches may help to establish a broad neuroscience-based research framework for alcohol dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  5. Gender, violence and resilience among Ugandan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Carlson, Catherine; Norcini Pala, Andrea; Faris, Devin; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen; Naker, Dipak

    2017-08-01

    Resilience, commonly understood as the ability to maintain adaptive functioning in the face of adversity, has emerged as a salient entry point in the field of positive youth development. This study makes a unique contribution by exploring dimensions of resilience among adolescents in Uganda, examining associations between violence from different perpetrators and resilience, and testing whether sex moderates these relationships. Analyses are based on data from 3706 primary school students. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified five factors underlying the construct of resilience: Emotional Support; Family Connectedness; School Connectedness; Social Assets; and Psychological Assets. We used regression analysis to investigate associations between these dependent variables, background characteristics, and experiences of violence (including exposure to intimate partner violence against female caregivers). Results reflect a complex relationship between violence and resilience, with patterns varying by perpetrator (e.g., teacher, peers, caregivers) and some evidence that the sex of the student moderates these dynamics. Overall, there is a consistently negative relationship between all violence measures and Psychological Assets. In addition, teacher violence is associated with lower resilience across factors and both caregiver violence and exposure to IPV are consistently associated with decreased Family Connectedness. These findings suggest that adolescents experiencing (and exposed to) violence from adults may be particularly vulnerable to internalizing and/or externalizing behaviors and withdrawal from the family. Findings point to preventing violence from teachers complemented with enhancing family relationships as promising avenues for resilience-strengthening interventions, and also emphasize the need to consider gendered strategies to ensure girls and boys benefit equally. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC): Linking Climate Literacy, Resilience Thinking and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and

  7. Economic resilience lessons from the ShakeOut earthquake scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A.; Rose, A.

    2011-01-01

    Following a damaging earthquake, “business interruption” (BI)—reduced production of goods and services—begins and continues long after the ground shaking stops. Economic resilience reduces BI losses by making the best use of the resources available at a given point in time (static resilience) or by speeding recovery through repair and reconstruction (dynamic resilience), in contrast to mitigation that prevents damage in the first place. Economic resilience is an important concept to incorporate into economic loss modeling and in recovery and contingency planning. Economic resilience framework includes the applicability of resilience strategies to production inputs and output, demand- and supply-side effects, inherent and adaptive abilities, and levels of the economy. We use our resilience framework to organize and share strategies that enhance economic resilience, identify overlooked resilience strategies, and present evidence and structure of resilience strategies for economic loss modelers. Numerous resilience strategies are compiled from stakeholder discussions about the ShakeOut Scenario (Jones et. al. 2008). Modeled results of ShakeOut BI sector losses reveal variable effectiveness of resilience strategies for lengthy disruptions caused by fire-damaged buildings and water service outages. Resilience is a complement to mitigation and may, in fact, have cost and all-hazards advantages.

  8. What we know and do not know about organizational resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruiz-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a literature review about organizational resilience, with the goal of identifying how organizational resilience is conceptualized and assessed. The two research questions that drive the review are: (1 how is organizational resilience conceptualized? and (2 how is organizational resilience assessed? We answer the first question by analysing organizational resilience definitions and the attributes or characteristics that contribute to develop resilient organizations. We answer the second question by reviewing articles that focus on tools or methods to measure organizational resilience. Although there are three different ways to define organizational resilience, we found common ideas in the definitions. We also found that organizational resilience is considered a property, ability or capability that can be improved over time. However, we did not find consensus about the elements that contribute to improving the level of organizational resilience and how to assess it. Based on the results of the review, we propose a conceptualization of organizational resilience that integrates the three views found in the literature. We also propose a four-level Maturity Model for Organizational Resilience – MMOR. Using this model, the organization can be in one of the following levels based on its ability and capacity to handle disruptive events: fragile, robust, resilient or antifragile.

  9. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet

  10. Exploration of resilience assessments for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Jacomo, Anna; Han, Dawei; Champneys, Alan

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of extreme events due to natural hazards is difficult to predict. Extreme events are stochastic in nature, there is a lack of long term data on their occurrence, and there are still gaps in our understanding of their physical processes. This difficulty in prediction will be exacerbated by climate change and human activities. Yet traditional risk assessments measure risk as the probability of occurrence of a hazard, multiplied by the consequences of the hazard occurring, which ignores the recovery process. In light of the increasing concerns on disaster risks and the related system recovery, resilience assessments are being used as an approach which complements and builds on traditional risk assessments and management. In mechanical terms, resilience refers to the amount of energy per unit volume that a material can absorb while maintaining its ability to return to its original shape. Resilience was first applied in the fields of psychology and ecology, and more recently has been used in areas such as social sciences, economics, and engineering. A common metaphor for understanding resilience is the stability landscape. The landscape consists of a surface of interconnected basins, where each basin represents different states of a system, which is a point on the stability landscape. The resilience of the system is its capacity and tendency to remain within a particular basin. This depends on the topology of the landscape, on the system's current position, and on its reaction to different shocks and stresses. In practical terms, resilience assessments have been conducted for various purposes in different sectors. These assessments vary in their required inputs, the methodologies applied, and the output they produce. Some measures used for resilience assessments are hazard independent. These focus on the intrinsic capabilities of a system, for example the insurance coverage of a community, or the buffer capacity of a water storage reservoir. Other

  11. Design of an H.264/SVC resilient watermarking scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, Robrecht; Dooms, Ann; Barbarien, Joeri; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The rapid dissemination of media technologies has lead to an increase of unauthorized copying and distribution of digital media. Digital watermarking, i.e. embedding information in the multimedia signal in a robust and imperceptible manner, can tackle this problem. Recently, there has been a huge growth in the number of different terminals and connections that can be used to consume multimedia. To tackle the resulting distribution challenges, scalable coding is often employed. Scalable coding allows the adaptation of a single bit-stream to varying terminal and transmission characteristics. As a result of this evolution, watermarking techniques that are robust against scalable compression become essential in order to control illegal copying. In this paper, a watermarking technique resilient against scalable video compression using the state-of-the-art H.264/SVC codec is therefore proposed and evaluated.

  12. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, Alexander A.; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today’s complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks.

  13. Organizational resilience: Nonprofit organizations' response to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Hope; Mellinger, Marcela Sarmiento

    2016-05-24

    Organizational resilience refers to the ability to respond productively to significant disruptive change and transform challenges into opportunities. There is a gap in the literature about resilient nonprofit organizations and its application for identifying organizational conditions for successful adaption to external variables that threaten their existence. The aim of this study was to identify organizational characteristics that point to the resilience of nonprofit behavioral healthcare organizations as they successfully adapt to funding changes. A multiple case study of two behavioral health nonprofit organizations was conducted. Data was collected through interviews and focus groups, and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. Using the framework of resilience, six themes that equipped these organizations to successfully adapt to funding changes were identified. They included: commitment to the mission, improvisation, community reciprocity, servant and transformational leadership, hope and optimism, and fiscal transparency. The findings suggest that incorporating these qualities into an organizational system equips it to systematically adapt to funding changes and other disruptive challenges. Using resilience as a process and not simply an outcome after recovery, nonprofit organizations can have the capacity to continuously respond to challenges and provide uninterrupted and valuable services to society.

  14. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable, and the ......Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  15. Conceptualizing Holistic Community Resilience to Climate ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of resilience has been evolving over the past decade as a way to address the current and future challenges nations, states, and cities face from a changing climate. Understanding how the environment (natural and built), climate event risk, societal interactions, and governance reflect community resilience for adaptive management is critical for envisioning urban and natural environments that can persist through extreme weather events and longer-term shifts in climate. To be successful, this interaction of these five domains must result in maintaining quality of life and ensuring equal access to the benefits or the protection from harm for all segments of the population. An exhaustive literature review of climate resilience approaches was conducted examining the two primary elements of resilience—vulnerability and recoverability. The results of this review were examined to determine if any existing frameworks addressed the above five major areas in an integrated manner. While some aspects of a resilience model were available for existing sources, no comprehensive approach was available. A new conceptual model for resilience to climate events is proposed that incorporates some available structures and addresses these five domains at a national, regional, state, and county spatial scale for a variety of climate-induced events ranging from superstorms to droughts and their concomitant events such as wildfires, floods, and pest invasions. This conceptua

  16. Cyber physical system based on resilient ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2016-02-01

    While development of science and technology has built up the sophisticated civilized society, it has also resulted in quite a few disadvantages in global environment and human society. The common recognition has been increasingly shared worldwide on sustainable development society attaching greater importance to the symbiotic relationship with nature and social ethics. After the East Japan Great Earthquake, it is indispensable for sustainable social development to enhance capacity of resistance and restoration of society against natural disaster, so called "resilient society". Our society consists of various Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) that make up the physical systems by fusing with an Information Communication Technology (ICT). We describe the proposed structure of CPS in order to realize resilient society. The configuration of resilient CPS consisting of ICT and physical system is discussed to introduce "autonomous, distributed, and cooperative" structure, where subsystems of ICT and physical system are simultaneously coordinated and cooperated with Business Continuity Planning (BCP) engine, respectively. We show the disaster response information system and energy network as examples of BCP engine and resilient CPS, respectively. We also propose the structure and key technology of resilient ICT.

  17. Career anchors and career resilience: Supplementary constructs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Van Vuuren

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously the authors reported on a study in which an attempt was made at defining and measuring the construct career resilience (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998. The present article continues this investigation by reporting on the relationship between career resilience and career anchors, as defined in Scheins (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992 career anchor model. The aim of the study was to determine whether career anchor patterning could potentially inhibit or facilitate individuals' levels of career resilience. The "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 together with Scheins (1990 "Career Orientations Inventory" (COI were administered to 352 skilled employees. The findings regarding the statistical relationship between the two constructs are discussed. Opsomming Loopbaanankers en loopbaangehardheid: supplementere konstrukte? In n vorige publikasie van Fourie en Van Vuuren (1998 is die bevindinge aangaande die afbakening en meting van die konstruk, loopbaangehardheid, gerapporteer. In die huidige artikel word die ondersoek voortgesit met 'n beskrywing van die verwantskap tussen loopbaangehardheid en loopbaanankers, soos gedefinieer in die loopbaanankermodel van Schein (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992. Die doel met die studie was om te bepaal of die mate van loopbaanankerontplooiing individuele vlakke van loopbaangehardheid potensieel fasiliteer ofinhibeer. Die "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 is tesame met die "Career Orientation Inventory" (COI (Schein, 1990 op 352 geskoolde werknemers geadministreer. Die bevindinge betreffende die statistiese verwantskap tussen die twee konstrukte word bespreek.

  18. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  19. Hierarchical resilience with lightweight threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes methodology for providing robustness and resilience for a highly threaded distributed- and shared-memory environment based on well-defined inputs and outputs to lightweight tasks. These inputs and outputs form a failure 'barrier', allowing tasks to be restarted or duplicated as necessary. These barriers must be expanded based on task behavior, such as communication between tasks, but do not prohibit any given behavior. One of the trends in high-performance computing codes seems to be a trend toward self-contained functions that mimic functional programming. Software designers are trending toward a model of software design where their core functions are specified in side-effect free or low-side-effect ways, wherein the inputs and outputs of the functions are well-defined. This provides the ability to copy the inputs to wherever they need to be - whether that's the other side of the PCI bus or the other side of the network - do work on that input using local memory, and then copy the outputs back (as needed). This design pattern is popular among new distributed threading environment designs. Such designs include the Barcelona STARS system, distributed OpenMP systems, the Habanero-C and Habanero-Java systems from Vivek Sarkar at Rice University, the HPX/ParalleX model from LSU, as well as our own Scalable Parallel Runtime effort (SPR) and the Trilinos stateless kernels. This design pattern is also shared by CUDA and several OpenMP extensions for GPU-type accelerators (e.g. the PGI OpenMP extensions).

  20. Diversity, Adaptability and Ecosystem Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keribin, Rozenn; Friend, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Our ability to predict climate change and anticipate its impacts depends on Earth System Models (ESMs) and their ability to account for the high number of interacting components of the Earth System and to gauge both their influence on the climate and the feedbacks they induce. The land carbon cycle is a component of ESMs that is still poorly constrained. Since the 1990s dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have become the main tool through which we understand the interactions between plant ecosystems and the climate. While DGVMs have made it clear the impacts of climate change on vegetation could be dramatic, predicting the dieback of rainforests and massive carbon losses from various ecosystems, they are highly variable both in their composition and their predictions. Their treatment of plant diversity and competition in particular vary widely and are based on highly-simplified relationships that do not account for the multiple levels of diversity and adaptability found in real plant ecosystems. The aim of this GREENCYCLES II project is to extend an individual-based DGVM to treat the diversity of physiologies found in plant communities and evaluate their effect if any on the ecosystem's transient dynamics and resilience. In the context of the InterSectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), an initiative coordinated by a team at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) that aims to provide fast-track global impact assessments for the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, we compare 6 vegetation models including 4 DGVMs under different climate change scenarios and analyse how the very different treatments of plant diversity and interactions from one model to the next affect the models' results. We then investigate a new, more mechanistic method of incorporating plant diversity into the DGVM "Hybrid" based on ecological tradeoffs mediated by plant traits and individual-based competition for light.

  1. Promoting resilience among nursing students in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Jean; Asselin, Marilyn

    2018-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to overcome adversity and grow stronger from the experience. Increased resilience has been shown to positively impact nurses in practice. With this knowledge, recommendations to incorporate resilience training into nursing education have been made. Research, integrative reviews and a theoretical model of resilience in nursing students are explored in this paper. The authors posit that facilitating resilience is important in the setting of clinical education. Through incorporating resilience training in the clinical setting, educators can better prepare students for challenges in their educational environment and ultimately for nursing practice. Specific strategies for clinical educators to incorporate resilience training are suggested. Strategies are organized into three categories, support, education and reflection. The position of facilitating resilience in clinical education may open a discussion for future educational practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Organizational resilience in national security bureaucracies: Realistic and practicable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Resilience is increasingly highlighted as a necessary organizational property in national security bureaucracies. This article explores the resulting management dilemmas via interviews with Danish executives, who attempt to balance resilience, fiscal austerity and democratic accountability...

  3. Livelihood strategies, resilience and transformability in African agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to translate resilience thinking theory into farming systems design practice, this paper examines fundamental properties of complex systems dynamics and their relation with the mechanisms that govern resilience and transformability in African smallholder agriculture. Agroecosystems dynamics

  4. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Alaskan Granular Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Resilient modulus (MR) of base course material is an important material input for : pavement design. In Alaska, due to distinctiveness of local climate, material source, : fines content and groundwater level, resilient properties of D-1 granular base...

  5. Caregivers' resilience is independent from the clinical symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Rachel; Simões-Neto, José Pedro; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Baptista, Maria Alice Tourinho; Lacerda, Isabel Barbeito; Kimura, Nathalia Ramos Santos; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2016-12-01

    Resilience is the capacity for successful adaptation when faced with the stress of adversity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between caregivers' resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical factors of people with dementia. Cross-sectional assessment of 58 people with dementia and their caregiver dyads showed that most caregivers were female adult children. The caregivers reported moderate to higher levels of resilience, lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and moderate levels of burden. Resilience was not related to the caregiver's gender (p = 0.883), nor clinical (p = 0.807) or emotional problems (p = 0.420). The regression showed that resilience was related to the caregiver's quality of life (p caregivers' resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with dementia. We can assume that resilience is an individual characteristic. Support groups should also focus on the factors that may increase resilience among caregivers.

  6. Front-Line Resilience Perspectives: The Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallace, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report seeks to summarize how states and local utility companies are approaching all-hazards resilience in planning, construction, operations, and maintenance of the electric system, as well as challenges faced when addressing all-hazards resilience.

  7. Understanding Individual Resilience in the Workplace: The International Collaboration of Workforce Resilience (ICWR Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Samantha Rees

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as ‘resilient’. A number of studies have found relationships between levels of individual resilience and specific negative outcomes such as burnout and compassion fatigue. However, because psychological resilience is a multi-dimensional construct it is necessary to more clearly delineate it from other related and overlapping constructs. The creation of a testable theoretical model of individual workforce resilience, which includes both stable traits (e.g. neuroticism as well as more malleable intrapersonal factors (e.g. coping style, enables information to be derived that can eventually inform interventions aimed at enhancing individual resilience in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new theoretical model of individual workforce resilience that includes several intrapersonal constructs known to be central in the appraisal of and response to stressors and that also overlap with the construct of psychological resilience. We propose a model in which psychological resilience is hypothesised to mediate the relationship between neuroticism, mindfulness, self-efficacy, coping and psychological adjustment.

  8. Application of a collaborative modelling and strategic fuzzy decision support system for selecting appropriate resilience strategies for seaport operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew John

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection of an appropriate resilience investment strategy to optimize the operational efficiency of a seaport is a challenging task given that many criteria need to be considered and modelled under an uncertain environment. The design of such a complex decision system consists of many subjective and imprecise parameters contained in different quantitative and qualitative forms. This paper proposes a fuzzy multi-attribute decision making methodology for the selection of an appropriate resilience investment strategy in a succinct and straightforward manner. The decision support model allows for a collaborative modelling of the system by multiple analysts in a group decision making process. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP was utilized to analyse the complex structure of the system to obtain the weights of all the criteria while fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS was employed to facilitate the ranking process of the resilience strategies. Given that it is often financially difficult to invest in all the resilience strategies, it is envisaged that the proposed approach could provide decision makers with a flexible and transparent tool for selecting appropriate resilience strategies aimed at increasing the resilience of seaport operations.

  9. Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystem Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tom H; Heard, Matthew S; Isaac, Nick J B; Roy, David B; Procter, Deborah; Eigenbrod, Felix; Freckleton, Rob; Hector, Andy; Orme, C David L; Petchey, Owen L; Proença, Vânia; Raffaelli, David; Suttle, K Blake; Mace, Georgina M; Martín-López, Berta; Woodcock, Ben A; Bullock, James M

    2015-11-01

    Accelerating rates of environmental change and the continued loss of global biodiversity threaten functions and services delivered by ecosystems. Much ecosystem monitoring and management is focused on the provision of ecosystem functions and services under current environmental conditions, yet this could lead to inappropriate management guidance and undervaluation of the importance of biodiversity. The maintenance of ecosystem functions and services under substantial predicted future environmental change (i.e., their 'resilience') is crucial. Here we identify a range of mechanisms underpinning the resilience of ecosystem functions across three ecological scales. Although potentially less important in the short term, biodiversity, encompassing variation from within species to across landscapes, may be crucial for the longer-term resilience of ecosystem functions and the services that they underpin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  11. PeerShield: determining control and resilience criticality of collaborative cyber assets in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Hasan

    2012-06-01

    As attackers get more coordinated and advanced in cyber attacks, cyber assets are required to have much more resilience, control effectiveness, and collaboration in networks. Such a requirement makes it essential to take a comprehensive and objective approach for measuring the individual and relative performances of cyber security assets in network nodes. To this end, this paper presents four techniques as to how the relative importance of cyber assets can be measured more comprehensively and objectively by considering together the main variables of risk assessment (e.g., threats, vulnerabilities), multiple attributes (e.g., resilience, control, and influence), network connectivity and controllability among collaborative cyber assets in networks. In the first technique, a Bayesian network is used to include the random variables for control, recovery, and resilience attributes of nodes, in addition to the random variables of threats, vulnerabilities, and risk. The second technique shows how graph matching and coloring can be utilized to form collaborative pairs of nodes to shield together against threats and vulnerabilities. The third technique ranks the security assets of nodes by incorporating multiple weights and thresholds of attributes into a decision-making algorithm. In the fourth technique, the hierarchically well-separated tree is enhanced to first identify critical nodes of a network with respect to their attributes and network connectivity, and then selecting some nodes as driver nodes for network controllability.

  12. The relationship between time perspective and resilience in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, Ikumi; Okamoto, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between time perspective and resilience in adolescence. 116 university students completed two kinds of questionnaires which measured their experiential time perspective and resilience. Resilience was considered as an index of stable mental health in this study. The results were as follows, (1) there were positive correlations between positive time perspective and resilience. Especially, there was a strong, positive correlation between ...

  13. Clarifying Resilience in the Context of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Resilience Is a Complex Adaptive System of Systems ( CASoS ) ....60 4. Resilience Is Experienced and Demonstrated in Different Ways ..60 5. Resilience Is...The inclusion of a resilience module into existing homeland security training programs broadens the practitioner’s knowledge base from a basic level...psychology offer several considerations for the homeland security practitioner. The first consideration maintains that a de -emphasis on the

  14. Methods, Tools, and Data for Coastal System Resilience Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Baseline Resilience Indicators for Communities ( BRIC ) BUILDING STRONG® Innovative solutions for a safer, better world ► T: SoVI® – Social...address policy  Objective, although data may be arbitrarily weighted in an index Examples: Top-Down (T) and Bottom-Up (B) Bottom-UpTop-Down BRIC ...Coastal Resilience Index USACE’s Resilience Matrix ASCE’s Infrastructure Report Card T: Baseline Resilience Index for Communities ( BRIC

  15. Resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    Carlene Souza Silva Manzini; Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity that people have to cope positively with adversities. A cross-sectional, quantitative study, that aimed to assess factors associated with the resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Sixty-six caregivers composed the sample, who were accompanied in a neurology ambulatory. Most caregivers presented moderate resilience. Linear regression showed that some factors interfered with caregivers’ resilience, being those: overload, the increment of...

  16. Does plant species richness guarantee the resilience of local medical systems? A perspective from utilitarian redundancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rosa Santoro

    Full Text Available Resilience is related to the ability of a system to adjust to disturbances. The Utilitarian Redundancy Model has emerged as a tool for investigating the resilience of local medical systems. The model determines the use of species richness for the same therapeutic function as a facilitator of the maintenance of these systems. However, predictions generated from this model have not yet been tested, and a lack of variables exists for deeper analyses of resilience. This study aims to address gaps in the Utilitarian Redundancy Model and to investigate the resilience of two medical systems in the Brazilian semi-arid zone. As a local illness is not always perceived in the same way that biomedicine recognizes, the term "therapeutic targets" is used for perceived illnesses. Semi-structured interviews with local experts were conducted using the free-listing technique to collect data on known medicinal plants, usage preferences, use of redundant species, characteristics of therapeutic targets, and the perceived severity for each target. Additionally, participatory workshops were conducted to determine the frequency of targets. The medical systems showed high species richness but low levels of species redundancy. However, if redundancy was present, it was the primary factor responsible for the maintenance of system functions. Species richness was positively associated with therapeutic target frequencies and negatively related to target severity. Moreover, information about redundant species seems to be largely idiosyncratic; this finding raises questions about the importance of redundancy for resilience. We stress the Utilitarian Redundancy Model as an interesting tool to be used in studies of resilience, but we emphasize that it must consider the distribution of redundancy in terms of the treatment of important illnesses and the sharing of information. This study has identified aspects of the higher and lower vulnerabilities of medical systems, adding

  17. Resilience concepts in psychiatry demonstrated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Persson, Maj-Liz

    2018-02-09

    The term resilience describes stress-response patterns of subjects across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly distinguish resilience definitions based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used for describing the ability of subjects to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), and is the rate of recovery. In contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change: when complex systems (including humans) respond to disturbances by reorganizing into a new regime (stable state) where structural and functional aspects have fundamentally changed relative to the prior regime. In this context, resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. We argue that both resilience definitions and uses are appropriate in psychology and psychiatry, but although the differences are subtle, the implications and uses are profoundly different. We borrow from the field of ecology to discuss resilience concepts in the mental health sciences. In psychology and psychiatry, the prevailing view of resilience is adaptation to, coping with, and recovery (engineering resilience) from adverse social and environmental conditions. Ecological resilience may be useful for describing vulnerability, onset, and the irreversibility patterns of mental disorders. We discuss this in the context of bipolar disorder. Rebound, adaptation, and coping are processes that are subsumed within the broader systemic organization of humans, from which ecological resilience emanates. Discerning resilience concepts in psychology and psychiatry has potential for a mechanistically appropriate contextualization of mental disorders at large. This might contribute to a refinement of theory and contextualize clinical practice within the broader systemic functioning of mental illnesses.

  18. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  19. Special issue on Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    , and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...

  20. Resilience of primary healthcare professionals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Burton, Christopher; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter; Porteous, Terry; Matheson, Catriona

    2016-06-01

    Modern demands and challenges among healthcare professionals can be particularly stressful and resilience is increasingly necessary to maintain an effective, adaptable, and sustainable workforce. However, definitions of, and associations with, resilience have not been examined within the primary care context. To examine definitions and measures of resilience, identify characteristics and components, and synthesise current evidence about resilience in primary healthcare professionals. A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies relating to the primary care setting. Ovid(®), Embase(®), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched in December 2014. Text selections and data extraction were conducted by paired reviewers working independently. Data were extracted on health professional resilience definitions and associated factors. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria: eight were quantitative, four qualitative, and one was an intervention study. Resilience, although multifaceted, was commonly defined as involving positive adaptation to adversity. Interactions were identified between personal growth and accomplishment in resilient physicians. Resilience, high persistence, high self-directedness, and low avoidance of challenges were strongly correlated; resilience had significant associations with traits supporting high function levels associated with demanding health professional roles. Current resilience measures do not allow for these different aspects in the primary care context. Health professional resilience is multifaceted, combining discrete personal traits alongside personal, social, and workplace features. A measure for health professional resilience should be developed and validated that may be used in future quantitative research to measure the effect of an intervention to promote it. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  1. A model of psychological resilience for the Netherlands Armed Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Venrooij, W.; Berg, C. van den

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, a model of psychological resilience was developed for the Netherlands Armed Forces and a number of important relations were tested using a longitudinal design. The model of resilience was based on a systematic literature review of resilience in high-risk professions and

  2. Resiliency and the Ability to Detect Cartoon Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killlon, Jessica B.; Torres, Aurora

    2017-01-01

    The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale was developed to measure resiliency, an individual's ability to positively adapt to stressful or adverse situations. Resilient individuals have close and secure relationships, have a strong sense of purpose, know when to turn to others for help, and find humor in situations. The focus of this study was on the…

  3. Resilience of primary healthcare professionals: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Burton, Christopher; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter; Porteous, Terry; Matheson, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    Background Modern demands and challenges among healthcare professionals can be particularly stressful and resilience is increasingly necessary to maintain an effective, adaptable, and sustainable workforce. However, definitions of, and associations with, resilience have not been examined within the primary care context. Aim To examine definitions and measures of resilience, identify characteristics and components, and synthesise current evidence about resilience in primary healthcare professionals. Design and setting A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies relating to the primary care setting. Method Ovid®, Embase®, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched in December 2014. Text selections and data extraction were conducted by paired reviewers working independently. Data were extracted on health professional resilience definitions and associated factors. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria: eight were quantitative, four qualitative, and one was an intervention study. Resilience, although multifaceted, was commonly defined as involving positive adaptation to adversity. Interactions were identified between personal growth and accomplishment in resilient physicians. Resilience, high persistence, high self-directedness, and low avoidance of challenges were strongly correlated; resilience had significant associations with traits supporting high function levels associated with demanding health professional roles. Current resilience measures do not allow for these different aspects in the primary care context. Conclusion Health professional resilience is multifaceted, combining discrete personal traits alongside personal, social, and workplace features. A measure for health professional resilience should be developed and validated that may be used in future quantitative research to measure the effect of an intervention to promote it. PMID:27162208

  4. Engagement, resilience and empathy in nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Abal, Yolanda; López-López, M José; Climent-Rodríguez, José A

    To analyse the levels of engagement, resilience and empathy, and the relationship between them, in a sample of nursing assistants working in different private institutions in Huelva. A transversal, descriptive study. The sample comprised 128 nursing assistants working in private health centres of Huelva. They were given the following instruments: resilience scale Wagnild and Young, Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Utrech Work Engagement Scale. There is a relationship between the cognitive and emotional components of engagement and empathy. Certain sociodemographic variables associated with the organisation of work and working conditions are associated with level of engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Firm size diversity, functional richness, and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, Craig R.; Mittelstaedt, J.D.; Stow, C.A.; Ward, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies recent advances in ecology to our understanding of firm development, sustainability, and economic development. The ecological literature indicates that the greater the functional richness of species in a system, the greater its resilience - that is, its ability to persist in the face of substantial changes in the environment. This paper focuses on the effects of functional richness across firm size on the ability of industries to survive in the face of economic change. Our results indicate that industries with a richness of industrial functions are more resilient to employment volatility. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  6. Technology-Mediated Learning for Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Majchrzak, Tim; Busch, Peter André

    , such as the successive outbreak of a pandemic. Due to the novelty of the topic, research particularly exists on theoretical aspects of resilience. Targeting learning – and thereby the local population – is a rather new emergence. To effectively reach, involve, and engage citizens, technology can play a key role. Based...... on four actual cases from communities we analyse the impact technology has on learning about resilience. We then scrutinize the effectiveness and propose future steps. Thereby, we seek to provide practical advice to local governments and to enrich the theory at the same time....

  7. Manufacturing hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Josef Kridanto Kamadjaja

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A resilient denture liner is placed in the part of the hollow obturator base that contacts to post hemimaxillectomy mucosa. Replacing the resilient denture liner can makes the hollow obturator has an intimate contact with the mucosa, so it can prevents the mouth liquid enter to the cavum nasi and sinus, also eliminates painful because of using the hollow obturator. Resilient denture liner is a soft and resilient material that applied to the fitting surface of a denture in order to allow a more distribution of load. A case was reported about using the hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy to overcome these problems.

  8. Resilience as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yan Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience is reviewed from a range of disciplinary perspectives in this paper. Both broad and narrow definitions of resilience are highlighted and a working definition of resilience is proposed to inform research, policy and practice. Different psychological, social and ecological protective factors, particularly competence, optimism, and bonding to family and cultural beliefs are highlighted. Theoretical relationships between resilience and positive youth development are examined with an attempt to erase misunderstandings. Finally, how schools can promote resilience among students is discussed.

  9. Primary school teachers' resilience and their readiness for enhancing children's resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Bon, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Resilience is an important trait, which enables people to successfully recover from difficulties and stress. For teachers, resilience is of vital importance, as it offers different ways and solutions to successfully cope with difficult and stressful situations they face on a daily basis. The way teachers experience and react to stress often affects their pupils, who are under a lot of stress as well. Teachers could help and teach them how to cope with stressful situations by spending some sch...

  10. Application of a Resilience Framework to Military Installations: A Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    align to a disruption or an associated downtime impacting mission performance. Reliability metrics and models were also used throughout the study to...Military Installations: A Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions N. Judson A.L. Pina E.V. Dydek S.B. Van Broekhoven A.S...Methodology for Energy Resilience Business Case Decisions N. Judson A.L. Pina E.V. Dydek S.B. Van Broekhoven Group 73 A.S. Castillo TBD

  11. A Preliminary Theory of Dark Network Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Rene M.; Raab, Jorg; Milward, H. Brinton

    2012-01-01

    A crucial contemporary policy question for governments across the globe is how to cope with international crime and terrorist networks. Many such "dark" networks--that is, networks that operate covertly and illegally--display a remarkable level of resilience when faced with shocks and attacks. Based on an in-depth study of three cases…

  12. Suppressor Effects of Coping Strategies on Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae ho; Lee, Ji hae; Lee, Chae Yeon; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate a significant suppressor effect among coping strategies on resilience. Two different samples were used to replicate the suppressor effect. Participants in the first example were 391 adolescents (middle school students) in Korea, and participants in the second example were 282 young adults…

  13. Local Flood Action Groups: Governance And Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrest, Steven; Trell, Elen-Maarja; Woltjer, Johan; Macoun, Milan; Maier, Karel

    2015-01-01

    A diverse range of citizen groups focusing on flood risk management have been identified in several European countries. The paper discusses the role of flood action (citizen) groups in the context of flood resilience and will do this by analysing the UK and its diverse range of flood groups. These

  14. The resilience analysis grid taming complexity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallis, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this workshop we will look at the next step in safety: using resilience engineering as a tool for dealing with complexity. Present concepts such as Bow-ties use linear cause & effect relationships. More and more we see that companies are faced with a complex world with non linear systems. This

  15. Resilience and Acculturation among Unaccompanied Refugee Minors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Serap; Friborg, Oddgeir; Idsøe, Thormod; Sirin, Selcuk; Oppedal, Brit

    2018-01-01

    The present study was designed to understand differences between unaccompanied refugees who retained or achieved good mental health ("healthy" or "resilient") and those who maintained or developed poor mental health ("clinical" and "vulnerable"). Using person-based analyses, the role of pre-migration…

  16. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  17. Miracle Survivors: Promoting Resilience in Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HeavyRunner, Iris; Marshall, Kathy

    2003-01-01

    Suggests that the quality of cultural resilience enables some Native American students to overcome difficulties and complete their education. Identifies these cultural factors as spirituality, family strength, elders, ceremonial rituals, oral traditions, tribal identity, and support networks. Describes the Family Education Model developed by…

  18. Resilience of livestock to changing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breeding and Genetics Symposium titled “Resilience of Livestock to Changing Environments” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting, July 19–24, 2016, Salt Lake City, UT. The objective of the symposium was to provide a broad overview of recent research on the effects of changing environmental conditi...

  19. Steeling and Resilience in Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, Donalyn

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incredibly strong alloy of iron and carbon. Due to its incredible strength and durability, this resilient material is commonly used for constructing buildings. The transitive verb "steeling" is defined in Miriam-Webster dictionary as "to fill with resolution or determination, as in, she 'steeled herself to face the…

  20. Building Resilient Students: Three Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janine S.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that personal connections and interests are vital to the resilience of at-risk children (Polakow, 1993). We know that attachments in early childhood, especially between birth and age three, matter a great deal. Even in the face of incredible hardship, parents or other mentors can successfully ease these troubles. Teachers can have…

  1. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  2. Breaching cultural silence: enhancing resilience among Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural silence is frequently the outcome of deep-seated taboos regarding adults talking to children about sex and death. This paper examines the impact of cultural silence on the resilience of children orphaned by AIDS in Uganda. Cultural silence is often linked with denial. This article explores the complexities of cultural ...

  3. Age Stereotypes about Emotional Resilience at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, Cornelia; Goritz, Anja S.; Hertel, Guido

    2012-01-01

    In light of an aging workforce, age stereotypes have become an important topic both for researchers and for practitioners. Among other effects, age stereotypes might predict discriminatory behavior at work. This study examined stereotypic beliefs about emotional resilience as a function of both targets' and judges' age. In a web-based study, 4,181…

  4. Public Private Partnerships for Resilient Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Pelizzaro

    2015-10-01

    [1] Kyoto Club was partner of the MED Project ZERO CO2 www.medzeroco2.eu [2] Kyoto Club is partner of the LIFE+ Project BLUE AP Bologna Local Urban Environment Adaptation Plan for Resilient City – www.blueap.eu

  5. Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Himalayan Adaptation, Water, and Resilience. This research project will serve to help poor and vulnerable women, men, and children learn to adapt to and manage climate change in Asia's Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Why the Himalayan region is important. The region, stretching from central Afghanistan to northern ...

  6. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and

  7. Perceptions of Elders' Substance Abuse and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service students' (social work, criminal justice, public administration, psychology) were surveyed (N = 242). Their perceptions about older persons' resilience and recovery from substance abuse were investigated. Overall, respondents did not agree that treating older persons for a substance abuse problem was wasteful of resources or older…

  8. Forest Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Thompson; B. Mackey; S. McNulty; A. Mosseler

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the concepts of ecosystem resilience, resistance, and stability in forests and their relationship to biodiversity, with particular reference to climate change. The report is a direct response to a request by the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the CBD, in decision IX/51, to explore the links between biodiversity, forest ecosystem...

  9. The Future of Resilient Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donadoni, Mattia; Roden, Sinéad; Scholten, Kirstin

    This research aims to advance theoretical understanding around the management of supply chain disruptions through a multi-stage Delphi study on supply chain resilience. Stage one focused on polling academic experts followed by a second stage with practitioners from automotive, electronics and food...

  10. COMMUNITY THERAPY AND RESILIENCE: HISTORY OF WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineide Alves Vieira Braga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: conhecer historias resilientes de mulheres frequentadoras das rodas de Terapia Comunitária Integrativa (TCI. Métodos: empregamos o método da História Oral. O estudo foi desenvolvido com sete colaboradoras das rodas de TCI, na comunidade Parque do Sol. Resultados: ao analisar o material empírico, construímos três eixos temáticos: a TCI espaço de partilha e despertar da resiliência, recursos do imaginário no processo resiliente e Resiliência: a força construída com a vida. A TCI emergiu como uma fonte de despertar da capacidade de resiliência. Conclusão: As histórias auxiliam a ver que somos capazes de superar o sofrimento com o exercício da resiliência, conceito que pode ser significativo para o redimensionamento das pesquisas no campo da saúde comunitária, saúde mental e no campo da enfermagem, contribuindo para reflexões sobre ensino, pesquisa e extensão.

  11. Leakage-resilient cryptography from minimal assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; López-Alt, Adriana; Wee, Hoeteck

    2013-01-01

    We present new constructions of leakage-resilient cryptosystems, which remain provably secure even if the attacker learns some arbitrary partial information about their internal secret key. For any polynomial ℓ, we can instantiate these schemes so as to tolerate up to ℓ bits of leakage. While the...

  12. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  13. Forest resilience to drought varies across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazol, Antonio; Camarero, Jesus Julio; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Emilia; de Luis, Martin; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Novak, Klemen; Rozas, Vicente; Tíscar, Pedro A; Linares, Juan C; Martín-Hernández, Natalia; Martínez Del Castillo, Edurne; Ribas, Montse; García-González, Ignacio; Silla, Fernando; Camisón, Alvaro; Génova, Mar; Olano, José M; Longares, Luis A; Hevia, Andrea; Tomás-Burguera, Miquel; Galván, J Diego

    2018-05-01

    Forecasted increase drought frequency and severity may drive worldwide declines in forest productivity. Species-level responses to a drier world are likely to be influenced by their functional traits. Here, we analyse forest resilience to drought using an extensive network of tree-ring width data and satellite imagery. We compiled proxies of forest growth and productivity (TRWi, absolutely dated ring-width indices; NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) for 11 tree species and 502 forests in Spain corresponding to Mediterranean, temperate, and continental biomes. Four different components of forest resilience to drought were calculated based on TRWi and NDVI data before, during, and after four major droughts (1986, 1994-1995, 1999, and 2005), and pointed out that TRWi data were more sensitive metrics of forest resilience to drought than NDVI data. Resilience was related to both drought severity and forest composition. Evergreen gymnosperms dominating semi-arid Mediterranean forests showed the lowest resistance to drought, but higher recovery than deciduous angiosperms dominating humid temperate forests. Moreover, semi-arid gymnosperm forests presented a negative temporal trend in the resistance to drought, but this pattern was absent in continental and temperate forests. Although gymnosperms in dry Mediterranean forests showed a faster recovery after drought, their recovery potential could be constrained if droughts become more frequent. Conversely, angiosperms and gymnosperms inhabiting temperate and continental sites might have problems to recover after more intense droughts since they resist drought but are less able to recover afterwards. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Social and technological aspects of disaster resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Revez, Alexandra; Sparf, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    academic disciplines pose difficulties in the collaboration among experts of different fields. These difficulties and possible ways to tackle them have been highlighted by a questionnaire developed in the framework of an EU project named ANDROID (Academic Network for Disaster Resilience to Optimize...

  15. Resilience improvements to UK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Following the events at Fukushima, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR), the UK nuclear safety regulator, undertook a series of reviews into the resilience of UK nuclear power plants to severe events. These reviews highlighted a number of areas in relation to electrical infrastructure where it considered licensees should review their arrangements, considering both onsite and offsite infrastructure as well as the ability to recover following a complete loss of site infrastructure. In response, UK licensees have been exploring four parallel approaches to improving the resilience for each of their sites. Firstly, through modifications on-site such as enhancements to the installed diesel generators and related systems. Secondly through improvements to the resilience of essential instrumentation to Station Black Out events. Thirdly, through the provision of off-site backup equipment that can be deployed to any site following a severe event. Finally, the provision of event qualified connection points on site to enable timely restoration of long term essential electrical supplies and cooling to key systems. This last item gives a central focus to the issues of switchboard availability and the resilience of the whole network to large potentially common cause internal and external hazards. This paper will discuss the electrically related findings of the ONR reviews, explore the reasoning behind those decisions, and describe the approaches being taken by UK licensees. (authors)

  16. The politics of vulnerability and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.; Warner, J.F.; Weijs, B.

    2011-01-01

    Much conceptual confusion exists over the concepts of vulnerability and (social) resilience, reinforced by the different paradigms (the article identifies four) and disciplinary traditions underlying their use. While since the 1980s the social construction of "vulnerability" as a driver for disaster

  17. Sustaining Transformation: "Resiliency in Hard Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarasci, Richard; Lieberman, Devorah

    2009-01-01

    The strategic, systemic, and encompassing evolution of a college or university spans a number of years, and the vagaries of economic cycles inevitably catch transforming institutions in mid-voyage. "Sustaining Transformation: Resiliency in Hard Times" presents a study of Wagner College as it moves into its second decade of purposeful…

  18. Regime Shifts and Resilience in Fisheries Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Chuan Zhong; Villasante, Sebastian; Zhu, Xueqin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of potential regime shifts in Argentinean hake fishery and the inter-linkage between ecological and economic resilience. We develop a theoretical model incorporated with the hazard function for resource management under alternative conditions, and derive the corrective

  19. The vulnerability and resilience of historic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 8-12 ISSN 1842-5631 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : emergency situations * vulnerability * resilience * maintenance * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Architecture engineering

  20. A preliminary theory of dark network resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.M.; Raab, J.; Milward, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    A crucial contemporary policy question for governments across the globe is how to cope with international crime and terrorist networks. Many such “dark” networks—that is, networks that operate covertly and illegally—display a remarkable level of resilience when faced with shocks and attacks. Based

  1. From sustainability to resilience: a paradigm shift

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ,000/annum, making it the largest species loss since that of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago at almost 1,000 times the background rate of extinction (Quammen 1998). Again, as Gunderson et al. note, ecological resilience is different from engineering...

  2. Predicting Resilience in Sexually Abused Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression…

  3. Benefit finding and resilience in child caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tony; Giles, Melanie; McLaughlin, Marian

    2014-09-01

    A substantial number of children are involved in informal caregiving and make a significant contribution to health care delivery. While this places high levels of demand on their coping resources, there is some evidence that these children find benefit in their caring role. A survey design using questionnaire data collection was used with a sample of 442 children (174 boys and 268 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16. The role of benefit finding and resilience was explored within a stress and coping model of the impact of caregiving. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMRA) identified resilience and benefit finding as accounting for significant amounts of variance in positive health and mediating the impact of caregiving. In regard to negative health, only benefit finding played a significant role. Young caregivers do experience benefit finding and exhibit resilience although the relationship with caregiving burden was inverse. Benefit finding seems to be related to social recognition of the caregiving role and to family support. What is already known on this subject? There is some emerging evidence that child caregivers experience some positive effects or benefits from their caring in spite of the demands of the role. However, the main focus has been on reducing negative outcomes rather than on building resilience. What this study adds? This study provides evidence that young caregivers do experience benefit finding in situations where the role demand is not overly excessive and where the role is socially recognized. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Development of a multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents: the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzwell Simone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of resilience has captured the imagination of researchers and policy makers over the past two decades. However, despite the ever growing body of resilience research, there is a paucity of relevant, comprehensive measurement tools. In this article, the development of a theoretically based, comprehensive multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents is described. Methods Extensive literature review and focus groups with young people living with chronic illness informed the conceptual development of scales and items. Two sequential rounds of factor and scale analyses were undertaken to revise the conceptually developed scales using data collected from young people living with a chronic illness and a general population sample. Results The revised Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire comprises 93 items and 12 scales measuring resilience factors in the domains of self, family, peer, school and community. All scales have acceptable alpha coefficients. Revised scales closely reflect conceptually developed scales. Conclusions It is proposed that, with further psychometric testing, this new measure of resilience will provide researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive and developmentally appropriate instrument to measure a young person's capacity to achieve positive outcomes despite life stressors.

  5. Assessing resilience in adolescence: the Spanish adaptation of the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilera, Georgina; Pereda, Noemí; Paños, Ana; Abad, Judit

    2015-07-11

    The concept and assessment of resilience have attracted considerable attention in recent years, but none of the instruments developed to measure resilience in adolescents have been adapted to the Spanish context. The Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire (ARQ) provides a comprehensive and multidimensional assessment of the resources associated with resilience in adolescents. This study analyzes the psychometric properties of the ARQ. Participants included a community sample of 1101 Spanish adolescents (53.5 % boys) aged 12-17 years (M = 14.51; SD = 1.755). Results confirm the factor structure based on 12 scales. Internal consistency was generally adequate (between .60 and .84), although the unacceptable coefficient for the Empathy/Tolerance scale (α = .38) means that this scale needs to be revised for the Spanish context. Relationships between ARQ scales and psychopathology were in the expected direction and magnitude. Some gender differences were observed, with higher scores for boys on Confidence and Negative cognition. The Spanish version of the ARQ can help to identify personal characteristics associated with resilience and signs of positive engagement with family, peers, school, and the community. It can identify those adolescents most likely to show resilience in response to adversity, as well as those who may be vulnerable under situations of stress.

  6. Transdisciplinary application of the cross-scale resilience model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Angeler, David G.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Garcia, Jorge H.; Allen, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems.

  7. Evaluating Community Partnerships Addressing Community Resilience in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm V. Williams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience has grown in importance in national disaster response and recovery efforts. However, measurement of community resilience, particularly the content and quality of relationships aimed at improving resilience, is lacking. To address this gap, we used a social network survey to measure the number, type, and quality of relationships among organizations participating in 16 coalitions brought together to address community resilience in the Los Angeles Community Disaster Resilience project. These coalitions were randomized to one of two approaches (community resilience or preparedness. Resilience coalitions received training and support to develop these partnerships and implement new activities. Both coalition types received expert facilitation by a public health nurse or community educator. We also measured the activities each coalition engaged in and the extent to which partners participated in these activities at two time points. We found that the community resilience coalitions were initially larger and had lower trust among members than the preparedness communities. Over time, these trust differences dissipated. While both coalitions grew, the resilience community coalitions maintained their size difference throughout the project. We also found differences in the types of activities implemented by the resilience communities; these differences were directly related to the trainings provided. This information is useful to organizations seeking guidance on expanding the network of community-based organizations that participate in community resilience activities.

  8. Measures of emergency preparedness contributing to nursing home resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sandi J; McGrady, Elizabeth

    2017-12-13

    Resilience approaches have been successfully applied in crisis management, disaster response, and high reliability organizations and have the potential to enhance existing systems of nursing home disaster preparedness. This study's purpose was to determine how the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) "Emergency Preparedness Checklist Recommended Tool for Effective Health Care Facility Planning" contributes to organizational resilience by identifying the benchmark resilience items addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist and items not addressed by the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist, and to recommend tools and processes to improve resilience for nursing homes. The CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist items were compared to the Resilience Benchmark Tool items; similar items were considered matches. Resilience Benchmark Tool items with no CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist item matches were considered breaches in nursing home resilience. The findings suggest that the CMS Emergency Preparedness Checklist can be used to measure some aspects of resilience, however, there were many resilience factors not addressed. For nursing homes to prepare and respond to crisis situations, organizations need to embrace a culture that promotes individual resilience-related competencies that when aggregated enable the organization to improve its resiliency. Social workers have the skills and experience to facilitate this change.

  9. Temporal Changes in Community Resilience to Drought Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihunov, V.

    2017-12-01

    The threat of droughts and their associated impacts on the landscape and human communities have long been recognized. While considerable research on the climatological aspect of droughts has been conducted, studies on the resilience of human communities to the effects of drought remain limited. Understanding how different communities respond to and recover from the drought hazard, i.e. their community resilience, should inform the development of better strategies to cope with the hazard. This research assesses community resilience to drought hazard in South-Central U.S. and captures the temporal changes of community resilience in the region facing the climate change. First, the study applies the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) framework using the existing drought incidence, crop damage, socio-economic and food-water-energy nexus variables, which allows to assign county-level resilience scores in the study region and derive variables contributing to the resilience. Second, it captures the temporal changes in community resilience by using the model extracted from the RIM study and socio-economic data from several consecutive time periods. The resilience measurement study should help understand the complex process underlying communities' response to the drought impacts. The results identify gaps in resilience planning and help the improvement of the community resilience to the droughts of increasing frequency and intensity.

  10. Review of Grit and Resilience Literature within Health Professions Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    Objective. To review literature pertaining to grit and resilience in health professions education. Findings. There is significant interest in grit and resilience throughout the health professions, but little has been published with regard to pharmacy. Although there are methodological issues with defining and measuring grit and resilience, several studies have shown relationships between the constructs and personal and academic well-being. Educational interventions aimed at increasing grit and resilience have produced mixed results. Developing protective factors appears to be the most common approach in helping students become more resilient. Summary. Literature pertaining to grit and resilience reveals that the terms are nuanced, complex, and difficult to measure and understand. Regardless, the general characteristics associated with grit and resilience are of interest to educators and warrant further study. PMID:29606705

  11. SUPPLY CHAIN RESILIENCE ANALYSIS: A BRAZILIAN AUTOMOTIVE CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Scavarda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain (SC resilience and flexibility are important research topics receiving growing attention. However, the academic literature needs empirical studies on SC resilience capable of investigating the inter-organizational components of flexibility along different tiers. Therefore, this paper analyzes the main lack of flexibilities in three Brazilian automotive SCs that limit their resilience and therefore their capacity to better support and meet the demand changes in the marketplace. A multi-tier case study approach is adopted. Research findings identify lack of flexibilities in different tiers that inhibit the SC resilience as well as manufacturing and SC flexibilities that build SC resilience. The findings also highlight that the same SC may have the flexibility to be resilient for one of its products but not for another product, what sheds new lights on the academic literature. Finally, flexible SCs should be designed to increase SC resilience to cope with mishaps as significant demand changes.

  12. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p Students supported resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  13. Developing resilience: Stories from novice nurse academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Fiona; Peters, Kath; Daly, John; Jackson, Debra

    2016-03-01

    It is acknowledged that novice nurse academics face many challenges on commencement of their new role. Most are recruited from the clinical arena, with little understanding of the academic triumvirate of teaching, research and service. They struggle with role expectation and experience feelings of isolation and anxiety. The aim of this paper is to report on an exploration of 14 new nurse academics from two major nursing education institutions as they utilised and developed resilience building strategies. The paper is drawn from a qualitative study that sought to see the world through the eyes of the participants through storytelling. Data was collected using semi-structured, conversational style interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and revealed themes that captured resilience strategies. These themes were: Developing supportive collegial relationships; Embracing positivity; and Reflection and transformative growth. The first theme, developing supportive relationships, provides insight into the mentoring process and the relationships developed with peers and colleagues. The second theme, embracing positivity, describes the factors that assisted them to face the adversity and challenges in the new role. The final theme, reflection and transformative growth, demonstrated participants' reflecting on difficult situations and demonstrating the ability to learn from the experiences and move forward. The strategies utilised by the participants in this study were key factors in the development of resilience which assisted in the transition from clinical nurse to academic. These strategies were often tacit and it is imperative that in a time of acute nurse academic shortages where retention is paramount, that employing organisations support employees and contribute to resilience development. Education on resilience building strategies is fundamental for all new academics and is essential in the transition from clinical nurse to academic. Crown Copyright © 2016

  14. Modeling Precipitation Dependent Forest Resilience in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, P.; Behera, M. D.; Roy, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    The impact of long term climate change that imparts stress on forest could be perceived by studying the regime shift of forest ecosystem. With the change of significant precipitation, forest may go through density change around globe at different spatial and temporal scale. The 100 class high resolution (60 meter spatial resolution) Indian vegetation type map was used in this study recoded into four broad categories depending on phrenology as (i) forest, (ii) scrubland, (iii) grassland and (iv) treeless area. The percentage occupancy of forest, scrub, grass and treeless were observed as 19.9 %, 5.05 %, 1.89 % and 7.79 % respectively. Rest of the 65.37 % land area was occupied by the cropland, built-up, water body and snow covers. The majority forest cover were appended into a 5 km × 5 km grid, along with the mean annual precipitation taken from Bioclim data. The binary presence and absence of different vegetation categories in relates to the annual precipitation was analyzed to calculate their resilience expressed in probability values ranging from 0 to 1. Forest cover observed having resilience probability (Pr) < 0.3 in only 0.3 % (200 km2) of total forest cover in India, which was 4.3 % < 0.5 Pr. Majority of the scrubs and grass (64.92 % Pr < 0.5) from North East India which were the shifting cultivation lands showing low resilience, having their high tendency to be transform to forest. These results have spatial explicitness to highlight the resilient and non-resilient distribution of forest, scrub and grass, and treeless areas in India.

  15. MODELING PRECIPITATION DEPENDENT FOREST RESILIENCE IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Das

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of long term climate change that imparts stress on forest could be perceived by studying the regime shift of forest ecosystem. With the change of significant precipitation, forest may go through density change around globe at different spatial and temporal scale. The 100 class high resolution (60 meter spatial resolution Indian vegetation type map was used in this study recoded into four broad categories depending on phrenology as (i forest, (ii scrubland, (iii grassland and (iv treeless area. The percentage occupancy of forest, scrub, grass and treeless were observed as 19.9 %, 5.05 %, 1.89 % and 7.79 % respectively. Rest of the 65.37 % land area was occupied by the cropland, built-up, water body and snow covers. The majority forest cover were appended into a 5 km × 5 km grid, along with the mean annual precipitation taken from Bioclim data. The binary presence and absence of different vegetation categories in relates to the annual precipitation was analyzed to calculate their resilience expressed in probability values ranging from 0 to 1. Forest cover observed having resilience probability (Pr < 0.3 in only 0.3 % (200 km2 of total forest cover in India, which was 4.3 % < 0.5 Pr. Majority of the scrubs and grass (64.92 % Pr < 0.5 from North East India which were the shifting cultivation lands showing low resilience, having their high tendency to be transform to forest. These results have spatial explicitness to highlight the resilient and non-resilient distribution of forest, scrub and grass, and treeless areas in India.

  16. Redefining smart city concept with resilience approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafah, Y.; Winarso, H.

    2017-06-01

    The smart city concept originally aimed at dealing with various urban problems, in particular, those related to the urban environment and infrastructure, such as modeling transport flow in a city. As it developed, the concept is now widely used to accelerate the process of urban management by using IT technology and by the availability of big data. However, the smart city discourses are still debated. There is a number of critical literature on the discourses; some are more concerned with the use and development of information communication technology (ICT). ICT and modern technology are considered the key aspect of the smart city concept. Meanwhile, others emphasize the importance of the people who operate the technology. Very few, if any, literature emphasizes the importance of resilience in the smart city discourse. The city as a complex system should have the ability to be resilient, especially when technology fails either due to technical/man-made or natural disasters. This paper aims to redefine the smart city concept in urban planning through a literature study in the context of planning using a resilience approach. This paper describes and defines what the smart city concept is, what it means, as well as explains the relation and linkage of the importance of using resilience approach in defining the smart city. Factors of resilience will lead to a soft infrastructure approach, such as enhancement in many aspects, e.g. community capacity, social and human capital, knowledge inclusion, participation, social innovation, and social equity. Discussion and analysis are conducted through a deep literature study using systematic literature review methodology.

  17. Community Resilience to Militant Islamism: Who and What?: An Explorative Study of Resilience in Three Danish Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja; Schack, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    of resilience to militant Islamism in three Danish communities. It shows how families and trust-based networks, including local government, are the major sources of resilience, but also how punitive national policies and discourses work at cross purposes with resilience-building by reducing local actors......Building community resilience to violent extremism increasingly figures as a goal in national security strategies and debates. The exact meaning of resilience remains unclear, complicating an informed discussion of whom and what to support. This article presents findings from an explorative study...

  18. Development of resilience evaluation method for nuclear power plants. Part 3. Study of evaluation method and applicability of resilience index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Miyano, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a new index, called the resilience index, that evaluates the dynamic stability of the system safety of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident by considering the ability to recover system safety functions that have become lost in the situation. In this paper, a detailed evaluation procedure for the resilience index is described. The system safety of a pressurized water reactor plant during a severe accident is then assessed according to the resilience index in order to discuss the applicability of the index. We find that the resilience index successfully represents management capability and, therefore, the resilience capability of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  19. Development of resilience evaluation method for nuclear power plants. Part 3. Study on evaluation method and applicability of resilience index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new index, called the resilience index, that evaluates the dynamic stability of the system safety of a nuclear power plant during a severe accident by considering the ability to recover system safety functions that have become lost in the situation. In this paper, a detailed evaluation procedure for the resilience index is described. The system safety of a PWR plant during a severe accident is then assessed according to the resilience index in order to discuss the applicability of the index. We find that the resilience index successfully represents management capability and, therefore, the resilience capability of a nuclear power plant. (author)

  20. Viability and resilience of complex systems concepts, methods and case studies from ecology and society

    CERN Document Server

    Deffuant, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    One common characteristic of a complex system is its ability to withstand major disturbances and the capacity to rebuild itself. Understanding how such systems demonstrate resilience by absorbing or recovering from major external perturbations requires both quantitative foundations and a multidisciplinary view of the topic. This book demonstrates how new methods can be used to identify the actions favouring the recovery from perturbations on a variety of examples including the dynamics of bacterial biofilms, grassland savannahs, language competition and Internet social networking sites. The reader is taken through an introduction to the idea of resilience and viability and shown the mathematical basis of the techniques used to analyse systems. The idea of individual or agent-based modelling of complex systems is introduced and related to analytically tractable approximations of such models. A set of case studies illustrates the use of the techniques in real applications, and the final section describes how on...

  1. Modelling and Enhancement of Organizational Resilience Potential in Process Industry SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The business environment is rapidly changing and puts pressure on enterprises to find effective ways to survive and develop. Since it is almost impossible to identify the multitude of complex conditions and business risks, an organization has to build its resilience in order to be able to overcome issues and achieve long term sustainability. This paper contributes by establishing a two-step model for assessment and enhancement of organizational resilience potential oriented towards Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in the process industry. Using a dynamic modelling technique and statistical tools, a sample of 120 SMEs in Serbia has been developed as a testing base, and one randomly selected enterprise was used for model testing and verification. Uncertainties regarding the relative importance of organizational resilience potential factors (ORPFs and their value at each level of business are described by pre-defined linguistic expressions. The calculation of the relative importance of ORPFs for each business level is stated as a fuzzy group decision making problem. First, the weighted ORPFs’ values and resilience potential at each business level are determined. In the second step, near optimal enhancement of ORPFs’ values is achieved by applying a genetic algorithm (GA.

  2. Medical student resilience and stressful clinical events during clinical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpy, Jennifer C; Lee, Wei Wei; Woodruff, James N; Pincavage, Amber T

    2017-01-01

    Medical students face numerous stressors during their clinical years, including difficult clinical events. Fostering resilience is a promising way to mitigate negative effects of stressors, prevent burnout, and help students thrive after difficult experiences. However, little is known about medical student resilience. To characterize medical student resilience and responses to difficult clinical events during clinical training. Sixty-two third-year (MS3) and 55 fourth-year (MS4) University of Chicago medical students completed surveys in 2016 assessing resilience (Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC 10), symptoms of burnout, need for resilience training, and responses to difficult clinical events. Medical student mean resilience was lower than in a general population sample. Resilience was higher in males, MS4s, those without burnout symptoms, and students who felt able to cope with difficult clinical events. When students experienced difficult events in the clinical setting, the majority identified poor team dynamics among the most stressful, and agreed their wellbeing was affected by difficult clinical events. A majority also would prefer to discuss these events with their team later that day. Students discussed events with peers more than with attendings or residents. Students comfortable discussing stress and burnout with peers had higher resilience. Most students believed resilience training would be helpful and most beneficial during MS3 year. Clinical medical student resilience was lower than in the general population but higher in MS4s and students reporting no burnout. Students had some insight into their resilience and most thought resilience training would be helpful. Students discussed difficult clinical events most often with peers. More curricula promoting medical student resilience are needed.

  3. IDEAhaus: A Modular Approach to Climate Resilient UK Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Keeffe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the result of a project to develop climate adaptation design strategies funded by the UK’s Technology Strategy Board. The aim of the project was to look at the threats and opportunities presented by industrialized and house-building techniques in the light of predicted future increases in flooding and overheating due to anthropogenic climate change. The paper shows that the thermal performance of houses built to the current UK Building Regulations is not adequate to cope with changing weather patterns, and in light of this, develops a detailed design for a new house: one that is industrially produced and climatically resilient, but affordable. This detailed concept IDEAhaus of a modular house is not only flood-proof to a water depth of 750 mm, but also is designed to utilize passive cooling, which dramatically reduces the amount of overheating, both now and in the future.

  4. Cooperative Spatial Retreat for Resilient Drone Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin-Hyeok; Kwon, Young-Min; Park, Kyung-Joon

    2017-01-01

    Drones are broadening their scope to various applications such as networking, package delivery, agriculture, rescue, and many more. For proper operation of drones, reliable communication should be guaranteed because drones are remotely controlled. When drones experience communication failure due to bad channel condition, interference, or jamming in a certain area, one existing solution is to exploit mobility or so-called spatial retreat to evacuate them from the communication failure area. However, the conventional spatial retreat scheme moves drones in random directions, which results in inefficient movement with significant evacuation time and waste of battery lifetime. In this paper, we propose a novel spatial retreat technique that takes advantage of cooperation between drones for resilient networking, which is called cooperative spatial retreat (CSR). Our performance evaluation shows that the proposed CSR significantly outperforms existing schemes. PMID:28467390

  5. Data replicating the factor structure and reliability of commonly used measures of resilience: The Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Resilience Scale, and Scale of Protective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Madewell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the article entitled “Assessing Resilience in Emerging Adulthood: The Resilience Scale (RS, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC, and Scale of Protective Factors (SPF” (Madewell and Ponce-Garcia, 2016 [1]. The data were collected from a sample of 451 college students from three universities located in the Southwestern region of the United States: 374 from a large public university and 67 from two smaller regional universities. The data from the three universities did not significantly differ in terms of demographics. The data represent participant responses on six measurements to include the Resilience Scale-25 (RS-25, Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-25 (CD-RISC-25, Connor Davidson Resilience Scale-10 (CD-RISC-10, Scale of Protective Factors-24 (SPF-24, and the Life Stressor Checklist Revised (LSC-R. Keywords: Scale of Protective Factors, Resilience Scale, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Emerging adulthood, Confirmatory factor analysis

  6. A factor analytic study of adult career concerns, career status and career resilience

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    D. Litt. et Phil. Factor analytic techniques were used to investigate the psychometric properties of three measuring instruments, namely the Adult Career Concerns Inventory (Super, Thompson & Lindeman, 1988), the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (Holland & Gottfredson, 1994), and the Career Resilience Questionnaire (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998). The analyses served the purpose of elucidating the conceptual meanings of the constructs of career concerns, career status and career resil...

  7. Considering Resilience: Steps Towards an Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kallaos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As threats from climate change related hazards increase in cities around the world, communities are faced with an urgent requirement for self-evaluation. It is essential to expose and assess potential hazards facing cities, as well as to consider potential impacts and responses. While the promotion of efficiency and promise of protection have been common approaches to hazards in the past, recent events have exposed weaknesses in existing tactics. It has also become more apparent that existing mitigation efforts will be insufficient to prevent some level of climate change, associated hazards, and impacts. Complete protection against all threats is not only impossible but potentially hazardous, as extreme or unanticipated events can exceed the capacity for defence, potentially resulting in catastrophic failures. From this realization of the fallibility of the existing paradigm, resilience has emerged as a useful concept for framing the response of cities to an expanding collection of potential threats. The aim of this article is to consider resilience as it applies to cities, their architecture and infrastructure systems, subsystems, and components, as well as their inhabitants. Resilience characteristics are identified and considered in order to inform the eventual development of a resilience framework with which to assess architecture and infrastructure resilience. This state of the art is instrumental to determine the conditions under which architecture and infrastructure resilience can be defined and measured, in order to guide the consideration of attributes and determine suitable criteria to select and elaborate indicators to help guide future actions and investments.   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm

  8. Resilient modulus of black cotton soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Mamatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilient modulus (MR values of pavement layers are the basic input parameters for the design of pavements with multiple layers in the current mechanistic empirical pavement design guidelines. As the laboratory determination of resilient modulus is costly, time consuming and cumbersome, several empirical models are developed for the prediction of resilient modulus for different regions of the world based on the database of resilient modulus values of local soils. For use of these relationships there is a need to verify the suitability of these models for local conditions. Expansive clay called black cotton soil (BC soil is found in several parts of India and is characterized by low strength and high compressibility. This soil shows swell – shrink behaviour upon wetting and drying and are problematic. The BC soil shows collapse behaviour on soaking and therefore the strength of the soil needs to be improved. Additive stabilization is found to be very effective in stabilizing black cotton soils and generally lime is used to improve the strength and durability of the black cotton soil. In this paper, the results of repeated load tests on black cotton soil samples for the determination of MR under soaked and unsoaked conditions at a relative compaction levels of 100% and 95% of both standard and modified proctor conditions are reported. The results indicate that the black cotton soil fails to meet the density requirement of the subgrade soil and shows collapse behaviour under soaked condition. To overcome this, lime is added as an additive to improve the strength of black cotton soil and repeated load tests were performed as per AASHTO T 307 - 99 for MR determination. The results have shown that the samples are stable under modified proctor condition with MR values ranging from 36 MPa to 388 MPa for a lime content of 2.5% and curing period ranging from 7 to 28 days. Also, it is observed that, the CBR based resilient modulus is not in agreement

  9. Resilience in ecotoxicology: Toward a multiple equilibrium concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Schulz, Ralf; Schäfer, Ralf B; Allen, Craig R; Angeler, David G

    2017-10-01

    The term resilience describes stress-response patterns across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly define resilience based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used to describe the ability of organisms to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), which is termed the rate of recovery. By contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change, that is, when ecosystems reorganize into a new regime following disturbance. Under this new regime, structural and functional aspects change considerably relative to the previous regime, without recovery. In this context, resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. In the present study, we argue that both definitions and uses are appropriate in ecotoxicology, and although the differences are subtle, the implications and uses are profoundly different. We discuss resilience concepts in ecotoxicology, where the prevailing view of resilience is engineering resilience from chemical stress. Ecological resilience may also be useful for describing systemic ecological changes because of chemical stress. We present quantitative methods that allow ecotoxicologists and risk managers to assess whether an ecosystem faces an impending regime shift or whether it has already undergone such a shift. We contend that engineering and ecological resilience help to distinguish ecotoxicological responses to chemical stressors mechanistically and thus have implications for theory, policy, and application. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2574-2580. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Resilience Analysis of Countries under Disasters Based on Multisource Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Disasters occur almost daily in the world. Because emergencies frequently have no precedent, are highly uncertain, and can be very destructive, improving a country's resilience is an efficient way to reduce risk. In this article, we collected more than 20,000 historical data points from disasters from 207 countries to enable us to calculate the severity of disasters and the danger they pose to countries. In addition, 6 primary indices (disaster, personal attribute, infrastructure, economics, education, and occupation) including 38 secondary influencing factors are considered in analyzing the resilience of countries. Using these data, we obtained the danger, expected number of deaths, and resilience of all 207 countries. We found that a country covering a large area is more likely to have a low resilience score. Through sensitivity analysis of all secondary indices, we found that population density, frequency of disasters, and GDP are the three most critical factors affecting resilience. Based on broad-spectrum resilience analysis of the different continents, Oceania and South America have the highest resilience, while Asia has the lowest. Over the past 50 years, the resilience of many countries has been improved sharply, especially in developing countries. Based on our results, we analyze the comprehensive resilience and provide some optimal suggestions to efficiently improve resilience. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. A New Resilience Measure for Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiying Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, supply chain networks can span the whole world, and any disruption of these networks may cause economic losses, decreases in sales and unsustainable supplies. Resilience, the ability of the system to withstand disruption and return to a normal state quickly, has become a new challenge during the supply chain network design. This paper defines a new resilience measure as the ratio of the integral of the normalized system performance within its maximum allowable recovery time after the disruption to the integral of the performance in the normal state. Using the maximum allowable recovery time of the system as the time interval under consideration, this measure allows the resilience of different systems to be compared on the same relative scale, and be used under both scenarios that the system can or cannot restore in the given time. Two specific resilience measures, the resilience based on the amount of product delivered and the resilience based on the average delivery distance, are provided for supply chain networks. To estimate the resilience of a given supply chain network, a resilience simulation method is proposed based on the Monte Carlo method. A four-layered hierarchial mobile phone supply chain network is used to illustrate the resilience quantification process and show how network structure affects the resilience of supply chain networks.

  12. Measuring county resilience after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Lam, N.; Qiang, Y.; Li, K.; Yin, L.; Liu, S.; Zheng, W.

    2015-01-01

    The catastrophic earthquake in 2008 has caused serious damage to Wenchuan County and the surrounding area in China. In recent years, great attention has been paid to the resilience of the affected area. This study applied a new framework, the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model, to quantify and validate the community resilience of 105 counties in the affected area. The RIM model uses cluster analysis to classify counties into four resilience levels according to the exposure, damage, and recovery conditions, and then applies discriminant analysis to quantify the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on the county resilience. The analysis results show that counties located right at the epicenter had the lowest resilience, but counties immediately adjacent to the epicenter had the highest resilience capacities. Counties that were farther away from the epicenter returned to normal resiliency. The socioeconomic variables, including sex ratio, per capita GDP, percent of ethnic minority, and medical facilities, were identified as the most influential socio-economic characteristics on resilience. This study provides useful information to improve county resilience to earthquakes and support decision-making for sustainable development.

  13. Resilience and sustainability: Similarities and differences in environmental management applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Dayton; Reynolds, Erin; Bates, Matthew E; Morgan, Heather; Clark, Susan Spierre; Linkov, Igor

    2018-02-01

    In recent years there have been many disparate uses of the terms sustainability and resilience, with some framing sustainability and resilience as the same concept, and others claiming them to be entirely different and unrelated. To investigate similarities, differences, and current management frameworks for increasing sustainability and resilience, a literature review was undertaken that focused on integrated use of sustainability and resilience in an environmental management context. Sustainability was defined through the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic system considerations. Resilience was viewed as the ability of a system to prepare for threats, absorb impacts, recover and adapt following persistent stress or a disruptive event. Three generalized management frameworks for organizing sustainability and resilience were found to dominate the literature: (1) resilience as a component of sustainability, (2) sustainability as a component of resilience, and (3) resilience and sustainability as separate objectives. Implementations of these frameworks were found to have common goals of providing benefits to people and the environment under normal and extreme operating conditions, with the best examples building on similarities and minimizing conflicts between resilience and sustainability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. [Resilience in caregivers of patients with dementia: A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lansac, Violeta; Crespo López, María; Cáceres, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Poyo, María

    2012-01-01

    Caring for a relative with dementia often has negative effects on the caregiver's physical and psychological health. However, many caregivers successfully cope with the stress factors arising from care, and even have uplifts during their experience, showing high resilience levels. This study presents a preliminary analysis of resilience in caregivers of patients with dementia, exploring its relationship with different variables. Resilience was assessed (by CD-RISC) in 53 family caregivers of patients with dementia. Resilience was correlated to the following variables: caregiving context, stressors (e.g., cognitive impairment), appraisals (e.g., burden), moderators (e.g., personality traits and resources), and caregiving consequences (physical and psychological health). The participants showed moderate scores on resilience. Resilience was associated with poor emotional and physical status (significant inverse correlations with anxiety, depression, psycho-active drug use, health habits…). High resilience scores were significantly correlated to burden, neuroticism and extraversion, self-efficacy, self-esteem and less use of emotion focused coping strategies. Higher resilience relates to a good emotional and physical status in caregivers. Moreover, resilience is more associated with caregiver variables (e.g., appraisal and coping with care, personality features), than to situational variables. The data highlight the strengthening of these types of appraisal and coping as a way to improve caregivers' resilience and, consequently, their health. Copyright © 2011 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. The geomorphology of wetlands in drylands: Resilience, nonresilience, or …?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Over the last decade, much attention has focused on wetland resilience to disturbances such as extreme weather events, longer climate change, and human activities. In geomorphology and cognate disciplines, resilience is defined in various ways and has physical and socioeconomic dimensions but commonly is taken to mean the ability of a system to (A) withstand disturbance, (B) recover from disturbance, or (C) adapt and evolve in response to disturbance to a more desirable (e.g., stable) configuration. Most studies of wetland resilience have tended to focus on the more-or-less permanently saturated humid region wetlands, but whether the findings can be readily transferred to wetlands in drylands remains unclear. Given the natural climatic variability and overall strong moisture deficit characteristic of drylands, are such wetlands likely to be more resilient or less resilient? Focusing on wetlands in the South African drylands, this paper uses existing geomorphological, sedimentological, and geochronological data sets to provide the spatial (up to 50 km2) and temporal (late Quaternary) framework for an assessment of geomorphological resilience. Some wetlands have been highly resilient to environmental (especially climate) change, but others have been nonresilient with marked transformations in channel-floodplain structure and process connectivity having been driven by natural factors (e.g., local base-level fall, drought) or human activities (e.g., channel excavation, floodplain drainage). Key issues related to the assessment of wetland resilience include channel-floodplain dynamics in relation to geomorphological thresholds, wetland geomorphological 'life cycles', and the relative roles of natural and human activities. These issues raise challenges for the involvement of geomorphologists in the practical application of the resilience concept in wetland management. A key consideration is how geomorphological resilience interfaces with other dimensions of resilience

  16. DIVERSITY OF REEF FISH FUNGSIONAL GROUPS IN TERMS OF CORAL REEF RESILIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Nagib edrus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure development in the particular sites of  Seribu Islands as well as those in main land of Jakarta City increased with coastal population this phenomenon is likely to increase the effects to the adjacent coral waters of Seribu Islands.  Chemical pollutants, sedimentation, and domestic wastes are the common impact and threatening, the survival of coral reef ecosystem. Coral reef resiliences naturaly remained on their processes under many influences of supporting factors. One of the major factor is the role of reef fish functional groups on controling algae growth to recolonize coral juveniles. The  aim of this study to obtain data of a herbivory and other fish functional groups of reef fishes in the Pari Islands that are resilience indicators, or that may indicate the effectiveness of management actions. A conventional scientific approach on fish diversity and abundance data gathering was conducted by the underwater visual cencus. Diversity values of the reef fish functional groups, such as the abundance of individual fish including species, were collected and tabulated by classes and weighted as a baseline to understand the resilience of coral reed based on Obura and Grimsditch (2009 techniques. The results succesfully identified several fish functional groups such as harbivores (21 species, carnivores (13 species and fish indicator (5 species occurred in the area. Regarding the aspects of fish density and its diversity, especially herbivorous fish functional group, were presumably in the state of rarely available to support the coral reef resiliences. Resilience indices ranged from 1 (low level to 3 (moderate level and averages of the quality levels ranged from 227 to 674. These levels were inadequate to support coral reef recolonization.

  17. Anticipatory governance for social-ecological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Emily; Nykvist, Björn; Borgström, Sara; Stacewicz, Izabela A

    2015-01-01

    Anticipation is increasingly central to urgent contemporary debates, from climate change to the global economic crisis. Anticipatory practices are coming to the forefront of political, organizational, and citizens' society. Research into anticipation, however, has not kept pace with public demand for insights into anticipatory practices, their risks and uses. Where research exists, it is deeply fragmented. This paper seeks to identify how anticipation is defined and understood in the literature and to explore the role of anticipatory practice to address individual, social, and global challenges. We use a resilience lens to examine these questions. We illustrate how varying forms of anticipatory governance are enhanced by multi-scale regional networks and technologies and by the agency of individuals, drawing from an empirical case study on regional water governance of Mälaren, Sweden. Finally, we discuss how an anticipatory approach can inform adaptive institutions, decision making, strategy formation, and societal resilience.

  18. Extreme-scale Algorithms and Solver Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-12-10

    A widening gap exists between the peak performance of high-performance computers and the performance achieved by complex applications running on these platforms. Over the next decade, extreme-scale systems will present major new challenges to algorithm development that could amplify this mismatch in such a way that it prevents the productive use of future DOE Leadership computers due to the following; Extreme levels of parallelism due to multicore processors; An increase in system fault rates requiring algorithms to be resilient beyond just checkpoint/restart; Complex memory hierarchies and costly data movement in both energy and performance; Heterogeneous system architectures (mixing CPUs, GPUs, etc.); and Conflicting goals of performance, resilience, and power requirements.

  19. Crisis, Resilience and Communication in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten

    2012-01-01

    A significant part of modern crises management and crisis communication research is based on a normative research tradition aiming at anticipating future crises and developing crisis management plans that fit the scenarios (cf. Johansen & Frandsen, 2007; Coombs, 2007). In recognition...... of the limitations of this approach and the organizations' inability to foresee all potential crises in a world of constant change, the concept of resilience is starting to gain ground in crisis studies (cf. Weick & Sutcliff, 2007; Somers, 2009; Powley, 2009). This ncreased interest in resilience can be traced back...... to a discussion initiated by Wildavsky (1988), concerning whether organizational crises is best handled proactively by anticipating and planning in relation to potential crises, or whether to work with the organization reactive abilities when the crisis has manifested itself. This discussion has not diminished...

  20. Network Skewness Measures Resilience in Lake Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, P. G.; Wang, R.; Dearing, J.; Zhang, E.; Doncaster, P.; Yang, X.; Yang, H.; Dong, X.; Hu, Z.; Xu, M.; Yanjie, Z.; Shen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ecosystem resilience defy straightforward quantification from biodiversity metrics, which ignore influences of community structure. Naturally self-organized network structures show positive skewness in the distribution of node connections. Here we test for skewness reduction in lake diatom communities facing anthropogenic stressors, across a network of 273 lakes in China containing 452 diatom species. Species connections show positively skewed distributions in little-impacted lakes, switching to negative skewness in lakes associated with human settlement, surrounding land-use change, and higher phosphorus concentration. Dated sediment cores reveal a down-shifting of network skewness as human impacts intensify, and reversal with recovery from disturbance. The appearance and degree of negative skew presents a new diagnostic for quantifying system resilience and impacts from exogenous forcing on ecosystem communities.

  1. Economic resilience through "One-Water" management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of water availability leads to food scarcity and loss of economic opportunity. Development of effective water-resource policies and management strategies could provide resiliance to local economies in the face of water disruptions such as drought, flood, and climate change. To accomplish this, a detailed understanding of human water use and natural water resource availability is needed. A hydrologic model is a computer software system that simulates the movement and use of water in a geographic area. It takes into account all components of the water cycle--“One Water”--and helps estimate water budgets for groundwater, surface water, and landscape features. The U.S. Geological Survey MODFLOW One-Water Integrated Hydrologic Model (MODFLOWOWHM) software and scientific methods can provide water managers and political leaders with hydrologic information they need to help ensure water security and economic resilience.

  2. Resilience vs. Adaptation: Framing and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Wong-Parodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Responses to climate change may be viewed as requiring primarily “Resilience” or “Adaptation.” We examine how those two terms affect lay responses to the risks of coastal flooding and sea level rise. We use two tasks requiring substantial participant involvement, one providing minimal information and one substantial information. In Study 1, participants spent ten minutes writing an essay about a picture with flooding, labeled with “Resilience” or “Adaptation.” In Study 2, participants used an interactive aid to evaluate moving to a coastal community described as having a policy of Resilience or Adaptation, or having No Stated Policy. In Study 1, both groups judged the threat of flood similarly. In Study 2, Resilience was associated with increased concern about risks, but less willingness to take individual protective action.

  3. Tamper Resilient Cryptography Without Self-Destruct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay

    2013-01-01

    We initiate a general study of schemes resilient to both tampering an d leakage attacks. Tamper- ing attacks are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an advers ary can change the secret state and observes the effect of such changes at the output. Our cont ributions are outlined below: 1. We propose...... a general construction showing that any cryptographic primitive where the secret key can be chosen as a uniformly random string can be made s ecure against bounded tampering and leakage. This holds in a restricted model where the ta mpering functions must be chosen from a set of bounded size after...... arbitrarily tamper with the prover’s state a bounded number of times and/or obtain some bounded amount of leakage. Interestingly, for the Okamoto scheme we can allow also independent tampering with the public parameters. 3. We show a bounded tamper and leakage resilient CCA secure public key cryptosystem...

  4. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Elizabeth; Eisenman, David P; Magana, Aizita; Williams, Malcolm; Kim, Biblia; McCreary, Michael; Chandra, Anita; Wells, Kenneth B

    2017-10-21

    Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups ( n = 5) and interviews ( n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators) to compare coalitions' strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education). We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships) also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods.

  5. How Do Communities Use a Participatory Public Health Approach to Build Resilience? The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bromley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience is a key concept in the National Health Security Strategy that emphasizes development of multi-sector partnerships and equity through community engagement. Here, we describe the advancement of CR principles through community participatory methods in the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR initiative. LACCDR, an initiative led by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health with academic partners, randomized 16 community coalitions to implement either an Enhanced Standard Preparedness or Community Resilience approach over 24 months. Facilitated by a public health nurse or community educator, coalitions comprised government agencies, community-focused organizations and community members. We used thematic analysis of data from focus groups (n = 5 and interviews (n = 6 coalition members; n = 16 facilitators to compare coalitions’ strategies for operationalizing community resilience levers of change (engagement, partnership, self-sufficiency, education. We find that strategies that included bidirectional learning helped coalitions understand and adopt resilience principles. Strategies that operationalized community resilience levers in mutually reinforcing ways (e.g., disseminating information while strengthening partnerships also secured commitment to resilience principles. We review additional challenges and successes in achieving cross-sector collaboration and engaging at-risk groups in the resilience versus preparedness coalitions. The LACCDR example can inform strategies for uptake and implementation of community resilience and uptake of the resilience concept and methods.

  6. Best Practices in Weathering Climate Risks: Advancing Corporate and Community Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, K.; Winkelman, S.

    2012-12-01

    As the annual costs of severe weather events in the US grow into the billions of dollars, companies and communities are examining how best to plan ahead to protect their assets and bolster their bottom line. The Center for Clean Air Policy's Weathering Climate Risks program aims to help cities and companies enhance resilience to the economic impacts of severe weather and a changing climate. This presentation will highlight three communication techniques aimed at different types of audiences such as businesses, policymakers, the media, and society. First, we find that although planning for natural hazards now saves money later, stakeholders must fi¬nd their own self-interest if they are going to engage in a solution. Thus we research best practices and hold informational, off-the-record interviews to better understand the different stakeholders' perspectives, key concerns, and issues surrounding adaptation, resilience, and/or hazard mitigation. Diverse stakeholders find it attractive when a solution has multiple co-benefits such as climate resilience, greenhouse gas reduction, reduced costs, and social benefits. Second, we use off-the-record dialogues emphasizing candid public-private discussion to promote collaborative problem solving. Our high-level workshops typically consist of 30-40 scientists, companies, communities, and policymakers. We begin with presenting background material, such as geographic information systems (GIS) maps. Then we move to informal conservation. Topics include ideas such as "Ask the Climate Question": How will infrastructure, land development, and investment decisions affect GHG emissions and resilience to climate change impacts? We find these dialogues help stakeholders share their perspectives and advance public-private collaboration on climate resilience to protect critical urban infrastructure, ensure business continuity, and increase extreme weather resilience. Third, we find that communication to the general public must capture

  7. Human Capital Development - Resilient Cyber Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    mathematics Discrete and continuous mathematics Physical world computing , including safety, reliability, security, performance, and risk...10 2.2 A Taxonomy to relate “Resilient CPS” to Education in Engineering and Computing Domains ............. 12 2.2.1 What is a CPS...19 Table 3. Entry Level Competencies for a Career Dealing with Assurance [CMU/SEI-2013-TN-004, 2010] ......... 20 Table 4. Computer

  8. Resilience among asylum seekers living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orton Lois

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small body of evidence demonstrates the challenges faced by migrant communities living with HIV but has yet to consider in-depth the experience of asylum seekers whose residency status is undetermined. The overall aim of our study was to explore the experiences of those who are both living with HIV and seeking asylum. This paper focuses on the stressors precipitated by the HIV diagnosis and by going through the asylum system; as well as participants’ resilience in responding to these stressors and the consequences for their health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted an ethnographic study. Fieldwork took place in the UK between 2008–2009 and included: 350 hours of observation at voluntary services providing support to black and minority ethnic groups living with HIV; 29 interviews and four focus group discussions with those who were seeking asylum and living with HIV; and 15 interviews with their health and social care providers. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Results There were three main stressors that threatened participants’ resilience. First, migration caused them to leave behind many resources (including social support. Second, stigmatising attitudes led their HIV diagnosis to be a taboo subject furthering their isolation. Third, they found themselves trapped in the asylum system, unable to influence the outcome of their case and reliant on HIV treatment to stay alive. Participants were, however, very resourceful in dealing with these experiences. Resilience processes included: staying busy, drawing on personal faith, and the support received through HIV care providers and voluntary organisations. Even so, their isolated existence meant participants had limited access to social resources, and their treatment in the asylum system had a profound impact on perceived health and wellbeing. Conclusions Asylum seekers living with HIV in the UK show immense resilience. However, their isolation

  9. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodology to address key challenges for aviation (current and future) including a performance based approach for safety and fatigue management in the aviation sector, mainly inflight operations and maint...

  10. Resilience against Misbehaving Nodes in Asynchronous Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Senejohnny, D.; Sundaram, S.; De Persis, C.; Tesi, P.

    2018-01-01

    Network systems are one of the most active research areas in the engineering community as they feature a paradigm shift from centralized to distributed control and computation. When dealing with network systems, a fundamental challenge is to ensure their functioning even when some of the network nodes do not operate as intended due to faults or attacks. The objective of this paper is to address the problem of resilient consensus in a context where the nodes have their own clocks, possibly ope...

  11. Resilient and Fractionated Cyber Physical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    actuating through heterogeneous and widely distributed physical devices and computation components”25. This synergy depends heavily on a resilient...framework of the Internet of Things ( IOT ), or Industry 2.0. In the Global Information Technology Report 2012, the World Economic Forum reports...on the hyperconnected internet of sensors, actuators and plants, which, in turn, is depending more on the autonomous satellite system in order to

  12. An Approach for Modeling Supplier Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    interests include resilience modeling of supply chains, reliability engineering, and meta- heuristic optimization. [m.hosseini@ou.edu] Abstract...be availability , or the extent to which the products produced by the supply chain are available for use (measured as a ratio of uptime to total time...of the use of the product). Available systems are important in many industries, particularly in the Department of Defense, where weapons systems

  13. Increasing Resiliency Through Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [unaffiliated

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology to quantify the economic and resiliency benefit provided by renewable energy (RE) in a hybrid RE-storage-diesel microgrid. We present a case study to show how this methodology is applied to a multi-use/ multi-function telecommunications facility in southern California. In the case study, we first identify photovoltaic (PV) and battery energy storage system (BESS) technologies that minimize the lifecycle cost of energy at the site under normal, grid-connected operation. We then evaluate how those technologies could be incorporated alongside existing diesel generators in a microgrid to increase resiliency at the site, where resiliency is quantified in terms of the amount of time that the microgrid can sustain the critical load during a grid outage. We find that adding PV and BESS to the existing backup diesel generators with a fixed fuel supply extends the amount of time the site could survive an outage by 1.8 days, from 1.7 days for the existing diesel-only backup system to 3.5 days for the PV/diesel/BESS hybrid system. Furthermore, even after diesel fuel supplies are exhausted, the site can continue to operate critical loads during daytime hours using just the PV/BESS when there is sufficient solar resource. We find that the site can save approximately $100,000 in energy costs over the 25-year lifecycle while doubling the amount of time they can survive an outage. The methodology presented here provides a template for increasing resiliency at telecomm sites by implementing renewable energy solutions, which provide additional benefits of carbon emission reduction and energy cost savings.

  14. Transformation and Resilience on Urban Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, M.; Agboola, J.; Birkmann, J.; Grimmond, S. B.; Garschagen, M.; Link, H. D.; Narayanan, P.; Nishi, M.; Ramachandran, R., VI; Solecki, W.; Yamamuro, M.; Welle, T.; Ramachandran, P.; Ajibade, I.

    2016-12-01

    Large coastal cities are at the forefront of efforts to manage vulnerability and build resilience in the face of multiple, interlinked threats. This paper presents results from the Belmont Forum project Transformation and Resilience on Urban Coasts (TRUC). TRUC aims to shift academic and policy discussion from an assessment of resilience options to an understanding of how cities can transition from one mode of resilience planning to another. In particular TRUC questions the relationship between dominant development trajectories and structures and risk management. Should risk management be deployed to support, adjust or fundamentally change dominant development trajectories and its attendant distributional and procedural justice outcomes? TRUC deployed an interdisciplinary approach bringing together scenario workshops, integrated biophysical and vulnerability modelling, expert and household interviews to open spaces for stakeholders to reflect on existing risk management-development relationships, their determinants, preferences for transition to new states and barriers and opportunities for transition. Results are presented for five global megacities: Kolkata, Lagos, London, New York and Tokyo. Contemporary risk management for these global megacities is found to be rooted in historical events with policy innovation following on from extreme events rather than anticipating future risk. Emergent coastal hazards, most importantly heatwave, are consistently underemphasised in planning and technical capacity. Professionals express a desire to move risk management from a reactive mode aimed at protecting development gains towards a more proactive position and one that can embrace integrated development issues. Barriers to this transition include top-down and centralised planning that makes innovation difficult and slow and variable relations between science and policy communities that make it difficult for high level planners to access novel science opinion.

  15. Critical infrastructure system security and resiliency

    CERN Document Server

    Biringer, Betty; Warren, Drake

    2013-01-01

    Security protections for critical infrastructure nodes are intended to minimize the risks resulting from an initiating event, whether it is an intentional malevolent act or a natural hazard. With an emphasis on protecting an infrastructure's ability to perform its mission or function, Critical Infrastructure System Security and Resiliency presents a practical methodology for developing an effective protection system that can either prevent undesired events or mitigate the consequences of such events.Developed at Sandia National Labs, the authors' analytical approach and

  16. Resilience: Concepts and Measures. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.

    1986-01-01

    Inertia, the resistance of an ecosystem property to change under stress, is distinguished from resilience, which refers to the degree, manner. and pace of change or recovery in ecosystem properties following disturbance. In turn, these two terms are differentiated from 'stability'. which is used here to refer to the pattern of natural fluctuation in ecosystem properties in the absence of major exogenous disturbance. Four component attributes of resilience are reviewed in the context of Mediterranean-climate examples. The elasticity component concerns the rate of recovery of an ecosystem property following disturbance; amplitude, the threshold of stress beyond which recovery to the initial state does not occur; hysteresis, the degree to which the pattern of recovery after stress differs from that of deterioration under chronic stress, and malleability the ease with which the ecosystem can become permanently altered. Each ecosystem property will typically reveal a different level of resilience to a given stress and stressor. The degree of recovery should not be expected to be complete in any event, due to sample variability and stochastic events. In cyclicallystable ecosystems, the pattern of recovery should be measured in light of this periodicity, and short-term (within-cycle) recovery distinguished from long-term (between-cycle) recovery. The prediction of resilience properties of ecosystems can be approached through a knowledge of the modular structure of foodwebs, through knowledge of the autecological adaptations of key species to the stressor, or through cumulative experience of the response to disturbance at the community level. At present there is much room for investigation of each of these approaches in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems.

  17. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  18. Resilience scales of a dammed tropical river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Elisa; Schmid, Martin; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Artificial river impoundments disrupt the seasonality and dynamics of thermal, chemical, morphological and ecological regimes in river systems. These alterations affect the aquatic ecosystems in space and time and specifically modify the seasonality and the longitudinal gradients of important biogeochemical processes. Resilience of river systems to anthropogenic stressors enables their recovery along the flow path; however little is known about the longitudinal distance that rivers need to partially restore their physical, chemical and biological integrity. In this study, the concept of a "resilience scale" will be explored for different water quality parameters downstream of Kariba dam, the largest artificial lake in the Zambezi basin (South-East Africa). The goal of this project is to develop a modelling framework to investigate and quantify the impact of large dams on downstream water quality in tropical context. In particular, we aim to assess the degree of reversibility of the main downstream alterations (temperature, oxygen, nutrients) and consequently the quantification of their longitudinal extent. Coupling in-situ measurements with hydraulic and hydrological parameters such as travel times, will allow us to define a physically-based parametrization of the different resilience scales for tropical rivers. The results will be used for improving future dam management at the local scale and assessing the ecological impact of planned dams at the catchment scale.

  19. Social Innovation Systems for Building Resilient Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donagh Horgan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social innovation—while not a new practice in itself—has re-emerged since the global financial crisis in 2008 as an approach to solving our collective intractable global challenges. Despite its renewed popularity, there is no common definition for the phenomenon, not least in the context of its application when planning the built environment or civic infrastructures. This paper seeks to position the practice of social innovation as a means for holistic collaboration between disciplines to develop sustainable social ecologies and systems that provide for resilient communities. It tests a hypothesis that social innovation develops over phases (feedback loops—that of the network, framework and architecture phase—to design for social, environmental and economic resilience. It looks to theories emerging in other subject areas like sociology and technology, that can inform its application in a planning context, such as Actor-Network and Adaptive Complexity theories. It explores the mechanisms that provide for resilience through action research and engagement with a number of international case studies and scenarios. Lastly, the paper identifies further avenues of research pertaining to networks, frameworks and architectures to develop models of best practice for inclusive, sustainable and iterative community development.

  20. Governing the resilience of neoliberalism through biopolitics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavelli, Luca

    2017-09-01

    Neoliberalism is widely regarded as the main culprit for the 2007/2008 global financial crisis. However, despite this abysmal failure, neoliberalism has not merely survived the crisis, but actually 'thrived'. How is it possible to account for the resilience of neoliberalism? Existing scholarship has answered this question either by focusing on the distinctive qualities of neoliberalism (such as adaptability, internal coherence and capacity to incorporate dissent) or on the biopolitical capacity of neoliberalism to produce resilient subjects. This article adopts a different perspective. Drawing on and partially challenging the perspective of Michel Foucault, I argue that neoliberalism and biopolitics should be considered two complementary governmental rationalities, and that biopolitical rationalities contribute to governing the uncertainties and risks stemming from the neoliberalization of life. Biopolitics, in other words, plays a key role in governing the resilience of neoliberalism. Through this conceptual lens, the article explores how biopolitical rationalities of care have been deployed to govern the neoliberal crisis of the Greek sovereign debt, which threatened the stability of the European banking system and, I shall argue, the neoliberal life, wealth and well-being of the European population. The article discusses how biopolitical racism is an essential component of the biopolitical governance of neoliberalism. Biopolitical racism displaces the sources of risk, dispossession and inequality from the neoliberal regime to 'inferior' populations, whose lack of compliance with neoliberal dictates is converted into a threat to our neoliberal survival. This threat deserves punishment and authorizes further dynamics of neoliberal dispossession.

  1. Drivers and barriers to heat stress resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatvani-Kovacs, Gertrud; Belusko, Martin; Skinner, Natalie; Pockett, John; Boland, John

    2016-11-15

    Heatwaves are the most dangerous natural hazard to health in Australia. The frequency and intensity of heatwaves will increase due to climate change and urban heat island effects in cities, aggravating the negative impacts of heatwaves. Two approaches exist to develop population heat stress resilience. Firstly, the most vulnerable social groups can be identified and public health services can prepare for the increased morbidity. Secondly, the population level of adaptation and the heat stress resistance of the built environment can be increased. The evaluation of these measures and their efficiencies has been fragmented across research disciplines. This study explored the relationships between the elements of heat stress resilience and their potential demographic and housing drivers and barriers. The responses of a representative online survey (N=393) about heat stress resilience at home and work from Adelaide, South Australia were analysed. The empirical findings demonstrate that heat stress resistant buildings increased adaptation capacity and decreased the number of health problems. Air-conditioning increased dependence upon it, limited passive adaptation and only people living in homes with whole-house air-conditioning had less health problems during heatwaves. Tenants and respondents with pre-existing health conditions were the most vulnerable, particularly as those with health conditions were not aware of their vulnerability. The introduction of an Energy Performance Certificate is proposed and discussed as an effective incentive to increase the heat stress resistance of and the general knowledge about the built environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resiliency scoring for business continuity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Anna; Anderson, Jamie

    Through this paper readers will learn of a scoring methodology, referred to as resiliency scoring, which enables the evaluation of business continuity plans based upon analysis of their alignment with a predefined set of criteria that can be customised and are adaptable to the needs of any organisation. This patent pending tool has been successful in driving engagement and is a powerful resource to improve reporting capabilities, identify risks and gauge organisational resilience. The role of business continuity professionals is to aid their organisations in planning and preparedness activities aimed at mitigating the impacts of potential disruptions and ensuring critical business functions can continue in the event of unforeseen circumstances. This may seem like a daunting task for what can typically be a small team of individuals. For this reason, it is important to be able to leverage industry standards, documented best practices and effective tools to streamline and support your continuity programme. The resiliency scoring methodology developed and implemented at Target has proven to be a valuable tool in taking the organisation's continuity programme to the next level. This paper will detail how the tool was developed and provide guidance on how it can be customised to fit your organisation's unique needs.

  3. Sustainable resilience in property maintenance: encountering changing weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Rimante Andrasiunaite; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to develop a methodological approach for project management to integrate sustainability and resilience planning in property maintenance as an incremental strategy for upgrading existing properties to meet new standards for sustainable and climate resilient...... buildings. Background: Current maintenance practice is focused on the technical standard of buildings, with little consideration of sustainability and resilience. There is a need to develop tools for incorporating sustainable resilience into maintenance planning. Approach: The study is primarily theoretical......, developing the concept of sustainable resilience for changing weather conditions Results: The paper suggests a decision support methodology that quantifies sustainable resilience for the analytical stages of property maintenance planning. Practical Implications: The methodology is generic and expected users...

  4. Developing disaster resilient housing in Vietnam challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Tuan Anh

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive understanding on disaster resilient housing within the Vietnam context particularly and the developing world generally. The book has identified the root causes of housing vulnerability, restrictions to safe housing development, concepts of disaster resilient housing, key issues/factors implementers and building designers need to consider, and ways of achieving resilient housing outcomes in actual design projects. The design and development of disaster resilient housing has been framed into three main themes:  (i) community consultation, (ii) the role of built-environment professionals and (iii) design responses for resilience.   To achieve these themes, there is a variety of contextual and intervening conditions that need to be addressed and met to provide an enabling environment for promoting disaster resilient housing. These three themes are among the most arguable issues in recent debates and discussions, academically and practically, regarding disaster risk reduction ...

  5. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gregory Cowden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT, resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = .59, but negatively associated with total stress (r = -.44. The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R2 = .35. Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R2 = .21. Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport.

  6. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Richard G; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT), resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = 0.59), but negatively associated with total stress (r = -0.44). The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R (2) = 0.35). Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R (2) = 0.21). Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport.

  7. A review of definitions and measures of system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyedmohsen; Barker, Kash; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and evaluating the resilience of systems, potentially complex and large-scale in nature, has recently raised significant interest among both practitioners and researchers. This recent interest has resulted in several definitions of the concept of resilience and several approaches to measuring this concept, across several application domains. As such, this paper presents a review of recent research articles related to defining and quantifying resilience in various disciplines, with a focus on engineering systems. We provide a classification scheme to the approaches in the literature, focusing on qualitative and quantitative approaches and their subcategories. Addressed in this review are: an extensive coverage of the literature, an exploration of current gaps and challenges, and several directions for future research. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of definitions and measures of system resilience. • Focus given to resilience in engineering systems is provided. • Nearly 150 articles across several domains are reviewed. • Future directions in resilience research are discussed.

  8. Climate Resilience: Outreach and Engagement with Hard to Reach Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baja, K.

    2017-12-01

    approaches to identify how residents and stakeholders became strategic implementation partners. It will also provide examples of successful community engagement using creative techniques in hard-to-reach areas, and demonstrate how buy-in from residents can advance action on resilience and increase community adaptive capacity.

  9. Social ecology of resilience and Sumud of Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Mohammad; Hannigan, Ben; Jones, Aled

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of theoretical perspectives and practical research knowledge in relation to 'resilience', the resilience of Palestinians in particular and the related concept of 'Sumud'. 'Sumud' is a Palestinian idea that is interwoven with ideas of personal and collective resilience and steadfastness. It is also a socio-political concept and refers to ways of surviving in the context of occupation, chronic adversity, lack of resources and limited infrastructure. The concept of 'resilience' has deep roots, going back at least to the 10th century when Arabic scholars suggested strategies to cope with life adversity. In Europe, research into resilience extends back to the 1800s. The understanding of resilience has developed over four overlapping waves. These focus on individual traits, protective factors, ecological assets and (in the current wave) social ecological factors. The current wave of resilience research focuses on the contribution of cultural contextualisation and is an approach that is discussed in this article, which draws on Arabic and English language literature located through a search of multiple databases (CINAHL, British Nursing Index, ASSIA, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE). Findings suggest that 'Sumud' is linked to the surrounding cultural context and can be thought of as an innovative, social ecological, approach to promoting resilience. We show that resilience is a prerequisite to 'Sumud', meaning that the individual has to be resilient in order to stay and not to leave their place, position or community. We close by pressing the case for studies which investigate resilience especially in underdeveloped countries such as Palestine (occupied Palestinian territories), and which reveal how resilience is embedded in pre-existing cultural contexts.

  10. Clinical correlates of resilience factors in geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Kelsey T; Lavretsky, Helen; Paholpak, Pattharee; Vlasova, Roza M; Roman, Michael; St Cyr, Natalie; Siddarth, Prabha

    2018-01-16

    Traditional perspectives conceptualize resilience as a trait and depression as resulting from resilience deficiency. However, research indicates that resilience varies substantially even among adults who are clinically depressed, as well as across the lifespan of an individual. Few studies have investigated resilience in depression, and even fewer have examined resilience in depressed older adults. Three hundred thirty-seven adults ≥60 years with major depressive disorder completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and measures of mental health, quality of life (QOL), and medical comorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the factor structure of the CD-RISC. Correlations and general linear models were used to examine associations between resilience and other variables. The rotated component matrix indicated a four-factor model. Sorting of items by highest factor loading revealed constructs associated with (1) grit, (2) active coping self-efficacy, (3) accommodative coping self-efficacy, and (4) spirituality. Resilience was significantly correlated with increased age, lower cognitive functioning, greater cerebrovascular risk, and greater medical comorbidity. Resilience was negatively associated with mental health symptoms (depression, apathy, and anxiety) and positively associated with QOL. The final optimal model identified less depression, less apathy, greater medical comorbidity, higher QOL, and minority (non-White) race as factors that significantly explained variability in resilience. Resilience was significantly associated with a range of mental health constructs in a sample of older adults with depression. Future clinical trials and dismantling studies may help determine whether interventions targeting grit, active coping, accommodative coping, and spirituality can increase resilience and help prevent and treat depression in older adults.

  11. Adaptive Reuse as A Strategy Toward Urban Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Ozge Aytac; Tulin Vural Arslan; Selen Durak

    2016-01-01

    The significance of urban development has been realized again while acute shocks and chronic stresses (earthquake or unemployment) affect cities in a negative way. Therefore, urban resilience becomes more important for economic, environmental, and social sustainability of the built environment. There is a wide range of approaches to resilience in the literature such as ecological, engineering, and adaptive systems. Unlike others, adaptive resilience establishes a co-evolutionary interaction b...

  12. Development of a Career Resilience Scale for University Students

    OpenAIRE

    児玉, 真樹子

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a career resilience scale for university students. The data of 114 university students was collected. Career resilience, career decision making anxiety, and the degree of career development were measured. The result of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure of career resilience with a high Cronbach’s alpha: ability to cope with problems and changes; social skills; interest in novelty; optimism about the future; and willingness...

  13. Towards Integrating Political Ecology into Resilience-Based Management

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Quandt

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges faced today is how to sustainably manage social-ecological systems for both ecological conservation and human wellbeing. This paper explores two approaches to understanding such systems: resilience thinking and political ecology. Resilience thinking is a framework that emerged over the last 40 years as a management strategy for social-ecological systems, and a resilient social-ecological system is capable of absorbing disturbances and still retaining its basic fu...

  14. Resilience Training for Healthcare Staff (RTHS) Implementation Evaluation Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    healthcare, Master Resilience Training, MRT, MTF, medical treatment facility, program evaluation , implementation evaluation , OPORD 14-43, resilience...RTHS-certified Master Resilience Trainers (MRTs) among 73 MRTs whose status was confirmed. Seventy-one percent (n = 52) of these MRTs were fulfilling...Healthcare Staff (RTHS) Implementation Evaluation Phase 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Start, Amanda

  15. Resilience in a reborn nation: Validation of the Lithuanian Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Jan; Viliūnienė, Rima; Friborg, Oddgeir; Pakalniškienė, Vilmantė; Danilevičiūtė, Vita

    2015-07-01

    Resilience, as an ability to withstand or rebound from crisis or adversity, is becoming an increasingly significant concept in health promotion and well-being. Individuals exhibiting resilience use skills or resources flexibly to solve situational demands. The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) may be used to assess protective resources, and the aim of the present study was to validate the Lithuanian translation. The translated RSA was administered to a clinical (n=125) and a non clinical sample (n=499) to examine the discriminant validity of the RSA items with a confirmatory factor analysis, the internal consistency as well as construct validity by correlating it with the Quick Psycho-Affective Symptoms Scan (QPASS). The internal consistency, the test-retest stability and the factor structure were replicated as adequate, thus indicating good psychometric properties and support of discriminant validity. Females reported more resilience resources for the domains of social competence, family cohesion and social resources compared to men. The RSA subscales correlated negatively with the QPASS scores, and patients reported significantly less resilience resources than non-patients, thus indicating construct validity. Valid psychometric tools for research purposes and routine every-day use are urgently needed in Lithuania, a young nation still under numerous challenges due to social, economic and political transitions. The RSA represents a reliable and valid tool for assessing protective factors. Assessing resilience factors may extend the understanding of factors relevant for mental health problems as well as treatment prognosis beyond the capabilities of mere symptom oriented approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Resiliência e maus-tratos à criança Resilience and child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Pinheiro da Silva Junqueira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe discutir o conceito de resiliência a partir de uma revisão crítica. Foram priorizados textos produzidos por órgãos que têm um papel direcionador no campo da saúde da criança e do adolescente (OPAS - Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde; ASBRA - Associação Brasileira de Adolescência. Discute-se as principais definições de resiliência. São debatidas as contribuições e limitações das leituras vigentes. Debate-se ainda, as possibilidades conceituais e operativas da resiliência frente às situações de maus-tratos contra criança e adolescente, tomando o exemplo do abuso sexual intrafamiliar. Conclui-se que o conceito de resiliência apresenta polarizações em torno de certos eixos: "adaptação/superação", "inato/adquirido", "permanente/circunstancial". Contudo, ele aponta para um ponto comum: a singularidade e a delicadeza das relações microssociais de promoção em saúde.The article discusses the resilience concept from a critical review. It prioritizes texts produced by organizations with leading roles in the field of child and adolescent health (PAHO, Pan-American Health Organization; ASBRA, the Brazilian Association for Adolescence. The main definitions of resilience are discussed, along with a debate on the contributions and limitations of the current literature. Furthermore, the conceptual and operative possibilities of resilience when confronted with child abuse are discussed, specifically using intra-familial sexual abuse as an example. The authors conclude that the concept of resilience presents polarization around certain axes: "adaptation/overcoming process", "innate/acquired", "permanent/circumstantial". However, they all point to a common ground: the singularity and delicacy of micro-social health-promoting relationships.

  17. Risk Factors as Major Determinants of Resilience: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul; Lahad, Mooli; Leykin, Dmitry; Goroshit, Marina

    2018-03-16

    The present study was conducted in the context of current concerns about replication in psychological research. It claims that risk factors should be regarded as an integral part of the definition of individual resilience, which should be defined in terms of the balance between individual strength or protective factors, and individual vulnerability or risk factors (IND-SVR). Five independent samples, including 3457 Israeli participants, were employed to determine the effects of resilience promoting and resilience suppressing variables on the IND-SVR index of resilience, and on its two components: recovery from adversity, and distress symptoms. Five path analyses were employed for determining the role of distress symptoms as a measure of psychological resilience, as compared to other indices of this resilience. Results indicated the major role of risk factors (distress symptoms) as an integral component of resilience. This role was generally replicated in the five investigated samples. Risk factors are legitimate, valid, and useful parts of the definition of psychological resilience. Resilience research has shifted away from studying individual risk factors to investigating the process through which individuals overcome the hardships they experience. The present data seem to suggest that this shift should be reexamined.

  18. Command Resiliency: An Adaptive Response Strategy for Complex Incidents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfeifer, Joseph W

    2005-01-01

    .... Unless organizations develop a resilient response strategy that can adapt organizational and operational elements to respond to new terrorist incidents, they will find themselves with the same...

  19. Resilient Urban Infrastructures - Basics of Smart Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper the notion of urban infrastructure resilience is formulated being expressed verbally and strictly in conditional probability terms. It is further used to formulate several most important features of a smart city. This multidisciplinary and multifaceted approach is used to explain the concept of quantitative resilience in urban design, operation, managing urban risk and mitigating of the consequences of a natural or industrial disaster. The extremely urgent problem is formulated on how to connect the physical and spatial (core) resiliencies with the functional, organizational, economic and social resiliencies.

  20. State Revolving Funds: Financing Drought Resilient Water Infrastructure Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report highlights innovative funding policies and programmatic actions that states are using to support drought resilient investment and operations through incentives, state requirements, and technical assistance.

  1. From academic to applied: Operationalising resilience in river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Melissa; Thoms, Martin C.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of resilience acknowledges the ability of societies to live and develop with dynamic environments. Given the recognition of the need to prepare for anticipated and unanticipated shocks, applications of resilience are increasing as the guiding principle of public policy and programs in areas such as disaster management, urban planning, natural resource management, and climate change adaptation. River science is an area in which the adoption of resilience is increasing, leading to the proposition that resilience may become a guiding principle of river policy and programs. Debate about the role of resilience in rivers is part of the scientific method, but disciplinary disunity about the ways to approach resilience application in policy and programs may leave river science out of the policy process. We propose six elements that need to be considered in the design and implementation of resilience-based river policy and programs: rivers as social-ecological systems; the science-policy interface; principles, capacities, and characteristics of resilience; cogeneration of knowledge; adaptive management; and the state of the science of resilience.

  2. Can Biogeochemists Help To Enhance Urban Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout history, many human settlements have collapsed, often caused or triggered by extreme climatic fluctuation, resource depletion, or pollution. In today's world, with rapid urbanization, much of it in "informal" peri-urban settlements, increasing per capita wealth and consumption, climate warming, and widespread pollution, the potential for collapse of modern cities is a realistic hazard. This presentation addresses the question: can biogeochemists contribute knowledge, and translate that knowledge, into greater resilience of urban systems? I argue that we can, and present four examples, each illustrated with case studies. The first is an example of resource depletion - the eventual exhaustion of P rock used for fertilizer. Phosphate rock reserves are limited, at least in the U.S., causing us to import fertilizer P. Prices are rising, prompting more efficient use. Over the long term, depletion of phosphate rock globally may lead to a "brown devolution". We have started a process of tracking P from agricultural watersheds to the "urban plate", and the potential for recycling urban wastes back to agriculture. Early findings in our lab show that agricultural P use in a high-production watershed is now quite efficient, but urban P use is extremely inefficient. A P balance of the Minneapolis-St. Paul region showed that only 4% of input P was recycled, but 75% recycling was possible, even with off-the-shelf technologies. Recycling urban P to agricultural systems, at least for cities in agricultural regions, could close the P cycle and add resilience to the urban food system. A second example is the loss of resilience caused by pollution. Cities often pollute their groundwater, especially with nitrate, salts, and bacteria, limiting the potential for using underlying aquifers for water supply during drought periods and reducing the resilience of the urban system. This is a serious problem in cities in the developing world that do not have water-based waste removal

  3. Integration of resilience capabilities for Critical Infrastructures into the Emergency Management set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an approach for maintaining and enhancing resilience that integrates the resilience capabilities of Critical Infrastructures (CIs) into the emergency management cycle (prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery). This allows emergency services to explicitly address resilience...

  4. Towards a supply chain cyber-risk and resilience research agenda - a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepúlveda Estay, Daniel Alberto; Khan, Omera

    The increased dependence of supply chains on information technology has exacerbated the impact of cyber risks (Dedrick et al., 2008), ranging from the breach of data confidentiality, to the destruction of data and the disruption of supply operations. There is a robust body of knowledge, which has...... a systematic review of the literature (Tranfield et al., 2003). Specifically the focus is on 1) developing a definition for cyber resilience in the supply chain, and 2) suggesting a research agenda for this area....... allowed the development of models, frameworks, tools and techniques to understand and manage supply chain risk (Khan et al., 2007). However, the evaluation of cyber risks and resilience in the supply chain has been less explored. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the gap in theory through...

  5. Quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment in large-scale stochastic dynamic systems for resilient and economic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sonjoy; Goswami, Kundan; Datta, Biswa N.

    2014-01-01

    Failure of structural systems under dynamic loading can be prevented via active vibration control which shifts the damped natural frequencies of the systems away from the dominant range of loading spectrum. The damped natural frequencies and the dynamic load typically show significant variations in practice. A computationally efficient methodology based on quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment technique and optimization under uncertainty has been formulated in the present work that will rigorously account for these variations and result in an economic and resilient design of structures. A novel scheme based on hierarchical clustering and importance sampling is also developed in this work for accurate and efficient estimation of probability of failure to guarantee the desired resilience level of the designed system. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology

  6. Quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment in large-scale stochastic dynamic systems for resilient and economic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sonjoy; Goswami, Kundan [University at Buffalo, NY (United States); Datta, Biswa N. [Northern Illinois University, IL (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Failure of structural systems under dynamic loading can be prevented via active vibration control which shifts the damped natural frequencies of the systems away from the dominant range of loading spectrum. The damped natural frequencies and the dynamic load typically show significant variations in practice. A computationally efficient methodology based on quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment technique and optimization under uncertainty has been formulated in the present work that will rigorously account for these variations and result in an economic and resilient design of structures. A novel scheme based on hierarchical clustering and importance sampling is also developed in this work for accurate and efficient estimation of probability of failure to guarantee the desired resilience level of the designed system. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  7. Community Vitality: The Role of Community-Level Resilience Adaptation and Innovation in Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Newman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Community level action towards sustainable development has emerged as a key scale of intervention in the effort to address our many serious environmental issues. This is hindered by the large-scale destruction of both urban neighbourhoods and rural villages in the second half of the twentieth century. Communities, whether they are small or large, hubs of experimentation or loci of traditional techniques and methods, can be said to have a level of community vitality that acts as a site of resilience, adaptation and innovation in the face of environmental challenges. This paper outlines how community vitality acts as a cornerstone of sustainable development and suggests some courses for future research. A meta-case analysis of thirty-five Canadian communities reveals the characteristics of community vitality emerging from sustainable development experiments and its relationship to resilience, applied specifically to community development.

  8. Resilience and Brittleness in a Nuclear Emergency Response Simulation: Focusing on Team Coordination Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wagner Schenkel; Buarque, Lia; Voshell, Martin; Branlat, Matthieu; Woods, David D.; Gomes, Jose Orlando

    2008-01-01

    The current work presents results from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of a nuclear disaster simulation. Audio-visual records were collected from an emergency room team composed of individuals from 26 different agencies as they responded to multiple scenarios in a simulated nuclear disaster. This simulation was part of a national emergency response training activity for a nuclear power plant located in a developing country. The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of resilience and brittleness in these activities, identify cues of potential improvements for future emergency simulations, and leveraging the resilience of the emergency response System in case of a real disaster. Multiple CTA techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the cognitive dimensions of the activity and to identify team coordination and crisis management patterns that emerged from the simulation training. (authors)

  9. Intervention studies to foster resilience - A systematic review and proposal for a resilience framework in future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmitorz, A; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Tüscher, O; Kalisch, R; Kubiak, T; Wessa, M; Lieb, K

    2018-02-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the phenomenon that many people are able to adapt to the challenges of life and maintain mental health despite exposure to adversity. This has stimulated research on training programs to foster psychological resilience. We evaluated concepts, methods and designs of 43 randomized controlled trials published between 1979 and 2014 which assessed the efficacy of such training programs and propose standards for future intervention research based on recent developments in the field. We found that concepts, methods and designs in current resilience intervention studies are of limited use to properly assess efficacy of interventions to foster resilience. Major problems are the use of definitions of resilience as trait or a composite of resilience factors, the use of unsuited assessment instruments, and inappropriate study designs. To overcome these challenges, we propose 1) an outcome-oriented definition of resilience, 2) an outcome-oriented assessment of resilience as change in mental health in relation to stressor load, and 3) methodological standards for suitable study designs of future intervention studies. Our proposals may contribute to an improved quality of resilience intervention studies and may stimulate further progress in this growing research field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  11. Promoting resilience among parents and caregivers of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Baker, K Scott; Syrjala, Karen L; Back, Anthony L; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-06-01

    Promoting resilience is an aspect of psychosocial care that affects patient and whole-family well-being. There is little consensus about how to define or promote resilience during and after pediatric cancer. The aims of this study were (1) to review the resilience literature in pediatric cancer settings; (2) to qualitatively ascertain caregiver-reported perceptions of resilience; and (3) to develop an integrative model of fixed and mutable factors of resilience among family members of children with cancer, with the goal of enabling better study and promotion of resilience among pediatric cancer families. The study entailed qualitative analysis of small group interviews with eighteen bereaved parents and family members of children with cancer treated at Seattle Children's Hospital. Small-group interviews were conducted with members of each bereaved family. Participant statements were coded for thematic analysis. An integrative, comprehensive framework was then developed. Caregivers' personal appraisals of the cancer experience and their child's legacy shape their definitions of resilience. Described factors of resilience include baseline characteristics (i.e., inherent traits, prior expectations of cancer), processes that evolve over time (i.e., coping strategies, social support, provider interactions), and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., post-traumatic growth and lack of psychological distress). These elements were used to develop a testable model of resilience among family members of children with cancer. Resilience is a complex construct that may be modifiable. Once validated, the proposed framework will not only serve as a model for clinicians, but may also facilitate the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in family members of children with cancer.

  12. From community resilience towards urban resilience : Exploring the grassroot initiatives' role in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.; Van Timmeren, A.; Crul, M.R.M.; Brezet, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and resource scarcity effects pose challenges by themselves. In the context of the complexity of cities, these challenges become wicked and ill-defined as e.g. socialeconomic issues are added. To face these challenges, a city’s resilience on multiple scales has to enable it to both

  13. Resilience Principles as a Tool for Exploring Options for Urban Resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306644398

    The world is becoming increasingly urban and cities face a constant struggle with the complex environmental, social, economic, and political challenges of the 21st century. Many international organizations have argued that cities will need to become more resilient to these challenges. However, it is

  14. Conceptualizing Holistic Community Resilience to Climate Events: Foundation for a Climate Resilience Screening Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of resilience has been evolving over the past decade as a way to address the current and future challenges nations, states, and cities face from a changing climate. Understanding how the environment (natural and built), climate event risk, societal interactions, and g...

  15. Resilience of aging populations after devastating earthquake event and its determinants - A case study of the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Hung-Chih

    2016-04-01

    1.Background Major portions of urban areas in Asia are highly exposed and vulnerable to devastating earthquakes. Many studies identify ways to reduce earthquake risk by concentrating more on building resilience for the particularly vulnerable populations. By 2020, as the United Nations' warning, many Asian countries would become 'super-aged societies', such as Taiwan. However, local authorities rarely use resilience approach to frame earthquake disaster risk management and land use strategies. The empirically-based research about the resilience of aging populations has also received relatively little attention. Thus, a challenge arisen for decision-makers is how to enhance resilience of aging populations within the context of risk reduction. This study aims to improve the understanding of the resilience of aging populations and its changes over time in the aftermath of a destructive earthquake at the local level. A novel methodology is proposed to assess the resilience of aging populations and to characterize their changes of spatial distribution patterns, as well as to examine their determinants. 2.Methods and data An indicator-based assessment framework is constructed with the goal of identifying composite indicators (including before, during and after a disaster) that could serve as proxies for attributes of the resilience of aging populations. Using the recovery process of the Chi-Chi earthquake struck central Taiwan in 1999 as a case study, we applied a method combined a geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial statistics technique and cluster analysis to test the extent of which the resilience of aging populations is spatially autocorrelated throughout the central Taiwan, and to explain why clustering of resilient areas occurs in specific locations. Furthermore, to scrutinize the affecting factors of resilience, we develop an aging population resilience model (APRM) based on existing resilience theory. Using the APRM, we applied a multivariate

  16. Transparent Seismic Mitigation for Community Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, C. D.; Pekelnicky, R.

    2008-12-01

    Healthy communities continuously grow by leveraging their intellectual capital to drive economic development while protecting their cultural heritage. Success, in part, depends on the support of a healthy built environment that is rooted in contemporary urban planning, sustainability and disaster resilience. Planners and policy makers are deeply concerned with all aspects of their communities, including its seismic safety. Their reluctance to implement the latest plans for achieving seismic safety is rooted in a misunderstanding of the hazard they face and the risk it poses to their built environment. Probabilistic lingo and public debate about how big the "big one" will be drives them to resort to their own experience and intuition. There is a fundamental lack of transparency related to what is expected to happen, and it is partially blocking the policy changes that are needed. The solution: craft the message in broad based, usable terms that name the hazard, defines performance, and establishes a set of performance goals that represent the resiliency needed to drive a community's natural ability to rebound from a major seismic event. By using transparent goals and measures with an intuitive vocabulary for both performance and hazard, earthquake professionals, working with the San Francisco Urban Planning and Research Association (SPUR), have defined a level of resiliency that needs to be achieved by the City of San Francisco to assure their response to an event will be manageable and full recovery achievable within three years. Five performance measures for buildings and three for lifeline systems have been defined. Each declares whether people will be safe inside, whether the building will be able to be repaired and whether they will be usable during repairs. Lifeline systems are further defined in terms of the time intervals to restore 90%, 95%, and full service. These transparent categories are used in conjunction with the expected earthquake level to describe

  17. Leakage Resilient Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Hazay, Carmit; Patra, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    we initiate the study of {\\em secure two-party computation in the presence of leakage}, where on top of corrupting one of the parties the adversary obtains leakage from the content of the secret memory of the honest party. Our study involves the following contributions: \\BE \\item {\\em Security...... and returns its result. Almost independently of secure computation, the area of {\\em leakage resilient cryptography} has recently been evolving intensively, studying the question of designing cryptographic primitives that remain secure even when some information about the secret key is leaked. In this paper...

  18. Business resilience: Reframing healthcare risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    The responsibility of risk management in healthcare is fractured, with multiple stakeholders. Most hospitals and healthcare systems do not have a fully integrated risk management system that spans the entire organizational and operational structure for the delivery of key services. This article provides insight toward utilizing a comprehensive Business Resilience program and associated methodology to understand and manage organizational risk leading to organizational effectiveness and operational efficiencies, with the fringe benefit of realizing sustainable operational capability during adverse conditions. © 2015 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  19. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  20. Sustaining Operational Resiliency: A Process Improvement Approach to Security Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caralli, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    .... Coordinating these efforts to sustain operational resiliency requires a process-oriented approach that can be defined, measured, and actively managed. This report describes the fundamental elements and benefits of a process approach to security and operational resiliency and provides a notional view of a framework for process improvement.

  1. Predictors of psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances; Bell, Caroline; Ali, Anthony; McKenzie, Janice; Boden, Joseph M; Wilkinson, Timothy; Bell, Caroline

    2016-05-06

    To identify predictors of self-reported psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes in Canterbury in 2010 and 2011. Two hundred and fifty-three medical students from the Christchurch campus, University of Otago, were invited to participate in an electronic survey seven months following the most severe earthquake. Students completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist, the Work and Adjustment Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Likert scales and other questions were also used to assess a range of variables including demographic and historical variables (eg, self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes), plus the impacts of the earthquakes. The response rate was 78%. Univariate analyses identified multiple variables that were significantly associated with higher resilience. Multiple linear regression analyses produced a fitted model that was able to explain 35% of the variance in resilience scores. The best predictors of higher resilience were: retrospectively-rated personality prior to the earthquakes (higher extroversion and lower neuroticism); higher self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes; not being exposed to the most severe earthquake; and less psychological distress following the earthquakes. Psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes was able to be predicted to a moderate extent.

  2. Relationships Among Positive Emotions, Coping, Resilience and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions suggests that positive emotions can widen the range of potential coping strategies that come to mind and subsequently enhance one's resilience against stress. Studies have shown that high stress, especially chronic levels of stress, strongly contributes to the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, researchers have also found that individuals who possess high levels of resilience are protected from stress and thus report lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 200 postdoctoral research fellows, the present study examined if (a) positive emotions were associated with greater resilience, (b) coping strategies mediated the link between positive emotions and resilience and (c) resilience moderated the influence of stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results support the broaden-and-build theory in that positive emotions may enhance resilience directly as well as indirectly through the mediating role of coping strategies-particularly via adaptive coping. Resilience also moderated the association of stress with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Although stress is unavoidable and its influences on anxiety and depressive symptoms are undeniable, the likelihood of postdocs developing anxiety or depressive symptoms may be reduced by implementing programmes designed to increase positive emotions, adaptive coping strategies and resilience. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. How school ecologies facilitate resilience among adolescents with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global prioritisation of the inclusion of learners with disabilities, and of vulnerable young people's resilience, means that teachers worldwide require insight into how best to facilitate the resilience of adolescents made vulnerable by intellectual disability (ID). To provide such insight, we conducted a secondary data ...

  4. A resilience approach can improve anadromous fish restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, John R.; Wilson, Karen A.; Mather, Martha E.; Snyder, Noah P.

    2016-01-01

    Most anadromous fish populations remain at low levels or are in decline despite substantial investments in restoration. We explore whether a resilience perspective (i.e., a different paradigm for understanding populations, communities, and ecosystems) is a viable alternative framework for anadromous fish restoration. Many life history traits have allowed anadromous fish to thrive in unimpacted ecosystems but have become contemporary curses as anthropogenic effects increase. This contradiction creates a significant conservation challenge but also makes these fish excellent candidates for a resilience approach. A resilience approach recognizes the need to maintain life history, population, and habitat characteristics that increase the ability of a population to withstand and recover from multiple disturbances. To evaluate whether a resilience approach represents a viable strategy for anadromous fish restoration, we review four issues: (1) how resilience theory can inform anadromous fish restoration, (2) how a resilience-based approach is fundamentally different than extant anadromous fish restoration strategies, (3) ecological characteristics that historically benefited anadromous fish persistence, and (4) examples of how human impacts harm anadromous fish and how a resilience approach might produce more successful outcomes. We close by suggesting new research and restoration directions for implementation of a resilience-based approach.

  5. Heterogeneous economic resilience and the great recession's world trade collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergeijk, Peter A.G.; Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    2017-01-01

    This special section aims to fill a gap in the regional resilience literature and to stimulate future spatial studies of resilience to include the international dimension in empirical analyses. It demonstrates the do-ability and relevance by the natural experience of the global trade collapse that

  6. Adversity and Resilience: A Synthesis of International Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Bush, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents worldwide experience a variety of adversities that have the potential to disrupt typical development. However, some of these individuals exhibit resilience, evidencing normal development in the face of adversity. Here we review research on these constructs of risk, adversity, and resilience; synthesize international…

  7. Disruptive Ideas for Power Grid Security and Resilience With DER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Erfan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-23

    This presentation by Erfan Ibrahim was prepared for NREL's 2017 Cybersecurity and Reslience Workshop on distributed energy resource (DER) best practices. The presentation provides an overview of NREL's Cyber-Physical Systems Security and Resilience R&D Center, the Center's approach to cybersecurity, and disruptive ideas for power grid security and resilience with DER.

  8. A Climate Change Risk and Resilience Assessment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Lisa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation summarizes a site-specific climate resilience planning process applied at two different U.S. Department of Energy sites, in Colorado and along the Gulf Coast that federal site managers can use to identify and analyze potential climate-related risks and explore resilience options to minimize those risks.

  9. Community and School Gardens as Spaces for Learning Social Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Kimberley; Ferreira, Jo-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Can community and school gardens help people learn to build social resilience to potential food shortages? We seek to address this question through an examination of the ways in which gardens can teach individual and community resiliency in times of emergency, pockets of food insecurity, and the challenges presented by climate change. We focus on…

  10. Promoting Resilience in Schools: A View from Occupational Health Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers teacher resilience from the viewpoint of a discipline concerned with the interactions between work design, management style and employee health and well-being: occupational health psychology. It will be suggested that there are strong parallels between interventions designed to promote resilience and those designed to reduce…

  11. Resilience among refugees: a case of Zimbabwean refugee children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Refugee learners face traumatising post-migration experiences in South Africa. Their resilience is tested in all spheres – communities which they settle, schools they go to and places they try to get social services. The purpose of this study is to explore post-migration experiences which gave rise to resilience among ...

  12. Building Resilience in Nigeria's Energy Sector for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks. Incidentally, Nigeria's energy sector is the heart beat of the nation. This paper therefore analyses resilience building efforts in Nigeria's ...

  13. A model for achieving urban resiliency imaginary and explaining its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is rooted in disaster confrontation studies so notion of resilience has more main limitation in answering the social-economic challenges. One of the most important challenges is confronting with poverty notion. Poverty, on one hand, reduces resilience because of increasing vulnerability, and on the other hand, poor ...

  14. Using WNTR to Model Water Distribution System Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) is a new open source Python package developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Sandia National Laboratories to model and evaluate resilience of water distribution systems. WNTR can be used to simulate a wide range of di...

  15. Personality characteristics related to resilience in the Czech university sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Kebza, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2012), s. 121-121 ISSN 0887-0446. [ Resilience and Health: 26th Conference of the European Health Psychology Society. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2226 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * two-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  16. Resilient Design Properties in a Driverless Transport System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Morten; Oehmen, Josef; Welo, Torgeir

    2018-01-01

    From its origin in ecology, resilient system properties have attracted wider interest for their applications to man-made systems. Previous research has shown that a simple conceptual model seems to capture much resilience thinking across disciplines and system types. In this paper, we apply...

  17. Relationship Between Resilience and Coping Strategies in Competitive Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades, Xabel García; Molinero, Olga; Salguero, Alfonso; Barquín, Roberto Ruíz; de la Vega, Ricardo; Márquez, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Resilience is important in sport performers to withstand the pressure they experience. This study analyzed the relationship among resilient qualities and coping strategies in 235 Spanish athletes (126 males, 109 females; M age = 20.7 yr) who practiced different sports (79.1% team sports, 20.9% individual sports). They were evaluated at the beginning of the last competitive mesocycle and after an important competition. Coping strategies and level of resilient qualities were measured by the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport and the Resilience Scale. There was no significant difference in resilience scores between evaluations performed during the last mesocycle or competition. A significant increase occurred in the scores for emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping during competition. Resilience scores correlated positively to task-oriented coping and negatively to disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping during both periods. Analysis of variance indicated that athletes with high individual resilient qualities reached higher scores in task-oriented coping, using to a lower extent disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping. Results obtained suggest that resilient characteristics may associate in athletes to the use of more potentially adaptative coping strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Christianity and Resilience as Experienced by Caregivers of Dementia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role and relationship of the practice of Christian beliefs and resilience in the context of dementia patient caregivers' lives. The guiding question was "What is the relational nature of the practice of Christian beliefs and resilience in the lived experiences of caregivers of dementia…

  19. Enhancing Adaptivity and Resilience through Team Member Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin S.; Noble, David

    2017-01-01

    The interest in aligning college graduates' skills, competencies, and experiences with what employers desire continues across academia. Employers seek higher levels of resilience than they see in most new employees. This article provides a review of the employee resilience literature and describes a team member change scenario focused on enhancing…

  20. Resilience evolution of medical students during the undergraduate period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Method: This is a descriptive study to identify the degree of resilience in medical students at Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, compare the resilience of different years of undergraduation and relate and compare the degree of resilience to demographic and socioeconomic status. Results: The study population has an average age of 21.68, single 270 (98.18%, caucasians 240 (87.27%, household income of more than 20 minimum wages (34.54%. In resilience general index it was obtained an average of 114 (SD=14.05. There was no significant difference between the scores obtained on the scale during graduation years. It was observed a predominance of moderate resilience in all years of the course and in the total sample. Resilience in medical students, it is shown as an individual characteristic and does not keep relations with gender, age, sexual orientation, race or housing conditions in the various years of the course. Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a predominance of moderate resilience among the medical students. There was no correlation between resilience and familiar income

  1. Breeding strategies to make sheep farms resilient to uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    The sheep industry in Western Australian has had many challenges over the last 20 years which have caused sheep numbers to decline. This decline is because sheep farms are not resilient to uncertain pasture growth and commodity prices. One way to improve resilience and profitability of farming

  2. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  3. Resilience Theory and Praxis: a Critical Framework for Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Laboy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of resilience as a goal of architectural practice presents a new challenge in architects’ responsibility to health, safety, welfare and poetic expression of human-building interaction. With roots in disaster response, resilience in the building industry emphasizes the preservation and rapid restoration of the physical environment’s normal function in the face of shocks and disturbances of limited duration. The focus on maintaining function, and/or rapidly returning to the status quo ante necessarily affords a narrow understanding of architecture and a limited view of the concept of resilience. While useful at certain scales of time and inquiry, this so-called engineering resilience approach is only one among many within the broad discourse across diverse disciplines such as psychology, economics, and ecology.  Drawing on the academic and professional literature of resilience outside the discipline, this paper explores the multiple competing frameworks represented, considers their influences and implications for architecture and the built environment at multiple scales, and examines the overlaps with existing discourse on change, architecture and time. The analysis of alternative concepts enables a critical perspective to move beyond the circumscribed, functionalist approach afforded by engineering resilience currently guiding architecture practice, towards a framework of social- ecological resilience that can fully embrace the richness of architecture, and results in a necessary and clear theoretical basis for the resilience of architecture over time in a climate of increasing uncertainty.

  4. Resilient Cities Initiative on Climate Change in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Resilient Cities Initiative on Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean ... and Development Knowledge Network will help strengthen decision-making and ... represent a serious threat for fast-growing small- and medium-sized cities. ... guidance on how to integrate gender practices into climate resilient plans for ...

  5. [Internet-based resilience training and prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, D; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Behrendt, D; Chmitorz, A; Lieb, K

    2018-05-30

    Resilience is associated with a positive and resource-oriented perspective. Therefore, it seems especially attractive for health promotion and prevention. In recent years, interventions to foster resilience have been increasingly developed, which train resilience factors and are mainly conducted in a face to face group format. The question is raised what potential internet-based interventions (i-interventions) that train resilience factors have for health promotion and prevention. Based on a narrative overview, the possibilities for i‑interventions that train resilience factors for health promotion and prevention are investigated and the state of research is described. The effects of the i‑interventions presented here, which aim at fostering resilience, on measures of mental health and well-being are heterogeneous and vary between low to high effects. Stronger evidence for the efficacy of these measures exists for more general i‑interventions that also train resilience factors but are conceptualized for the prevention of specific disorders, such as depression or for stress reduction. Given the heterogeneous nature of intervention contents, theoretical foundations and therapeutic methods used, the heterogeneity of the evidence is discussed. In addition, perspectives for the further development of resource-oriented resilience interventions are outlined.

  6. Resilience research in schizophrenia: a review of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuya; Wartelsteiner, Fabienne; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice

    2016-05-01

    The concept of resilience is expected to be relevant in understanding the heterogeneous outcomes associated with schizophrenia. We reviewed recent developments in clinical studies focusing on the biological and psychological aspects of resilience in this population. We aimed to clarify current concepts of resilience in the field, elucidate gaps in the literature, and provide recommendations for future research. A total of 20 articles published between 2014 and 2015 were included. Six studies were neuroimaging studies, while the remaining studies used various psychological assessments. Most studies were cross-sectional except for three studies with naturalistic follow-up, one single-blind randomized controlled trial, and two published protocols of prospective studies. The following patterns of research were evident among the highly heterogeneous literature: studies focusing on protective factors and others emphasizing dynamic processes, studies investigating 'at-risk but resilient' groups (e.g. nonpsychotic siblings of patients with schizophrenia), and studies using psychological scales to measure resilience. The heterogeneity in how reports conceptualize, assess, and interpret resilience likely reflects the multidimensional nature of the concept itself and the lack of a 'gold standard' in assessing resilience in schizophrenia. Further research is needed to make recommendations on how to facilitate resilience in clinical care.

  7. Resistance and resilience: A conceptual framework for silviculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. DeRose; James N. Long

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, forest management goals include building or maintaining resistance and/or resilience to disturbances in the face of climate change. Although a multitude of descriptive definitions for resistance and resilience exist, to evaluate whether specific management activities (silviculture) are effective, prescriptive characterizations are necessary. We introduce...

  8. Careers Education: Evolving, Adapting and Building Resilience through Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loader, Trent

    2011-01-01

    Career educators' ultimate goal, given the new career management paradigm, should be to ensure that students are career resilient when they leave their studies (from whatever year level). This article outlines the chaos theory of careers and resilience. It then goes on to describe a four-lesson unit of careers education work that attempts to…

  9. Cybersecurity and Resilience | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybersecurity and Resilience Cybersecurity and Resilience Securing today's electric grid from cyber -attack is more complex than ever. Although there is no shortage of vendors offering solutions, objective voices are hard to come by. That's why researchers at NREL are evaluating cyber solutions for the

  10. Development and Validation of the Mathematical Resilience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooken, Janice; Welsh, Megan E.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Lee, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The Mathematical Resilience Scale measures students' attitudes toward studying mathematics, using three correlated factors: Value, Struggle, and Growth. The Mathematical Resilience Scale was developed and validated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across three samples. Results provide a new approach to gauge the likelihood of…

  11. Water resilient green cities in Africa Newsletter issue 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Fryd, Ole; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2014-01-01

    Flood and drought brought by climate change urge world cities to develop towards resiliency. Using green infrastructure and urban landscape for flood resilience is being implemented in, among other places, Denmark. African cities are vulnerable to flood and drought, with their fast urbanization a...

  12. Managing Capabilities for Supply Chain Resilience Through it Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gružauskas Valentas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The trend for e-commerce, estimated population size to 11 billion by 2050, and an increase in urbanization level to 70 % is requiring to re-think the current supply chain. These trends changed the distribution process: delivery distances are decreasing, the product variety is increasing, and more products are being sold in smaller quantities. Therefore, the concept of supply chain resilience has gained more recognition in recent years. The scientific literature analysis conducted by the authors indicate several capabilities that influence supply chain resilience. Collaboration, flexibility, redundancy and integration are the most influential capabilities to supply chain resilience. However, the authors identify that the combination of these capabilities to supply chain resilience is under researched. The authors indicate that by combining these capabilities with the upcoming technologies of industry 4.0, supply chain resilience can be achieved. In the future, the authors are planning to conduct further research to identify the influence of these capabilities to supply chain resilience, to quantify supply chain resilience, and to provide further practices of industry 4.0 concept usage for supply chain resilience.

  13. SPARCHS: Symbiotic, Polymorphic, Automatic, Resilient, Clean-Slate, Host Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    SPARCHS: SYMBIOTIC , POLYMORPHIC, AUTOMATIC, RESILIENT, CLEAN-SLATE, HOST SECURITY COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2016 FINAL... SYMBIOTIC , POLYMORPHIC, AUTOTOMIC, RESILIENT, CLEAN-SLATE, HOST SECURITY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-10-2-0253 5c. PROGRAM...17 4.2.3 SYMBIOTIC EMBEDDED MACHINES

  14. [Resilience: an interdisciplinary approach to concept and findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Lena

    2012-01-01

    First, the concept of the term "resilience" is introduced and summarized as an adaptive, dynamic "buffering process" of children's mental power of resistance against biological, psychological and psychosocial development risks. Subsequently, based on a critical discussion of the current research findings, protective factors are presented, which is followed by an approach to the concept of resilience from interdisciplinary perspectives. The latest findings from developmental neurobiology show that genetic as well as environmental factors have their important share in the development of resilience. This builds a bridge to the consideration of resilience with regard to attachment theory. Accordingly secure attachment could be seen as a condition for a resilient conduct of life. In this context, the concept of "earned security" is additionally taken into account. Furthermore, the relevance of resilience for the field of pedagogics is shortly and critically considered. With reference to a psychoanalytic approach to the concept of resilience self-regulation, internal integrity, mentalization and self-reflection are elaborated on, as well as the similarity to the psychoanalytic concept of ego strength. In conclusion, a critical discussion of the concept of resilience and its benefits as well as potential risks related to it is presented.

  15. Aggressive Orders and the Resiliency of a Limit Order Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; de Jong, F.C.J.M.; van Ravenswaaij, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the resiliency of a pure limit order market for large and small capitalization stocks as well as stocks with different tick sizes.We explore the issue of resiliency by investigating the order flow around aggressive orders that move prices.The impact of aggressive orders is gauged in three

  16. Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Network Tool for Resilience (WNTR) is a new Python package designed to simulate and analyze resilience of water distribution networks to a variety of disaster scenarios. WNTR can help water utilities to explore the capacity of their systems to handle disasters and gui...

  17. The Role of Unlearning in Metamorphosis and Strategic Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Storz, Marta; Nguyen, Nhien

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to conceptualize what it means to be resilient in the face of our current reality of indisputable turbulence and uncertainty, suggest that continual metamorphosis is key to resilience, demonstrate the role of unlearning in that metamorphosis and suggest that problem formulation is a key deliberate mechanism of driving…

  18. Caregivers’ resilience is independent from the clinical symptoms of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Resilience is the capacity for successful adaptation when faced with the stress of adversity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between caregivers’ resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical factors of people with dementia. Cross-sectional assessment of 58 people with dementia and their caregiver dyads showed that most caregivers were female adult children. The caregivers reported moderate to higher levels of resilience, lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and moderate levels of burden. Resilience was not related to the caregiver’s gender (p = 0.883, nor clinical (p = 0.807 or emotional problems (p = 0.420. The regression showed that resilience was related to the caregiver’s quality of life (p < 0.01 and inversely associated with their depressive symptoms (p < 0.01. There was no relationship between caregivers’ resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with dementia. We can assume that resilience is an individual characteristic. Support groups should also focus on the factors that may increase resilience among caregivers.

  19. Evidence of Resilience in Families of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mojdeh

    2007-01-01

    Background: Family resilience is a growing field of inquiry, investigating factors that contribute to a family's becoming stronger in spite of dealing with adversity. Despite the growing interest in studying family resilience, the topic has not been explored in families with children who have disabilities. This report, a part of a larger…

  20. Resilience and Emotional Intelligence: which role in achievement motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Magnano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of Positive Organizational Behavior, the construct of Psychological Capital identifies four psychological capacities that affect motivation and performance in the workplace: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Emotional Intelligence, then, addresses self-regulatory processes of emotions and motivation that enable people to make adjustments to achieve individual, group, and organizational goals; Emotional Intelligence is strongly correlated with individual advancement and success in an organizational setting and with individual performance. Moreover, Emotional Intelligence is considered an antecedent to resilience. The present study aims to investigate the role of resilience and emotional intelligence in achievement motivation, verifying if emotional intelligence mediates the relationship among resilience and achievement motivation. Participants are 488 Italian workers, aged between 18 and 55 years. The findings confirm the significant role played by emotional intelligence on resilience and on motivation to achievement.

  1. Optimal recovery sequencing for critical infrastructure resilience assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Turnquist, Mark Alan (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)

    2010-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the identification of optimal recovery strategies that maximize resilience. To this goal, we formulate a bi-level optimization problem for infrastructure network models. In the 'inner' problem, we solve for network flows, and we use the 'outer' problem to identify the optimal recovery modes and sequences. We draw from the literature of multi-mode project scheduling problems to create an effective solution strategy for the resilience optimization model. We demonstrate the application of this approach to a set of network models, including a national railroad model and a supply chain for Army munitions production.

  2. The Relationship Between EFL Learners’ Resilience and Autonomous Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Kajabadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate relationship between resilience as a personality factor defined in positive psychology and autonomous learning as a newly developed subject in learning and teaching (EFL area. This research employed resilience scale by Connor and Davidson (2003 and learner autonomy questionnaire by Spratt, Humphreys and Chan (2002 to evaluate EFL learners’ resilience level and their autonomy. To meet the purpose of this study, about 150 male and female participants randomly selected among undergraduate students majoring English language translation. Collected data of two questionnaires were analyzed through Spearman’s correlation and regression. Findings of the correlation analysis revealed that there is a significant relationship between resilience and autonomy (ρ = .29, n = 156, p < .01. Also, results showed that resilience is a strong predictor for autonomous learning.

  3. Assessment of military population-based psychological resilience programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brenda J; Bibb, Sandra C Garmon

    2011-09-01

    Active duty service members' (ADSMs) seemingly poor adaptability to traumatic stressors is a risk to force health. Enhancing the psychological resilience of ADSMs has become a key focus of Department of Defense (DoD) leaders and the numbers of military programs for enhancing psychological resilience have increased. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of an assessment conducted to determine comprehensiveness of current psychological resilience building programs that target ADSMs. A modified six-step, population-based needs assessment was used to evaluate resilience programs designed to meet the psychological needs of the ADSM population. The assessment results revealed a gap in published literature regarding program outcomes. DoD leaders may benefit from targeted predictive research that assesses program effectiveness outcomes. The necessity of including preventive, evidence-based interventions in new programs, such as positive emotion interventions shown to enhance psychological resilience in civilian samples, is also recommended.

  4. The Importance of Resilience for Well-Being in Retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pimentel Nalin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the elderly population has prompted research on retirement. This study investigated the importance of resilience, economic satisfaction, the length of retirement, and planning to well-being during retirement of 270 participants. The majority of this sample were men (64%, and the mean age was 65 years (SD = 5.7. The participants were retired members of 10 public and private organizations in Rio de Janeiro. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were performed. The results showed that determined resilience (mastery, adaptability, confidence and perseverance and socioeconomic satisfaction were the main predictors of well-being in retirement and explained 28% of this model. The findings suggest that well-being in retirement is closely related to socioeconomic satisfaction and determined resilience. Additional research should address the importance of resilience for the well-being of retirees who are or not members of retirement associations. Resilience attitudes should be promoted in Retirement Education Programs.

  5. Seychelles, a vulnerable or resilient SIDS? A local perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Philpot

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses perceptions of residents of the Seychelles in the western Indian Ocean in relation to a long-running debate over small island developing states (SIDS as to whether they are vulnerable or resilient. The results of data obtained from 25 key informant interviews and 70 household surveys conducted in 2013 showed that respondents perceived their country to be both vulnerable and resilient. Moreover, the data revealed that the relationship between vulnerability and resilience was complex, and that five interpretations of that relationship were evident: conflict, compromise, complementarity, symbiosis and transformation. Also, the conceptual distance between the two terms – vulnerability and resilience – was shown to be closer than may be commonly assumed. Finally, the paper questions whether the debate over vulnerability versus resilience is rightly confined to SIDS or could be equally applied to other states.

  6. Private prayer among Alzheimer's caregivers: mediating burden and resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Vonk, M Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the coping method of private prayer served as a protective factor of resiliency among a sample (N = 304) of Alzheimer's caregivers. Participants in caregiver support groups completed questionnaires that assessed a number of constructs, including caregiving burden; prayer frequency; use of private prayer as a means of coping; and perceived resiliency. The sample averaged a moderate level of burden and a great extent of prayer usage. Caregiving burden had positively affected the extent of prayer usage and negatively influenced perceived resiliency. Findings from hierarchical regression analysis showed that caregiving burden and private prayer significantly influenced variation in perceived resiliency scores. Results from a regression equation series and path analysis provided support for prayer as a mediator between burden and perceived resiliency. Implications for social work practice and education are discussed.

  7. Resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlene Souza Silva Manzini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the capacity that people have to cope positively with adversities. A cross-sectional, quantitative study, that aimed to assess factors associated with the resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Sixty-six caregivers composed the sample, who were accompanied in a neurology ambulatory. Most caregivers presented moderate resilience. Linear regression showed that some factors interfered with caregivers’ resilience, being those: overload, the increment of days dedicated to caregiving, the level of kinship daughter-in-law/son-in-law or spouse, and practice of other activities besides caregiving. The findings can be useful in care-related areas, once we identified variables interfering in resilience, and those can be worked and improved to benefit the caregiver and the patient.

  8. Resilience in Wives of persons with Alcoholism: An Indian exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pradeep R; Britto, Carl; Sudevan, Kevin Jude; Bosco, Ashish; Sreedaran, Priya; Ashok, Mysore V

    2018-01-01

    Mental health has currently shifted focus from "deficit" to strength-based approaches such as Resilience. Coping styles and personality factors have been well studied in Wives of persons with Alcoholism (WopA) but not Resilience. Alcohol dependence in spouse is seen as an adversity. To evaluate Resilience in the WopA and explore its relationship with marital quality and clinical variables of Alcohol Dependence in their husbands. A cross-sectional study in a tertiary care hospital in Bangalore, Karnataka. WopA (n=34) between 25-55 years, were assessed for Resilience using Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), while marital quality was assessed using Marital Quality Scale (MQS). The Severity of Alcohol Dependence, Age of onset of Initiation, Age of onset of Problem Drinking, and Age of onset of Dependence were evaluated in their husbands. Independent sample t -test, Chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation were used. Majority of the WopA (82%) scored low on the RSA. Low Resilience (LR) WopA scored significantly lower on all factors of RSA except the perception of future; in comparison to High Resilience (HR) WopA. Additionally, the LR WopA reported significantly poorer marital quality. Most WopA had low Resilience. LR WopA also had significantly poor marital quality. These findings need to be studied further in a larger population with culturally appropriate scales. The low scoring Resilience factors amongst WopA may be utilized in strength-based psychotherapeutic approaches. There is a need to improve the understanding of Resilience and its assessment in this population.

  9. Interrogating resilience: toward a typology to improve its operationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L. Davidson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of accelerated global change, the concept of resilience, with its roots in ecological theory and complex adaptive systems, has emerged as the favored framework for understanding and responding to the dynamics of change. Its transfer from ecological to social contexts, however, has led to the concept being interpreted in multiple ways across numerous disciplines causing significant challenges for its practical application. The aim of this paper is to improve conceptual clarity within resilience thinking so that resilience can be interpreted and articulated in ways that enhance its utility and explanatory power, not only theoretically but also operationally. We argue that the current confusion and ambiguity within resilience thinking is problematic for operationalizing the concept within policy making. To achieve our aim, we interrogate resilience interpretations used within a number of academic and practice domains in the forefront of contending with the disruptive and sometimes catastrophic effects of global change (primarily due to climate change on ecological and human-nature systems. We demonstrate evolution and convergence among disciplines in the interpretations and theoretical underpinnings of resilience and in engagement with cross-scale considerations. From our analysis, we identify core conceptual elements to be considered in policy responses if resilience is to fulfill its potential in improving decision making for change. We offer an original classification of resilience definitions in current use and a typology of resilience interpretations. We conclude that resilience thinking must be open to alternative traditions and interpretations if it is to become a theoretically and operationally powerful paradigm.

  10. Achieving enhanced organisational resilience by improved management of risk: Summary of research into the principles of resilience and the practices of resilient organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, Paul

    There have been many high-profile incidents in recent times that have affected both individual organisations and large parts of society. In response to these disasters and their consequences, there has been increasing focus on the concept of 'resilience'. Airmic worked with Cranfield School of Management to investigate the features of resilient organisations and whether common characteristics could be identified. The research summarised in this paper discovered five principles that increase an organisation's level of resilence. The paper also reports on the actions taken by organisations to embed these resilience principles into four main business enablers. These business enablers in combination represent the business model of the organisation. The overall conclusion of the research was that, in order to achieve a state of enhanced resilience, organisations need to be aware of risks and threats they face and then combine the actions required to be 'risk compliant' with the ability to be 'risk responsive'.

  11. A new multidimensional measure of personal resilience and its use: Chinese nurse resilience, organizational socialization and career success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Taormina, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    This study refined the concept of resilience and developed four valid and reliable subscales to measure resilience, namely, Determination, Endurance, Adaptability and Recuperability. The study also assessed their hypothesized relationships with six antecedent variables (worry, physiological needs satisfaction, organizational socialization, conscientiousness, future orientation and Chinese values) and with one outcome variable (nurses' career success). The four new 10-item subscale measures of personal resilience were constructed based on their operational definitions and tested for their validity and reliability. All items were included in a questionnaire completed by 244 full-time nurses at two hospitals in China. All four measures demonstrated concurrent validity and had high reliabilities (from 0.74 to 0.78). The hypothesized correlations with the personality and organizational variables were statistically significant and in the predicted directions. Regression analyses confirmed these relationships, which explained 25-32% of the variance for the four resilience facets and 27% of the variance for the nurses' career success. The results provided strong evidence that organizational socialization facilitates resilience, that resilience engenders career success and that identifying the four resilience facets permits a more complete understanding of personal resilience, which could benefit nurses, help nurse administrators with their work and also help in treating patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Development of a Climate Resilience Screening Index (CRSI): An Assessment of Resilience to Acute Meteorological Events and Selected Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a conceptual model of climate resilience (CRSI – Climate Resilience Screening Index ) designed to be sensitive to changes in the natural environment, built environment, governance, and social structure and vulnerability or risk to climate events. CRSI has been used ...

  13. Adolescent fatherhood: Risk factor or resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Benatuil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the adolescent pregnancy has been historically centered in the mother, the preponderant focus has been considers the maternity in this stage of the vital cycle as a factor of risk. Nowadays, have begun some studies that focus the problem of the adolescent pregnancy being centered in the father’s figure to appear and proposing a healthy focus, starting from the introduction of such concepts like Resilience. The present article, is a theoretical work, it is carried out to leave of secondary data. The objective is the compilation of studies and information on the subject of adolescent fatherhood from a less explored focus, considering the factors of risk and resilience. Different studies are raised with Latin American youths. Also are analyzed the access possibilities to the sanitary system from the youths, the knowledge of birth-control methods and the participation in programs of reproductive health. It outlines the importance of including the males in the whole process of procreation and the boy’s upbringing. 

  14. Resilience-promoting factors in war-exposed adolescents: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyad, John; Cordahi-Tabet, C; Yeretzian, J; Salamoun, M; Najm, C; Karam, E G

    2017-02-01

    Studies of war-exposed children have not investigated a comprehensive array of resilience-promoting factors, nor representative samples of children and adolescents. A representative sample of N = 710 adolescents was randomly selected from communities recently exposed to war. All those who had experienced war trauma were administered questionnaires measuring war exposure, family violence, availability of leisure activities, school-related problems, interpersonal and peer problems, socialization, daily routine problems, displacement, availability of parental supervision and contact and medical needs as well as coping skills related to religious coping, denial, self-control, avoidance and problem solving. Mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Child-Revised Impact of Events Scale (CRIES). Resilient adolescents were defined as those who experienced war trauma, but did not manifest any symptoms on the SDQ or CRIES. Resilience was related to being male, using problem-solving techniques, having leisure activities, and having parents who spent time with their adolescents and who supported them with school work. Interventions designed for war-traumatized youth must build individual coping skills of children and adolescents, yet at the same time target parents and teachers in an integrated manner.

  15. Whole Community Resilience: Engaging Multiple Sectors with the Coastal Community Resilience Index and the Climate and Resilience Community of Practice in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempier, T.

    2017-12-01

    Communicating risk due to flooding, sea level rise, storm surge, and other natural hazards is a complex task when attempting to build resilience in coastal communities. There are a number of challenges related to preparing for, responding to, and recovering from coastal storms. Successful resilience planning must include a wide range of sectors including, but not limited to local government, business, non-profit, religious, academia, and healthcare. Years of experience working with communities in the Gulf of Mexico has helped create a process that is both inclusive and effective at bringing the right people to the table and gaining momentum towards resilience efforts. The Coastal Community Resilience Index (CRI), a self-assessment for community leaders, has been implemented in 54 Gulf communities with funding that provides small grant awards to help communities take action to address gaps and vulnerabilities identified in the assessment process. To maintain momentum with resilience actions, the Gulf Climate and Resilience Community of Practice (CoP) encourages local municipality participants to share lessons learned and best practices from their implementation projects in an annual symposium. Recently, both graduate and undergraduate students have been exposed to the CRI and CoP as avenues to work through solutions to complex problems at the local level. In addition, a new generation of high school students has been introduced to the CRI. Their engagement in the process is building a more informed citizenry that will take on the leadership and decision-making roles in the future. Investing in multiple age groups and sectors through the CRI and CoP is building capacity for whole community resilience in the Gulf of Mexico. This presentation will focus on methods that have been successful in the Gulf of Mexico for creating effective change in local municipalities towards resilience actions. Discussion will include decision support tools for engaging local

  16. Why resilience is unappealing to social science: Theoretical and empirical investigations of the scientific use of resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Lennart; Jerneck, Anne; Thoren, Henrik; Persson, Johannes; O’Byrne, David

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is often promoted as a boundary concept to integrate the social and natural dimensions of sustainability. However, it is a troubled dialogue from which social scientists may feel detached. To explain this, we first scrutinize the meanings, attributes, and uses of resilience in ecology and elsewhere to construct a typology of definitions. Second, we analyze core concepts and principles in resilience theory that cause disciplinary tensions between the social and natural sciences (system ontology, system boundary, equilibria and thresholds, feedback mechanisms, self-organization, and function). Third, we provide empirical evidence of the asymmetry in the use of resilience theory in ecology and environmental sciences compared to five relevant social science disciplines. Fourth, we contrast the unification ambition in resilience theory with methodological pluralism. Throughout, we develop the argument that incommensurability and unification constrain the interdisciplinary dialogue, whereas pluralism drawing on core social scientific concepts would better facilitate integrated sustainability research. PMID:26601176

  17. Uncertain Governance and Resilient Subjects in the Risk Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat O'Malley

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade or so, a series of new or revitalised strategies have been promoted to govern the highly uncertain threats that risk appears no longer able to prevent. Most owe their ascendancy to the lessons of 9/11, and the ‘bureaucratising of imagination’ that US sources have proposed as a response, by centring the possible, or even merely imaginable, rather than the statistically probable. Precaution, preparedness and speculative pre-emption have been particularly prominent, although new hybrid statistical and speculative techniques have broadened risk techniques to cope with labile conditions of high uncertainty. But while diverse, each establishes a negative and defensive framework of ‘freedom from’ that has been associated with creating a ’neurotic subject’. In the past decade, programs of resilience, and particularly resiliency training, have been developed with the aim of creating subjects able to thrive and prosper under conditions of extreme uncertainty. They constitute a form of governance promoting a positive ‘freedom to’. Reflecting many of the assumptions and goals of neo-liberal politics, resiliency has already emerged as a principal technology for military and business, and may be the answer to the neo-liberal dream of a society of extreme entrepreneurs. Durante la última década, se han promovido varias estrategias nuevas o renovadas destinadas a gestionar amenazas que el riesgo ya no parece capaz de prevenir. La mayoría deben su predominancia a las lecciones aprendidas tras el 11-S, y la “burocratización de la imaginación” que las fuentes estadounidenses han propuesto como respuesta, predominando lo posible, o incluso simplemente lo imaginable, por encima de lo estadísticamente probable. Han predominado la precaución, preparación y especulación preventivas, aunque las nuevas técnicas estadísticas y especulativas híbridas han ampliado las técnicas de riesgo para hacer frente a las

  18. The SAMCO Web-platform for resilience assessment in mountainous valleys impacted by landslide risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Thomas, Loic; Bernardie, Severine

    2016-04-01

    The ANR-SAMCO project aims to develop a proactive resilience framework enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks. The project aims to elaborate methodological tools to characterize and measure ecosystem and societal resilience from an operative perspective on three mountain representative case studies. To achieve this objective, the methodology is split in several points: (1) the definition of the potential impacts of global environmental changes (climate system, ecosystem e.g. land use, socio-economic system) on landslide hazards, (2) the analysis of these consequences in terms of vulnerability (e.g. changes in the location and characteristics of the impacted areas and level of their perturbation) and (3) the implementation of a methodology for quantitatively investigating and mapping indicators of mountain slope vulnerability exposed to several hazard types, and the development of a GIS-based demonstration platform available on the web. The strength and originality of the SAMCO project lies in the combination of different techniques, methodologies and models (multi-hazard assessment, risk evolution in time, vulnerability functional analysis, and governance strategies) that are implemented in a user-oriented web-platform, currently in development. We present the first results of this development task, architecture and functions of the web-tools, the case studies database showing the multi-hazard maps and the stakes at risks. Risk assessment over several area of interest in Alpine or Pyrenean valleys are still in progress, but the first analyses are presented for current and future periods for which climate change and land-use (economical, geographical and social aspects) scenarios are taken into account. This tool, dedicated to stakeholders, should be finally used to evaluate resilience of mountainous regions since multiple scenarios can be tested and compared.

  19. Generic metrics and quantitative approaches for system resilience as a function of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Devanandham; Emmanuel Ramirez-Marquez, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Resilience is generally understood as the ability of an entity to recover from an external disruptive event. In the system domain, a formal definition and quantification of the concept of resilience has been elusive. This paper proposes generic metrics and formulae for quantifying system resilience. The discussions and graphical examples illustrate that the quantitative model is aligned with the fundamental concept of resilience. Based on the approach presented it is possible to analyze resilience as a time dependent function in the context of systems. The paper describes the metrics of network and system resilience, time for resilience and total cost of resilience. Also the paper describes the key parameters necessary to analyze system resilience such as the following: disruptive events, component restoration and overall resilience strategy. A road network example is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed resilience metrics and how these analyses form the basis for developing effective resilience design strategies. The metrics described are generic enough to be implemented in a variety of applications as long as appropriate figures-of-merit and the necessary system parameters, system decomposition and component parameters are defined. - Highlights: ► Propose a graphical model for the understanding of the resilience process. ► Mathematical description of resilience as a function of time. ► Identification of necessary concepts to define and evaluate network resilience. ► Development of cost and time to recovery metrics based on resilience formulation.

  20. Case study: Promoting community resilience with local values – Greenland's Paamiut Asasara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter; Larsen, Line Natascha; de Casas Soberón, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience.......The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience....