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  1. Autodesk Maya 2014 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Naas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The premiere book on getting started with Maya 2014 Whether you're just beginning, or migrating from another 3D application, this step-by-step guide is what you need to get a good working knowledge of Autodesk Maya 2014. Beautifully illustrated with full-color examples and screenshots, Autodesk Maya 2014 Essentials explains the basics of Maya as well as modeling, texturing, animating, setting a scene, and creating visual effects. You'll absorb important concepts and techniques, and learn how to confidently use Maya tools the way professionals do. Each chapter includes fun and cha

  2. Introducing Maya 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Dariush

    2010-01-01

    A practical, step-by-step guide to Maya 2011. Four previous editions can't be wrong: this book is the perfect introduction to 3D and Maya. Learn to build and animate your own digital models and scenes with step-by-step instruction and fun and practical examples, while you draw inspiration from the striking examples included from talented Maya users. You'll create a simple animation of the planets in the solar system, learn to model a human hand and a decorative box?among other projects?and master all essential tools.: Provides a thorough, step-by-step introduction to Maya 2011; Explains the co

  3. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Provides hands-on intermediate-to-advanced coverage of the leading 3D software Maya is the industry-leading 3D animation and effects software used in movies, visual effects, games, and other genres. For intermediate and advanced users who already know Maya basics, this official Maya guide provides the detailed coverage you need to unlock the software's more complex features. Elevate your skills in modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects, and gain proficiency in high-level techniques for film, television, game development, and more. Artists who are already proficient in Maya basics

  4. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The exclusive, official guide to the very latest version of Maya Get extensive, hands-on, intermediate to advanced coverage of Autodesk Maya 2012, the top-selling 3D software on the market. If you already know Maya basics, this authoritative book takes you to the next level. From modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides professional-level Maya instruction. With pages of scenarios and examples from some of the leading professionals in the industry, author Todd Palamar will help you master the entire CG

  5. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A beautifully-packaged, advanced reference on the very latest version of Maya. If you already know the basics of Maya, the latest version of this authoritative book takes you to the next level. From modeling, texturing, animation, and visual effects to high-level techniques for film, television, games, and more, this book provides professional-level Maya instruction. With pages of scenarios and examples from some of the leading professionals in the industry, this book will help you master the entire CG production pipeline.: Provides professional-level instruction on Maya, the industry-leading

  6. Maya Studio Projects Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The only hands-on book devoted to mastering Maya's dynamics tools for water, wind, and fire. In the world of animation, the ability to create realistic water, wind, and fire effects is key. Autodesk Maya software includes powerful dynamics tools that have been used to design breathtaking effects for movies, games, commercials, and short films. This professional guide teaches you the primary techniques you need to make the most of Maya's toolkit, so you'll soon be creating water that ripples, gusting winds and gentle breezes, and flickering fires the way Hollywood pros do. The one-of-a-kind boo

  7. Mastering Autodesk Maya 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Hands-on intermediate-to-advanced coverage of the leading 3D software Autodesk Maya is the industry-leading 3D animation and effects software used in movies, visual effects, games, and other genres. If you already know the basics of Maya and are ready to elevate your skills, then this book is for you. Nearly 1,000 pages are packed with organized, professional, and valuable insight on the leading 3D application on the market, enabling you to unlock the software's more complex features. Ideal as both a tutorial and study guide for the Autodesk Maya exam, this Autodesk Official Press

  8. Introducing Autodesk Maya 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Derakhshani, Dariush

    2011-01-01

    A practical, step-by-step guide to Maya 2012 This book is the ideal primer to getting started with Maya, the premier 3D animation and effects software used in movies, visual effects, games, cartoons, short films, and commercials. You'll learn the Maya interface and the basics of modeling, texturing, animating, and visual effects. Professional visual effects artist and instructor Dariush Derakhshani explains the nuances of the complex software, while creative tutorials offer realistic, professional challenges for those new to 3D. You'll be up and running in no time with the world's most popular

  9. Distribution of metals in vacuum residuums, asphaltenes and maltenes by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero G, E.T.; Camacho M, V.; Sanchez B, A.C.; Lopez M, J.; Ramirez T, J.J.; Villasenor S, P.; Aspiazu F, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The PIXE technique for determining directly the distribution and abundance of trace metals in vacuum residuum, asphaltenes and maltenes separated with n-alkanes (C 5 -C 8 ) is used. The metal content of petroleum derivatives revealed that the vacuum residuum contains iron, aluminium, vanadium and nickel mainly, while that the asphaltenes and maltenes maintain inside of their composition only preferably the vanadium and nickel as majority elements. (Author)

  10. Practical Maya programming with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Galanakis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    ""Practical Maya Programming with Python"" is a practical tutorial packed with plenty of examples and sample projects which guides you through building reusable, independent modules and handling unexpected errors. If you are a developer looking to build a powerful system using Python and Maya's capabilities, then this book is for you. Practical Maya Programming with Python is perfect for intermediate users with basic experience in Python and Maya who want to better their knowledge and skills.

  11. Dissolution and transport of coal tar compounds in fractured clay-rich residuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry D.; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2012-01-01

    the importance of rapid dissolution and transport through the fracture networks. The concentrations continued to rise but did not reach the corresponding effective solubility limit in most cases. Compounds that were less soluble and those that were more susceptible to sorption or matrix diffusion eluted...... at a much slower rate. Analysis of contaminant concentrations in microcore residuum samples indicated that all 10 compounds had spread throughout the entire monolith and had diffused into the fine-grained matrix between fractures. These data suggest that the predominantly fine pore structure did not appear......We investigated the dissolution and transport of organic contaminants from a crude coal tar mixture in a monolith of fractured clay-rich residuum. An electrolyte solution was eluted through the residuum monolith containing a small emplaced source of coal tar under biologically inhibited and mildly...

  12. Autodesk Maya 2013 Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Naas, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Recommnded text for those preparing for the Maya Associate exam Maya, the industry-leading 3D animation and effects software used in movies, games, cartoons, and commercials, is challenging to learn. This full-color guide features approachable, hands-on exercises and additional task-based tutorials that allow new users to quickly become productive with the program and familiar with its workflow in a professional environment. You'll learn the basics of modeling, texturing, animating, and lighting; explore different parts of the production pipeline; and practice on some real-world projects. Ma

  13. Les Mayas à Hollywood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Jeanne

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Les Mayas de nos jours ce sont surtout des grandes pyramides au milieu de la forêt à un jet d’avion de Cancún : pour nombre de touristes américains et européens, c’est une occasion de s’acoquiner avec la culture, la grande culture des civilisations perdues, en continuant de boire des piña coladas le soir au bord de la plage. Et puis au mois de décembre les Mayas ont débarqué en force dans le paysage culturel local des Américains et des Européens, dans leurs cinémas, au moyen de deux films in...

  14. Entre velos: Maya para contrabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa María Rodríguez Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Maya para contrabajo se materializa a partir de una imagen de Pepe Romero, cuyo texto interpreta a La decadencia de la mentira de Oscar Wilde. La estructura de Maya es binaria, especular y asimétrica; su poética obedece al juego verdad/mentira que subyace en la obra artística y en la vivencia del artista. Maya trae a la memoria las voces de los Upanishad, Schopenhauer, Shakespeare y Beethoven, influencias éstas en la obra de Wagner y, todas ellas, en la de Eliot. Los aspectos gestuales y visu...

  15. Maya Studio Projects Photorealistic Characters

    CERN Document Server

    Palamar, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Create realistic characters with Maya tools and this project-based book Maya character generation tools are extremely sophisticated, and there's no better way to learn all their capabilities than by working through the projects in this hands-on book. This official guide focuses on understanding and implementing Maya's powerful tools for creating realistic characters for film, games, and TV. Use a variety of tools to create characters from skeleton to clothing, including hairstyles and facial hair, and learn how to use Performance Capture. A DVD includes supplementary videos, project support fi

  16. Entre velos: Maya para contrabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Rodríguez Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maya para contrabajo se materializa a partir de una imagen de Pepe Romero, cuyo texto interpreta a La decadencia de la mentira de Oscar Wilde. La estructura de Maya es binaria, especular y asimétrica; su poética obedece al juego verdad/mentira que subyace en la obra artística y en la vivencia del artista. Maya trae a la memoria las voces de los Upanishad, Schopenhauer, Shakespeare y Beethoven, influencias éstas en la obra de Wagner y, todas ellas, en la de Eliot. Los aspectos gestuales y visuales de Maya entrelazan con la danza de Pina Bausch y con la retórica (hypotiposis.

  17. Study of the Maya concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz C, H.

    2000-01-01

    The materials with which were constructed the buildings of the archaeological zone at the Maya culture were studied. Studies about the chemical composition of cement samples used in the construction of the Maya buildings were realized. The cement used was the same in all archaeological zones studied. The cement constituted the cementing matrix to obtain its derivatives: stuccos, mortars and, concretes. It was found that the Maya cement although has a variable chemical composition in its constitutive elements percentages, it is composed basically of calcite with fortuitous combinations of dolomite and clay materials, this last was founded in variable quantities from 0 % up to 10 % weight. The Maya cement was characterized as a variety of natural cement. The analysis and elemental chemical characterization was realized through the Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic techniques. Therefore the microstructural characterization and the elemental chemical analysis were realized with a Scanning Electron microscope Phillips model XL30. The X-ray diffraction analysis was realized with a dust diffractometer Siemens D5000 operating at 30 KeV. The study of spectrograph was realized with an Emission spectrograph at 3 m focal distance model GX-1 Baird Atomic. (Author)

  18. Population structure of the Classic period Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Andrew K

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the population structure of Classic period (A.D. 250-900) Maya populations through analysis of odontometric variation of 827 skeletons from 12 archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. The hypothesis that isolation by distance characterized Classic period Maya population structure is tested using Relethford and Blangero's (Hum Biol 62 (1990) 5-25) approach to R matrix analysis for quantitative traits. These results provide important biological data for understanding ancient Maya population history, particularly the effects of the competing Tikal and Calakmul hegemonies on patterns of lowland Maya site interaction. An overall F(ST) of 0.018 is found for the Maya area, indicating little among-group variation for the Classic Maya sites tested. Principal coordinates plots derived from the R matrix analysis show little regional patterning in the data, though the geographic outliers of Kaminaljuyu and a pooled Pacific Coast sample did not cluster with the lowland Maya sites. Mantel tests comparing the biological distance matrix to a geographic distance matrix found no association between genetic and geographic distance. In the Relethford-Blangero analysis, most sites possess negative or near-zero residuals, indicating minimal extraregional gene flow. The exceptions were Barton Ramie, Kaminaljuyu, and Seibal. A scaled R matrix analysis clarifies that genetic drift is a consideration for understanding Classic Maya population structure. All results indicate that isolation by distance does not describe Classic period Maya population structure. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Competing discourses of the “Maya Past”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Fay Brown

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the "Maya past" for tourism marketing purposes has been a successful tool for attracting international visitors to Mexico for decades. Images of the Maya zone emerge, in part, from an academic focus on the "Maya past" that includes curiosity about the so-called "collapse" of the Classic Maya civilization. The Ancient Maya are seen as “mysterious" and their society as "enigmatic". But the voices of the almost thirty million Maya people who live in Mexico and Guatemala are only vaguely heard in the discourses of tourism and of academia. This paper examines three competing discourses of the Maya and proposes that these discourses represent epistemologies that are nested in relationships of power, such that the Maya discourse is silenced. As such, the dominant discourses of the Maya past can undermine the Maya understanding of their own past, and become a self-fulfilling prophecy regarding the “collapse” of the contemporary Maya.

  20. Freeing Maya Angelou's Caged Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Joyce L.

    1991-01-01

    This study involves a comprehensive examination of one book, Maya Angelou's autobiographical I Know Why Why the Caged Bird Sings, since it was first published in 1970. Recognized as an important literary work, the novel is used in many middle and secondary school classrooms throughout the united States. Additionally, the work often is challenged in public schools on the grounds of its sexual and/or racial content. The purpose of this study included establishing th...

  1. Directional layouts in central lowland Maya settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the existence of non-random, directional patterns in the location of housemounds across the Late Classic Maya settlement landscape at Baking Pot, Belize, and then explores the wider implications of this patterning in the central Maya lowlands. It introduces an anisotropic method...

  2. Properties and application of magnetite-bearing leaching residuum in metals ions removal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hredzak, S.; Vaclavikova, M.; Jakabsky, S.; Lovas, M.; Macasek, F.; Kufcakova, J.; Rajec, P.; Kopunec, R.

    2003-01-01

    The utility of magnetic sorbents is their potential application in heterogeneous systems like suspensions and body liquids, where they can be specifically removed in a magnetic field. Last not least, also the residues of leached iron-nickel laterite ores at the former Sered (Slovakia) hydrometallurgical plant were found to be a suitable magnetic sorbent for the removal of radionuclides and toxic elements from suspensions. Thus, the promising field of utilising of a stock of six million tons, which represents a local environmental problem because of the resulting spread of the so called black dusts, and the chromium contamination of underground waters, is the application in the decontamination of soils. The properties of the Sered residuum (further: SOR) are introduced. SOR, the raw and mechano-chemically activated by the grinding in potassium ferrocyanide solution in vibrating, ball or attrition mills, were used as a semi-natural magnetic sorbent. The parameters of raw and activated SOR are presented. The vibrating mill activation appears as the most efficient in respect of its activation, though the biggest increase of specific surface was achieved by attrition grinding. The soil in vicinity of nuclear facilities is generally contaminated by caesium-137, cobalt-60 and strontium-90 and should be decontaminated down the level of radiocaesium of about 1 kBq/kg. For this reason the sorption properties for Cs + , Sr 2+ , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ ions were evaluated. The Toth sorption isotherm was used. Speciation by the Tessier and BCR standard leaching procedures indicates differences between the ions. Raw and activated SOR have convenient sorption properties for caesium, strontium, lead and partially also for trivalent lanthanides. That, together with SOR magnetic properties makes them promising for treatment of radioactive contaminated soils and sediments. Sorption of anions was demonstrated by TcO 4- sorption as a result of secondary ion-exchange mechanism. The results of

  3. Conclusive experimental study of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition. Run-F9-1, Run-F9-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya

    2004-04-01

    Nitrogen gas can be an extinguisher or a mitigating material in the case of sodium leak and fire accident in an air atmosphere, which may occur at a liquid metal cooled nuclear power plant. However, sodium combustion residuum sometimes reignites in the air atmosphere even at room temperature when it was produced by nitrogen gas injection to the burning sodium. Then, in this study we executed conclusive experiments of prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition by a mixture of carbon-dioxide (CO 2 ) gas, humidity and nitrogen gas. The experiments were carried out with the FRAT-1 test equipment; the humidity conditions were changed in air which were used to sodium combustion atmosphere and exposure air for confirmation of prevented combustion residue reignition. First of all, the sodium of about 2.5 kg was leaked in air atmosphere, and next, the sodium combustion was stopped by nitrogen gas injection. Next, the combustion residuum was cooled in the nitrogen atmosphere, and then the combustion residuum was exposed to atmosphere of carbon-dioxide (4%); humidity (6000vppm); oxygen (3%)-nitrogen (based gas) mixture. It was confirmed that the combustion residuum was not reignition even if exposed to the air atmosphere again at the end of experiment. We had confirmed that the prevention measures against sodium combustion residuum reignition to establish by this research were effective. (author)

  4. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  5. Ownership of Language in Yucatec Maya Revitalization Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrettaz, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    This classroom-based study examined a Yucatec Maya language course for teachers and the pedagogical implementation of national language policy in Mexico. Analysis of this teacher education program focused on various dimensions of teachers' Maya-language expertise, the teaching of the emergent standard Maya, and hegemonic constructions of…

  6. Ars disyecta Ars disyecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Castillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bajo la nominación Ars Disyecta se busca exponer el vínculo entre artes visuales, feminismo y metamorfosis. Las prácticas artísticas feministas aquí presentadas se proponen perturbar el espacio metafórico heredado de la diferencia sexual (pensemos, por ejemplo, en las palabras engendramiento, matriz, vida, compenetración o invaginamiento. En este sentido, la nominación Ars disyecta pone en escena un conjunto de prácticas e intervenciones que intentan interrumpir la matriz de la diferencia, desestabilizando lo femenino desde aquellas figuras que se resisten a la lógica de la totalidad y de un tiempo propio. Buscando seguir la huella de un arte disyecto es que interrogaré en este ensayo aquellas autorías feministas que en el arte contemporáneo trafican con las huellas del contagio, la mutación y la alteridad.This article aims to present the relation between visual arts, feminism I and metamorphosis. The feminist artistic practices portrayed in this article attempt to question categories inherited from the metaphor of sexual difference such as engendering, matrix and life. From this perspective, Ars disyecta will establish a set of artistic practices and interventions that intend to interrupt the proper idea of «feminine difference». Following this line of argument, I will discuss in this article a few contemporary feminist works of art that could be defined by words such as contagious, mutation and otherness.

  7. MAYAS, SPIRITUALITY, AND THE UNFINISHED HISTORY OF CONFLICT IN GUATEMALA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servando Z. Hinojosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Maya spiritual practice in Guatemala has been actively challenged by mainstream religions and by pressures originating from other institutions. Many Maya ritualists have been directly reproached by religious leaders and have been targeted by a state apparatus that associates rural Maya life with insurgency. As a result, many Maya spiritual elements have been pushed to, and kept at, the margins of society. Focusing on the past two decades, this essay reviews how Mayas nevertheless maintain an active ritual life. They do this by engaging in a close relationship with the spirit-owners of the landscape, beings upon whom humans depend for their sustenance and life. They do this, also, in the face of many challenges from organized religions, the educational system, and the military. Having considered the effects of these institutions upon Maya spirituality, I then put forward some concerns Mayas face when addressing how to value and promote Maya spiritual practices in Guatemala. In addition to encouraging young Mayas to uphold their heritage, Mayas may need to prevail upon Catholic and evangelical Protestant congregations to suspend judgment about Maya spirituality and to acknowledge its far-reaching importance in culturally pluralistic society.

  8. Poetizas mayas:subjetividades contra la corriente

    OpenAIRE

    Maya, Gloria Chacón

    2013-01-01

    Este ensayo examina la emergencia de poetisas mayas en México y Guatemala como parte de un movimiento indígena ás amplio que clama su derecho a la diferencia cultural. Arguyo que aunque la mujer maya está inmersa en los discursos del nacionalismo oficial, nacionalismos étnicos y feminismos occidentales, crea sus propias subjetividades multidimensionales, vía la poesía. El análisis se enfoca en la resignificación de símbolos culturales tradicionales y la negociación de cultura, poder y género....

  9. The Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation resulting in the destruction of environmental and archeological resources. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

  10. Maya Studio Projects Texturing and Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lanier, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create realistic digital assets for film and games with this project-based guide Focused entirely on practical projects, this hands-on guide shows you how to use Maya's texturing and lighting tools in real-world situations. Whether you need to sharpen your skills or you're looking to break into the field for the first time, you'll learn top industry techniques for this important skill as you follow the instructions for several specific projects. You can even create your own version, using final Maya scene files to validate results. The companion DVD includes supplemental videos, proje

  11. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  12. Cacao usage by the earliest Maya civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Tarka, Stanley M; Powis, Terry G; Valdez, Fred; Hester, Thomas R

    2002-07-18

    The Maya archaeological site at Colha in northern Belize, Central America, has yielded several spouted ceramic vessels that contain residues from the preparation of food and beverages. Here we analyse dry residue samples by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry, and show that chocolate (Theobroma cacao) was consumed by the Preclassic Maya as early as 600 bc, pushing back the earliest chemical evidence of cacao use by some 1,000 years. Our application of this new and highly sensitive analytical technique could be extended to the identification of other ancient foods and beverages.

  13. The Moon In The Classic Maya World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Giuliano

    During the Classic Period of the Maya civilization (250-900 A.D.) we have many documents in which it is possible to see the interest of this people on the principal lunar phenomena as the phases and the eclipses in particular. On a number of stelae, lintels and many other inscriptions (in Copan, Quirigua, Tikal, etc.), we can see that in correspondence of the dedication date of the monument, the Maya point out the phase of the Moon and its position in a period of six months corresponding to half year of eclipse. In some parts of the Dresda Codex (one of the four original codices of the Maya) we can see some pages in which were indicated the days of the Tzolkin calendar (the religious calendar of 260 days) in which it is possible to observe a lunar or solar eclipse. The periods of 177 or 148 days are allotted in a sequence that corresponds to the exact interval between the eclipses. The accuracy in the observations and in the calculations of the phases of the Moon, also in very old epochs, is an interesting evidence of the fundamental importance of the Moon in the Maya civilisation.

  14. Egyptians, Maya, Minoans. Learning Works Enrichment Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Susanna

    The activities in this instructional resource book are designed to be used by gifted 4-8th grade students as independent research guides or in guided or cooperative learning environments. The activities are organized in three sections which focus the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Maya, and Minoa. The activities presented encourage development of…

  15. Does the Maya Forest Need More Roads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Ramos, Victor Hugo; Burgués, Irene

    levels of poverty found in this area. But more and better roads usually bring more people and expand farms. Decision-makers are therefore confronted with a seeming conflict between conservation and development goals. Would new roads be bad or good for the Maya Forest region? To help answer that question...

  16. Man and climate in the Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, Barbara W.

    1987-11-01

    A 15-m sedimentary core from Lake Salpeten provides the first complete Holocene sequence for the lowlying Peten District, Guatemala. Today, Lake Salpeten is a brackish, calcium sulfate lake near saturation surrounded by tropical semievergreen forest. The basal pollen record depicts sparse juniper scrub surrounding a lake basin that held ephermal pools and halophytic marshes. The lake rapidly deepened to > 27 m in the early Holocene and may have been meromictic, because nearly 2 m of gypsum "mush" was deposited. Mesic forests were quickly established and persisted until the Maya entered the district 3000 yr ago and caused extensive deforestation. Any climatic information contained in the pollen record of the Maya period is thus masked, but a regional pollen sequence linked to the archaeological record is substantiated because environmental disturbance was pervasive. Local intensification of occupation and population growth are seen as an increased deposition of pollen of agricultural weeds and colluviation into the lake, while the Classic Maya collapse is marked by a temporary decline in Compositae pollen. Effects of perturbations induced by the Maya persist in the pollen and limnetic record 400 yr after the Spanish conquest.

  17. Perspectives on Ancient Maya Rural Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Iannone, Gyles; Connell, Samuel V

    2003-01-01

    Settlement archaeology in the Maya area has focused much of its attention on the polar extremes of the settlement continuum. As a result of this urban/rural bias, a whole range of complex rural settlements remain under-explored. The chapters in this volume highlight the variable quality of these "middle level settlements".

  18. Personhood in Maya Art : a theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio, Laura Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to a traditional ethno-archaeological approach, in which contemporary communities are mined for information that can be applied to the past, this study considers that the interpretation of Maya material culture belongs to the people whose identity has been formed within the natural and

  19. A water storage adaptation in the maya lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, V L; Gallopin, G G

    1991-02-08

    Prehispanic water management in the Maya Lowlands emphasized collection and storage rather than the canalization and diversion accentuated in highland Mexico. Reexamination of site maps of the ancient Maya city of Tikal, Guatemala, has revealed an important, overlooked factor in Maya centralization and urban settlement organization. In a geographical zone affected by an extended dry season and away from permanent water sources, large, well-planned reservoirs provided resource control as well as political leverage.

  20. Collapse, conquest and Maya survival at Lamanai, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graham

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The Maya civilization of Central America prompts visions of mysterious stone temples now buried in tropical forest. It is commonly supposed to have collapsed suddenly in the ninth century AD, but some Maya settlements, such as Lamanai, survived into the colonial period. Here a new member of the Institute's academic staff gives a personal account of how working in Belize transformed her understanding of Maya civilization and its aftermath.

  1. Collapse, conquest and Maya survival at Lamanai, Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    The Maya civilization of Central America prompts visions of mysterious stone temples now buried in tropical forest. It is commonly supposed to have collapsed suddenly in the ninth century AD, but some Maya settlements, such as Lamanai, survived into the colonial period. Here a new member of the Institute's academic staff gives a personal account of how working in Belize transformed her understanding of Maya civilization and its aftermath.

  2. Stars Influence on the Earth in Maya Culture: Stars and Planets in Maya Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Mesoamerican Culture of Maya’s was one of the ancient and advanced cultures of the American continent and they influenced other Amerindian peoples. The life of Maya people, of the Earth itself and of the Universe is set and constructed around Maya Calendar and has a cyclic character as a direct influence of the stars. Many centuries the Western civilization with the its linear Calendar had not accepted the ideas of the possible influence of the stars and planets to peoples lives. The end of the last century and the beginning of XXI’s had started to demonstrate the opposite. The present work tries to show the process of meeting and intersection of the ancient ideas of Maya civilization and some of new ideas from the modern sciences.

  3. Delineating genetic relationships among the Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Rivera, Lisa; Mirabal, Sheyla; Regueiro, Manuela M; Herrera, Rene J

    2008-03-01

    By 250 AD, the Classic Maya had become the most advanced civilization within the New World, possessing the only well-developed hieroglyphic writing system of the time and an advanced knowledge of mathematics, astronomy and architecture. Though only ruins of the empire remain, 7.5 million Mayan descendants still occupy areas of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras. Although they inhabit distant and distinct territories, speak more than 28 languages, and have been historically divided by warfare and a city-state-like political system, and they share characteristics such as rituals, artistic, architectural motifs that distinguish them as unequivocally Maya. This study was undertaken to determine whether these similarities among Mayan communities mirror genetic affinities or are merely a reflection of their common culture. Four Mayan populations were investigated (i.e., the K'iche and Kakchikel from Guatemala and the Campeche and Yucatan from Mexico) and compared with previously published populations across 15 autosomal STR loci. As a whole, the Maya emerge as a distinct group within Mesoamerica, indicating that they are more similar to each other than to other Mesoamerican groups. The data suggest that although geographic and political boundaries existed among Mayan communities, genetic exchanges between the different Mayan groups have occurred, supporting theories of extensive trading throughout the empire. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Stones of Light: The Use of Crystals in Maya Divination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, I aim to bridge the rewarding archaeological contributions from the earlier part of this volume to ethnographic work performed among contemporary Mayas, particularly as informed by ritual specialists. In considering the ritual use of quartz crystals by living Mayas we may gain...... of functional analysis that situate archaeological and ethnographic data without projecting a particularism onto Maya contexts that may be inappropriate given the local epistemologies. Finally, I draw from cognitive science and religious studies to present a theory regarding the popularity and importance...... of quartz crystals in ritual activity, not only among the Maya, but worldwide. It is hoped that the analyses presented not only clarify ideas regarding quartz crystals in divination, but more broadly address the nature and importance of scrying in Maya religion....

  5. Implementasi Augmented Reality (AR) Pada Pengenalan Koleksi Museum Aceh Sebagai Sarana Pembelajaran Multimedia Berbasis Android

    OpenAIRE

    Heriza, Rahmat

    2016-01-01

    131421024 Berkembang nya laju teknologi Augmented Reality (AR) membuat kehidupan menjadi lebih real, dengan menggabungkan dunia maya kedalam dunia nyata dalam bentuk 3 Dimensi dengan menggunakan fitur kamera. Tujuan aplikasi ini memberi edukasi dan informasi kepada masyarakat mempelajari koleksi Museum Aceh dengan memanfaatkan teknologi augmented reality. AR sangat membantu dalam visualisasi bentuk objek, maka dengan dibuat nya aplikasi ini sebagai media pembelajaran objek koleksi Museum A...

  6. The ‘End’ of the Maya Long Count? 2012 and the Classic Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Boot

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The second meeting of the AISI (Associazione Italiana Studi Iberoamericani was dedicated to “Apocalypse” in Latin American literature. In the year of 2012 this particular subject was chosen as various non- and pseudo-scientific and New Age publications hold that the Maya Long Count ends in 2012, more specifically on December 21. In this essay I present a short overview on how the idea of an ‘end’ of the Maya Long Count emerged, which ancient Maya hieroglyphic texts (from the Late Classic Maya period, ca. A.D. 550-900 refer to this particular date, and what the only text (from the site of Tortuguero, Tabasco, Mexico that may tell us something on 2012 reveals. I also present a short historic overview of the quality of the drawing of the Tortuguero text and how these influenced earlier decipherments, translations, and interpretations of this text. Ultimately, the hieroglyphic text itself is analyzed and one detail is discusses in more detail, the verb root tzutz- and which different, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, meanings it has in Mayan languages.

  7. The University of Texas Maya Muon Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, Roy

    2007-01-01

    Plans to explore the ruin of a Maya Pyramid in Belize using cosmic ray muon tomography will be described. Muon tomography was pioneered by Luis Alvarez in the 1960's to explore the Second Pyramid of Chephren in Egypt. Improvements in detector technology since the Alvarez experiment suggest that muon tomography may be a practical method for exploring and monitoring relatively large underground volumes when exposure times of order months are acceptable. A prototype detector based on Fermilab/MINOS scintillator strip/WLS fiber technology has been built and is being tested at UT Austin. Initial results using the detector will be discussed.

  8. Ars Electronica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Ars Electronica festivalen 3. - 8. september, 2009 i Linz, Østrig, der fejrede 30 års jubilæum under temaet "Human Nature". Festivalen fokuserer på interaktion mellem menneske, teknologi, kunst og samfund med særlig vægt på udviklingen af computeren og det digitale. Udgivelsesdato: 15.12...

  9. Restricciones culturales en la alimentación de Mayas Chortis y Ladinos del Oriente de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    López García, Julián

    2011-01-01

    Partiendo de las bases metodológicas del análisis simbólico en antropología, la presente tesis pretende desentrañar alguno de los aspectos social y cognitivamente significativos de la alimentación y todo lo asociado a ella en una zona del oriente de Guatemala, jocotan (chiquimula) donde conviven indígenas mayas chortis y ladinos (mestizos). En la tesis que presento he destacado la importancia de la comida en la zona como medio para conocer y atribuir identidades. Así, posibilita la formación ...

  10. Miniature sonar for obstacle detection on samll AUV Maya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Navelkar, G.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Maurya, P.K.; Martins, H.; Madhan, R.; Prabhudesai, S.; Pinto, R.; Marchon, N.

    that are communicated to the mission computer of Maya which uses a distributed CAN network architecture for internal subsystem communications. The mission computer can use this new heading data for navigation accordingly....

  11. Objetual Regime of the Maya during Classic period, a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jaramillo Arango

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the academic archaeology of the 20th Century, objects were only considered as sources for understanding human action. Based on recent theoretic anthropological proposals, this paper proposes a recursive archaeology, that is, to include the Classic Maya concepts as part of our analysis in order to understand things as truly protagonists of social relationships. In the Maya area, objects have different ways of being in the world which have been identified by the archeology of the Classic period: person-objects, parts of a dividual body and machines. These three ways are explored here through archaeologic contexts and epigraphic texts with the aim of approaching the construction of reality of the Classic Maya. With a multidisciplinary analysis that includes archaeology, epigraphy, history, linguistics and anthropology, a high number of examples coming from different regions in the Maya area is examined. Thus, an overall view of this phenomenon is presented.

  12. Recent Advances in Maya Studies Using Remotely Sensed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Irwin, Daniel; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3i radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the baJos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The combination of water management and bajo farming is an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a

  13. Peopling the past: New perspectives on the ancient Maya

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, Cynthia

    2001-01-01

    The new direction in Maya archaeology is toward achieving a greater understanding of people and their roles and their relations in the past. To answer emerging humanistic questions about ancient people's lives Mayanists are increasingly making use of new and existing scientific methods from archaeology and other disciplines. Maya archaeology is bridging the divide between the humanities and sciences to answer questions about ancient people previously considered bey...

  14. Objetual Regime of the Maya during Classic period, a proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jaramillo Arango

    2016-01-01

    Within the academic archaeology of the 20th Century, objects were only considered as sources for understanding human action. Based on recent theoretic anthropological proposals, this paper proposes a recursive archaeology, that is, to include the Classic Maya concepts as part of our analysis in order to understand things as truly protagonists of social relationships. In the Maya area, objects have different ways of being in the world which have been identified by the archeology of the Classic...

  15. Peopling the past: new perspectives on the ancient Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C

    2001-01-02

    The new direction in Maya archaeology is toward achieving a greater understanding of people and their roles and their relations in the past. To answer emerging humanistic questions about ancient people's lives Mayanists are increasingly making use of new and existing scientific methods from archaeology and other disciplines. Maya archaeology is bridging the divide between the humanities and sciences to answer questions about ancient people previously considered beyond the realm of archaeological knowledge.

  16. An autonomous underwater vehicle "Maya", for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A; Navelkar, G.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Maurya, P.K.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mahalunkar, A

    This article demonstrates the use of Maya, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) for monitoring coastal waters, estuaries, rivers and dams. Maya is a mono hull structure with detachable nose and tail cones. The nose cone is mission specific...

  17. Figurative Language on Maya Angelou selected Poetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risma Hayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to find out the kinds of figurative language in the five selected poetries of Maya Angelou, the titles are: Alone, Caged Bird, Old Folks Laugh, Phenomenal Woman, Still I Rise. The focus of this study is figurative language which involves: Metaphor, Personification, Hyperbole, Simile, Metonymy, Synecdoche, Irony, Antithesis, Symbolism, and Paradox. Qualitative approach with design of content analysis was used in this study. The researcher acted as the main instrument since she was the one who analyzed the figurative language. Moreover checklist was also used to support her data collection. The data was analyzed through three stages; 1. Data reduction, 2. Data representation, 3. Conclusion. The result of her study showed there were 40 sentences that containing figurative language in five selected poetries of Maya Angelou. They were; Metaphor (13 sentences, Personification (9 sentences, Hyperbole (1 sentence, Simile (8 sentences, Synecdoche (1 sentence, Antithesis (1 sentence, Symbolism (5 sentences, and Paradox (2 sentences. The researcher conclude, if the figurative language used by Angelou to compare, or even symbolize the sentences to bring the meaning come up with beautiful language. Mostly of her poetries told about her experience in the past that rooted to history of the discrimination of American-African.

  18. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río, M. Sánchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S. G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhée, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-08-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the "Maya blue" pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si8(Mg2Al2)O20(OH)2(OH2)4.4H2O and an organic colourant (indigo: C16H10N2O2), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  19. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del; Sodo, A.; Eeckhout, S.G.; Neisius, T.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si 8 (Mg 2 Al 2 )O 20 (OH) 2 (OH 2 ) 4 .4H 2 O and an organic colourant (indigo: C 16 H 10 N 2 O 2 ), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue

  20. Drought, agricultural adaptation, and sociopolitical collapse in the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Pagani, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A.; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Curtis, Jason H.

    2015-01-01

    Paleoclimate records indicate a series of severe droughts was associated with societal collapse of the Classic Maya during the Terminal Classic period (∼800–950 C.E.). Evidence for drought largely derives from the drier, less populated northern Maya Lowlands but does not explain more pronounced and earlier societal disruption in the relatively humid southern Maya Lowlands. Here we apply hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions of plant wax lipids in two lake sediment cores to assess changes in water availability and land use in both the northern and southern Maya lowlands. We show that relatively more intense drying occurred in the southern lowlands than in the northern lowlands during the Terminal Classic period, consistent with earlier and more persistent societal decline in the south. Our results also indicate a period of substantial drying in the southern Maya Lowlands from ∼200 C.E. to 500 C.E., during the Terminal Preclassic and Early Classic periods. Plant wax carbon isotope records indicate a decline in C4 plants in both lake catchments during the Early Classic period, interpreted to reflect a shift from extensive agriculture to intensive, water-conservative maize cultivation that was motivated by a drying climate. Our results imply that agricultural adaptations developed in response to earlier droughts were initially successful, but failed under the more severe droughts of the Terminal Classic period. PMID:25902508

  1. Agua y Enfermedad Entre Algunos Grupos Mayas Durante La Colonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tañía Héléne Campos Thomas.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Along history, The mexican People ―for all the different ethnic groups in the country― has had water in high regard in their religious corpus, either in the symbolic way or the religious level. As evidence of this we can mention the cults to Tlaloc in mesoamerica and chak in the maya region, and the numerous depictions produced by chronicle writers as well as the ones found in the maya codices containing rites and giving close records of the beliefs in which water had a fundamental role. Similarly, the maya culture nowadays preserves that same close relation between water and health-illness. This article is a first investigative look into this subject intendingto restrict time and objectives and also with the aim of recording the way in which some maya ethnic groups were related to water during the colonial period. despite the colonial period was the historical framework imposed as the limit to the present paper, it has been inevitable to make reference to customs and activities of contemporary maya groups.

  2. Drought, agricultural adaptation, and sociopolitical collapse in the Maya Lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M J; Pagani, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A; Eglinton, Timothy I; Curtis, Jason H

    2015-05-05

    Paleoclimate records indicate a series of severe droughts was associated with societal collapse of the Classic Maya during the Terminal Classic period (∼800-950 C.E.). Evidence for drought largely derives from the drier, less populated northern Maya Lowlands but does not explain more pronounced and earlier societal disruption in the relatively humid southern Maya Lowlands. Here we apply hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions of plant wax lipids in two lake sediment cores to assess changes in water availability and land use in both the northern and southern Maya lowlands. We show that relatively more intense drying occurred in the southern lowlands than in the northern lowlands during the Terminal Classic period, consistent with earlier and more persistent societal decline in the south. Our results also indicate a period of substantial drying in the southern Maya Lowlands from ∼200 C.E. to 500 C.E., during the Terminal Preclassic and Early Classic periods. Plant wax carbon isotope records indicate a decline in C4 plants in both lake catchments during the Early Classic period, interpreted to reflect a shift from extensive agriculture to intensive, water-conservative maize cultivation that was motivated by a drying climate. Our results imply that agricultural adaptations developed in response to earlier droughts were initially successful, but failed under the more severe droughts of the Terminal Classic period.

  3. arXiv ARS Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Drewes, M.; Hernandez, P.; Kekic, M.; Lopez-Pavon, J.; Racker, J.; Rius, N.; Salvado, J.; Teresi, D.

    2018-02-28

    We review the current status of the leptogenesis scenario originally proposed by Akhmedov, Rubakov and Smirnov (ARS). It takes place in the parametric regime where the right-handed neutrinos are at the electroweak scale or below and the CP-violating effects are induced by the coherent superposition of different right-handed mass eigenstates. Two main theoretical approaches to derive quantum kinetic equations, the Hamiltonian time evolution as well as the Closed-Time-Path technique are presented, and we discuss their relations. For scenarios with two right-handed neutrinos, we chart the viable parameter space. Both, a Bayesian analysis, that determines the most likely configurations for viable leptogenesis given different variants of flat priors, and a determination of the maximally allowed mixing between the light, mostly left-handed, and heavy, mostly right-handed, neutrino states are discussed. Rephasing invariants are shown to be a useful tool to classify and to understand various distinct contributions to...

  4. How to Cheat in Maya 2012 Tools and Techniques for Character Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Luhta, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Maya guide for animators, How to Cheat in Maya 2012 presents everything you need to know about character animation in Maya. Fully updated for the latest revision of Maya, this book provides you with complete, step-by-step walkthroughs of essential animation techniques to increase your efficiency and speed. This is an animator's workflow in book form, written by professional animators-not a software book with a few animation pointers thrown in. In addition to all the gold-mine coverage and interviews with expert animators from the previous edition, How to Cheat in Maya 2012 also features a

  5. Compositional attribution of non-provenienced Maya polychrome vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R.L.; Harbottle, G.; Reents, D.J.; Sayre, E.V.; van Zelst, L.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures and a few of the results of the Maya ceramic project are discussed from the perspective of non-provenienced vessel attribution ranging from site specific through a more inferential level to the rather hypothetical. The examples presented serve to illustrate the manner in which compositional and stylistic covariation are viewed in an investigation of Maya Ceramic art. The large data base from neutron activation analysis including archaeologically recovered pottery as well as the stylistically and iconographically elaborate vessels requires continued refinement in our methods of statistical analysis along with gaining a greater understanding of the sources of ceramic compositional variation in the Maya area. The mutually beneficial collaboration between science, art, and archaeology are emphasized

  6. Stability and instability on Maya Lowlands tropical hillslope soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Cook, Duncan; Krause, Samantha; Doyle, Colin; Eshleman, Sara; Wells, Greta; Dunning, Nicholas; Brennan, Michael L.; Brokaw, Nicholas; Cortes-Rincon, Marisol; Hammond, Gail; Terry, Richard; Trein, Debora; Ward, Sheila

    2018-03-01

    Substantial lake core and other evidence shows accelerated soil erosion occurred in the Maya Lowlands of Central America over ancient Maya history from 3000 to 1000 years ago. But we have little evidence of the wider network of the sources and sinks of that eroded sediment cascade. This study begins to solve the mystery of missing soil with new research and a synthesis of existing studies of tropical forest soils along slopes in NW Belize. The research aim is to understand soil formation, long-term human impacts on slopes, and slope stability over time, and explore ecological implications. We studied soils on seven slopes in tropical forest areas that have experienced intensive ancient human impacts and those with little ancient impacts. All of our soil catenas, except for one deforested from old growth two years before, contain evidence for about 1000 years of stable, tropical forest cover since Maya abandonment. We characterized the physical, chemical, and taxonomic characteristics of soils at crest-shoulder, backslopes, footslopes, and depression locations, analyzing typical soil parameters, chemical elements, and carbon isotopes (δ13C) in dated and undated sequences. Four footslopes or depressions in areas of high ancient occupation preserved evidence of buried, clay-textured soils covered by coarser sediment dating from the Maya Classic period. Three footslopes from areas with scant evidence of ancient occupation had little discernable deposition. These findings add to a growing corpus of soil toposequences with similar facies changes in footslopes and depressions that date to the Maya period. Using major elemental concentrations across a range of catenas, we derived a measure (Ca + Mg) / (Al + Fe + Mn) of the relative contributions of autochthonous and allochthonous materials and the relative age of soil catenas. We found very low ratios in clearly older, buried soils in footslopes and depressions and on slopes that had not undergone ancient Maya erosion. We

  7. Compositional attribution of non-provenienced Maya polychrome vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.L.; Harbottle, G.; Reents, D.J.; Sayre, E.V.; van Zelst, L.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures and a few of the results of the Maya ceramic project are discussed from the perspective of non-provenienced vessel attribution ranging from site specific through a more inferential level to the rather hypothetical. The examples presented serve to illustrate the manner in which compositional and stylistic covariation are viewed in an investigation of Maya Ceramic art. The large data base from neutron activation analysis including archaeologically recovered pottery as well as the stylistically and iconographically elaborate vessels requires continued refinement in our methods of statistical analysis along with gaining a greater understanding of the sources of ceramic compositional variation in the Maya area. The mutually beneficial collaboration between science, art, and archaeology are emphasized.

  8. Small angle Ar2+ + Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Electron capture in Ar 2+ + Ar is studied at low keV energies. Using Ar 2+ + He collisions as a calibration, it is shown that the dominant single electron capture process is endothermic and of the type Ar 2+ ( 3 P) + ArAr + ( 2 P) + Ar + (3s 2 3p 4 nI), with nI primarily being 3d and 4p. Weaker exothermic processes are also found and are due mainly to the existence of long-lived highly-excited states in the incident Ar 2+ beam. The direct scattering and double electron capture processes are also studied. Direct scattering occurs with no target excitation. Differential cross sections are presented for the collision processes. The single electron capture results are interpreted using a simple model in which a strongly attractive intermediate state couples with incident and outgoing channels

  9. APROXIMACIONES A LA ETNOMICOLOGÍA MAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ruan-Soto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pueblos mayas habitan una región biológicamente megadiversa y tradicionalmente hacen uso diversificado de sus recursos. Desde la etnomicología —disciplina que estudia la relación entre grupos humanos y hongos— se cuenta con amplia evidencia del conocimiento y uso de estos organismos entre tales grupos étnicos. Tal evidencia se extiende hasta tiempos prehispánicos con hongos piedra, códices y crónicas. Actualmente se tiene conocimiento de 134 especies comestibles —ya sean para autoconsumo o venta— y alrededor de 40 hongos medicinales en la región. Asociados con estos usos, existen conocimientos morfológicos, fenológicos, ecológicos y culinarios de los hongos, así como desarrollados esquemas de nomenclatura y clasificación, el reconocimiento de 36 especies consideradas tóxicas y la presencia de hongos en diferentes narrativas. APPROACHES TO MAYAN ETHNOMYCOLOGY The Mayan peoples inhabit a biologically megadiverse region and have traditionally made a diversified use of their resources. Ethnomycology —the discipline that studies the relationship between human groups and mushrooms— provides extensive evidence of the knowledge these ethnic groups have of mushrooms and their use. Evidence can be traced back to pre-Hispanic times with mushrooms carved in stone and their presence in codices and chronicles. In the region, 134 edible species —either for consumption or for trade— are currently known, as well as about 40 medicinal mushrooms. Morphological, phenological, ecological and culinary data as well as nomenclature and classification schemes are associated with these uses. The identification of 36 species considered toxic and the presence of mushrooms in different narratives is also part of this body of knowledge.

  10. Ar-Ar_Redux: rigorous error propagation of 40Ar/39Ar data, including covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rigorous data reduction and error propagation algorithms are needed to realise Earthtime's objective to improve the interlaboratory accuracy of 40Ar/39Ar dating to better than 1% and thereby facilitate the comparison and combination of the K-Ar and U-Pb chronometers. Ar-Ar_Redux is a new data reduction protocol and software program for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology which takes into account two previously underappreciated aspects of the method: 1. 40Ar/39Ar measurements are compositional dataIn its simplest form, the 40Ar/39Ar age equation can be written as: t = log(1+J [40Ar/39Ar-298.5636Ar/39Ar])/λ = log(1 + JR)/λ Where λ is the 40K decay constant and J is the irradiation parameter. The age t does not depend on the absolute abundances of the three argon isotopes but only on their relative ratios. Thus, the 36Ar, 39Ar and 40Ar abundances can be normalised to unity and plotted on a ternary diagram or 'simplex'. Argon isotopic data are therefore subject to the peculiar mathematics of 'compositional data', sensu Aitchison (1986, The Statistical Analysis of Compositional Data, Chapman & Hall). 2. Correlated errors are pervasive throughout the 40Ar/39Ar methodCurrent data reduction protocols for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology propagate the age uncertainty as follows: σ2(t) = [J2 σ2(R) + R2 σ2(J)] / [λ2 (1 + R J)], which implies zero covariance between R and J. In reality, however, significant error correlations are found in every step of the 40Ar/39Ar data acquisition and processing, in both single and multi collector instruments, during blank, interference and decay corrections, age calculation etc. Ar-Ar_Redux revisits every aspect of the 40Ar/39Ar method by casting the raw mass spectrometer data into a contingency table of logratios, which automatically keeps track of all covariances in a compositional context. Application of the method to real data reveals strong correlations (r2 of up to 0.9) between age measurements within a single irradiation batch. Propertly taking

  11. Family and the Bildungsroman Tradition in Maya Angelou's I Know ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines family and the bildungsroman process in Maya Angelou's I know Why the Caged Bird Sings and Chimamanda Adichie's Purple Hibiscus. The study is carried out mainly through Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytical critical theory. The paper notes that the nuclear family's responsibility at grooming the ...

  12. Politics in the Western Maya Region (II: Emblem Glyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bíró

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of articles I reflect on the use of various expressions which are connected to what we call the political in the inscriptions of the Classic Maya Western Region. These words express ideas and concepts which help to understand the intricate details of the interactions between the political entities and their internal organisations in the Classic Maya Lowlands. In this article I investigate the meaning of emblem glyphs. I suggest that originally they were toponyms but later on they became titles of origin which indicated descendance from a common origin place.En una serie de artículos investigo el uso de varias palabras en las inscripciones mayas de la época Clásica de la Región Occidental que se conectan con lo que nosotros llamamos "política". Estas palabras expresan ideas y conceptos que ayudan a entender los matices de las relaciones entre las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas Mayas y su organización interna. En este artículo investigo el significado de los glifos emblema. Propongo que originalmente fueron topónimos y después llegaron a ser títulos de origen que indicaron descendencia común de un lugar original.

  13. Imaginando a los mayas de hoy: autorrepresentación y política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Duarte Duarte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el proceso de representación y autorrepresentación de los mayas de Yucatán en Sáastal: Los hijos de la Santa Gracia, una video-ficción de cincuenta y cinco minutos. En Sáastal se pone en escena el drama de la vida cotidiana de una familia maya de acuerdo con la imaginación, tanto de los mayas que participamos en la producción como de los no mayas. Se analiza cómo la convivencia de la cultura maya con las diversas políticas civilizatorias, entre éstas, las de desarrollo, modernización y globalización, han influido en el imaginario de los mayas contemporáneos. Esta convivencia entre dos culturas ha llevado a los mayas a adoptar "identidades suaves", que les permiten actuar de acuerdo con las circunstancias. En Sáastal, los mayas "performamos", recreamos e instrumentalizamos la cultura y convertimos en ficticias nuestras propias identidades.In this article I analyze the processes of representation and self-representation of the Yucatec Maya in Sáastal: The Children of the Sacred Grace, a 55-minute video-fiction. Sáastal presents a dramatic account of the everyday life of a Yucatec Maya family as imagined both by the Maya and non-Maya participating in the production. I examine how this imaginary is influenced by the coexistence of the Mayan culture with the diverse civilizatory politics, such as the politics of development, modernization, and globalization. it is argued that this coexistence has led us, the Yucatec Maya, to adopt "soft identities" which allow us to act according to the circumstances. In Sáastal we therefore perform, recreate and instrumentalize our culture and, in this way, convert our own identities into fictions.

  14. Fe K-edge XANES of Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, M. Sanchez del [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Sodo, A. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Eeckhout, S.G. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Neisius, T. [ESRF, Experiments Division, B.P. 220, F-38043, Grenoble Cedex (France); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, Grenoble B.P. 166, F-38042, Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The utilization of techniques used in Materials Science for the characterization of artefacts of interest for cultural heritage is getting more and more attention nowadays. One of the products of the ancient Maya chemistry is the 'Maya blue' pigment, made with natural indigo and palygorskite. This pigment is different from any other pigment used in other parts of the world. It is durable and acid-resistant, and still keeps many secrets to scientists even though it has been studied for more than 50 years. Although the pigment is basically made of palygorskite Si{sub 8}(Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 2})O{sub 20}(OH){sub 2}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O and an organic colourant (indigo: C{sub 16}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}), a number of other compounds have been found in previous studies on archaeological samples, like other clays and minerals, iron nanoparticles, iron oxides, impurities of transition metals (Cr, Mn, Ti, V), etc. We measured at the ESRF ID26 beamline the Fe K-edge XANES spectra of the blue pigment in ancient samples. They are compared to XANES spectra of Maya blue samples synthesized under controlled conditions, and iron oxides usually employed as pigments (hematite and goethite). Our results show that the iron found in ancient Maya blue pigment is related to the Fe exchanged in the palygorskite clay. We did not find iron in metallic form or goethite in archaeological Maya blue.

  15. Religión, fiestas y centros ceremoniales mayas de la Cruz Parlante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Buenrostro Alba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se describe el principal santo de los mayas de Quintana Roo, la Cruz Parlante, así como los centros ceremoniales y las fiestas tradicionales relacionadas con esta advocación. Se incluyen datos etnográficos que describen el contexto en el que se centra el estudio. La Cruz Parlante permite a los mayas de Quintana Roo seguir existiendo y los protege, pero para ello debe estar custodiada por los propios mayas.

  16. Survey, Settlement, and Population History at the Ancient Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healy, Paul F.; Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.

    2007-01-01

    Survey and excavations of mounds on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun in western Belize provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern at this medium-sized regional center. This research employed two methods: analysis of structural remains from four separate 1000 m transect surveys...... to have been about 5000-6000 persons. This population estimate is compared with several coeval lowland Maya centers, and found to be reasonable for a medium-sized, Late Classic Maya center....

  17. Los mayas del altiplano: supervivencia indígena en Chiapas y Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, W. George

    2002-01-01

    En el contexto americano, pocos grupos indígenas han demostrado la capacidad de sobrevivir a lo largo de la historia como los mayas del altiplano. Hoy día en Chiapas existen más de un millón de indígenas mayas, un número que asciende a cinco o seis millones en el caso de Guatemala. Los pueblos mayas han respondido a la invasión y a la dominación para conservar elementos importantes de su cultura. Este artículo discute las formas en que los mayas del altiplano se han adaptado para sobrevivir a...

  18. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2017-06-01

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  19. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhee, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  20. PROBİYOTİK MAYA : SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDİİ

    OpenAIRE

    Alkan, Rezan

    2013-01-01

    Probiyotikler uygun miktarlarda kullanıldığında konakçı sağlığı üzerinde yararları olan, bağırsakta canlı kalabilen ,sindirime dirençli bakteri ve maya gibi canlı mikroorganizmalar olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Saccharomyces boulardii  patojen olmayan bir maya olup, tedavi edici olarak kullanılmaktadır. Kontrollü olarak yapılan klinik çalışmalarda S.boulardii’nin çeşitli bağırsak hastalıklarının önlenmesi ve ...

  1. Kax and kol: Collapse and resilience in lowland Maya civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Nicholas P.; Beach, Timothy P.; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Episodes of population loss and cultural change, including the famous Classic Collapse, punctuated the long course of Maya civilization. In many cases, these downturns in the fortunes of individual sites and entire regions included significant environmental components such as droughts or anthropogenic environmental degradation. Some afflicted areas remained depopulated for long periods, whereas others recovered more quickly. We examine the dynamics of growth and decline in several areas in the Maya Lowlands in terms of both environmental and cultural resilience and with a focus on downturns that occurred in the Terminal Preclassic (second century Common Era) and Terminal Classic (9th and 10th centuries CE) periods. This examination of available data indicates that the elevated interior areas of the Yucatán Peninsula were more susceptible to system collapse and less suitable for resilient recovery than adjacent lower-lying areas. PMID:22371571

  2. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhée, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-10-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  3. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  4. El cemento y el concreto de los mayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Ramírez de Alba

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio técnico sobre los materiales utilizados por los constructores mayas, quienes lograron obras cuyos vestigios maravillan hoy al mundo. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos al realizar pruebas físicas y químicas en muestras de estucos, morteros y concretos provenientes de zonas arqueológicas, principalmente Palenque y Yaxchilán, en el estado de Chiapas, México.

  5. El cemento y el concreto de los mayas

    OpenAIRE

    Horacio Ramírez de Alba; Ramiro Pérez Campos; Heriberto Díaz Coutiño

    1999-01-01

    Se realiza un estudio técnico sobre los materiales utilizados por los constructores mayas, quienes lograron obras cuyos vestigios maravillan hoy al mundo. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos al realizar pruebas físicas y químicas en muestras de estucos, morteros y concretos provenientes de zonas arqueológicas, principalmente Palenque y Yaxchilán, en el estado de Chiapas, México.

  6. Guatemala conservation concession for the Maya Biosphere Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Conservation International

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The national government of Guatemala has issued timber concessions to local communities within its 2 million hectare Maya Biosphere Reserve. Working under this framework, CI is proposing a conservation concession contract with two communities. The concessions would be designed to pay salaries for conservation managers, to invest in projects such as guiding tourists to nearby archaeological sites and to provide community services such as education and health care, in ex...

  7. What We Think We Know About Maya Mathematics and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stone, M.

    2016-01-01

    In most cultures, mathematics and astronomy are obscure and arcane. Not so to the ancient Maya. Despite what we consider technological “deficiencies”—they lacked both metal tools and the wheel—their public inscriptions paid uniquely sophisticated attention to these sciences. At any given monument, fully half the text is devoted to situating events in time, particularly specifying the precise number of days between events, whether historical or mythological. Often these intervals have numerological significance, and many are precise multiples of the periodicities of heavenly bodies. The Maya apparently were fully aware of the exact length of the tropical year, the sidereal year, the cycles of Venus, and eclipses; and there is evidence that they even celebrated events reflecting the 26,000-year precession cycle. However, Maya illuminati had an agenda quite alien to our way of thinking. Clues to their knowledge are arcane, rare, and often difficult for us to recognize with eyes clouded by our modern worldview. The body of work left to us consists of just a few tantalizing sherds of a once-rich and diverse astromythological tradition. Moreover, there was no single pan-Mayan mythos. An astronomical alignment seen repeatedly in one city will be completely absent in others. Each city-state emphasized specific and often unique features, and they often contradict one another. But we soldier on. The diversity we find so frustrating is simply the fine structure of their worldview. Intellectual historians have for too long been, like Procrustes, trying to force all Maya science and religion into a single universal straitjacket.

  8. 40Ar/39Ar dating of pyrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, D.; Masliwec, A.; Kuybida, P.; Hanes, J.A.; Hall, C.M.; Kenyon, W.J.; Spooner, E.T.C.; Scott, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    To overcome difficulties encountered in the customary method of determining the age of mineralization of sulphide ore deposits by analysing silicate material, the sulphide minerals themselves have been examined to see if they contained sufficient potassium and argon for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age determination. Initial results indicate that this is the case for pyrite from the Geco ore body in northwestern Ontario, Canada. (U.K.)

  9. Analysis of obsidian from moho cay, belize: new evidence on classic maya trade routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, P F; McKillop, H I; Walsh, B

    1984-07-27

    Trace element analysis of obsidian artifacts from Moho Cay, Belize, reveals that the obsidian derives primarily from the El Chayal outcrop in highland Guatemala and not from the Ixtepeque source. This is contrary to the widely accepted obsidian trade route model for Classic Maya civilization and suggests that Classic Maya obsidian trade was a more complex economic phenomenon than has been recognized.

  10. Representing Mayas : Indigenous Authorities and the Local Politics of Identity in Guatemala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Against the backdrop of emerging indigenous movements in Latin America, the Maya Movement appeared as a political actor in the 1980s, bringing “the Indian Question” to the fore in Guatemalan politics. Rejecting racism and assimilationalist State policies, the Maya Movement seeks to recapture

  11. 77 FR 53959 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Dancing Into Dreams, Maya...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8009] Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Dancing Into Dreams, Maya Vases From the IK'Kingdom'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the... exhibition ``Dancing Into Dreams, Maya Vases from the IK'Kingdom,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  12. Maya medicine in the biological gaze: bioprospecting research as herbal fetishism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigh, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    The relationship of human societies to territory and natural resources is being drastically altered by a series of global agreements concerning trade, intellectual property, and the conservation and use of genetic resources. Through a characteristic style of collective appropriation of their tropical ecosystems, Maya societies have created local institutions for governing access to their common resources. However, new mechanisms of global governance require access to Maya biodiversity for world commercial interests. The Chiapas Highland Maya already face this prospect in the International Cooperative Biodiversity Group drug discovery project, which proposes to use Maya medical knowledge to screen plants for potential pharmaceuticals. The ethnobiological focus of the project emphasizes the naturalistic aspects of Maya medicine, primarily the use of herbal remedies. This biological gaze decontextualizes the situated knowledge of Maya healers, ignoring the cultural context in which they create and apply that knowledge. The search for raw materials for the production of universal medical technology results in symbolic violence to the cultural logic of Maya peoples. Only the full recognition of Maya peoples' collective rights to territory and respect for their local common-resource institutions will provide ultimate protection for their cultural and natural patrimony.

  13. Economic Stratification Differentiates Home Gardens in the Maya Village of Pomuch, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot-Pool, W.S.; Wal, van der J.C.; Flores-Guido, S.; Pat-Fernández, J.M.; Esparza-Olguín, L.

    2012-01-01

    Economic Stratification Differentiates Home Gardens in the Maya Village of Pomuch, Mexico. In this paper, we analyze if economic stratification of peasant families in a Maya village in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico influences species composition and structure of home gardens. Our general

  14. Print Knowledge in Yucatec Maya-Spanish Bilingual Children: An Initial Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengochea, Alain; Justice, Laura M.; Hijlkema, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    This study serves as an initial inquiry regarding the early print knowledge of emergent bilingual preschool-age children living in an Indigenous community in Mexico. In this research, we examine various dimensions of print knowledge with Yucatec Maya-Spanish bilingual children for whom one of their languages (Yucatec Maya) is seldom seen in print…

  15. Language Revitalisation from the Ground Up: Promoting Yucatec Maya on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cru, Josep

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at current grassroots efforts to revitalise Yucatec Maya, an indigenous language of Mexico, in social media and more specifically on Facebook. In contrast to the limitations of institutional language promotion, the inclusion of Maya on Facebook shows the possibilities that social networks offer not only for actual use of…

  16. MaritimeMaya2011: The Costa Escondida Project: Exploring the Hidden World of the Maritime Maya on the Yucatan Peninsula between 20110509 and 20110531

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula is a largely unexplored coastline where ancient Maya traders traveled in massive dugout canoes filled with goods from...

  17. Los hacendados y rancheros mayas de Yucatán en el siglo XIX Maya hacendados and rancheros from Yucatán in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Machuca Gallegos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available No sólo los grupos "blancos" y pudientes de la sociedad tuvieron haciendas, sino también los mayas. Al ser la hacienda una de las pocas actividades económicas productivas que se podían llevar a cabo en la península, algunos mayas (si bien son minoría se volvieron propietarios, incluso tuvieron trabajadores adeudados; por tanto, no permanecieron al margen del desarrollo económico y participaron activamente de éste. Así, en este trabajo nos ocupamos de los amos mayas, seguimos algunas de sus estrategias y reconstruimos sus lazos y sus relaciones. La principal fuente utilizada han sido documentos de carácter notarial, en particular los testamentos, de los cuales se han estudiado algunas variables como la de cónyuge, albacea testamentario y testigo.Haciendas were not exclusive for "white" powerful groups, since they were available for the Maya. Hacienda was one of the only productive economic activities in the peninsula, so the Maya (in spite of being a minority became the owners. They even had debtor workers. They were not marginalized from economic development but rather participated actively in it. This paper studies Maya masters by following some of their strategies and reconstructing both their binds and relations. Our main source are notarial documents, particularly testaments, where some variables like spouse, testamentary executor and witness are studied.

  18. A late Holocene tephrochronology for the Maya Lowlands, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooren, K.; Huizinga, A.; Hoek, W.; Bergen, M. V.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Maya Lowlands in southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize were densely populated for thousands of years, and have been the subject of intensive studies on the interaction between humans and their environment. Accurate radiocarbon dating of proxy records and disrupting events has proved to be difficult due to the lack of organic material in many deposits and the 'old carbon effect' related to the calcareous geology of the Yucatan Peninsula. So far, tephrostratigraphy has hardly been used to define time markers for palynological, limnological and archaeological studies in this region, despite the frequent occurrence of tephra fall. With the objective to fill this gap, we developed a tephrochronology for the Maya Lowlands using sediment cores from a flood basin of the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta in southern Mexico. Tephrostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating were used to estimate the timing of past volcanic eruptions, and chemical compositions of glass shards were used to identify potential sources. At least six tephralayers were deposited since 2000 BC, the most notable representing eruptions of El Chichón volcano in the 5th and 15th century AD. The high sulphur emissions accompanying El Chichón's eruptions allowed testing of our age-depth model through a correlation with volcanic sulphate peaks in ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. We demonstrate the applicability of the established tephrochronological framework in a detailed chronological reconstruction of the formation of the world's largest late Holocene beach ridge plain in southern Mexico. This plain with over 500 beach ridges is a highly sensitive recorder of combined sea level rise, subsidence, storm activity and changes in climate and upstream land use since the dawn of Olmec and Maya cultures circa 5000 years ago.

  19. Acculturation stress among Maya in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millender, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: As health care disparities become more evident in our multicultural nation, culture sensitive health research needs to be a priority in order for good health care to take place. This article will explore the literature related to acculturation stress and mental health disparities among the Mayan population. Literatures of similar but distinct groups are included due to the limited amount of research of the Mayan population. Using Leiniger's Transcultural nursing theory, these findings suggest that nurses have a large gap to fill to address the mental health disparities of specific cultural groups like the indigenous Maya, thereby satisfying their nursing obligations.

  20. Condiciones alimentarias de los mayas macehuales de Quintana Roo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ivonne Sánchez Vázquez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas alimentarias ofrecen una visión oficial sobre las condiciones de la alimentación en México, y específicamente en el México rural indígena, pero a partir de un estudio de caso con los grupos mayas macehuales de Quintana Roo, se muestra el contexto de confrontación donde las comunidades despliegan sus pautas de reproducción social, ciertamente en desventaja estructural, pero no de manera pasiva, sino creando y recreando opciones bajo su marco cultural situado.

  1. Mayariggauksen Mekanismit : mihin Maya-rigin perustoiminnot pohjautuvat

    OpenAIRE

    Reimi, Roope

    2015-01-01

    Tämä on tutkielma Mayan yleisimpien riggaustyökalujen ja mekanismien toiminnasta ja yleinen katsaus Mayan pohjarakenteeseen. Maya on Autodeskin yleiskäytännöllinen 3D-ohjelmisto, joka on saanut teollisuuden aloilla maineen luotettavana, mutta haastavana animaatioalustana. Tässä tutkielmassa aion selvittää muutamia konsepteja, jotka saattavat hämmentää Mayassa ja avata sen logiikkaa toimintojensa takana. Aion myös pureutua syvemmin muutamien Mayan perus riggaustyökalujen toimintaan ja millaine...

  2. Impacts of Climate Change on the Collapse of Lowland Maya Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Demarest, Arthur A.; Brenner, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A.

    2016-06-01

    Paleoclimatologists have discovered abundant evidence that droughts coincided with collapse of the Lowland Classic Maya civilization, and some argue that climate change contributed to societal disintegration. Many archaeologists, however, maintain that drought cannot explain the timing or complex nature of societal changes at the end of the Classic Period, between the eighth and eleventh centuries ce. This review presents a compilation of climate proxy data indicating that droughts in the ninth to eleventh century were the most severe and frequent in Maya prehistory. Comparison with recent archaeological evidence, however, indicates an earlier beginning for complex economic and political processes that led to the disintegration of states in the southern region of the Maya lowlands that precedes major droughts. Nonetheless, drought clearly contributed to the unusual severity of the Classic Maya collapse, and helped to inhibit the type of recovery seen in earlier periods of Maya prehistory. In the drier northern Maya Lowlands, a later political collapse at ca. 1000 ce appears to be related to ongoing extreme drought. Future interdisciplinary research should use more refined climatological and archaeological data to examine the relationship between climate and social processes throughout the entirety of Maya prehistory.

  3. The use of blunted Maya crude as alternating fuel to fuel oil; Uso de crudo Maya despuntado como combustiononble alterno al combustoleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas Bravo, Victor M.; Diego Marin, Antonio; Porcayo C; Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The Mexican fuel oil is characterized by its high viscosity and elevated contents of sulfur and vanadium. This particularity determines a problematic characteristic in the steam generators that use this fuel. Our country produces three types of crude petroleum: Olmeca, Istmo and Maya. The difference between these crudes remains in its density and the sulfur content. The Olmeca crude and the Istmo are classified as super-light and light, respectively; whereas the Maya crude is classified as a heavy crude, with a density of 1.0 to 0.92 g/cm and a minimum sulfur content of 3.3 %. For this reason the processing of the Maya crude is seen as an alternative. A table with the physicochemical analysis and properties of a fuel oil and the blunted Maya crude is given, and another one with the quantitative chemical analysis of some metals in fuel oil and in the blunted Maya crude. The stability tests of the fuel are studied giving a comparison of the effect of the aging time on the viscosity of a fuel oil and of the blunted Maya crude at 60 Celsius degrees. As well as a graph of thermograms obtained of a blunted Maya crude sample and of a typical fuel oil. Finally the corrosion tests are described that allow to know in real time the degradation process by corrosion of the materials. [Spanish] El combustoleo mexicano se caracteriza por su alta viscosidad y elevados contenidos de azufre y vanadio. Esta particularidad determina una problematica caracteristica en los generadores de vapor que utilizan este combustible. Nuestro pais produce tres tipos de petroleo crudo: Olmeca, Istmo y Maya. La diferencia entre estos crudos estriba en su densidad y el contenido de azufre. El crudo Olmeca y el Istmo estan clasificados como superligero y ligero, respectivamente; mientras que el crudo Maya esta clasificado como un crudo pesado, con una densidad de 1.0 a 0.92 g/cm y un contenido minimo de azufre de 3.3 %.Con el proposito se busca la alternativa de procesar el crudo Maya. Se da una tabla

  4. ScattAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Alex Dempster; Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur

    2017-01-01

    We present an augmented reality (AR) audio application where scattering delay networks efficiently generate and organize a reverberator, based on room geometry scanned by an AR device. The application allows for real-time processing and updating of reflection path geometry. It provides a proof...

  5. Stylistic Analysis of Maya Angelou’s Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arina isti'anah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research presented the stylistic analysis of a poem by Maya Angelou, Equality. The poem was chosen as it became Angelou’s one of well-known poems. The Stylistic analysis aimed at comprehending the meanings of either literary or non-literary text by means of observing the language device used in the texts. In this article, the stylistic analysis was conducted to analyze Maya Angelou’s Equality. To achieve the goal of stylistic analysis, there were some language levels to observe; they were phonological, graphological, grammatical, and semantic levels. In the phonological level, the repetition of rhyme in some stanzas, assonance, consonance, and alliteration were used to voice Angelou’s dream about freedom for black people. In the graphological level, the use of prominent punctuation in stanzas 3, 6, and 9 stressed equality as the requirement for the freedom she expected. In the grammatical level, Angelou used pronoun I and you as the dominant words in the poem, revealed different class the poet experienced in the country. The use of metaphors in the poem brought the same meaning as freedom, voice, effort, and racism that black people experienced in America. This research concludes that stylistics applies to analyze literary work so that thorough appreciation to it can be achieved.

  6. Increasing temperature exacerbated Classic Maya conflict over the long term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, W. Christopher; Campbell, David; Collard, Mark

    2017-05-01

    The impact of climate change on conflict is an important but controversial topic. One issue that needs to be resolved is whether or not climate change exacerbates conflict over the long term. With this in mind, we investigated the relationship between climate change and conflict among Classic Maya polities over a period of several hundred years (363-888 CE). We compiled a list of conflicts recorded on dated monuments, and then located published temperature and rainfall records for the region. Subsequently, we used a recently developed time-series method to investigate the impact of the climatic variables on the frequency of conflict while controlling for trends in monument number. We found that there was a substantial increase in conflict in the approximately 500 years covered by the dataset. This increase could not be explained by change in the amount of rainfall. In contrast, the increase was strongly associated with an increase in summer temperature. These finding have implications not only for Classic Maya history but also for the debate about the likely effects of contemporary climate change.

  7. Classic Maya civilization collapse related to modest reduction in precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Elizalde, M.; Rohling, E. J.

    2013-05-01

    The disintegration of the Classic Maya civilization during the Terminal Classic Period (TCP) in the Yucatán Peninsula (YP) and Central America was a complex process that occurred over a ~200-year interval and involved a catastrophic depopulation of the region. While it is well established that the civilization collapse coincided with widespread episodes of drought, their nature and severity remain enigmatic. We present a quantitative analysis that offers a coherent interpretation for four of the most detailed paleoclimate records of the event. The underlying processes driving the patterns and amplitudes of these environmental records during the TCP are evaluated with an isotope mass balance model set up for Lake Chichancanab, located in the YP. We use our hydrological-isotope model (i) to test whether the TCP droughts reflect a persistent summer season southern shift of the intertropical convergence zone and its associated belt of convective activity, away from the YP, and (2) to simulate the development of Lake Chichancanab as a function of weaker perturbations to summer precipitation as reflected by a stalagmite d18O-derived rainfall record from the YP. We conclude that the droughts occurring during the disintegration of the Maya civilization represented up to 40% reduction in annual precipitation, likely due to a reduction in summer season tropical cyclone frequency/intensity. Archaeological and Paleoclimatic records from the Yucatan Peninsula

  8. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2017-01-01

    might be a viable and valuable approach to understand some of the challenges and possibilities found in computer science and ethics. Vita Llull was born in 1232 in Palma de Mallorca, a melting pot for different cul-tures and religions at the time. Being educated at the king’s court, Llull learned...... of belief, life, and God as such. Computer Science? Llull was an inspiration for later scientists, most notably Giordano Bruno, Athanasius Kirchner, Agrippa of Nettesheim and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, whose dissertation De Arte Combinatoria begins with a discussion of Llull’s Ars Magna. Umberto Eco also......-ple of Mallorca have since tried to have Llull canonised as a saint. Ars Magna A few years before his death Llull began to write the most thorough and final version of his Ars Magna, the Ars Generalis Ultima [3]. The books explain the different figures of the Ars, its principles, questions, descriptions...

  9. Finish your film! tips and tricks for making an animated short in Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    Finish Your Film! Tips and Tricks for Making an Animated Short in Maya is a first-of-its-kind book that walks the reader step-by-step through the actual production processes of creating a 3D Short film with Maya. Other books focus solely on the creative decisions of 3D Animation and broadly cover the multiple phases of animation production with no real applicable methods for readers to employ. This book shows you how to successfully manage the entire Maya animation pipeline. This book blends together valuable technical tips on film production and real-world shortcuts in a step-by-step approach

  10. Los tablados: Arquitectura vernácula efímera de los pueblos mayas

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Sánchez Suárez

    2015-01-01

    La arquitectura vernácula de los mayas de la península de Yucatán, en su representación de la casa maya, es reconocida no solo por el impacto que la cultura maya ha tenido últimamente, sino también por su historia que deviene desde el periodo mesoamericano, durante el cual esta construcción, que continúa vigente como vivienda en la actualidad, fue reproducida en la ornamentación y bóvedas de la arquitectura monumental. Los saberes constructivos, conservados por siglos en la construcción de la...

  11. Una historia de la religión de los antiguos mayas

    OpenAIRE

    Baudez, Claude-François

    2013-01-01

    Estudio cuyo objetivo es abordar la religión de los antiguos mayas desde una perspectiva histórica en su proceso evolutivo, el cual abarca los periodos clásico y posclásico y abordar hasta qué punto la religión maya se vio simultáneamente afectada por el declive de la civilización clásica y por la infiltración de rasgos culturales del Altiplano mexicano. Los análisis tradicionales de la religión de los antiguos mayas permanecen exclusivamente al acecho de las continuidades; luego, concluye...

  12. MonitAR, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop MonitAR, an Augmented Reality (AR) system that provides procedure completion guidance to astronauts. MonitAR will replace guidance from mission...

  13. Deep data science to prevent and treat growth faltering in Maya children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Silva, M I; Bogin, B; Sobral, J A G; Dickinson, F; Monserrat-Revillo, S

    2016-06-01

    The Maya people are descended from the indigenous inhabitants of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent regions of Central America. In Guatemala, 50% of infants and children are stunted (very low height-for-age), and some rural Maya regions have >70% children stunted. A large, longitudinal, intergenerational database was created to (1) provide deep data to prevent and treat somatic growth faltering and impaired neurocognitive development, (2) detect key dependencies and predictive relations between highly complex, time-varying, and interacting biological and cultural variables and (3) identify targeted multifactorial intervention strategies for field testing and validation. Contributions to this database included data from the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala Longitudinal Study of Child and Adolescent Development, child growth and intergenerational studies among the Maya in Mexico and studies about Maya migrants in the United States.

  14. Ancient Maya impacts on the Earth's surface: An Early Anthropocene analog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Tim; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Cook, Duncan; Dunning, Nicholas; Kennett, Douglas J.; Krause, Samantha; Terry, Richard; Trein, Debora; Valdez, Fred

    2015-09-01

    The measure of the "Mayacene," a microcosm of the Early Anthropocene that occurred from c. 3000 to 1000 BP, comes from multiple Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental records. We synthesized the evidence for Maya impacts on climate, vegetation, hydrology and the lithosphere, from studies of soils, lakes, floodplains, wetlands and other ecosystems. Maya civilization had likely altered local to regional ecosystems and hydrology by the Preclassic Period (3000-1700 BP), but these impacts waned by 1000 BP. They altered ecosystems with vast urban and rural infrastructure that included thousands of reservoirs, wetland fields and canals, terraces, field ridges, and temples. Although there is abundant evidence that indicates the Maya altered their forests, even at the large urban complex of Tikal as much as 40% of the forest remained intact through the Classic period. Existing forests are still influenced by ancient Maya forest gardening, particularly by the large expanses of ancient stone structures, terraces, and wetland fields that form their substrates. A few studies suggest deforestation and other land uses probably also warmed and dried regional climate by the Classic Period (1700-1100 BP). A much larger body of research documents the Maya impacts on hydrology, in the form of dams, reservoirs, canals, eroded soils and urban design for runoff. Another metric of the "Mayacene" are paleosols, which contain chemical evidence for human occupation, revealed by high phosphorus concentrations and carbon isotope ratios of C4 species like maize in the C3-dominated tropical forest ecosystem. Paleosol sequences exhibit "Maya Clays," a facies that reflects a glut of rapidly eroded sediments that overlie pre-Maya paleosols. This stratigraphy is conspicuous in many dated soil profiles and marks the large-scale Maya transformation of the landscape in the Preclassic and Classic periods. Some of these also have increased phosphorous and carbon isotope evidence of C4 species. We synthesize

  15. Genetic Affiliation of Pre-Hispanic and Contemporary Mayas Through Maternal Linage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna Isabel; Muñoz, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Ramírez, Gerardo; Beaty, Kristine G; López-Armenta, Mauro; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Moreno-Galeana, Miguel; Meza, Adrián Martínez; Ramos, Eduardo; Crawford, Michael H; Romano-Pacheco, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Maya civilization developed in Mesoamerica and encompassed the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, part of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador. This civilization persisted approximately 3,000 years and was one of the most advanced of its time, possessing the only known full writing system at the time, as well as art, sophisticated architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. This civilization reached the apex of its power and influence during the Preclassic period, from 2000 BCE to 250 CE. Genetic variation in the pre-Hispanic Mayas from archaeological sites in the Mexican states of Yucatan, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, and Tabasco and their relationship with the contemporary communities in these regions have not been previously studied. Consequently, the principal aim of this study was to determine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the pre-Hispanic Maya population and to assess the relationship of these individuals with contemporary Mesoamerican Maya and populations from Asia, Beringia, and North, Central, and South America. Our results revealed interactions and gene flow between populations in the different archaeological sites assessed in this study. The mtDNA haplogroup frequency in the pre-Hispanic Maya population (60.53%, 34.21%, and 5.26% for haplogroups A, C, and D, respectively) was similar to that of most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, with haplogroup A exhibiting the highest frequency. Haplogroup B most likely arrived independently and mixed with populations carrying haplogroups A and C based on its absence in the pre-Hispanic Mexican Maya populations and low frequencies in most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, although this also may be due to drift. Maya and Ciboneys sharing haplotype H10 belonged to haplogroup C1 and haplotype H4 of haplogroup D, suggesting shared regional haplotypes. This may indicate a shared genetic ancestry, suggesting more regional interaction

  16. Land, Water and Society in the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T.; French, K.; Duffy, C.; Webster, D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the results of our project investigating the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land use management, agricultural decision-making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. Overall, our project combines diachronic environmental simulation with historic settlement pattern survey to address a series of long-standing questions about the coupled natural and human (CNH) landscape history in the Central Maya lowlands (at the UNESCO world heritage site of Tikal in the Maya Biosphere Reserve). The paper describes the preliminary results of our project, including changing patterns of land, water, settlement and political history using climate, soil and hydrologic modeling and time series spatial analysis of population and settlement patterns. The critical period of the study, 1000 BC until the present, begins with dispersed settlements accompanied by widespread deforestation and soil erosion. Population size and density grows rapidly for 800 years, while deforestation and erosion rates decline; however, there is striking evidence of political evolution during this period, including the construction of monumental architecture, hieroglyphic monuments detailing wars and alliances, and the construction of a defensive earthwork feature, signaling political territories and possibly delineating natural resource boundaries. Population decline and steady reforestation followed until more recent migration into the region, which has impacted the biosphere ecology. Building on our previous research regionally and comparative research completed in Belize and Mexico, we are modeling sample periods the 3,000-year landscape history of the region, comparing land and water availability to population distributions and what we know about political history. Simulations are generated using historic climate and land use data, primarily relying on the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) and the Penn State Integrated

  17. Simultaneous measurement of the 37Ar and 39Ar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisenko, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method for simultaneous measurement of 37 Ar and 39 Ar activities, based on the different radiation penetrabilities of these isotopes is described. Two versions are realized. In the first case, a two-section detector is used whose partition partially transmits 39 Ar β-radiation and fully absorbs 37 Ar Auger electrons. A mixture of 37 Ar and 39 Ar is introduced into an internal counter operating at anticoincidences with an external counter. In the second version, a scintillation detector is used as an external counter, while the 37 Ar- 39 Ar mixture is introduced into a gas counter with a thin cathode. The rated detection efficiency of 37 Ar radiation in both versions is 80%. When measurement duration is 500 h, the sensitivity is approximately 10 -14 and 6x10 -15 Ci for 39 Ar and 37 Ar respectively

  18. Construction of an Yucatec Maya soil classification and comparison with the WRB framework

    OpenAIRE

    Zinck J Alfred; Bautista Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mayas living in southeast Mexico have used soils for millennia and provide thus a good example for understanding soil-culture relationships and for exploring the ways indigenous people name and classify the soils of their territory. This paper shows an attempt to organize the Maya soil knowledge into a soil classification scheme and compares the latter with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Methods Several participative soil surveys were carried out in the...

  19. Effect of type of binder on growth, digestibility, and energetic balance of Octopus maya

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, C; Tut, J; Baeza, J; Sanchez, A; Sosa, V; Pascual, C; Arena, L; Domingues, P; Cuzon, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of type of binder on growth, nutritional physiology, total apparent digestibility, and some elements of the energetic balance of early O. maya juveniles. Two experiments were performed. One was aimed at evaluating the effect of type of binder on growth, nutritional physiology, and energetic balance and the other at knowing the effect of the binder on total apparent digestibility of O. maya. Binder type affected growth and survival of early O....

  20. Deep data science to prevent and treat growth faltering in Maya children

    OpenAIRE

    Varela-Silva, M I; Bogin, B; Sobral, J A G; Dickinson, F; Monserrat-Revillo, S

    2016-01-01

    The Maya people are descended from the indigenous inhabitants of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent regions of Central America. In Guatemala, 50% of infants and children are stunted (very low height-for-age), and some rural Maya regions have >70% children stunted. A large, longitudinal, intergenerational database was created to (1) provide deep data to prevent and treat somatic growth faltering and impaired neurocognitive development, (2) detect key dependencies and predictive relations ...

  1. Construction of an Yucatec Maya soil classification and comparison with the WRB framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinck J Alfred

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mayas living in southeast Mexico have used soils for millennia and provide thus a good example for understanding soil-culture relationships and for exploring the ways indigenous people name and classify the soils of their territory. This paper shows an attempt to organize the Maya soil knowledge into a soil classification scheme and compares the latter with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB. Methods Several participative soil surveys were carried out in the period 2000-2009 with the help of bilingual Maya-Spanish-speaking farmers. A multilingual soil database was built with 315 soil profile descriptions. Results On the basis of the diagnostic soil properties and the soil nomenclature used by Maya farmers, a soil classification scheme with a hierarchic, dichotomous and open structure was constructed, organized in groups and qualifiers in a fashion similar to that of the WRB system. Maya soil properties were used at the same categorical levels as similar diagnostic properties are used in the WRB system. Conclusions The Maya soil classification (MSC is a natural system based on key properties, such as relief position, rock types, size and quantity of stones, color of topsoil and subsoil, depth, water dynamics, and plant-supporting processes. The MSC addresses the soil properties of surficial and subsurficial horizons, and uses plant communities as qualifier in some cases. The MSC is more accurate than the WRB for classifying Leptosols.

  2. Construction of an Yucatec Maya soil classification and comparison with the WRB framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Francisco; Zinck, J Alfred

    2010-02-13

    Mayas living in southeast Mexico have used soils for millennia and provide thus a good example for understanding soil-culture relationships and for exploring the ways indigenous people name and classify the soils of their territory. This paper shows an attempt to organize the Maya soil knowledge into a soil classification scheme and compares the latter with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Several participative soil surveys were carried out in the period 2000-2009 with the help of bilingual Maya-Spanish-speaking farmers. A multilingual soil database was built with 315 soil profile descriptions. On the basis of the diagnostic soil properties and the soil nomenclature used by Maya farmers, a soil classification scheme with a hierarchic, dichotomous and open structure was constructed, organized in groups and qualifiers in a fashion similar to that of the WRB system. Maya soil properties were used at the same categorical levels as similar diagnostic properties are used in the WRB system. The Maya soil classification (MSC) is a natural system based on key properties, such as relief position, rock types, size and quantity of stones, color of topsoil and subsoil, depth, water dynamics, and plant-supporting processes. The MSC addresses the soil properties of surficial and subsurficial horizons, and uses plant communities as qualifier in some cases. The MSC is more accurate than the WRB for classifying Leptosols.

  3. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Classic Maya civilization collapse associated with reduction in tropical cyclone activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M. A.; Polanco-Martinez, J. M.; Lases-Hernández, F.; Bradley, R. S.; Burns, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    In light of the increased destructiveness of tropical cyclones observed over recent decades one might assume that an increase and not a decrease in tropical cyclone activity would lead to societal stress and perhaps collapse of ancient cultures. In this study we present evidence that a reduction in the frequency and intensity of tropical Atlantic cyclones could have contributed to the collapse of the Maya civilization during the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, AD. 800-950). Statistical comparisons of a quantitative precipitation record from the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) Maya lowlands, based on the stalagmite known as Chaac (after the Mayan God of rain and agriculture), relative to environmental proxy records of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and tropical Atlantic cyclone counts, suggest that these records share significant coherent variability during the TCP and that summer rainfall reductions between 30 and 50% in the Maya lowlands occurred in association with decreased Atlantic tropical cyclones. Analysis of modern instrumental hydrological data suggests cyclone rainfall contributions to the YP equivalent to the range of rainfall deficits associated with decreased tropical cyclone activity during the collapse of the Maya civilization. Cyclone driven precipitation variability during the TCP, implies that climate change may have triggered Maya civilization collapse via freshwater scarcity for domestic use without significant detriment to agriculture. Pyramid in Tikal, the most prominent Maya Kingdom that collapsed during the Terminal Classic Period (circa C.E. 800-950) Rainfall feeding stalagmites inside Rio Secreto cave system, Yucatan, Mexico.

  5. Plasticity, political economy, and physical growth status of Guatemala Maya children living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, B; Loucky, J

    1997-01-01

    Migration of Maya refugees to the United States since the late 1970s affords the opportunity to study the consequences of life in a new environment on the growth of Maya children. The children of this study live in Indiantown, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. Maya children between 4 and 14 years old (n = 240) were measured for height, weight, fatness, and muscularity. Overall, compared with reference data for the United States, the Maya children are, on average, healthy and well nourished. They are taller and heavier and carry more fat and muscle mass than Maya children living in a village in Guatemala. However, they are shorter, on average, than children of black, Mexican-American, and white ethnicity living in Indiantown. Children of Maya immigrants born in the United States tend to be taller than immigrant children born in Guatemala or Mexico. Families that invest economic and social resources in their children have taller children. More economic successful families have taller children. Migration theory and political economy theory from the social sciences are combined with plasticity theory and life history theory (parental investment) from biology to interpret these data.

  6. Identification of excess 40Ar by the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanphere, M.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1976-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar incremental heating experiments on igneous plagioclase, biotite, and pyroxene that contain known amounts of excess 40 Ar indicate that saddle-shaped age spectra are diagnostic of excess 40 Ar in igneous minerals as well as in igneous rocks. The minima in the age spectra approach but do not reach the crystallization age. Neither the age spectrum diagram nor the 40 Ar/ 36 Ar versus 39 Ar/ 36 Ar isochron diagram reliably reveal the crystallization age in such samples. (Auth.)

  7. Maya phytomedicine in Guatemala - Can cooperative research change ethnopharmacological paradigms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitziger, Martin; Heinrich, Michael; Edwards, Peter; Pöll, Elfriede; Lopez, Marissa; Krütli, Pius

    2016-06-20

    This paper presents one of the first large-scale collaborative research projects in ethnopharmacology, to bring together indigenous stakeholders and scientists both in project design and execution. This approach has often been recommended but rarely put into practice. The study was carried out in two key indigenous areas of Guatemala, for which very little ethnopharmacological fieldwork has been published. To document and characterize the ethno-pharmacopoeias of the Kaqchikel (highlands) and Q'eqchi' (lowlands) Maya in a transdisciplinary collaboration with the two groups Councils of Elders. The project is embedded in a larger collaboration with five Councils of Elders representing important indigenous groups in Guatemala, two of which participated in this study. These suggested healing experts reputed for their phytotherapeutic knowledge and skills. Ethnobotanical fieldwork was carried out over 20 months, accompanied by a joint steering process and validation workshops. The field data were complemented by literature research and were aggregated using a modified version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and Trotter & Logan's consensus index. Similar numbers of species were collected in the two areas, with a combined total of 530 species. This total does not represent all of the species used for medicinal purposes. Remedies for the digestive system, the central nervous system & behavioral syndromes, and general tissue problems & infections were most frequent in both areas. Furthermore, remedies for the blood, immune & endocrine system are frequent in the Kaqchikel area, and remedies for the reproductive system are frequent in the Q'eqchi' area. Consensus factors are however low. The Kaqchikel, in contrast to the Q'eqchi', report more remedies for non-communicable illnesses. They also rely heavily on introduced species. The transdisciplinary research design facilitated scientifically rigorous and societally relevant large-scale fieldwork, which

  8. Ramon Llull's Ars Magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa

    2018-01-01

    The Ars Magna of Ramon Llull must be seen as one of the first attempts to formalise language, thought processes, and creating a basis for rational discussions. It consists of so-called principles, concepts, which are defined and combined through the use of four main figures. Llull's contribution...

  9. Genomic insights on the ethno-history of the Maya and the 'Ladinos' from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söchtig, Jens; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Salas, Antonio

    2015-02-25

    Guatemala is a multiethnic and multilingual country located in Central America. The main population groups separate 'Ladinos' (mixed Native American-African-Spanish), and Native indigenous people of Maya descent. Among the present-day Guatemalan Maya, there are more than 20 different ethnic groups separated by different languages and cultures. Genetic variation of these communities still remains largely unexplored. The principal aim of this study is to explore the genetic variability of the Maya and 'Ladinos' from Guatemala by means of uniparental and ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Analyses of uniparental genetic markers indicate that Maya have a dominant Native American ancestry (mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA]: 100%; Y-chromosome: 94%). 'Ladino', however, show a clear gender-bias as indicated by the large European ancestry observed in the Y-chromosome (75%) compared to the mtDNA (0%). Autosomal polymorphisms (AIMS) also mirror this marked gender-bias: (i) Native American ancestry: 92% for the Maya vs. 55% for the 'Ladino', and (ii) European ancestry: 8% for the Maya vs. 41% for the 'Ladino'. In addition, the impact of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade on the present-day Guatemalan population is very low (and only occurs in the 'Ladino'; mtDNA: 9%; 4%), in part mirroring the fact that Guatemala has a predominant orientation to the Pacific Ocean instead of a Caribbean one. Sequencing of entire Guatemalan mitogenomes has led to improved Native American phylogeny via the addition of new haplogroups that are mainly observed in Mesoamerica and/or the North of South America. The data reveal the existence of a fluid gene flow in the Mesoamerican area and a predominant unidirectional flow towards South America, most likely occurring during the Pre-Classic (1800 BC-200 AD) and the Classic (200-1000 AD) Eras of the Mesoamerican chronology, coinciding with development of the most distinctive and advanced Mesoamerican civilization, the Maya. Phylogenetic features of mtDNA data

  10. 40Ar/39Ar studies of deep sea igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidemann, D.

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to date deep-sea igneous rocks reliably was made using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating technique. It was determined that the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar incremental release technique could not be used to eliminate the effects of excess radiogenic 40 Ar in deep-sea basalts. Excess 40 Ar is released throughout the extraction temperature range and cannot be distinguished from 40 Ar generated by in situ 40 K decay. The problem of the reduction of K-Ar dates associated with sea water alteration of deep-sea igneous rocks could not be resolved using the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar technique. Irradiation induced 39 Ar loss and/or redistribution in fine-grained and altered igneous rocks results in age spectra that are artifacts of the experimental procedure and only partly reflect the geologic history of the sample. Therefore, caution must be used in attributing significance to age spectra of fine grained and altered deep-sea igneous rocks. Effects of 39 Ar recoil are not important for either medium-grained (or coarser) deep-sea rocks or glasses because only a small fraction of the 39 Ar recoils to channels of easy diffusion, such as intergranular boundaries or cracks, during the irradiation. (author)

  11. Los tablados: Arquitectura vernácula efímera de los pueblos mayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Sánchez Suárez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura vernácula de los mayas de la península de Yucatán, en su representación de la casa maya, es reconocida no solo por el impacto que la cultura maya ha tenido últimamente, sino también por su historia que deviene desde el periodo mesoamericano, durante el cual esta construcción, que continúa vigente como vivienda en la actualidad, fue reproducida en la ornamentación y bóvedas de la arquitectura monumental. Los saberes constructivos, conservados por siglos en la construcción de la casa maya, fueron también empleados para la creación de una nueva estructura llamada "tablado", la que se generó durante el proceso de apropiación de la tauromaquia por parte de los mayas peninsulares, asignándole significados propios de su cosmovisión. El presente trabajo detalla una parte de los resultados del proyecto de investigación que propone una mirada a esta expresión vernácula en los estados de Campeche y Yucatán, en México.

  12. Los mayas del altiplano: supervivencia indígena en Chiapas y Guatemala

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    Lovell, W. George

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto americano, pocos grupos indígenas han demostrado la capacidad de sobrevivir a lo largo de la historia como los mayas del altiplano. Hoy día en Chiapas existen más de un millón de indígenas mayas, un número que asciende a cinco o seis millones en el caso de Guatemala. Los pueblos mayas han respondido a la invasión y a la dominación para conservar elementos importantes de su cultura. Este artículo discute las formas en que los mayas del altiplano se han adaptado para sobrevivir a casi cinco siglos de conquista, identificando tres fases claves en su trayectoria histórica: (1 la experiencia colonial, que abarca los años entre 1524 y 1821; (2 una época de reforma y revolución, que corre de 1821 a 1954; y (3 un período de marginalización y descuido desde 1954 en adelante. Pese al desfío, los mayas del altiplano están equipados culturalmente para perdurar.

  13. Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Heather

    2005-01-01

    How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600–900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

  14. An 8700 year paleoclimate reconstruction from the southern Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David B.; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of a sediment core from Lago Puerto Arturo, a closed basin lake in northern Peten, Guatemala, has provided an ∼8700 cal year record of climate change and human activity in the southern Maya lowlands. Stable isotope, magnetic susceptibility, and pollen analyses were used to reconstruct environmental change in the region. Results indicate a relatively wet early to middle Holocene followed by a drier late Holocene, which we interpret as reflecting long-term changes in insolation (precession). Higher frequency variability is more likely attributable to changes in ocean/atmosphere circulation in both the North Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Pollen and isotope data show that most of the period of prehispanic agricultural settlement, i.e. ∼5000–1000 cal yr BP, was characterized by drier conditions than previous or subsequent periods. The presence ofZea (corn) pollen through peak aridity during the Terminal Classic period (∼1250–1130 cal yr BP) suggests that drought may not have had as negative an impact as previously proposed. A dramatic negative shift in isotope values indicates an increase in precipitation after ∼950 cal yr BP (hereafter BP).

  15. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  16. TEATRO MAYA: RABINAL ACHÍ O DANZA DEL TUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Henríquez Puentes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El Rabinal Achí o Danza del Tun es teatro de origen maya puesto en escena desde el siglo XIII hasta nuestros días en la actual Guatemala. Es una composición inserta en el esquema religioso de las culturas mesoamericanas que, conservada a través de tradición oral hasta el siglo XIX, ha sido reescrita en este espacio escénico durante aproximadamente ochocientos años. El Rabinal Achí revela una forma de escribir con el cuerpo que articula danza, música y poesía, y representa ese momento en la historia del teatro en que el arte de la representación y rito compartían la misma escenaThe Rabinal Achí or Dance of the Tun is theatre of Mayan origen. The first performances date from the 13th century and continue into the present day in contemporary Guatemala. It is a composition that forms part of the religious scheme of the Indo-American cultures and, preserved through oral tradition up until the 19th century, has been rewritten in this scenic space for approximately eight hundred years. The Rabinal Achí reveals a way of writing with the body that articulates dance, music and poetry and represents a moment in the history of theatre in which the art of representation and the ritual share the same scene

  17. Maya Children. Helpers at the Farm (Karen L. Kramer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Campos Hernando

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los habitantes de Xculoc, una aldea maya en la península de Yucatán, viven de sus cultivos de maíz y mantienen una agricultura de subsistencia sin haber entrado a formar parte del mercado laboral ni de la economía regional. La aldea, en la que viven 316 habitantes distribuidos en 55 casas familiares, está a cinco horas de camino de cualquier vía asfaltada, sin electricidad ni agua corriente. Los habitantes de Xculoc tienen de particular una tasa de natalidad muy alta y una mortalidad infantil muy baja, en parte por la ausencia de aguas contaminadas en los alrededores del poblado, llegando a conformarse el núcleo familiar por la madre, el padre y hasta ocho hijos. Esta estructura familiar no se podría mantener con el exclusivo trabajo de los padres , las necesidades de consumo son cubiertas por todos los miembros de la familia, dependiendo sus aportaciones no sólo del tamaño de la familia sino también de la estructura de la misma según edades.

  18. DEFORESTATION ALONG THE MAYA MOUNTAIN MASSIF BELIZE-GUATEMALA BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Chicas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize’s Maya Mountain Massif (MMM have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize’s protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were −1.04% and −6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  19. Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David L

    2008-01-01

    Virtually all migration research examines international migration or urbanization. Yet understudied rural migrants are of critical concern for environmental conservation and rural sustainable development. Despite the fact that a relatively small number of all migrants settle remote rural frontiers, these are the agents responsible for perhaps most of the tropical deforestation on the planet. Further, rural migrants are among the most destitute people worldwide in terms of economic and human development. While a host of research has investigated deforestation resulting from frontier migration, and a modest literature has emerged on frontier development, this article explores the necessary antecedent to tropical deforestation and poverty along agricultural frontiers: out-migration from origin areas. The data come from a 2000 survey with community leaders and key informants in 16 municipios of migrant origin to the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), Petén, Guatemala. A common denominator among communities of migration origin to the Petén frontier was unequal resource access, usually land. Nevertheless, the factors driving resource scarcity were widely variable. Land degradation, land consolidation, and population growth prevailed in some communities but not in others. Despite similar exposure to community and regional level push factors, most people in the sampled communities did not out-migrate, suggesting that any one or combination of factors is not necessarily sufficient for out-migration.

  20. Materiales Maria Maya: community-based materials development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, B C

    1982-01-01

    Materials Maria Maya (MMM) is a Guatemalan organization which has dedicated itself to making health education more relevant to the rural Mayans who constitute the majority of Guatemala's population. The administration and direction of the project is in the hands of a team of qualified Mayan men and women. Funding is primarily through various charitable international organizations. The content of preexisting health education programs, strongly influenced by the dominant "ladino" Spanish speaking culture was found to be inappropriate to the goal of this program. MMM set about to formulate a new teaching format which would draw upon, rather than trample over, established cultural practices and life styles. By a process of trial and error, involving small scale field tests, a new program format was developed. By questioning local women about perceived priority areas, through the study of morbidity and mortality data, decisions were made as to topics to be covered. Investigators, authors, and artists worked together to form a "materials package" which was then subject to pretesting. Out of this effort, MMM has been able to come up with a method to encourage more effective participative teaching through the use of education materials.

  1. Paleoenvironmental and Paleoecological Reconstruction of the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissolo, D.; Jaijel, R.; Glover, J. B.; Goodman, B.; Beddows, P. A.; Carter, A.; Smith, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ancient Maya ports along the largely unstudied northeast coast of the Yucatan Peninsula once supported a network of trade routes linking people, goods, and ideas from across Mesoamerica. The Costa Escondida Project has focused on the interrelationships between the ancient Maya and their dynamic coastal environment along the shores of the Laguna Holbox. Central to our interdisciplinary efforts is a paleoenvironmental and paleoecological reconstruction of the key port of Vista Alegre - a low-lying island surrounded by a complex mosaic of costal ecosystems, sedimentological facies, and hydrological conditions. Geoarchaeological field methods, such as sediment coring, have made possible multiproxy analyses that enable us to better understand sea level fluctuations and the morphology of the shoreline and harboring locations over time, as well as changes in ecosystem biodiversity, which would have presented the maritime Maya with unique challenges and opportunities.

  2. Correlating the Ancient Maya and Modern European Calendars with High-Precision AMS 14C Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Hajdas, Irka; Culleton, Brendan J.; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Martin, Simon; Neff, Hector; Awe, Jaime; Graham, Heather V.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Newsom, Lee; Lentz, David L.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Robinson, Mark; Marwan, Norbert; Southon, John; Hodell, David A.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2013-04-01

    The reasons for the development and collapse of Maya civilization remain controversial and historical events carved on stone monuments throughout this region provide a remarkable source of data about the rise and fall of these complex polities. Use of these records depends on correlating the Maya and European calendars so that they can be compared with climate and environmental datasets. Correlation constants can vary up to 1000 years and remain controversial. We report a series of high-resolution AMS 14C dates on a wooden lintel collected from the Classic Period city of Tikal bearing Maya calendar dates. The radiocarbon dates were calibrated using a Bayesian statistical model and indicate that the dates were carved on the lintel between AD 658-696. This strongly supports the Goodman-Martínez-Thompson (GMT) correlation and the hypothesis that climate change played an important role in the development and demise of this complex civilization.

  3. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the Maya wall paintings in Ek'Balam, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenabeele, P.; Bodé, S.; Alonso, A.; Moens, L.

    2005-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been applied to the examination of wall painting fragments from the archaeological site of Ek'Balam (Yucatán, Mexico). Thirty-three samples have been studied, all originating from room 23 of the Acropolis, and being representative of the painting technique at Ek'Balam during the late Classic Maya period. Several pigments such as haematite, calcite, carbon, cinnabar and indigo were identified in these samples. The latter pigment was presumed to be present as 'Maya blue', which is an intercalation product of indigo and palygorskite clay. The observed Raman spectra are reported and some band assignments have been made. This survey is the first Raman spectroscopic examination of a whole set of pigments in archaeological Maya wall painting fragments.

  4. Influences of atom Ar on Ar at C60 + Ar at C60 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiang; Zhou Hongyu; Zhang Fengshou

    2007-01-01

    A semi-emperical molecular dynamics model was developed. The central collisions of C 60 + C 60 and Ar at C 60 + Ar at C 60 at the same incident energy were investigated within this model. The fullerene dimers could be formed by a self-assembly of C 60 fullerene, and the new fullerene structure like 'peanut' could be formed by a self-assembly of Ar at C 60 . It was found that atom Ar had a great effect on the collision of Ar at C 60 + Ar at C 60 . (authors)

  5. Ars Electronica tulekul / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2003-01-01

    6.-11. IX toimub Austrias Linzis "Ars Electronica" festival, mille teema on "Code - The Language of Our Time". Festivali kavast, osalejatest, ava-performance'ist "Europe - A Symphonic Vision", näitusest "Cyberarts 2003. Prix Ars Electronica"

  6. Landscape Archeology: Remote Sensing Investigation of the Ancient Maya in the Peten Rainforest of Northern Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Thomas L.; Irwin, Daniel E.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Through the use of airborne and satellite imagery we are improving our ability to investigate ancient Maya settlement, subsistence, and landscape modification in this dense forest region. Today the area is threatened by encroaching settlement and deforestation. However, it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons in the 9th century AD. At the time of their collapse they had attained one of the highest population densities in human history. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not well understood at this time. A NASA-funded project used remote sensing technology to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this preliminary research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Microenvironmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetation associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), one-meter IKONOS satellite imagery, as well as high resolution airborne STAR-3i radar imagery--2.5 meter backscatter/10 meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM)--are opening new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karat topographic landscape. This understanding is critical for the current population that is currently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through

  7. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A.; Emery, Kitty F.; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region. PMID:27806065

  8. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Kamenov, George D; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A; Emery, Kitty F; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  9. ARABIC LIGHT STEMMER (ARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASMA AL-OMARI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Stemming is a main step used to process textual data. It is usually used in several types of applications such as: text mining, information retrieval (IR, and natural language processing (NLP. A major task in stemming is to standardize words; which can be achieved by reducing each word to its base (root or stem. Arabic stemming is not an easy task. Unlike other languages, Arabic language is a highly inflected language, since it uses many inflectional forms. Researchers are divided on the benefit of using stemming in fields of IR, NLP...etc., since in Arabic the morphological variants of a certain word are not always semantically related. The aim of this paper is to design and implement a new Arabic light stemmer (ARS which is not based on Arabic root patterns. Instead, it depends on well defined mathematical rules and several relations between letters. A series of tests were conducted on ARS stemmer to compare its effectiveness with the effectiveness of two other Arabic stemmers. Test shows clearly the effectiveness superiority of ARS compared to effectiveness of these two Arabic stemmers.

  10. The Costa Maya:  Evolution of a Touristic Landscape La Costa Maya : évolution d'un paysage touristique La Costa Maya : evolución de un paisaje turístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La Costa Maya est une région côtière du sud du Quintana Roo (Mexique, proche de l'îlet Ambergris au Bélize. Contrairement à la côte caribéenne du Mexique qui a souffert du développement du tourisme de masse à Cancun et le long de la Riviera Maya, la Costa Maya s'est orientée vers un développement durable avec notamment une faible densité de construction et le développement de l'écotourisme.Le développement s'est concentré autour de Puerto Costa Maya où un terminal de croisière a été construit en 2001. La station balnéaire (balneario de Majahual est devenue dépendante des 10-12 bateaux de touristes qui débarquaient chaque semaine. En dépit d'importants plans de développement, les plages reculées de la Costa Maya accueillaient tout au plus des écotouristes aisés et du tourisme lié à la plongée sous-marine.Le cyclone Dean, de catégorie 5, a dévasté le paysage en août 2007 et le rétablissement économique n'a pu être entamé que fin 2008, après la réouverture du terminal de croisière et la reconstruction de Majahual. Fin 2009, le trafic de croisière n'a pas retrouvé son niveau d'avant Dean et la récession mondiale couplée avec la grippe porcine et les violences liées à la drogue ont fait diminuer le tourisme en provenance des Etats-Unis. On ignore à quel niveau les nouvelles infrastructures tels l'aéroport international de Tulum qui propose un itinéraire de Chetumal à la plage et le nouveau complexe hôtelier à Xahuayxel, stimuleront la Costa Maya mexicaine créant peut-être une autoroute côtière reliée à San Pedro au Bélize.The Costa Maya is a vernacular coastal region of southeastern Quintana Roo (Mexico and adjacent Ambergris Cay, Belize.  As Mexico’s Caribbean coast suffered many growth pains associated with mass tourism development in Cancun and along the Riviera Maya, the Costa Maya by contrast was projected for more sustainable development including low-density housing and

  11. El Teatro Maya como travestismo cultural. Una lectura performativa y descolonizadora de su arquitectura

    OpenAIRE

    Hoechtl, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Este texto emula la forma y estructura de un guion dramático. En él se desarrolla una visita guiada al Teatro Maya, a través de la cual se pretende mostrar las maneras en que lo cultural diferente y lo cultural exótico habitan la arquitectura. El texto aborda este análisis desde una perspectiva específica, la del travestismo cultural, poniendo especial atención en el contexto arquitectónico, cultural e histórico particular del Teatro Maya, que se inauguró en 1927 en el Centro de Los Angeles e...

  12. A configuração narrativa em idioma maya q'eqchi de Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Bol, Oscar René Saquil

    2006-01-01

    Guatemala é um país que tem um tecido social composto por diferentes culturas (Maya, Xinca, Garifuna y Ladina). Entre elas o Q'eqchi' como idioma e cultura maya, sobre o qual se desenvolve esta investigação, no campo das ciências da linguagem, adotando os aportes da linguística textual. Neste processo participaram mestres (professores) que trabalham em cinco escolas de Xch'ool Ixim, eles recolheram algumas narrações que se utilizam para a trasmissão de determinados ensinamentos e emoções, ...

  13. Transcultural use of narcotic water lilies in ancient Egyptian and Maya drug ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emboden, W A

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are made between ancient ritual uses of the flowers of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae) in Maya and Egyptian civilizations. Recurrent motifs encountered in the art of both of these ancient civilizations suggests that the role fo the water lily was that of a narcotic (psychodysleptic) used to mediate ecstasis among a priestly caste. Relevant literature is reviewed as are chemical data. Elements in the complex belief systems of these two civilizations need to be reinterpreted in view of the use of two water lilies as ritual narcotics. The species implicated are Nymphaea caerulea Sav., in Egypt, and N. ampla DC., among the Maya.

  14. Daily life of the ancient Maya recorded on murals at Calakmul, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Vargas, Ramón; López, Verónica A. Vázquez; Martin, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Research into ancient societies frequently faces a major challenge in accessing the lives of those who made up the majority of their populations, since the available evidence so often concerns only the ruling elite. Our excavations at the ancient Maya site of Calakmul, Mexico, have uncovered a “painted pyramid:” a structure decorated with murals depicting scenes of its inhabitants giving, receiving, and consuming diverse foods, as well as displaying and transporting other goods. Many are accompanied by hieroglyphic captions that describe the participants, and include spellings of key subsistence items. Collectively, they offer insights into the social mechanisms by which goods were circulated within major Maya centers. PMID:19901331

  15. Radar mapping, archaeology, and ancient land use in the Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. E. W.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Culbert, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the use of synthetic aperture radar in aerial survey of the southern Maya lowlands suggest the presence of very large areas drained by ancient canals for the purpose of intensive cultivation. Preliminary ground checks in several very limited areas confirm the existence of canals and raised fields. Excavations and ground surveys by several scholars provide valuable comparative information. Taken together, the new data suggest that Late Classic period Maya civilization was firmly grounded in large-scale and intensive cultivation of swampy zones.

  16. Temperature and pressure effects on 40Ar-39Ar systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozima, M.; Kaneoka, I.; Yanagisawa, M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of thermal and compressional treatment on 40 Ar- 39 Ar systematics have been investigated on three artificially heated biotite samples (heated for 1 hour at 700 0 C and 860 0 C in air and 700 0 C in vacuum respectively) and uniaxially compressed granite (p=1400 bar) and basalt samples (p=1660 bar). The 40 Ar- 39 Ar results for the disturbed samples are compared with those for undisturbed samples. Except for the vacuum-heating case, the effects of the disturbances may be interpreted as the combined effect of a partial loss of radiogenic 40 Ar from the sample and an incorporation of air Ar into the sample. Common diagnostic effects are (1) reduction of the total fusion age, (2) distortion of the age spectrum and, if the degree of the partial Ar loss is small (3) approximate preservation of the isochron age, and (4) reduction of the intercept value ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) in the isochron plot. The features observed in the age spectra of artificially disturbed samples are rather common in geologically disturbed samples, suggesting that the artificial disturbances simulate the effects of geological disturbances on 40 Ar- 39 Ar systematics. (Auth.)

  17. Spectroanalytical investigations on inductively coupled N2/Ar and Ar/Ar high frequency plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, P.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Nickel, H.

    1981-03-01

    In order to improve the detection limits of trace elements in corrosion products of metallic materials, the inductively coupled plasma excitation source (ICP) was applied for spectroscopic analysis. Besides optimizing the working conditions for the mentioned materials, the fundamental research clearing the excitation processes in ICP was carried out. Basicly, two plasma systems were investigated: the nitrogen cooled N 2 /Ar- and pure Ar/Ar-plasma. The computed detection limits for 8 chosen elements are between 0.1 and 50 μg ml -1 in both plasmas. The advantage of ion lines was clearly present; in N 2 /Ar-plasma it was larger than in Ar/Ar-plasma. The excitation temperatures measured with help of ArI, FeI and ZnI lines rise with increasing power and decreasing distance from the induction coil. The distribution of Zn excitation temperature in N 2 /Ar-plasma as well as the measured N + 2 rotational and CN vibrational temperatures indicate, that the toroidal structure of Ar/Ar-plasma is not analogue to the N 2 /Ar-plasma. The values of the various excitation temperatures (Ar, Fe, Zn) and the differences between the excitation, vibration, rotation and ionization temperatures (Tsub(i) > Tsub(n) = Tsub(vib) > Tsub(rot)) indicate an absence of thermal equilibrium in the concerned system. (orig.)

  18. Ar and K partitioning between clinopyroxene and silicate melt to 8 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, E. M.; Brooker, R. A.; Wartho, J.-A.; Wood, B. J.; Kelley, S. P.; Blundy, J. D.

    2002-02-01

    clinopyroxene is diopside rich at all pressures, DK and DRb increase with pressure (and temperature) in an analogous fashion to the well-documented behavior of Na. For the Ab80Di20 system, the jadeite content of the clinopyroxene increases from 22 to 75 mol% with pressure resulting in a contraction of the M2 site. This has the effect of discriminating against the large K+ and Rb+ ions, thereby countering the effect of increasing pressure. As a consequence DK and DRb do not increase with pressure in this system. In contrast to the alkalis (Na, K, and Rb), DKr values are similar to DAr despite a large difference in atomic radius. This lack of discrimination (and the constant DAr over a range of crystal compositions) is also consistent with incorporation of these heavier noble gases at crystal lattice sites and a predicted consequence of their neutrality or ;zero charge.; Combined with published DAr values for olivine, our results confirm that magma generation is an efficient mechanism for the removal of Ar from the uppermost 200 km of the mantle, and that K/Ar ratios in the residuum are controlled by the amount of clinopyroxene. Generally, Ar is more compatible than K during mantle melting because DAr for olivine is similar to DK for clinopyroxene. As a result, residual mantle that has experienced variable amounts of melt extraction may show considerable variability in time-integrated 36Ar/40Ar.

  19. 40Ar/39Ar age calibration against counted annuallayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Stecher, Ole

    2008-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar method, based on the decay of the naturally occurring radioactive isotope 40K, is capable of producing ages with precision better than ± 0.1 %. However, accuracy is limited to no better than 1 % mainly due to the relatively large uncertainty in the 40K decay constants. One approach...... worth exploring for an improved absolute age basis for the 40Ar/39Ar system is through cross-calibration with counted annual layers (e.g. tree rings, varves and ice cores). North Atlantic Ash Zone (NAAZ) II is found within the dated part of the annual Greenland ice core record. NAAZ II has been...... correlated to the Icelandic peralkaline rhyolitic Thorsmörk ignimbrite. We will present preliminary 40Ar/39Ar results on the age of this eruption...

  20. Story Starters on the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas. A Creative Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Steve; Henrich, Jean

    Designed to supplement an established language arts and social studies program, this books deals with the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas of Latin America. All of the "Story Starter" books are intended to give a variety of vocabulary and story ideas to help with the writing process. Each of the books is divided into four main sections: (1) an…

  1. The importance of considering gestures in the study of current spoken Yucatec Maya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Le Guen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, linguistic description has been somehow limited because it was not possible to record audio and video. For this reason, the intrinsic multimodal nature of human language has been left out, putting aside various types of information both prosodic and visual. This work analyzes the ways in which gestures complement speech, taking into account several levels of analysis: pragmatic, semantic and syntactic; but also how some gestures can be considered linguistic signs. In order to exemplify the argumentation, I will consider the Yucatec Maya language using examples of spontaneous productions. Although certain processes presented in this work are specific to Yucatec Maya, most can be found in various languages. This paper first presents a definition of language, speech and gestures, and how one can study the way in which speech and gestures are integrated in a composite utterance. Subsequently, I analyze examples of different types of gestures in various areas of communication in Yucatec Maya, such as deictic gestures, the use of expressive gestures, metaphors and the integration of gestures at the pragmatic level. Finally, I explain how gestures can become linguistic signs in Yucatec Maya.

  2. THE MAYA INDEX ANALYSIS ON DENGUE PATIENT HOUSEHOLD IN BANJAR CITY, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandji Wibawa Dhewantara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu faktor risiko kejadian DBD di antaranya adalah ketersediaan kontainer tempat perkembangbiakan vektor. Tahun2012 dilakukan survei observasional analitik dengan pendekatan potong lintang pada 100 rumah penderita DBD di KotaBanjar. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui tingkat risiko penularan DBD melalui pendekatan analisis Maya Index. Datayang dikumpulkan meliputi jenis, jumlah kontainer, dan jumlah kontainer mengandung larva Aedes sp. Kontainer yangditemukan dikategorikan menjadi Controllable Container dan Disposable Container untuk mengetahui Breeding Risk Index(BRI dan Hygene Risk Index (HRI. Analisis deskriptif digunakan untuk mengetahui proporsi jumlah dan jenis kontainer.Maya index diperoleh dari hasil pengkategorian rasio BRI dan HRI. Container Index dan Breteau Index dihitung untukmengetahui kepadatan larva. Hasil pengamatan ditemukan sebanyak 915 kontainer yang terdiri dari jenis controllablecontainers (93% dan disposable containers (7%. Jenis kontainer yang dominan adalah tempayan tanah liat (15,52%, bakair (14,35%, pot bunga (48,47%, dan penampung air pada dispenser (7%. Larva Aedes sp. banyak ditemukan pada bak air(48,57% dan penampung air pada dispenser (22,86%. Sementara, botol bekas (35,3% dan kaleng bekas (26,1%merupakan jenis disposable container yang paling banyak ditemukan. Analisis menunjukkan sebagian besar rumahberkategori BRI tinggi (93% dan HRI rendah (92%. Berdasarkan Maya Index, rumah penderita termasuk dalam kategoririsiko sedang (97% dengan CI dan BI masing-masing sebesar 3,85% dan 35. Studi ini menyimpulkan bahwa sebagian besarrumah penderita masih memiliki potensi penularan infeksi virus Dengue.Kata kunci: DBD, risiko perkembangbiakan larva, kontainer, indeks risiko kebersihan, Maya Index

  3. Incorporation, integration and irrigation at the ancient Maya site of Baking Pot, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Conlon

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an example of the use of corporate group analysis at the major ceremonial centre of Baking Pot, and uses comparative data from the site core of Baking Pot, other major centres in the upper Belize Valley, and various other sources throughout the Maya lowlands.

  4. Bilingual Rapping in Yucatán, Mexico: Strategic Choices for Maya Language Legitimation and Revitalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cru, Josep

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the sociolinguistic practices of a group of young bilingual rappers in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. Against the background of ongoing language shift to Spanish in the region, the language choices of a group of Maya youths involved in Hip Hop culture and their agency as policy-makers at the grassroots level is analysed.…

  5. Maya Angelou's Children's Books: Inspiration for Turning Poetry into Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    This column presents books for children penned by Maya Angelou. These poems and stories, based on her experiences as an African American woman living in the United States, Egypt, Ghana, and South Africa, include extraordinary photography and artwork. Suggestions for inclusion in the general music classroom are provided.

  6. Leveraging Social Networks to Support Reproductive Health and Economic Wellbeing among Guatemalan Maya Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Alexandra S.; Luippold-Roge, Genevieve P.; Gurman, Tilly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maya women in Guatemala are disproportionately affected by poverty and negative reproductive health outcomes. Although social networks are valued in many Indigenous cultures, few studies have explored whether health education programmes can leverage these networks to improve reproductive health and economic wellbeing. Design: This…

  7. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech-Puch, Dawrin; Cruz-López, Honorio; Canche-Ek, Cindy; Campos-Espinosa, Gabriela; García, Elpidio; Mascaro, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Chávez-Velasco, Daniel; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa), as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was injected into the third pereiopod. The water extract was fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration with a molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa leading to a metabolic phase (>3 kDa) and a neurotoxic fraction (octopus saliva might be used among conspecifics for defense and for reduction of competition. Bioguided separation of the neurotoxic fraction by chromatography led to a paralysis fraction and a relaxing fraction. The paralyzing activity of the saliva was exerted by amino acids, while the relaxing activity was due to the presence of serotonin. Prey-handling studies revealed that O. maya punctures the eye or arthrodial membrane when predating blue crabs and uses the radula to bore through crown conch shells; these differing strategies may help O. maya to reduce the time needed to handle its prey.

  8. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Haplotypes Are Associated with Preeclampsia in Maya Mestizo Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Díaz-Olguín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a specific disease of pregnancy and believed to have a genetic component. The aim of this study was to investigate if three polymorphisms in eNOS or their haplotypes are associated with preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women.

  9. Cultural Teaching: The Development of Teaching Skills in Maya Sibling Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Ashley E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the development of teaching skills in older siblings responsible for teaching their younger siblings to become competent members of their culture among children from a Zinacantec Maya village in Chiapas, Mexico. Found that by age 4, children took responsibility for initiating teaching situations with their younger siblings, and by 8,…

  10. Use of marine robot`MAYA` for monitoring the Zuari and Mandovi esturine systems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.A; Afzulpurkar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Maurya, P.K.; Fernandes, L.; Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Shenoy, D.; Kurian, S.; Naik, H.; Nagvekar, S.; Vimalakumari, D.; Dalvi, H.S.; Manoharan, V.; deAraujo, B.A; Lamani, V.; Naik, N.; Mohan, N.; Dias, Albertina; Dias, A

    to study the spatial distribution of biogeochemical properties in the Zuari and Mandovi Estuarine systems during the onset of tides. MAYA was repurposed as an ASV to tightly follow a path (Maurya, P et al., 2008) along the mid-section of the rivers...

  11. Elements of success in cooperatives conformed by Maya women in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osorio Vazqez, Maria Cristina; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Franco Garcia, Maria Laura; Boer, C.L.; Reyes Maya, Oscar Ivan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes different elements leading to the success of cooperatives formed by indigenous Maya women of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. These elements have shown to facilitate the sustainability (permanence over time) of the cooperatives and their presence in the market, while improving

  12. Critical Pedagogy in HIV-AIDS Education for a Maya Immigrant Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorman, Dilys; Acosta, Maria Cristina; Sena, Rachel; Baxley, Traci

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how the perspectives of Paulo Freire were instructive in addressing the challenges of HIV-AIDS education in Guatemalan Maya immigrant communities with minimal formal education and literacy. The forging of a community-based, collaborative, educational program offers several implications for effective teaching and…

  13. Human and natural impacts on fluvial and karst depressions of the Maya Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Dunning, Nicholas; Cook, Duncan

    2008-10-01

    This paper begins to differentiate the major drivers and chronology of erosion and aggradation in the fluvial and fluviokarst landscapes of the southern and central Maya Lowlands. We synthesize past research on erosion and aggradation and add new data from water, soils, radiocarbon dating, and archaeology to study the quantity, timing, and causes of aggradation in regional landscape depressions. Geomorphic findings come from many excavations across a landscape gradient from upland valleys, karst sinks, and fans into the coastal plain floodplains and depressions. Findings from water chemistry show that sources in the uplands have low quantities of dissolved ions but water in the coastal plains has high amounts of dissolved ions, often nearly saturated in calcium and sulfate. We found significant geomorphic complexity in the general trends in upland karst sinks. In a few instances, sediments preserve Late Pleistocene paleosols, buried 2-3 m, though many more have distinct middle to late Holocene paleosols, buried 1-2 m, after c. 2300 BP (Maya Early to Late Preclassic). From 2300-1100 BP (Late Preclassic to Classic Periods), the landscape aggraded from five main mechanisms: river flooding, climatic instability, accelerated erosion, ancient Maya landscape manipulation, and gypsum precipitation from a rise in a water table nearly saturated in calcium and sulfate ions. Evidence exists for two or three high magnitude floods, possibly driven by hurricanes. Moreover, lake-core and geophysical studies from the Petén Lakes region have shown high rates of deposition of silicate clays ('Maya Clays') starting and peaking during the Maya Preclassic and continuing to be high through the Late Classic. The main driver on upland karst depressions, the Petén lakes, upland valleys, and fans was accelerated soil erosion, but water table rise, probably driven by sea-level rise, was the main driver on the wetlands of the coastal plain because the aggraded sediments here are dominantly

  14. Geochronology and thermochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.; Harrison, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    This work is a response to the authors' belief that there is a need for a monograph on 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating to provide concise knowledge concerning the application of this method to geological studies. They aim to provide a reasonably comprehensive but by no means exhaustive coverage of the principles and practices of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating, with emphasis on interpretation of results. In attempting to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge, they commonly cite examples from the available literature. They draw rather heavily upon their own work, because they feel comfortable with their own examples. (author)

  15. Geological Dating by 40 Ar - 39 Ar method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbert Romero, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The isotope 40 K is radioactive, it decays to 40 Ar stable. The number of 40 Ar atoms produced from 40 K, permits to calculate the date of rocks and minerals. This dating technique is named 'Conventional K-Ar Dating Method'. The 40 Ar - 39 Ar dating method permits to calculate the age of rocks and minerals eliminating the limitation of the K-Ar method by calculating potassium and argon concentrations in a single measurement of the ratio of argon isotopes. In this work, the irradiation of the sample with fast neutrons in the nuclear reactor was established. 39 Ar is obtained from the induced reaction 39 K (n,p) 39 Ar. Thus the ration of 40 Ar - 39 Ar allows to obtain the date of rocks and minerals. This ratio was measured in a mass spectrometer. If the measurement of argon concentration in the sample is carried out at different increasing temperature values, it is possible to get information of paleotemperatures. The number of atoms 39 Ar is a function of the number 39 K atoms, irradiation time, neutrons flux, its energy E and the capture cross section σ of 39 K. These parameters are calculate indirectly by obtaining the so called 'J value ' by using a standard mineral with known age (HD-BI y Biot-133), this mineral is irradiated together with the unknown age sample. The values of 'J' obtained are in the interval of 2.85 a 3.03 (x 10 - 3)J/h. Rocks from 'Tres Virgenes' were dated by the method described in this work, showing an agreement with previous values of different authors. The age of this rocks are from Cenozoico era, mainly in the miocene period. (Author)

  16. La legitimación de la realeza entre mayas del Preclásico Tardío. Los mascarones de El Tigre, Campeche Legitimizing royalty among Late Preclassic Maya. The masks from El Tigre-Campeche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Vargas Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el arte monumental del periodo Clásico maya la imagen del señor ocupaba el sitio principal y todas las demás imágenes un lugar secundario. Con este trabajo se quiere demostrar que los soberanos mayas ya en el Preclásico Tardío, o desde antes, usaron la arquitectura para reproducir la topografía del universo y se sirvieron de los mascarones para transmitir la condición divina de sus antepasados, de sus dioses y la suya propia. En El Tigre, Campeche, se han explorado varios mascarones de estuco del Preclásico Tardío, que representan rostros humanos, los cuales bien podrían identificarse como ancestros: antepasados de gobernantes que pretenden divinizarlos para así legitimizar la realeza maya.The images of Maya dignitaries take the most important places in monumental art during Classic period, and all other representations occupy a secondary position in that context. This paper pretends to demonstrate that Maya kings tried to duplicate their conception of the Universe on civic architecture since Preclassic period, or even before; they used huge mask representations to transmit the sacred condition of their ancestors, their gods and their selves. At El Tigre site, in Campeche, have been explored several stucco masks of Late Preclassic date, showing human faces that may represent ancestors of the kings who tried to deify them in order to legitimate Maya royalty.

  17. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of terrestrial pyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Bryant; Jourdan, Fred

    2018-06-01

    Geochronological techniques such as U/Pb in zircon and baddeleyite and 40Ar/39Ar on a vast range of minerals, including sanidine, plagioclase, and biotite, provide means to date an array of different geologic processes. Many of these minerals, however, are not always present in a given rock, or can be altered by secondary processes (e.g. plagioclase in mafic rocks) limiting our ability to derive an isotopic age. Pyroxene is a primary rock forming mineral for both mafic and ultramafic rocks and is resistant to alteration process but attempts to date this phase with 40Ar/39Ar has been met with little success so far. In this study, we analyzed pyroxene crystals from two different Large Igneous Provinces using a multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer (ARGUS VI) since those machines have been shown to significantly improve analytical precision compared to the previous single-collector instruments. We obtain geologically meaningful and relatively precise 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages ranging from 184.6 ± 3.9 to 182.4 ± 0.8 Ma (2σ uncertainties of ±1.8-0.4%) and 506.3 ± 3.4 Ma for Tasmanian and Kalkarindji dolerites, respectively. Those data are indistinguishable from new and/or published U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar plagioclase ages showing that 40Ar/39Ar dating of pyroxene is a suitable geochronological tool. Scrutinizing the analytical results of the pyroxene analyses as well as comparing them to the analytical result from plagioclase of the same samples indicate pure pyroxene was dated. Numerical models of argon diffusion in plagioclase and pyroxene support these observations. However, we found that the viability of 40Ar/39Ar dating approach of pyroxene can be affected by irradiation-induced recoil redistribution between thin pyroxene exsolution lamellae and the main pyroxene crystal, hence requiring careful petrographic observations before analysis. Finally, diffusion modeling show that 40Ar/39Ar of pyroxene can be used as a powerful tool to date the formation age of mafic

  18. a Review of Late Holocene Fluvial Systems in the Karst Maya Lowlands with Focus on the Rio Bravo, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, T.; Luzzadder-Beach, S.; Krause, S.; Doyle, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Maya Lowlands is mostly an internally draining karst region with about 400 m of regional relief. Fluvial and fluviokarst systems drain the edges of this landscape either from low limestone uplands or igneous and metamorphic complexes. Thus far most fluvial research has focused around archaeology projects, and here we review the extant research conducted across the region and new research on the transboundary Rio Bravo watershed of Belize and Guatemala. The Rio Bravo drains a largely old growth tropical forest today, but was partly deforested around ancient Maya cities and farms from 3,000 to 1000 BP. Several studies estimate that 30 to 40 percent of forest survived through the Maya period. Work here has focused on soils and sediment movement along slope catenas, in floodplain sites, and on contributions from groundwater with high dissolved loads of sulfate and calcium. We review radiocarbon dates and present new dates and soil stratigraphy from these sequences to date slope and floodplain movement, and we estimate ancient land use from carbon isotopic and pollen evidence. Aggradation in this watershed occurred by flooding, gypsum precipitation, upland erosion, and ancient Maya canal building and filling for wetland farming. Soil erosion and aggradation started at least by 3,000 BP and continued through the ancient Maya period, though reduced locally by soil conservation, post urban construction, and source reduction, especially in Maya Classic period from 1700 to 1000 BP.

  19. Elements of success in cooperatives conformed by Maya women in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Osorio Vázquez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes different elements leading to the success of cooperatives formed by indigenous Maya women of the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico. These elements have shown to facilitate the sustainability (permanence over time of the cooperatives and their presence in the market, while improving the work environment and enhancing the practice of honesty. All these elements have generated an increase in the number of clients and beneficiaries due to their trustable relationships. As can be appreciated in this study, indigenous Maya women living in the Yucatan Peninsula are demonstrating an innovative way to do business, which has resulted in greater social benefits and profitability through social capital, ethical leadership and monitoring of actions.

  20. Justicia indígena maya en el sureste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Luisa Ríos Zamudio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A más de diez años de haberse implementado en Quintana Roo, México, un sistema de justicia propio para las comunidades mayas de la entidad, y pese a lo acelerado de su crecimiento y arraigo, su estructura, funcionamiento y principios éticos que lo rigen han sido poco estudiados. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar su funcionamiento desde la sociología jurídica, tomando como base las constancias de actuación de los jueces tradicionales. Se podrá ver que gracias a su polivalente actuación, los jueces tradicionales son hoy una figura socialmente legitimada al interior de las comunidades mayas, aun habiendo sido creada e implementada "desde fuera" por las autoridades estatales hace apenas poco más de una década.

  1. Epilithic and endolithic bacterial communities in limestone from a Maya archaeological site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Christopher J; Perry, Thomas D; Bearce, Kristen A; Hernandez-Duque, Guillermo; Mitchell, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Biodeterioration of archaeological sites and historic buildings is a major concern for conservators, archaeologists, and scientists involved in preservation of the world's cultural heritage. The Maya archaeological sites in southern Mexico, some of the most important cultural artifacts in the Western Hemisphere, are constructed of limestone. High temperature and humidity have resulted in substantial microbial growth on stone surfaces at many of the sites. Despite the porous nature of limestone and the common occurrence of endolithic microorganisms in many habitats, little is known about the microbial flora living inside the stone. We found a large endolithic bacterial community in limestone from the interior of the Maya archaeological site Ek' Balam. Analysis of 16S rDNA clones demonstrated disparate communities (endolithic: >80% Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Low GC Firmicutes; epilithic: >50% Proteobacteria). The presence of differing epilithic and endolithic bacterial communities may be a significant factor for conservation of stone cultural heritage materials and quantitative prediction of carbonate weathering.

  2. IMPRISONMENT AS A RESULT OF WOMEN SUBORDINATION 194 REFLECTED IN MAYA ANGELOU‘S POEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatikha Amalina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to describe the imprisonment of African American people, especially women, in the case of patriarchy and women subordination through Maya Angelou‘s selected poems entitled ―Caged Bird‖, ―Still I Rise‖ and ―Woman Work‖. This research discusses the meaning behind the poems that reflected Maya Angelou‘s life experience relating to women subordination and freedom. Feminism approach is applied to analyze the concept of freedom in women subordination and patriarchy in this research. The paper points to how the concept of gender intertwines with labor, ethnics, kinship and gender domination. Without aiming to paint a detailed picture of feminism, the paper explores how ideas developed in these inquiries question the taken-for-granted assumption about the universality of women‘s subordination and challenge the emancipation prerequisite of feminist agenda.

  3. Early Middle Formative Occupation in the Central Maya Lowlands: Recent Evidence from Cahal Pech, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Awe

    1990-11-01

    Full Text Available After more than half a century of intensive archaeological research the early Middle Formative (or Middle Preclassic period (1000-600 B.C. continues to be one of the most enigmatic eras in the study of Lowland Maya prehistory. While several factors contribte to this situation, the primary cause for this obscurity lies in the fact that few sites have produced either contextual or stratigraphic evidence of occupation during this phase (Rice 1976; Andrews 1988. Concsequently, any new site with evidence of Middle Formative occupation can contribute substantially to our limited knowledge of this pioneering stage of the lowland Maya. This paper introduces one such site, Cahal Pech, where recent investigations have uncovered a stratigraphic sequence that tentatively spans the early Middle Formative to the Late Classic period. It provides a preliminary description, of the site's early Middle Formative configuration and briefly discusses its possible regional affiliation.

  4. Putting Us on the Map: Remote Sensing Investigation of the Ancient Maya Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Thomas L.; Saturno, William

    2004-01-01

    A common problem for archaeologists studying ancient settlement in the Maya Lowlands is overcoming the dense vegetation in order to obtain an accurate regional perspective of the presence of archaeological sites, their exact locations and their overall extents. Most often this is done by extensive ground surveys in which many individuals chop parallel paths through the vegetation in search of sites. Once a site is found an effort is made to mark its location on a regional map and to explore its perimeter. Obtaining locational information has been made dramatically easier in recent years with the advent of improved Global Positioning Systems (GPS), however the process of initial identification of sites and the determination of their borders is exceedingly labor intensive and has remained relatively unchanged since the beginning of settlement surveys in the region in the 1950 s. Currently, we are revolutionizing settlement survey in the Maya Lowlands by using remotely sensed data from IKONOS, Quickbird, and Eo 1, satellites as well as airborne AIRSAR radar data. The Ancient Maya built their cities, towns and even their smallest hamlets using excavated limestone and lime plasters. We propose that the decay of these structures provides a unique microenvironment for the growth of vegetation as the levels of moisture and nutrition within the ruins vary substantially from those in the surrounding forest. These microenvironmental differences on the ground are likewise represented by compositional differences in the forest canopy both in the species present and in leaf color (representing moisture/nutritional stress) visible through the analysis of high-resolution satellite data. In this way the detailed analysis of forest composition can reveal a detailed picture of the ancient settlements that lie beneath it. Preliminary examinations using this technique have been very successful and we are refining these techniques in order to efficiently comprehend the details of

  5. Dietetic determinants of zinc consumption in stunted children under five in maya communities from Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy-Valle, Michele; Universidad Rafael Landívar, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Licenciatura en Nutrición Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Estadística, Epidemiología y Salud Pública; Coyoy, Wendy; Universidad Rafael Landívar, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Licenciatura en Nutrición; De León, Jorge; Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Estadística, Epidemiología y Salud Pública; Flórez, Iván D.; Departamento de Pediatría y Puericultura, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the elements from feeding patterns that influence the intake and bioavailability of zinc in stunted children (SC) 1-5 years from Maya communities living in Huehuetenango, Guatemala. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 138 stunted children aged 1-5 years. It was applied: an inventory of zinc food sources availability, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, a questionnaire about living conditions. anthropometrics measurements and informat...

  6. How maya women respond to changing technology : The effect of helping behavior on initiating reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, K L; McMillan, G P

    1998-06-01

    In the mid 1970s labor-saving technology was introduced into a Maya subsistence agricultural community that markedly increased the efficiency with which maize could be ground and water collected. This increased efficiency introduces a possible savings in the time that women allocate to work, which can be reapportioned to child care, food production, domestic work, or leisure. An earlier study suggested that this labor-saving technology had a positive effect in decreasing the age at which these Maya women begin their reproductive careers. Although there is a statistical association between the age at which women bear their first child and the introduction of modern technology, this association does not demonstrate that the decline in age at first birth is causally related to the presence of technology. This paper pursues two objectives to evaluate this potential causal relationship in greater detail. First, a theory relating technological change to the initiation of a reproductive career is briefly developed in order to make qualitative predictions about behavioral changes as a response to changing technology. Second, these predictions are then tested against time allocation data recently collected in this same Maya community.We suggest that both of the conditions necessary to initiate reproduction-fecundity and access to mates-fundamentally depend on the amount of help that a girl provides to her family. Further, the help that a girl provides can be affected by technological changes. Analyses show that when modern technology is available, unmarried young women do not change the time allocated to domestic tasks and child care, and allocate more time to low-energy leisure activities. This lack of perceived benefit to working more and a potential concomitant shift towards a positive energy balance may in part explain why Maya women leave home and initiate reproduction at a younger age after labor-saving technology is introduced.

  7. Perlindungan Merek Terdaftar Dari Kejahatan Dunia Maya Melalui Pembatasan Pendaftaran Nama Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Dharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Protection of Registered Trademark of Cyber Crime Through The Restriction of The Domain Name Registration. The progress of science and technology has implications for the progress of the current trading method. It is not only done conventionally but also carried out through cyberspace. Trading in the virtual world requires the use of a domain name (cyber squatting as a differentiator between one company with other companies. Law No. 11 Year 2008 on Information and Electronic Transactions regulate the use of domain names and emphasize the element of good faith in the implementation. In practice, there is a breach of the domain name registration is a crime which is the trademark or name that has a commercial value. This paper is going to examine aspects of protection-registered trademark of cyber crime through the restriction of the domain name registration and implementation of good faith. Abstrak: Perlindungan Merek Terdaftar Dari Kejahatan Dunia Maya Melalui Pembatasan Pendaftaran Nama Domain. Kemajuan ilmu dan teknologi membawa implikasi pada kemajuan metode perdagangan yang saat ini bukan hanya dilakukan secara konvensional, namun juga dilakukan melalui dunia maya. Perdagangan dalam dunia maya mensyaratkan penggunaan nama domain (cyber squatting sebagai pembeda antara satu perusahaan dengan perusahaan yang lainnya. Undang-Undang No. 11 Tahun 2008 Tentang Informasi dan Transaksi elektronik mengatur penggunaan nama domain tersebut dan menekankan unsur iktikad baik dalam pelaksanaannya. Prakteknya, terdapat pelanggaran nama domain tersebut yang merupakan merupakan kejahatan pendaftaran merek dagang atau nama yang memiliki nilai komersial. Tulisan ini hendak mengkaji aspek perlindungan merek terdaftar dari kejahatan dunia maya melalui pembatasan pendaftaran nama domain dan pelaksanaan iktikad baik. DOI: 10.15408/jch.v1i2.1463

  8. Does the Maya Forest Need More Roads?:Conservation Policy in Brief

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Ramos, Victor Hugo; Burgués, Irene; Castellanos, Bayron; Fleck, Leonardo; Albacete, Carlos; Espinoza, Piedad; Manterola, Carlos; Paiz, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    An assortment of road projects has been proposed in the border region of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize, which is part of the Maya Forest, the largest contiguous tropical forest in the Americas north of the Amazon. The proposals are apparently aimed at spurring economic growth and reducing the high levels of poverty found in this area. But more and better roads usually bring more people and expand farms. Decision-makers are therefore confronted with a seeming conflict between conservation and d...

  9. Beyond Nature Appropriation: Towards Post-development Conservation in the Maya Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Jose E Martinez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of biosphere reserves in Mexico was followed by alternative livelihood conservation/development projects to integrate indigenous groups into Western style conservation under the idea of sustainable development and participation. In this paper, I discuss the outcomes of two forest wildlife management projects in one Maya community along the Sian Ka′an Biosphere Reserve in the state of Quintana Roo. Both projects ultimately failed and the community mobilised and expelled the N...

  10. Putting us on the Map: Remote Sensing Investigation of the Ancient Maya Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Thomas L.; Saturno, William; Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    A common problem for archaeologists studying ancient settlement in the Maya Lowlands is overcoming the dense vegetation in order to obtain an accurate regional perspective of the presence of archaeological sites, their exact locations and their overall extents. Most often this is done by extensive ground surveys in which many individuals chop parallel paths through the vegetation in search of sites. Once a site is found an effort is made to mark its location on a regional map and to explore its perimeter. Obtaining locational information has been made dramatically easier in recent years with the advent of improved Global Positioning Systems (GPS), however the process of initial identification of sites and the determination of their borders is exceedingly labor intensive and has remained relatively unchanged since the beginning of settlement surveys in the region in the 1950's. Currently, we are revolutionizing settlement survey in the Maya Lowlands by using remotely sensed data from IKONOS, Quickbird, and Eol, satellites. The Ancient Maya built their cities, towns and even their smallest hamlets using excavated limestone and lime plasters. We propose that the decay of these structures provides a unique microenvironment for the growth of vegetation as the levels of moisture and nutrition within the ruins vary substantially from those in the surrounding forest. These microenvironmental differences on the ground are likewise represented by compositional differences in the forest canopy both in the species present and in leaf color (representing moisture/nutritional stress) visible through the analysis of high- resolution satellite data. In this way the detailed analysis of forest composition can reveal a detailed picture of the ancient settlements that lie beneath it. Preliminary examinations using this technique have been very successful and we are refining these techniques in order to efficiently comprehend the details of Ancient Maya settlement in the Lowlands.

  11. A distribution analysis of the central Maya lowlands ecoinformation network: its rises, falls, and changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel D. Gunn

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a study of central Maya lowland dynastic information networks, i.e., six cities' external elite ceramic influences, and how they reflect the decision-making practices of Maya elites over 3000 years. Forest cover, i.e., Moraceae family pollen, was added to the network analysis to provide ecological boundary conditions, thus ecologically moderated information networks. Principal components analysis revealed three dominant patterns. First, the networking of interior cities into powerful polities in the Late Preclassic and Classic periods (400 BCE-800 CE. In a second pattern, coastal cities emerged as key entrepôts based on marine navigation (Terminal and Postclassic periods, 800-1500 CE. Climate dynamics and sustainability considerations facilitated the transition. Forest cover, a measure of ecosystem health, shows interior forests diminished as interior cities networked but rebounded as their networks declined. By contrast, coastal forests flourished with networks implying that the marine-based economy was sustainable. Third, in the Classic, the network-dominant coast, west or east, changed with interior polities' political struggles, the critical transition occurring after 695 CE as Tikal gained dominance over the Calakmul-Caracol alliance. Beginning with the Late Preclassic about 2000 years ago, it is possible to assign names to the decision makers by referencing the growing literature on written Maya records. Although the detectable decision sequence evident in this analysis is very basic, we believe it does open possible avenues to much deeper understanding as the study proceeds into the future. The Integrated History and Future of People on Earth-Maya working group that sponsored the analysis anticipates that it will provide actionable social science intelligence for future decision making at the global scale.

  12. Politics in the Western Maya Region (I: Ajawil/Ajawlel and Ch'e'n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Bíró

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of articles I reflect on the use of various expressions which are connected to what we call the political in the inscriptions of the Classic Maya Western Region. These words express concepts which help to understand the intricate details of the interactions between the political entities and their internal organisations in the Classic Maya Lowlands. Words such as 7ajawil, 7ajawlel, the kennings built on the base of ch'e7n (cave, pond, the emblem glyphs and titles will be examined in light of what they tell us about the functioning of the political organisation of the Classic Period in a constrained region.En una serie de artículos como éste investigo el uso de varias palabras en las inscripciones mayas de la época Clásica de la Región Occidental vinculadas con lo que nosotros llamamos "política". Estas palabras expresan conceptos que ayudan a entender los matices de las relaciones entre las entidades políticas de las Tierras Bajas Mayas y su organización interna. Términos como ajaw'ü I ajawlel, los difrasismos con base ch'e'n (cueva, pozo, los glifos emblemas y los títulos serán examinados tomando en cuenta la información que nos proporcionan sobre el funcionamiento de la organización política de la época Clásica en una región restringida.

  13. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  14. Electron scattering from 36Ar and 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The argon isotopes, 36 Ar and 40 Ar, have been investigated using electron scattering at the high-resolution Linac facilities of the National Bureau of Standards. Both elastic scattering and scattering to low-lying states have been observed. A high-pressure, low-volume gas target cell was designed and developed for this experiment. The cell features a transmission geometry and has resolution comparable to solid targets. Spectra were obtained at incident beam energies ranging from 65 to 115 MeV at scattering angles of 92.5 0 and 110 0 . Values obtained for the rms charge radii are 3.327 +- 0.015 and 3.393 +- 0.015 fm for 36 Ar and 40 Ar respectively. A sensitive measurement was made of the difference in the two radii yielding a value of Δ r = 0.079 +- 0.006 fm. The inelastic levels observed are the 1.97 (2 + ) and 4.18 MeV (3 - ) levels in 36 Ar, and the 1.46 (2 + ), 2.52 (2 + ), 3.21 (2 + ), and 3.68 MeV (3 - ) levels in 40 Ar. A Tassie model analysis was made of the inelastic transitions in the DWBA approximation and transition strengths of these levels were extracted

  15. THE ASSISMENT OF MAYA VERNACULAR HERITAGE FROM UNIVERSE CONCEPT TO POVERTY CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Sánchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The traditional technique maya housing construction is the representation of the Mayan worldview, it is expressed through the name of each construction element meanings of the creation of the universe and man, is also referred to the body and the concept of a living. For many centuries it was the oral tradition and construction practices that kept this knowledge and knowing, until the process of deterioration with colonialism, the arrival of the Spanish was a watershed in its decline to the undervaluation and contempt. The international designations like vernacular architecture of little have served before the governmental programs that continue it cataloguing like noncompatible an inhabitable space with their criteria of “quality of life”, nor with the schemes of tie financing to industrialized materials. Recent proposals for housing support maya not provide its being as its spatial bioclimatic architecture and a way of life, encouraging new construction beyond its dynamic and undervalued the maya solar microhabitat. Urges a reassessment based on its original conception, in its sustainable architectural feature in your living space according to the social dynamics of its inhabitants and its recognition as a cultural heritage.

  16. Guatemala paleoseismicity: from Late Classic Maya collapse to recent fault creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocard, Gilles; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Teyssier, Christian

    2016-11-01

    We combine ‘on-fault’ trench observations of slip on the Polochic fault (North America-Caribbean plate boundary) with a 1200 years-long ‘near-fault’ record of seismo-turbidite generation in a lake located within 2 km of the fault. The lake record indicates that, over the past 12 centuries, 10 earthquakes reaching ground-shaking intensities ≥ VI generated seismo-turbidites in the lake. Seismic activity was highly unevenly distributed over time and noticeably includes a cluster of earthquakes spread over a century at the end of the Classic Maya period. This cluster may have contributed to the piecemeal collapse of the Classic Maya civilization in this wet, mountainous southern part of the Maya realm. On-fault observations within 7 km of the lake show that soils formed between 1665 and 1813 CE were displaced by the Polochic fault during a long period of seismic quiescence, from 1450 to 1976 CE. Displacement on the Polochic fault during at least the last 480 years included a component of slip that was aseismic, or associated with very light seismicity (magnitude 1 ky) punctuated by destructive earthquake clusters.

  17. Founding Amerindian mitochondrial DNA lineages in ancient Maya from Xcaret, Quintana Roo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Oliver, A; Márquez-Morfín, L; Jiménez, J C; Torre-Blanco, A

    2001-11-01

    Ancient DNA from the bone remains of 25 out of 28 pre-Columbian individuals from the Late Classic-Postclassic Maya site of Xcaret, Quintana Roo, was recovered, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was amplified by using the polymerase chain reaction. The presence of the four founding Amerindian mtDNA lineages was investigated by restriction analysis and by direct sequencing in selected individuals. The mtDNA lineages A, B, and C were found in this population. Eighty-four percent of the individuals were lineage A, whereas lineages B and C were present at low frequencies, 4% and 8%, respectively. Lineage D was absent from our sample. One individual did not possess any of the four lineages. Six skeletons out of 7 dated from the Late Classic period were haplotype A, whereas 11 skeletons out of 16 dated from the Postclassic period were also haplotype A. The distribution of mtDNA lineages in the Xcaret population contrasts sharply with that found in ancient Maya from Copán, which lack lineages A and B. On the other hand, our results resemble more closely the frequencies of mtDNA lineages found in contemporary Maya from the Yucatán Peninsula and in other Native American contemporary populations of Mesoamerican origin. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Forests, fields, and the edge of sustainability at the ancient Maya city of Tikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, David L; Dunning, Nicholas P; Scarborough, Vernon L; Magee, Kevin S; Thompson, Kim M; Weaver, Eric; Carr, Christopher; Terry, Richard E; Islebe, Gerald; Tankersley, Kenneth B; Grazioso Sierra, Liwy; Jones, John G; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Ramos Hernandez, Carmen E

    2014-12-30

    Tikal has long been viewed as one of the leading polities of the ancient Maya realm, yet how the city was able to maintain its substantial population in the midst of a tropical forest environment has been a topic of unresolved debate among researchers for decades. We present ecological, paleoethnobotanical, hydraulic, remote sensing, edaphic, and isotopic evidence that reveals how the Late Classic Maya at Tikal practiced intensive forms of agriculture (including irrigation, terrace construction, arboriculture, household gardens, and short fallow swidden) coupled with carefully controlled agroforestry and a complex system of water retention and redistribution. Empirical evidence is presented to demonstrate that this assiduously managed anthropogenic ecosystem of the Classic period Maya was a landscape optimized in a way that provided sustenance to a relatively large population in a preindustrial, low-density urban community. This landscape productivity optimization, however, came with a heavy cost of reduced environmental resiliency and a complete reliance on consistent annual rainfall. Recent speleothem data collected from regional caves showed that persistent episodes of unusually low rainfall were prevalent in the mid-9th century A.D., a time period that coincides strikingly with the abandonment of Tikal and the erection of its last dated monument in A.D. 869. The intensified resource management strategy used at Tikal-already operating at the landscape's carrying capacity-ceased to provide adequate food, fuel, and drinking water for the Late Classic populace in the face of extended periods of drought. As a result, social disorder and abandonment ensued.

  19. Modern tree species composition reflects ancient Maya "forest gardens" in northwest Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nanci J

    2011-01-01

    Ecology and ethnobotany were integrated to assess the impact of ancient Maya tree-dominated home gardens (i.e., "forest gardens"), which contained a diversity of tree species used for daily household needs, on the modern tree species composition of a Mesoamerican forest. Researchers have argued that the ubiquity of these ancient gardens throughout Mesoamerica led to the dominance of species useful to Maya in the contemporary forest, but this pattern may be localized depending on ancient land use. The tested hypothesis was that species composition would be significantly different between areas of dense ancient residential structures (high density) and areas of little or no ancient settlement (low density). Sixty-three 400-m2 plots (31 high density and 32 low density) were censused around the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve in northwestern Belize. Species composition was significantly different, with higher abundances of commonly utilized "forest garden" species still persisting in high-density forest areas despite centuries of abandonment. Subsequent edaphic analyses only explained 5% of the species composition differences. This research provides data on the long-term impacts of Maya forests gardens for use in development of future conservation models. For Mesoamerican conservation programs to work, we must understand the complex ecological and social interactions within an ecosystem that developed in intimate association with humans.

  20. Cultural and Climatic History of Cobá, a Lowland Maya City in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, Barbara W.; Brenner, Mark; Dahlin, Bruce H.

    1998-01-01

    Lake Cobá, within the archaeological site of Cobá, provides evidence bearing on lowland Maya development. Palynological and geochemical data record multidecadal precipitation cycles from a 8.80-m, >8370-yr lake-sediment sequence terminating on bedrock. Late Classic sedimentation rates are rapid, but an anthropogenically derived colluvium layer is lacking. Initial vegetation was medium semi-deciduous and swamp forest. Forest clearance began 1650 B.C. (Early Preclassic) and maize first occurred at 850 B.C. (Middle Preclassic). Lakeside milpas existed until A.D. 720 (Late Classic) and then were moved from the city center as urbanization intensified and Lake Cobá was diked as a reservoir. Cobá was at most briefly vacated during the Classic Collapse and was abandoned after A.D. 1240, although some habitation persisted. The paleoecological record matches the archaeological history for Cobá, but pervasive disturbance muted the climatic signal, as the Late Classic drought is barely evident. The question whether economic trees were maintained within the city is unresolved. Maize cultivation allowed the Maya to develop a complex society and support a large population, but dependence on maize was ultimately doomed by variable rainfall. Precipitation in extreme years was insufficient to support crops, while native vegetation was not directly affected by drought that devastated Maya agriculture.

  1. Patterned Ground in Wetlands of the Maya Lowlands: Anthropogenic and Natural Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, T.; Beach, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    We use geological and archaeological evidence to understand the formation of patterned ground in perennial and seasonal wetlands in the karst depressions of Belize and Guatemala. Some scholars have argued that these features are the remnants of ancient Maya wetland fields, chinampas, on which intensive cultivation produced food that could begin to nourish the extremely high population of the Late Classic (A.D. 550-850). Others have argued that these were natural features or that they represent landscape manipulation for rising sea level in the Preclassic (1000 B.C. -A.D. 250). We present the evidence for ancient intensive agriculture and natural landscape formation with multiple proxies: excavated field and canal features, artifacts, pollen, soil stratigraphy, and water chemistry. Evidence thus far suggests that many regional depressions have Preclassic (1200 BC to AD 200) or earlier paleosols, buried from 1-2 m by eroded soils induced by Maya land use practices. These paleosols were buried by eroded sediments from uplands and by precipitation of gypsum from rising groundwater. The sedimentation occurred largely between the Preclassic and Late Classic, when ancient Maya farmers built canals in pre-existing low spots to reclaim these wetlands. Thus, stable natural processes, environmental change, and human manipulation have acted together to form patterned wetland ground over the later Holocene.

  2. The ArDM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Haranczyk, M; Badertscher, A; Boccone, V; Bourgeois, N; Bueno, A; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chorowski, M; Creus, W; Curioni, A; Daw, E; Degunda, U; Dell'Antone, A; Droge, M; Epprecht, L; Haller, C; Horikawa, S; Kaufmann, L; Kisiel, J; Knecht, L; Laffranchi, M; Lagoda, J; Lazzaro, C; Lightfoot, P; Lozano, J; Lussi, D; Maire, G; Mania, S; Marchionni, A; Mavrokoridis, K; Melgarejo, A; Mijakowski, P; Natterer, G; Navas-Concha, S; Otiougova, P; Piotrowska, A; Polinski, J; de Prado, M; Przewlocki, P; Ravat, S; Regenfus, C; Resnati, F; Robinson, M; Rochet, J; Romero, L; Rondio, E; Rubbia, A; Scotto-Lavina, L; Spooner, N; Viant, T; Trawinski, A; Ulbricht, J; Zalewska, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the ArDM project is the development and operation of a one ton double-phase liquid argon detector for direct Dark Matter searches. The detector measures both the scintillation light and the ionization charge from ionizing radiation using two independent readout systems. This paper briefly describes the detector concept and presents preliminary results from the ArDM R&D program, including a 3 l prototype developed to test the charge readout system.

  3. The Maya Tropical Forest: Cascading Human impacts from Hillslopes to Floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Doyle, Colin; Krause, Samantha; Brokaw, Nicholas; Yaeger, Jason

    2016-04-01

    We review the long-term human impact on fluvial systems in the Maya tropical forest region. Although most of this karstic region is drained by groundwater, the southern and coastal margins have several river systems that drain volcanic and metamorphic as well as sedimentary terrains. Some positive environmental impacts of Maya Civilization were the long-term impacts of both landesque capital, like wetland field systems, and other land uses that have enriched many soils. Some negative impacts included stripped soils and eutrophic rivers, both playing out again today with recent deforestation and intensive agriculture. We review trends in the region's fluvial systems, present new evidence on beneficial and detrimental impacts of Maya civilization, and present a new study using LiDAR mapping of fluvial geomorphology of the Belize River. Our new field research comes from the transboundary Rio Bravo watershed of Belize and Guatemala near the border with Mexico. This watershed today is mainly a well preserved tropical forest but from 3,000 to 1000 years ago was partly deforested by Maya cities, farms, roads, fires, and fields. We present studies of soils and sediment movement along slopes, floodplains, and water quality impacts of high dissolved loads of sulfate and calcium. We use AMS dates and soil stratigraphy to date slope and floodplain flux, and we use multiple proxies like pollen and carbon isotopes to reconstruct ancient land use. Aggradation in the floodplain and colluvial deposits began by at least 3,000 years ago and continued until 1100 years ago in several study sites. Some Classic period sites with peak human population and land use intensity experienced less soil erosion, perhaps due to soil conservation, post urban construction, and source reduction. Additional evidence suggests that ancient terraced sites and colluvial slopes that gained upslope sediment and soil nutrients from ancient Maya erosion had greater biodiversity. Lastly, we map fluvial

  4. Reevaluation of the Solar Wind 36Ar/38Ar Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R. H.; Schlutter, D. J.; Rider, P. E.; Pepin, R. O.

    1996-03-01

    The isotopic composition of solar wind (SW) argon is an important parameter in the modeling of the evolution of the terrestrial planet atmospheres. Anders and Grevesse assumed a 36Ar/38Ar ratio for SW of 5.31, essentially equal to that of air. Considerable evidence has since developed which indicates that this ratio is too low. Benkert et al. have reported their best estimate for the recent SW as 5.48 +/- 0.05, determined from measurements of lunar soil 71501. Based on Ar data obtained from surface oxidation of a metal separate from the Weston meteorite and from an uncontrolled etch of lunar sample 67701, reported by our group previously, we consider even this value to be too low. Since values of 5.75 to 5.85 were reported by Black for initial low temperature (fairly high SW 36Ar/38Ar ratio (in the range of ~5.6 to ~5.7), we decided to analyze Kapoeta for its light solar wind gases using the acid-etching techniques developed in our laboratory based on the CSSE procedure of Benkert et al.

  5. Two Holocene paleofire records from Peten, Guatemala: Implications for natural fire regime and prehispanic Maya land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lysanna; Wahl, David

    2016-03-01

    Although fire was arguably the primary tool used by the Maya to alter the landscape and extract resources, little attention has been paid to biomass burning in paleoenvironmental reconstructions from the Maya lowlands. Here we report two new well-dated, high-resolution records of biomass burning based on analysis of macroscopic fossil charcoal recovered from lacustrine sediment cores. The records extend from the early Holocene, through the full arc of Maya prehistory, the Colonial, and post-Colonial periods ( 9000 cal yr BP to the present). (Hereafter BP) The study sites, Lago Paixban and Lago Puerto Arturo, are located in northern Peten, Guatemala. Results provide the first quantitative analysis from the region demonstrating that frequent fires have occurred in the closed canopy forests since at least the early Holocene ( 9000 BP), prior to occupation by sedentary agriculturalists. Following the arrival of agriculture around 4600 BP, the system transitioned from climate controlled to anthropogenic control. During the Maya period, changes in fire regime are muted and do not appear to be driven by changes in climate conditions. Low charcoal influx and fire frequency in the Earliest Preclassic period suggest that land use strategies may have included intensive agriculture much earlier than previously thought. Preliminary results showing concentrations of soot/black-carbon during the middle and late Preclassic periods are lower than modern background values, providing intriguing implications regarding the efficiency of Maya fuel consumption.

  6. Two Holocene paleofire records from Peten, Guatemala: Implications for natural fire regime and prehispanic Maya land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lysanna; Wahl, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Although fire was arguably the primary tool used by the Maya to alter the landscape and extract resources, little attention has been paid to biomass burning in paleoenvironmental reconstructions from the Maya lowlands. Here we report two new well-dated, high-resolution records of biomass burning based on analysis of macroscopic fossil charcoal recovered from lacustrine sediment cores. The records extend from the early Holocene, through the full arc of Maya prehistory, the Colonial, and post-Colonial periods (~ 9000 cal yr BP to the present). (Hereafter BP) The study sites, Lago Paixban and Lago Puerto Arturo, are located in northern Peten, Guatemala. Results provide the first quantitative analysis from the region demonstrating that frequent fires have occurred in the closed canopy forests since at least the early Holocene (~ 9000 BP), prior to occupation by sedentary agriculturalists. Following the arrival of agriculture around 4600 BP, the system transitioned from climate controlled to anthropogenic control. During the Maya period, changes in fire regime are muted and do not appear to be driven by changes in climate conditions. Low charcoal influx and fire frequency in the Earliest Preclassic period suggest that land use strategies may have included intensive agriculture much earlier than previously thought. Preliminary results showing concentrations of soot/black-carbon during the middle and late Preclassic periods are lower than modern background values, providing intriguing implications regarding the efficiency of Maya fuel consumption.

  7. Is the onset of the 6th century 'dark age' in Maya history related to explosive volcanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooren, Kees; Hoek, Wim Z.; Van der Plicht, Hans; Sigl, Michael; Galop, Didier; Torrescano-Valle, Nuria; Islebe, Gerald; Huizinga, Annika; Winkels, Tim; Middelkoop, Hans; Van Bergen, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Maya societies in Southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize experienced a 'dark age' during the second half of the 6th century. This period, also known as the 'Maya Hiatus', is characterized by cultural downturn, political instability and abandonment of many sites in the Central Maya Lowlands. Many theories have been postulated to explain the occurrence of this 'dark age' in Maya history. A possible key role of a large volcanic eruption in the onset of this 'dark age' will be discussed. Volcanic deposits recovered from the sedimentary archive of lake Tuspán and the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta were studied in detail and the combination of multiple dating techniques allowed the reconstruction of the timing of a large 6th century eruption. Volcanic glass shards were fingerprinted to indicate the source volcano and high resolution pollen records were constructed to indicate the environmental impact of the eruption. Results are compared with available archaeological data and causality with the disruption of Maya civilization will be evaluated.

  8. Ar-Ar dating techniques for terrestrial meteorite impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, S. P.

    2003-04-01

    The ages of the largest (>100 km) known impacts on Earth are now well characterised. However the ages of many intermediate sized craters (20-100 km) are still poorly known, often the only constraints are stratigraphic - the difference between the target rock age and the age of crater filling sediments. The largest impacts result in significant melt bodies which cool to form igneous rocks and can be dated using conventional radiometric techniques. Smaller impacts give rise to thin bands of melted rock or melt clasts intimately mixed with country rock clasts in breccia deposits, and present much more of a challenge to dating. The Ar-Ar dating technique can address a wide variety of complex and heterogeneous samples associated with meteorite impacts and obtain reasonable ages. Ar-Ar results will be presented from a series of terrestrial meteorite impact craters including Boltysh (65.17±0.64 Ma, Strangways (646±42 Ma), and St Martin (220±32 Ma) and a Late Triassic spherule bed, possibly representing distal deposits from Manicouagan (214±1 Ma) crater. Samples from the Boltysh and Strangways craters demonstrate the importance of rapid cooling upon the retention of old ages in glassy impact rocks. A Late Triassic spherule bed in SW England is cemented by both carbonate and K-feldspar cements allowing Ar-Ar dating of fine grained cement to place a mimimum age upon the age of the associated impact. An age of 214.7±2.5 Ma places the deposit with errors of the age of the Manicouagan impact, raising the possibility that it may represent a distal deposit (the deposit lay around 2000 km away from the site of the Manicouagan crater during the Late Triassic). Finally the limits of the technique will be demonstrated using an attempt to date melt rocks from the St Martin Crater in Canada.

  9. Feldspar 40Ar/39Ar dating of ICDP PALEOVAN cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Jonathan Franz; Sudo, Masafumi; Stockhecke, Mona; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2017-11-01

    Volcaniclastic fall deposits in ICDP drilling cores from Lake Van, Turkey, contain sodium-rich sanidine and calcium-rich anorthoclase, which both comprise a variety of textural zoning and inclusions. An age model records the lake's history and is based on climate-stratigraphic correlations, tephrostratigraphy, paleomagnetics, and earlier 40Ar/39Ar analyses (Stockhecke et al., 2014b). Results from total fusion and stepwise heating 40Ar/39Ar analyses presented in this study allow for the comparison of radiometric constraints from texturally diversified feldspar and the multi-proxy lacustrine age model and vice versa. This study has investigated several grain-size fractions of feldspar from 13 volcaniclastic units. The feldspars show textural features that are visible in cathodoluminescence (CL) or back-scattered electron (BSE) images and can be subdivided into three dominant zoning-types: (1) compositional zoning, (2) round pseudo-oscillatory zoning and (3) resorbed and patchy zoning (Ginibre et al., 2004). Round pseudo-oscillatory zoning records a sensitive alternation of Fe and Ca that also reflects resorption processes. This is only visible in CL images. Compositional zoning reflects anticorrelated anorthite and orthoclase contents and is visible in BSE. Eleven inverse isochron ages from total fusion and three from stepwise heating analyses fit the age model. Four experiments resulted in older inverse isochron ages that do not concur with the model within 2σ uncertainties and that deviate from 1 ka to 17 ka minimum. C- and R-type zoning are interpreted as representing growth in magma chamber cupolas, as wall mushes, or in narrow conduits. Persistent compositions of PO-type crystals and abundant surfaces recording dissolution features correspond to formation within a magma chamber. C-type zoning and R-type zoning have revealed an irregular incorporation of melt and fluid inclusions. These two types of zoning in feldspar are interpreted as preferentially

  10. Las corridas de toros en los pueblos mayas orientales. Una aproximación etnográfica Bullfights at Eastern Maya Towns. An Etnographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Medina Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo realizamos una descripción de las corridas de toros en los pueblos mayas del oriente de Yucatán; la intención principal es situar esta expresión festiva en el contexto de los rituales que configuran las fiestas patronales, de tal manera que se destaque un hecho central: la profunda transformación de una fiesta de claros orígenes ibéricos en una manifestación profundamente entramada con una visión del mundo de raíz mesoamericana. Un eje de análisis es el que corresponde a las nociones de sacrificio que articulan los acontecimientos en el coso taurino con los más discretos que suceden en el interior de las casas de los dirigentes de los gremios, donde el sacrificio de puercos y pavos constituye la base de una gastronomía ritual. Otro más es el reconocimiento de referentes simbólicos espaciales y temporales de raíz mesoamericana que subyacen en todo el conjunto ritual que compone estas celebraciones de los mayas peninsulares.In this essay we describe bullfighting among the Maya peoples in eastern Yucatan. The fundamental aim is to situate this festive expression in the context of the rituals that shape the patron feasts, so as to stress a central fact: the transformation of a feast of clear Iberian origin into a manifestation that is deeply intertwined with a world vision of Mesoamerican ancestry. An analytical axis corresponds to the notions of sacrifice that articulate the events inside the bullring with those more discrete, that take place within the homes of the leaders of the guilds. Here, sacrifice of turkeys and pigs constitute the basis of a ritual gastronomy. Another axis is the acknowledgement of symbolic space and time referents of Mesoamerican origin underlying, as a whole, the ritual compound in these peninsular Mayan celebrations.

  11. Analysis list: Ar [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ar Gonad,Kidney,Prostate + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/targe...t/Ar.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/...kyushu-u/mm9/target/Ar.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Gonad.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Kidney.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Ar.Prostate.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Gonad.gml,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  12. Alignment and orientation of Ar+ in He+-Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudry, B.W.; Yenen, O.; Jaecks, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the alignment and orientation parameters of the 2 F 7/2 0 and 2 F 5/2 0 states of Ar + formed in the two-electron process; He + +Ar→He(1s 2 )+Ar + (3p 4 4p'). These have been measured at a collision energy of 0.25 keV/amu and for scattering angles ranging from 0.94 to 3.75 . First, by comparing the orientation prameter for the Ar + [(3p 4 [ 1 D]4p' 2 F 7/2 0 ] and the Ar + [(3p 4 [ 1 D]4p' 2 F 5/2 0 ] states, we have experimentally determined the importance of the spin-dependent interactions for the present collision system, by testing the Percival-Seaton hypothesis of spin independence. If the Percival-Seaton hypothesis holds for this system, the orientation parameter should be J-independent. Secondly, the magnitude of the orientation prameter can be interpreted as resulting from the collective circulation of the unexcited 3p 4 electrons and the excited 4p electron. The direction of this collective circulation is compared to the propensity rule for colliding di-atom systems. (orig.)

  13. Ar-39/Ar-40 systematics of Allende inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, G.F.; Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ); Bence, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    A laser microprobe was used to measure the Ar isotopic contents of individual mineral grains in four neutron-irradiated Allende samples: two coarse-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusions, one fine-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusion, and one sample with matrix and miscellaneous chondrules. The following K-Ar ages (G.y.) were obtained after degassing low Ar retentive sites by preheating the samples for one hour at 675 C: matrix, 3.5 + or - 0.2 three miscellaneous chondrules, 4.4 + or - 0.1, 4.0 + or - 0.1, and 4.4 + or - 0.1 and the fine-grained inclusion, 4.5 + or - 0.2. The minerals in the coarse-grained Ca-Al-rich inclusions have ubiquitous chlorine, less than 10 ppm K and apparent ages ranging upwards from 4.6 G.y. to well over 10 G.y. Possible explanations for these apparent ages are atmospheric contamination, the decay of K-40 prior to the formation of the solar system, and the trapping of radiogenic Ar-40 lost by the matrix

  14. Determination of Ar metastable atom densities in Ar and Ar/H2 inductively coupled low-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox-Lyon, N; Knoll, A J; Oehrlein, G S; Franek, J; Demidov, V; Koepke, M; Godyak, V

    2013-01-01

    Ar metastable atoms are important energy carriers and surface interacting species in low-temperature plasmas that are difficult to quantify. Ar metastable atom densities (N Ar,m ) in inductively coupled Ar and Ar/H 2 plasmas were obtained using a model combining electrical probe measurements of electron density (N e ) and temperature (T e ), with analysis of spectrally resolved Ar plasma optical emission based on 3p → 1s optical emission ratios of the 419.8 nm line to the 420.1 nm line. We present the variation of N Ar,m as the Ar pressure and the addition of H 2 to Ar are changed comparatively to recent adsorption spectroscopy measurements. (paper)

  15. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    David Carr

    2009-01-01

    Guatemala was among the world’s leaders in deforestation during the 1990s at a rate of 2% per annum. Much of Guatemala’s recent forest loss has occurred in the emerging agricultural frontiers of the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), the heart of the largest contiguous tropical forest in Central America—La Selva Maya. This paper presents data from 241 heads of households and 219 partners of household heads from a geographically stratified sample of eight (of 28) communities in the Sierra de Lacan...

  16. Game Art Complete All-in-One; Learn Maya, 3ds Max, ZBrush, and Photoshop Winning Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Gahan, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A compilation of key chapters from the top Focal game art books available today - in the areas of Max, Maya, Photoshop, and ZBrush. The chapters provide the CG Artist with an excellent sampling of essential techniques that every 3D artist needs to create stunning game art. Game artists will be able to master the modeling, rendering, rigging, and texturing techniques they need - with advice from Focal's best and brightest authors. Artists can learn hundreds of tips, tricks and shortcuts in Max, Maya, Photoshop, ZBrush - all within the covers of one complete, inspiring reference

  17. Apicultura y organizaciones de apicultores entre los mayas de Yucatán Beekeeping and Apicultural Organizations Among the Mayas of Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rosales González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En las comunidades mayas la apicultura continúa siendo una actividad relevante pero complementaria, cuya lógica y condiciones de producción se contraponen a las nuevas normas del mercado internacional. La integración de organizaciones apícolas se considera una estrategia para la "modernización" de la apicultura y la comercialización de la miel en mejores condiciones. Este trabajo se refiere al sentido que tanto la apicultura como estas organizaciones tienen para sus integrantes, a sus expectativas, intereses, aprendizajes y a la forma en que se relacionan con instituciones y agentes externos. El escrito se basa en entrevistas y observaciones realizadas en 12 organizaciones apícolas durante 2005 y 2006 en el marco del proyecto de investigación del centro INAH Yucatán "Organizaciones indígenas y procesos de desarrollo en comunidades mayas del sur de Yucatán".In Mayan communities, beekeeping continues to be an important but complementary activity, whose logic and conditions of production are opposed to the new norms of the international market. The integration of apicultural organizations is considered as a strategy for the "modernization" of beekeeping and the commercialization of the honey in better quality. The present research deals with the meaning that beekeeping has for the members of such organizations, and it explores the expectations, interests and training processes of the members, analyzing finally how are the relationships between these organizations and external agents and institutions. The research is based on interviews and observations made in 12 apicultural organizations between 2005 and 2006, as part of the research project of the INAH Regional Center Yucatan, entitled "Indigenous Organizations and Processes of Development in Mayan Communities in Southern Yucatan".

  18. SOBRE LA EDAD DE LOS HORNOS DE CAL EN EL ÁREA MAYA (About the age of the lime kilns in the Maya area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ortiz Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación que presentamos es sobre el hallazgo y la datación arqueomagnética de hornos de cal en el área maya, México. La relevancia de la datación arqueomagnética consiste en localizar las construcciones arquitectónicas y dilucidar el periodo de utilización por las sociedades que habitaron la zona de ubicación de dichas construcciones. Asumimos que se trataba de hornos prehispánicos por su asociación con el contexto de la excavación. Sin embargo, los resultados de la combinación de dataciones y métodos arqueométricos permitieron ubicar estas estructuras en distintos periodos de utilización y, por tanto, asumir la continuidad de esta tecnología productiva más allá del periodo prehispánico. Asimismo los trabajos de datación nos permiten clarificar la utilización de esta tecnología y práctica productiva en dicha zona cultural. ENGLISH: The investigation presented here is related to the discovery and archaeomagnetic dating of lime kilns in the Maya area, Mexico. The relevance of such dating is to locate architectural constructions and elucidate the period of use by societies that are responsible for their construction. We assume a prehispanic period for the kilns because of their context within the excavation. The combination of dating methods and archaeometric experiments allowed the identification of different periods of use and, therefore, suggests the persistence of this production technology beyond the prehispanic period. Dating work also allows us to clarify the use of this technology and productive practices in this cultural area.

  19. El léxico cromático y la ideología maya Chromatic lexic and Maya ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Savkic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para acercarse al campo semántico de los colores, de primera importancia son diversos diccionarios de las lenguas mayances. El objetivo es hacer una descripción preliminar del vocabulario cromático, compuesto de cinco términos referidos a colores básicos que en el maya yucateco se llaman sak, ek', chak, k'an y ya'ax y significan "blanco", "negro", "rojo", "amarillo" y "verde-azul", respectivamente. El mismo vocabulario remite a determinadas categorías extralingüísticas que la lengua es capaz de acumular, reflejar y comunicar. Éstas dependen de una cultura particular, por lo que el estudio se amplía con las informaciones de diferentes fuentes escritas redactadas durante la época colonial. La intención es detectar los múltiples usos que se hacían en todos los ámbitos de la vida de los colores, lo cual a su vez permite considerar estos últimos como conceptualizaciones articuladas en pares de oposición o agrupamientos tripartitos.To gain greater insight into the color semantic field, it is important to consult various Mayance language dictionaries, in order to assemble a preliminary chromatic vocabulary, composed of five basic color terms which in Yucatec Maya are sak, ek', chak, k'an and ya'ax, or "white", "black", "red", "yellow" and "green-blue", respectively. The very vocabulary addresses certain extra-linguistic categories that language is capable of accumulating, reflecting, and communicating. These categories depend on a particular culture; consequently this study is amplified with greater information from different sources written during the colonial period in order to shed light on the many uses that the colors had in the aspects of human life which, at the same time, can be seen in conceptualizations articulated in pairs of opposition or tripartite groupings.

  20. Adaptations of a Yucatec Maya Multiple-Use Ecological Management Strategy to Ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo García-Frapolli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 40 years, the Yucatan Peninsula has experienced the implementation and promotion of development programs that have economically and ecologically shaped this region of Mexico. Nowadays, tourist development has become the principal catalyst of social, economic, and ecological changes in the region. All these programs, which are based on a specialization rationale, have historically clashed with traditional Yucatec Maya management of natural resources. Using participant observation, informal and semi-structured interviews, and life-history interviews, we carried out an assessment of a Yucatec Maya natural resources management system implemented by three indigenous communities located within a natural protected area. The assessment, intended as an examination of the land-use practices and productive strategies currently implemented by households, was framed within an ecological-economic approach to ecosystems appropriation. To examine the influence of tourism on the multiple-use strategy, we contrasted productive activities among households engaged primarily in ecotourism with those more oriented toward traditional agriculture. Results show that households from these communities allocated an annual average of 586 work days to implement a total of 15 activities in five different land-use units, and that those figures vary significantly in accordance with households' productive strategy (agriculture oriented or service oriented. As the region is quickly becoming an important tourist destination and ecotourism is replacing many traditional activities, we discuss the need for a balance between traditional and alternative economic activities that will allow Yucatec Maya communities to diversify their economic options without compromising existing local management practices.

  1. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of Maya women in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Rodríguez, Ángel G; Inmaculada Riba López, M; Angel DelValls Casillas, T; León, Jesús Alfredo Araujo; Anjan Kumar Prusty, B; Álvarez Cervera, Fernando J

    2017-02-01

    In this study, 24 breast milk samples, obtained from rural Maya women, from municipalities of Yucatan, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues by gas chromatography. Recent studies have shown that Maya communities have a poor perception about the proper usage and handling of OCP. The karstic soil in this area has a high vulnerability to groundwater pollution by the use of OCP in agriculture and livestock activities. The impact of the ecosystem on human health is much more critical due to the prevailing poverty and a very low educational level of these communities. About 30% of the Maya population consumes water directly from contaminated wells and sinkholes, resulting in a chronic exposure to OCP. The samples served to identify and quantify high levels of OCP residues (18.43 mg/kg of heptachlor epoxide and 1.92 mg/kg of endrin in the metropolitan zone; 2.10 mg/kg of dieldrin, 0.117 mg/kg of endosulfan II, 0.103 mg/kg of heptachlor, 0.178 mg/kg of endrin, and 0.127 mg/kg of endrin aldehyde in the main agricultural zone and on the west coast). The detected levels of OCP residues are a major concern and represent a potential risk to women and children in the region. This could be associated with the high rates of cervical uterine and breast cancer mortality in Yucatan. Thus, regulations on the usage of OCP and their enforcement are necessary, and it is important to establish a yearly monitoring program for OCP residues in breast milk and groundwater, as well as to implement health promotion programs for women in particular and the general population in general.

  2. Environmental and morphological changes around the Maritime Maya site Vista Alegre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaijel, Roy; Goodman, Beverly; Glover, Jeffrey; Beddows, Patricia; Carter, Alice; Smith, Derek; Rissolo, Dominique; Ben Avraham, Zvi

    2016-04-01

    The untold story of the Maritime Maya from the ancient port site Vista Alegre, is being written for the first time using a multidisciplinary effort that aims to reconstruct the environmental and morphological history of the site. Vista Alegre is located on the north-eastern tip of the Yucatan peninsula, on the ancient Maritime Maya trade routes. This strategic point between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, offers an ideal setting for this kind of research, which will add to the general Maritime Maya history. The multidisciplinary effort is part of a larger project called "Costa Escodida". The project's main goals are to learn how the ancient inhabitants adapted to the environment, and to understand how this coastal site was integrated into broader maritime trade routes. The portion of the research presented here concentrates on the sites geomorphology and climate during the past 2-3000 years through the multiproxy analysis of marine sediment core and surface samples combined with archaeological data. This study aids our understanding of the site's possible functions, the environmental challenges the local inhabits contended with, and the identification of ancient harboring locations. The site was inhabited from the 9th century B.C until the mid 16th century A.D., with an apparent two century abandonment phase from the mid 7th to 9th century A.D. According to the results, five depositional phases can be recognized, and the related shoreline reconstruction shows a general trend of a flooded terrestrial landscape. This 'flooding' relates well to relative sea-level curves published in the region. Continued analysis of results from the research, and future research activities, may make it possible to recognize hurricane proxies in the sediment, locate underwater manmade seafaring artifacts and facilities, determine the range of economic opportunities for past inhabitants and quantify the availability of potable water sources.

  3. "Cuando alguien habla la Maya se nota que son pobres": Narrativas de identidad de los mayas yucatecos en torno a la radiodifusora indigenista La voz de los mayas, XEPET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Cornejo Portugal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examinan las narrativas de identidad de los receptores culturales de la radiodifusora indigenista “La Voz de los Mayas, Xepet”, respecto de su relación con la oferta radiofónica de esta emisora ubicada en la cabecera municipal de Peto, al sur de Yucatán, México. El propósito es, por un lado, sistematizar, desde el análisis argumentativo, el uso, estructura y estrategias argumentativas de los maya hablantes radioescuchas de Xepet (bilingües o monolingües en torno a la oferta cultural de la misma, así como a la presencia cotidiana de esta emisora en su mundo de vida; y, por otro, reflexionar acerca de la radio indigenista en México como un recurso que podría contribuir a la “cultura de paz”.“U chíikul u t’aan maayao’ob” o “La voz de los mayas”, salió al aire el 29 de noviembre de 1982, en la frecuencia de los 740 khz de AM y fue reubicada al 730 en enero de 2001. Su área de cobertura abarca unos 100 km a la redonda, alcanzando cerca de mil comunidades de la península y parte de Quintana Roo, con una audiencia potencial de 500 mil personas. Su programación incluye géneros musicales y no musicales, compuestos estos últimos por programas informativos, de difusión cultural, servicio e infantiles. Xepet ha sido una de las radiodifusoras pioneras del sistema indigenista promovido por el Estado mexicano desde 1979, modelo que habría de extenderse en las más de veinte emisoras que aparecieron después. Hoy en día, la crítica respecto de la función, contenidos y operación de estas emisoras “oficiales” o “voceras del Gobierno” permanence, debido a que tanto la práctica indigenista como su experiencia radiofónica parecieran estar rebasadas por las demandas de los pueblos indios que reivindican su derecho a la libre determinación y a la autonomía, así como a la propiedad y gestión de sus propios medios de comunicación. Lo anterior reitera la necesidad de una propuesta radiof

  4. Las organizaciones mayas de Guatemala y el diálogo intercultural

    OpenAIRE

    Julieta Carla Rostica

    2007-01-01

    Durante la transición a la democracia en Guatemala surgió un movimiento indígena con reivindicaciones que fueron más allá de la defensa de los derechos humanos individualmente considerados. De cara al genocidio, una de sus demandas más ambiciosas fue la del reconocimiento del derecho maya. El análisis de ésta permitirá caracterizar al movimiento indígena como multiculturalismo emancipatorio, ya que en sí misma es una apuesta al diálogo intercultural e implica no sólo un límite ...

  5. La langosta, los mayas y el colonialismo en Yucatán, México, 1883

    OpenAIRE

    García Quintanilla, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    En 1883 se produjo una gran plaga de langosta que afectó a diversos estados de la República Mexicana. Tuvo su origen en Yucatán. Aquí se analizan las respuestas sociales de la sociedad civil integrada mayoritariamente por personas mayas, la de los hacendados henequeneros y también la del gobierno de Yucatán en lo que fue el inicio del llamado Auge Henequenero. In the year 1883, an enormous plague of locusts emerged in Yucatán and then spread out to raze several states in the Mexican Republ...

  6. PIXE analysis on Maya blue in Prehispanic and colonial mural paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, DF 09340 (Mexico); Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, F-30842 Grenoble (France); Solis, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx; Reyes-Valerio, C. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologi' a e Historia, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) experiments have been carried out at the AGLAE facility (Paris) on several mural samples containing Maya blue from different Prehispanic archaeological sites (Cacaxtla, El Tajin, Tamuin, Santa Cecilia Acatitlan) and from several colonial convents in the Mexican plateau (Jiutepec, Totimehuacan, Tezontepec and Cuauhtinchan). The analysis of the concentration of several elements permitted to extract some information on the technique used for painting the mural, usually fresco. Principal component analysis permitted to classify the samples into groups. This grouping is discussed in relation to geographic and historic data.

  7. Las muchachas mayas de Yaxcabá, Yucatán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Lorena Pérez Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El tema de este artículo es el significado de ser mujer y ser joven en la cultura maya de Yucatán, México. Se presentan testimonios de muchachas de bachillerato del pueblo de Yaxcabá con el objetivo de conocer lo que para ellas significa ser mujer joven. Sus percepciones y sus proyectos de futuro se enmarcan en un campo de conflicto, en el que existe un enfrentamiento entre jóvenes y adultos para mantener o transformar los significados y las prácticas de ser joven.

  8. Las muchachas mayas de Yaxcabá, Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Lorena Pérez Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    El tema de este artículo es el significado de ser mujer y ser joven en la cultura maya de Yucatán, México. Se presentan testimonios de muchachas de bachillerato del pueblo de Yaxcabá con el objetivo de conocer lo que para ellas significa ser mujer joven. Sus percepciones y sus proyectos de futuro se enmarcan en un campo de conflicto, en el que existe un enfrentamiento entre jóvenes y adultos para mantener o transformar los significados y las prácticas de ser joven.

  9. Measurement of the GMR in the Unstable 56Ni Nucleus using the Active Target Maya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monrozeau, C.; Khan, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Mittig, W.; Beaumel, D.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Demonchy, C.E.; Frascaria, N.; Garg, U.; Gelin, M.; Gillibert, A.; Gupta, D.; Marechal, F.; Obertelli, A.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Scarpaci, J.-A.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance(GMR) in unstable nuclei remains a major experimental challenge due to low radioactive beam intensities and unfavourable conditions in reverse kinematics. At GANIL, we have tested a new experimental method based on the unique capabilities of the active target Maya to probe the GMR by the inelastic scattering reaction 56 Ni(d,d') at 50 AMeV. The preliminary excitation energy spectrum of 56 Ni presents a bump between 12 and 25 MeV where isoscalar resonances are expected

  10. Women’s Voices in a Male World: Actions, Bodies, and Spaces Among the Ancient Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Perego

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Feminist archaeology has prompted scholars to reconsider gender roles in ancient Mesoamerica.Current research, however, tends to focus on elite women, classes and sites. Although I do not ignore the potential of these sources, in this paper I am mainly concerned with issues such as the phenomenology of bodies and spaces, subroyal ritual actions, and daily activities such as cooking and weaving. My aim is to offer an overview of the most recent studies on gender in Maya archaeology and to provide ideas for further research by emphasising the need to engender ritual and individuate female discourses in the archaeological record.

  11. PIXE analysis on Maya blue in Prehispanic and colonial mural paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Solís, C.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2006-08-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) experiments have been carried out at the AGLAE facility (Paris) on several mural samples containing Maya blue from different Prehispanic archaeological sites (Cacaxtla, El Tajín, Tamuin, Santa Cecilia Acatitlán) and from several colonial convents in the Mexican plateau (Jiutepec, Totimehuacán, Tezontepec and Cuauhtinchán). The analysis of the concentration of several elements permitted to extract some information on the technique used for painting the mural, usually fresco. Principal component analysis permitted to classify the samples into groups. This grouping is discussed in relation to geographic and historic data.

  12. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya) in chilling storage

    OpenAIRE

    GULLIAN-KLANIAN,Mariel; SÁNCHEZ-SOLÍS,María José; TERRATS-PRECIAT,Montserrat; DELGADILLO-DÍAZ,Mariana; ARANDA,Javier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC) and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines). A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g) were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The h...

  13. About the Glyph [T544.501] and the Classic Maya Geopolitical Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Valencia Rivera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Maya glyph [T544.501]. On one side the article offers a carefully review of the contexts where the hieroglyph appears for, from these, suggest that it may be a logogram with possible OCH ("entrance" reading. Moreover, considering the predominant appearance of this hieroglyph in contexts which relate to geopolitical groups, and beyond its phonetic value, the article also analyzes the historical dynamics that have experienced these Late Classic political groupings as narrate the texts where appears the glyph in question.

  14. Standardization of 40Ar-39Ar dating facility at KDMIPE, ONGC, Dehradun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, S.S.; Singh, M.P.; Vijan, A.R.; Bansal, M.; Prabhu, B.N.; Misra, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    In the pursuit of acquiring state of the art technology, efforts were being made for last more than two years to establish 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating facility at KDMIPE. The 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating technique is an analytical conversion of the conventional K-Ar dating method. In this method, the sample to be dated is first irradiated in a nuclear reactor to transform a portion of 39 K to 39 Ar by the fast neutron reaction i.e. 39 K(n, p) 39 Ar. After irradiation, the sample is placed in an ultra-high vacuum system and the argon extracted from it by fusion is purified and analyzed isotopically in a mass spectrometer. The relative abundances of 40 Ar, 39 Ar, 37 Ar and 36 Ar are measured. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar K is determined, where 40 Ar is the radiogenic argon, and 39 Ar K is the 39 Ar produced from 39 K during the irradiation. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar K ratio is proportional to the 40 Ar/ 40 K ratio in the sample and, therefore, is proportional to age

  15. AR DOC: Augmented reality documentaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Augmented Reality Documentaries (AR DOC) er et ’lille’ Shareplay projekt (ansøgte midler augmented reality cross media løsninger, til at skabe engagerende publikumsformidling...... indenfor oplevelsesindustrien. Projektet har genereret ny viden omkring, hvordan fysisk og digital formidling kan understøttes via Augmented Reality som formidlingsformat....

  16. ARS-Media for Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel is an ion solution calculator that uses Microsoft Excel to generate recipes of salts for complex ion mixtures specified by the user. Generating salt combinations (recipes) that result in pre-specified target ion values is a linear programming problem. Thus, the recipes are genera...

  17. "Ars Electronica 2009" / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2009-01-01

    30. "Ars Electronica" festival "Human Nature" ("Inimese loomus") Linzis. Osaka ülikooli professori Hiroshi Ishiguro mehaanilis-digitaalsest nukust. Hübriidkunsti kategoorias peapreemia saanud Eduardo Kaci inimtaimest. Konverentsidest. Näitusest "See this Sound", mis oli pühendatud helile kujutavas kunstis

  18. Kinetics of Ar isotopes during neutron irradiation: 39Ar loss from minerals as a source of error in 40Ar/39Ar dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, J.C.; Lippolt, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The loss of 39 Ar from minerals in the course of neutron activation for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating is studied by directly measuring the loss rates in vacuum-sealed ampoules. Biotite shows 39 Ar losses between 0.1% and 16%. These losses are predominantly due to diffusion processes from K-poor alteration-phase intergrowths in the biotites at the elevated temperatures during the irradiation. Estimates for the irradiation temperatures range from 150 0 to 180 0 C. Direct 39 Ar recoil loss from biotite seems to be minor compared to difussion loss of recoil-implanted 39 Ar. Precise 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of biotites therefore requires the measurement of the 39 Ar losses during irradiation. Glauconite loses not only neutron-induced Ar isotopes ( 39 Ar: 20-22%, 37 Ar: 17-19%) but also radiogenic 40 Ar(∼9%). Slight 39 Ar losses are also observed for light micas (0.2% and 0.35%), hornblendes (0.1%) and sanidines (200 and 700 ppm). 25 refs.; 4 figs.; 6 tabs

  19. Influence of residual Ar+ in Ar cluster ion beam for DLC film formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Teruyuki; Miyauchi, Kazuya; Toyoda, Noriaki; Kanda, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Tokumi; Tsubakino, Harushige; Matsuo, Jiro; Matsui, Shinji; Yamada, Isao

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the influences of residual Ar monomer ion (Ar + ) on sp 2 content and hardness of diamond like carbon (DLC) films formed by Ar cluster ion beam assisted deposition, Ar cluster ion, Ar + and their mixed ions (Ar cluster ion and Ar + ) bombardments were performed during evaporation of C 60 . From near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and Raman spectroscopy measurements, lower sp 2 content in the carbon films was obtained with Ar cluster ion bombardment than that with Ar + and mixed ion. Furthermore higher hardness and smooth surface were shown with Ar cluster ion bombardments. Therefore it was important to reduce Ar + in Ar cluster ion beams to obtain hard DLC films with flat surface

  20. Sustaining Rainforest Plants, People and Global Health: A Model for Learning from Traditions in Holistic Health Promotion and Community Based Conservation as Implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya Healers, Maya Mountains, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sanchez-Vindas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work showcases a model for holistic, sustainable healthcare in indigenous communities worldwide through the implementation of traditional healing practices. The implementation of this model promotes public health and community wellness while addressing crucially important themes such as in situ and ex situ conservation of medicinal plant resources and associated biodiversity, generational transmission of knowledge, and the preservation of biological and cultural diversity for future generations. Being envisaged and implemented by Q’eqchi’ Maya traditional healers of the southern Maya Mountains, Belize, this model can be replicated in other communities worldwide. A ethnobotany study in collaboration with these healers led to collection of 102 medicinal species from Itzama, their traditional healing cultural center and medicinal garden. Of these 102 species, 40 of prior reported 106 consensus study plants were present in the garden. There were 62 plants not previously reported growing in the garden as well. A general comparison of these plants was also made in relation to species reported in TRAMIL network, Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia (CHP, the largest regional medicinal pharmacopoeia. A relative few species reported here were found in the CHP. However, the majority of the CHP plants are common in Belize and many are used by the nearby Mopan and Yucatec Maya. Since these 102 species are relied upon heavily in local primary healthcare, this Q’eqchi’ Maya medicinal garden represents possibilities toward novel sustainable, culturally relative holistic health promotion and community based conservation practices.

  1. An Iterative Approach to Ground Penetrating Radar at the Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Skaggs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR surveys provide distinct advantages for archaeological prospection in ancient, complex, urban Maya sites, particularly where dense foliage or modern debris may preclude other remote sensing or geophysical techniques. Unidirectional GPR surveys using a 500 MHz shielded antenna were performed at the Middle Preclassic Maya site of Pacbitun, Belize. The survey in 2012 identified numerous linear and circular anomalies between 1 m and 2 m deep. Based on these anomalies, one 1 m × 4 m unit and three smaller units were excavated in 2013. These test units revealed a curved plaster surface not previously found at Pacbitun. Post-excavation, GPR data were reprocessed to best match the true nature of excavated features. Additional GPR surveys oriented perpendicular to the original survey confirmed previously detected anomalies and identified new anomalies. The excavations provided information on the sediment layers in the survey area, which allowed better identification of weak radar reflections of the surfaces of a burnt, Middle Preclassic temple in the northern end of the survey area. Additional excavations of the area in 2014 and 2015 revealed it to be a large square structure, which was named El Quemado.

  2. Digital Preservation of Ancient Maya Cave Architecture: Recent Field Efforts in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissolo, D.; Lo, E.; Hess, M. R.; Meyer, D. E.; Amador, F. E.

    2017-08-01

    The presence of ancient Maya shrines in caves serves as unequivocal evidence for the ritual appropriation of these subterranean spaces and their significance with respect to Maya religious practice. Detailed study of the miniature masonry temples and altar features in the caves of Quintana Roo, Mexico reveals a strong stylistic and likely functional correspondence between these structures and their terrestrial counterparts at Postclassic sites. The Proyecto Arquitectura Subterranea de Quintana Roo (coordinated by the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, or CISA3, at the University of California, San Diego and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico) is conducting a survey and program of digital documentation of both the pristine and impacted cave shrines of the region. Once an area is developed and populated, and access is opened to caves containing ancient architectural features, they are soon vandalized - often resulting in the complete obliteration of these rare miniature buildings and their diagnostic architectural elements. This emergent situation necessitates the use of rapid reality-capture tools; however, the physical challenges of working in caves requires researchers of adapt increasingly common architectural documentation methodologies to more adverse field conditions.

  3. Jugadores de pelota maya en tiempos del oxlajuj b’ak’tún

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairzinho Francisco Panqueba Cifuentes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente reflexión hace parte de un proceso investigativo cuyo objeto ha sido la práctica contemporánea del juego de pelota maya en Guatemala. Es un acercamiento analítico a los testimonios de vida recabados a través de la metodología de investigación-aprehendizaje compartida con los actores del proceso. Sus trayectorias vitales nos permiten comprender en descripciones y acciones, los detalles contemporáneos de una manifestación cultural, lúdica y recreativa ancestral. Pero también de qué maneras el juego de pelota mesoamericano es fuente de conocimientos de los patrimonios corporales hasta ahora difusos entre discursos relacionados con el folclor, las etnicidades, las artes, el deporte, la cultura, las espiritualidades y en general con ciencias como la historia, la antropología y la arqueología. Las vidas cotidianas de los actuales jugadores de pelota ayudan a comprender una parte de las sabidurías ancestrales mayas. Se integran, por tanto, a los testimonios de las herencias inmateriales arqueológicas representadas en los campos de juego de pelota diseminados por Mesoamérica.

  4. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Haplotypes Are Associated with Preeclampsia in Maya Mestizo Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Olguín, Lizbeth; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Ramírez Regalado, Belem; Fernández, Genny; Canto, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a specific disease of pregnancy and believed to have a genetic component. The aim of this study was to investigate if three polymorphisms in eNOS or their haplotypes are associated with preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women. A case-control study was performed where 127 preeclamptic patients and 263 controls were included. Genotyped and haplotypes for the -768T→C, intron 4 variants, Glu298Asp of eNOS were determined by PCR and real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) was used to test for associations between genotype and preeclampsia under recessive, codominant and dominant models. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r2, and haplotype analysis was conducted. Women homozygous for the Asp298 allele showed an association of preeclampsia. In addition, analysis of the haplotype frequencies revealed that the -786C-4b-Asp298 haplotype was significantly more frequent in preeclamptic patients than in controls (0.143 vs. 0.041, respectively; OR = 3.01; 95% CI = 1.74–5.23; P = 2.9 × 10−4). Despite the Asp298 genotype in a recessive model associated with the presence of preeclampsia in Maya mestizo women, we believe that in this population the -786C-4b-Asp298 haplotype is a better genetic marker. PMID:21897002

  5. Role of water on formation and structural features of Maya blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondelli, C; Río, M Sánchez del; González, M A; Magazzú, A; Cavallari, C; Suárez, M; García-Romero, E; Romano, P

    2012-01-01

    The Maya blue (MB) is an artificial pigment created between 500-800 A.D. and used in murals, pottery and sculptures by Mayas and other people in Mesoamerica. MB is resistant to age, acid, weathering, biodegradation and even modern chemical solvents, but the chemical reasons behind the resistance to chemical aggressions are still under debate. Water plays a fundamental role in the interactions between indigo and clay. The dynamics of the clay's zeolitic and structural water molecules during the formation of MB, usually stabilized by moderate heating, has been monitored by means of neutron inelastic scattering. Neutron incoherent scattering in these samples is only due to the hydrogen atoms, so the signal is very sensitive to the amount of released water, providing detailed information on the dehydration process. A simultaneous analysis of the coherent elastic scattering and the incoherent scattering allows observing and quantifying how the structure of the clay is affected by dehydration. Here we show that a quite resistant pigment can be obtained at room temperature simply by dehydrating a palygorskite-indigo mixture employing only vacuum, without any thermal treatment.

  6. Synchrotron and Simulations Techniques Applied to Problems in Materials Science: Catalysts and Azul Maya Pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianelli, R.

    2005-01-01

    Development of synchrotron techniques for the determination of the structure of disordered, amorphous and surface materials has exploded over the past twenty years due to the increasing availability of high flux synchrotron radiation and the continuing development of increasingly powerful synchrotron techniques. These techniques are available to materials scientists who are not necessarily synchrotron scientists through interaction with effective user communities that exist at synchrotrons such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). In this article we review the application of multiple synchrotron characterization techniques to two classes of materials defined as ''surface compounds.'' One class of surface compounds are materials like MoS 2-x C x that are widely used petroleum catalysts used to improve the environmental properties of transportation fuels. These compounds may be viewed as ''sulfide supported carbides'' in their catalytically active states. The second class of ''surface compounds'' is the ''Maya Blue'' pigments that are based on technology created by the ancient Maya. These compounds are organic/inorganic ''surface complexes'' consisting of the dye indigo and palygorskite, a common clay. The identification of both surface compounds relies on the application of synchrotron techniques as described in this report

  7. Tratamiento del cuerpo y control social entre los mayas itzaes, siglos XVII-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caso Barrera, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many societies the human body is considered as a cosmological model and therefore of society. In the case of the Maya Itza we know that the human body is a reference to their territorial, social and religious organization. In this paper we analyze the importance of the human body as a symbolic model, focusing on aspects of Itza religion and rituals, related to the transformation and modification of the human body. We will analyze how Itza society controlled a population with the ability of transfiguration.En diversas sociedades el cuerpo humano se ha concebido como un modelo cosmológico y por lo tanto de la sociedad. En el caso de los mayas itzaes sabemos que el cuerpo humano es un referente para la organización territorial, social y religiosa. En este trabajo se analiza la importancia del cuerpo humano como modelo simbólico, centrándonos en aspectos de la religión y rituales itzaes relacionados con la transformación y modificación del cuerpo humano en el período colonial. Se examina el control que ejerció la sociedad itzá con respecto a una población con la capacidad de transfiguración.

  8. Digestive Physiology of Octopus maya and O. mimus: Temporality of Digestion and Assimilation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Pedro; Olivares, Alberto; Martínez-Yáñez, Rosario; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Domingues, Pedro M.; Mascaró, Maite; Sánchez, Ariadna; Pascual, Cristina; Rosas, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although, there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on Octopus vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of Octopus maya and Octopus mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22–30°C) and sub-tropical (15–24°C) ecosystems, respectively. We provide a detailed description of how soluble and complex nutrients are digested, absorbed, and assimilated in these species, describing the digestive process and providing insight into how the environment can modulate the digestion and final use of nutrients for these and presumably other octopus species. To date, research on these octopus species has demonstrated that soluble protein and other nutrients flow through the digestive tract to the digestive gland in a similar manner in both species. However, differences in the use of nutrients were noted: in O. mimus, lipids were mobilized faster than protein, while in O. maya, the inverse process was observed, suggesting that lipid mobilization in species that live in relatively colder environments occurs differently to those in tropical ecosystems. Those differences are related to the particular adaptations of animals to their habitat, and indicate that this knowledge is important when formulating feed for octopus species. PMID:28620313

  9. LA RELIGIOSIDAD MAYA- ACHI’ GUATEMALTECA COMO FUNDAMENTO DE SU IDENTIDAD CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Caballero Mariscal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto general de Guatemala, caracterizado por la diversidad étnica y cultural, y mayoritariamente indígena, los achi’es constituyen menos de uno por ciento de la población. Sin embargo, y a pesar de que han sufrido la imposición cultural de pueblos vecinos, de los españoles, y posteriormente, un atroz genocidio, continúan conservando parte de su patrimonio cultural intangible, manifestado en la lengua, las danzas, el Rabinal achi’,y diversas sus expresiones religiosas, que, sin duda, se constituyen en el garante de su identidad cultural. El presente artículo pretende llenar el vacío existente actualmente sobre la etnia achi’, ante la ausencia de estudios sobre ésta. De igual modo, trata de profundizar sobre los mecanismos adaptativos de sincretismo que se han desarrollado a nivel cultural y religioso como medio de supervivencia a través de nuevos modos de transculturación, que garantizan la pervivencia de la cultura y religiosidad maya tradicional en el contexto de la fe católica, vigente y mayoritaria entre los miembros de este pueblo maya.

  10. Study of reactions induced by the halo nucleus 11Li with the active target MAYA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, Th.

    2009-09-01

    Active targets are perfect tools for the study of nuclear reactions induced by very low intensity radioactive ion beams. They also enable the simultaneous study of direct and compound nuclear reactions. The active target MAYA, built at GANIL, has been used to study the reactions induced by a 4.3*A MeV 11 Li beam at the ISAC2 accelerator TRIUMF (Canada). The angular distributions for the elastic scattering and the one and two neutron transfer reaction have been reconstructed. The elastic scattering angular distribution indicates a strong enhancement of the flux absorption with respect to the neighbouring nuclei. From a coupled channel analysis of the two neutron transfer reaction for different three body models, the information on the structure of the halo of the Borromean nucleus 11 Li have been extracted. Meanwhile, the energy dependence of the elastic scattering reaction has been studied, using the active target MAYA as a thick target. The resulting spectrum shows a resonance around 3 MeV centre of mass. This resonance could be an isobaric analog state of 12 Li, observed in 12 Be. R matrix calculations have been performed in order to extract the parameters (spin and parity) of this state. (author)

  11. Role of water on formation and structural features of Maya blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, C.; Sánchez del Río, M.; González, M. A.; Magazzú, A.; Cavallari, C.; Suárez, M.; García-Romero, E.; Romano, P.

    2012-02-01

    The Maya blue (MB) is an artificial pigment created between 500-800 A.D. and used in murals, pottery and sculptures by Mayas and other people in Mesoamerica. MB is resistant to age, acid, weathering, biodegradation and even modern chemical solvents, but the chemical reasons behind the resistance to chemical aggressions are still under debate. Water plays a fundamental role in the interactions between indigo and clay. The dynamics of the clay's zeolitic and structural water molecules during the formation of MB, usually stabilized by moderate heating, has been monitored by means of neutron inelastic scattering. Neutron incoherent scattering in these samples is only due to the hydrogen atoms, so the signal is very sensitive to the amount of released water, providing detailed information on the dehydration process. A simultaneous analysis of the coherent elastic scattering and the incoherent scattering allows observing and quantifying how the structure of the clay is affected by dehydration. Here we show that a quite resistant pigment can be obtained at room temperature simply by dehydrating a palygorskite-indigo mixture employing only vacuum, without any thermal treatment.

  12. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF ANCIENT MAYA CAVE ARCHITECTURE: RECENT FIELD EFFORTS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rissolo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ancient Maya shrines in caves serves as unequivocal evidence for the ritual appropriation of these subterranean spaces and their significance with respect to Maya religious practice. Detailed study of the miniature masonry temples and altar features in the caves of Quintana Roo, Mexico reveals a strong stylistic and likely functional correspondence between these structures and their terrestrial counterparts at Postclassic sites. The Proyecto Arquitectura Subterranea de Quintana Roo (coordinated by the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, or CISA3, at the University of California, San Diego and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico is conducting a survey and program of digital documentation of both the pristine and impacted cave shrines of the region. Once an area is developed and populated, and access is opened to caves containing ancient architectural features, they are soon vandalized – often resulting in the complete obliteration of these rare miniature buildings and their diagnostic architectural elements. This emergent situation necessitates the use of rapid reality-capture tools; however, the physical challenges of working in caves requires researchers of adapt increasingly common architectural documentation methodologies to more adverse field conditions.

  13. Costa Oriental Maya: una acercamiento al comercio y navegación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Renato Zúñiga Carrasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La costa oriental de la Península de Yucatán ofreció un medio ideal para navegantes y mercaderes por la geografía costera peninsular cruzada por extensas redes fluviales que se extienden a lo largo de sus costas y se remontan lejanamente en el interior. E l intercambio de productos a través de largas distancias fue un factor básico en la homogeneidad cultural del mundo maya, jugando un papel crítico en el desarrollo de esta antigua civilización. El comercio marítimo maya se remonta al periodo Preclásico Ta rdío (300 a.C. - 300 d.C. Muchos puertos estaban ubicados en lugares estratégicos para el comercio, como islas, promontorios o a la entrada de ríos y en la mayoría de las veces se ubicaban en lugares protegidos del mar abierto. Las canoas utilizadas por los nativos no se trataba de simples troncos ahuecados; el uso de velas además y remos como puede verse en representaciones en murales y códices.

  14. Nacionalismo maya y descolonización política: Luis de Lión y El tiempo principia en Xibalbá

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle Escalante, Emilio; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo analiza la novela El tiempo principia en Xibalbá (1985) del escritor maya kaqchikel Luis de Lión (1939-1984), considerada la primera novela escrita por un escritor maya en Guatemala. Leída como una de las primeras manifestaciones epistemológicas y políticas del llamado Movimiento Maya en Guatemala, la obra de Lión, como se argumenta en este trabajo, desmitifica y desarticula construcciones tradicionales y estereotipadas del mundo indígena en el discurso indigenista (la literatur...

  15. Mathematical Contributions of the Mayas, Aztecs & Incas: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Janet

    Written to fulfill the requirements for a University of Minnesota College of Education off-campus Indian education course for public school teachers, this Native American curriculum unit for middle and high school reflects the mathematical achievements of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca Indians. The number systems, notation, and calendar techniques of…

  16. 75 FR 6249 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Fiery Pool: The Maya and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... exhibition ``Fiery Pool: The Maya and the Mythic Sea,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within... objects at the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA, from on or about March 27, 2010, until on or about July 18, 2010; the Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, TX, from on or about August 29, 2010, until on or about...

  17. A comparative approach toward understanding the Mycenaean and Late Preclassic lowland Maya early civilisations through their art styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajema, Marcus Jan

    2015-01-01

    My thesis provides a comparative analysis of early cilivilisations through archaeological sources. The two selected cases are Mycenaean Greece and the Late Preclassic lowland Maya. Specifically the study focuses on art and its role in social life of the two cases. Major methodological reflections

  18. 40Ar-39Ar stepheating studies of clay concentrates from Irish orebodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    40 Ar- 39 Ar step heating analyses of clay concentrates from the Gortdrum and Tynagh orebodies (Ireland) previously dated by conventional K-Ar, indicate major losses of 39 Ar (32 to 45%) and rad. 40 Ar (25 to 35%) during the irradiation. The proportion of rad. 40 Ar loss, unlike that of 39 Ar, increases with J-value. The difference between 39 Ar and rad. 40 Ar proportion losses is related to the mineralogy and grain intimacy. These also affect the stepwise release patterns - the Gortdrum concentrates yield age spectra very consistent with 39 Ar recoil predictions, whereas the Tynagh concentrates in which the grains are intimately intergrown, show no clear evidence for 39 Ar recoil depletion in the K-rich phases. The difference is resolvable if illite argon release is not a simple volume diffusion type process under vacuum conditions. (author)

  19. HDR-Aggregate Read Service (ARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ARS is a SOAP web service exposed over HTTPS that provides an aggregated (report) view of HTH Survey, DMP and Census data stored in the HDR DB. ARS is deployed in...

  20. $\\beta$ decay of $^{47}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, L; Bergmann, U C; Brown, B A; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Dillmann, I; Hallmann, O; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Gaudefroy, L; Köster, U; Kratz, K L; Pfeiffer, B; Sorlin, O; 10.1103/PhysRevC.70.024304

    2004-01-01

    Information on beta -decay properties of neutron-rich /sup 47/Ar was obtained at the ISOLDE facility at CERN using isobaric selectivity. This was achieved by a combination of a plasma-ion source with a cooled transfer line and subsequent mass separation. A doubly charged beam was used in order to improve the signal-to-background ratio associated with multi-charged noble gas fission products. The identification of the /sup 47/Ar gamma -ray transitions was performed by comparing the spectra obtained from direct proton bombardment of the target and of the neutron converter. New excited levels in the daughter /sup 47/K nucleus corresponding to the negative-parity states were observed. The obtained data are compared to the result of large-scale shell model calculations and quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions. (29 refs).

  1. ARS - Helsinki - 2006 / Galina Balashova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Balashova, Galina

    2006-01-01

    Steven Holli projekteeritud Kiasma muuseumihoonest Helsingis. Kontseptuaalkunsti näitusest ARS 06 "Reaalsustunne" Kiasmas. Eestlastest esineb Mark Raidpere. Vene kunstnikegrupi AEC+F ja vene kunstnike Juri Vassiljevi ning Aleksandr Ponomarjovi töödest näitusel. Ka Gerda Steineri & Jörg Lenzlingeri (Šveits), Martin & Munoz'i (USA, Hispaania), arvutigraafik Charles Sandisoni (SB), videokunstnik Bill Viola (USA) jt. töödest

  2. Photoionization study of HgAr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, S.H.; Brom, J.M. Jr.; Tzeng, W.; Ng, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Photoionization efficiency data for HgAr + have been obtained in the region of 680--1240 A. The ionization energy of HgAr was determined to be 10.217 +- 0.012 eV. This value allows the calculation of the dissociation energy of HgAr + to be 0.228 +- 0.017 eV. The relative probabilities for the formation of HgAr + via the reactions Ar* x Hg or Hg* x Ar→ HgAr + +e - with Ar* and Hg* prepared in high Rydberg states in the energy range of 10.22--15.79 eV were estimated. Although the radii for the 3d and 5s Rydberg ortitals of Ar have similar values, the probabilities for the formation of HgAr + from Hg x Ar* with Ar* in the 5s[3/2] 0 1 and 5s'[1/2] 0 1 Rydberg states are substantially greater than those when the Ar* excited atoms are in the 3d[1/2] 0 1 , 3s[3/2] 0 1 , and 3d'[3/2] 0 1 Rydberg levels. The ratio for the cross sections for the formation of HgAr + from Hg x Ar* with Ar* formed in the 3d[1/2] 0 1 and 4d[1/2] 0 1 states, as well as that with Ar* prepared in the 5d[1/2] 0 1 and 6d[1/2] 0 1 states, were found to be consistent with the predictions of the previous impact parameter calculations

  3. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  4. The Movement, the Mine and the Lake: New Forms of Maya Activism in Neoliberal Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. T. Way

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the social, economic, cultural and political issues bound up in two matters relating to the environment in the Sololá and Lake Atitlán region of the Guatemalan Mayan highlands in 2004–2005: the violent breakup of an anti-mine protest and the various reactions to a tropical storm that threatened the lake ecosystem. It views these events as part of a historical conjuncture and centers them in a larger discussion of Maya political activism, environmentalism and neoliberal development in Guatemala from the 1990s–mid-2010s. It begins with the transition from war to peace in the 1990s, charting how Maya participation in municipal politics soared even as the official Mayan movement waned as the state turned to neoliberalism. Zooming in on municipal development and politics in Sololá in the early 2000s, it then traces at the ground level how a decentralizing, “multicultural” state promoted political participation while at the same time undermining the possibility for that participation to bring about substantive change. The center of the article delves deeper into the conjuncture of the first decade of the new millennium. By mapping events in Sololá against development, agrarian transformation and rural urbanization, it argues that resilient Maya community structures, although unable to stop the exploitative tide, continued to provide local cohesion and advocacy. Activists and everyday citizens became more globally attuned in the 2000s. The article’s final section analyzes municipal plans made between 2007 and 2012, arguing that creating and controlling community structures became increasingly important to the state in a time when Guatemala’s “outward” global turn was accompanied by an “inward” turn as people confronted spiraling violence in their communities. Critics called young people apolitical, but in 2015, massive demonstrations led to the imprisonment of the nation’s president and vice

  5. The SFMOMA AR Game Jam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brin, Sarah; Gangsei, Erica

    2018-01-01

    In the Summer of 2016, Pokémon Go precipitated a surge of new play experiences in museums. Cultural heritage institutions across disciplines were confronted with the sudden ubiquity of augmented reality (AR). Some museums enthusiastically integrated Pokémon into their programs, while some grapple......, and Rebecca Edwards. “Night at the Museum: The 2016 Getty/USC Game Jam.” Blog. The Getty Iris, March 31, 2016. http://blogs.getty.edu/iris/a-night-at-themuseum-the-2016-gettyusc-game-jam/....

  6. A mask for high-intensity heavy-ion beams in the MAYA active target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C., E-mail: rodriguez@ganil.fr [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Roger, T.; Babo, M. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Caamaño, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Farget, F.; Grinyer, G.F.; Jacquot, B.; Pérez-Loureiro, D. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, 14076 Caen (France); Ramos, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Suzuki, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2014-12-21

    The use of high-intensity and/or heavy-ion beams in active targets and time-projection chambers is often limited by the strong ionization produced by the beam. Besides the difficulties associated with the saturation of the detector and electronics, beam-related signals may hide the physical events of interest or reduce the detector performance. In addition, space-charge effects may deteriorate the homogeneity of the electric drift field and distort the subsequent reconstruction of particle trajectories. In anticipation of future projects involving such conditions, a dedicated beam mask has been developed and tested in the MAYA active target. Experimental results with a {sup 136}Xe beam are presented.

  7. Coca-colonization and hybridization of diets among the Tz'utujil Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Barg, Frances K; Valeggia, Claudia R; Bream, Kent D W

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical health professionals express increasing concern that rising consumption of soft drinks and processed foods in Mayan and Latin American eating patterns may lead to detrimental nutritional and health consequences. Scholars debate whether the pervading presence of Coca-Cola and Pepsi in developing countries represents "Coca-Colonization," synonymous with cultural imperialism, or cultural hybridization. Using mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods, including participant observation and semi-structured interviews, this study explores the development of Coca-Colonization and cultural hybridization among the Tz'utujil Maya of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala. By specifically examining biomedical perspectives, cycles of conquest, the political economy, religion, celebrations, and the physical environment through the lens of soft drinks, this study finds that Coca-Colonization and cultural hybridization are complementary rather than mutually exclusive processes that contribute to dietary transitions, economic development, and differential health beliefs related to soft drink consumption.

  8. La noción del tiempo en la cultura maya prehispánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wolfgang Voss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La concepción del tiempo de los mayas prehispánicos se estudia mediante el análisis epigráfico y filológico de textos jeroglíficos bajo los planteamientos teóricos de la escuela italiana de historia de las religiones. Los datos indican que el tiempo es animado y formado por unidades discretas tangibles que se representan con un calendario de 365 días. Las características de cada día son fijadas por un oráculo de suertes de 260 unidades que es proyectado sobre el tiempo. El tiempo y el oráculo son pensados como dioses que se alternan en un orden y no como una magnitud física abstracta.

  9. ¡Si acatamos la onstitución, resistiremos!: Mayas Yucatecos durante la Independencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun ALVAREZ CUARTERO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza la etapa independentista desde la óptica de los actores silenciados, el grupo indígena mayoritario en la península, los mayas yucatecos, que observan el paso de ser súbditos a ciudadanos acatando la Constitución, solicitando que se cumplan las prerrogativas que se les concedieron y participando cívicamente en la creación de los ayuntamientos. Este cambio de actitud, posibilitado por la legitimidad que les otorgaban las Cortes de Cádiz, dio a los grupos subalternos la misma capacidad de representación que a los sectores dominantes. Estudiaremos hasta qué punto acatar el nuevo orden constitucional fue un acto de resistencia, una etapa más de sometimiento que terminaría estallando en 1847 en la Guerra de Castas.

  10. El discurso de los mayas yucatecos frente a los colonizadores: limosnas y secularización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Bracamonte y Sosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo recoge un aspecto de la intrincada relación entre franciscanos y mayas en la época colonial. Está sustentado en documentos y en la experiencia del autor en el estudio del Yucatán de los siglos XVI-XVIII. Si en esta provincia los frailes franciscanos lograron defenderse durante largo tiempo de la secularización de sus conventos y doctrinas fue precisamente porque lograron mantener a su favor la buena voluntad de las élites indígenas, a pesar de los conflictos locales que sucedían en forma intermitente. Para los caciques y chuntanes o principales, era evidente que sin su decidida participación la orden de San Francisco poco podía hacer para enfrentar la creciente fuerza del obispado de donde emanaban las líneas generales de la vida religiosa de toda la provincia.

  11. The Poetics of the Ancestor Songs of the Tz’utujil Maya of Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda O’Brien-Rothe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to define the relationship between a song tradition that survives in the Mayan highlands of Guatemala, and 16th century poetic Mayan literature. This song tradition of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala is slowly disappearing as the socio-cultural context in which it flourished changes. By comparing the poetics of the song texts (including their rhythmic structure, versification, and use of poetic devices such as assonance, alliteration and onomatopoeia to the poetics of the Popol Vuh, a K’iché Maya text probably copied from a manuscript that predates the Spanish invasion, a continuity is discovered that places the song texts squarely within the tradition of Mayan literature and suggests common origins.

  12. Organización territorial de los antiguos mayas de Belice Central

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe; Awe, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Los modelos propuestos para la organización territorial de los mayas del período clásico en Belice Central difieren significativamente de un investigador a otro. Debido a la escasez de datos jeroglíficos, la mayoría de los modelos se han formulado teniendo en cuenta tan solo datos arqueológicos y...... se centran predominantemente sobre cada sitio investigado. Las exploraciones en Belice Central de las cuatro últimas décadas, sin embargo, han sacado a la luz numerosas piezas clave que aportan datos epigráficos, incluyendo “Glifos Emblema”. Vistos en conjunto, los datos arqueológicos y epigráficos...... proporcionan una posición más ventajosa en la determinación de la estructura del paisaje socio-político del Período Clásico del Valle de Belice. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  13. Milpa y capitalismo: opciones para los campesinos mayas yucatecos contemporáneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martín Castillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de los mayas yucatecos contemporáneos vive en la pobreza. El eje de su economía y cultura es la agricultura de milpa, que los jóvenes no encuentran atractiva como opción económica. La teoría económica convencional explica la pobreza por la escasez de capital, el uso de tecnologías obsoletas y la baja productividad. Aunque se concibe como un sistema productivo arcaico, la milpa tiene características para explorar opciones de vinculación entre las economías campesina y capitalista, para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los campesinos y contribuir al desarrollo de su cultura en el actual contexto de globalización económica.

  14. Human Migration and Agricultural Expansion: An Impending Threat to the Maya Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Steven; Reining, Conard; Sever, Thomas L.; Soza, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Evidence is presented of the current threats to the Maya Biosphere Reserve in northern Guatemala as derived through time-series Landsat Thematic Mapper observations and analysis. Estimates of deforestation rates and trends are examined for different management units within the reserve and buffer zones. The satellite imagery was used to quantify and monitor rates, patterns, and trends of forest clearing during a time period corresponding to new road construction and significant human migration into the newly accessible forest region. Satellite imagery is appropriate technology in a vast and remote tropical region where aerial photography and extensive field-based methods are not cost-effective and current, timely data is essential for establishing conservation priorities.

  15. The Source of Volcanic Ash in Late Classic Maya Pottery at El Pilar, Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, B. L.; Ford, A.; Spera, F. J.

    2007-12-01

    The presence of volcanic ash used as temper in Late Classic Maya pottery (AD 600-900) at El Pilar has been long known although the volcano(s) contributing ash have not been identified. We use geochemical fingerprinting, comparing compositions of glass shards in potsherds with volcanic sources to identify the source(s). El Pilar is located in the Maya carbonate lowlands distant from volcanic sources. It is unlikely Maya transported ash from distant sites: ash volumes are too large, the terrain too rugged, and no draft animals were available. Ash layer mining is unlikely because mine sites have not been found despite intensive surveys. Nearest volcanic sources to El Pilar, Belize and Guatemala, are roughly 450 km to the south and east. The ash found in potsherds has a cuspate morphology. This suggests ash was collected during, or shortly after, an ash airfall event following eruption. Analyses of n=333 ash shards from 20 ceramic (pottery) sherds was conducted by electron microprobe for major elements, and LA-ICPMS for trace elements and Pb isotopes. These analyses can be compared to volcanic materials from candidate volcanoes in the region. The 1982 El Chichon eruption caused airfall deposition (archaeological samples and El Chichon has been made. The atomic ratios of La/Yb, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf, Sr/Ba and Th/U of n=215 glass shards in the potsherds are 12.2±7.1, 10.9±3.4, 31.2±11.5, 0.09±0.05 and 2.5±0.9, respectively. These ratios for 1982 El Chichon are 15.4±2.1, 26.3, 36.1±5.3, 1.4±0.06 and 3.16, respectively. Data for the 1475 AD El Chichon eruption (Macias et al, 2003) can also be compared; the ratios from are 13.2±2.2, 7.3±1.8, 30.4±9.6, 1.51±0.4 and 2.88±0.23, respectively. The mean 208Pb/206Pb ratio of n=5 potsherds is 2.0523±0.002 compared to 2.0514±0.00074 for n=7 samples from El Chichon. The two most recent eruptions from El Chichon overlap with the potsherd glass data except for Sr/Ba, which might be modified by Sr-Ca exchange during firing. In

  16. Chemometric study of Maya Blue from the voltammetry of microparticles approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doménech, Antonio; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; de Agredos Pascual, María Luisa Vazquez

    2007-04-01

    The use of the voltammetry of microparticles at paraffin-impregnated graphite electrodes allows for the characterization of different types of Maya Blue (MB) used in wall paintings from different archaeological sites of Campeche and YucatAn (Mexico). Using voltammetric signals for electron-transfer processes involving palygorskite-associated indigo and quinone functionalities generated by scratching the graphite surface, voltammograms provide information on the composition and texture of MB samples. Application of hierarchical cluster analysis and other chemometric methods allows us to characterize samples from different archaeological sites and to distinguish between samples proceeding from different chronological periods. Comparison between microscopic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical examination of genuine MB samples and synthetic specimens indicated that the preparation procedure of the pigment evolved in time via successive steps anticipating modern synthetic procedures, namely, hybrid organic-inorganic synthesis, temperature control of chemical reactivity, and template-like synthesis.

  17. A method for generating stochastic 3D tree models with Python in Autodesk Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Stojanović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for generating 3D tree models using stochastic L-systems with stochastic parameters and Perlin noise. L-system is the most popular method for plant modeling and Perlin noise is extensively used for generating high detailed textures. Our approach is probabilistic. L-systems with a random choice of parameters can represent observed objects quite well and they are used for modeling and generating realistic plants. Textures and normal maps are generated with combinations of Perlin noises what make these trees completely unique. Script for generating these trees, textures and normal maps is written with Python/PyMEL/NumPy in Autodesk Maya.

  18. José Martí, Viajes y Apreciación del Pueblo Maya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Bojórquez Urzaiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone y examina los cambios de percepción que experimentó José Martí sobre el papel de los pueblos originarios de América, entre 1875 y 1878, años en los que vivió en México y Guatemala, con intensa escala en Yucatán, lugares donde conoció directamente la cultura y el pueblo maya. Martí resume una visión inicial de nuestra América en la figura lítica de Chacmool cuando después de ser expropiada por el gobierno yucateco, el Apóstol cubano la admira en la ciudad de Mérida y expresa que es la síntesis de las culturas americanas. Aspecto poco estudiado en la obra de Martí es este acercamiento etnográfico a la realidad maya de Yucatán y Guatemala.   This paper aims at presenting and examining the change of perception José Martí underwent in relation to the role of the native peoples of America between 1875 and 1878, the years he lived in Mexico and Guatemala, during which he spent a large amount of time in Yucatan, where he was able to get to know the Mayan culture and its people first hand. Martí summarized his initial vision of our America in the lithic figure of Chacmool, which he was able to admire in the city of Merida, after it had been expropriated by the government of Yucatan. The Cuban apostle described this as a synthesis of American cultures. This ethnographic insight into the Mayan reality in Yucatan and Guatemala represents a scarcely explored aspect of Martí's work.

  19. Paleomagnetism of the Todos Santos Formation in the Maya Block, Chiapas, Mexico: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinez-Urban, A.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Iriondo, A.; Geissman, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Preliminary results of a paleomagnetic study on jurassic volcanic rocks (U-Pb 188.8 +/- 3.2Ma) locally interbedded with red beds assigned to the Todos Santos Formation, sampled in the Homoclinal Tectonic Province of the Neogene Fold Belt, Chiapas-Mexico, reveal multi component magnetizations acquired during pre- and post- folding of these rocks. The samples responded well to thermal demagnetization, but not so to AF demagnetization, suggesting that a high coercivity mineral phase like hematite is the main remanence carrier. The post-folding B-component direction of Dec=174.3 Inc=-30.6 (k=46; alpha95=13.6; N=4) represents a recent Tertiary? overprint; while the pre-folding C-component direction of Dec=329.9 Inc=7.8 (k=12.5; alpha95=16.3; N=8) is in agreement with a previously reported small data set for the Todos Santos Formation. When compared to the North American reference direction (Jurassic Kayenta Formation) the observed direction indicates a counterclockwise rotation of 35.9 +/- 16.6 degrees, and moderate north to south latitudinal displacement. If a reference pole from NE North America is used, the amount of counterclockwise rotation and latitudinal displacement are both slightly reduced. If the assumption that Jurassic strata in Chiapas reflect displacement of the Maya Block, then these data are consistent with reconstructions of the Maya Block in the Gulf of Mexico region. Other sites sampled in Jurassic strata suggest that in addition to the interpreted regional rotation, local (vertical-axis) rotations may have affected the region in more recent times.

  20. Regional response to drought during the formation and decline of Preclassic Maya societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Claire E.; Peniche May, Nancy; Culleton, Brendan J.; Awe, Jaime J.; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2017-10-01

    The earliest complex societies and a distinctive set of pan-regional social, political, and economic institutions appeared in the southern Maya lowlands during the Preclassic period (ca. 1200/1100 cal BCE-cal 300 CE). The timing of these cultural changes was variably influenced by local developments, interaction with other regions of Mesoamerica, and climate change. We present a high-resolution radiocarbon chronology for the growth of the early polity of Cahal Pech, Belize, one of the first permanent settlements in the southern Maya lowlands. We compare our results to a database containing over 1190 radiocarbon dates from cultural contexts reported from five major regions of the southern lowlands to interpret the expansion and decline of emerging complex social groups during the Preclassic. Comparisons to paleoclimate proxy datasets suggest that fluctuating climate regimes may have promoted alternating integration and fragmentation of early hierarchically organized societies. Stable climatic conditions during the Middle Preclassic (1000/900-300 cal BCE) fostered the centralization of populations and the formation of large regional polities across the southern lowlands. An extended drought at the end of the Late Preclassic (cal 150-300 CE) likely contributed to the decline of some major polities in the central Petén, but smaller sites located in productive environments were more resilient and persisted in to the Classic period. This research provides a framework for understanding the complex social and environmental factors that influenced localized adaptations to climate change and the episodic growth and decline of early complex societies in prehistory.

  1. Near-surface Imaging of a Maya Plaza Complex using Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, J. A.; Stewart, R. R.

    2005-05-01

    The University of Calgary has conducted a number of ground-penetrating radar surveys at a Maya archaeological site. The purpose of the study is to discern the near-surface structure and stratigraphy of the plaza, and to assist the archaeologists in focusing their excavation efforts. The area of study is located in Belize, Central America at the ancient Maya site of Maax Na. Flanked by structures believed to be temples to the north and west, the archaeologists were interested in determining how many levels of plaza were built and if there was any discernable slope to the plaza. Over the last three years, both 2-D lines and 3-D grids were acquired at the plaza using a Sensors and Software Inc. Noggin Plus system at an antenna frequency of 250 MHz. The processing flow consisted of the application of gain, various filtering techniques and a diffraction stack migration using Reflexw. Interpolation of the gridded data was investigated using simple averaging, F-K migration, pre-stack migration and inversion techniques. As this study has evolved over different field seasons, measured velocities appear to change with the saturation level of the shallow section. Velocity measurements ranged from 0.058 - .106 m/ns during the wet conditions encountered in 2002 and 2004, while velocities of 1.22 - 1.40 m/ns were measured in the drought of 2003. The GPR images to date indicate continuous and interpretable images of the subsurface, showing evidence of structure, discontinuities and amplitude variations. A number of interesting anomalies have been identified, and prioritized for excavation.

  2. The effects of retrograde reactions and of diffusion on 39Ar-40Ar ages of micas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allaz, Julien; Engi, Martin; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Effects of metamorphic reactions occurring during decompression were explored to understand their influence on 39Ar-40Ar ages of micas. Monometamorphic metasediments from the Lepontine Alps (Switzerland) were studied. Collected samples reached lower amphibolite facies during the Barrovian....... XRD-data indicated that some mineral separates prepared for Ar-Ar stepwise heating analysis were monomineralic, whereas others were composed of two white micas (muscovite with paragonite or margarite), or biotite and chlorite. In monomineralic samples 37Ar/39Ar and 38Ar/39Ar (proportional to Ca....../K and Cl/K ratios) did not change and the resulting ages can be interpreted unambiguously. In mineral separates containing two white micas, Ca/K and Cl/K ratios were variable, reflecting non-simultaneous laboratory degassing of the two heterochemical Ar-reservoirs. These ratios were used to identify each...

  3. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Late Cretaceous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylor, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    As part of the wider European GTS Next project, I propose new constraints on the ages of the Late Cretaceous, derived from a multitude of geochronological techniques, and successful stratigraphic interpretations from Canada and Japan. In the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, we propose a new constraint on the age of the K/Pg boundary in the Red Deer River section (Alberta, Canada). We were able to cyclo-stratigraphically tune sediments in a non-marine, fluvial environment utilising high-resolution proxy records suggesting a 11-12 precession related cyclicity. Assuming the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar method is inter-calibrated with the cyclo-stratigraphy, the apparent age for C29r suggests that the K/Pg boundary falls between eccentricity maxima and minima, yielding an age of the C29r between 65.89 ± 0.08 and 66.30 ± 0.08 Ma. Assuming that the bundle containing the coal horizon represents a precession cycle, the K/Pg boundary is within the analytical uncertainty of the youngest zircon population achieving a revised age for the K/Pg boundary as 65.75 ± 0.06 Ma. The Campanian - Maastrichtian boundary is preserved in the sedimentary succession of the Horseshoe Canyon Formation and has been placed 8 m below Coal nr. 10. Cyclo-stratigraphic studies show that the formation of these depositional sequences (alternations) of all scales are influenced directly by sea-level changes due to precession but more dominated by eccentricity cycles proved in the cyclo-stratigraphic framework and is mainly controlled by sand horizons, which have been related by auto-cyclicity in a dynamic sedimentary setting. Our work shows that the Campanian - Maastrichtian boundary in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin coincides with 2.5 eccentricity cycles above the youngest zircon age population at the bottom of the section and 4.9 Myr before the Cretaceous - Palaeogene boundary (K/Pg), and thus corresponds to an absolute age of 70.65 ± 0.09 Ma producing an 1.4 Myr younger age than recent published ages

  4. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de ceramicas arqueologicas de las tierras bajas noroccidentales del Area Maya, empleando la tecnica de activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Terreros, E. [Museo del Templo Mayor, INAH, Seminario No. 8, Col. Centro, Mexico 06060, D. F. (Mexico); Ochoa, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  5. The Territory of Quintana Roo. Colo­nization and Military Control Attempts in the Selva Maya (1888-1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Macías Richard

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The  federal territory of Quintana Roo was established in 1902, shortly after federal forces, under General Ignacio A. Bravo, concluded a long and intense campaign against one of the country's oldest rebel groups: the Maya from the Selva Oriental of the Yucatan Península. This article analyzes the successive military attempts to finally overtake the Maya sanctuary Chan Santa Cruz, where the Speaking Cross is located, which occurred within the wider central attempts to colonize the  peninsula. Furthermore, the arti­cle includes and makes a contextual interpretation of  the individual profiles  of  the  last campaign's leaders, in order to explain the "militarized" beginnings of  the  Quintana Roo government.

  6. Analysis of 16 autosomal STRs and 17 Y-STRs in an indigenous Maya population from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sergio; Sevillano, Rubén; Illescas, María J; de Pancorbo, Marian Martínez

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute new data on autosomal STR and Y-STR markers of the Mayas from Guatemala in order to improve available databases of forensic interest. We analyzed 16 autosomal STR markers in a population sample of 155 indigenous Maya and 17 Y-chromosomal STR markers in the 100 males of the sample. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium between autosomal STR markers were not observed at any loci. The combined power of exclusion was estimated as 99.9991% and the combined power of discrimination was >99.999999999999%. Haplotype diversity of Y-STRs was calculated as 0.9984 ± 0.0018 and analysis of pairwise genetic distances (Rst) supported the Native American background of the population.

  7. Psicología, subjetividad y cultura en el mundo Maya actual: una perspectiva crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mario Flores Osorio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente comunicación, después de hacer la crítica al concepto neo-colonial de Mesoamérica, se intenta demostrar que la subjetividad como espacio que contiene el fundamento del comportamiento psíquico, se construye como síntesis históricocolectiva y que en consecuencia demanda una racionalidad especial para su comprensión. Esa racionalidad se estudia en relación con una matriz piramidal, la cual es analizada. Asimismo, se considera que la concepción argumentada con base en el Pop Wuj o Libro del Tiempo Maya, puede permitir la conformación de una interpretación psicosocial consecuente con el espacio social y cultural de los Mayas en la actualidad

  8. Inferring Ancient Technology and Practices of the Elite Maya Kingship Through the Application of Materials Engineering Characterization Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Kristina Alyssa

    This project focuses on the characterization of materials from burial offerings and painted decoration in a royal Maya tomb at El Zotz, Guatemala, and their association with mortuary rituals. Archaeological findings included vessels, jade masks, organic materials (wood, cord, and textiles), specular hematite cubes, shells with powdered cinnabar, green (malachite) painted stucco assumed to have decorated the wooden bier where the king was resting, and caches of lip-to-lip Aguila Orange bowls containing human phalanges. This paper describes findings from non-invasive and non-destructive analytical techniques including XRF, VPSEM-EDS, and XRD, emphasizing the potential of these combined technologies in the identification of organic and inorganic markers to infer burial customs. The nature and location of the findings, the evidence of pigment coloration on the bones employing hematite and cinnabar, and the indication of exposure of the bones to high temperatures suggest highly complex, even protracted mortuary practices of Maya elite.

  9. Data from The Production and Exchange of Moulded-carved Ceramics and the ‘Maya Collapse’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ting

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This dataset comprises the bulk chemical composition and petrographic description of 62 samples of Ahk’utu’ Moulded-carved vases selected from eight archaeological sites across Belize. The bulk chemical compositional data was produced by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA, whereas the mineralogical and textural features of the ceramics were highlighted by thin-section petrography. These two types of data are complementary to characterising the compositional variability within and between assemblages; and more importantly, contributing to a better understanding of the craft organisation of finewares in the Maya lowlands during the so-called ‘Classic Maya Collapse’ or the ‘Terminal Classic‘ (ca. AD 800–950.

  10. El proceso fonológico de elisión de la segunda vocal en el maya yucateco

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrino Gómez, Carlos Martín

    2007-01-01

    Como en otras lenguas del mundo, tales como el francés o el inglés, existen en maya yucateco fenómenos de reducción fonética. Este concepto se refiere a cualquier supresión de sonidos en una secuencia fónica que reduce el número de sílabas de la misma. Específicamente se estudia aquí en el maya yucateco la elisión de la segunda vocal en palabras trisilábicas. En este trabajo se presenta un breve pero importante análisis histórico de esta lengua en el cual observaremos un cambio fonético y gra...

  11. Triaxial superdeformation in 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Kimura, Masaaki; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Ideguchi, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Superdeformed (SD) states in 40 Ar have been studied using the deformed-basis antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. Low-energy states were calculated by the parity and angular momentum projection and the generator coordinate method (GCM). Basis wave functions were obtained by the energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β, while other quantities such as triaxiality γ were optimized by the energy variation. By the GCM calculation, an SD band was obtained just above the ground-state band. The SD band involves a K π =2 + side band due to the triaxiality. The calculated electric quadrupole transition strengths of the SD band reproduce the experimental values appropriately. Triaxiality is significant for understanding low-lying states.

  12. arXiv Probing Leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, E.J.; Dev, P.S.B.; Drewes, M.; Fong, C.S.; Garbrecht, B.; Hambye, T.; Harz, J.; Hernández, P.; Kim, C.S.; Molinaro, E.; Nardi, E.; Racker, J.; Rius, N.; Zamora-Saa, J.

    2018-02-28

    The focus of this chapter lies on the possible experimental tests of leptogenesis scenarios. We consider both leptogenesis generated from oscillations, as well as leptogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays. As the Akhmedov-Rubakov-Smirnov (ARS) mechanism allows for heavy neutrinos in the GeV range, this opens up a plethora of possible experimental tests, e.g. at neutrino oscillation experiments, neutrinoless double beta decay, and direct searches for neutral heavy leptons at future facilities. In contrast, testing leptogenesis from out-of-equilibrium decays is a quite difficult task. We comment on the necessary conditions for having successful leptogenesis at the TeV-scale. We further discuss possible realizations and their model specific testability in extended seesaw models, models with extended gauge sectors, and supersymmetric leptogenesis. Not being able to test high-scale leptogenesis directly, we present a way to falsify such scenarios by focusing on their washout processes. This is discussed specific...

  13. Dating method with /sup 39/Ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loosli, H H [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Physikalisches Inst.

    1983-04-01

    The principles of a dating method based on the cosmic-ray-produced radioisotope /sup 39/Ar are given. Technical requirements such as background and standard gas samples and gas proportional counting systems are described. With samples extracted from Greenland ice it can be demonstrated that /sup 39/Ar ages agree with ages obtained by other methods. First results on ocean water samples show that with this isotope valuable information on ocean mixing and circulation can be expected. /sup 39/Ar results on groundwater samples disagree for some aquifers with conventional /sup 14/C ages; possible explanations are discussed, especially underground production of /sup 39/Ar.

  14. GPS-Based AR Games Development Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Alvin Raditya Santoso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of new technologies in a game is not a new thing. One example is the application of Augmented Reality (AR technology in game. Many people do not know the application of AR technology in game, although the application of this technology is able to produce a game with unique gameplay. In addition, since AR game is GPS-based, it offers new gaming experience, that is, playing outdoors in which the real world becomes the game arena. This advantage gives the AR technology a huge potential to be developed into a game

  15. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M.; Terreros, E.; Ochoa, L.

    2008-01-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  16. La conservación del patrimonio arquitectónico maya. Primeras experiencias (1891-1969)

    OpenAIRE

    MATARREDONA DESANTES, NURIA

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The Mayan civilization is, undoubtedly, the most advanced of those that flourished in America during pre-Columbian times. During its heyday period, the ancient Maya built large cities and created large residential areas where they erected an impressive architecture in harmony with the ferocious nature that surrounded them. Today, the testimony of these settlements comes immersed in a wild environment, buried under abundant vegetation and even the collapse of the same architectural struct...

  17. “Symptoms, Attitudes and Treatment Choices Surrounding Menopause among the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Joanna L.; Veliz, Mario; Soejarto, Doel D.; Caceres, Armando; Mahady, Gail B

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored symptoms, attitudes and treatments surrounding women’s health and menopause among the Q’eqchi Maya of the eastern tropical lowlands of Guatemala. Data were obtained through participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and plant walks with 50 Q’eqchi community members from the state of Izabal, Municipality of Livingston, including 5 midwives, 5 traditional male healers and 8 postmenopausal women. Results indicate that the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston possess their own cultural perceptions of women’s health which affect attitudes, symptoms and treatment choices during the menopausal transition. Since discussions of menstruation and menopause are considered cultural taboos among the Q’eqchi, many women mentioned experiencing excessive preoccupation when unanticipated and unfamiliar symptoms occurred. Furthermore, many women suffered from additional hardship when their spouse misinterpreted menopausal symptoms (vaginal dryness, sexual disinterest) as infidelity. Seven of the eight postmenopausal women interviewed indicated experiencing one or more symptoms during the menopausal transition, including headaches, anxiety, muscular pain, depression, and hot flashes. These results differ from the lack of symptomatology reported in previous studies in Mexico, but are in line with the result of menopausal research conducted among other Maya groups from the highlands of Guatemala. Although the Q’eqchi did not use a specific term for “hot flash”, three Q’eqchi women used the expression “baja presion” or a “lowering of blood pressure” to explain symptoms of profuse sweating followed by chills, heart palpitations, and emotional instability. The Q’eqchi Maya mentioned a number of herbal remedies to treat menopausal symptoms. Further research on these botanical treatments is needed in order to ascertain their safety and efficacy for continued use. PMID:16580764

  18. Volcanic ash in ancient Maya ceramics of the limestone lowlands: implications for prehistoric volcanic activity in the Guatemala highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Anabel; Rose, William I.

    1995-07-01

    In the spirit of collaborative research, Glicken and Ford embarked on the problem of identifying the source of volcanic ash used as temper in prehistoric Maya ceramics. Verification of the presence of glass shards and associated volcanic mineralogy in thin sections of Maya ceramics was straightforward and pointed to the Guatemala Highland volcanic chain. Considering seasonal wind rose patterns, target volcanoes include those from the area west of and including Guatemala City. Joint field research conducted in 1983 by Glicken and Ford in the limestone lowlands of Belize and neighboring Guatemala, 300 km north of the volcanic zone and 150 km from the nearest identified ash deposits, was unsuccessful in discovering local volcanic ash deposits. The abundance of the ash in common Maya ceramic vessels coupled with the difficulties of long-distance procurement without draft animals lead Glicken to suggest that ashfall into the lowlands would most parsimoniously explain prehistoric procurement; it literally dropped into their hands. A major archaeological problem with this explanation is that the use of volcanic ash occurring over several centuries of the Late Classic Period (ca. 600-900 AD). To accept the ashfall hypothesis for ancient Maya volcanic ash procurement, one would have to demonstrate a long span of consistent volcanic activity in the Guatemala Highlands for the last half of the first millennium AD. Should this be documented through careful petrographic, microprobe and tephrachronological studies, a number of related archaeological phenomena would be explained. In addition, the proposed model of volcanic activity has implications for understanding volcanism and potential volcanic hazards in Central America over a significantly longer time span than the historic period. These avenues are explored and a call for further collaborative research of this interdisciplinary problem is extended in this paper.

  19. Classic Maya Bloodletting and the Cultural Evolution of Religious Rituals: Quantifying Patterns of Variation in Hieroglyphic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250–900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch’ahb’ that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities. PMID:25254359

  20. Population, Rural Development, and Land Use Among Settler Households in an Agricultural Frontier in Guatemala’s Maya Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Guatemala was among the world’s leaders in deforestation during the 1990s at a rate of 2% per annum. Much of Guatemala’s recent forest loss has occurred in the emerging agricultural frontiers of the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR, the heart of the largest contiguous tropical forest in Central America—La Selva Maya. This paper presents data from 241 heads of households and 219 partners of household heads from a geographically stratified sample of eight (of 28 communities in the Sierra de Lacandón National Park (SLNP, the most ecologically biodiverse region in La Selva Maya and a core conservation zone of the MBR. Settler households are examined relative to a host of factors relating land use and land cover change. Specifically, demographic trends, political and socio-economic development, and ecological factors are described in this first detailed statistically-representative sample probing human population and environment interactions in an emerging agricultural frontier in Central America.

  1. Development of sedentary communities in the Maya lowlands: coexisting mobile groups and public ceremonies at Ceibal, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; MacLellan, Jessica; Triadan, Daniela; Munson, Jessica; Burham, Melissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; Nasu, Hiroo; Pinzón, Flory; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2015-04-07

    Our archaeological investigations at Ceibal, a lowland Maya site located in the Pasión region, documented that a formal ceremonial complex was built around 950 B.C. at the onset of the Middle Preclassic period, when ceramics began to be used in the Maya lowlands. Our refined chronology allowed us to trace the subsequent social changes in a resolution that had not been possible before. Many residents of Ceibal appear to have remained relatively mobile during the following centuries, living in ephemeral post-in-ground structures and frequently changing their residential localities. In other parts of the Pasión region, there may have existed more mobile populations who maintained the traditional lifestyle of the preceramic period. Although the emerging elite of Ceibal began to live in a substantial residential complex by 700 B.C., advanced sedentism with durable residences rebuilt in the same locations and burials placed under house floors was not adopted in most residential areas until 500 B.C., and did not become common until 300 B.C. or the Late Preclassic period. During the Middle Preclassic period, substantial formal ceremonial complexes appear to have been built only at a small number of important communities in the Maya lowlands, and groups with different levels of sedentism probably gathered for their constructions and for public rituals held in them. These collaborative activities likely played a central role in socially integrating diverse groups with different lifestyles and, eventually, in developing fully established sedentary communities.

  2. High-precision radiocarbon dating of political collapse and dynastic origins at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; MacLellan, Jessica; Burham, Melissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; Palomo, Juan Manuel; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Pinzón, Flory; Nasu, Hiroo

    2017-02-07

    The lowland Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, had a long history of occupation, spanning from the Middle Preclassic Period through the Terminal Classic (1000 BC to AD 950). The Ceibal-Petexbatun Archaeological Project has been conducting archaeological investigations at this site since 2005 and has obtained 154 radiocarbon dates, which represent the largest collection of radiocarbon assays from a single Maya site. The Bayesian analysis of these dates, combined with a detailed study of ceramics, allowed us to develop a high-precision chronology for Ceibal. Through this chronology, we traced the trajectories of the Preclassic collapse around AD 150-300 and the Classic collapse around AD 800-950, revealing similar patterns in the two cases. Social instability started with the intensification of warfare around 75 BC and AD 735, respectively, followed by the fall of multiple centers across the Maya lowlands around AD 150 and 810. The population of Ceibal persisted for some time in both cases, but the center eventually experienced major decline around AD 300 and 900. Despite these similarities in their diachronic trajectories, the outcomes of these collapses were different, with the former associated with the development of dynasties centered on divine rulership and the latter leading to their downfalls. The Ceibal dynasty emerged during the period of low population after the Preclassic collapse, suggesting that this dynasty was placed under the influence from, or by the direct intervention of, an external power.

  3. Three-dimensional visualization of nanostructured surfaces and bacterial attachment using Autodesk® Maya®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkovikj, Veselin; Fluke, Christopher J.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2014-02-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding the ways in which bacteria interact with nano-structured surfaces. As a result, there is a need for innovative approaches to enable researchers to visualize the biological processes taking place, despite the fact that it is not possible to directly observe these processes. We present a novel approach for the three-dimensional visualization of bacterial interactions with nano-structured surfaces using the software package Autodesk Maya. Our approach comprises a semi-automated stage, where actual surface topographic parameters, obtained using an atomic force microscope, are imported into Maya via a custom Python script, followed by a `creative stage', where the bacterial cells and their interactions with the surfaces are visualized using available experimental data. The `Dynamics' and `nDynamics' capabilities of the Maya software allowed the construction and visualization of plausible interaction scenarios. This capability provides a practical aid to knowledge discovery, assists in the dissemination of research results, and provides an opportunity for an improved public understanding. We validated our approach by graphically depicting the interactions between the two bacteria being used for modeling purposes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with different titanium substrate surfaces that are routinely used in the production of biomedical devices.

  4. 39Ar/Ar measurements using ultra-low background proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Jeter; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco M.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Day, Anthony R.; Humble, Paul H.; Mace, Emily K.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Age-dating groundwater and seawater using the 39 Ar/Ar ratio is an important tool to understand water mass-flow rates and mean residence time. Low-background proportional counters developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory use mixtures of argon and methane as counting gas. We demonstrate sensitivity to 39 Ar by comparing geological (ancient) argon recovered from a carbon dioxide gas well and commercial argon. The demonstrated sensitivity to the 39 Ar/Ar ratio is sufficient to date water masses as old as 1000 years. - Highlights: • 39 Ar/Ar age dating is important for understanding environmental water migration. • Ultra low background proportional counters have been developed. • 39 Ar is detected in atmospheric argon at a rate of 70.3 counts per day. The demonstrated background is 166 counts per day. • Age dating is possible for water with underground residence time of up to 1000 years.

  5. 40Ar-39Ar method for age estimation: principles, technique and application in orogenic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmejer, R.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of the K-Ar method for age estimation by 40 Ar/ 39 Ar recently developed is described. This method doesn't require direct analysis of potassium, its content is calculated as a function of 39 Ar, which is formed from 39 K under neutron activation. Errors resulted from interactions between potassium and calcium nuclei with neutrons are considered. The attention is paid to the technique of gradual heating, used in 40 Ar- 39 Ar method, and of obtaining age spectrum. Aplicabilities of isochronous diagram is discussed for the case of presence of excessive argon in a sample. Examples of 40 Ar- 39 Ar method application for dating events in orogenic regions are presented

  6. First-principles calibration of 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and complete extraction of 40Ar* from sanidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.; Kuiper, K.; Mark, D.; Postma, O.; Villa, I. M.; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar geochronology relies on comparing argon isotopic data for unknowns to those for knowns. Mineral standards used as neutron fluence monitors must be dated by the K-Ar method (or at least referenced to a mineral of known K-Ar age). The commonly used age of 28.02 ± 0.28 Ma for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) (Renne et al., 1998) is based upon measurements of radiogenic 40Ar in GA1550 biotite (McDougall and Roksandic, 1974), but underlying full data were not published (these measurements were never intended for use as an international standard), so uncertainties are difficult to assess. Recent developments by Kuiper et al. (2008) and Renne et al. (2010) are limited by their reliance on the accuracy of other systems. Modern technology should allow for more precise and accurate calibration of primary K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar standards. From the ideal gas law, the number of moles of 40Ar in a system can be calculated from measurements of pressure, volume, and temperature. Thus we have designed and are proceeding to build a pipette system to introduce well-determined amounts of 40Ar into noble gas extraction lines and mass spectrometers. This system relies on components with calibrations traceable to SI unit prototypes, including a diaphragm pressure gauge (MKS Instruments), thermocouples, and a “slug” of an accurately determined volume to be inserted into the reservoir for volume determinations of the reservoir and pipette. The system will be renewable, with a lifetime of ca. 1 month for gas in the reservoir, and portable, to permit interlaboratory calibrations. The quantitative extraction of 40Ar* from the mineral standard is of highest importance; for sanidine standards this is complicated by high melt viscosity during heating. Experiments adding basaltic “zero age glass” (ZAG) to decrease melt viscosity are underway. This has previously been explored by McDowell (1983) with a resistance furnace, but has not been quantitatively addressed with laser heating

  7. 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LANEY, T.

    2000-01-01

    The 244-AR Vault Facility, constructed between 1966 and 1968, was designed to provide lag storage and treatment for the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility (PUREX) tank farm sludges. Tank farm personnel transferred the waste from the 244-AR Vault Facility to B Plant for recovery of cesium and strontium. B Plant personnel then transferred the treatment residuals back to the tank farms for storage of the sludge and liquids. The last process operations, which transferred waste supporting the cesium/strontium recovery mission, occurred in April 1978. After the final transfer in 1978, the 244-AR facility underwent a cleanout. However, 2,271 L (600 gal) of sludge were left in Tank 004AR from an earlier transfer from Tank 241-AX-104. When the cleanout was completed, the facility was placed in a standby status. The sludge had been transferred to Tank 004AR to support Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL] vitrification work. Documentation of waste transfers suggests that a portion of the sludge may have been moved from Tank 004AR to Tank 002AR in preparation for transfer back to the AX Tank Farm; however, quantities of the sludge that were moved to Tank 002AR from that transfer must be estimated

  8. Ancient shoreline reconstruction at a Maritime Maya Port in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaijel, Roy; Goodman, Beverly; Glover, Jeffrey; Rissolo, Dominique; Beddows, Patricia; Carter, Alice; Smith, Derek; Ben Avraham, Zvi

    2017-04-01

    Throughout history, worldwide, a major part of the human experience has been to adapt to changing landscapes, and environments. These adaptations can take many forms, sometimes as innovation, manipulation of the conditions, behavioral or technological changes; and in some cases the decision to abandon the area. The northeastern Yucatan peninsula, home of the Maritime maya port site Vista-Alegre, shows signs of such human changes, though little is known about the corresponding landscape and environment. Vista Alegre is located on the meeting point of the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, at the north-eastern tip of the Yucatan peninsula, in the back of the Holbox lagoon. The site was inhabited from the 9th century B.C until the mid 16th century A.D., with an apparent two century abandonment phase from the mid 7th to 9th century A.D. A multidisciplinary effort ("Costa Escondida project") has been investigating the life of past Mayan inhabitants and the broader connections of the site to the Maritime Maya trade network. One of the questions that has arisen is what were the mutual influences between the inhabitants to their surrounding environment. In order to answer that question the site's shoreline geomorphology and climate history is being reconstructed for the past 2-3000 years. The reconstruction is based on multiproxy analysis of marine sediment cores and surface samples, combined with archaeological data. The study presented focuses on the shoreline shifts at the site, revealing the complexity, and significant affect of sea level rise on the marine environment of Vista Alegre. This study contributes to our understanding of the site's possible functions, the environmental challenges the local inhabits contended with, and the identification of ancient harboring locations. The results show five depositional phases over the past 2-3000 years. The ancient shoreline maps show a general trend of sea level rise, though with varying rates over time that relates well

  9. Population dynamics and stock assessment for Octopus maya (Cephalopoda:Octopodidae fishery in the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The octopus (Octopus maya is one of the most important fish resources in the Mexican Gulf of Mexico with a mean annual yield of 9000 ton, and a reasonable number of jobs created; O. maya represents 80% of the total octopus catch, followed by Octopus vulgaris. There are two artisanal fleets based on Octopus maya and a middle-size fleet that covers both species. Catch-at-length structured data from the artisanal fleets, for the 1994 season (August 1st to December 15th were used to analyze the O. maya population dynamics and stock and to estimate the current level of exploitation. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: L = 252 mm, mantle length; K=1.4 year -1; oscillation parameters C=1.0, WP=0.6; and tz=0.842 years. A rough estimate of natural mortality was M=2.2, total mortality from catch curve Z=8.77, and exploitation rate F/Z=0.75. This last value suggests an intensive exploitation, even when yield per recruit analysis indicates both fleets may increase the minimum legal size on about 10% to increase yields. The length-based VPA also shows that the stock is being exploited under its maximum acceptable biological limit. These apparently contradictory results are explained by biological and behavioral characteristics of this species. Because most females die after reproduction, a new gross estimation of natural mortality was computed as M=3.3. The new estimate of exploitation rate was F/Z=0.57. This new value coincides with results from the length-VPA and the Thompson and Bell methods, the former suggesting that a reduction of 20% in fishing mortality may provide larger yields. This fishery resource is fully exploited and current management measures must be revised to sustain and probably optimize yields.Octopus maya es uno de los recursos pesqueros más importantes del Golfo de México, con rendimientos anuales promedio de 9 000 t, y constituye el 80% de la captura total, seguido por O. vulgaris. En la pesquería participan dos flotas

  10. AR4VI: AR as an Accessibility Tool for People with Visual Impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlan, James M.; Miele, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Although AR technology has been largely dominated by visual media, a number of AR tools using both visual and auditory feedback have been developed specifically to assist people with low vision or blindness – an application domain that we term Augmented Reality for Visual Impairment (AR4VI). We describe two AR4VI tools developed at Smith-Kettlewell, as well as a number of pre-existing examples. We emphasize that AR4VI is a powerful tool with the potential to remove or significantly reduce a r...

  11. 40Ar/39Ar age spectra from the KBS Tuff, Koobi Fora Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.

    1981-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectra on anorthoclase phenocrysts from three pumice clasts in the KBS Tuff yield nearly ideal flat patterns, providing good evidence that the samples have remained undisturbed since crystallization. The ages are concordant at 1.88 = 0.02 Myr, and confirm that the KBS Tuff, a key marker bed in the Koobi Fora Formation, northern Kenya, is now very well dated. These results resolve the conflict between earlier 40 Ar/ 39 Ar and conventional K-Ar dating measurements on the KBS Tuff. (author)

  12. 40Ar/39Ar age spectra from the KBS Tuff, Koobi Fora Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Ian

    1981-11-12

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectra on anorthoclase phenocrysts from three pumice clasts in the KBS Tuff yield nearly ideal flat patterns, providing good evidence that the samples have remained undisturbed since crystallization. The ages are concordant at 1.88±0.02 Myr, and confirm that the KBS Tuff, a key marker bed in the Koobi Fora Formation, northern Kenya, is now very well dated. These results resolve the conflict between earlier 40 Ar/ 39 Ar and conventional K-Ar dating measurements on the KBS Tuff.

  13. Effects of shock pressure on 40Ar-39Ar radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    The relation of shock to the drop in the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar ratio seen at high release temperatures in some neutron-irradiated lunar samples is investigated through measurements of the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar ratio in gas samples released by stepwise heating of rock samples previously subjected to shock, either in the laboratory or in nature. Explosives were used to shock solid pieces and powder of a basalt from a diabase dike in Liberia to calculated pressures of 65, 150 and 270 kbar. These, an unshocked sample of the powder, two naturally shocked samples from the Brent impact crater in Canada, one unshocked sample from near the crater, and appropriate monitors were irradiated. Ar from stepwise heating was analyzed. The unshocked basalt shows a good 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar plateau at age 198 +-9 m.y. in agreement with a previous result of 186 +- 2 m.y. The shocked samples contain varying amounts of implanted atmospheric Ar, the isotopes of which have experienced mass fractionation. This effect is small enough in four samples so that the linearity of their graphs of 39 *Ar/ 40 Ar vs 36 Ar/ 40 Ar is evidence of a plateau. The ages of these samples are then 201 +- 10, 205 +- 12 and 201 +-9 m.y. It appears that the shock has had little effect on the 40 Ar- 39 Ar age spectrum, although the release patterns of the 39 *Ar are shifted downward by the order of 200 0 C. Shock implantation of Ar was at lower shock pressure, in the presence of less Ar, and into a less porous material than previously demonstrated. The Brent Crater samples do not all show good plateaus, but do indicate an age of 420 m.y. for the crater event and 795 +- 24 m.y. for the rock formation, in agreement with previous results. None of the 40 *Ar/ 39 *Ar profiles shows a drop at high temperature, but a possible role of shock implantation of Ar is indicated in the production of this effect. Further experiments are suggested. (author)

  14. Photodissociation dynamics of Ar2(+) and Ar3(+) excited by 527 nm photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepère, V; Picard, Y J; Barat, M; Fayeton, J A; Lucas, B; Béroff, K

    2009-05-21

    The photofragmentation dynamics of Ar(2)(+) and Ar(3)(+) clusters has been investigated at a 527 nm wavelength (2.35 eV) using a setup that allows simultaneous detection of the ionic and neutral fragments in a coincidence experiment. Measurement of positions and times of flight enables in principle a complete description of the fragmentation dynamics. The photofragmentation dynamics of Ar(3)(+) clusters is similar to that of Ar(2)(+) with, in addition, the ejection of a third fragment that can be neutral or ionized via a resonant electron capture. This is attributed to the triangular geometry of the Ar(3)(+) ion.

  15. Single electron capture by state-prepared Ar2+ projectiles in Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, J.; Huber, B.A.

    1985-03-01

    Electron capture by state-selected Ar 2+ projectiles in Ar has been studied at low collision energies ( 2+ ions are measured explaining existing discrepancies of partial and total cross sections in the Ar 2+ /Ar collision system. Although highly excited metastable ions ( 5 D 4 0 , 3 F 4 0 ) represent a minor contamination of a non-prepared Ar 2+ beam (proportional1%), their contributions are found to dominate the capture process due to cross section values larger than 10 -15 cm 2 . (orig.)

  16. 3 to 15 keV Ar+ induced Auger electron emission from Si and Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, J.; Kaus, G.

    1977-01-01

    Ar + induced Auger electrons from Si and Ar were investigated at bombardment energies between 3-15 keV and target currents of a few μA. The Auger electron yields were compared with secondary ion yields of Si and Ar by simultaneous SIMS-AES measurements. In the ion induced Auger spectra of Si five Auger peaks and in the Ar spectra three Auger peaks were observed. The ion induced Auger electron yield of Si and Ar were found to be strongly dependent upon the primary ion energy. 'Bulk like' and 'atomic like' Auger transitions of ion induced Auger electrons of Si were observed. (orig.) [de

  17. Ancient Maya Regional Settlement and Inter-Site Analysis: The 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlen F. Chase

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During April and May 2013, a total of 1057 km2 of LiDAR was flown by NCALM for a consortium of archaeologists working in West-central Belize, making this the largest surveyed area within the Mayan lowlands. Encompassing the Belize Valley and the Vaca Plateau, West-central Belize is one of the most actively researched parts of the Maya lowlands; however, until this effort, no comprehensive survey connecting all settlement had been conducted. Archaeological projects have investigated at least 18 different sites within this region. Thus, a large body of archaeological research provides both the temporal and spatial parameters for the varied ancient Maya centers that once occupied this area; importantly, these data can be used to help interpret the collected LiDAR data. The goal of the 2013 LiDAR campaign was to gain information on the distribution of ancient Maya settlement and sites on the landscape and, particularly, to determine how the landscape was used between known centers. The data that were acquired through the 2013 LiDAR campaign have significance for interpreting both the composition and limits of ancient Maya political units. This paper presents the initial results of these new data and suggests a developmental model for ancient Maya polities.

  18. 37Ar and 39Ar in meteorites and the spatial cosmic ray gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusser, G.; Schaeffer, O.A.

    1977-01-01

    Cosmic-ray-produced 37 Ar (tsub(1/2) = 35 days), and 39 Ar (tsub(1/2) = 269 years) in the Fe-Ni phase of meteorites have been studied in connection with their implications for the radial gradient of cosmic ray particles. For the chondrite, Canon City, which fell on October 27, 1973, 20.1 +- 1.5 dpm/kg FeNi of 37 Ar and 22.5 +- 1.4 dpm/kg FeNi of 39 Ar was found. Usually, the 37 Ar/ 39 Ar ratio is used to deduce a spatial gradient. However, 37 Ar data reported in the literature are inconsistent. They fluctuate much more than could be accounted for by different orbits and the anticipated correlation with the cosmic ray neutron registrations is rather weak. Consequently, the 37 Ar/ 39 Ar-derived gradient has a low confidence level. On the other hand, 39 Ar activities group close to a mean value of 22.5 dpm/kg FeNi and appear to be almost independent of the different meteoroid orbits. A comparison of measured 39 Ar activities in meteorites with those calculated for orbits obtained from fireball data shows that a gradient of 10%/Au or less is reconcilable with the experimental findings. The average gradient (E > 200 MeV) during the last 500 years was probably not much larger than that measured presently by the Pioneer 10 and 11, and Helios spacecrafts. (Auth.)

  19. 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe dating of diamond inclusions from the Premier kimberlite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.; Onstott, T.C.; Harris, J.W.; Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow

    1989-01-01

    Inclusions encapsulated by diamonds at the time of their formation provide a means for determining diamond crystallization ages and the chemistry of the surrounding upper mantle at that time. Sm-Nd studies of peridotitic inclusions, from Cretaceous-age kimberlites in southern Africa, suggest that the diamonds formed 3.3 Gyr ago. By contrast, eclogite-suite inclusions generally yield younger ages, sometimes approaching the time of kimberlite eruption. Here we report the results of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laser-probe analyses of individual eclogitic clinopyroxene inclusions from Premier diamonds, which yield a mean age of 1,198±14 Myr. This age agrees well with Sm-Nd and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses on similar Premier inclusions, and is indistinguishable from the inferred time of emplacement of the host kimberlite (1,150-1,230 Myr), which implies that diamond formation was essentially synchronous with kimberlite generation. The extrapolated non-radiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of 334±102 is similar to the present-day atmospheric composition. This value is inconsistent with Sr and Nd isotopic signatures from Premier eclogite inclusions, which suggest a depleted mantle source ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar>20,000). Pre-entrapment equilibration of the inclusions with an 36 Ar-rich fluid is the most probable explanation for the low non-radiogenic ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) composition. (author)

  20. Evidence of interatomic Coulombic decay in ArKr after Ar 2p Auger decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Y; Saito, N; Suzuki, I H; Fukuzawa, H; Liu, X-J; Sakai, K; Pruemper, G; Ueda, K; Iwayama, H; Nagaya, K; Yao, M; Kreidi, K; Schoeffler, M; Jahnke, T; Schoessler, S; Doerner, R; Weber, T; Harries, J; Tamenori, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have identified interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) processes in the ArKr dimer following Ar 2p Auger decay, using momentum-resolved electron-ion-ion coincidence spectroscopy and simultaneously determining the kinetic energy of the ICD electron and the KER between Ar 2+ and Kr + . We find that the spin-conserved ICD processes in which Ar 2+ (3p -3 3d) 1 P and 3 P decay to Ar 2+ (3p -2 ) 1 D and 3 P, respectively, ionizing the Kr atom, are significantly stronger than the spin-flip ICD processes in which Ar 2+ (3p -3 3d) 1 P and 3 P decay to Ar 2+ (3p -2 ) 3 P and 1 D, respectively

  1. 40Ar-39Ar age determinations on the Owyhee basalt of the Columbia plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, R.J.; York, D.

    1976-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar step-heating analyses have been performed on 11 samples of basalt from sites near Owyhee Reservoir of southeastern Oregon, U.S.A. These rocks were extruded during the great flood basalt episode of the Pacific Northwest. The whole-rock points are highly correlated on a plot of 40 Ar/ 36 Ar versus 39 Ar/ 36 Ar, corresponding to a common age of the samples of 14.3+-0.3 m.y. Inspite of this, individual 'plateau' plots of the age versus fraction of 39 Ar released do not give good plateaux. These age spectra exhibit to varying degrees a common structure in which lower age values are found at higher temperatures. This pattern may result from a closed-system redistribution of the argon isotopes. The usefulness of grinding the basalts in removing a loosely held atmospheric argon component is confirmed. (Auth.)

  2. Intertooth patterns of hypoplasia expression: implications for childhood health in the classic Maya collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L E

    1997-02-01

    Enamel hypoplasias, which record interacting stresses of nutrition and illness during the period of tooth formation, are a key tool in the study of childhood health in prehistory. But interpretation of the age of peak morbidity is complicated by differences in susceptibility to stress both between tooth positions and within a single tooth. Here, hypoplasias are used to evaluate the prevailing ecological model for the collapse of Classic Period Lowland Maya civilization, circa AD 900. Hypoplasias were recorded in the full dentition of 160 adult skeletons from six archaeological sites in the Pasion River region of Guatemala. Instead of constructing a composite scale of stress experience, teeth are considered separately by position in the analysis. No statistical differences are found in the proportion of teeth affected by hypoplasia between "Early," Late Classic, and Terminal Classic Periods for anterior teeth considered to be most susceptible to stress, indicating stability in the overall stress loads affecting children of the three chronological periods. However, hypoplasia trends in posterior teeth may imply a change in the ontogenetic-timing of more severe stress episodes during the final occupation and perhaps herald a shift in child-care practices. These results provide little support for the ecological model of collapse but do call to attention the potential of posterior teeth to reveal subtle changes in childhood morbidity when consideredindividually.

  3. Beyond Nature Appropriation: Towards Post-development Conservation in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E Martinez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of biosphere reserves in Mexico was followed by alternative livelihood conservation/development projects to integrate indigenous groups into Western style conservation under the idea of sustainable development and participation. In this paper, I discuss the outcomes of two forest wildlife management projects in one Maya community along the Sian Ka′an Biosphere Reserve in the state of Quintana Roo. Both projects ultimately failed and the community mobilised and expelled the NGO from the community. I argue that the failure of these projects involved two dynamics: 1 lack of coherence between the objectives of state agencies, conservation NGOs, and the local community; and 2 unequal ethnic relations, reproducing relations of colonial inequality and dictating how indigenous groups can participate in managing a territory for conservation. If collaboration and local participation are key in conservation management programs, these case studies suggest that greater institutional accountability and community autonomy are needed to make the practice of conservation more democratic and participatory. The expulsion of the NGO as a conservation and development broker also opened the space for, and possibilities of, post-development conservation practice that challenges the normalising expectations of Western biodiversity conservation.

  4. Chicle harvesting and extractive reserves in the Maya Biosphere b: Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugelby, B.L.

    1995-12-31

    Chicle latex has been extracted from the forests of northern Guatemala for over 100 years and is a key element in the extractive reserve component of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. The carrying capacity of the reserve for chicle extraction can be estimated from a model incorporating ecological data (such as latex yields per tree and population structure of chicle trees, Manilkara zapota, Sapot.) with socio-ecological and political information concerning camp and chicle resource availability, harvester tapping behavior, and historical and present-day institutional organization. I estimate that chicle harvestors currently utilize and area larger than the multiple use zone of the reserve in a unsustainable manner. Simple reduction of harvestors numbers will not ensure sustainability; institutional reforms are also in order. Extractive reserves can play an important role in preserving tropical forests. However, their effectiveness is highly dependent on prevailing ecological, socio-economic, and political conditions. Wise planning and management of extractive reserves demands an understanding of the system`s carrying capacity. In addition, a strong institutional foundation is necessary to assure effective monitoring and enforcement of harvesting regulations.

  5. Apocalipsis maya: una creencia posmoderna en la era de la información

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée de la Torre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el papel de las industrias culturales, los medios de comunicación y el internet en la gestación de una creencia contemporánea que clasificamos como “milenarismo posmoderno”, por ser transmediático, instantáneo, global, mercantilizado, efímero, hibrido y virtual. Se realizó un estudio comunicacional sobrela producción mediática de la creencia en la profecía 2012 maya que se difundió en distintos medios de comunicación y que en la víspera de la fecha anunciada capturó la atención de millones de personas en el mundo, para entender el papel que las tecnologías y la mercadotecnia está teniendo en la producción masiva y global de creencias contemporáneas.Con este estudio se busca dar respuesta a: ¿Qué impacto y alcances tiene el fenómeno transmediático en la conformación de nuevas maneras de creer? ¿Qué tipo de narrativas genera? ¿Qué efectos de sentido produce? ¿De qué manera da respuesta a las incertidumbres propias de esta época? ¿Qué consistencia tienen estas creencias? ¿Dónde se ritualizan?

  6. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya in chilling storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel GULLIAN-KLANIAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines. A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The histamine concentration (91.7%, followed by the counts of psychrotrophic bacteria (5.5% and hypoxanthine (2.2%, were the predictors from the redundancy analysis that better explained the changes taking place during the chilling hours. After 72 h of chilling, the microbial count was determined to be log 4.7 CFU/g, and the octopus samples were classified as B quality (minor sensory quality defects based on the sensory quality scale. Although the samples were not classified as unacceptable at 100 h of refrigeration by the sensory index, the level of histamine reached the defect action level (5 mg/100 g as ruled by the International Food Safety Authorities. The shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage was predicted to be 119 h.

  7. Architecture as animate landscape: circular shrines in the ancient Maya lowlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Buck, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I develop a theory of landscape archaeology that incorporates the concept of “animism” as a cognitive approach. Current trends in anthropology are placing greater emphasis on indigenous perspectives, and in recent decades animism has seen a resurgence in anthropological theory. As a means of relating in (not to) one's world, animism is a mode of thought that has direct bearing on landscape archaeology. Yet, Americanist archaeologists have been slow to incorporate this concept as a component of landscape theory. I consider animism and Nurit Bird-David's (1999) theory of “relatedness” and how such perspectives might be expressed archaeologically in Mesoamerica. I examine the distribution of marine shells and cave formations that appear incorporated as architectural elements on ancient Maya circular shrine architecture. More than just “symbols” of sacred geography, I suggest these materials represent living entities that animate shrines through their ongoing relationships with human and other-than-human agents in the world.

  8. L’habitation maya The Mayan Dwelling: Spaces, Boundaries and a Few Passageways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helios Figuerola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En ce début de recherche qui met en œuvre informations archéologiques, épigraphiques et ethnologiques, nous proposons certains arguments montrant une continuité linguistique et conceptuelle de l’habitation maya en tant qu’espace délimité. Les frontières visibles et invisibles qui ferment ou fractionnent son espace temporairement ou durablement semblent assez similaires dans les diverses régions et époques envisagées. À travers l’accueil des personnes étrangères à l’intérieur du groupe domestique, nous voyons en outre apparaître des séries de frontières séparant des lieux internes, tout autant qu’elles sont des lieux de passage.In this preliminary research, which makes use of archaeological, epigraphic and ethnological information, we present certain arguments showing a linguistic and conceptual continuity in the Mayan dwelling as a delimited space. The visible and invisible boundaries that temporarily or permanently enclose or divide up its space seem quite similar in the various regions and periods considered. Through their way of welcoming outsiders into the domestic group, a series of boundaries appear, which also serve as passage ways.

  9. Holocene vegetation change in the northern Peten and its implications for Maya prehistory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David; Byrne, Roger; Schreiner, Thomas; Hansen, Richard

    2006-05-01

    An ˜8400 cal yr record of vegetation change from the northern Peten, Guatemala, provides new insights into the environmental history of the archaeological area known as the Mirador Basin. Pollen, loss on ignition, and magnetic susceptibility analyses indicate warm and humid conditions in the early to mid-Holocene. Evidence for a decrease in forest cover around 4600 cal yr B.P. coincides with the first appearance of Zea mays pollen, suggesting that human activity was responsible. The period between 3450 cal yr B.P. and 1000 cal yr B.P. is characterized by a further decline in forest pollen types, includes an abrupt increase in weedy taxa, and exhibits the highest magnetic susceptibility values since the early Holocene, all of which suggest further agricultural disturbance in the watershed. A brief drop in disturbance indicators around 1800 cal yr B.P. may represent the Preclassic abandonment of the area. Changing pollen frequencies around 1000 cal yr B.P. indicate a cessation of human disturbance, which represents the Late Classic collapse of the southern Maya lowlands.

  10. Mujeres mayas en Yucatán: experiencia participativa en una organización productiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amada Rubio-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos resultados de investigación sobre una experiencia participativa de un grupo de mujeres maya-yucatecas: Múuch’ Meyaj Ko’olelo’ob (mmk, dando cuenta del impacto que las intervenciones de un programa universitario tienen en la vida de ellas. Utilizamos un enfoque y técnicas cualitativas. La agrupación se integró como parte del fomento a empresas sociales de mujeres rurales, emprendido por el Sistema Nacional para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia (dif en 1997. Desde el inicio, sus integrantes se reunieron para producir y comercializar concentrado de horchata; interactuaron con agentes externos, sobresaliendo el Programa Académico de Desarrollo Sustentable en el Sur de Yucatán (padsur de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán (uady. Mostramos cómo este proceso se refleja en transformaciones personales identificadas por las mujeres, quienes valoran esta experiencia por posibilitar cambios en sus relaciones de género, aunque se ha incrementado su carga laboral.

  11. On mechanism of Ar(3p54p) states excitation in low-energy Ar-Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurskov, S Y; Kashuba, A S

    2009-01-01

    The present work is devoted to study of Ar(3p 5 4p) states excitation in binary low-energy Ar-Ar collisions. The results of the experimental investigation of excitation cross sections of Ar I 4p'[l/2] 1 , 4p'[3/2] 1 , 4p'[3/2] 2 and 4p[3/2] 2 levels in the collision energy range from threshold up to 500 eV (cm) and degree of polarization for 4s[3/2] 2 0 -4p'[l/2] 1 and 4s[3/2] 2 0 -4p[3/2] 2 transitions in this energy range are represented.

  12. Earliest isotopic evidence in the Maya region for animal management and long-distance trade at the site of Ceibal, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Emery, Kitty F; Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; Kamenov, George D; Krigbaum, John

    2018-04-03

    This study uses a multiisotope (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and strontium) approach to examine early animal management in the Maya region. An analysis of faunal specimens across almost 2,000 years (1000 BC to AD 950) at the site of Ceibal, Guatemala, reveals the earliest evidence for live-traded dogs and possible captive-reared taxa in the Americas. These animals may have been procured for ceremonial functions based on their location in the monumental site core, suggesting that animal management and trade began in the Maya area to promote special events, activities that were critical in the development of state society. Isotopic evidence for animal captivity at Ceibal reveals that animal management played a greater role in Maya communities than previously believed. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Análisis ambiental y económico de proyectos carreteros en la Selva Maya, un estudio a escala regional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Burgués, Irene; Fleck, Leonardo

    density of roads is one of the leading factors that have preserved the Maya Forest’s natural ecosystems. Decision-makers are confronted with an apparent conflict between conservation and development goals. In this study, we analyze the economic and environmental impacts of Maya Forest road projects...... the environmental impacts of the following road segments: Caobas-Tikal, San Andrés-Mirador, Mirador-Calakmul, Uaxactún-Mirador, Yaxhá-Nakum-Naranjo, Melchor de Mencos-Arrollo Negro, Lamanai –Border with Guatemala, El Ceibo-El Naranjo and Escárcega-Xpujil (Right-of-way within the Balam-kú y Calakmul reserves...... equity. In those cases where road projects are already under construction in the Maya Forest, measures are needed to minimize and offset deforestation and to maintain connectivity between natural habitats. This goal can be reached in part through investments in better protection of parks and reserves...

  14. Ars Baltica-verkoston puheenjohtajuus Suomeen Risto Ruohoselle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    1990. a. loodud võrgustiku Ars Baltica sekretariaat (Ars Baltica Contact Point & Communication Center) tuleb Kielist Tallinnasse Eesti kultuuriministeeriumi kuni aastani 2002 (Suur-Karja 23). Ars Baltica (ühendus)

  15. A flavor of 40Ar-39Ar geochronology research at lIT Bombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kanchan

    2017-01-01

    Geochronology based on radiogenic isotopes has become an invaluable tool in earth sciences. Several radioactive parent-daughter systems of varying half-lives such as Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar have been traditionally used by researchers for determining the timing of geological and planetary processes. 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating, a variant of the K-Ar system, is a well-established and versatile method of determining the eruptive ages of volcanic rocks and the ∼150-500° C thermal histories of a variety of more slowly cooled igneous and metamorphic rocks. In the 40 Ar- 39 Ar method the sample is irradiated by fast neutrons in a nuclear reactor to convert some of 39 K into 39 Ar. The fixed natural ratio 39 K/ 40 K provides estimate for the parent 40 K by measuring 39 Ar. In order to know the conversion factor of 39 K to 39 Ar and to take care of other nuclear interfering reactions a sample of known K-Ar age is irradiated along with the unknown. The age of the unknown is then derived by comparison with the monitor sample of known age

  16. Ar-40/Ar-39 Studies of Martian Meteorite RBT 04262 and Terrestrial Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Turrin, B.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J. S.; Swisher, C. C., III; Nagao, K.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2014-01-01

    Park et al. recently presented an Ar-40/Ar-39 dating study of maskelynite separated from the Martian meteorite RBT 04262. Here we report an additional study of Ar-40/Ar-39 patterns for smaller samples, each consisting of only a few maskelynite grains. Considered as a material for Ar-40/Ar-39 dating, the shock-produced glass maskelynite has both an important strength (relatively high K concentration compared to other mineral phases) and some potentially problematic weaknesses. At Rutgers, we have been analyzing small grains consisting of a single phase to explore local effects that might be averaged and remain hidden in larger samples. Thus, to assess the homogeneity of the RBT maskelynite and for comparison with the results of, we analyzed six approx. 30 microgram samples of the same maskelynite separate they studied. Furthermore, because most Ar-40/Ar-39 are calculated relative to the age of a standard, we present new Ar-40/Ar-39 age data for six standards. Among the most widely used standards are sanidine from Fish Canyon (FCs) and various hornblendes (hb3gr, MMhb-1, NL- 25), which are taken as primary standards because their ages have been determined by independent, direct measurements of K and A-40.

  17. La violencia sexual como genocidio. Memoria de las mujeres mayas sobrevivientes de violación sexual durante el conflicto armado en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Fulchiron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este art culo es producto de la investigaci n/ acci n participativa llevada a cabo del 2005 al 2009 en el marco del proceso pol tico y social impulsado por Actoras de Cambio junto con 54 mujeres mayas de cuatro grupos tnicos distintos ?Q eqchi , Mam, Chuj, y Kaqchikel? sobrevivientes de violaci n sexual durante el con icto armado interno en Guatemala (1960-1996. En l analizamos el uso sistem tico y masivo de la violaci n sexual contra las mujeres mayas dentro del marco de la pol tica contrainsurgente en Guatemala, nombr ndolo y denunci ndolo como feminicidio y genocidio; evidenciamos c mo la violaci n sexual fue utilizada por el Estado para destruir la continuidad biol gica, social y cultural del pueblo maya a trav s del cuerpo de las mujeres. Adem s, demostramos la centralidad e intencionalidad pol tica de la violaci n sexual para someter y masacrar a las mujeres. El trabajo se estructur con base en una epistemolog a feminista articulada con la de la cosmovisi n maya. Ello implic poner en el centro de la investigaci n voces y experiencias silenciadas por la visi n androc ntrica y racista del mundo. Requiri , adem s, una voluntad colectiva de desvelar c mo se imbrican y sintetizan los diferentes sistemas de opresi n en el cuerpo de las mujeres mayas. Esta investigaci n da cuenta de una experiencia concreta y colectiva de memoria y sanaci n entre mujeres mayas, mestizas y europeas, que ha posibilitado rehabitar el cuerpo, la vida y la comunidad despu s de la violaci n sexual genocida desde un nuevo lugar justo, digno y libre para las mujeres.

  18. Los conjuntos palaciegos reales de las Tierras Bajas Mayas del sur: una evaluación de los datos arqueológicos e iconográficos Royal palace complexes in Southern Maya Lowlands: evaluating archaeological and iconographical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Delvendahl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo va a trazar algunas conclusiones de una evaluación de los aspectos físicos, espaciales, funcionales y sociales de los conjuntos palaciegos reales tomando en cuenta evidencia arqueológica e iconográfica. Para el componente iconográfico se analizaron representaciones de escenas palaciegas pintadas sobre 87 vasijas cilíndricas de cerámica, mientras que para el componente arqueológico se evaluó información de conjuntos palaciegos bien documentados como el Grupo Palaciego M7 de Aguateca, el Palacio de Palenque, Los 27 Escalones de Kohunlich, el Grupo 10L-2 de Copán, la Acrópolis Central de Tikal y el Grupo Gran Acrópolis de Calakmul. Uno de los objetivos generales de este trabajo es proporcionar un ejemplo de cómo se puede capitalizar la información que las escenas palaciegas proveen (al comparar el corpus iconográfico con el dato arqueológico. Esto permitiría plantear ideas más ajustadas sobre los aspectos físicos, espaciales, funcionales y sociales de los conjuntos palaciegos del Clásico Tardío en el área maya.This paper will present some conclusions of an evaluation of the physical, spatial, functional, and social aspects of Classic Maya royal palaces taking into account archaeological and iconographic evidence. For the iconographic evaluation, the analysis examined representations of palace-like ambience on 87 cylindrical ceramic vases, while the archaeological information includes data from the better documented palace groups of the Southern Maya Lowlands, including the Palace Group M7 of Aguateca, the Palace of Palenque, Los 27 Escalones of Kohunlich, Group 10L-2 of Copan, the Central Acropolis of Tikal and the Grand Acropolis Group of Calakmul. In comparing the iconographic corpus with the archaeological evidence, one of the general objectives of this presentation is to provide an example of how the information inherent in the palace scenes can be capitalized to propose more adjusted ideas about the

  19. Ars ornata / Kadri Mälk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälk, Kadri, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    V rahvusvaheline ehtekunsti konverents 'Ars ornata Europeana' juuni lõpus Stockholmis. New Yorgis elava kuraatori Charon Kranseni ja prantsuse ehtekunstniku Christophe Burger' juhitud vestlusringidest. 1997. a. Pariisis loodud International Craft Design Association'ist (ICDA).

  20. ARS 01 Helsingi Kiasmas / Tarmo Virki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Virki, Tarmo

    2001-01-01

    Helsingis Kiasmas avatud rahvusvahelisest kunstinäitusest ARS 01 alapealkirjaga "Avanevaid perspektiive", kus esines oma töödega ka Marko Mäetamm. Näituse raames toimuvast Santiago Sierra kunstiprojektist kodututega

  1. Combined hydrogen and carbon isotopes of plant waxes as an indicator of drought impacts on ancient Maya agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax δD, δ13C, and Δ14C analyses in two lake sediment cores from southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change. Plant-wax specific Δ14C ages indicate a large input of pre-aged plant waxes into lake sediment. Comparison of plant-wax δD records with other regional hydroclimate proxy records suggest that plant-wax ages are evenly distributed around plant-wax radiocarbon ages, and that applying an age model based on plant-wax radiocarbon ages is appropriate for these lake sediments. We evaluate how differences in plant-wax age distributions influence stable isotope records to assess the age uncertainty associated with records of climate and vegetation change derived from plant-wax stable isotopes. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax δ13C is largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δ13C would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analysis of plant-wax δD and δ13C from both lakes indicates increasingly divergent trends following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend to correspond with low plant-wax δ13C values and vice versa. This pattern is consistent with

  2. Análisis ambiental y económico de proyectos carreteros en la Selva Maya, un estudio a escala regional

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Burgués, Irene; Fleck, Leonardo; Manterola, Carlos; Reid, John

    2007-01-01

    Various road projects have been proposed in the border region of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize, which is part of the Maya Forest, the largest continuous forest in the Americas north of the Amazon. It is also part of the Mesoamerican biodiversity “hotspot,” one of the planet’s biologically richest zones. The Maya Forest is also known for its cultural and archeological riches, having been the cradle of Mayan civilization. The proposals for new road infrastructure are ostensibly aimed at spurring...

  3. Economía y política, factores de cambio en la sociedad clásica maya. Un acercamiento desde la perspectiva de Calakmul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alberto Mumary Farto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos del siglo XX cuando los estudios mayas no habían hecho nada más que comenzar, se desconocían las cuestiones políticas, económicas y militares que imperaban en la realidad del periodo Clásico. Hoy en día gracias a la arqueología y epigrafía podemos vislumbrar los cambios que se produjeron en la sociedad maya clásica así como la influencia y el papel que jugaron estos factores en su desarrollo

  4. Los usos sociales de la matemática en las ciencias prácticas de la cultura maya: un estudio socioepistemológico

    OpenAIRE

    Cantoral, Ricardo; Covián, Olda

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo plantea el estudio del conocimiento matemático de la cultura maya desde la aproximación socioepistemológica, ya que se aporta una visión diferente de las que suelen abordarse en la literatura: antropológica o etnográfica entre otras. Se plantea el estudio de prácticas sociales que se encuentran en la cultura maya y que son a la vez generadoras de conocimiento matemático.

  5. La violencia sexual como genocidio. Memoria de las mujeres mayas sobrevivientes de violación sexual durante el conflicto armado en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Amandine Fulchiron

    2016-01-01

    Este art culo es producto de la investigaci n/ acci n participativa llevada a cabo del 2005 al 2009 en el marco del proceso pol tico y social impulsado por Actoras de Cambio junto con 54 mujeres mayas de cuatro grupos tnicos distintos ?Q eqchi , Mam, Chuj, y Kaqchikel? sobrevivientes de violaci n sexual durante el con icto armado interno en Guatemala (1960-1996). En l analizamos el uso sistem tico y masivo de la violaci n sexual contra las mujeres mayas dentro del marco de la pol tica contr...

  6. Economía y política, factores de cambio en la sociedad clásica maya. Un acercamiento desde la perspectiva de Calakmul

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Alberto Mumary Farto

    2011-01-01

    A comienzos del siglo XX cuando los estudios mayas no habían hecho nada más que comenzar, se desconocían las cuestiones políticas, económicas y militares que imperaban en la realidad del periodo Clásico. Hoy en día gracias a la arqueología y epigrafía podemos vislumbrar los cambios que se produjeron en la sociedad maya clásica así como la influencia y el papel que jugaron estos factores en su desarrollo

  7. Vector analyzing power and cross section for the reactions 40Ar(d(pol),p)41Ar and 40Ar(d(pol),t)39Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Darden, S.E.; Yoh, W.A.; Berners, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    Angular distributions of vector analyzing power and cross section for the reactions 40 Ar(d,p) 41 Ar and 40 Ar(d,t) 39 Ar have been measured at an incident deuteron energy of 14.83 MeV. The bound-state data in the (d,p) reaction and the (d,t) data are compared to DWBA calculations. The data for the neutron-unbound states are analyzed in the framework of the DWBA using (i) a form factor for weakly bound neutron and (ii) a resonance form factor, following the approach of Vincent and Fortune. The j-dependence of the (d,p) vector analyzing power permits definite spin-parity assignments to be made for 19 neutron-bound and 4 neutron unbound states in 41 Ar with excitation energy up to 6.57 MeV. Tentative Jsup(π) assignments have been made for 3 states. The l-value for the 5.62 MeV states has been determined. Data for the observed unbound states are found to be equally well reproduced by the type (i) calculations as by the type (ii) calculations. The (d,t) vector cnalyzing power data show definite J-dependence although not as strongly as in the (d,p) reaction. For relatively weakly excited states a pre-knowledge of the l-value of the transition is desirable for an unambiguous spin assignment. In general, the J-dependence in the (d,t) vector analyzing power can be utilized for definitive Jsup(π) assignments. On this basis, Jsub(π) values have been assigned for seven states in 39 Ar with excitation energies up to 4.47MeV excitation. Possible spin values for three other states are suggested. Spectroscopic factors fo the states in 41 Ar and 39 Ar have been extracted and are in fair agreement with those obtained by other workers. (Auth.)

  8. Jumps in binomial AR(1) processes

    OpenAIRE

    Weiß , Christian H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We consider the binomial AR(1) model for serially dependent processes of binomial counts. After a review of its definition and known properties, we investigate marginal and serial properties of jumps in such processes. Based on these results, we propose the jumps control chart for monitoring a binomial AR(1) process. We show how to evaluate the performance of this control chart and give design recommendations. correspondance: Tel.: +49 931 31 84968; ...

  9. Evidence disputing deforestation as the cause for the collapse of the ancient Maya polity of Copan, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Cameron L.; Burney, David A.; Burney, Lida Pigott

    2009-01-01

    Archaeologists have proposed diverse hypotheses to explain the collapse of the southern Maya lowland cities between the 8th and 10th centuries A.D. Although it generally is believed that no single factor was responsible, a commonly accepted cause is environmental degradation as a product of large-scale deforestation. To date, the most compelling scientific evidence used to support this hypothesis comes from the archaeological site of Copan, Honduras, where the analysis of a sediment core suggested a dramatic increase in forest clearance in the Late Classic period (A.D. 600–900). By contrast, in the work presented here, the authors’ analysis of a longer sediment core demonstrates that forest cover increased from A.D. 400 to A.D. 900, with arboreal pollen accounting for 59.8–71.0% of the pollen assemblage by approximately A.D. 780–980. The highest levels of deforestation are found about 900 B.C. when, at its peak, herb pollen made up 89.8% of the assemblage. A second, although less pronounced, period of elevated deforestation peaked at approximately A.D. 400 when herb pollen reached 65.3% of the assemblage. The first deforestation event likely coincided with the widespread adoption of agriculture, a pattern found elsewhere in Mesoamerica. The second period of forest clearance probably was associated with the incursion of Maya speakers into the Copan Valley and their subsequent construction of the earliest levels of the Copan Acropolis. These results refute the former hypothesis that the ancient Maya responded to their increasingly large urban population by exhausting, rather than conserving, natural resources. PMID:20018691

  10. AR4VI: AR as an Accessibility Tool for People with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, James M; Miele, Joshua

    2017-10-01

    Although AR technology has been largely dominated by visual media, a number of AR tools using both visual and auditory feedback have been developed specifically to assist people with low vision or blindness - an application domain that we term Augmented Reality for Visual Impairment (AR4VI). We describe two AR4VI tools developed at Smith-Kettlewell, as well as a number of pre-existing examples. We emphasize that AR4VI is a powerful tool with the potential to remove or significantly reduce a range of accessibility barriers. Rather than being restricted to use by people with visual impairments, AR4VI is a compelling universal design approach offering benefits for mainstream applications as well.

  11. DIALECTIC READING OF FREEDOM AND IMPRISONMENT IN MAYA ANGELOU‟S POEM I KNOW WHY THE CAGED BIRD SINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ikhwan Rosyidi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the dialectic reading of freedom and, in opposite, an imprisonment as hypogram in Maya Angelou‘s Poem I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. The method applied for reading this poem will be semiotic approach which is developed by Riffaterre (1984. The result of this study will be the semiotic reading which describes the heuristic reading of this poem by defining dictionary meaning of words, phrases, clauses in the poem and hermeneutic reading by defining the matrix, model, and potential hypogram that reflected on the dialectic of freedom and imprisonment by Black people in America.

  12. DIALECTIC READING OF FREEDOM AND IMPRISONMENT IN MAYA ANGELOU‟S POEM I KNOW WHY THE CAGED BIRD SINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Ikhwan Rosyidi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the dialectic reading of freedom and, in opposite, an imprisonment as hypogram in Maya Angelou‘s Poem I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. The method applied for reading this poem will be semiotic approach which is developed by Riffaterre (1984). The result of this study will be the semiotic reading which describes the heuristic reading of this poem by defining dictionary meaning of words, phrases, clauses in the poem and hermeneutic reading by defining the ma...

  13. Resistencia indígena y discursos racistas: una lectura biopolítica de los mayas yucatecos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Álvarez Cuartero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article I propose to analyse the history of Yucatec Maya people from a biopolitical perspective. I study two periods of great importance in Mayan history: first, during the colonial period, the politics of population control and the peculiar geography of Yucatan guide us to explain how the colony was settled there; while the second part discusses the lack of instability of Mayan Indians during Independence, the indigenous resistance that will eventually lead to the 1847 Caste War and its consequence: the sale of Mayan Indians as slaves to Cuba as an alternative to eliminate Indian rebels and to create an imagined nation of Yucatan.

  14. Buenos Aires y salta en rito cívico: la revolución y las fiestas mayas

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Garavaglia

    2002-01-01

    El articulo es una relectura de los acontecimientos de los primeros años postrevolucionarios en el Plata. Centrado en las fiestas mayas, las analiza como uno de los elementos claves en la constitución de nuevas formas de imaginar la experiencia política iniciada en 1810. La comparación entre Buenos Aires y Salta, permite mostrar algunas de diferencias en las maneras de vivir estas fiestas "revolucionarias"; esas diferencias reflejan por supuesto realidades sociales y culturales...

  15. Buenos Aires y salta en rito cívico: la revolución y las fiestas mayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Garavaglia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El articulo es una relectura de los acontecimientos de los primeros años postrevolucionarios en el Plata. Centrado en las fiestas mayas, las analiza como uno de los elementos claves en la constitución de nuevas formas de imaginar la experiencia política iniciada en 1810. La comparación entre Buenos Aires y Salta, permite mostrar algunas de diferencias en las maneras de vivir estas fiestas "revolucionarias"; esas diferencias reflejan por supuesto realidades sociales y culturales bastante contrastadas.

  16. Impacto de las estrategias de ingresos sobre la seguridad alimentaria en comunidades rurales Mayas del norte de Campeche

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Fernández, Lucio A; Nahed Toral, José; Parra Vázquez, Manuel R; García Barrios, Luis; Nazar Beutelspacher, Austreberta; Bello Baltazar, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se examina el efecto de las estrategias de ingresos sobre la suficiencia de consumo calórico en grupos domésticos (GD) mayas de Campeche, México. El análisis se basó en el enfoque de modos de vida y la información se obtuvo de una encuesta censal de hogares (N=237) en cuatro comunidades. Los resultados revelan que todos los GD tienen una estrategia de ingreso diversificada con una orientación claramente definida. El índice de seguridad calórica (ISC) es diferente (p

  17. Dal mondo dell’arte al regno delle ombre (e ritorno. Arthur Danto, Maya Lin e la bellezza interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Fimiani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthur Danto asserts that Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington embodies the rhetoric paradigm of internal beauty’s meaning. However, the relationship to the Kant’s pulchritudo adhaerens is not an easy one: Danto’s recalls against the self-referent formalism of Greenberg’s Modernism and his tacit issues about the environmental non-monumentality of Richard Serra’s Minimalism, are, most importantly, haunted by the unquestioned spectral logic of the image embodiment. The beholders’ reflecting shape on the funeral Wall is, finally, both a pathetic index and a medial incarnation (Verkörperung of the underworld.

  18. The effects of acid treatment and sample preparation on 40Ar/39Ar ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.; Davidheiser, B.; Kuiper, K.; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Practitioners of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology regularly use dilute acids (typically 5-10% hydrofluoric acid (HF)) to clean mineral grains prior to irradiation (in the case of 40Ar/39Ar), and analysis (e.g. Evernden and Curtis, 1965; Dalrymple, 1967). This treatment has been shown to reduce contamination from atmospheric Ar, which consists largely of 40Ar and thus must be differentiated from radiogenic 40Ar* (Evernden and Curtis, 1965). Acid treatments can also remove fine grained material attached to mineral grains, such as glass shards or devitrified glass, which can affect analyses and is difficult to remove by other means (Evernden and Curtis, 1965). Such treatments were originally examined for their efficacy in reducing atmospheric argon contamination (Dalrymple, 1967) but were not assessed for the possibility of leaching Ar* or K differentially, which would affect both K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Indeed, Evernden and Curtis (1965) state that they are simply removing the "outer portions of the crystals" and apparently do not account for the potential for leaching of 40Ar* or K from the mass of their host mineral. Moreover, the capabilities of the K-Ar system in the 1960s was limited to a precision of ca. 3-4% on samples of 1-3 Ma (Cox and Dalrymple, 1967). Effects of smaller magnitude could not have been detected at the time. As the developments of the 40Ar/39Ar system and modern mass spectrometer technology have allowed for precision to approach 0.1%, the potential effects of acid treatment during sample preparation warrant revisiting. Additionally, the use of Calgon for sample disintegration has not previously been quantitatively assessed but is used extensively in some laboratories. Here we present a series of experiments from co-irradiated Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) and Mes-4 (Kuiper et al., 2008). FCs is used as the mineral standard following standard procedures. Mes-4 splits were treated with H2O (10 minutes, ultrasonic), Calgon (10%, overnight at 50

  19. Age measurements of potassium-bearing sulfide minerals by the 40Ar/39Ar technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czamanske, G.K.; Lanphere, M.A.; Erd, R.C.; Blake, M.C. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    K-Ar ages have been determined for sulfide minerals for the first time. The occurrence of adequate amounts of potassium-bearing sulfides with ideal compositions K 3 Fe 10 S 14 (approximately 10 wt.% K) and KFe 2 S 3 (approximately 16 wt.% K) in samples from a mafic alkalic diatreme at Coyote Peak, California, prompted an attempt to date these materials. K 3 Fe 10 S 14 , a massive mineral with conchoidal fracture, gives an age of 29.4 +- 0.5 m.y. ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar), indistinguishable from the 28.3 +- 0.4 m.y. ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar) and 30.2 +- 1.0 m.y. (conventional K-Ar) ages obtained for associated phlogopite (8.7 wt.% K). KFe 2 S 3 , a bladed, fibrous sulfide, gives a younger age, 26.5 +- 0.5 m.y. ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar), presumably owing to Ar loss. (Auth.)

  20. Geochronology and thermochronology by the sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)); Harrison, T.M. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (USA))

    1988-01-01

    This work is a response to the authors' belief that there is a need for a monograph on {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating to provide concise knowledge concerning the application of this method to geological studies. They aim to provide a reasonably comprehensive but by no means exhaustive coverage of the principles and practices of {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar dating, with emphasis on interpretation of results. In attempting to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge, they commonly cite examples from the available literature. They draw rather heavily upon their own work, because they feel comfortable with their own examples. (author).

  1. 40Ar/39Ar age and thermal history of the Kirin chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; McDougall, I.; Tetley, N.; Harrison, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Kirin meteorite, a large (> 2800 kg) H5 chondrite, fell in Kirin Province, China in 1976. A sample from each of the two largest fragments (K-1. K-2) yield 40 Ar/ 39 Ar total fusion ages of 3.63 +- 0.02 b.y. and 2.78 +- 0.02 b.y. respectively. 40 Ar/ 40 Ar age spectra show typical diffusional argon loss profiles. Maximum apparent ages of 4.36 b.y. (K-1) and approx. 4.0 b.y. (K-2) are interpreted as possible minimum estimates for the age of crystallization of the parent body. (orig./ME)

  2. Modern ve Postmodern Değerlerin Yabancılaşmaya Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ŞAYLIKAY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bilindiği üzere, yabancılaşma, kişinin kendi benliğinden, çevresinden ve sosyalyaşamdan uzaklaşarak bu kavramların etkisi altına girmek olarak tanımlanabilir. Buyönüyle yabancılaşma, sendikalaşmaya hizmet etmesi açısından son derece önemlidir.Diğer taraftan modern ve post modern değerlerin sendikalaşmaya etkisi ise, bireyin belirlibir sendikayla özdeşleşmesi, sendikaya bağlılığı ve kendini adamasıdır. „‟Modernizationand postmodernization: Cultural, economic and political change in 43 societies„‟ adlıçalışmasıyla, Inglehart (1997, „‟Post modern Values in Seven Confucian Societies:Political Consequences of Changing World Views‟‟ adlı çalışmasıyla Wang(2007 ve ‘’Alienation and freedom: The factory worker and his industry.‟‟ adlı çalışmasıyla Blauner(1964 modern - post modern değerler ve yabancılaşma kavramlarına ilişkin literatüre katkısağlamışlardır. Bu çalışmada, sendika üyesi işçilere yönelik söz konusu değişkenlerarasındaki ilişki ve ilişkinin boyutu araştırılmaktadır. Çalışma sayesinde sendika üyelerininsahip oldukları modern ve post modern değerlerinin sosyal yaşama etkileri ve yabancılaşmaboyutlarına göstermiş olduğu tutum ve davranışlar ortaya koyularak sonuçlarıpaylaşılmıştır. Bu bağlamda, çalışmanın temel amacı, sendika üyeleri temelinde, ilişki veetkiler bakımından modern ve post modern değerlerin yabancılaşma ile ilişkisini ele alıp,sendika üyelerinin “yabancılaşma” davranışında bulunma algılarını yapılan araştırmabulgularıyla ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmada, birincil veri toplama yöntemlerinden yüz yüzeanket yöntemi gerçekleştirilmiş ve modern-post modern değerler için, Inglehart‟ın(1997,Fries ve arkadaşları (2007 ve Wang (2007 tarafından geliştirilen modernizm-postmodernizm ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Yabancılaşma ölçeği olarak Blauner‟s (1964 taraf

  3. Quantifying Ancient Maya Land Use Legacy Effects on Contemporary Rainforest Canopy Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N. Hightower

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human land use legacies have significant and long-lasting ecological impacts across landscapes. Investigating ancient (>400 years legacy effects can be problematic due to the difficulty in detecting specific, historic land uses, especially those hidden beneath dense canopies. Caracol, the largest (~200 km2 Maya archaeological site in Belize, was abandoned ca. A.D. 900, leaving behind myriad structures, causeways, and an extensive network of agricultural terraces that persist beneath the architecturally complex tropical forest canopy. Airborne LiDAR enables the detection of these below-canopy archaeological features while simultaneously providing a detailed record of the aboveground 3-dimensional canopy organization, which is indicative of a forest’s ecological function. Here, this remote sensing technology is used to determine the effects of ancient land use legacies on contemporary forest structure. Canopy morphology was assessed by extracting LiDAR point clouds (0.25 ha plots from LiDAR-identified terraced (n = 150 and non-terraced (n = 150 areas on low (0°–10°, medium (10°–20°, and high (>20° slopes. We calculated the average canopy height, canopy openness, and vertical diversity from the LiDAR returns, with topographic features (i.e., slope, elevation, and aspect as covariates. Using a PerMANOVA procedure, we determined that forests growing on agricultural terraces exhibited significantly different canopy structure from those growing on non-terraced land. Terraces appear to mediate the effect of slope, resulting in less structural variation between slope and non-sloped land and yielding taller, more closed, more vertically diverse forests. These human land uses abandoned >1000 years ago continue to impact contemporary tropical rainforests having implications related to arboreal habitat and carbon storage.

  4. Effects of late Holocene climate variability and anthropogenic stressors on the vegetation of the Maya highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Gaviria, F.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Cordero-Oviedo, C.; López-Pérez, M.; Cárdenes-Sandí, G. M.; Romero, F. M.

    2018-06-01

    Climate variability and human activities have shaped the vegetation communities of the Maya region of southern Mexico and Central America on centennial to millennial timescales. Most research efforts in the region have focused on the lowlands, with relatively little known about the environmental history of the regional highlands. Here we present data from two sediment sequences collected from lakes in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Our aim was to disentangle the relative contributions of climate and human activities in the development of regional vegetation during the late Holocene. The records reveal a long-term trend towards drier conditions with superimposed centennial-scale droughts. A declining moisture trend from 3400 to 1500 cal yr BP is consistent with previously reported southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, whereas periodic droughts were probably a consequence of drivers such as El Niño. These conditions, together with dense human occupation, converted the vegetation from forest to more open systems. According to the paleoecological records, cultural abandonment of the area occurred ca. 1500 cal yr BP, favoring forest recovery that was somewhat limited by low moisture availability. About 600 cal yr BP, wetter conditions promoted the establishment of modern montane cloud forests, which consist of a diverse mixture of temperate and tropical elements. The vegetation types that occupied the study area during the last few millennia have remained within the envelope defined by the modern vegetation mosaic. This finding highlights the importance of microhabitats in the maintenance biodiversity through time, even under scenarios of high climate variability and anthropogenic pressure.

  5. Lacandon Maya ecosystem management: sustainable design for subsistence and environmental restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemont, Stewart A W; Martin, Jay F

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous groups have designed and managed their ecosystems for generations, resulting in biodiversity protection while producing for their family's needs. Here we describe the agroecosystem of the Lacandon Maya, an indigenous group who live in Chiapas, Mexico. The Lacandon practice a form of swidden agriculture that conserves the surrounding rain forest ecosystem while cycling the majority of their land through five successional stages. These stages include an herbaceous stage, two shrub stages, and two forest stages. A portion of their land is kept in primary forest. This study presents the Lacandon traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) for agroforestry and quantitatively describes the plant community and the associated soil ecology of each successional stage. Also documented is the knowledge of the Lacandon regarding the immediate use of plant species and plant species useful for soil fertility enhancement. Woody plant diversity increases during the successional stages of the Lacandon system, and by the beginning of the first forest stage, the diversity is similar to that of the primary forest. In all stages, Lacandon use 60% of the available plant species for food, medicine, and raw materials. Approximately 45% of the woody plant species present in each fallow stage were thought by the Lacandon to enhance soil fertility. Total soil nitrogen and soil organic matter increased with successional stage and with time from intentional burn. Nutrient and soil nematode dynamics in shrub stages related to the presence of introduced and managed plants, indicating engineered soil enhancement by the Lacandon. The effects on biodiversity and soil ecology coupled with productivity for agricultural subsistence indicate that Lacandon TEK may offer tools for environmental conservation that would provide for a family's basic needs while maintaining a biodiverse rain forest ecosystem. Tools such as these may offer options for regional restoration and conservation efforts such as

  6. On the doubly ionized states of Ar2 and their intra- and interatomic decay to Ar23+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoychev, Spas D.; Kuleff, Alexander I.; Tarantelli, Francesco; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2008-01-01

    Potential energy curves of the Auger state Ar + (2p -1 )-Ar, the different one- and two-site dicationic states Ar 2 ++ (with energies in the range of 32-77 eV), and the lowest two-site tricationic states Ar ++ -Ar + (with energies in the range of 64-76 eV) computed using elaborated ab initio methods are reported. The accessible relaxation channels of the electronic states of Ar ++ -Ar populated by Auger decay are studied. In particular, we study in detail the interatomic Coulombic decay following the population of one-site satellite states of Ar ++ (3s -1 3p -1 )-Ar recently observed experimentally. Other relaxation pathways of Ar ++ -Ar, including radiative charge transfer, nuclear dynamics through curve crossing, and intra-atomic decay processes are also investigated

  7. Maya Lime Mortars—Relationship between Archaeomagnetic Dating, Manufacturing Technique, and Architectural Function—The Dzibanché Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Straulino Mainou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have related the manufacturing technique of plasters and stucco in the Maya area with their period of production but not with their architectural function. In this paper, we establish a relationship between those three features (manufacturing technique, age, and architectural function in the plasters of the Maya site of Dzibanché in southern Quintana Roo. Dzibanché has abundant remains of stuccos and plasters found mainly in three buildings (Plaza Pom, Pequeña Acrópolis, and Structure 2. We used thin sections, SEM and XRD, and archaeomagnetic dating processes. The pictorial layer of Structure 2 was the earliest (AD 274–316 and the stuccoes and plasters of the other two buildings were dated to the Middle Classic (AD 422–531, but we obtained different archaeomagnetic dates for the red pigment layers found in the buildings of the Pequeña Acrópolis and thus we were able to determine their chronological order of construction. The raw materials and proportions were carefully chosen to fulfil the mechanical necessities of the architectonic function: different proportions were found in plasters of floors, in the external walls, and inside the buildings; differences between earlier and later plasters were also detected.

  8. Archaeometric study of ceramic figurines from the Maya settlement of La Blanca (Petén, Guatemala)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horcajada, P.; Roldán, C.; Vidal, C.; Rodenas, I.; Carballo, J.; Murcia, S.; Juanes, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, analytical results will be presented and discussed regarding a selected set of figurines from the ancient Maya settlement of La Blanca in Petén, Guatemala. The objective is to characterize the ceramic material by two analytical complementary techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The data obtained by means of both XRD and TXRF were compared and analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques in order to obtain sample groups according to their chemical composition. The results of this archaeometric study have been compared to those that have been obtained through macroscopic characterization by means of the traditional classification system know as Type-Variety. Discordances have been found between the clusters obtained by the Type-Variety classification system and the multivariate classification procedures performed on analytical data. - Highlights: • TXRF and XRD analysis are used in studies of Maya figurines from La Blanca settlement (Guatemala). • Multivariate classification procedures were performed on analytical data to identify figurine groups. • Clustering of analytical data is compared with the traditional Type-Variety classification system

  9. Criticisms of chlorination: social determinants of drinking water beliefs and practices among the Tz'utujil Maya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Valeggia, Claudia R; Smith, Nathaniel W; Barg, Frances K; Guidera, Mamie; Bream, Kent D W

    2011-01-01

    To explore social determinants of drinking water beliefs and practices among the Tz'utujil Maya of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala, through analysis of demographics, socioeconomic status, memory of historical events, sensory experience, and water attitudes. Parallel mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methods, including participant observation, in-depth interviews based on a purposive sample, and 201 semi-structured interviews based on a regional quota sample, were used to collect data from March 2007 to August 2008. Data analysis included the use of grounded theory methodology and Pearson's chi-square test for independence. Qualitative results based on grounded theory highlighted how memory of the Guatemalan Civil War and Hurricane Stan, attitudes about Lake Atitlán water, and the taste and smell of chlorine influenced Tz'utujil Maya drinking water beliefs. Quantitative survey results revealed that differences in ethnicity, literacy, years of schooling, distrust of the water supply during the Civil War and Hurricane Stan, and current beliefs about Lake Atitlán and tap water quality were associated with significantly different water self-treatment practices. In accordance with social determinants of health paradigms, demographic, socioeconomic, social, cultural, political, and historical factors continue to be significant determinants of water-related health. Public health water interventions must address inequalities related to these underlying factors in order to achieve maximum effectiveness.

  10. Intelectuales Indígenas y Literaturas en México. El campo literario entre los zapotecas y los mayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria Lepe Lira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora la conformación del campo intelectual en la literatura zapoteca del istmo de Tehuantepec y la literatura maya de la Península de Yucatán. A través del concepto de campo intelectual de Pierre Bordieu (2002 y bajo la premisa de que hay tantos campos literarios como literaturas indígenas, se evidencia que estos espacios de poder simbólico están condicionados por elementos socioculturales y políticos que van desde la alfabetización y uso de la escritura en las lenguas indígenas hasta la función de los intelectuales en las redes locales y nacionales. En la literatura zapoteca se indican las estrategias de la generación de Andrés Henestrosa, la relación entre la COCEI y la Casa de Cultura de Juchitán, y los vínculos que sostienen los intelectuales de la región con otros intelectuales de la esfera nacional. Para la literatura maya yucateca se reflexiona sobre la generación de talleres literarios como el principal motor de la nueva literatura maya, tanto desde las instancias gubernamentales como desde las asociaciones civiles y grupos gestionados por los intelectuales mayas. Palabras- clave: intelectuales indígenas, campo intelectual, literatura zapoteca, literatura maya Indigenous Intellectuals and Literatures in Mexico. The Literary Field Between the Zapotecs and the Maya Abstract The present paper explores the conformation of the intellectual field in the Zapotec literature of the Istmhus of Tehuantepec and in the Mayan literature of the Yucatán Peninsula. Through the concept of intellectual field by Pierre Bordieu (2002 and under the premise that there are as many literary fields as indigenous literatures, this paper emphasizes the fact that these spaces of symbolic power and conditioned by sociocultural and political elements ranging from literacy and the use of writing in indigenous languages to the role of intellectuals in local and national networks. In the case of the Zapotec literature the focus lies

  11. Two new species of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from Octopus maya Voss & Solis-Ramirez (Octopodidae) off Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Martinez, Sheila; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2016-07-01

    Two new dicyemid species are described from the endemic cephalopod Octopus maya Voss & Solis-Ramirez collected off Yucatan, Mexico. The renal sacs of 40 juvenile and adult octopuses from four localities were examined. Dicyema hochbergi n. sp. is a medium-sized species that reaches 2,245 µm in length. The vermiform stages consist of 18-24 peripheral cells, a conical calotte and the extension of the axial cell between the base and middle of the metapolar cells. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells with urn cell containing one germinal cell, two nuclei and solid refringent bodies. Dicyema mexcayae n. sp. is a relatively small species that reaches 1,114 µm in length. The vermiform stages are constituted by 14-16 peripheral cells, an elongate calotte and the axial cell extending forward to the middle of the metapolar cells. The infusoriform embryos consist of 37 cells, two solid refringent bodies and urn cells with two nuclei each. The present study represents the first description of a dicyemid species from O. maya and increases the number of described species from Mexican waters to 11.

  12. Agrodiversidad y nutrición en Yucatán: una mirada al mundo maya rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Becerril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso y aprovechamiento de la agrodiversidad dan continuidad de facto a la conservación de la diversidad genética in situ y a su conocimiento, y generan externalidades positivas en términos de bienestar nutricional. En las áreas rurales de Yucatán, siete de cada diez hombres y mujeres adultos presentan sobrepeso, y veinte de cada cien infantes tienen talla baja, lo que se traduce en un problema dual de salud pública, que aminora el desarrollo rural. En el artículo se analiza la paradoja entre la disponibilidad de diversidad agrícola amplia y el sobrepeso en 390 hogares, en 20 localidades rurales, en las siete regiones de Yucatán. Los hallazgos revelan que las mujeres adultas son las más propensas a la obesidad, pero la condición maya (hablar lengua maya e identificarse como tal, además de mantener usos y costumbres de la cultura sugiere una reducción en el índice de sobrepeso y obesidad, lo que se puede argumentar se debe a los usos y costumbres en el consumo y gestión de la agrodiversidad.

  13. Beyond the Law of Transitivity:A Functional Stylistic Study of Maya Angelou's I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthanna Makki Muhammed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The dominant critical focus on Maya Angelou’s writings has been on the thematic features of her texts. Linguistic and stylistic appraisals on her works are generally sparse. This paper is a stylistic study of Maya Angelou’s autobiographical novel I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. It aims at examining the stylistic features of the text vis-à-vis the semantic Law of Transitivity so as to investigate the features that contribute in the discourse’s trespassing the sphere of informing to the sphere of interaction and influence. The paper starts with brief notes on stylistics in relation to semantics. This is followed by a discussion of the Law of Transitivity, frequent references are made to John R. Searle’s patterns of metaphor. The varied forms of the relations between the signified or the source (the vehicle and the signifier or the target (the tenor in relation to the sign (the common ground are discussed in the light of the figurative devices employed by the author and the functions achieved in revealing the ideological issues of race and gender in the book. The study attempts also at positioning the formal and psychological elements within a sociocultural context in order to promote the reader’s understanding of the purposes and functions to which certain linguistic choices are made.

  14. Classical treatment of Li2++Ar and He2++Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, A; Illescas, Clara; Pons, B

    2015-01-01

    Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo calculations are carried out for Li 2+ +Ar and He 2+ +Ar collisions, motivated by recent experiments on these systems. Cross sections for electron capture, projectile electron loss and target multiple ionization processes are evaluated and compared to the experimental values in the 75-500 keV/amy impact energy range. (paper)

  15. A refined astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar age for Fish Canyon sanidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, T.A.; Storey, M.; Zeeden, C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Kuiper, K.

    2011-01-01

    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the FishCanyon sanidine (FCs) neutron fluence monitor,

  16. AR copy number and AR signaling-directed therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Samanta; Conteduca, Vincenza; Lolli, Cristian; Testoni, Sara; Casadio, Valentina; Zaccheroni, Andrea; Rossi, Lorena; Burgio, Salvatore Luca; Menna, Cecilia; Schepisi, Giuseppe; De Giorgi, Ugo

    2017-11-22

    Adaptive upregulation of androgen receptor (AR) is the most common event involved in the progression from hormone sensitive to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). AR signaling remains the main target of new AR signalling-directed therapies such as abiraterone and enzalutamide in CRPC patients. In this review, we discuss general mechanisms of resistance to AR-targeted therapies, with a focus on the role of AR copy number (CN). We reported methods and clinical applications of AR CN evaluation in tissue and liquid biopsy, thus to have a complete information regarding its role as predictive and prognostic biomarker. Outcomes of CRPC patients are reported to be highly variable as consequence of tumor heterogeneity. AR CN could contribute to patient selection and tumor monitoring in CRPC treated with new anti-cancer treatment as abiraterone and enzalutamide. Further studies to investigate AR CN effect to these agents and its potential combination with other prognostic or predictive clinical factors are necessary in the context of harmonized clinical trial design. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Support for the Astronomically Calibrated 40Ar/39Ar Age of Fish Canyon Sanidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Zeeden, Christian

    2011-01-01

    al. (2008) determined an astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar age of 28.201 0.046 Ma (2), relative to the indirect astronomically tuned Moroccan Melilla Basin Messâdit section. Here, we provide independent verification for the Kuiper, et al. (2008) FCs age using sanidines extracted from the A1 tephra...

  18. Will America Fall Apart Like the Maya? Grade 7 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David

    If a civilization as powerful and technologically advanced during its time as the Maya could disappear, can the same tragic outcome befall the United States? In this lesson, students work in teams to research the ancient Mayan civilization, specifically the circumstances of its demise. Student teams prepare a report of their findings and recommend…

  19. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F; Steadman, David W; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

    2012-01-01

    Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

  20. Baicalein suppresses the androgen receptor (AR)-mediated prostate cancer progression via inhibiting the AR N-C dimerization and AR-coactivators interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Defeng; Chen, Qiulu; Liu, Yalin; Wen, Xingqiao

    2017-12-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Androgen deprivation therapy with antiandrogens to reduce androgen biosynthesis or prevent androgens from binding to AR are widely used to suppress AR-mediated PCa growth. However, most of ADT may eventually fail with development of the castration resistance after 12-24 months. Here we found that a natural product baicalein can effectively suppress the PCa progression via targeting the androgen-induced AR transactivation with little effect to AR protein expression. PCa cells including LNCaP, CWR22Rv1, C4-2, PC-3, and DU145, were treated with baicalein and luciferase assay was used to evaluate their effect on the AR transactivation. Cell growth and IC 50 were determined by MTT assay after 48 hrs treatment. RT-PCR was used to evaluate the mRNA levels of AR target genes including PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1. Western blot was used to determine AR and PSA protein expression. The natural product of baicalein can selectively inhibit AR transactivation with little effect on the other nuclear receptors, including ERα, and GR. At a low concentration, 2.5 μM of baicalein effectively suppresses the growth of AR-positive PCa cells, and has little effect on AR-negative PCa cells. Mechanism dissection suggest that baicalein can suppress AR target genes (PSA, TMPRSS2, and TMEPA1) expression in both androgen responsive LNCaP cells and castration resistant CWR22Rv1 cells, that may involve the inhibiting the AR N/C dimerization and AR-coactivators interaction. Baicalein may be developed as an effective anti-AR therapy via its ability to inhibit AR transactivation and AR-mediated PCa cell growth.

  1. Ethnomedical research and review of Q'eqchi Maya women's reproductive health in the Lake Izabal region of Guatemala: Past, present and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Joanna L; Caceres, Armando; Mahady, Gail B

    2016-02-03

    In Central America, most Maya women use ethnomedicines for all aspects of their reproductive cycle including menstruation, pregnancy and menopause. However, very few of these plants have been documented, collected and tested in appropriate pharmacological assays to determine possible safety and efficacy. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of information on the ethnomedical uses, ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacological research for medicinal plants used for women's reproductive health in Guatemala, with a special emphasis on the Q'eqchi Maya of the Lake Izabal region, to demonstrate therapeutic potential and support future research in the field. Reviews of the ethnobotanical, ethnomedical and ethnopharmacological literature were performed for 30 plants collected in the Lake Izabal region of Guatemala and used by the Q'eqchi Maya for treatment of reproductive health issues were performed up to and including July 2015 using multiple databases, library searches for abstracts, books, dissertations, and websites. Review of the published research confirms that many of the plants used by Q'eqchi Maya women for the management of reproductive health issues have pharmacological activities, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic, progestagenic and/or serotonergic effects, that support the use of these plants and provide plausible mechanisms of action for their traditional uses. Furthermore, a new serotonin agonist, 9, 10-methylenedioxy-5, 6-Z-fadyenolide was isolated, thereby demonstrating an untapped potential for drug discovery. However, to date much of the pharmacological assays have been in vitro only, and few in vivo studies have been performed. Considering the large percentage of the Maya population in Guatemala that use traditional medicines, there remains a significant lack of pharmacological and toxicological data for these plants. Future research should focus on the safety and efficacy of medicinal plants using in vivo preclinical

  2. Ar-41 measurements and nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, J.J.; Rodriguez, M.; Ugarte, R.; Vigile, R.S.; Boutet, L.I.; Jordan, O.D.; Hernandez, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    During the early phase of an emergency is necessary to confirm the release of radioactivity predictions made by the operator of the nuclear plant. In this context, it has begun measuring Ar-41 in the vicinity of a research reactor. Since the Ar-41 is produced in the reactor, it has been studied as a good way to validate the air dispersion model used in nuclear emergencies and to develop a method to improve the characterization of the release. For this latter purpose a pilot experiment was conducted to determine computational and experimental methods, the flux of 1.29 MeV of Ar-41 and compared to evaluate the accuracy of the assessments made. This paper describes meteorological forecasting systems used in the experiment, the estimate of the stability class and the concentration of nuclides using a calculation code developed by the ARN, as well as the methodology and equipment used for measurement in the field. (authors) [es

  3. AR(p) -based detrended fluctuation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Rodriguez, E.

    2018-07-01

    Autoregressive models are commonly used for modeling time-series from nature, economics and finance. This work explored simple autoregressive AR(p) models to remove long-term trends in detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Crude oil prices and bitcoin exchange rate were considered, with the former corresponding to a mature market and the latter to an emergent market. Results showed that AR(p) -based DFA performs similar to traditional DFA. However, the former DFA provides information on stability of long-term trends, which is valuable for understanding and quantifying the dynamics of complex time series from financial systems.

  4. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton. Bray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Community forests and protected areas have each been proposed as strategies to stop deforestation. These management strategies should be regarded as hypotheses to be evaluated for their effectiveness in particular places. We evaluated the community-forestry hypothesis and the protected-area hypothesis in community forests with commercial timber production and strict protected areas in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and Mexico. From land-use and land cover change (LUCC maps derived from satellite images, we compared deforestation in 19 community forests and 11 protected areas in both countries in varying periods from 1988 to 2005. Deforestation rates were higher in protected areas than in community forests, but the differences were not significant. An analysis of human presence showed similar deforestation rates in inhabited protected areas and recently inhabited community forests, but the differences were not significant. There was also no significant difference in deforestation between uninhabited protected areas, uninhabited community forests, and long-inhabited community forests. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the factors correlated with deforestation varied by country. Distance to human settlements, seasonal wetlands, and degree and length of human residence were significant in Guatemala, and distance to previous deforestation and tropical semideciduous forest were significant in Mexico. Varying contexts and especially colonization histories are highlighted as likely factors that influence different outcomes. Poorly governed protected areas perform no better as a conservation strategy than poorly governed community forests with recent colonists in active colonization fronts. Long-inhabited extractive communities perform as well as uninhabited strict protected areas under low colonization pressure. A review of costs and benefits suggests that community forests may generate more local income with lower costs. Small sample sizes

  5. 40Ar/36Ar in MORB glasses: Constraints on atmosphere and mantle evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarda, P.; Staudacher, T.; Allegre, C.J.; Paris-7 Univ., 75

    1985-01-01

    Argon isotopic composition measurements of MORB glassy samples from the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans are performed. There is a very large scatter in the 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio, from 980 up to 24,400 for bulk rock analyses, which is mainly due to atmospheric contamination: Using the stepwise heating technique, very high ratios are obtained, from 15,000 up to 25,250 which is the highest 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio ever measured in MORB. We establish a negative correlation between the highest 40 Ar/ 36 Ar results from stepwise heating and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, which is perfectly consistent with a two-layered mantle structure. From both 40 Ar and 129 Xe MORB systematics a model is proposed for the kinetics of degassing: a very early and extensive burst, with a time constant of approx.= 4 My, is followed by a slower process of present day type, with a time constant of approx.= 0.5 Gy. The mean age of the atmosphere is so determined to be around 4.4 Gy. (orig./WB)

  6. Electron impact ionization of Ar8+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defrance, P.; Rachafi, S.; Jureta, J.; Meyer, F.; Chantrenne, S.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute electron impact ionization cross-sections have been measured for the Neon-like Ar 8+ in the energy range from below the threshold for the metastable state to 2500 eV. No contribution of metastable states is observed. The results are well reproduced by the Distorted Wave Born Approximation. 12 refs., 1 fig

  7. 75 FR 7637 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12031 and 12032] Arkansas Disaster AR-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Arkansas dated 02/10/2010. Incident: Severe Storms and...

  8. 76 FR 42155 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00051

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12680 and 12681] Arkansas Disaster AR-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 4000-DR), dated 07...

  9. 75 FR 7636 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12034 and 12035] Arkansas Disaster AR-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-- 1872--DR), dated...

  10. 76 FR 42154 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12678 and 12679] Arkansas Disaster AR-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-4000-DR), dated 07/08/2011. Incident: Severe...

  11. 75 FR 30872 - Arkansas Disaster # AR-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12196 and 12197] Arkansas Disaster AR-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Arkansas dated 05/26/2010. Incident: Severe storms, tornadoes and...

  12. 78 FR 39821 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00064

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13637 and 13638] Arkansas Disaster AR-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 4124-DR), dated 06...

  13. 76 FR 27140 - Arkansas Disaster # AR-00049

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12562 and 12563] Arkansas Disaster AR-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 1975-DR), dated 05...

  14. 78 FR 9448 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13473 and 13474] Arkansas Disaster AR-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Arkansas (FEMA- 4100-DR), dated 01...

  15. 76 FR 27139 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00048

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12560 and 12561] Arkansas Disaster AR-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-1975-DR), dated 05/02/2011. Incident: Severe...

  16. "ARS 01", perspektiivide avamine / Helen Kivisoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivisoo, Helen

    2001-01-01

    30. IX 2001-20. I 2002 Kiasmas kuuendat korda toimuvast rahvusvahelisest näitusest "ARS", kus Eestist osaleb Marko Mäetamm. Kuraatorid Tuula Arkio, Maaretta Jaukkuri, Patrik Nyberg, Jari-Pekka Vanhala. Teemaks "kolmas ruum". Näituse kajastamisest.

  17. Hazard evaluation for 244-AR vault facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRAUN, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the results of a hazard identification and evaluation performed on the 244-AR Vault Facility to close a USQ (USQ No. TF-98-0785, Potential Inadequacy in Authorization Basis (PIAB): To Evaluate Miscellaneous Facilities Listed in HNF-2503 And Not Addressed In The TWRS Authorization Basis) that was generated as part of an evaluation of inactive TWRS facilities

  18. A compilation of {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39} and K-Ar ages: report 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, P A [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Roddick, J C

    1997-12-31

    Twenty-three {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar age determinations (including two potassium-argon analyses) carried out by the Geological Survey of Canada are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in outline. An index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. A compilation of 40Ar-39 and K-Ar ages: report 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, P.A.; Roddick, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-three 40 Ar- 39 Ar age determinations (including two potassium-argon analyses) carried out by the Geological Survey of Canada are reported. Each age determination is accompanied by a description of the rock and mineral concentrate used; brief interpretative comments regarding the geological significance of each age are also provided where possible. The experimental procedures employed are described in outline. An index of all Geological Survey of Canada K-Ar age determinations published in this format has been prepared using NTS quadrangles as the primary reference. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  20. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Hélène; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Cloché, Sophie; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mière, Arnaud; Ramage, Karim; Vermeulen, Anne; Boulanger, Damien

    2015-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters , intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services, such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between ICARE, IPSL and OMP data centers and has been set up in the framework of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. ChArMEx data, either produced or used by the project, are documented and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. The website offers the usual but user-friendly functionalities: data catalog, user registration procedure, search tool to select and access data... The metadata (data description) are standardized, and comply with international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE European Directive; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) assignement procedure allows to automatically register the datasets, in order to make them easier to access, cite, reuse and verify. At present, the ChArMEx database contains about 120 datasets, including more than 80 in situ datasets (2012, 2013 and 2014 summer campaigns, background monitoring station of Ersa...), 25 model output sets (dust model intercomparison, MEDCORDEX scenarios...), a high resolution emission inventory over the Mediterranean... Many in situ datasets

  1. EL CUERPO Y LA PERSONA EN EL ESPACIO-TIEMPO DE LOS MAYAS DE LOS CHENES, CAMPECHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hirose López

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Para los médicos tradicionales mayas de la región de los Chenes, en el estado de Campeche, winik, el término que designa a la persona, hombre o individuo (Barrera Vázquez 2001, está estrechamente ligado al simbolismo de los rituales de sanación y los principios de la cosmovisión maya. En contraste con la visión cartesiana del mundo, propia de la mente occidental, que separa el cuerpo de la mente y el espíritu, para los mayas la persona se manifiesta en su forma material, el cuerpo, kukut, como reflejo del cosmos, con cuatro rumbos y un centro, y se conforma por los elementos de la naturaleza: tierra, agua, fuego, viento y luz. Simultáneamente, los mismos componentes que conforman su materialidad se manifiestan como entidades sutiles a través de las cuales el individuo se interrelaciona con los diferentes niveles del cosmos. Dicha interacción se da en un espacio delimitado por cuatro lados, cuyo movimiento —en contrasentido al giro de las manecillas del reloj— lo liga con el tiempo.   ABSTRACT For the mayan traditional healers of the Chenes region in Campeche, winik, the term used to designate a “person”, “man” or “individual”(Barrera-Vázquez 2001, is closely linked to the healing rituals and the principles of mayan cosmology. The Cartesian world view, proper to the occidental mind, separates the body from the mind and the spirit. In contrast, for the mayan, the person has a material aspect, the body, kukut, which resembles the cosmos, with four orientations and a center, and is the manifestation of the elements present in nature: earth, water, fire, wind and light. Simultaneously, the same components that conform its materiality, are manifest as subtle entities that let the individual interact with the different levels of the cosmos. This interaction takes place in a dimension defined by a four sided space which moves in the universe in a counter-clockwise direction.

  2. Proyecto Costa Escondida: Interdisciplinary Research at the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, J.; Rissolo, D.; Beddows, P. A.; Goodman, B.; Smith, D.

    2013-05-01

    At the northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula - where the Caribbean meets the Gulf - lies the ancient Maya port site of Vista Alegre. The inhabitants of this site, much like the people living nearby today, were forced to contend with the challenging coastal environment of Laguna Holbox. The sediment-rich, low gradient of the north coast presents a contrasting landscape compared to the Caribbean coast, where water resources are of much larger magnitude and evident in the extensive systems of cenotes (sinkholes) and underground rivers that supported pre-Columbian sites along this eastern rocky sediment-poor coastline. For past inhabitants the north coast was a mosaic of low-lying, non-arable zones where access to potable water was a challenge for inhabitants well into the 20th century. By bringing together scholars from the fields of archaeology, coastal ecology, geoarchaeology, and hydrogeology, the Proyecto Costa Escondida is focusing on the dynamic relationship between the Maya and their coastal landscape over the past 3000 years. To date we have collected 12 manual push-cores from the shallow waters surrounding Vista Alegre, which have been analyzed at 1 cm resolution using standard methods for Loss on Ignition (LOI), δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb of bulk carbonate, granulometry, micropalentology, and AMS radiocarbon dating. In addition to have baseline comparative data, we have conducted near-shore and terrestrial coastal ecological surveys along with the mapping of coastal water salinity and temperatures in the dry and wet seasons. Overall, the chemical proxies, lithology, and paleosalinity model reconstructed to date reveal four onlapping parasequences representing an overall transgression of the coastline with strong seasonality of water chemistry that has been changing under the control of rising sea levels over the past 3000 years. The sedimentation rate and timing of the transition to marine is in reasonable agreement with local sea level curves meaning that the

  3. VLA radio observations of AR Scorpii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, E. R.; Marsh, T. R.; Chote, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: AR Scorpii is unique amongst known white dwarf binaries in showing powerful pulsations extending to radio frequencies. Here we aim to investigate the multi-frequency radio emission of AR Sco in detail, in order to constrain its origin and emission mechanisms. Methods: We present interferometric radio frequency imaging of AR Sco at 1.5, 5 and 9 GHz, analysing the total flux and polarization behaviour of this source at high time resolution (10, 3 and 3 s), across a full 3.6 h orbital period in each band. Results: We find strong modulation of the radio flux on the orbital period and the orbital sideband of the white dwarf's spin period (also known as the "beat" period). This indicates that, like the optical flux, the radio flux arises predominantly from on or near the inner surface of the M-dwarf companion star. The beat-phase pulsations of AR Sco decrease in strength with decreasing frequency. They are strongest at 9 GHz and at an orbital phase 0.5. Unlike the optical emission from this source, radio emission from AR Sco shows weak linear polarization but very strong circular polarization, reaching 30% at an orbital phase 0.8. We infer the probable existence of a non-relativistic cyclotron emission component, which dominates at low radio frequencies. Given the required magnetic fields, this also likely arises from on or near the M-dwarf. A table of the flux time series is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A66

  4. The role of polar aromatics in residuum hydrocracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, N.K.; Pruden, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    The CANMET hydrocracking process was developed to convert the heavy pitch fraction in bitumen into salable products. Some of the defining features of the CANMET technology were described. A 5000 BPD demonstration unit was built for Petro-Canada's Montreal Refinery in 1985. The CANMET slurry hydrocracking process uses a solid additive to inhibit coke formation and is capable of 975+ degrees F conversion levels in excess of 90 per cent. The process can be used for a wide range of refinery residues including conventional crudes and residues from refinery conversion units. The CANMET process has the capability of upgrading FCCU slurry, visbreaker vacuum tower bottoms, deasphalter bottoms residue, and poor quality gas oils from cokers and visbreakers. The current practices of the Petro-Canada commercial operation were discussed in the context of adapting the process to handle higher levels of asphaltenes. Pilot plant projects are being considered for ROSE R deasphalter bottoms. 10 refs., 5 tabs., 21 figs

  5. /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar and K-Ar dating of altered glassy volcanic rocks: the Dabi Volcanics, P. N. G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra. Dept. of Geology); McDougall, I. (Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Earth Sciences)

    1982-11-01

    K-Ar and /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar ages have been determined for altered submarine tholeiitic and boninite (high-Mg andesite) lavas from the Dabi Volcanics, Cape Vogel Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar whole rock total fusion and plateau ages identify a Late Paleocene age for the tholeiitic lavas (58.9 +- 1.1 Ma), and also for the boninitic lavas (58.8 +- 0.8 Ma). Apparent K-Ar ages for the same samples range from 27.2 +- 0.7 to 63.9 +- 4.5 Ma, and young K-Ar ages for glassy boninites are probably due to variable radiogenic /sup 40/Ar(/sup 40/Ar*) loss. These new ages effectively reconcile previously ambiguous age data for the Dabi Volcanics, and indicate contemporaneous tholeiitic and boninitic volcanism occurring in southeast PNG during the Late Paleocene. Smectites, developed as alteration products after glass in oceanic lavas commonly do not retain /sup 39/Ar during or subsequent to irradiation, but in some cases may contain /sup 40/Ar*. The results are discussed.

  6. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar dating of altered glassy volcanic rocks: the Dabi Volcanics, P.N.G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.A.; McDougall, I.

    1982-01-01

    K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages have been determined for altered submarine tholeiitic and boninite (high-Mg andesite) lavas from the Dabi Volcanics, Cape Vogel Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar whole rock total fusion and plateau ages identify a Late Paleocene age for the tholeiitic lavas (58.9 +- 1.1 Ma), and also for the boninitic lavas (58.8 +- 0.8 Ma). Apparent K-Ar ages for the same samples range from 27.2 +- 0.7 to 63.9 +- 4.5 Ma, and young K-Ar ages for glassy boninites are probably due to variable radiogenic 40 Ar( 40 Ar*) loss. These new ages effectively reconcile previously ambiguous age data for the Dabi Volcanics, and indicate contemporaneous tholeiitic and boninitic volcanism occurring in southeast PNG during the Late Paleocene. Smectites, developed as alteration products after glass in oceanic lavas commonly do not retain 39 Ar during or subsequent to irradiation, but in some cases may contain 40 Ar*. The results are discussed. (author)

  7. A Refined Astronomically Calibrated 40Ar/39Ar Age for Fish Canyon Sanidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Zeeden, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Intercalibration between the astronomical and radio-isotopic dating methods provides a means to improving accuracy and reducing uncertainty of an integrated, multi-chronometer geologic timescale. Here we report a high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) neutron fluence...... sanidine age of 0.7674±0.0022 Ma (2σ, external errors) is indistinguishable from the ID-TIMS U/Pb zircon age (0.7671±0.0019 Ma). The consistency between the astronomically calibrated 40Ar/39Ar sanidine age and U/Pb zircon age for this Quaternary unit suggests that agreement between these two radio-isotopic...... dating techniques is now achievable at better than±0.3% (2σ) in the youngest part of geologic time (

  8. 40Ar-39Ar age studies for tectonics of the Gondwana land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigami, Yutaka; Sugiura, Naoji.

    1997-01-01

    40 Ar- 39 Ar age studies have been performed for samples from Antarctica and India which were parts of the Gondwana land at Mesozoic and Paleozoic time in order to investigate their thermal history and tectonic movement. From the both areas, ages of about 500 Ma which have been considered to be the age of Pan-African Orogeny were obtained, which represents that this thermal event spread widely over the Gondwana land. (author)

  9. Single grains, thermal histories, and the 40Ar/39Ar method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Norrie

    1989-01-01

    A key part in unraveling the history of the physical evolution of the earth is knowledge of the earth's thermal history. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar step heating of mineral samples provides a means of defining a local thermal history. to do this accurately the challenge is to extract meaningful diffusion parameters from a mineral's Arrhenius plot. In the case of biotite single grains, where the laboratory release of argon is a complex process, this can be a difficult task. (12 refs., 5 figs.)

  10. ^<40>Ar-^<39>Ar Age Studies for Tectonics of the Gondwana Land

    OpenAIRE

    Takigami, Yutaka; Sugiura, Naoji

    1997-01-01

    ^Ar-^Ar age studies have been performed for samples from Antarctica and India which were parts of the Gondwana land at Mesozoic and Paleozoic time in order to investigate their thermal history and tectonic movement. From the both areas, ages of about 500 Ma which have been considered to be the age of Pan-African Orogeny were obtained, which represents that this thermal event spread widely over the Gondwana land.

  11. La movilización maya en Guatemala: exigiendo derechos y construyendo multiculturalidad en un contexto de postconflicto

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Au Guatemala, la mobilisation indienne pour l’égalité des droits a débuté dans les années 1970. Elle a été interrompue par la réponse génocidaire de l’État face à la menace révolutionnaire. Cependant, dans les années 1990, lorsque commence le processus de paix, les acteurs qui s’autodésignent aujourd’hui comme Mayas ont été capables de se réorganiser et ont réussi à se faire reconnaître dans l’Accord sur l’Identité et les Droits des Peuples Indiens. C’est alors que commence la phase du “multi...

  12. “The Language of Gods”: The Pragmatics of Bilingual Parallelism in Ritual Ch’orti’ Maya Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Hull

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study I investigate the discursive function of parallelism in the ritual speech of Ch’orti’ Maya. Specifically, I examine the exploitation of the dual lexicons of Ch’orti’ Mayan and Spanish in the production of parallel structures. Ch’orti’ ritual speech is almost universally constructed in parallelistic fashion, accomplishing at once a near hypnotic cadence when performed, while also serving various pragmatic functions. I detail the dynamic breadth of what I refer to as bilingual parallelism, i.e., parallelism that involves the pairing of synonymous terms from different languages in a distich. The effective use of parallelistic speech is said by the Ch’orti’ to be an imitation of the speech patterns of the gods themselves, thereby further explaining its importance in ceremonial contexts when speaking to gods and otherworld beings.

  13. LABELLING DIFFERENT SKIN COLOR AS CULTURAL DETERMINISM REPRESENTED IN MAYA ANGELOU‘S POEM THE CALLING OF NAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ikhwan Rosyidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe representation of labelling different color skin as a construction of American towards color skin people in America reflected on one of Maya Angelou‘s poems The Calling of Names (1994. This study will use structural-semiotic approach, especially applying Riffaterre‘s semiotics of poetry (1984. This semiotic theory will operate on heuristic and hermeneutic readings for uncovering description of representation of how color skin people is perceived and, of course, labelled as different people by white people. This labelling performance for color skin people results, first, the acts of calling particular name of people which raises racism on different skin colour, second, racism, prejudice, discrimination which leads to bias and disparity creating inequity and inequality towards Black or Coloured people in American society and long continuum of labelling different skin colour as a result of cultural determninism in American Society.

  14. A 3400 year paleolimnological record of prehispanic human–environment interactions in the Holmul region of the southern Maya lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, David B.; Estrada-Belli, Francisco; Anderson, Lysanna

    2015-01-01

    The timing, magnitude and drivers of late Holocene environmental change in the Holmul region of the southern Maya lowlands are examined by combining paleoenvironmental and archeological data. Environmental proxy analyses on a ~ 3350 cal yr lacustrine sediment record include pollen, charcoal, loss on ignition, magnetic suscep- tibility, and elemental geochemistry. Archeological evidence is derived from extensive settlement surveys conducted near the study site. Results indicate nearby settlement and agricultural activity taking place in an environment characterized by open forest from around 3350 to 950 cal yr BP. The fire history shows a dramatic increase in burning during the Classic period, possibly reflecting changing agricultural strategies. A distinct band of carbonate deposited from 1270 to 1040 cal yr BP suggests decreased hydrologic input associated with drier conditions. Abrupt changes in proxy data around 940 cal yr BP indicate a cessation of human disturbance and local abandonment of the area.

  15. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Hélène; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Vermeulen, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters, intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between OMP and ICARE data centres and falls within the scope of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. All the data produced by or of interest for the ChArMEx community will be documented in the data catalogue and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. The database website offers different tools: - A registration procedure which enables any scientist to accept the data policy and apply for a user database account. - Forms to document observations or products that will be provided to the database in compliance with metadata international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). - A search tool to browse the catalogue using thematic, geographic and/or temporal criteria. - Sorted lists of the datasets by thematic keywords, by measured parameters, by instruments or by platform type. - A shopping-cart web interface to order in situ data files. At present datasets from the background monitoring station of Ersa, Cape Corsica and from the 2012 ChArMEx pre-campaign are available. - A user-friendly access to satellite products

  16. Effects of harvest on the sustainability and leaf productivity of populations of two palm species in Maya homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ballesté, Andrea; Martorell, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traditional management practices are usually thought to be sustainable. The Maya manage Sabal (Arecaceae) palms in homegardens, using their leaves for thatching. The sustainability of such production systems depends on the long-term persistence of palm populations, whereas resource availability also depends on the number of leaves on individual palms. We examined how leaf harvest affects Sabal yapa and S. mexicana population growth rates (λ) and leaf production, comparing traditional and alternative harvest regimes in terms of sustainability and productivity. Demographic, harvest and leaf production data were recorded for three years in two homegardens. We used general integral projection models linked to leaf-production models to describe population dynamics and productivity. Harvest had no effect on S. yapa's vital rates or on λ, but it changed the growth rate of individuals of S. mexicana, with a negligible impact on λ. Homegardens affected λ values, reflecting the species' ecological affinities. S. mexicana, introduced from mesic forests, required watering and shade; therefore, its population declined rapidly in the homegarden that lacked both water and shade. The λ of the xerophilic S. yapa was slightly larger without watering than with watering. Palms usually compensated for leaf extraction, causing the number of leaves harvested per individual to increase with harvest intensity. Nevertheless, traditional management is relatively mild, allowing standing leaves to accumulate but reducing the homegarden's yield. Apparently, the Maya do not seek to maximize annual production but to ensure the availability of large numbers of leaves in homegardens. These leaves may then be used when the entire roof of a hut needs to be replaced every few years.

  17. Spectroscopic analysis of visible and near UV light emitted by Ar7+ and Ar6+ ions produced in Ar8+-He and Ar8+-H2 collisions at 120 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boduch, P.; Chantepie, M.; Hennecart, D.; Husson, X.; Kucal, H.; Lecler, D.; Stolterfoht, N.; Druetta, M.; Fawcett, B.; Wilson, M.

    1992-01-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of light emitted in the 2000-6000A wavelength range by Ar 7+ and Ar 6+ ions produced in Ar 8+ -He and Ar 8+ -H 2 collisions at 120 keV is performed. Well resolved fine structure components of 5s-5p and 5p-5d transitions in Ar VIII following single electron capture are precisely measured. Predominant lines due to double electron capture are observed. In particular, strong lines observed both in Ar 8+ -He and Ar 8+ -H 2 collisions are attributed to Ryberg transitions 3snl-3sn'l' in Ar VII. Attempts at identifications are made for the transition 3dnl-3dn'l' (n=4, 5) with the help of ab initio calculations. Photon emission cross sections for individual lines are determined from the measured data. (orig.)

  18. Emergency preparedness with Ar-41 measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, Juan J.; Rodriguez, Monica; Ugarte, Ricardo; Vigile, Sebastian; Boutet, Luis; Jordan, Osvaldo; Hernandez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina is training their intervention group in the forecast of radiological consequences in case of a radiological or nuclear accident. In this context it has begun the measurement of Ar-41 near the research reactor RA3. It is well known the Ar-41 production inside research reactor, and it has been studied like a good mean to validate atmosphere dispersion model occurrence, or to develop method to improve the estimation of the characteristic of the emission. The measurements were made in two laboratories of ARN, Gamma measurement Laboratory, and CTC (Total Body Counter) Laboratory near the research reactor RA3. The emission of Ar-41 were determined by Measurements Group of Environmental Control Division inside the research reactor. The laboratories are at SE and ESE direction from the reactor. After the passage of a cold front, the wind flown from SE, in this situation and if the reactor is operating we could detect the presence of Ar-41 in the environment. This meteorological situation can be forecast by information submitted by National Meteorological Service of Argentina (SMN) in a meteograma. To correlate and evaluate the concentration in this laboratory, first it was determined the direction and persistence of wind in the site using the forecast of the National Meteorological Service (SMN) of Argentina to establish when the detectors were irradiated, during the radiological measurements, the real time wind direction an velocities measurement were did, with a site meteorological tower. With this information and cloudiness we determined de stability class and concentration. To determine concentration we used the code Hotspot and our code SEDA developed in ARN. In this paper are present the calibration of GeH detectors, and the location of them. We present several measurements did in this experience. We analyze the capacity developed by our teams to predict changes in wind direction and concentrations

  19. K/Ar dating of diagenetic illites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusaki, A.M.P.; Anjos, S.M.C. dos; Costa, M.G.F. da; Silva, O.B. da; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    Ascertaining the potassium/argon (K/Ar) age of diagenetic illites yields important information for hydrocarbon exploration since the growth of this mineral in the pores of sandstone reservoir and oil migration are interlinked events in the diagenetic evolution of rocks. Illite growth ceases as soon as hydrocarbons completely fill in rock pores, displacing interstitial water. By providing an estimate of the period when the illite formed, K/Ar dating can indirectly tells us when hydrocarbons entered the reservoir. Samples of oil-saturated sandstones collected from Carboniferous reservoirs of the Solimoes Basin reveal a diagenetic evolution consisting predominantly of quartz, calcite, and illite overgrowths. In the present study, illite was mechanically separated by repeating a series of ultrasonic baths and ultrasonic probes followed by high-speed centrifuging. Resultant fractions were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry to measure the illite content of each sample. The separated illite material was found to be composed of illite and ordered mixed layer illite-smectite with 80% illite layers. Separated fractions were dated radiometrically by the K/Ar method. Preliminary results indicate an average age of some 200 m.y., which marks the end of the diagenetic development of the illites of this area. (author)

  20. Lifetime and spin measurements in 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southon, J.

    1976-01-01

    Lifetimes of levels in 40 Ar populated by the 40 Ar(p,p') reaction have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method with a p-γ coincidence technique. A solid argon target was used. The lifetimes determined were (in psec.): 1461 keV level, 1.95 +- 0.15; 2121 keV, >25; 2524 keV, 0.53 +- 0.06; 2893 keV, 4.4 [+2.6,-1.3]; 3208 keV, 0.27. A comprehensive set of branching ratios was also derived and the spins and parities of the 3208 and 4481 keV states were determined to be 2 + and 1 +- respectively. Some of these results suggest that 2 particle -2 hole and 4 particle - 4 hole components are strongly mixed in the low-lying positive parity states in a manner similar to the 2 particle and 4 particle - 2 hole mixing that occurs in 42 Ca. An additional lifetime measurement for the recently discovered high spin state at 3464 keV was carried out using direct electronic timing. The level was excited by the 37 Cl(α,p) reaction and was found to have a lifetime of 1.00 +- 0.03 nsec, which taken together with other evidence indicates that its spin and parity are 6 + . The E2 transition strengths of the 40 Ar 6 + - 4 + - 2 + - 0 + cascade can be simply interpreted in terms of a weak coupling model. (author)

  1. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and paleomagnetism of São Miguel lavas, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine L.; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Constable, Catherine G.; Gee, Jeff; Staudigel, Hubert; Tauxe, Lisa; Forjaz, Victor-H.; Salgueiro, Mário

    1998-08-01

    We present new 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and paleomagnetic data for São Miguel island, Azores. Paleomagnetic samples were obtained for 34 flows and one dike; successful mean paleomagnetic directions were obtained for 28 of these 35 sites. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations on 12 flows from the Nordeste complex were attempted successfully: ages obtained are between 0.78 Ma and 0.88 Ma, in contrast to published K-Ar ages of 1 Ma to 4 Ma. Our radiometric ages are consistent with the reverse polarity paleomagnetic field directions, and indicate that the entire exposed part of the Nordeste complex is of a late Matuyama age. The duration of volcanism across São Miguel is significantly less than previously believed, which has important implications for regional melt generation processes, and temporal sampling of the geomagnetic field. Observed stable isotope and trace element trends across the island can be explained, at least in part, by communication between different magma source regions at depth. The 40Ar/ 39Ar ages indicate that our normal polarity paleomagnetic data sample at least 0.1 Myr (0-0.1 Ma) and up to 0.78 Myr (0-0.78 Ma) of paleosecular variation and our reverse polarity data sample approximately 0.1 Myr (0.78-0.88 Ma) of paleosecular variation. Our results demonstrate that precise radiometric dating of numerous flows sampled is essential to accurate inferences of long-term geomagnetic field behavior. Negative inclination anomalies are observed for both the normal and reverse polarity time-averaged field. Within the data uncertainties, normal and reverse polarity field directions are antipodal, but the reverse polarity field shows a significant deviation from a geocentric axial dipole direction.

  2. 78 FR 41838 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ...-1281; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASW-13] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR AGENCY: Federal... at Colt, AR. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Colt, AR...

  3. 75 FR 29657 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...-1167; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-33] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR AGENCY: Federal... for Marianna, AR to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Marianna/Lee County Airport--Steve Edwards Field, Marianna, AR. The FAA is taking this action to...

  4. 75 FR 68416 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Berryville, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-0690; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASW-2] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Berryville, AR AGENCY: Federal... for Berryville, AR, to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Carroll County Airport, Berryville, AR. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety...

  5. 75 FR 12161 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...-1167; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-33] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Marianna, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to establish Class E airspace at Marianna/Lee County Airport-Steve Edwards Field, Marianna, AR, to... operations at Marianna/Lee County Airport-Steve Edwards Field, Marianna, AR. Controlled airspace is needed...

  6. 75 FR 29656 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...-1179; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-35] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR AGENCY: Federal... airspace for Magnolia, AR. Decommissioning of the Magnolia non-directional beacon (NDB) at Magnolia Municipal Airport, Magnolia, AR has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of...

  7. 75 FR 12162 - Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...-1184; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-39] Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at Manila... instrument approach procedures at Manila Municipal Airport, Manila, AR. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary...

  8. 76 FR 73505 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nashville, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...-0497; Airspace Docket No. 11-ASW-4] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nashville, AR AGENCY: Federal... for Nashville, AR, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures... a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Nashville, AR, creating additional...

  9. 75 FR 29655 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...-1177; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-34] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR AGENCY: Federal... Batesville, AR. Decommissioning of the Independence County non-directional beacon (NDB) at Batesville Regional Airport, Batesville, AR, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of...

  10. 75 FR 66300 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Searcy, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ...-1182; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-37] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Searcy, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for Searcy, AR. Decommissioning of the Searcy non-directional beacon (NDB) at Searcy Municipal Airport, Searcy, AR, has made this...

  11. 75 FR 37291 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Osceola, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ...-1183; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-38] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Osceola, AR AGENCY: Federal... Osceola, AR. Decommissioning of the Osceola non-directional beacon (NDB) at Osceola Municipal Airport has... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Osceola, AR, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Osceola Municipal...

  12. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...-1181; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-36] Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at... View, AR. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to the decommissioning of the Wilcox NDB and the...

  13. 75 FR 29654 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Manila, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ...-1184; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-39] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Manila, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for Manila, AR. Decommissioning of the Manila non-directional beacon (NDB) at Manila Municipal Airport, Manila, AR has made this...

  14. 75 FR 12165 - Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ...-1177; Airspace Docket No. 09-ASW-34] Class E Airspace; Batesville, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Class E airspace at Batesville, AR. Decommissioning of the Independence County non-directional beacon... for standard instrument approach procedures at Batesville Regional Airport, Batesville, AR. Airspace...

  15. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar age constraints on the timing of regional deformation, south coast of New South Wales, Lachlan Fold Belt: problems and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, C.L.; Phillips, D.

    2001-01-01

    Four slate samples from subduction complex rocks exposed on the south coast of New South Wales, south of Batemans Bay, were analysed by K-Ar and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar step-heating methods, One sample contains relatively abundant detrital muscovite flakes that are locally oblique to the regional cleavage in the rock, whereas the remaining samples appear to contain sparse detrital muscovite. Separates of detrital muscovite yielded plateau ages of 505 + 3 Ma and 513 + 3 Ma indicating that inheritance has not been eliminated by metamorphism and recrystallisation. Step-heating analyses of whole-rock chips from all four slate samples produced discordant apparent age spectra with 'saddle shapes' following young apparent ages at the lowest temperature increments. Elevated apparent ages associated with the highest temperature steps are attributed to the presence of variable quantities of detrital muscovite ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar integrated ages of ca 455Ma, which are some 15-30 million years older than K-Ar ages for the same samples. These discrepancies suggest that the slates have also been affected by recoil loss/redistribution of 39 Ar, Ieading to anomalously old 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages. Two other samples, from slaty tectonic melange and intensely cleaved slate, yielded average 40 Ar/ 39 Ar integrated ages of ca 424Ma, which are closer to associated mean K-Ar ages of 423 + 4Ma and 409 + 16Ma, respectively. Taking into account the potential influences of recoil loss/redistribution of 39 Ar and inheritance, the results from the latter samples suggest a maximum age of ca 440 Ma for deformation/metamorphism. The current results indicate that recoil and inheritance problems may also have affected whole-rock 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data reported from other regions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. Therefore, until these effects are adequately quantified, models for the evolution of the Lachlan Fold Belt, that are based on such whole-rock 40 Ar/ 39 Ar data, should be treated with caution. Copyright (2001) Geological

  16. Two new nematodes from the Iriomote cat, Prionailurus iriomotensis, from Okinawa: Uncinaria (Uncinaria) maya n. sp. (Ancylostomatoidea) and Molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus n. subsp. (Trichostrongyloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, H

    1989-12-01

    Uncinaria (Uncinaria) maya n. sp. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) and Molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus n. subsp. (Nematoda: Molineidae) are described from the Iriomote cat, Prionailurus iriomotensis, on Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Uncinaria (U.) maya resembles Uncinaria (Uncinaria) felidis Maplestone, 1939, from Prionailurus bengalensis of India but is distinguished in that the body is much smaller, the ventral rays are set closely with the lateral rays, and the externolateral ray is much shorter than other laterals. Molineus springsmithi yayeyamanus differs from Molineus springsmithi springsmithi Inglis and Ogden, 1965, from Prionailurus bengalensis horsfieldi of East Nepal in that the body is much longer, whereas the esophagus is somewhat shorter and the spicules are divided more distally. Presence of the closely related nematodes in both the Iriomote cat and P. bengalensis suggests a close evolutionary relationship of the 2 hosts.

  17. The thermal history of the Lhasa Block, South Tibetan Plateau based on FTD and Ar-Ar dating

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, T F; Lo Chong Huah; Chung, S L; Tien, R L; Xu, R; Deng, W

    1999-01-01

    Twelve basement samples were collected from South Tibet Plateau for FTD and Ar-Ar analysis to demonstrate their uplifting history since Cenozoic era. The preliminary results from different minerals with different closure temperatures, including apatite and zircon for fission-track dating, and K-feldspar, biotite for Ar-Ar dating, show that at least four stages of thermal history can be recognized in the studied area.

  18. Histone demethylase JMJD1A promotes alternative splicing of AR variant 7 (AR-V7) in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lingling; Zhang, Fengbo; Xu, Songhui; Cui, Xiaolu; Hussain, Arif; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin; Dong, Xuesen; Qi, Jianfei

    2018-05-15

    Formation of the androgen receptor splicing variant 7 (AR-V7) is one of the major mechanisms by which resistance of prostate cancer to androgen deprivation therapy occurs. The histone demethylase JMJD1A (Jumonji domain containing 1A) functions as a key coactivator for AR by epigenetic regulation of H3K9 methylation marks. Here, we describe a role for JMJD1A in AR-V7 expression. While JMJD1A knockdown had no effect on full-length AR (AR-FL), it reduced AR-V7 levels in prostate cancer cells. Reexpression of AR-V7 in the JMJD1A-knockdown cells elevated expression of select AR targets and partially rescued prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. The AR-V7 protein level correlated positively with JMJD1A in a subset of human prostate cancer specimens. Mechanistically, we found that JMJD1A promoted alternative splicing of AR-V7 through heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (HNRNPF), a splicing factor known to regulate exon inclusion. Knockdown of JMJD1A or HNRNPF inhibited splicing of AR-V7, but not AR-FL, in a minigene reporter assay. JMJD1A was found to interact with and promote the recruitment of HNRNPF to a cryptic exon 3b on AR pre-mRNA for the generation of AR-V7. Taken together, the role of JMJD1A in AR-FL coactivation and AR-V7 alternative splicing highlights JMJD1A as a potentially promising target for prostate cancer therapy.

  19. The thermal history of the Lhasa Block, South Tibetan Plateau based on FTD and Ar-Ar dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Wang, J.R.; Lo, C.H.; Chung, S.L.; Tien, R.L.; Xu, R.; Deng, W.

    1999-01-01

    Twelve basement samples were collected from South Tibet Plateau for FTD and Ar-Ar analysis to demonstrate their uplifting history since Cenozoic era. The preliminary results from different minerals with different closure temperatures, including apatite and zircon for fission-track dating, and K-feldspar, biotite for Ar-Ar dating, show that at least four stages of thermal history can be recognized in the studied area

  20. Call for Development of New Mineral Standards for 40Ar/39Ar Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deino, A. L.; Turrin, B. D.; Renne, P. R.; Hemming, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Age determination via the 40Ar/39Ar dating method relies on the intercomparison of measured 40Ar*/39ArK ratios of geological unknowns with those of co-irradiated mineral standards. Good analytical procedure dictates that these ratios (and the evolution of the Ar ion beams underpinning them) be as similar as practical for the greatest accuracy. Unfortunately, throughout several intervals of the geological time scale this 'best practice' cannot be achieved with existing widely used standards. Only two internationally utilized sanidine standards are available for the middle to late Cenozoic: the Alder Creek Rhyolite sanidine (ACs), at ~1.2 Ma (Turrin et al., 1994; Nomade et al., 2005), and the Fish Canyon Tuff sanidine (FCs) at ~28.2 Ma (e.g., Kuiper et al., 2008; Renne et al, 2011). The situation is even worse throughout much of the rest of the Phanerozoic, as the next oldest standard in common use is the Hb3gr hornblende standard with an age of ~1.1 Ga (Turner, 1971; Jourdan et al., 2006). We propose, as a community effort, the development a set of standards covering the entire target range of high-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating, i.e. the Phanerozoic. Their ages would be stepped in a regular fashion with no more than approximately a factor of 3 between standards, such that in the worse case the 40Ar*/39Ar ratios of standards and unknown need differ by no more than a factor of two. While somewhat arbitrary, an approximately 3 X age progression allows the entire time scale to be covered by a manageable number of standards. Anchoring the progression in the widely used ACs, FCs, and Hb3gr (in bold, below) yields the following set of suggested standard ages: 0.4, 1.2, 3.3, 9.4, 28.2, 95, 320, and 1100 Ma. A suitable standard should be highly reproducible in age at the grain-to-grain and sub-grain levels, and highly radiogenic. The mineral should be abundant and easily separated from the host rock. These criteria may be most easily achieved by focusing on sanidine phenocrysts

  1. Con el diablo adentro. El consumo medicinal y ritual del balche’ entre los mayas de Yucatán visto desde una perspectiva etnohistórica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sánchez Aroche

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to bring forward historiographical information regarding the consumption of balche’ between the peninsular Maya people from an ethnohistorical framework. First, exposing epigraphic approaches regarding former notions about beekeeping, favorable dates for the realization of such activities, and offerings deposited in hives. Subsequently, we analyze the restrictions imposed in the colonial era contained in records where its medicinal uses and ritual functions are shown. Finally, using ethnographic historiography, we identify balche’s continued therapeutic and ritual usage.

  2. Memorar la cultura: Modos de mantener y formar las identidades mayas modernas Memorialize Culture: Ways to Mantain and Form Modern Mayan Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A. Kupprat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Memoria ha sido una palabra clave en el proceso de paz en Guatemala durante los últimos quince años. De acuerdo con teorías de la memoria colectiva, ésta forma la identidad de grupos y es sustancial para la construcción y el mantenimiento de la cultura. Al contrastar el movimiento maya con estrategias locales para la conmemoración de las violaciones de los derechos humanos durante el conflicto armado, este artículo conecta el concepto de etnicidad a nivel interregional con la identidad étnica local. Por lo tanto, se propone una división entre los marcadores étnicos sincrónicos y los asincrónicos de la etnicidad maya: el primero se asocia con elementos culturales locales y el segundo con procesos de revitalización. Finalmente, se plantea que los rasgos estructurales, como la memoria cultural, deben ser considerados marcadores étnicos en ambos niveles: el local y el interregional.Memory has been a keyword for the peace process in Guatemala in the last fifteen years. According to theories on collective memory it shapes group identities and is crucial for the construction and maintenance of culture. Contrasting maya cultural activism and local commemorative strategies dealing with human rights violations during the civil war, this paper aims to connect ethnicity on an inter-regional and ethnic identity on a local level. Therefore a division will be made between synchronous and asynchronous ethnic markers of pan-maya identity, associating the former with cultural elements on a local level and the latter with revitalization processes. Finally it is proposed that structural features such as cultural memory should be considered crucial ethnic markers on both levels: the local and the inter-regional.

  3. Application of quadrupole mass spectrometer to the 40Ar-39Ar geochronological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigami, Yutaka; Nishijima, Tadashi; Koike, Toshio; Okuma, Kouichi.

    1984-01-01

    A Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) has commonly been used for qualitative analyses of gases in organic chemistry or for monitoring the vacuum conditions in industrial machines. No attempt has been made, however, to apply it to geochronological studies because of its disadvantages such as the difficulty in obtaining precise isotope ratios due to triangular peak shapes and poor reproducibility. On the other hand, there are advantages that a QMS is relatively inexpensive and gives a shorter scanning time for analysis compared with a sector type mass spectrometer. The latter characteristics is useful for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar geochronological studies, since it gives a lower background in the QMS and the possibility to obtain many more data from one sample in a limited time. In this study, we have tried to improve a commercial QMS at many parts, such as rf-generator, quadrupole, ionization chamber, source magnet, and so on, in order to meet the requirements to use it for geochronological studies. With the use of the improved QMS equipped with an on-line microcomputer, we could obtain Ar isotope data which are sufficiently precise for the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar geochronological studies. (author)

  4. A test of the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique on some terrestrial materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanphere, M.A.; Brent, Dalrymple G.

    1971-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar age spectra were determined for 10 terrestrial rock and mineral samples whose geologic history is known from independent evidence. The spectra for six mineral and whole rock samples, including biotite, feldspar, hornblende, muscovite, and granodiorite, that have experienced post-crystallization heating did not reveal the age of crystallization in any obvious way. Minima in the spectra, however, give reasonable maximum ages for reheating and high-temperature maxima can be interpreted as minimum crystallization ages. High-temperature ages of microcline and albite that have not been reheated are approximately 10% younger than the known crystallization age. Apparently there are no domains in these feldspars that have retained radiogenic 40Ar quantitatively. Spectra from two diabase samples that contain significant quantities of excess argon might mistakenly be interpreted as spectra from reheated samples and do not give the age of emplacement. The 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique may be a potentially valuable tool for the study of geologic areas with complex histories, but the interpretation of age spectra from terrestrial samples seems to be more difficult than suggested by some previous studies. ?? 1971.

  5. The celecoxib derivatives AR-12 and AR-14 induce autophagy and clear prion-infected cells from prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Basant A; Abdelaziz, Dalia; Thapa, Simrika; Lu, Li; Jain, Shubha; Gilch, Sabine; Proniuk, Stefan; Zukiwski, Alexander; Schatzl, Hermann M

    2017-12-14

    Prion diseases are fatal infectious neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. The autocatalytic conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) into the pathologic isoform PrP Sc is a key feature in prion pathogenesis. AR-12 is an IND-approved derivative of celecoxib that demonstrated preclinical activity against several microbial diseases. Recently, AR-12 has been shown to facilitate clearance of misfolded proteins. The latter proposes AR-12 to be a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the role of AR-12 and its derivatives in controlling prion infection. We tested AR-12 in prion infected neuronal and non-neuronal cell lines. Immunoblotting and confocal microscopy results showed that AR-12 and its analogue AR-14 reduced PrP Sc levels after only 72 hours of treatment. Furthermore, infected cells were cured of PrP Sc after exposure of AR-12 or AR-14 for only two weeks. We partially attribute the influence of the AR compounds on prion propagation to autophagy stimulation, in line with our previous findings that drug-induced stimulation of autophagy has anti-prion effects in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, this study demonstrates that AR-12 and the AR-14 analogue are potential new therapeutic agents for prion diseases and possibly protein misfolding disorders involving prion-like mechanisms.

  6. Legacy K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data from the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, Lisa L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2018-04-06

    Sample descriptions and analytical data for more than 200 K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses from rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska are reported here. Samples were collected over a period of 20 years by Bruce R. Reed and Marvin A. Lanphere (both U.S. Geological Survey) as part of their studies of the batholith.

  7. Ar + NO microwave plasmas for Escherichia coli sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueso, Jose L; Rico, Victor J; Cotrino, Jose; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla, Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas Isla de la Cartuja, Avda. Americo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Frias, Jose E [Instituto de BioquImica Vegetal y FotosIntesis (IBVF-CSIC). Centro de Investigaciones CientIficas Isla de la Cartuja. Avda Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: jhueso@icmse.csic.es

    2008-05-07

    Ar + NO microwave discharges are used for sterilization and the results are compared with additional experiments with Ar, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-O{sub 2} plasma mixtures. The NO{sup *} species produced in the Ar-NO mixtures remain up to long distances from the source, thus improving the sterilization efficiency of the process. E. coli individuals exposed to the Ar + NO plasma undergo morphological damage and cell lysis. Combined effects of etching (by O{sup *} and Ar{sup *} species) and UV radiation (from deactivation of NO{sup *} species) are responsible for the higher activity found for this plasma mixture. (fast track communication)

  8. Ar + NO microwave plasmas for Escherichia coli sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso, Jose L; Rico, Victor J; Cotrino, Jose; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Frias, Jose E

    2008-01-01

    Ar + NO microwave discharges are used for sterilization and the results are compared with additional experiments with Ar, O 2 and N 2 -O 2 plasma mixtures. The NO * species produced in the Ar-NO mixtures remain up to long distances from the source, thus improving the sterilization efficiency of the process. E. coli individuals exposed to the Ar + NO plasma undergo morphological damage and cell lysis. Combined effects of etching (by O * and Ar * species) and UV radiation (from deactivation of NO * species) are responsible for the higher activity found for this plasma mixture. (fast track communication)

  9. Sustaining plants and people: traditional Q'eqchi' Maya botanical knowledge and interactive spatial modeling in prioritizing conservation of medicinal plants for culturally relative holistic health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Todd; Abramiuk, Marc; Garagic, Denis; Fini, Nick; Meerman, Jan; Cal, Victor

    2009-03-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted to locate culturally important, regionally scarce, and disappearing medicinal plants via a novel participatory methodology which involves healer-expert knowledge in interactive spatial modeling to prioritize conservation efforts and thus facilitate health promotion via medicinal plant resource sustained availability. These surveys, conducted in the Maya Mountains, Belize, generate ethnobotanical, ecological, and geospatial data on species which are used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers in practice. Several of these mountainous species are regionally scarce and the healers are expressing difficulties in finding them for use in promotion of community health and wellness. Based on healers' input, zones of highest probability for locating regionally scarce, disappearing, and culturally important plants in their ecosystem niches can be facilitated by interactive modeling. In the present study, this is begun by choosing three representative species to train an interactive predictive model. Model accuracy was then assessed statistically by testing for independence between predicted occurrence and actual occurrence of medicinal plants. A high level of accuracy was achieved using a small set of exemplar data. This work demonstrates the potential of combining ethnobotany and botanical spatial information with indigenous ecosystems concepts and Q'eqchi' Maya healing knowledge via predictive modeling. Through this approach, we may identify regions where species are located and accordingly promote for prioritization and application of in situ and ex situ conservation strategies to protect them. This represents a significant step toward facilitating sustained culturally relative health promotion as well as overall enhanced ecological integrity to the region and the earth.

  10. Knowledge of the Yucatec Maya in seasonal tropical forest management: the forage plants El conocimiento de los mayas yucatecos en el manejo del bosque tropical estacional: las plantas forrajeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Flores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge and the millenary experience in management of natural vegetation on karstic landscapes are important aspects that should be considered in animal production in seasonal tropical environments. The aim of the present work was to make an inventory of native plants associated to soilscapes from seasonal tropical forests from the Yucatán Peninsula that are used as forage by Mayan people. The work was carried out in 27 Mayan communities on karst landscapes in the Yucatán Peninsula as a part of the "Ethnoflora Yucatanense" project of the Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Samples were taken of forage plants together with corresponding floristic and ethnobotanical information. Data were processed in EXCEL dynamic tables, grouped by plant family, geoforms and soils, life form and animal consumers. Results indicate that Mayan communities use 196 plant species as forage: 139 herbaceous, 17 shrubs, 35 trees and 2 palms. These plants are fed to cows, pigs, horses, lambs, turkeys, chickens, ducks and pigeons. The use of native forage plants may be an agricultural option both for rural communities and for intensive animal production on silvopastoral systems on karstic tropical landscapes from the Yucatán Peninsula.El conocimiento indígena y la experiencia de milenios de años en el manejo de la vegetación natural en ambientes kársticos tropicales son aspectos importantes que deben ser considerados en la producción animal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue hacer un inventario de las plantas forrajeras nativas de los bosques tropicales estacionales de la península de Yucatán que son utilizadas por los mayas, incluyendo los paisajes edáficos en los que se encuentran las plantas, información que servirá de base para la planeación de las actividades agropecuarias. El trabajo se llevó al cabo en 27 comunidades indígenas mayas, como parte del proyecto "Etnoflora Yucatanense" de la Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. Las muestras de

  11. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Liang; Li, Mingyang; Feng, Fan; Yang, Yutao; Hang, Xingyi; Cui, Jiajun; Gao, Jiangping

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein–protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: • A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. • Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. • MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. • MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells

  12. Quantum treatment of the Ar-HI photodissociation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Lopez, Sergio; Prosmiti, Rita; Garcia-Vela, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    A wave packet simulation of the ultraviolet photolysis dynamics of Ar-HI(v=0) is reported. Cluster photodissociation is started from two different initial states, namely, the ground van der Waals (vdW) and the first excited vdW bending state, associated with the Ar-I-H and Ar-H-I isomeric forms of the system, respectively. Formation of Ar-I radical products is investigated over the energy range of the cluster absorption spectrum. It is found that the yield of bound Ar-I radical complexes is typically 90%-100% and 70%-80% for the initial states associated with the Ar-I-H and Ar-H-I isomers, respectively. This result is in agreement with the experimentally observed time-of-flight spectrum of the hydrogen fragment produced after Ar-HI photodissociation. The high Ar-I yield is explained mainly by the small amount of energy available for the radical that is converted into internal energy in the photofragmentation process, which enhances the Ar-I survival probability. Quantum interference effects manifest themselves in structures in the angular distribution of the hydrogen fragment, and in pronounced rainbow patterns in the rotational distributions of the Ar-I radical

  13. Argon defect complexes in low energy Ar irradiated molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, A. van; Buters, W.T.M.; Kolk, G.J. van der; Caspers, L.M.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectrometry has been used to study the defects created in Mo irradiated along the direction with Ar ions ranging in energy from 0.1 to 2 keV. In addition to monitoring the release of the implanted Ar, additional information has been obtained by decoration of the defects with low energy helium and subsequent monitoring of the helium release. The studies show evidence that the Ar can be trapped in both substitutional sites and in a configuration in which the Ar is associated with vacancies (ArVsub(n), n >= 2). Most of the Ar implanted at high energy is released at approx. equal to 1500 K by thermal vacancy assisted diffusion. Argon trapped closer to the surface is released at lower temperatures via at least three different surface related release mechanisms. Additional results are presented on the interaction of self interstitial atoms (introduced by 100 eV Xe bombardment) with the Ar defects. Substitutional Ar is found to convert to interstitial Ar which seems to be mobile at room temperature. The Ar-vacancy complexes are found to be reduced to substitutional Ar. The results of atomistic calculations of the release mechanisms will also be presented. (orig.)

  14. Near thermal charge transfer between Ar+2 and N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzscheiter, H.M.; Church, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The near thermal charge transfer reaction of Ar +2 with N 2 has been studied at total pressures below 10 -7 Torr using a stored ion technique. Ar +2 ions produced by electron impact double ionization of Ar gas were selectively stored for times the order of seconds in a split-ring Penning-type ion trap. The decay with time of the initial ion sample number in a mixture of Ar and N 2 gases was fit to the sum of two exponentials, corresponding to different reaction rates for the 3 P and 1 D low-lying Ar +2 levels. The observed Ar +2 number decrease is attributed to the double-charge transfer process Ar +2 +N 2 →Ar+N 2 +2 →Ar+N + +N + in accord with recent flow-tube measurements. A rate constant for the metastable Ar +2 ( 1 D) level reaction with a value k( 1 D)=1.4 x 10 -9 cm 3 /sec is obtained, using the previously measured rate constant for the Ar +2 ( 3 P) state

  15. MEIS1 functions as a potential AR negative regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Liang [Department of Urology, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Department of Urology, Civil Aviation General Hospital/Civil Aviation Medical College of Peking University, Beijing 100123 (China); Li, Mingyang [Department of Gastroenterology, Nan Lou Division, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Feng, Fan [Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Command, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yang, Yutao [Beijing Institute for Neuroscience, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Hang, Xingyi [National Scientific Data Sharing Platform for Population and Health, Beijing 100730 (China); Cui, Jiajun, E-mail: cuijn@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Cancer and Cell Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Gao, Jiangping, E-mail: jpgao@163.com [Department of Urology, Chinese PLA Medical School/Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays critical roles in human prostate carcinoma progression and transformation. However, the activation of AR is regulated by co-regulators. MEIS1 protein, the homeodomain transcription factor, exhibited a decreased level in poor-prognosis prostate tumors. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between MEIS1 and AR. We found that overexpression of MEIS1 inhibited the AR transcriptional activity and reduced the expression of AR target gene. A potential protein–protein interaction between AR and MEIS1 was identified by the immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Furthermore, MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment to androgen response element in prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter sequences. In addition, MEIS1 promoted the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT in the presence of R1881. Finally, MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our data suggests that MEIS1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor. - Highlights: • A potential interaction was identified between MEIS1 and AR signaling. • Overexpression of MEIS1 reduced the expression of AR target gene. • MEIS1 modulated AR cytoplasm/nucleus translocation. • MEIS1 inhibited the proliferation and anchor-independent growth of LNCaP cells.

  16. AR-Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Schweizer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1940s Charles Huggins reported remarkable palliative benefits following surgical castration in men with advanced prostate cancer, and since then the androgen receptor (AR has remained the main therapeutic target in this disease. Over the past couple of decades, our understanding of AR-signaling biology has dramatically improved, and it has become apparent that the AR can modulate a number of other well-described oncogenic signaling pathways. Not surprisingly, mounting preclinical and epidemiologic data now supports a role for AR-signaling in promoting the growth and progression of several cancers other than prostate, and early phase clinical trials have documented preliminary signs of efficacy when AR-signaling inhibitors are used in several of these malignancies. In this article, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the use of AR-directed therapies in prostate as well as other cancers, with an emphasis on the rationale for targeting AR-signaling across tumor types.

  17. The ChArMEx database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Helene; Belmahfoud, Nizar; Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Descloitres, Jacques; Fleury, Laurence; Focsa, Loredana; Henriot, Nicolas; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Mière, Arnaud; Vermeulen, Anne

    2014-05-01

    The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) aims at a scientific assessment of the present and future state of the atmospheric environment in the Mediterranean Basin, and of its impacts on the regional climate, air quality, and marine biogeochemistry. The project includes long term monitoring of environmental parameters, intensive field campaigns, use of satellite data and modelling studies. Therefore ChARMEx scientists produce and need to access a wide diversity of data. In this context, the objective of the database task is to organize data management, distribution system and services, such as facilitating the exchange of information and stimulating the collaboration between researchers within the ChArMEx community, and beyond. The database relies on a strong collaboration between OMP and ICARE data centres and has been set up in the framework of the Mediterranean Integrated Studies at Regional And Locals Scales (MISTRALS) program data portal. All the data produced by or of interest for the ChArMEx community will be documented in the data catalogue and accessible through the database website: http://mistrals.sedoo.fr/ChArMEx. At present, the ChArMEx database contains about 75 datasets, including 50 in situ datasets (2012 and 2013 campaigns, Ersa background monitoring station), 25 model outputs (dust model intercomparison, MEDCORDEX scenarios), and a high resolution emission inventory over the Mediterranean. Many in situ datasets have been inserted in a relational database, in order to enable more accurate data selection and download of different datasets in a shared format. The database website offers different tools: - A registration procedure which enables any scientist to accept the data policy and apply for a user database account. - A data catalogue that complies with metadata international standards (ISO 19115-19139; INSPIRE European Directive; Global Change Master Directory Thesaurus). - Metadata forms to document

  18. 40Ar-39Ar laser probe dating of individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier eclogitic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.; Turner, G.; Laurenzi, M.; Harris, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The ages of seven individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier diamonds of eclogitic association have been determined using the 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating technique. Syngenetic inclusions weighing between 10 and 130 μg were exposed on cleaved surfaces of the diamonds and analysed using a laser probe. The inclusion ages were found to be in the range 1111±35 to 1254±38 Ma with an average of 1185±94 Ma. The ages obtained are in good agreement with previous determinations made on aggregates of eclogitic inclusions from Premier diamonds and demonstrate the applicability of the laser probe to dating individual diamond inclusions. (orig.)

  19. Argon in hornblende, biotite and muscovite in geologic cooling - Ar-40/Ar-39-investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittman, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the Ar-40/Ar-39 studies are discussed under the aspect of whether the age data of the minerals indicate a cooling process. The author hopes that isotope dating of minerals with different closing temperatures will describe the temperature/time history of an area in the temperature range of 600 to 200 0 C. The findings are analyzed under three aspects: How much do they contribute to the initial methodological question, what do they contribute to the regional geology of the areas investigated, and in what respects do they extent the present knowledge of the geochronological analysis, i.e. its techniques and interpretation. (orig.) [de

  20. Microbiologia do ar : monitorização do ar em ambiente hospitalar

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Carina Marques dos

    2008-01-01

    O complexo ambiente hospitalar requer atenção especial, para assegurar uma saudável qualidade do ar interior, protegendo assim os profissionais de saúde e utentes de infecções nosocomiais e de doenças ocupacionais. Embora seja amplamente reconhecido que a contaminação de um bloco operatório seja a principal responsável pela complicação de uma cirurgia, em Portugal, estudos sobre microbiologia do ar a nível hospitalar são escassos. O objectivo deste estudo é investigar a vari...

  1. Limites politiques et barrières sociales dans le monde maya classique Political Limits and Social Barriers in the Classic Maya World: Reflections Based on a Few Archaeological Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Michelet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L’archéologie des Basses Terres mayas à l’époque classique est riche de données susceptibles de nous renseigner sur plusieurs types de « frontières » sociopolitiques. Si la question des limites territoriales des entités politiques du monde classique constitue, depuis les années 1970, un objectif tout à fait conscient de la recherche, bien d’autres éléments des partitionnements sociopolitiques existent, mais ils n’ont pas reçu, le plus souvent, l’attention qu’ils méritent. L’examen de quelques informations, empruntées aux résultats de projets de recherche collective récents, indique que les démarcations formelles plus ou moins minces durent être rares, qu’il y aurait même eu peu de bornages explicites et que les seuils étaient dotés d’une épaisseur certaine, leur franchissement obéissant à des codes précis et/ou impliquant des comportements ritualisés.The archaeology of the Maya Lowlands of the classical era is rich in data that are likely to have something to teach us about several types of sociopolitical “boundary”. Although research since the 1970s has consciously aimed to address the question of the territorial limits of classical-world political entities, many other elements of sociopolitical partitioning exist, but they have tended not to receive the attention they deserve. The examination of a few pieces of information, borrowed from the results of recent collective research projects, indicates that more-or-less thin formal demarcations must have been rare, that there would even have been few explicit boundary markings, and that the thresholds were endowed with a certain thickness, their crossing obeying precise codes and/or involving ritualised behaviours.

  2. H + Ar collisions. II. Differential scattering calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, H.; Le, T.Q.; van Zyl, B.

    1977-01-01

    Differential elastic scattering cross-section calculations have been made for H + Ar collisions using classical and eikonal techniques. The calculation procedures are described and compared with existing experimental data. It is shown that the angular distribution of the elastic cross section is similar to that obtained for proton production in such collisions at energies above about 200 eV. By combining the angular dependence of the computed elastic cross section with experimental measurements described in the preceding paper, absolute differential cross sections for proton production have been determined

  3. Prostate Cancer Cells Express More Androgen Receptor (AR) Following Androgen Deprivation, Improving Recognition by AR-Specific T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Brian M; Gamat, Melissa; Seliski, Joseph; Sawicki, Thomas; Jeffery, Justin; Ellis, Leigh; Drake, Charles G; Weichert, Jamey; McNeel, Douglas G

    2017-12-01

    Androgen deprivation is the primary therapy for recurrent prostate cancer, and agents targeting the androgen receptor (AR) pathway continue to be developed. Because androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has immmunostimulatory effects as well as direct antitumor effects, AR-targeted therapies have been combined with other anticancer therapies, including immunotherapies. Here, we sought to study whether an antigen-specific mechanism of resistance to ADT (overexpression of the AR) may result in enhanced AR-specific T-cell immune recognition, and whether this might be strategically combined with an antitumor vaccine targeting the AR. Androgen deprivation increased AR expression in human and murine prostate tumor cells in vitro and in vivo The increased expression persisted over time. Increased AR expression was associated with recognition and cytolytic activity by AR-specific T cells. Furthermore, ADT combined with vaccination, specifically a DNA vaccine encoding the ligand-binding domain of the AR, led to improved antitumor responses as measured by tumor volumes and delays in the emergence of castrate-resistant prostate tumors in two murine prostate cancer models (Myc-CaP and prostate-specific PTEN-deficient mice). Together, these data suggest that ADT combined with AR-directed immunotherapy targets a major mechanism of resistance, overexpression of the AR. This combination may be more effective than ADT combined with other immunotherapeutic approaches. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(12); 1074-85. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Strategic Location and Territorial Integrity: The Role of Subsidiary Sites in the Classic Maya Kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Anaya Hernández

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Usumacinta region was the scene of an intense interaction between the different kingdoms of the Classic Maya Period. This interaction took the form of political and marriage alliances as well as warfare and is well attested in the inscribed monuments of the region, especially towards the Late Classic Period (c. AD 600-900. Through this interaction the Maya rulers would not only assert their claim to power but also ensure the boundaries of their kingdoms, with an eye to accruing a vaster domain. The definition of the political organisation and territorial extent of the Maya Lowland kingdoms is an issue that has attracted the attention of various scholars (Adams 1981; Adams and Jones 1981; Ball and Taschek 1991; Flannery 1972; Freidel 1981; Hammond 1974; 1981; Inomata and Aoyama 1996; Mathews 1988; 1991; Sanders 1981. Like these scholars, I have presented a model aimed at estimating the territorial extent of the kingdoms of the Upper Usumacinta region, taking into account the physical characteristics of the terrain (Anaya Hernández 2001. In this article I approach this issue again, focusing this time on the importance that the subsidiary centres located at strategic locations across the landscape had for the maintenance of the territorial integrity of the kingdoms of Pomoná and Piedras Negras. The political importance of these sites is reflected in the efforts that the kings of these polities went through to warrant the loyalty of the rulers of these secondary centres, as can be attested by the presence of a sculptured stela at the site of Panhalé, in the vicinity of Pomoná, and an inscribed wooden box found within the Redención del Campesino Valley that makes reference to a Piedras Negras ruler. To address this issue I took advantage of the capabilities that GIS offers to model movement across the physical setting in order to define the potential boundaries between the aforementioned kingdoms in the light of the available

  5. Light Curve Variations of AR Lacertae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Seong Nha

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen unitary Light curves of AR Lac in B and V are made at Yonsei University Observatory in the period of 1980-1988. Some overview findings of light variations are made. (1 The light variations outside eclipse follow none of the wave migration patterns reported by previous investigators. (2 Complicated shapes outside eclipse are apparently much reduced in the light curves of 1983-1984. This suggests that, in the future, AR Lac has a chance to attain a normal state with mo complicated interactions. (3 The depths of the primary and the secondary mid-eclipses are changing year-to-year. (4 The K0 star, the larger component, has brightened by 0.m14 V, while the G2 star has shown a fluctuation of about 0.m05 in V. (5 The B-V values at primary mid-eclipse have no correlation with the depth variations. (6 Independently of the increase of maximum brightness, the B-V colors in the non-eclipsed phases changed slightly over the years.

  6. High-resolution 40Ar/39Ar chronology of multiple intrusion igneous complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland, K. A.; Chen, J.-F.; Linder, J. S.; Henderson, C. M. B.; Whillans, I. M.

    1989-06-01

    The Mount Brome complex of the Monteregian province of southern Quebec, Canada, consits of several major intrusions ranging compositionally from gabbro to syenite. The relative ages of these intrusives have been investigated with high-resolution 40Ar/39Ar analyses, including a specially designed irradiation configuration to cancel the effects of fluence gradients. Small yet distinct apparent age differences are observed. While a number of analytical and geological factors could be proposed to explain the small variations, evaluation of these suggests the age differences reflect those in emplacement times. The gabbro and nepheline diorite were emplaced within a short span 123.1 Ma ago. Generally more evolved lithologies (biotite monzodiorite, pulaskite, nordmarkite) appear to have been emplaced within a restricted interval 1.4±0.3 Ma later. Whole-rock Rb-Sr systematics do not give acceptable isochrons because of significant scatter interpreted to reflect initial 87Sr/86Sr heterogeneities resulting from crustal contamination. Considering the variations in initial ratio, the Rb-Sr data are consistent with the 40Ar/39Ar age.

  7. 40Ar-39Ar dating of hornfels dredged near the Japan trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigami, Yutaka; Fujioka, Kantaro

    1989-01-01

    During the KH 81-3 Cruise of the R/V Hakuho-Maru, biotite-bearing hornfelses were dredged from the landward slope of the Japan Trench. Bulk sample and separated biotite were dated by the 40 Ar- 39 Ar method and they showed 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages of 28.9±1.4 Ma and 28.5±1.4 Ma, respectively. This would indicate that biotite was formed at about 29 Ma by the thermal metamorphism which might have related with some magmatic activity. In this magmatic activity was caused by the subducting oceanic plate in the similar conditions at present, it seems to have occurred at a place too close to the present trench axis. This discrepancy could be explained by such processes as the change of the angle of the subducting plate, the moving of the trench axis by tectonic erosion and so on. However, more age data are required to solve this discrepancy. (author)

  8. The 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating of lavas from the Hilo 1-km core hole, Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W.D.; Turrin, B.D.; Renne, P.R.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mauna Kea lava flows cored in the HilIo hole range in age from <200 ka to about 400 ka based on 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and K-Ar analyses of 16 groundmass samples and one coexisting plagioclase. The lavas, all subaerially deposited, include a lower section consisting only of tholeiitic basalts and an upper section of interbedded alkalic, transitional tholeiitic, and tholeiitic basalts. The lower section has yielded predominantly complex, discordant 40Ar/39Ar age spectra that result from mobility of 40Ar and perhaps K, the presence of excess 40Ar, and redistribution of 39Ar by recoil. Comparison of K-Ar ages with 40Ar/39Ar integrated ages indicates that some of these samples have also lost 39Ar. Nevertheless, two plateau ages of 391 ?? 40 and 400 ?? 26 ka from deep in the hole, combined with data from the upper section, show that the tholeiitic section accumulated at an average rate of about 7 to 8 m/kyr and has an mean recurrence interval of 0.5 kyr/flow unit. Samples from the upper section yield relatively precise 40Ar/39Ar plateau and isotope correlation ages of 326 ?? 23, 241 ?? 5, 232 ?? 4, and 199 ?? 9 ka for depths of -415.7 m to -299.2 m. Within their uncertainty, these ages define a linear relationship with depth, with an average accumulation rate of 0.9 m/kyr and an average recurrence interval of 4.8 kyr/flow unit. The top of the Mauna Kea sequence at -280 m must be older than the plateau age of 132 ?? 32 ka, obtained for the basal Mauna Loa flow in the corehole. The upward decrease in lava accumulation rate is a consequence of the decreasing magma supply available to Mauna Kea as it rode the Pacific plate away from its magma source, the Hawaiian mantle plume. The age-depth relation in the core hole may be used to test and refine models that relate the growth of Mauna Kea to the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle plume.

  9. 40Ar/39Ar age of the Rotoiti Breccia and Rotoehu Ash, Okataina Volcanic Complex, New Zealand, and identification of heterogeneously distributed excess 40Ar in supercooled crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flude, Stephanie; Storey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Co-magmatic granitoid clasts erupted as part of the Rotoiti Ignimbrite (Rotoehu Tephra) contain euhedral K-feldspar and biotite crystals that protrude into miarolytic cavities and show textural evidence for growth in super-cooled conditions and are thus interpreted as growing during eruption. 40Ar...... that appear to be largely unaffected by excess 40Ar. This population gives a statistically robust weighted mean age of 47.4 ± 1.5 ka (1σ, n = 13) and an indistinguishable inverse isochron age of 50 ± 3 ka for this historically difficult to date eruption. The weighted mean age is significantly younger than...... previous age estimates of the Rotoiti eruption obtained by K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating of bracketing lavas, but is indistinguishable from recent 14C and (U–Th)/He dates and estimates based on orbital tuning and sedimentation rates constrained by 14C ages....

  10. Structural, K-Ar and 40Ar-39Ar age studies of adularia K-feldspars from the Lizard Complex, England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, A.N.; Mitchell, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Conventional K-Ar analyses of fifteen adularia feldspars from the Lizard Complex yield ages between 181+-2 Ma and 220+-3 Ma (with one exception from Holseer Cove yielding an age of 156+-3 Ma). The feldspars are dominantly monoclinic but most contain a minor but constant proportion of triclinic material with variable triclinicity. An inverse correlation exists between triclinicity and K-Ar age interpreted as representing argon loss related to the structural state. Extrapolation of the data to zero triclinicity indicates a true age of 210-220 Ma. 40 Ar- 39 Ar stepwise degassing analyses yield plateau ages related to the K-Ar ages and not the crystallization age. The results can be explained in terms of postcrystallization Al-Si ordering resulting in argon loss from lattice sites which under normal diffusion conditions requires a range of activation energies. The Holseer Cove sample is monoclinic and an 40 Ar- 39 Ar stepheating analysis suggests a later crystallization at 160-170 Ma. Neither primary crystallization nor spontaneous ordering through time explain the origin of the triclinic adularia. It is suggested that ordering has been induced by the passage of low-temperature alkaline solutions at a subsequent point in geological time. Argon loss by ordering could explain the low ages found using both K-Ar and 40 Ar- 39 Ar stepheating methods when applied to feldspars in general. The 210-220 Ma, and 160-170 Ma hydrothermal events affected much of southwest England and are probably related to major geotectonic movements in western Europe. (Auth.)

  11. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Growth Suppression of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chae Kim

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR mediates the developmental, physiologic, and pathologic effects of androgens including 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT. However, the mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells are not well understood, though they are central to prostate development, homeostasis, and neoplasia. Here, we identify androgen-responsive genes that restrain cell cycle progression and proliferation of human prostate epithelial cell lines (HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, and we investigate the mechanisms through which AR regulates their expression. DHT inhibited proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, and cell cycle analysis revealed a prolonged G1 interval. In the cell cycle, the G1/S-phase transition is initiated by the activity of cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK complexes, which relieve growth suppression. In HPr-1AR, cyclin D1/2 and CDK4/6 mRNAs were androgen-repressed, whereas CDK inhibitor, CDKN1A, mRNA was androgen-induced. The regulation of these transcripts was AR-dependent, and involved multiple mechanisms. Similar AR-mediated down-regulation of CDK4/6 mRNAs and up-regulation of CDKN1A mRNA occurred in PC3-Lenti-AR. Further, CDK4/6 overexpression suppressed DHT-inhibited cell cycle progression and proliferation of HPr-1AR and PC3-Lenti-AR, whereas CDKN1A overexpression induced cell cycle arrest. We therefore propose that AR-mediated growth suppression of HPr-1AR involves cyclin D1 mRNA decay, transcriptional repression of cyclin D2 and CDK4/6, and transcriptional activation of CDKN1A, which serve to decrease CDK4/6 activity. AR-mediated inhibition of PC3-Lenti-AR proliferation occurs through a similar mechanism, albeit without down-regulation of cyclin D. Our findings provide insight into AR-mediated regulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation.

  12. Etching properties of BLT films in CF4/Ar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Pyo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Chang Il

    2003-01-01

    CF 4 /Ar plasma mass content and etching rate behavior of BLT thin films were investigated in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor as functions of CF 4 /Ar gas mixing ratio, rf power, and dc bias voltage. The variation of relative volume densities for F and Ar atoms were measured by the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The etching rate as functions of Ar content showed the maximum of 803 A/min at 80 % Ar addition into CF 4 plasma. The presence of maximum etch rate may be explained by the concurrence of two etching mechanisms such as physical sputtering and chemical reaction. The role of Ar ion bombardment includes destruction of metal (Bi, La, Ti)-O bonds as well as support of chemical reaction of metals with fluorine atoms

  13. Divine Horsemen de Maya Deren: una visión avant-garde del vudú haitiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel De León Olivares

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maya Deren (1917-1961 fue una cineasta de mediados del siglo XX que llegó a ser considerada la “madre” del cine experimental y de vanguardia de los Estados Unidos, gracias a filmes como Meshes of the Afternoon (1943, At Land (1944, Ritual in Transfigured Time (1946. Entre 1947 y 1954, esta artista realizó cuatro viajes a Haití que le permitieron adentrarse en el conocimiento de la religión vudú, lo cual dio como resultado diversos trabajos. En primer lugar, un libro sobre la religión haitiana titulado Divine Horsemen: The Living Gods of Haiti, publicado en 1953, y, en segundo lugar, un material fílmico de casi 9 horas que, si bien Deren nunca dio a conocer en vida, salió a la luz pública en 1981 a manera de documental. En este trabajo se examinan algunas de las representaciones e interpretaciones que sobre el vudú construyó y legó esta cineasta pionera , en función de las cua- les se inscribió dentro de una corriente más amplia de revalorización del vudú que tuvo en el libro Ansi parla l’Oncle (1928, del escritor haitiano Jean Price-Mars, un momento fundacional.

  14. Ar-37 in the Atmospheric and Sub-Soil Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtschert, R.; Raghoo, L.S.

    2015-01-01

    On-site inspection of the radioactive noble gas isotope 37Ar is a definitive and unambiguous indicator of an underground nuclear explosion. 37Ar is produced underground by neutron activation of calcium by the reaction 40Ca(n,α)37Ar. In the atmosphere, 37Ar is produced by the spallation reaction 40Ar(n,4n)37Ar. Periodic measurements over the last six years on air collected in Bern revealed a background level in the order of 1-5 mBq/m 3 air in agreement with former findings and theoretical calculations. Those calculations also indicated that the intrusion of stratospheric air masses may lead to elevated tropospheric 37Ar concentrations up to 8-10 mBq/m 3 air. Selected samples taken up to now in the vicinity of nuclear power plants revealed no significant deviation from the natural background. In order to distinguish between natural and artificially elevated 37Ar the location-specific 37Ar activity range in soils, rocks and the atmosphere were identified. From CARIBIC flights, a passenger aircraft with a special air freight container filled with scientific equipment in the cargo compartment, tropospheric air samples were analyzed for 37Ar and 85Kr. The natural 37Ar production in soils and the rock basement underlying the alluvium is investigated by means of in situ measurements of different isotopes, theoretical calculations and irradiation experiments on selected rock samples. This will help resolve the temporal evolution and/or constancy of the natural 37Ar background and allow for an interpretation in terms of the identification of clandestine nuclear explosions. (author)

  15. Cross sections of the 36Ar(d,α)34mCl, 40Ar(d,α)38Cl, and 40Ar(d,p)41Ar nuclear reactions below 8.4 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, J W; Severin, G W; Barnhart, T E; Knutson, L D; Nickles, R J

    2012-02-01

    We have measured the cross section for production of the medically interesting isotope (34m)Cl, along with (38)Cl and (41)Ar, using deuteron bombardments of (36)Ar and (40)Ar below 8.4 MeV. ALICE/ASH analytical codes were employed to determine the shape of nuclear excitation functions, and experiments were performed using the University of Wisconsin tandem electrostatic accelerator to irradiate thin targets of argon gas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross Sections of the 36Ar(d,α)34mCl, 40Ar(d,α)38Cl and 40Ar(d,p)41Ar Nuclear Reactions below 8.4 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, J W; Severin, G W; Barnhart, T E; Knutson, L D; Nickles, R J

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the cross section for production of the medically interesting isotope 34mCl, along with 38Cl and 41Ar, using deuteron bombardments of 36Ar and 40Ar below 8.4 MeV. ALICE/ASH analytical codes were employed to determine the shape of nuclear excitation functions, and experiments were performed using the University of Wisconsin tandem electrostatic accelerator to irradiate thin targets of argon gas. PMID:22041299

  17. Progress on using deuteron-deuteron fusion generated neutrons for 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Renne, Paul R.; Becker, Tim; Waltz, Cory; Ayllon Unzueta, Mauricio; Zimmerman, Susan; Hidy, Alan; Finkel, Robert; Bauer, Joseph D.; Bernstein, Lee; van Bibber, Karl

    2017-04-01

    We present progress on the development and proof of concept of a deuteron-deuteron fusion based neutron generator for 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation. Irradiation with deuteron-deuteron fusion neutrons is anticipated to reduce Ar recoil and Ar production from interfering reactions. This will allow dating of smaller grains and increase accuracy and precision of the method. The instrument currently achieves neutron fluxes of ˜9×107 cm-2s-1 as determined by irradiation of indium foils and use of the activation reaction 115In(n,n')115mIn. Multiple foils and simulations were used to determine flux gradients in the sample chamber. A first experiment quantifying the loss of 39Ar is underway and will likely be available at the time of the presentation of this abstract. In ancillary experiments via irradiation of K salts and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis we determined the cross-sections of the 39K(n,p)39Ar reaction at ˜2.8 MeV to be 160 ± 35 mb (1σ). This result is in good agreement with bracketing cross-section data of ˜96 mb at ˜2.45 MeV and ˜270 mb at ˜4 MeV [Johnson et al., 1967; Dixon and Aitken, 1961 and Bass et al. 1964]. Our data disfavor a much lower value of ˜45 mb at 2.59 MeV [Lindström & Neuer, 1958]. In another ancillary experiment the cross section for 39K(n,α)36Cl at ˜2.8 MeV was determined as 11.7 ± 0.5 mb (1σ), which is significant for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology due to subsequent decay to 36Ar as well as for the determination of production rates of cosmogenic 36Cl. Additional experiments resolving the cross section functions on 39K between 1.5 and 3.6 MeV are on their way using the LICORNE neutron source of the IPN Orsay tandem accelerator. Results will likely be available at the time of the presentation of this abstract. While the neutron generator is designed for fluxes of ˜109 cm-2s-1, arcing in the sample chamber currently limits the power—straightforwardly correlated to the neutron flux—the generator can safely be run at. Further

  18. Electron relaxation properties of Ar magnetron plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinjing, CAI; Xinxin, WANG; Xiaobing, ZOU

    2018-03-01

    An understanding of electron relaxation properties in plasmas is of importance in the application of magnetrons. An improved multi-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation is employed to study electron transport and relaxation properties in plasmas. Elastic, inelastic and nonconservative collisions between electrons and neutral particles are considered. The expressions for the transport coefficients are obtained using the expansion coefficients and the collision operator term. Numerical solutions of the matrix equations for the expansion coefficients are also investigated. Benchmark calculations of the Reid model are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the improved multi-term approximation. It is shown that the two-term approximation is generally not accurate enough and the magnetic fields can reduce the anisotropy of the velocity distribution function. The electron relaxation properties of Ar plasmas in magnetrons for various magnetic fields are studied. It is demonstrated that the energy parameters change more slowly than the momentum parameters.

  19. Sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Huanhu; Jing Hua; Ma Aiping; Kang Xiuli; Yang Liping; Huang Mingjing; Ma Buzhou; Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan

    2005-01-01

    The sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation was studied. The results showed that the survival rate of 21 wheat varieties (strains) at the dose of 6 x 10 16 Ar + /cm 2 could be divided into five groups: surplus sensitive varieties (strains), sensitive varieties (strains), transitional varieties (strains), obtuse varieties (strains) and surplus obtuse varieties (strains). The sensibility of wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + injection is high-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > medium-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > dry land wheat varieties (strains). The study has provided theoretical basis in induced mutation medial lethal dose of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar + implantation. (authors)

  20. Tibetan tectonics from 40Ar/39Ar analysis of a single K-feldspar sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, F.M.; Lovera, O.M.; Harrison, T.M.; Copeland, P.

    1991-01-01

    40 Ar/ 39 Ar data on an alkali feldspar sample from the Quxu pluton, Gangdese batholith, southern Tibet, allow a detailed assessment of unroofing and uplift history between 35 and 18 Ma. The 39 Ar Arrhenius plot for this sample shows departures from a linear relationship between the effective diffusion parameter, log(D/r 2 ), and reciprocal temperature, which we interpret to be the result of a distribution of distinct diffusion-domain sizes. We use an alternative way of plotting the Arrhenius data that exhibits domain size versus cumulative % 39 Ar released during step heating. The 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age spectrum of the sample has features, such as local age plateaus, that are most easily explained in terms of the distinctive closure age of particular domains. The fact that the same distribution of diffusion-domain sizes explains both the Arrhenius data and the age spectrum is an indication that the diffusion properties operating in the laboratory are those of the sample while it was in its natural environment. Modelling of the age spectrum with a distribution of domain sizes results in the recovery of a continuous cooling-history segment rather than a single time-temperature datum. We demonstrate the robustness of the cooling-curve determination by showing the large misfits to the age spectrum that arise from relatively small changes in the cooling history. The best-fit cooling curve for the Quxu sample shows a decreasing rate of cooling in the time interval 35-18 Ma, followed by a very rapid cooling beginning at about 18 Ma. We have used a thermal model for the conductive cooling of an unroofing pluton to estimate the rate of unroofing required to explain the Quxu cooling curve, and find that in the 35-20 Ma time interval, the primary control of the thermal evolution is the conductive loss of magmatic heat with little or no unroofing (unroofing rates of approximately 0.05 mm/yr) followed by a brief period (<5 Ma) of very rapid unroofing with rates of order 2 mm

  1. EL COLAPSO DEL CLÁSICO TARDÍO ENTRE LOS MAYAS DE UAXACTÚN (GUATEMALA Y BARTON RAMIE (BELICE SEGÚN EL REGISTRO FUNERARIO (The Late Classic Collapse among the Maya of Uaxactun, Guatemala and Barton Ramie, Belize according to the Mortuary Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del método de valoración contextual al análisis del registro funerario de Uaxactún (Guatemala y Barton Ramie (Belice aporta evidencias irrefutables sobre la huella material del colapso clásico en las ofrendas de los entierros mayas. Esto confirma lo que ya se había anticipado al estudiar la cuenca del río Balsas en México (2014. ENGLISH: Application of the contextual valuation method to the mortuary analysis of Uaxactun, Guatemala and Barton Ramie, Belize provides irrefutable evidence on the Classic Maya collapse recorded in the grave goods of these burials. This confirms what was already anticipated by studying the Balsas River basin in Mexico.

  2. Experimental system to measure excitation cross-sections by electron impact. Measurements for ArI and ArII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.; Sanchez, J.A.; Aguilera, J.A.; Campos, J.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental set-up to measure excitation cross-section of atomic and molecular levels by electron impact based on the optical method is reported. We also present some measurements on the excitation cross-section for ArI 5p'(1/2)0 level, and for simultaneous ionization and excitation of Ar leading to ArII levels belonging to the 3p 4 4p and 3p 4 4d configurations. (Author)

  3. An 40 Ar- 39 Ar study of the Cape Verde hot spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Grandvuinet, Tanja; Wilson, James Richard

    2008-01-01

    The 40Ar-39Ar analyses of 28 groundmass separates from volcanic rocks from the islands of Santiago, Sal, and São Vicente, Cape Verde archipelago, are presented. The new age data record the volcanic evolution for Santiago from 4.6 to 0.7 Ma, for Sal from around 15 to 1.1 Ma, and for São Vicente from...... Cretaceous age for limestones deposited on the seafloor and later uplifted. The Cape Verde Rise is indicated to have fully formed in the early Miocene around 22 Ma, accompanied by the initial alkaline volcanism. Considerable volcanism on Sal, Boa Vista, and Maio took place in the Miocene and Pliocene...

  4. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS): ARS300 operations manual, software version 2.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-25

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a nondestructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The ARS technique is a fast, safe, and nonintrusive technique that is particularly useful when a large number of objects need to be tested. Any physical object, whether solid, hollow, or fluid filled, has many modes of vibration. These modes of vibration, commonly referred to as the natural resonant modes or resonant frequencies, are determined by the object`s shape, size, and physical properties, such as elastic moduli, speed of sound, and density. If the object is mechanically excited at frequencies corresponding to its characteristic natural vibrational modes, a resonance effect can be observed when small excitation energies produce large amplitude vibrations in the object. At other excitation frequencies, i.e., vibrational response of the object is minimal.

  5. Laser-fusion 40Ar/39Ar Ages of Darwin Impact Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ching-Hua; Howard, Kieren T.; Chung, Sun-Lin; Meffre, Sebastien

    2002-11-01

    Three samples of Darwin Glass, an impact glass found in Tasmania, Australia at the edge of the Australasian tektite strewn field were dated using the 40Ar/39Ar single-grain laser fusion technique, yielding isochron ages of 796-815 ka with an overall weighted mean of 816 ± 7 ka. These data are statistically indistinguishable from those recently reported for the Australasian tektites from Southeast Asia and Australia (761-816 ka; with a mean weighted age of 803 ± 3 ka). However, considering the compositional and textural differences and the disparity from the presumed impact crater area for Australasian tektites, Darwin Glass is more likely to have resulted from a distinct impact during the same period of time.

  6. Optical characteristics of a RF DBD plasma jet in various {Ar}/ {O}_{2}Ar/O2 mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahat, A.; Ganjovi, A.; Taraz, M.; Ravari, M. N. Rostami; Shahedi, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, using the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique, the optical characteristics of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma jet are examined. The Ar/O2 mixture is taken as the operational gas and, the Ar percentage in the Ar/O2 mixture is varied from 70% to 95%. Using the optical emission spectrum analysis of the RF plasma jet, the excitation temperature is determined based on the Boltzmann plot method. The electron density in the plasma medium of the RF plasma jet is obtained by the Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer H_{β }. It is mostly seen that, the radiation intensity of Ar 4p→ 4s transitions at higher argon contributions in Ar/O2 mixture is higher. It is found that, at higher Ar percentages, the emission intensities from atomic oxygen (O) are higher and, the line intensities from the argon atoms and ions including O atoms linearly increase. It is observed that the quenching of Ar^{*} with O2 results in higher O species with respect to O2 molecules. In addition, at higher percentages of Ar in the Ar/O2 mixture, while the excitation temperature is decreased, the electron density is increased.

  7. 40Ar/39Ar dating and paleo-magnetism of traps from Ethiopia, Deccan and Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, C.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that major flood basalt provinces have been emplaced as short events (∼ 1 Myr), more or less synchronous with climatic crises and mass extinctions. We present new geochronologic ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar) and magneto-stratigraphic results for the Ethiopian traps, one of the last remaining flood basalts for which little of such data were available. The ages obtained in a 2000 m thick section are indistinguishable. Moreover, magneto-stratigraphy reveals a simple 3-chron reverse-normal-reverse sequence. Although magnetic chrons cannot be yet unambiguously identified, there is more likelihood for the normal sub-chron in the main basaltic pile to correspond to 11N, supporting a brief duration (less than 1.5 Ma). The Ethiopian traps erupted near 30 Ma at or near the time of the cold and dry climate, major Antarctic ice sheet advance, and the largest sea-level drop in the Tertiary. Bhandari et al. (GRL, 1995) have discovered inter-traps sediments with a triple iridium anomaly in a series of seven basaltic lava flows in the Kutch area of the North Western Deccan traps of India. Plagioclases from three flows above the iridium bearing sediments yield 39 Ar/ 40 Ar plateau ages near 65.0 Ma: these flows have unambiguously reversed magnetic polarity interpreted as chron 29R. As a preliminary summary, evidence of the KTB asteroid impact is confirmed in the Deccan traps, showing that they are coeval events in a general sense (in a Ma long window) though clearly with vastly different time constants. This is compatible with paleontologic evidence of two scales of extinctions, one quasi-instantaneous and the other on the order of 10 5 to 10 6 yrs. Clearly, the impact cannot have caused trap eruptions. On the other hand, the exact age and significance of the lower flows more altered remains to be analyzed further as they pertained to the much debated question of duration of Deccan trap volcanism. (author)

  8. Tiempo histórico y tiempo mítico entre los mayas del Periodo Clásico (ss. II-X d.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacadena García-Gallo, Alfonso

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use and development of a rather precise calendrical system enabled the Maya of the Classic Period of this Mesoamerican civilization (centuries 2nd through 10th A. D. to turn time into an habitable space. For them, time was like a path leading to either the past, in the form of an historical record registered in written documents, or the future, by way of forecasts and prophecies. Compared to other archaic cultures or early civilizations, the Classic Maya has been known for years for the peculiarity of having a linear, historical concept of time, including absolute dating. Yet the decipherment of the hieroglyphic inscriptions has revealed that this historical concept of time meshed with mythical time to make up a single temporal dimension —which was at once linear and cyclical— for the actions of men as well as gods. With obsessive accuracy and recurrence, the Classic Maya used calendrical Information as mortar for the construction of an historical (especially political and religious discourse on their monuments, full of cross references to contemporary, past and even future events in texts commemorating anniversaries in several calendarial cycles.

    La utilización y desarrollo de un sistema calendárico sumamente preciso permitió a los mayas del Periodo Clásico de esta civilización mesoamericana (siglos II-X d.C. hacer del tiempo un espacio habitable. Para ellos, el tiempo era un sendero por el que era posible transitar o bien hacia el pasado, en forma de memoria histórica consignada en textos escritos, o bien hacia el futuro, mediante predicciones y profecías. Lo que es una rareza en comparación con otras culturas arcaicas o primeras civilizaciones, la clásica de los mayas incluía un concepto de tiempo histórico de carácter lineal, con dataciones absolutas. Pero el desciframiento de las inscripciones jeroglíficas está revelando que este tiempo histórico estaba integrado con el mítico en una

  9. Spatial autocorrelation method using AR model; Kukan jiko sokanho eno AR model no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Obuchi, T; Saito, T [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Examination was made about the applicability of the AR model to the spatial autocorrelation (SAC) method, which analyzes the surface wave phase velocity in a microtremor, for the estimation of the underground structure. In this examination, microtremor data recorded in Morioka City, Iwate Prefecture, was used. In the SAC method, a spatial autocorrelation function with the frequency as a variable is determined from microtremor data observed by circular arrays. Then, the Bessel function is adapted to the spatial autocorrelation coefficient with the distance between seismographs as a variable for the determination of the phase velocity. The result of the AR model application in this study and the results of the conventional BPF and FFT method were compared. It was then found that the phase velocities obtained by the BPF and FFT methods were more dispersed than the same obtained by the AR model. The dispersion in the BPF method is attributed to the bandwidth used in the band-pass filter and, in the FFT method, to the impact of the bandwidth on the smoothing of the cross spectrum. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  10. The Ancient Maya Landscape: Facing the Challenges and Embracing the Promise of Integrating Archaeology, Remote Sensing, Soil Science and Hydrologic Modeling for Coupled Natural and Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T., Jr.; Duffy, C.; Cook, B. D.; Schroder, W.; Webster, D.; French, K. D.; Alcover, O.; Golden, C.; Balzotti, C.; Shaffer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Relying on a niche inheritance perspective, this paper discusses the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land-use management, agricultural decision making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. We introduce and describe ongoing research that addresses a series of long standing questions about coupled natural and human history dynamics in the Central Maya lowlands, emphasizing the role of landscape and region to address these questions. First, we summarize the results of a CNH pilot study focused on the evolution of the regional landscape of Tikal, Guatemala. Particular attention is centered on how we integrated landscape survey, traditional archaeology and soil studies to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural land use and intensification over a two thousand period. Additionally, we discuss how these results were integrated into remote sensing, hydrological and erosion models to better understand how past changes in available water and productive land compare to what we know about settlement patterns in the Tikal Region over that same time period. We not only describe how the Maya transformed this landscape, but also how the region influenced changing patterns of settlement and land use. We finish this section with a discussion of some of the unique challenges integrating archaeological information to study CNH dynamics during this pilot study. Second, we introduce a new project designed to `scale up' the pilot study for a macro-regional analysis of the lowland Maya landscape. The new project leverages a uniquely sampled LIDAR data set designed to refine measurements of above ground carbon storage. Our new project quantitatively examines these data for evidence for past human activity. Preliminary results offer a promising path for tightly integrating archaeology, natural science, remote sensing and modeling for studying CNH dynamics in the deep and recent past.

  11. Using maya chair during the expulsive phase of delivery and its relation to the lower incidence of episiotomy or perineal tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Quirós

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article is to present the results obtained from the development of a clinical question about using maya obstetric chair during the expulsive phase of delivery and its relation to the lower incidence of episiotomy and perineal tears. In traditional cultures, the women give birth naturally in vertical positions as kneeling, standing, among others. In Western societies, physicians have influenced women will deliver in the supine position, sometimes with legs raised using stirrups. For women of our country is difficult to adopt "alternative" positions that have traditionally been seen as 'normal'. The maya chair is used in the countries of South America, and it appears to be an effective way to prevent perineal tears and the lower incidence of episiotomy duringchildbirth. To carry out this secondary research methodology for clinical practice based on evidence that consists of five steps was used. A question was developed in PICO format (patient, intervention, comparison and observation, then an information search was performed in different databases like Ebsco Host, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline plus, Embase. 30 articles were found, were analyzed according to the criteria set FCL version 2.0, of which only one was close to answering the clinical question. Information was socialized in a formalpresentation by CIEBE-CR. It is conclude that there is insufficient evidence that the use of maya chair during theexpulsive phase of delivery significantly reduces the risk of perianal tear and lower incidence of episiotomy.

  12. A Framework for Designing Collaborative Learning Environments Using Mobile AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Narayan, Vickel; Antonczak, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones provide a powerful platform for augmented reality (AR). Using a smartphone's camera together with the built in GPS, compass, gyroscope, and touch screen enables the real world environment to be overlaid with contextual digital information. The creation of mobile AR environments is relatively simple, with the development of mobile AR…

  13. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in nonthermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Chang, Moo Been

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistency regarding the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a corona discharge has been found in relevant studies. Unlike in the literature to date, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor is adopted in this study. In addition to clarifying whether using Ar as an additive would lead to different types of behavior in a DBD and a corona discharge, this study is also motivated to explore the possible causes leading to the inconsistency. The experimental results show that adding Ar into the O 2 plasma would lead to the same influence on ozone generation in the DBD and corona discharge. Moreover, all types of controversial behavior caused by Ar addition reported in the relevant literature are observed in this study as well, indicating that the results of this study are comprehensive enough to interpret the inconsistency. By examining the experimental results in detail, it is found that the controversial influences of Ar addition on ozone generation were found using different assumptions. At a fixed applied voltage, the ozone generation might increase as the Ar concentration is increased, which results from a higher discharge power. Nevertheless, for a certain specific input energy (the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate), the ozone concentration is lower as the Ar concentration is increased. Therefore, adding Ar is not a good way to enhance ozone generation from an economic point of view.

  14. A phase one AR/C system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachmar, Peter M.; Polutchko, Robert J.; Matusky, Martin; Chu, William; Jackson, William; Montez, Moises

    1991-01-01

    The Phase One AR&C System Design integrates an evolutionary design based on the legacy of previous mission successes, flight tested components from manned Rendezvous and Proximity Operations (RPO) space programs, and additional AR&C components validated using proven methods. The Phase One system has a modular, open architecture with the standardized interfaces proposed for Space Station Freedom system architecture.

  15. Electron temperatures of inductively coupled Cl2-Ar plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, N.C.M.; Donnelly, Vincent M.; Herman, Irving P.

    2002-01-01

    Trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy has been used to measure the electron temperature, T e , in a high-density inductively coupled Cl 2 -Ar plasma at 18 mTorr as function of the 13.56 MHz radio frequency power and Ar fraction. Only the Kr and Xe emission lines were used to determine T e , because of evidence of radiation trapping when the Ar emission lines were also used for larger Ar fractions. At 600 W (10.6 W cm-2), T e increases from ∼4.0±0.5 eV to ∼6.0±2.0 eV as the Ar fraction increases from 1% to 96%. In the H (inductive, bright) mode, T e , for a 'neat' chlorine plasma (including 1% of each He/Ne/Ar/Kr/Xe) increases only slightly from ∼3.8 to 4.0 eV as power increases from 450 to 750 W. This increase is much larger for larger Ar fractions, such as from ∼4.0 to 7.3 eV for 78% Ar. Most of these effects can be understood using the fundamental particle balance equation

  16. AR Expression in Breast Cancer CTCs Associates with Bone Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Nicola; Bardia, Aditya; Wittner, Ben S; Donaldson, Maria C; O'Keefe, Ryan; Engstrom, Amanda; Bersani, Francesca; Zheng, Yu; Comaills, Valentine; Niederhoffer, Kira; Zhu, Huili; Mackenzie, Olivia; Shioda, Toshi; Sgroi, Dennis; Kapur, Ravi; Ting, David T; Moy, Beverly; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Toner, Mehmet; Haber, Daniel A; Maheswaran, Shyamala

    2018-04-01

    Molecular drivers underlying bone metastases in human cancer are not well understood, in part due to constraints in bone tissue sampling. Here, RNA sequencing was performed of circulating tumor cells (CTC) isolated from blood samples of women with metastatic estrogen receptor (ER) + breast cancer, comparing cases with progression in bone versus visceral organs. Among the activated cellular pathways in CTCs from bone-predominant breast cancer is androgen receptor (AR) signaling. AR gene expression is evident, as is its constitutively active splice variant AR-v7. AR expression within CTCs is correlated with the duration of treatment with aromatase inhibitors, suggesting that it contributes to acquired resistance to endocrine therapy. In an established breast cancer xenograft model, a bone-tropic derivative displays increased AR expression, whose genetic or pharmacologic suppression reduces metastases to bone but not to lungs. Together, these observations identify AR signaling in CTCs from women with bone-predominant ER + breast cancer, and provide a rationale for testing androgen inhibitors in this subset of patients. Implications: This study highlights a role for the AR in breast cancer bone metastasis, and suggests that therapeutic targeting of the AR may benefit patients with metastatic breast cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 16(4); 720-7. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. 37Ar monitoring techniques and on-site inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Rongliang; Chen Yinliang; Li Wei; Wang Hongxia; Hao Fanhua

    2001-01-01

    37 Ar is separated, purified and extracted from air sample with a low temperature gas-solid chromatographic purifying method, prepared into a radioactive measurement source and its radioactivity is measured with a proportional counter. Based on the monitoring result, a judgement can be made if an nuclear explosion event has happened recently in a spectabilis area. A series of element techniques that are associated the monitoring of the trace element 37 Ar have been investigated and developed. Those techniques include leaked gas sampling, 37 Ar separation and purification, 37 Ar radioactivity measurement and the on-site inspection of 37 Ar. An advanced 37 Ar monitoring method has been developed, with which 200 liters of air can be treated in 2 hours with sensitivity of 0.01 Bq/L for 37 Ar radioactivity measurement. A practical 37 Ar On-site Inspection system has been developed. This research work may provide technical and equipment support for the verification protection, verification supervision and CTBT verification

  18. Disneyzación, parques temáticos y cultura corporativa en el capitalismo terciario: experiencias Xcaret, Riviera Maya (México)

    OpenAIRE

    Khafash Echevarría, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Esta tesis se propuso desde la perspectiva de la geografía y la antropología demostrar la disneyzación patrimonial recreada, tomando un modelo de negocio corporativo de parques temáticos en pleno auge turístico de la Riviera Maya en México y su hinterland (Experiencias Xcaret), corporativo de parques temáticos. Se propuso igualmente demostrar la expansión de los parques, y algunos efectos territoriales en el contexto de la economía de las experiencias emocionales. Con este objetivo general se...

  19. Los indígenas en ciudades de México: el caso de los mazahuas, otomíes, triquis, zapotecos y mayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Noemí Vargas Becerra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo sintetiza los resultados de la investigación Perfiles de los Indígenas en Ciudades de México diseñada para conocer las características demográficas, sus condiciones de vida, la persistencia cultural y la cultura de la identidad de los mazahuas, otomíes, triquis, mayas y zapotecos en tres configuraciones urbanas distintas: la gran metrópoli, la ciudad de México y su zona metropolitana; zonas industriales como el corredor industrial Minatitlán-Veracruz, y una ciudad turística: Cancún, Quintana Roo.

  20. La ofensa a dios y al rey: el delito de lesa majestad en la rebelión maya-yucateca de 1761

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Castillo Canché

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the criminal proceedings against the main involved in the organization and leadership of the rebellion of 1761 Yucatecan Maya to understand budgets guided criminal prosecutions of the authorities responsible for carrying it out. The criminal-legal perspective of the analysis allows us to suggest that the crime of lese majesty by which accused the leader of the rebellion and his associates, was the legal argument to condemn the death penalty through torture and thereby restore the damage, the especially symbolic that his actions had caused the power and dominion of the king as the direct representative of god on earth.