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Sample records for residues showed accumulation

  1. Accumulation of {sup 14}C-trinitrotoluene and related nonextractable (bound) residues in Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, Jason B., E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Lotufo, Guillerme R. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Fisher, Jonathan C. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Dave R.; Boyd, Robert E.; Sims, Jerre G. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To determine if trinitrotoluene (TNT) forms nonextractable residues in earthworms and to measure the relative degree of accumulation as compared to TNT and its deaminated metabolites, Eisenia fetida was exposed to {sup 14}C-TNT using dermal contact to filter paper or exposure to soil. Nonextractable residues made up 32-68% of total body burden depending on exposure media and depuration time. Parent TNT accounted for less than 3% of radioactivity, while ADNTs accounted for 7-38%. Elimination half-lives were 61-120 h for TNT, ADNTs, and DANTs, which was significantly lower than the half-lives found for nonextractable residues, 201-240 h. However, over 80% of the nonextractable residue was solubilized using weak acid (pH 2). Based on our findings that TNT accumulation occurs primarily as nonextractable residues, which have a longer half-life, and that nonextractable residues can be solubilized, we propose that nonextractable residues could be used as a selective biomarker for assessing TNT contamination. - Highlights: > Trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms primarily occurs as nonextractable residues. > Nonextractable residues have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites. > Nonextractable residue may be useful as a biomarker for exposure to TNT. - The majority of trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms occurs as nonextractable residues that have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites.

  2. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    sativum L.), was studied in three field experiments. The effect of catch crop incorporation in the soil on the yield and N accumulation in succeeding crops was also investigated. An aftersown catch crop should be used for pea, since undersown ryegrasses reduced the pea yield. Undersown perennial ryegrass......The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum...... or an aftersown catch crop can be used for spring barley. The catch crops had accumulated up to 70 kg N ha-1 at the time of ploughdown in early December. The nitrogen accumulation in catch crops following pea was significantly higher than in the catch crop following barley supplied with 100 kg N ha-1. Barley...

  4. Nitrogen accumulation and residual effects of nitrogen catch crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The nitrogen accumulation in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and tansy phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia L.), under- or aftersown as nitrogen catch crops to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and field pea (Pisum...

  5. Drying grain residual annatto by sun combined with drying in dryer with heat accumulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da Costa Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of extraction of the pigment bixin results in a large amount of residual grain annatto. Most of this material is discarded, but you can enjoy it by incorporating it into animal feed and human food. This study aimed to dry grain residual annatto using solar energy. The beans were divided into two batches, one with oil, reproducing conditions of the grains after extraction of bixin oil, and other oil-free. The drying was performed during the day in the concrete base covered with black polythene bag with samples in trays and exposed to the sun; overnight half of the samples was placed in a dryer to dry heat accumulator and the other half was in bench laboratory for control. The grains showed levels of initial and final moisture of about 18% wb and 5% wb, respectively. Use the dryer heat accumulator at night allowed the collection of samples with the moisture ratio below 0.1 in the evening of the first day of drying, while the control samples absorbed water during the night. All models studied showed good fit to experimental data, with values of determination coefficients above 0.95 and average values of the squared deviations of less than 0.1. The diffusivity coefficients were of the order of 10-9 m2 s-1 for all treatments, with the grain samples without oil showing the greatest value.

  6. Accumulation of clenbuterol residues in the hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle during and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijun; Zhang, Junmin; Tang, Chaohua; Zhao, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of clenbuterol residues in the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of clenbuterol for 21 days. This experiment was conducted in six male red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 3). Groups 1 and 2 were administered clenbuterol at a dose of 16 and 48 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day, respectively. Hair samples were collected on Days 7, 14 and 21 during treatment, and on Days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 70 after discontinuation of medication, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. About 500 mg hair samples spiked with 50 pg/mg D9-clenbuterol internal standard were analyzed with which the method recovery was from 88.6 to 116.9%. The results showed that clenbuterol was significantly accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 0.98 ± 0.56 pg/mg in Group 1 and 6.34 ± 3.21 pg/mg in Group 2 on Day 7 of treatment, and the residue concentrations increased as treatment proceeded. During the early withdrawal period, the residues increased from 13.52 ± 8.69 to 17.96 ± 6.94 pg/mg in Group 1 and from 55.15 ± 4.04 to 147.79 ± 15.35 pg/mg in Group 2. No significant differences were found in the later withdrawal period in both treatment groups. The results of the present study indicated that the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle has high accumulation potential for clenbuterol residues. Hair, as a target matrix, even light-pigmented hair, can be used to monitor clenbuterol abuse over a long period.

  7. Residues and accumulation of molinate in rice crops and aquatic weeds in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Sabri Junoh; Nuriati Nurdin; Ramli Ishak

    2002-01-01

    Plant and soil residue levels and its accumulation in rice crops and rice aquatic weed plants were studied. Molinate residue levels in rice, weeds and soil were not significantly different between the recycled and the non-recycled area, even though they were higher in the non-recycled area. In the rice plant, the residue level at 10 DAT (days after treatment) was significantly higher than 30 DAT in the recycled area. In rice aquatic weed plants, the residue level was significantly higher at 10 DAT as compared to 30 DAT in the non-recycled area. Molinate residue levels in soil at 10 DAT and 30 DAT were similar. Molinate accumulated (ratio of molinate concentration in plant over soil) more in the rice crop as compared to rice aquatic weeds at 10 DAT, in both the recycled and the non-recycled areas. (Author)

  8. Maize Iranian mosaic virus shows a descending transcript accumulation order in plant and insect hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortamani, Mozhgan; Massah, Amir; Izadpanah, Keramat

    2018-04-01

    Maize Iranian mosaic virus (MIMV) is a distinct member of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus. In this study, expression of all MIMV genes in maize for four weeks after inoculation and in inoculative planthoppers was examined using a quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay. Accumulation of MIMV P, gene 3, M, G and L transcripts relative to N transcripts was measured and normalized to 18S rRNA in maize plants and to the ribosomal protein S13 gene (RPS13) in planthoppers using the comparative C T method. In plants, higher levels of MIMV N transcripts were found relative to other transcripts, while MIMV L transcripts were at the lowest levels. The highest accumulation of MIMV transcripts was found at 14 days postinoculation (dpi). At 21 dpi, we found the lowest transcript levels for all genes, which increased again at 28 dpi, although in lower amounts than at 14 dpi. In Laodelphax striatellus, MIMV M, G and L transcripts accumulated at lower levels than other transcripts. The gene 3 transcript level was high in both plants and planthoppers. Our results showed that transcript accumulation for the MIMV genes was similar in both hosts and followed the pattern of sequential transcriptional attenuation from the 3' to the 5' end of the genome, similar to vertebrate rhabdoviruses. These results indicate that the regulation of virus gene transcription for this plant-infecting rhabdovirus is similar to that of some vertebrate-infecting rhabdoviruses.

  9. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

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    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  10. Accumulation of ractopamine residues in hair and ocular tissues of animals during and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Vulic, Ana; Persi, Nina; Terzic, Svjetlana; Andrisic, Miroslav; Zarkovic, Irena; Sandor, Ksenija; Perak, Eleonora; Mihaljevic, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine residues in the hair and ocular tissues of guinea pigs during repeated ractopamine administration and after treatment. The experiment was conducted in 38 guinea pigs (30 treated and eight controls). Treated animals were orally administered ractopamine hydrochloride in a dose of 3.5 mg/kg body mass per day using probes for seven consecutive days. Ractopamine concentration was determined in hair during the treatment (Days 1, 3 and 7) with ractopamine hydrochloride and in ocular tissues and hair on defined days after exposure (Days 1, 10, 20 and 30). Residues were present in hair in high concentrations as early as Day 3 (86.15 ± 87.71 ng/g) and Day 7 (85.25 ± 56.97 ng/g). After exposure, residues were found to persist, having depleted from 68.06 ± 30.54 ng/g on Day 1 to 8.01 ± 2.22 ng/g on Day 30, with a significantly higher concentration in hair in contrast to low residue levels in ocular tissues (1.20-0.34 ng/g). The results of the study pointed to high ractopamine accumulation, even in non-pigmented hair, suggesting hair to be used as a matrix in the control of ractopamine abuse in farm animals because of its many advantages over ocular tissues.

  11. Three-Fingered RAVERs: Rapid Accumulation of Variations in Exposed Residues of Snake Venom Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Ali, Syed. A.; Antunes, Agostinho; Fry, Bryan G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid Accumulation of Variations in Exposed Residues (RAVER) to illustrate the significance of point mutations, guided by focal mutagenesis and positive selection in the evolution and diversification of 3FTx. PMID:24253238

  12. Accumulation, Persistence, and Effects of Indospicine Residues in Camels Fed Indigofera Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eddie T T; Al Jassim, Rafat; Cawdell-Smith, A Judy; Ossedryver, Selina M; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Fletcher, Mary T

    2016-08-31

    Indospicine (l-2-amino-6-amidinohexanoic acid) is a natural hepatotoxin found in all parts of some Indigofera plants such as Indigofera linnaei and Indigofera spicata. Several studies have documented a susceptibility to this hepatotoxin in different species of animals, including cattle, sheep, dogs, and rats, which are associated with mild to severe liver disease after prolonged ingestion. However, there is little published data on the effects of this hepatotoxin in camels, even though Indigofera plants are known to be palatable to camels in central Australia. The secondary poisoning of dogs after prolonged dietary exposure to residual indospicine in camel muscle has raised additional food safety concerns. In this study, a feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the in vivo accumulation, excretion, distribution, and histopathological effects of dietary indospicine on camels. Six young camels (2-4 years old), weighing 270-390 kg, were fed daily a roughage diet consisting of Rhodes grass hay and lucerne chaff, supplemented with Indigofera and steam-flaked barley. Indigofera (I. spicata) was offered at 597 mg DM/kg body weight (bw)/day, designed to deliver 337 μg indospicine/kg bw/day, and fed for a period of 32 days. Blood and muscle biopsies were collected over the period of the study. Concentrations of indospicine in the plasma and muscle biopsy samples were quantitated by validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The highest concentrations in plasma (1.01 mg/L) and muscle (2.63 mg/kg fresh weight (fw)) were found at necropsy (day 33). Other tissues were also collected at necropsy, and analysis showed ubiquitous distribution of indospicine, with the highest indospicine accumulation detected in the pancreas (4.86 ± 0.56 mg/kg fw) and liver (3.60 ± 1.34 mg/kg fw), followed by the muscle, heart, and kidney. Histopathological examination of liver tissue showed multiple small foci of predominantly mononuclear

  13. Accumulation of lead and organochlorine residues in captive American kestrels fed pine voles from apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell, Rey C.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Stehn, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Pine voles (Microtus pinetorum) were collected from pesticide-treated orchards in New York and fed to 3 captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) for 60 days to evaluate potential hazards from soil-borne persistent insecticides. Three control kestrels were fed uncontaminated laboratory mice (Mus musculus). The pine voles contained an average of 38 ppm lead, 48 ppm DDE and 1.2 ppm dieldrin (dry weight). The kestrels accumulated sublethal amounts of lead (1 ppm lead wet weight) in their livers. In contrast, DDE and dieldrin accumulated in the tissues and brains of kestrels to toxicologically significant concentrations. Control kestrels remained healthy and accumulated insignificant concentrations of the contaminants. The results indicated raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination by organochlorine pesticides. raptors may not be significantly at risk from lead residues in soil and biota following field applications of lead arsenate. However, sublethal effects may be expected from the level of contamination byorganochlorine pesticides. lead wet weight) in their livers.

  14. Telescopic Vector Composition and Polar Accumulated Motion Residuals for Feature Extraction in Arabic Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaleh K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces two novel approaches for feature extraction applied to video-based Arabic sign language recognition, namely, motion representation through motion estimation and motion representation through motion residuals. In the former, motion estimation is used to compute the motion vectors of a video-based deaf sign or gesture. In the preprocessing stage for feature extraction, the horizontal and vertical components of such vectors are rearranged into intensity images and transformed into the frequency domain. In the second approach, motion is represented through motion residuals. The residuals are then thresholded and transformed into the frequency domain. Since in both approaches the temporal dimension of the video-based gesture needs to be preserved, hidden Markov models are used for classification tasks. Additionally, this paper proposes to project the motion information in the time domain through either telescopic motion vector composition or polar accumulated differences of motion residuals. The feature vectors are then extracted from the projected motion information. After that, model parameters can be evaluated by using simple classifiers such as Fisher's linear discriminant. The paper reports on the classification accuracy of the proposed solutions. Comparisons with existing work reveal that up to 39% of the misclassifications have been corrected.

  15. Telescopic Vector Composition and Polar Accumulated Motion Residuals for Feature Extraction in Arabic Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shanableh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces two novel approaches for feature extraction applied to video-based Arabic sign language recognition, namely, motion representation through motion estimation and motion representation through motion residuals. In the former, motion estimation is used to compute the motion vectors of a video-based deaf sign or gesture. In the preprocessing stage for feature extraction, the horizontal and vertical components of such vectors are rearranged into intensity images and transformed into the frequency domain. In the second approach, motion is represented through motion residuals. The residuals are then thresholded and transformed into the frequency domain. Since in both approaches the temporal dimension of the video-based gesture needs to be preserved, hidden Markov models are used for classification tasks. Additionally, this paper proposes to project the motion information in the time domain through either telescopic motion vector composition or polar accumulated differences of motion residuals. The feature vectors are then extracted from the projected motion information. After that, model parameters can be evaluated by using simple classifiers such as Fisher's linear discriminant. The paper reports on the classification accuracy of the proposed solutions. Comparisons with existing work reveal that up to 39% of the misclassifications have been corrected.

  16. Streptomyces clavuligerus shows a strong association between TCA cycle intermediate accumulation and clavulanic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Junne, Stefan; Nicolás Cruz-Bournazou, Mariano; Neubauer, Peter; Ríos-Estepa, Rigoberto

    2018-05-01

    Clavulanic acid (CA) is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus) as a secondary metabolite. Knowledge about the carbon flux distribution along the various routes that supply CA precursors would certainly provide insights about metabolic performance. In order to evaluate metabolic patterns and the possible accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates during CA biosynthesis, batch and subsequent continuous cultures with steadily declining feed rates were performed with glycerol as the main substrate. The data were used to in silico explore the metabolic capabilities and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in S. clavuligerus. While clavulanic acid accumulated at glycerol excess, it steadily decreased at declining dilution rates; CA synthesis stopped when glycerol became the limiting substrate. A strong association of succinate, oxaloacetate, malate, and acetate accumulation with CA production in S. clavuligerus was observed, and flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to describe the carbon flux distribution in the network. This combined experimental and numerical approach also identified bottlenecks during the synthesis of CA in a batch and subsequent continuous cultivation and demonstrated the importance of this type of methodologies for a more advanced understanding of metabolism; this potentially derives valuable insights for future successful metabolic engineering studies in S. clavuligerus.

  17. A study of neurotoxicity of BHC in relation to residual accumulation on the brain tissue of Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ranjit

    2003-01-01

    Neurotoxic effect of BHC, the organochlorine pesticide in Heteropneustes fossilis has been studied exposing at the dose concentrations of 1 ppm, 5 ppm and 10 ppm in lab aquarium for 96 hours over a period of one year. The results showed the behavioural abnormalities in different exposure concentrations such as dysfunction of endocrine gland, excretion of mucus, dispigmentation, sign of restlessness, erratic swimming with rapid jurkey movement, spiralling and convolution showing severe effect in central nervous system. Therefore an attempt has been made for monitoring of BHC residues viz. alpha, beta, gamma isomers in the brain tissue exposed to different sublethal concentrations using Gas liquid chromatography. The mean values of isomers were found to be 1.587 microg/gm for 1 ppm, 2.993 microg/gm for 5 ppm and 3.78 microg/gm for 10 ppm test group. Severe behavioural abnormalities were recorded at high dose concentration of pesticides with higher accumulation of pesticide residues in brain tissue.

  18. Metals accumulations during thermal processing of sewage sludge - characterization of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Monika; Kowalski, Piotr R.; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing mass of sewage sludge, problems in its management have appeared. Over years sewage sludge was landfilled, however due to EU directives concerning environmental issues this option is no longer possible. This type of material is considered hazardous due to highly concentrated metals and harmful elements, toxic organic substances and biological components (e.g. parasites, microbes). Currently in Europe, incineration is considered to be the most reasonable method for sewage sludge treatment. As a result of sludge incineration significant amount of energy is recovered due to high calorific value of sewage sludge but bottom ash and APC residues are being produced. In this study we show the preliminary results of chemical and mineral analyses of both bottom ash and APC residues produced in fluidized bed boiler in sewage sludge incineration plant in Poland, with a special emphasis on metals which, as a part of incombustible fraction can accumulate in the residual materials after thermal processing. The bottom ash was a SiO2-P2O5-Fe2O3-CaO-Al2O3 dominated material. Main mineral phases identified in X-ray diffraction patterns were: quartz, feldspar, hematite, and phosphates (apatite and scholzite). The bottom ash was characterized by high content of Zn - 4472 mg kg-1, Cu - 665.5 mg kg-1, Pb - 138 mg kg-1, Ni - 119.5 mg kg-1, and interestingly high content of Au - 0.858 mg kg-1 The APC residues composition was dominated by soluble phases which represent more than 90% of the material. The XRD patterns indicated thenardite, halite, anhydrite, calcite and apatite as main mineral phases. The removal of soluble phases by dissolution in deionised water caused a significant mass reduction (ca. 3% of material remained on the filters). Calcite, apatite and quartz were main identified phases. The content of metals in insoluble material is relatively high: Zn - 6326 mg kg-1, Pb - 514.3 mg kg-1, Cu - 476.6 mg kg-1, Ni - 43.3 mg kg-1. The content of Cd, As, Se and Hg was

  19. Isolation of baker's yeast mutants with proline accumulation that showed enhanced tolerance to baking-associated stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolmonbaatar, Ariunzaya; Hashida, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yukiko; Watanabe, Daisuke; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-12-05

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to baking-associated stresses such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high-sucrose concentrations. Previously, we reported that self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in both frozen and sweet doughs than the wild-type strain. Although self-cloning yeasts do not have to be treated as genetically modified yeasts, the conventional methods for breeding baker's yeasts are more acceptable to consumers than the use of self-cloning yeasts. In this study, we isolated mutants resistant to the proline analogue azetidine-2-carboxylate (AZC) derived from diploid baker's yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular proline, and among them, 5 mutants showed higher cell viability than that observed in the parent wild-type strain under freezing or high-sucrose stress conditions. Two of them carried novel mutations in the PRO1 gene encoding the Pro247Ser or Glu415Lys variant of γ-glutamyl kinase (GK), which is a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, we found that these mutations resulted in AZC resistance of yeast cells and desensitization to proline feedback inhibition of GK, leading to intracellular proline accumulation. Moreover, baker's yeast cells expressing the PRO1 P247S and PRO1 E415K gene were more tolerant to freezing stress than cells expressing the wild-type PRO1 gene. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of proline-accumulating baker's yeasts with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Triclosan exhibits a tendency to accumulate in the epididymis and shows sperm toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Zhou; Hyung Kim, Tae; Shun Bi, Kai; Hui Chen, Xiao; Sik Kim, Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is considered a potent endocrine disruptor that causes reproductive toxicity in non-mammals, but it is still unclear exactly whether TCS has adverse effects on the sperm or reproductive organs in mammals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the distribution status of TCS in male reproductive organs of rats, and seek the correlation with the TCS-induced sperm toxicity or reproductive organ damage. Male rats were intragastrically administered with TCS at a dose of 50 mg/kg, the kinetics of TCS in the plasma and reproductive organs were investigated. TCS in testes and prostates both showed a lower-level distribution compared to that in the plasma, which indicates it has no tendency to accumulate in those organs. However, TCS in the epididymides showed a longer elimination half-life (t1/2 z), a longer the mean retention time (MRT), and a lower clearance (CLZ /F) compared with those in the plasma. Besides, the ratios of mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)(0-96 h(epididymides/plasma)) and AUC(0-∞(epididymides/plasma)) were 1.13 and 1.51, respectively. These kinetic parameters suggest TCS has an accumulation tendency in the epididymides. Based on this, we investigated the TCS-induced sperm toxicity and histopathological changes of reproductive organs in rats. TCS was given intragastrically at doses of 10, 50, and 200 mg/kg for 8 weeks. Rats treated with the high dose (200 mg/kg) of TCS showed a significant decrease in daily sperm production (DSP), changes in sperm morphology and epididymal histopathology. Considering the histopathological change in the epididymides, TCS may induce the epididymal damage due to the epididymal accumulation of that. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Accumulation of pesticide residues by shrimp, fish and brine shrimp during pond culture at Ghorabari (District Thatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, R.; Wajeeha, F.A.; Ameer, F.; Munshi, A.B.; Nasir, M.

    2012-01-01

    Residual level of persistent organo chlorines (OC) such as sigma-HCH (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, sigma-DDT (o,p'-DDD, op-DDE, p,p-DDE pp-DDD, pp'-DDT, o,p'-DDT), dieldrin and endrin were measured in a number of water samples from Ambro creek and their accumulation in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and P. penicillatus), fish (Otolithes ruber) and brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) reared in ponds for a period of four months. Samples were extracted with organic solvents, and quantified using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC/ECD). It has been found that results of animal tissue and water are not same however OCs, (mainly sigma DT and beta-HCH 4,4-DDT, Dieldrin + 2,4-DDT, and Methoxychlor were detected in all samples ). Heptachlor exo-epoxide were found in fish and Artemia sp. and absent in all shrimp samples. Heptachlor endo-epoxide was detected only in Artemia sp. and average residual concentration of OCs in Artemia sp. was 0.004-0.09 ppm. Methoxychlor was found in the highest quantity in all the samples whether it was fish, shrimp or Artemia. In fish average residual concentration of all (OCs) in individual sample was 0.03 - 0.180 ppm. (author)

  2. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  3. Utilization of agricultural residues of pineapple peels and sugarcane bagasse as cost-saving raw materials in Scenedesmus acutus for lipid accumulation and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanapoltee, Panida; Kaewkannetra, Pakawadee

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to optimize the lipid accumulation in microalgae by using two agricultural residues of pineapple peels and sugarcane bagasse as low-cost organic carbon sources. Green microalgae Scenedesmus acutus was isolated and selected for cultivation. Effects of three initial sugar concentrations and the stage for adding sugar during cultivation on biomass and lipid production were investigated. The results clearly showed that two-stage cultivation is more suitable than one-stage. The maximum biomass concentration and productivity were obtained at 3.85 g/L and 160.42 mg/L/day when sugarcane bagasse was used. The highest lipid content and lipid yield was reached at 28.05 % and 0.93 g/L when pineapple peels were used, while in the case of sugarcane bagasse, 40.89 % and 1.24 g/L lipid content and yield were obtained. Lipid content was found in normal condition (autotrophic) at 17.71 % which was approximately 2.13-fold lower than when sugarcane bagasse was used (40.89 %). Biodiesel production via in situ transesterification was also investigated; the main fatty acids of palmitic acid and oleic acid were found. This work indicates that using agricultural residues as organic carbon sources could be able to increase lipid content and reduce the cost of biofuel production.

  4. Accumulation of coal combustion residues and their immunological effects in the yellow-bellied slider (Trachemys scripta scripta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, David L; Hamilton, Matthew T; Jones, Amanda L; Finger, John W; Bringolf, Robert B; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic activities such as industrial processes often produce copious amounts of contaminants that have the potential to negatively impact growth, survival, and reproduction of exposed wildlife. Coal combustion residues (CCRs) represent a major source of pollutants globally, resulting in the release of potentially harmful trace elements such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) into the environment. In the United States, CCRs are typically stored in aquatic settling basins that may become attractive nuisances to wildlife. Trace element contaminants, such as CCRs, may pose a threat to biota yet little is known about their sublethal effects on reptiles. To assess the effects of CCR exposure in turtles, we sampled 81 yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta) in 2014-2015 from CCR-contaminated and uncontaminated reference wetlands located on the Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC, USA). Specific aims were to (1) compare the accumulation of trace elements in T. s. scripta claw and blood samples between reference and CCR-contaminated site types, (2) evaluate potential immunological effects of CCRs via bacterial killing assays and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) assays, and (3) quantify differences in hemogregarine parasite loads between site types. Claw As, Cd, copper (Cu), and Se (all p ≤ 0.001) and blood As, Cu, Se, and strontium (Sr; p ≤ 0.015) were significantly elevated in turtles from CCR-contaminated wetlands compared to turtles from reference wetlands. Turtles from reference wetlands exhibited lower bacterial killing (p = 0.015) abilities than individuals from contaminated sites but neither PHA responses (p = 0.566) nor parasite loads (p = 0.980) differed by site type. Despite relatively high CCR body burdens, sliders did not exhibit apparent impairment of immunological response or parasite load. In addition, the high correlation between claw and blood concentrations within individuals suggests that nonlethal tissue sampling may be

  5. Synchrotron-based Infrared and X-ray Imaging Shows Focalized Accumulation of Cu and Zn Co-localized With Beta-amyloid Deposits in Alzheimer's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.; Wang, Q.; Telivala, T.; Smith, R.; Lanzirotti, A.; Miklossy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the misfolding and plaque-like accumulation of a naturally occurring peptide in the brain called amyloid beta (Abeta). Recently, this process has been associated with the binding of metal ions such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). It is thought that metal dyshomeostasis is involved in protein misfolding and may lead to oxidative stress and neuronal damage. However, the exact role of the misfolded proteins and metal ions in the degenerative process of AD is not yet clear. In this study, we used synchrotron Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIRM) to image the in situ secondary structure of the amyloid plaques in brain tissue of AD patients. These results were spatially correlated with metal ion accumulation in the same tissue sample using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe. For both techniques, a spatial resolution of 5-10 microm was achieved. FTIRM results showed that the amyloid plaques have elevated beta-sheet content, as demonstrated by a strong amide I absorbance at 1625cm(-1). Using SXRF microprobe, we find that AD tissue also contains 'hot spots' of accumulated metal ions, specifically Cu and Zn, with a strong spatial correlation between these two ions. The 'hot spots' of accumulated Zn and Cu were co-localized with beta-amyloid plaques. Thus for the first time, a strong spatial correlation has been observed between elevated beta-sheet content in Abeta plaques and accumulated Cu and Zn ions, emphasizing an association of metal ions with amyloid formation in AD

  6. Modeling of the fatigue damage accumulation processes in the material of NPP design units under thermomechanical unstationary effects. Estimation of spent life and forecast of residual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriushin, A.I.; Korotkikh, Yu.G.; Gorodov, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The estimation problems of spent life and forecast of residual life of NPP equipment design units, operated at unstationary thermal force loads are considered. These loads are, as a rule, unregular and cause rotation of main stress tensor platforms of the most loaded zones of structural elements and viscoelastic plastic deformation of material in the places of stresses concentrations. The existing engineering approaches to the damages accumulation processes calculation in the material of structural units, their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. For the processes of fatigue damages accumulation a model is proposed, which allows to take into account the unregular pattern of deformation multiaxiality of stressed state, rotation of main platforms, non-linear summation of damages at the loading mode change. The model in based on the equations of damaged medium mechanics, including the equations of viscoplastic deformation of the material and evolutionary equations of damages accumulation. The algorithms of spent life estimation and residual life forecast of the controlled equipment and systems zones are made on the bases of the given model by the known real history of loading, which is determined by real model of NPP operation. The results of numerical experiments on the basis of given model for various processes of thermal force loads and their comparison with experimental results are presented. (author)

  7. Heavy Metal Residues in Soil and Accumulation in Maize at Long-Term Wastewater Irrigation Area in Tongliao, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yintao Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil and plant samples were collected from Tongliao, China, during the maize growth cycle between May and October 2010. Heavy metals, such as Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn, were analyzed. The concentrations of Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn in the wastewater-irrigated area were higher than those in the topsoil from the groundwater-irrigated area. The concentrations of metals in the maize increased as follows: Pb < Ni < Zn < Cr. In addition, Cr, Pb, and Ni mainly accumulated in the maize roots, and Zn mainly accumulated in the maize fruit. The results of translocation factors (TF and bioconcentration factors (BCF of maize for heavy metals revealed that maize is an excluder plant and a potential accumulator plant and can serve as an ideal slope remediation plant. In addition, the increasing heavy metal contents in soils that have been polluted by wastewater irrigation must result in the accumulation of Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn in maize. Thus, the pollution level can be decreased by harvesting and disposing of and recovering the plant material.

  8. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  9. Transgenic Bt cotton driven by the green tissue-specific promoter shows strong toxicity to lepidopteran pests and lower Bt toxin accumulation in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhu, Yi; Sun, Lin; Li, Lebin; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-02-01

    A promoter of the PNZIP (Pharbitis nil leucine zipper) gene (1.459 kb) was cloned from Pharbitis nil and fused to the GUS (β-glucuronidase) and Bacillus thuringiensis endotoxin (Cry9C) genes. Several transgenic PNZIP::GUS and PNZIP::Cry9C cotton lines were developed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Strong GUS staining was detected in the green tissues of the transgenic PNZIP::GUS cotton plants. In contrast, GUS staining in the reproductive structures such as petals, anther, and immature seeds of PNZIP::GUS cotton was very faint. Two transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C lines and one transgenic cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S::Cry9C line were selected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and insect bioassays. Expression of the Cry9C protein in the 35S::Cry9C line maintained a high level in most tissues ranging from 24.6 to 45.5 μg g(-1) fresh weight. In green tissues such as the leaves, boll rinds, and bracts of the PNZIP::Cry9C line, the Cry9C protein accumulated up to 50.2, 39.7, and 48.3 μg g(-1) fresh weight respectively. In contrast, seeds of the PNZIP::Cry9C line (PZ1.3) accumulated only 0.26 μg g(-1) fresh weight of the Cry9C protein, which was 100 times lower than that recorded for the seeds of the CaMV 35S::Cry9C line. The insect bioassay showed that the transgenic PNZIP::Cry9C cotton plant exhibited strong resistance to both the cotton bollworm and the pink bollworm. The PNZIP promoter could effectively drive Bt toxin expression in green tissues of cotton and lower accumulated levels of the Bt protein in seeds. These features should allay public concerns about the safety of transgenic foods. We propose the future utility of PNZIP as an economical, environmentally friendly promoter in cotton biotechnology.

  10. Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP showed complexity of rutin biosynthesis and accumulation in seeds of a nutraceutical food crop (Fagopyrum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nidhi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buckwheat, consisting of two cultivated species Fagopyrum tataricum and F. esculentum, is the richest source of flavonoid rutin. Vegetative tissues of both the Fagopyrum species contain almost similar amount of rutin; however, rutin content in seed of F. tataricum are ~50 folds of that in seed of F. esculentum. In order to understand the molecular basis of high rutin content in F. tataricum, differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP has been utilized to decipher what genetic factors in addition to flavonoid structural genes contribute to high rutin content of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. Results Differential transcript profiling through cDNA-AFLP in seed maturing stages (inflorescence to seed maturation with 32 primer combinations generated total of 509 transcript fragments (TDFs. 167 TDFs were then eluted, cloned and sequenced from F. tataricum and F. esculentum. Categorization of TDFs on the basis of their presence/absence (qualitative variation or differences in the amount of expression (quantitative variation between both the Fagopyrum species showed that majority of variants are quantitative (64%. The TDFs represented genes controlling different biological processes such as basic and secondary metabolism (33%, regulation (18%, signal transduction (14%, transportation (13%, cellular organization (10%, and photosynthesis & energy (4%. Most of the TDFs except belonging to cellular metabolism showed relatively higher transcript abundance in F. tataricum over F. esculentum. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine TDFs representing genes involved in regulation, metabolism, signaling and transport of secondary metabolites showed that all the tested nine TDFs (Ubiquitin protein ligase, ABC transporter, sugar transporter except MYB 118 showed significantly higher expression in early seed formation stage (S7 of F. tataricum compared to F. esculentum. qRT-PCR results were found to be consistent with the c

  11. Cells deficient in PARP-1 show an accelerated accumulation of DNA single strand breaks, but not AP sites, over the PARP-1-proficient cells exposed to MMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachkowski, Brian F; Tano, Keizo; Afonin, Valeriy; Elder, Rhoderick H; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a base excision repair (BER) protein that binds to DNA single strand breaks (SSBs) and subsequently synthesizes and transfers poly(ADP-ribose) polymers to various nuclear proteins. Numerous biochemical studies have implicated PARP-1 as a modulator of BER; however, the role of PARP-1 in BER in living cells remains unclear partly due to lack of accurate quantitation of BER intermediates existing in cells. Since DT40 cells, chicken B lymphocytes, naturally lack PARP-2, DT40 cells allow for the investigation of the PARP-1 null phenotype without confounding by PARP-2. To test the hypothesis that PARP-1 is necessary for efficient BER during methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) exposure in vertebrate cells, intact DT40 cells and their isogenic PARP-1 null counterparts were challenged with different exposure scenarios for phenotypic characterization. With chronic exposure, PARP-1 null cells exhibited sensitivity to MMS but with an acute exposure did not accumulate base lesions or AP sites to a greater extent than wild-type cells. However, an increase in SSB content in PARP-1 null cell DNA, as indicated by glyoxal gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions, suggested the presence of BER intermediates. These data suggest that during exposure, PARP-1 impacts the stage of BER after excision of the deoxyribosephosphate moiety from the 5' end of DNA strand breaks by polymerase beta.

  12. Polyamines in spermatocytes and residual bodies of rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Masashi; Larsson, Lars-Inge; Fujiwara, Kunio

    2007-01-01

    strongly suggest that the small bodies correspond to the residual bodies, and agree with previous results showing localization of PAs to ribosomes in neurons and gastrointestinal epithelial cells. The accumulation of PAs in residual bodies may reflect a termination of their role in spermiogenesis...

  13. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  14. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Someya, Masayuki; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach

    2004-01-01

    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs∼HCB∼TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children

  15. Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

  16. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  17. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  18. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  19. Fate of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid residues in grapes and wine by GC-ITMS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Schirra, Mario; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2011-06-22

    The behavior in field and the transfer from grapes to wine during winemaking of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid was studied. The residue levels found in grapes were far below the MRLs set for grapes in EU, accounting at harvest time 0.81, 0.43, and 4.23 mg/kg for iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid, respectively. The residue levels in the samples treated with boscalid may have residual problems (due to an accumulation effect) if repeated field treatments will be performed. Winemaking experiments showed a complete transfer of all pesticide from grapes to the must, while in wine the residues were low or negligible due to the adsorbing effect of lees and pomace. The clarification experiments showed a good removal of pesticide residues from the wine media, for all pesticides. The GC-ITMS method showed good performance with adequate recoveries ranging from 75 to 115%, and good method limits of quantitation (LOQs) and of determination (LODs) far below MRLs.

  20. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  1. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  2. Residual glycosaminoglycan accumulation in mitral and aortic valves of a patient with attenuated MPS I (Scheie syndrome after 6 years of enzyme replacement therapy: Implications for early diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Sato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS is an inherited metabolic disease caused by deficiency of the enzymes needed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG degradation. MPS type I is caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-l-iduronidase and is classified into Hurler syndrome, Scheie syndrome, and Hurler–Scheie syndrome based on disease severity and onset. Cardiac complications such as left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac valve disease, and coronary artery disease are often observed in MPS type I. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT has been available for MPS type I, but the efficacy of this treatment for cardiac valve disease is unknown. We report on a 56-year-old female patient with attenuated MPS I (Scheie syndrome who developed aortic and mitral stenosis and coronary artery narrowing. The cardiac valve disease progressed despite ERT and she finally underwent double valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting. The pathology of the cardiac valves revealed GAG accumulation and lysosomal enlargement in both the mitral and aortic valves. Zebra body formation was also confirmed using electron microscopy. Our results suggest that ERT had limited efficacy in previously established cardiac valve disease. Early diagnosis and initiation of ERT is crucial to avoid further cardiac complications in MPS type I.

  3. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  4. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  5. Accumulation of 210Po by benthic marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvea, R.C.; Branco, M.E.C.; Santos, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of polonium 210 Po by various species of benthic marine seaweeds collected from 4 different points on the coast of Rio de Janeiro, showed variations by species and algal groups. The highest value found was in red alga, Plocamium brasiliensis followed by other organisms of the same group. In the group of the brown alga, the specie Sargassum stenophylum was outstanding. The Chlorophyta presented the lowest content of 210 Po. The algae collected in open sea, revealed greater concentration factors of 210 Po than the same species living in bays. The siliceous residue remaining after mineralization of the algae did not interfere with the detection of polonium. (author)

  6. WEALTH TAXATION AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Katrine Marie Tofthøj; Jakobsen, Kristian Thor; Kleven, Henrik

    on the moderately wealthy. We develop a simple lifecycle model with utility of residual wealth (bequests) allowing us to interpret the evidence in terms of structural primitives. We calibrate the model to the quasi-experimental moments and simulate the model forward to estimate the long-run effect of wealth taxes......Using administrative wealth records from Denmark, we study the effects of wealth taxes on wealth accumulation. Denmark used to impose one of the world's highest marginal tax rates on wealth, but this tax was drastically reduced and ultimately abolished between 1989 and 1997. Due to the specific...

  7. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  8. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  9. Changes in the physiological properties and kinetics of citric acid accumulation via carbon ion irradiation mutagenesis of Aspergillus niger *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Chen, Ji-hong; Wang, Shu-yang; Liu, Jing; Song, Yuan; Wu, Qing-feng; Li, Wen-jian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to produce citric acid from corn starch using a newly isolated mutant of Aspergillus niger, and to analyze the relationship between changes in the physiological properties of A. niger induced by carbon ion irradiation and citric acid accumulation. Our results showed that the physiological characteristics of conidia in A. niger were closely related to citric acid accumulation and that lower growth rate and viability of conidia may be beneficial to citric acid accumulation. Using corn starch as a raw material, a high-yielding citric acid mutant, named HW2, was obtained. In a 10-L bioreactor, HW2 can accumulate 118.9 g/L citric acid with a residual total sugar concentration of only 14.4 g/L. This represented an 18% increase in citric acid accumulation and a 12.5% decrease in sugar utilization compared with the original strain.

  10. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  11. STUDY OF ASPHALT BINDER OIL RESIDUE AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ASH TO BE USED IN LOW TRAFFIC PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michéle Dal Toé Casagrande

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The great generation of urban solid has been a concern in several countries. This work presents a study with two materials: the asphalt binder oil residue accumulated in the bottom of asphalt tanks and the municipal solid waste ash, to be used, respectively, as a substitute of conventional binder in asphalt mixtures and for soil stabilization in pavements base layers. Were evaluated properties as the mechanical behavior of the mixtures through experimental tests. The results show the potential of incorporating these residues for low traffic roads, allowing the construction of low cost roads and an environmental use of the residue.

  12. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  13. HPLC-MS/MS analyses show that the near-Starchless aps1 and pgm leaves accumulate wild type levels of ADPglucose: further evidence for the occurrence of important ADPglucose biosynthetic pathway(s alternative to the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Bahaji

    Full Text Available In leaves, it is widely assumed that starch is the end-product of a metabolic pathway exclusively taking place in the chloroplast that (a involves plastidic phosphoglucomutase (pPGM, ADPglucose (ADPG pyrophosphorylase (AGP and starch synthase (SS, and (b is linked to the Calvin-Benson cycle by means of the plastidic phosphoglucose isomerase (pPGI. This view also implies that AGP is the sole enzyme producing the starch precursor molecule, ADPG. However, mounting evidence has been compiled pointing to the occurrence of important sources, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, of ADPG. To further explore this possibility, in this work two independent laboratories have carried out HPLC-MS/MS analyses of ADPG content in leaves of the near-starchless pgm and aps1 mutants impaired in pPGM and AGP, respectively, and in leaves of double aps1/pgm mutants grown under two different culture conditions. We also measured the ADPG content in wild type (WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid two different ADPG cleaving enzymes, and in aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC, a bacterial AGP. Furthermore, we measured the ADPG content in ss3/ss4/aps1 mutants impaired in starch granule initiation and chloroplastic ADPG synthesis. We found that, irrespective of their starch contents, pgm and aps1 leaves, WT and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid ADPG cleaving enzymes, and aps1 leaves expressing in the plastid GlgC accumulate WT ADPG content. In clear contrast, ss3/ss4/aps1 leaves accumulated ca. 300 fold-more ADPG than WT leaves. The overall data showed that, in Arabidopsis leaves, (a there are important ADPG biosynthetic pathways, other than the pPGI-pPGM-AGP pathway, (b pPGM and AGP are not major determinants of intracellular ADPG content, and (c the contribution of the chloroplastic ADPG pool to the total ADPG pool is low.

  14. Induced Plant Accumulation of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kavanagh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium’s (Li value has grown exponentially since the development of Li-ion batteries. It is usually accessed in one of two ways: hard rock mineral mining or extraction from mineral-rich brines. Both methods are expensive and require a rich source of Li. This paper examines the potential of agro-mining as an environmentally friendly, economically viable process for extracting Li from low grade ore. Agro-mining exploits an ability found in few plant species, to accumulate substantial amounts of metals in the above ground parts of the plant. Phyto-mined metals are then retrieved from the incinerated plants. Although the actual amount of metal collected from a crop may be low, the process has been shown to be profitable. We have investigated the suitability of several plant species including: Brassica napus and Helianthus annuus, as Li-accumulators under controlled conditions. Large plant trials were carried out with/without chelating agents to encourage Li accumulation. The question we sought to answer was, can any of the plant species investigated accumulate Li at levels high enough to justify using them to agro-mine Li. Results show maximum accumulated levels of >4000 mg/kg Li in some species. Our data suggests that agro-mining of Li is a potentially viable process.

  15. Analysis of Residual DSBs in Ataxia-Telangiectasia Lymphoblast Cells Initiating Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Anglada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the relationship between accumulation of residual DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and cell death, we have used a control and an ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated defective cell line, as Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT cells tend to accumulate residual DSBs at long times after damage infliction. After irradiation, AT cells showed checkpoint impairment and a fraction of cells displayed an abnormal centrosome number and tetraploid DNA content, and this fraction increased along with apoptosis rates. At all times analyzed, AT cells displayed a significantly higher rate of radiation-induced apoptosis than normal cells. Besides apoptosis, 70–85% of the AT viable cells (TUNEL-negative carried ≥10 γH2AX foci/cell, while only 12–27% of normal cells did. The fraction of AT and normal cells undergoing early and late apoptosis were isolated by flow cytometry and residual DSBs were concretely scored in these populations. Half of the γH2AX-positive AT cells undergoing early apoptosis carried ≥10 γH2AX foci/cell and this fraction increased to 75% in late apoptosis. The results suggest that retention of DNA damage-induced γH2AX foci is an indicative of lethal DNA damage, as cells undergoing apoptosis are those accumulating more DSBs. Scoring of residual γH2AX foci might function as a predictive tool to assess radiation-induced apoptosis.

  16. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    amount of 1% over the live weight + 10% of intake. The results of the first phase of the research, for steers supplemented in pasture, showed good acceptability and consumption in the three levels of substitution, with an average of 3.0 kg of concentrate per head. No rejection was observed for consumption of the mixture, as well as any physiological negative / change and clinical levels tested The pine cone (strobilus without the pine nuts (seeds was obtained as a residue of genetically improved seed collection. Likely source of tannins and fiber, dried and triturated pine cones can contribute to lower production costs due to the substitution of an ingredient in feed formulation, as an aid in control of internal parasites and also in the possible mitigation of methane gas production, resulting from digestion of ruminants, one of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. The potential use of pine cone as an ingredient in replacement of roughage and concentrate in the diet of ruminants qualifies as a new source of revenue in pine forestry activity, since no such product currently has no commercial value timber and its accumulation along the dried leaves among the trees, increase the risk of forest fires. Finally, these technological and social innovations result in remarkable potential to leverage Regional Programs Sustainable Development.

  17. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  18. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    weeks of decomposition, due to high rates of residue N net mineralization and subsequent leaching and denitrification losses of N. Lysimeter experiments showed that pea residues may reduce leaching losses of N, probably due to their effect on the mineralization-immobilizalion turnover of N...... and denitrification. Winter barley succeeding field pea recovered 13% of the incorporated pea residue N by early December; the recovery was found to be 15% at maturity in July. A spring-sown crop of barley recovered less than half the amount of pea residue N recovered by winter barley. The residue N-use efficiencies...

  19. Leg fluid accumulation during prolonged sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Rubianto, Jonathan; Popovic, Milos; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2016-08-01

    The accumulation of fluid in the legs due to sedentariness can be a health risk in extreme cases. Negative health impacts associated with leg fluid accumulation include leg edema and risk of blood clots. Furthermore, fluid accumulating in the legs is accompanied by fluid shift into the upper body which is also associated with health risks such as: increased blood pressure when lying down, respiratory problems in people with heart failure, and increased sleep apnea. Understanding the pattern by which fluid accumulates in the legs can aid in the development of devices for reducing leg fluid accumulation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the time course of fluid accumulation over a two-and-half-hour seated period. Non-obese participants with sleep apnea and no other co-morbidities were included in the sample as part of a larger study. Leg fluid was measured continuously using a method of bioelectrical impedance. Participants were first asked to lie supine for 30 minutes as a washout, and then sat with their legs still for two and a half hours. The main finding of this study is that the pattern of leg fluid accumulation differed in the first 45 minutes compared to the latter 105 minutes. In the first 45 minutes, fluid accumulated according to first order exponential function. In the latter period, fluid accumulated according to a linear function. The initial exponential accumulation is likely due to the large increase in capillary pressure caused by rapid blood flow into the legs due to gravity, leading to substantial filtration of blood plasma into the tissue spaces. The latter linear portion likely represents continued slow filtration of fluid out of the vasculature and into the tissue spaces. This is the first study to show that fluid accumulation in the legs is a combination of an exponential and linear functions. The linear increase identifies that there is no foreseeable point in which leg fluid stops accumulating while sitting for prolonged periods.

  20. D-Ser-containing humanin shows promotion of fibril formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanehiro; Sasabe, Jumpei; Chiba, Tomohiro; Aiso, Sadakazu; Utsunomiya-Tate, Naoko

    2012-06-01

    Humanin (HN), a peptide of 24 amino acid residues, suppresses the neuronal cell death that is induced by the gene products of Alzheimer's disease. HN contains two Ser residues at positions 7 and 14. Because the proportion of D-Ser isomerized from L-Ser in proteins appears to increase as cellular organs age, we explored the structural effects of the isomerization of each Ser residue in HN. By using a thioflavin-T assay to detect fibril formation, we found that an HN derivative that contained two isomerized D-Ser residues had a greater tendency to form fibrils than did wild-type HN or HNs containing single D-Ser residues. A previous report showed that HN containing two D-Ser residues exerts neuroprotective activity. Our data, therefore, suggest that the fibril formation by HN that contains two D-Ser residues may promote HN neuroprotective activity.

  1. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  2. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  3. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  4. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  5. Physics Reality Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana

    The attention span of K-12 students is very short; they are used to digesting information in short snippets through social media and TV. To get the students interested in physics, we created the Physics Reality Show: a series of staged short videos with duration no longer than a few minutes. Each video explains and illustrates one physics concept or law through a fast-paced sequence of physics demonstrations and experiments. The cast consists entirely of physics undergraduate students with artistic abilities and substantial experience in showing physics demonstrations at current outreach events run by the department: Physics Shows and Physics & Engineering Festival. Undergraduate students are of almost the same age as their high-school audience. They are in the best position to connect with kids and convey their fascination with physics. The PI and other faculty members who are involved in the outreach advise and coach the cast. They help students in staging the episodes and choosing the most exciting and relevant demonstrations. Supported by the APS mini-outreach Grant.

  6. Magnetic Barkhausen Noise and Neutron Diffraction Techniques for the Study of Intergranular Residual Strains in Mild Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutanu, Roxana; Clapham, Lynann; Rogge, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Intergranular residual stresses (IS) are microscopic residual stresses which have been found to accumulate along the direction in steels. The direction is also the magnetic easy axis direction in steel. This work involved Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) studies on steel samples, deformed uniaxially to increasing levels of strain. The MBN results indicated that a bulk magnetic easy axis was produced by the deformation process, and neutron diffraction experiments showed that this easy axis was correlated with the tensile strain in grains oriented in the direction

  7. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  8. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  9. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  10. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  11. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  12. High-field penning-malmberg trap: confinement properties and use in positron accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.H.

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation reports on the development of the 60 kG cryogenic positron trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and compares the trap`s confinement properties with other nonneutral plasma devices. The device is designed for the accumulation of up to 2{times}10{sup 9} positrons from a linear-accelerator source. This positron plasma could then be used in Bhabha scattering experiments. Initial efforts at time-of-flight accumulation of positrons from the accelerator show rapid ({approximately}100 ms) deconfinement, inconsistent with the long electron lifetimes. Several possible deconfinement mechanisms have been explored, including annihilation on residual gas, injection heating, rf noise from the accelerator, magnet field curvature, and stray fields. Detailed studies of electron confinement demonstrate that the empirical scaling law used to design the trap cannot be extrapolated into the parameter regime of this device. Several possible methods for overcoming these limitations are presented.

  13. Spectrum Fatigue Lifetime and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAHL, NEIL K.; MANDELL, JOHN F.; SAMBORSKY, DANIEL D.

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses the effects of spectrum loading on lifetime and residual strength of a typical fiberglass laminate configuration used in wind turbine blade construction. Over 1100 tests have been run on laboratory specimens under a variety of load sequences. Repeated block loading at two or more load levels, either tensile-tensile, compressive-compressive, or reversing, as well as more random standard spectra have been studied. Data have been obtained for residual strength at various stages of the lifetime. Several lifetime prediction theories have been applied to the results. The repeated block loading data show lifetimes that are usually shorter than predicted by the most widely used linear damage accumulation theory, Miner's sum. Actual lifetimes are in the range of 10 to 20 percent of predicted lifetime in many cases. Linear and nonlinear residual strength models tend to fit the data better than Miner's sum, with the nonlinear providing a better fit of the two. Direct tests of residual strength at various fractions of the lifetime are consistent with the residual strength models. Load sequencing effects are found to be insignificant. The more a spectrum deviates from constant amplitude, the more sensitive predictions are to the damage law used. The nonlinear model provided improved correlation with test data for a modified standard wind turbine spectrum. When a single, relatively high load cycle was removed, all models provided similar, though somewhat non-conservative correlation with the experimental results. Predictions for the full spectrum, including tensile and compressive loads were slightly non-conservative relative to the experimental data, and accurately captured the trend with varying maximum load. The nonlinear residual strength based prediction with a power law S-N curve extrapolation provided the best fit to the data in most cases. The selection of the constant amplitude fatigue regression model becomes important at the lower stress, higher

  14. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  15. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data

  16. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  17. Heat exchanger-accumulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1980-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat exchanger-accumulator for vaporizing a refrigerant or the like, characterized by an upright pressure vessel having a top, bottom and side walls; an inlet conduit eccentrically and sealingly penetrating through the top; a tubular overflow chamber disposed within the vessel and sealingly connected with the bottom so as to define an annular outer volumetric chamber for receiving refrigerant; a heat transfer coil disposed in the outer volumetric chamber for vaporizing the liquid refrigerant that accumulates there; the heat transfer coil defining a passageway for circulating an externally supplied heat exchange fluid; transferring heat efficiently from the fluid; and freely allowing vaporized refrigerant to escape upwardly from the liquid refrigerant; and a refrigerant discharge conduit penetrating sealingly through the top and traversing substantially the length of the pressurized vessel downwardly and upwardly such that its inlet is near the top of the pressurized vessel so as to provide a means for transporting refrigerant vapor from the vessel. The refrigerant discharge conduit has metering orifices, or passageways, penetrating laterally through its walls near the bottom, communicating respectively interiorly and exteriorly of the overflow chamber for controllably carrying small amounts of liquid refrigerant and oil to the effluent stream of refrigerant gas.

  18. Residual stresses of water-jet peened austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Shobu, Takahisa; Shiro, Ayumi

    2013-01-01

    The specimen material was austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L. The residual stress was induced by water-jet peening. The residual stress was measured using the 311 diffraction with conventional X-rays. The measured residual stress showed the equi-biaxial stress state. To investigate thermal stability of the residual stress, the specimen was aged thermally at 773K in air to 1000h. The residual stress kept the equi-biaxial stress state against the thermal aging. Lattice plane dependency of the residual stress induced by water-jet peening was evaluated using hard synchrotron X-rays. The residual stress measured by the soft lattice plane showed the equi-biaxial stress state, but the residual stress measured by the hard lattice plane did not. In addition, the distributions of the residual stress in the depth direction were measured using a strain scanning method with hard synchrotron X-rays and neutrons. (author)

  19. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  20. The aeolian dust accumulation curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a simple physical concept of aeolian dust accumulation, based on the behaviour of the subprocesses of dust deposition and dust erosion. The concept is tested in an aeolian dust wind tunnel. The agreement between the accumulation curve predicted by the model and the accumulation

  1. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  2. PENGGUNAAN Aspergilus niger YANG DIRADIASI GAMMA SEBAGAI BIOREMEDIAN RESIDU TRIAZOFOS DAN LOGAM BERAT PADA BAWANG MERAH (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Maulana Satria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides and fertilizers containing Pb in agriculture will leave residues in soil, water, and plants. This Pb will be accumulated in the human body and, have a negative impact gradually on human health. The use of gamma-irradiation of Aspergillus niger is expected to reduce the levels of metals and residues triazofos onions. Bioremediation technique using gamma rays against a. niger is still quite a bit or a new research so the research on this is still a little The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of technology A. niger low dose gamma irradiation in reducing heavy metals and low triazofos residue on onion. Apergillus niger low dose gamma irradiated, mixed with organic materials such as Kohe, rice husk and bran. The mixture is fermented for 8 days and then applied to the soil of onion in Bradford to measure levels of Pb and triazofosnya residue. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometer (GCMS was used in this study. The result showed Pb that goes into the water very small and more are stuck in the ground and Pb accumulated in onion is still quite high. Triazofos residue concentrations in onions undetectable or very low in quality standards established under 0,005 ppm. The conclusion of this study, Aspergillus niger were not irradiated and irradiated can withstand heavy metals Pb in soil so it goes into the water a little, but not optimal in Pb which adsorbs into the onion and pesticide residues on onions Triazofos undetected.Keywords: Aspergillus niger, residual triazofos, gamma radiation, onion

  3. Sodium accumulation in rice and quinoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Sensitivity to salinity is often attributed to excessive accumulation of Na + ions in leaf cells. This implies that screening for low Na + accumulation should result in enhanced tolerance to salt. While this is generally true, there are a number of examples where Na + accumulation is not the only factor. In rice (Oryza sativa) there is good evidence linking genetically-determined Na + accumulation with tolerance to salinity, but there are other factors that should be considered, including Cl - accumulation and the inter- and intra-cellular distribution of solutes. In quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) There are large varietal differences in Na + accumulation, but smaller differences in salt tolerance. We have studied the genetics of salinity responses in two cultivars of rice, Co39 and Moroberekan. The latter accumulates more Na + than Co39 and many other rice varieties. Experiments at a range of salt concentrations and with varying Na: Ca ratios showed that Na + accumulation was initially quite low, but increased with time of exposure to salt. Part of the increase in Na + , and all of the observed increase in K + concentrations, could be attributed to dehydration of the leaves. Measurements of leaf solute and water potentials indicated that solutes accumulated in the leaf apoplast. This resulted in reduced turgor and increased leaf rolling. Concentrations of Cl - in the leaves were several times higher than those of Na + . QTL analysis of a hybrid population derived from these varieties revealed a major QTL for leaf Na + accumulation on chromosome 1 at a position where QTL for salt tolerance and Na + uptake have been identified by other groups. No QTL were identified for Cl - accumulation. Is rice relatively salt sensitive because it accumulates low concentrations of Na + under genetic control, or is Cl - (present at much higher concentrations) responsible for salt damage. We are looking for rice accessions that differ in Cl - accumulation to find Cl - QTL

  4. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  5. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  6. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa (tensile) and minimum value of ... These results shows that the residual stresses obtained by prediction from the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  7. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    A section of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A large vacuum-tank, a quadrupole (QDN09*), a bending magnet (BST08), another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and (in the background) a further bending magnet (BST08). The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of QDN09 contained the kickers for stochastic pre-cooling (see 790621, 8002234, 8002637X), the other one served mainly as vacuum chamber in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on QFW08. * see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984) See under 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261 and 8202324. For photos of the AA in different phases of completion (between 1979 and 1982) see: 7911303, 7911597X, 8004261, 8004608X, 8005563X, 8005565X, 8006716X, 8006722X, 8010939X, 8010941X, 8202324, 8202658X, 8203628X .

  8. Batteries and accumulators in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The present report gives an overview of the batteries and accumulators market in France in 2011 based on the data reported through ADEME's Register of Batteries and accumulators. In 2001, the French Environmental Agency, known as ADEME, implemented a follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market, creating the Observatory of batteries and accumulators (B and A). In 2010, ADEME created the National Register of producers of Batteries and Accumulators in the context of the implementation of the order issued on November 18, 2009. This is one of the four enforcement orders for the decree 2009-1139 issued on September 22, 2009, concerning batteries and accumulators put on the market and the disposal of waste batteries and accumulators, and which transposes the EU-Directive 2006/66/CE into French law. This Register follows the former Observatory for batteries and accumulators. This Register aims to record the producers on French territory and to collect the B and A producers and recycling companies' annual reporting: the regulation indeed requires that all B and A producers and recycling companies report annually on the Register the quantities of batteries and accumulators they put on the market, collect and treat. Based on this data analysis, ADEME issues an annual report allowing both the follow-up of the batteries and accumulators market in France and communication regarding the achievement of the collection and recovery objectives set by EU regulation. This booklet presents the situation in France in 2011

  9. Experimental and economical evaluation of bioconversion of forest residues to biogas using organosolv pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Maryam M; Rajendran, Karthik; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona

    2015-02-01

    The methane potential of forest residues was compared after applying organic solvent, i.e., acetic acid, ethanol, and methanol pretreatments using batch anaerobic digestion (AD). The pretreatments were performed at 190 °C with 50% (V/V) organic solvent for 60 min. The accumulated methane yields after 40 days of AD from pretreated forest residues were between 0.23 and 0.34 m(3) CH4/kg VS, which shows a significant improvement compared to 0.05 m(3) CH4/kg VS, from untreated forest residues. These improvements count up to 50% increase in the methane yields from the pretreated substrates based on expected theoretical yield from carbohydrates. Among the organic solvents, pretreatments with acetic acid and ethanol led to highest methane yields, i.e., over 0.30 m(3) CH4/kg VS. However, techno-economical evaluation showed, pretreatment with methanol was more viable financially. The capital investments of the plant operating 20,000 tons of forest residues varied between 56 and 60 million USD, which could be recovered in less than 8 years of operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  11. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  12. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  13. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  14. Bladder-type hydropneumatic accumulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anigas, F.

    1985-01-01

    Hydropneumatic pressure accumulators allow liquids to be stored under pressure, their operating principle being based on the inherent compressibility of elements in a liquid and gaseous state. A wide range of fluids can be covered by means of the appropriate choice of the material for the body and bladder. Their main applications are: energy accumulation, safety reserve, suspension. (author)

  15. Soil and air temperature and biomass after residue treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.B. Fowler; J.D. Helvey

    1981-01-01

    Air temperature at 0.5 m and soil temperature at 0.01 m were measured during May and early June after forest harvest on four residue treatment sites and a control. Broadcast burning or burning in piles increased daily accumulation of heat in air while scattered chips and scarified and cleared treatments were equal to the control (broadcast, untreated slash). During mid...

  16. Handling of wet residues in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro

    to water bodies and uses of such bodies, distance to available agricultural land, characteristics of the local wastewater treatment plant, local and national legislation, or availability of subsidies. This study uses as example the geographical, legislative, economic and social boundary conditions......In countries with high prices of fresh water use and wastewater discharge, water recycling has become an alternative to traditional water consumption and discharge for industries with water-based processes. Industrial water recycling means in many cases that water has to be treated and cleaned......, to remove from it the substances which presence impedes reusing the water. These substances accumulate in a by-product called wet residue. An integral part of water recycling projects in the industry is the handling and disposal of the wet residues generated. The treatment, utilisation and disposal of wet...

  17. Mutational properties of amino acid residues: implications for evolvability of phosphorylatable residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Schoof, Erwin M.; Tan, Chris Soon Heng

    2012-01-01

    in terms of their mutational activity. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the genetic code and physico-chemical properties of the amino acid residues as likely causes of these inequalities and uncover serine as a mutational hot spot. Finally, we explore the consequences that these different......; it is typically assumed that all amino acid residues are equally likely to mutate or to result from a mutation. Here, by reconstructing ancestral sequences and computing mutational probabilities for all the amino acid residues, we refute this assumption and show extensive inequalities between different residues...... mutational properties have on phosphorylation site evolution, showing that a higher degree of evolvability exists for phosphorylated threonine and, to a lesser extent, serine in comparison with tyrosine residues. As exemplified by the suppression of serine's mutational activity in phosphorylation sites, our...

  18. Chemical modelling of trace elements in pore water from PFBC residues containing ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, L.G.; Brandberg, F.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonia is added to the PFBC process with the purpose to reduce the emissions of NO x in the stack gases. The design of the system for cleaning the stack gases will lead to an increased adsorption of ammonia and an accumulation of soluble ammonium salts in the cyclone ash from PFBC processes. This can be an environmental problem since the amounts will increase over the coming years and there will be a need to dispose the residues. When infiltrating rainwater penetrates the disposed residues ammonia and ammonium salts result in a contamination of the pore water with ammonia in the disposed residues. This entail the solubility of several trace elements in the residues that form soluble complexes with ammonia will increase and cause an increased contamination of groundwater and surface water. In this study the increased solubilities is calculated for the trace elements cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc in the residues using thermodynamical data. The calculations have been performed with probable solid phases of the trace elements at oxidizing and reducing conditions as a function of pH and at varying concentration of ammonia in the pore water. The thermodynamic calculations have been performed with the geochemical code EQ3NR. The results from the calculations show that as a concentration of 17 mg NH 3 /l in the pore water of the residues increases the solubilities for copper and silver. If the concentration of ammonia increases to 170 mg NH 3 /l will the solubilities increase also for cadmium, nickel and zinc. (12 refs., 39 figs.)

  19. On the Structural Context and Identification of Enzyme Catalytic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yu-Tung; Huang, Shao-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes play important roles in most of the biological processes. Although only a small fraction of residues are directly involved in catalytic reactions, these catalytic residues are the most crucial parts in enzymes. The study of the fundamental and unique features of catalytic residues benefits the understanding of enzyme functions and catalytic mechanisms. In this work, we analyze the structural context of catalytic residues based on theoretical and experimental structure flexibility. The results show that catalytic residues have distinct structural features and context. Their neighboring residues, whether sequence or structure neighbors within specific range, are usually structurally more rigid than those of noncatalytic residues. The structural context feature is combined with support vector machine to identify catalytic residues from enzyme structure. The prediction results are better or comparable to those of recent structure-based prediction methods. PMID:23484160

  20. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  1. Strain accumulation in quasicrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, F.; Ronchetti, M.; Elser, V.

    1988-01-01

    We study the relaxation of 2D quasicrystalline elastic networks when their constituent bonds are perturbed homogeneously. Whereas ideal, quasiperiodic networks are stable against such perturbations, we find significant accumulations of strain in a class of disordered networks generated by a growth process. The grown networks are characterized by root mean square phason fluctuations which grow linearly with system size. The strain accumulation we observe in these networks also grows linearly with system size. Finally, we find a dependence of strain accumulation on cooling rate

  2. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  3. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  4. Weed management practice and cropping sequence impact on soil residual nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inefficient N uptake by crops from N fertilization and/or N mineralized from crop residue and soil organic matter results in the accumulation of soil residual N (NH4-N and NO3-N) which increases the potential for N leaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of weed management ...

  5. D-β-aspartyl residue exhibiting uncommon high resistance to spontaneous peptide bond cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Kenzo; Okamura, Emiko

    2016-02-15

    Although L-amino acids were selected as main constituents of peptides and proteins during chemical evolution, D-aspartyl (Asp) residue is found in a variety of living tissues. In particular, D-β-Asp is thought to be stable than any other Asp isomers, and this could be a reason for gradual accumulation in abnormal proteins and peptides to modify their structures and functions. It is predicted that D-β-Asp shows high resistance to biomolecular reactions. For instance, less reactivity of D-β-Asp is expected to bond cleavage, although such information has not been provided yet. In this work, the spontaneous peptide bond cleavage was compared between Asp isomers, by applying real-time solution-state NMR to eye lens αΑ-crystallin 51-60 fragment, S(51)LFRTVLD(58)SG(60) and αΒ-crystallin 61-67 analog, F(61)D(62)TGLSG(67) consisting of L-α- and D-β-Asp 58 and 62, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed how tough the uncommon D-β-Asp residue was against the peptide bond cleavage as compared to natural L-α-Asp. Differences in pKa and conformation between L-α- and D-β-Asp side chains were plausible factors to determine reactivity of Asp isomers. The present study, for the first time, provides a rationale to explain less reactivity of D-β-Asp to allow abnormal accumulation.

  6. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  7. Cyolane residues in milk of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.; Fakhr, I.M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Consecutive feeding of lactating goats with 14 C-alkyl labelled cyolane for 5 days at dietary levels 8 and 16 ppm resulted in the appearance of measurable insecticide residues in milk (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). The residue levels were markedly reduced after a withdrawal period of 7 days. Analysis of urine and milk residues showed the presence of similar metabolites in addition to the parent compound. The major part of the residue consisted of mono-, diethyl phosphate and 2 hydrophilic unknown metabolites. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to about 50% after 24 hours whereas the plasma enzyme was only slightly affected. The animals remained symptom-free during the experimental period. (author)

  8. Safety aspects of targets for ADTT: Activity, volatile products, residual heat release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, E.V.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Lunev, V.P.; Shubin, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    Safety aspects of heavy metal liquid targets for the accelerator driven systems connected with the activity accumulation and residual energy release due to the irradiation with high energy proton beam are discussed. The results obtained for the lead-bismuth target that are under construction in IPPE now in the frame of ISTC Project No. 559 are briefly presented. The calculations and the analysis of the accumulation of the spallation reaction products, activity and energy release at various moments after the accelerator shutdown are presented. The concentrations of the reaction products, the total and partial activities, the activities of volatile products are determined. The contributions of the short-lived nuclides important for the prediction of the facility behaviour in regimes with the accelerator beam trips. The calculations and analysis of the residual energy release due to different decay type have been performed. The conclusions are as follows. The obtained results showed that long lived radioactivity accumulates mainly due to primary nuclear reactions. Secondary reactions are responsible for the production of small number of long-lived isotopes Bi-207, Po-210 and some others, being generated by radiative capture of low energy neutrons. It is possible to make a conclusion that neutrons in the energy range 20 - 800 MeV and protons with energy above 100 MeV give main contribution to the total activity generation although these parts of spectra inside the target give comparatively small contribution to the total flux. The correct consideration of short-lived nuclides contribution is the main problem in the analysis of the target behaviour in the case of short accelerator shutdowns. They make the determining contribution to the both activity and the heat release at the first moments after the accelerator shutdown, creating the intermediate links and additional channels for the long-lived nuclides accumulation chains. The strong dependence of calculated

  9. Diatom. A potential bio-accumulator of gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pal, R.; Ramaswami, A.; Nayak, D.; Lahiri, S.

    2006-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of gold in trace concentration by Nitzschia obtusa and Navicula minima, two members of bacillariophyceae, has been studied. It has been observed that Nitzschia obtusa showed better accumulation of gold in acidic pH in comparison to neutral and basic pH. Maximum accumulation was observed with 1 mg x kg -1 or less gold concentration. However, the accumulation by the living cells was reduced when the matrix concentration was higher. Navicula minima, on the other hand, found to be a better accumulator of gold in wide ranges of pH and substrate concentration of the media. It was also inferred that the gold accumulation by diatom was mainly due to adsorption by biosilica (siliceous frustules of dead diatom cells). Accumulated gold was recovered with conc. HNO 3 . (author)

  10. Effects of salinity on growth and organic solutes accumulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... randomized design, with six replicates. The salinity affects growth and dry matter accumulation of Tabebuia aurea and promotes soluble sugar accumulation on the leaves and stem, and free amino acids in the roots, leaves and stems. Plants showed a sensibility to the salt levels used during the time they were exposed.

  11. Transcript accumulation of putative drought responsive genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... to be associated with drought tolerance in chickpea seedlings in contrast to sequences 214 and 277 which showed no variation in the mRNA accumulation between cultivars. The effect of ABA treatment on the mRNA accumulation of the isolated sequences 192, 214, 219 and H1 was analyzed. Sequences.

  12. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  13. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  14. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  15. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  16. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  17. Isothermal Fatigue, Damage Accumulation, and Life Prediction of a Woven PMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the characterization of the fully reversed fatigue behavior exhibited by a carbon fiber/polyimide resin, woven laminate at room and elevated temperatures. Nondestructive video edge view microscopy and destructive sectioning techniques were used to study the microscopic damage mechanisms that evolved. The residual elastic stiffness was monitored and recorded throughout the fatigue life of the coupon. In addition, residual compressive strength tests were conducted on fatigue coupons with various degrees of damage as quantified by stiffness reduction. Experimental results indicated that the monotonic tensile properties were only minimally influenced by temperature, while the monotonic compressive and fully reversed fatigue properties displayed noticeable reductions due to the elevated temperature. The stiffness degradation, as a function of cycles, consisted of three stages; a short-lived high degradation period, a constant degradation rate segment composing the majority of the life, and a final stage demonstrating an increasing rate of degradation up to failure. Concerning the residual compressive strength tests at room and elevated temperatures, the elevated temperature coupons appeared much more sensitive to damage. At elevated temperatures, coupons experienced a much larger loss in compressive strength when compared to room temperature coupons with equivalent damage. The fatigue damage accumulation law proposed for the model incorporates a scalar representation for damage, but admits a multiaxial, anisotropic evolutionary law. The model predicts the current damage (as quantified by residual stiffness) and remnant life of a composite that has undergone a known load at temperature. The damage/life model is dependent on the applied multiaxial stress state as well as temperature. Comparisons between the model and data showed good predictive capabilities concerning stiffness degradation and cycles to failure.

  18. Landscape Evolution and the Reincarnation of the Residual CO2 Ice Cap of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, S.; Zuber, M.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of the southern residual CO2 cap of Mars reveal a wide range of landforms including flat-floored quasi-circular pits with steep walls (dubbed Swiss-cheese features). Interannual comparisons show that these depressions are expanding laterally at rates of ~2m/yr to ~4m/yr, prompting suggestions of climate change. The residual CO2 ice cap is up to 10m thick and underlain by an involatile basement, it also contains layers roughly 2m thick representing different accumulation episodes in the recent past. Changes in the appearance of the residual ice between the Mariner 9 and Viking missions indicate that the top-most layer was deposited in that time-frame, soon after the global dust storm of 1971. The spatial density of the Swiss-cheese features, and the rate at which they expand, mean that it is unlikely that any part of the residual ice cap is older than a few centuries. Given this, we may ask: how can there be a residual cap present today for us to observe? To answer this and other questions we have developed a model to examine the evolution of a CO2 ice landscape. This model reproduces the morphologies and expansion rates seen in the actual residual CO2 ice cap. Our model results indicate that the fate of CO2 ice surfaces is controlled by their surface roughness. Surface roughness always increases with time, which results in an unstable situation. When the surface roughness exceeds a critical point small pits can begin to develop. The walls of these pits rapidly steepen and begin retreating which enlarges and deepens the pit. This situation always occurs even if the surface of the CO2 slab has a high enough albedo to have a net mass gain each year. Once these pits begin expanding they quickly erode the entire ice slab. When the underlying non-CO2 material is exposed, it will not frost over again if Mars were to repeat like clockwork every year. We conclude that interannual climatic variability is actually a requirement for the continued existence of a

  19. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  20. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  1. Ensemble Kalman filtering with residual nudging

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, X.

    2012-10-03

    Covariance inflation and localisation are two important techniques that are used to improve the performance of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) by (in effect) adjusting the sample covariances of the estimates in the state space. In this work, an additional auxiliary technique, called residual nudging, is proposed to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the residual norms of state estimates in the observation space. In an EnKF with residual nudging, if the residual norm of an analysis is larger than a pre-specified value, then the analysis is replaced by a new one whose residual norm is no larger than a pre-specified value. Otherwise, the analysis is considered as a reasonable estimate and no change is made. A rule for choosing the pre-specified value is suggested. Based on this rule, the corresponding new state estimates are explicitly derived in case of linear observations. Numerical experiments in the 40-dimensional Lorenz 96 model show that introducing residual nudging to an EnKF may improve its accuracy and/or enhance its stability against filter divergence, especially in the small ensemble scenario.

  2. Validation of welded joint residual stress simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational mechanics is being increasingly applied to predict the state of residual stress in welded joints for nuclear power plant applications. Motives for undertaking such calculations include optimising the design of welded joints and weld procedures, assessing the effectiveness of mitigation processes, providing more realistic inputs to structural integrity assessments and underwriting safety cases for operating nuclear power plant. Fusion welding processes involve intense localised heating to melt the surfaces to be joined and introduction of molten weld filler metal. A complex residual stress field develops at the weld through solidification, differential thermal contraction, cyclic thermal plasticity, phase transformation and chemical diffusion processes. The calculation of weld residual stress involves detailed non-linear analyses where many assumptions and approximations have to be made. In consequence, the accuracy and reliability of solutions can be highly variable. This paper illustrates the degree of variability that can arise in weld residual stress simulation results and summarises the new R6 guidelines which aim to improve the reliability and accuracy of computational predictions. The requirements for validating weld simulations are reviewed where residual stresses are to be used in fracture mechanics analysis. This includes a discussion of how to obtain and interpret measurements from mock-ups, benchmark weldments and published data. Benchmark weldments are described that illustrate some of the issues and show how validation of numerical prediction of weld residual stress can be achieved. Finally, plans for developing the weld modelling guidelines and associated benchmarks are outlined

  3. Ensemble Kalman filtering with residual nudging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Luo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Covariance inflation and localisation are two important techniques that are used to improve the performance of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF by (in effect adjusting the sample covariances of the estimates in the state space. In this work, an additional auxiliary technique, called residual nudging, is proposed to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the residual norms of state estimates in the observation space. In an EnKF with residual nudging, if the residual norm of an analysis is larger than a pre-specified value, then the analysis is replaced by a new one whose residual norm is no larger than a pre-specified value. Otherwise, the analysis is considered as a reasonable estimate and no change is made. A rule for choosing the pre-specified value is suggested. Based on this rule, the corresponding new state estimates are explicitly derived in case of linear observations. Numerical experiments in the 40-dimensional Lorenz 96 model show that introducing residual nudging to an EnKF may improve its accuracy and/or enhance its stability against filter divergence, especially in the small ensemble scenario.

  4. Residu Fungisida Tembaga (Cu pada Pucuk Teh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christanti Sumardiyono

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was done to know copper residue on tea due to blister blight control by copper fungicides. The experiment was done at Pagilaran Tea Plantation, Batang, Pekalongan. Tea plants were sprayed 8 times, with 8 days interval at the dosages of 0. 75, 150, and 300 g/ha respectively. Shoot sample was taken at 8 and 16 days after spraying. The copper residue war analyzed by Atomic Adsorbtion Spectrophotometer at 324 nm. The result showed that the higher dosage of spraying gives higher copper residue. At the dosage of 300 g/ha was detected 23,52 ppm of copper residue at 8 days after spraying. The residue was reduced to 12,96 ppm at 16 days after spraying. At that dosage the blister blight disease intensity reduced by 59,97%. The detected residue of copper fungicides due to blister blight control is not higher than MRL ( 150 ppm.

  5. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  6. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  7. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  8. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  9. The molecular mechanism linking muscle fat accumulation to insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulver, Matthew W; Dohm, G Lynis

    2004-05-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a co-morbidity of obesity and a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of intramyocellular lipids. Intramyocellular triacylglycerols do not appear to be the cause of insulin resistance but are more likely to be a marker of other lipid intermediates such as fatty acyl-CoA, ceramides or diacylglycerols. Fatty acyl-CoA, ceramides and diacylglycerols are known to directly alter various aspects of the insulin signalling cascade. Insulin signalling is inhibited by the phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues at the levels of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 1. Protein kinase C is responsible for the phosphorylation of the serine and threonine residues. Fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerols are known to activate protein kinase C. The cause of the intramyocellular accumulation of fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerols is unclear at this time. Reduced fatty acid oxidation does not appear to be responsible, as fatty acyl-CoA accumulates in skeletal muscle with a normal fatty acid oxidative capacity. Other potential mechanisms include oversupply of lipids to muscle and/or up regulated fatty acid transport.

  10. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games...

  11. Sludge accumulation in shallow maturation ponds treating UASB reactor effluent: results after 11 years of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possmoser-Nascimento, Thiago Emanuel; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; von Sperling, Marcos; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Polishing ponds are natural systems used for the post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents. They are designed as maturation ponds and their main goal is the removal of pathogens and nitrogen and an additional removal of residual organic matter from the UASB reactor. This study aimed to evaluate organic matter and suspended solids removal as well as sludge accumulation in two shallow polishing ponds in series treating sanitary effluent from a UASB reactor with a population equivalent of 200 inhabitants in Brazil, operating since 2002. For this evaluation, long-term monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids and bathymetric surveys have been undertaken. The ponds showed an irregular distribution of total solids mass in the sludge layer of the two ponds, with mean accumulation values of 0.020 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) and 0.004 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) in Ponds 1 and 2, leading to around 40% and 8% of the liquid volume occupied by the sediments after 11 years of operation. The first pond showed better efficiency in relation to organic matter removal, although its contribution was limited, due to algal growth. No simple input-output mass balance of solids can be applied to the ponds due to algal growth in the liquid phase and sludge digestion in the sludge.

  12. Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in resident and migratory birds from Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sethuraman, Alagappan; Titenko, Alexei M.; Qui, Vo; Prudente, Maricar; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation features of persistent organochlorines in migratory birds from Asia did not necessarily reflect only the pollution in the sampling area. - Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in the resident and migratory birds, which were collected from India, Japan, Philippines, Russia (Lake Baikal) and Vietnam. Accumulation patterns of organochlorine concentrations in resident birds suggested that the predominant contaminants of each country were as follows: Japan-PCBs Philippines-PCBs and CHLs, India-HCHs and DDTs, Vietnam-DDTs, and Lake Baikal-PCBs and DDTs. The migratory birds from Philippines and Vietnam retained mostly the highest concentrations of DDTs among the organochlorines analyzed, indicating the presence of stopover and breeding grounds of those birds in China and Russia. On the other hand, migratory birds from India and Lake Baikal showed different patterns of organochlorine residues, reflecting that each species has inherent migratory routes and thus has exposure to different contaminants. Species which have breeding grounds around the Red Sea and Persian Gulf showed high levels of PCBs, indicating the presence of areas heavily polluted by PCBs in the Middle East

  13. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  14. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  15. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-01-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in 14 C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized 14 C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the 14 C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole

  16. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  17. Nondestructive assay of plutonium residue in horizontal storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous plutonium recovery and purification processes often involve the temporary storage of plutonium solutions in holding tanks. Because plutonium is known to precipitate from aqueous solutions under certain conditions, there is a continuing need to assay emptied tanks for plutonium residue. A portable gamma spectrometer system, specifically designed for this purpose, provides rapid assay of such plutonium residues in horizontal storage tanks. A means is thus available for the nondestructive analysis of these tanks on a regular schedule to ensure that significant deposits of plutonium are not allowed to accumulate. 5 figs

  18. Residual entanglement and sudden death: A direct connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.G.G. de, E-mail: zgeraldo@ufrb.edu.br [Centro de Formação de Professores, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 45.300-000, Amargosa, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Física, CP 702, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto de Faria, J.G., E-mail: jgpfaria@des.cefetmg.br [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, 30510-000, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nemes, M.C., E-mail: carolina@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, CP 702, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-11-21

    We explore the results of [V. Coffman, et al., Phys. Rev. A 61 (2000) 052306] derived for general tripartite states in a dynamical context. We study a class of physically motivated tripartite systems. We show that whenever entanglement sudden death occurs in one of the partitions residual entanglement will appear. For fourpartite systems however, the appearance of residual entanglement is not conditioned by sudden death of entanglement. We can only say that if sudden death of entanglement occurs in some partition there will certainly be residual entanglement. -- Highlights: ► For tripartite systems we show there exists residual entanglement if sudden death occurs. ► For fourpartite systems, the residual entanglement is not conditioned by sudden death. ► If sudden death of entanglement occurs there will certainly be residual entanglement.

  19. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  20. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  1. Moire interferometry and hole drilling system for residual stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Min; Dai, Fulong; Lu, Jian

    2003-04-01

    A combined system of four beams moire interferometer and incremental hole-driling machine was designed and applied for residual stress measurement. Two typical experiments were done using this system: non-uniform in-depth residual stress measurement of an ultrasonic shot-peening Aluminum plate; non-uniform in-plane residual stress measurement of an elastic-plastic Aluminum bent beam. Experiments results show good accordant with other measurement results and theory analysis results.

  2. Constant-coefficient FIR filters based on residue number system arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Negovan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR filter based on the residue number system (RNS is presented. We chose to implement it in the (RNS, because the RNS offers high speed and low power dissipation. This architecture is based on the single RNS multiplier-accumulator (MAC unit. The three moduli set {2n+1,2n,2n-1}, which avoids 2n+1 modulus, is used to design FIR filter. A numerical example illustrates the principles of residue encoding, residue arithmetic, and residue decoding for FIR filters.

  3. Accumulation dynamics and acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus: implications for metal modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R; Paul, Kai B; Dybowska, Agnieszka D; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Lead, Jamie R; Stone, Vicki; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2015-04-07

    Frameworks commonly used in trace metal ecotoxicology (e.g., biotic ligand model (BLM) and tissue residue approach (TRA)) are based on the established link between uptake, accumulation and toxicity, but similar relationships remain unverified for metal-containing nanoparticles (NPs). The present study aimed to (i) characterize the bioaccumulation dynamics of PVP-, PEG-, and citrate-AgNPs, in comparison to dissolved Ag, in Daphnia magna and Lumbriculus variegatus; and (ii) investigate whether parameters of bioavailability and accumulation predict acute toxicity. In both species, uptake rate constants for AgNPs were ∼ 2-10 times less than for dissolved Ag and showed significant rank order concordance with acute toxicity. Ag elimination by L. variegatus fitted a 1-compartment loss model, whereas elimination in D. magna was biphasic. The latter showed consistency with studies that reported daphnids ingesting NPs, whereas L. variegatus biodynamic parameters indicated that uptake and efflux were primarily determined by the bioavailability of dissolved Ag released by the AgNPs. Thus, principles of BLM and TRA frameworks are confounded by the feeding behavior of D. magna where the ingestion of AgNPs perturbs the relationship between tissue concentrations and acute toxicity, but such approaches are applicable when accumulation and acute toxicity are linked to dissolved concentrations. The uptake rate constant, as a parameter of bioavailability inclusive of all available pathways, could be a successful predictor of acute toxicity.

  4. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state-space representation. We show that residuals that are sensitive to variations in some cardiovascular parameters and to abnormal opening and closure of the valves, can be generated. Since the whole state is not easily available for measurement, we propose to associate the residual generator to a robust extended kalman filter. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are provided.

  5. Fate of leptophos residues in milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mohammed, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The fate of leptophos residues in various milk products was studied using 14 C-phenyl labelled leptophos. Milk products were prepared from milk fortified with the radioactive insecticide by methods simulating those used in industry. The highest leptophos level was found in butter and the lowest in skim milk and whey. Analysis of the radioactive residues in all products showed the presence of leptophos alone. A trace of the oxon could be detected in whey. The results obtained in this investigation indicated that processing of milk did not affect the nature of leptophos to any appreciable extent. (author)

  6. Residual stress in Ni-W electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the residual stress in Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4 and Na2WO4, is investigated. Citrate, glycine and triethanolamine were used as complexing agents, enabling complex formation between the nickel ion and tungstate. The results show that the type...... of complexing agent and the current efficiency have an influence on the residual stress. In all cases, an increase in tensile stress in the deposit with time after deposition was observed. Pulse plating could improve the stress level for the electrolyte containing equal amounts of citrate...

  7. Lindane residues in fish inhabiting Nigerian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okereke, G.U.; Dje, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis for residues of lindane in fish collected from various rivers close to rice agroecosystems showed that the concentrations of lindane ranged from none detectable to 3.4 mg kg -1 . Fish from rivers where strict regulations prohibits its use had no detectable lindane residues while appreciable amounts of lindane were found in fish were such restriction was not enforced with the variation attributed to the extent of use of lindane in the area of contamination. The investigation confirms that the use of lindane in rice production in Nigeria can cause the contamination of fish in nearby rivers. (author). 16 refs, 2 tab

  8. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  10. In Vivo Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyani; Purwakusumah, E. P.; Andrianto, D.

    2017-03-01

    This is a preliminary research report on the use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to establish anti-obesity screening assay of the natural plant resources. Nematode C. elegans has been used as experimental animal model for understanding lipid accumulation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of selected plant extracts on lipid accumulation in C. elegans. Currently no report could be found regarding lipid accumulation in C.elegans treated with ethanolic leaf extracts of jabon merah (Anthocephalus macrophyllus), jati belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia), and Mindi (Melia Azedarach) plants. Lipid accumulation was determined qualitatively using lipid staining method and quantitatively by colorimetry using sulpho-phospho-vanillin reagent. Data showed that lipid accumulation was inhibited up to 72% by extract of M. azedarach, about 35% by both of A. macrophyllus and G. ulmifolia extracts, and up to 25% by orlistat (a synthetic slimming drug). Ethanolic extract of A. macrophyllus, G. ulmifolia, and M. azedarach leaves were shown to inhibit lipid accumulation in C. elegans and M. azedarach leaves extracts was the most effective inhibitor. C.elegans were shown to be an effective model for in vivo lipid accumulation mechanism and potential to be used as a rapid screening assay for bioactive compounds with lipid accumulation inhibitory activity.

  11. Tuberculosis in postchemotherapy residual masses in germ cell tumor of the testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual masses following chemotherapy in testicular tumors have been characterized as necrosis, mature or immature teratoma, and malignant tumors. Twenty four patients had retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for postchemotherapy residual masses between January 2000 and December 2008. We report two patients; one with late relapse and other with postchemotherapy residual mass, who had tuberculosis. Tumor markers were normal, and PET scan showed increased uptake in residual mass. There are no previous reports of tuberculosis in postchemotherapy residual masses.

  12. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  13. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  14. Rare Earth Element Phases in Bauxite Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vind

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present work was to provide mineralogical insight into the rare earth element (REE phases in bauxite residue to improve REE recovering technologies. Experimental work was performed by electron probe microanalysis with energy dispersive as well as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. REEs are found as discrete mineral particles in bauxite residue. Their sizes range from <1 μm to about 40 μm. In bauxite residue, the most abundant REE bearing phases are light REE (LREE ferrotitanates that form a solid solution between the phases with major compositions (REE,Ca,Na(Ti,FeO3 and (Ca,Na(Ti,FeO3. These are secondary phases formed during the Bayer process by an in-situ transformation of the precursor bauxite LREE phases. Compared to natural systems, the indicated solid solution resembles loparite-perovskite series. LREE particles often have a calcium ferrotitanate shell surrounding them that probably hinders their solubility. Minor amount of LREE carbonate and phosphate minerals as well as manganese-associated LREE phases are also present in bauxite residue. Heavy REEs occur in the same form as in bauxites, namely as yttrium phosphates. These results show that the Bayer process has an impact on the initial REE mineralogy contained in bauxite. Bauxite residue as well as selected bauxites are potentially good sources of REEs.

  15. Overexpression of CtCHS1 Increases Accumulation of Quinochalcone in Safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Carthami flos, the dried petal of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, in which quinochalcone glucosides such as hydrosafflower yellow A (HSYA, carthamin are uniquely present and have been identified as active compounds. In the present study, through sequencing of a safflower floret cDNA library and subsequent microarray analysis, we found 23 unigenes (5 PALs, 1 C4Hs, 5 4CLs, 6 CHSs, 2 CHIs, 2 DFRs, 2 FLSs involved in flavonoid pathway, of which 4 were up-regulated differentially during quinochalcone glucosides accumulation with the floret developing stage. The up-regulated genes were verified by PCR methods. Considering chalcone synthase are entry enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, CHS1 was focused on target gene to verify its function furtherly. Bioinformation analysis showed that CHS1 shared 86.94% conserved residues with CHS from other plants. Subcellular localization showed that CtCHS1 was localized in cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. The transgenic safflower plant with overexpression CtCHS1 by Agrobacterium-mediated pollen-tube pathway method was firstly generated. The results present that expression of PAL2, PAL3, CHS1, CHS4, CHS6 increased and expression of CHI1 and CHI2 decreased in the transgenic plant floret. Meanwhile, the accumulation of quinochalcone glucosides increased by ∼20–30% and accumulation of quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside and quercetin decreased by 48 and 63% in the transgenic plant floret. These results suggested that CtCHS1 played an important role in quinochalcone glucosides biosynthesis rather than flavonol biosynthesis. These results also demonstrated that the pollen-tube pathway method was an efficient method for gene transformation in safflower. Our study will provide a deep understanding of potential synthetic genes involved in quinochalcone biosynthetic pathway.

  16. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  17. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  18. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W Tyler; Moore, Joseph A; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  19. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  20. Identification and characterization of PaMTH1, a putative O-methyltransferase accumulating during senescence of Podospora anserina cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Averbeck, N B; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    A differential protein display screen resulted in the identification of a 27-kDa protein which strongly accumulates during the senescence of Podospora anserina cultures grown under standard conditions. After partial determination of the amino-acid sequence by mass-spectrometry analysis of trypsin...... by a discontinuous gene, PaMth1, capable of coding for 240 amino acids. The first three amino-terminal residues appear to be removed post-translationally. The deduced amino-acid sequence shows significant homology to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases. We hypothesize that the 27-kDa protein, Pa...

  1. Comparison of residual stress in martensitic alloys by nondestructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Suresh, S.B.; Wells, D.

    2006-01-01

    Three martensitic materials, namely Alloys EP-823, HT-9 and 422 were subjected to tensile loading at ambient temperature. The cylindrical specimens tested at different levels of tensile loading were analyzed for characterization of residual stress resulting from plastic deformation corresponding to the applied loads between the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength. The extent of residual stress developed at these applied stresses was analyzed by nondestructive positron annihilation spectroscopy, activation, and neutron diffraction techniques. The results indicate that the residual stresses characterized by all three techniques exhibited a consistent pattern showing a gradual enhancement in residual stress with increasing applied load

  2. Analytical and Experimental Study of Residual Stresses in CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chin Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBGs have been utilized in various engineering and photoelectric fields because of their good environment tolerance. In this research, residual stresses of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRP were studied using both experimental and analytical approach. The FBGs were embedded inside middle layers of CFRP to study the formation of residual stress during curing process. Finite element analysis was performed using ABAQUS software to simulate the CFRP curing process. Both experimental and simulation results showed that the residual stress appeared during cooling process and the residual stresses could be released when the CFRP was machined to a different shape.

  3. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  4. Ecological strategies of Al-accumulating and non-accumulating functional groups from the cerrado sensu stricto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcelo C de; Bueno, Paula C P; Morellato, Leonor P C; Habermann, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    The cerrado's flora comprises aluminum-(Al) accumulating and non-accumulating plants, which coexist on acidic and Al-rich soils with low fertility. Despite their existence, the ecological importance or biological strategies of these functional groups have been little explored. We evaluated the leaf flushing patterns of both groups throughout a year; leaf concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al, total flavonoids and polyphenols; as well as the specific leaf area (SLA) on young and mature leaves within and between the groups. In Al-accumulating plants, leaf flushed throughout the year, mainly in May and September; for non-accumulating plants, leaf flushing peaked at the dry-wet seasons transition. However, these behaviors could not be associated with strategies for building up concentrations of defense compounds in leaves of any functional groups. Al-accumulating plants showed low leaf nutrient concentrations, while non-accumulating plants accumulated more macronutrients and produced leaves with high SLA since the juvenile leaf phase. This demonstrates that the increase in SLA is slower in Al-accumulating plants that are likely to achieve SLA values comparable to the rest of the plant community only in the wet season, when sunlight capture is important for the growth of new branches.

  5. Naturally occuring radioactivity in residues of drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornehm, C.; Mallick, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the course of a research project about 500 residues of drinking water treatment from approx. 400 water supply companies in Bavaria were investigated on naturally occurring radioactivity. For each residue the effective dose for workers was evaluated for each residue. The results show that increased activities, particularly of Radium-226, can be found in the material. The dose due to the exposure to the residues, which mostly result from the backwashing of filters, is below the reference value of 1 mSv/a, which can be used according to paragraph 97 of the German radiation protection standard. During the project the quantity of residues in Bavaria and the ways of their disposal were evaluated. In addition the relation between the amount of natural radioisotopes in the residues and the geological and hydrochemical conditions of the water catchment area was pointed out. (orig.)

  6. Camalexin accumulation in Arabis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, M; Leege, L; Jacobson, D; Hammerschmidt, R

    1998-12-01

    Inoculation of leaves of Arabis lyrata with either a bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola strain ES4326 or Cochliobolus carbonum, a fungal nonpathogen of A. lyrata, resulted in the accumulation of a compound with similar chromatographic and fluorescent properties to that of camalexin (I), a phytoalexin produced by Arabidopsis thaliana. A. lyrata is closely related to A. thaliana. High resolution electron impact mass spectroscopic and proton NMR analysis confirmed that the compound produced by A. lyrata is camalexin.

  7. {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT of epileptic patients showing focal paroxysm on electroencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaishi, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Fujino, Osamu; Kamayachi, Satoshi; Fujita, Takehisa; Enokido, Hisashi; Komatsuzaki, Hideki; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Hirayama, Tsunenori [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    The usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO SPECT in diagnosing epilepsy was studied. The subjects were 33 epileptic patients, ranging in age from 5 years and 5 months to 28 years and 3 months, who showed focal paroxysm on electroencephalograms. Lowered accumulation site was found on SPECT in 19 patients. Four patients with abnormal findings on X-ray CT or MRI showed lowered accumulation and focal paroxysm at the same site. Of 29 patients with normal X-ray CT or MRI findings, 15 (52%) showed lowered accumulation. Five patients showed a focal paroxysm at the site of lowered accumulation. In 8 patients the focal paroxysm site was partly coincided with the accumulation site. In some patients the focal site predicted by the findings of clinical symptoms and the lowered accumulation site coincided. SPECT is therefore a useful method in diagnosing a focal site in epilepsy and considered to reflect the severity of disease. (Y.S.).

  8. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD. PMID:26819531

  9. Arsenic toxicity and accumulation in radish as affected by arsenic chemical speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Barrachina, A A; Burló, F; López, E; Martínez-Sánchez, F

    1999-07-01

    Arsenic (As) uptake by Rhapanus sativus L. (radish), cv. Nueva Orleans, growing in soil-less culture conditions was studied in relation to the chemical form and concentration of As. A 4 x 3 factorial experiment was conducted with treatments consisting of four As chemical forms [As(III), As(V), MMAA, DMAA] and three As concentrations (1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg As L-1). None of the As treatments were clearly phytotoxic to this radish cultivar. Arsenic phytoavailability was primarily determined by the As chemical form present in the nutrient solution and followed the trend DMAA arsonic acid treatments caused the highest As accumulation in both roots and shoots, and this organic arsenical showed a higher uptake rate than the other As compounds. Inner root As concentrations were, in general, within the normal range for As contents in food crops but root skin As levels were close or above the maximum threshold set for As content in edible fruit, crops and vegetables. The statement that toxicity limits plant As uptake to safe levels was not confirmed in our study. If radish plants are exposed to a large pulse of As, as growth on contaminated nutrient solutions, they may accumulate residues which are unacceptable for animal and human consumption without exhibiting symptoms of phytotoxicity.

  10. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Kiwifruit of Planting Base in Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ren-cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals accumulation in soil and kiwi fruit plant in Western Hunan Province main kiwifruit planting base were analyzed, such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr. The results showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in soil of 6 kiwifruit planting areas were not obvious. The contents of heavy metals in most of areas of Western Hunan Province were below the national standard, except one area where the soil contents of cadmium (4.900 mg·kg-1, mercury (0.634 mg·kg-1were exceeded. At the same time, the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals was less than 0.7 in these areas. There were 5 bases with no pollution of heavy metal, all which the kiwifruit could be safely produced in line with the requirements of the green kiwifruit planting base soil standards. At these areas, the contents of various heavy metals(except cadmium and mercurywere small in the branches and leaves of kiwifruit; kiwifruit had a very well capacity to absorb the cadmium when the cadmium content of its branches reached 12.73%. The heavy metal contents of the kiwifruit in the 6 regions, which belonging to the pollutionfree green fruits, were below or far lower than the national standard. According to the comprehensive analysis, the soil condition of the main cultivated land in Western Hunan Province was good, and the fruit had no heavy metal residues.

  11. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  12. The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear transport activity of triple C2H2 zinc finger proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) motifs on proteins are frequently recognized as a structure for DNA binding. Accumulated reports indicate that ZF motifs contain nuclear localization signal (NLS) to facilitate the transport of ZF proteins into nucleus. We investigated the critical factors that facilitate the nuclear transport of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. Three conserved basic residues (hot spots) were identified among the ZF sequences of triple C2H2 ZF proteins that reportedly have NLS function. Additional basic residues can be found on the α-helix of the ZFs. Using the ZF domain (ZFD) of Egr-1 as a template, various mutants were constructed and expressed in cells. The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. Mutation at any hot spot of the Egr-1 ZFs reduced the nuclear transport activity. Changes of the basic residues at the α-helical region of the second ZF (ZF2) of the Egr-1 ZFD abolished the NLS activity. However, this activity can be restored by substituting the acidic residues at the homologous positions of ZF1 or ZF3 with basic residues. The restored activity dropped again when the hot spots at ZF1 or the basic residues in the α-helix of ZF3 were mutated. The variations in nuclear transport activity are linked directly to the binding activity of the ZF proteins with importins. This study was extended to other triple C2H2 ZF proteins. SP1 and KLF families, similar to Egr-1, have charged amino acid residues at the second (α2) and the third (α3) positions of the α-helix. Replacing the amino acids at α2 and α3 with acidic residues reduced the NLS activity of the SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The reduced activity can be restored by substituting the α3 with histidine at any SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The results show again the interchangeable role of ZFs and charge residues in the α-helix in regulating the NLS activity of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. PMID:29381770

  13. The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear transport activity of triple C2H2 zinc finger proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ying; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) motifs on proteins are frequently recognized as a structure for DNA binding. Accumulated reports indicate that ZF motifs contain nuclear localization signal (NLS) to facilitate the transport of ZF proteins into nucleus. We investigated the critical factors that facilitate the nuclear transport of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. Three conserved basic residues (hot spots) were identified among the ZF sequences of triple C2H2 ZF proteins that reportedly have NLS function. Additional basic residues can be found on the α-helix of the ZFs. Using the ZF domain (ZFD) of Egr-1 as a template, various mutants were constructed and expressed in cells. The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. Mutation at any hot spot of the Egr-1 ZFs reduced the nuclear transport activity. Changes of the basic residues at the α-helical region of the second ZF (ZF2) of the Egr-1 ZFD abolished the NLS activity. However, this activity can be restored by substituting the acidic residues at the homologous positions of ZF1 or ZF3 with basic residues. The restored activity dropped again when the hot spots at ZF1 or the basic residues in the α-helix of ZF3 were mutated. The variations in nuclear transport activity are linked directly to the binding activity of the ZF proteins with importins. This study was extended to other triple C2H2 ZF proteins. SP1 and KLF families, similar to Egr-1, have charged amino acid residues at the second (α2) and the third (α3) positions of the α-helix. Replacing the amino acids at α2 and α3 with acidic residues reduced the NLS activity of the SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The reduced activity can be restored by substituting the α3 with histidine at any SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The results show again the interchangeable role of ZFs and charge residues in the α-helix in regulating the NLS activity of triple C2H2 ZF proteins.

  14. Purification and characterization of three chitinases and one beta-1,3-glucanase accumulating in the medium of cell suspension cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, K.M.; Jacobsen, S.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.

    1991-01-01

    -terminal sequence (24 residues) this enzyme was identified as the previously described beta-1,3-endoglucanase GII from germinating barley grain. The results suggest that secretion of chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase from the embryogenic cell suspensions of barley corresponds to accumulation of the same enzymes...... chromatography. Two of the chitinases were identified as the previously described endochitinases T and C from barley grain. The third and novel chitinase, designated K, was the major basic chitinase in the medium constituting 4% of the soluble protein. Chitinase K was found to be a 33-kDa endochitinase with p......I at 8.7. Further analysis showed that this enzyme is also expressed in barley grain. The amino acid composition and five partial amino acid sequences covering 93 residues of chitinase K were determined. A high similarity was found between chitinase K and barley chitinase T and C as well as basic...

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Oxytetracycline Residue in Beef and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study showed that a high proportion of beef and chicken consumed in the cities contained violative levels of oxytetracycline residue arising possibly from indiscriminate antibiotics usage in Nigeria livestock industry. These could predispose meat consumers to the associated health risks of antibiotic residue. Regulatory ...

  16. A first look at logging residue characteristics in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1975-01-01

    In 1973 and 1974, the Forest Products Marketing Laboratory obtained some preliminary information about characteristics of logging residues in West Virginia. Sixteen 1-acre plots were measured in conjunction with a test of the line-intersect sampling method. Findings from the 16 plots showed that hardwood residue volumes ranged from 100 to 1,300 cubic feet per acre,...

  17. Enhancing biogas production from recalcitrant lignocellulosic residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    Lignocellulosic substrates are abundant in agricultural areas around the world and lately, are utilized for biogas production in full-scale anaerobic digesters. However, the anaerobic digestion (AD) of these substrates is associated with specific difficulties due to their recalcitrant nature which...... solution for augmented biomass solubilization without causing inhibition to the mandatory anaerobic methanogenic community. Based on the initial microbial analysis, the bioaugmentation with the typically abundant in AD systems C. thermocellum was examined in biogas reactors fed with wheat straw...... be periodically applied in biogas reactors in order to extract the residual methane from the amassing materials and avoid potential accumulation. Additionally, the facultative anaerobic Melioribacter roseus was inoculated in a replicate CSTR following different bioaugmentation strategies, either strictly...

  18. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  19. Joint accumulations of FDG in whole body PET scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulthess, G.K. von; Meier, N.; Stumpe, K.D.M. [Dept. of Medical Radiology: Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-12-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate FDG accumulations in major joints in a large series of non-absorption corrected partial body and whole body FDG-PET scans, and to determine the frequency and intensity of accumulation. Materials and methods: 354 consecutive PET partial- and whole body non-transmission corrected scans of patients obtained for tumor staging were examined with respect to FDG accumulations in the acromio-clavicular (AC)-, gleno-humeral-, hip,, knee- and talo-tibial joints. FDG-uptake was graded using a semi-quantitative scale from 0 (no accumulation) to 4 (very strong accumulation comparable to brain uptake). Results: Joint activity of grade 1-2 was noted frequently, while grade 3 was rare, occurring only in the knee and shoulder joints, and grade 4 was inexistent. The 43 patients with grade 3 accumulations or with at least 4 joints showing grade 2 uptake were interviewed, but all denied pain specifically referred to a joint. Joint accumulations were seen in 50% of the acromio-clavicular-, 80% in the gleno-humeral-, 50% in the hip-, 90% in the knee and 80% in the talo-tibial joints. The intensities of joint accumulations correlated positively and significantly with patient age, ranging from r = 0.7 and p <0.05 in the knee to r = 0.96 and p <0.0001 in the AC joint. Conclusions: FDG accumulations in the joints in whole body FDG-PET scans are frequent and are very likely not related to symptoms. As there is a strong age correlation, and FDG is known to accumulate in inflammatory lesions, the findings are most likely a result of sub-clinical inflammatory synovial proliferation or other chronic inflammatory processes occurring in aging joints. (orig.)

  20. Cadmium accumulation by Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv and Cyperus rotundas Linn growing in cadmium solution and cadmium-zinc contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitip Thiravetyan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the phyto-remediation potentials of Cyperus rotundas Linn (Nutgrass and Axonopus compressus (Sw. P. Beauv (Carpetgrass for cadmium removal from cadmium solution andcadmium-zinc contaminated soil. Plants growth in the solution showed that cadmium decreased the relative growth rate of both grasses. However, the amount of cadmium accumulated in shoot and root was increasedwith the increase in cadmium concentration and exposure time. Growth in fertile soil mixed with Cd-contaminated zinc silicate residue (65% Si, 19% Ca, 2% Zn, 1% Mg and 0.03% Cd at the ratio of 50:50 (w/wfor 30 days showed that C. rotundas Linn accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 2,178 and 1,144 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv accumulated cadmium in root and shoot to 1,965and 669 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively. Scanning electron microscope connected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy suggested that the mechanism of cadmium accumulation by both grasses involved thecadmium precipitation in the stable form of cadmium silicate, which indicated that C. rotundas Linn and A. compressus (Sw. P. Beauv could be grown to prevent soil erosion and to remediate cadmium-contaminatedsoil.

  1. Neutron measurement of residual stresses in a used railway rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, P.J.; Low, K.S.; Mills, G.; Webster, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The high resolution neutron diffraction technique has been applied to determine, non-destructively, the residual stress distribution developed in the head of a railway rail after normal service. Measurements were made, using the neutron strain scanner at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, on a transverse slice of rail 12mm thick taken from a section of straight track. The rail head was scanned in the three principal orientations in a series of parallel traverses sufficiently close to enable a two-dimensional matrix of data to be accumulated and vertical, transverse and longitudinal residual stress contours to be drawn. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and unique characteristics of the neutron technique to determine nondestructively and continuously the residual stresses inside engineering components

  2. Mechanically induced residual stresses: Modelling and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranart, Jean-Claude E.

    Accurate characterisation of residual stress represents a major challenge to the engineering community. This is because it is difficult to validate the measurement and the accuracy is doubtful. It is with this in mind that the current research program concerning the characterisation of mechanically induced residual stresses was undertaken. Specifically, the cold expansion of fastener holes and the shot peening treatment of aerospace alloys, aluminium 7075 and titanium Ti-6Al-4V, are considered. The objective of this study is to characterise residual stresses resulting from cold working using three powerful techniques. These are: (i) theoretical using three dimensional non-linear finite element modelling, (ii) semi-destructive using a modified incremental hole drilling technique and (iii) nondestructive using a newly developed guided wave method supplemented by traditional C-scan measurements. The three dimensional finite element results of both simultaneous and sequential cold expansion of two fastener holes revealed the importance of the separation distance, the expansion level and the loading history upon the development and growth of the plastic zone and unloading residual stresses. It further showed that the commonly adopted two dimensional finite element models are inaccurate and incapable of predicting these residual stresses. Similarly, the dynamic elasto-plastic finite element studies of shot peening showed that the depth of the compressed layer, surface and sub-surface residual stresses are significantly influenced by the shot characteristics. Furthermore, the results reveal that the separation distance between two simultaneously impacting shots governs the plastic zone development and its growth. In the semi-destructive incremental hole drilling technique, the accuracy of the newly developed calibration coefficients and measurement techniques were verified with a known stress field and the method was used to measure peening residual stresses. Unlike

  3. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  4. Noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena in nuclear power plant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Aoki, Kazuyoshi; Sato, Teruaki; Shida, Akira; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Nishikawa, Akira; Inagaki, Tetsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    In the case of the boiling water reactor, hydrogen and oxygen slightly exist in the main steam, because these noncondensable gases are generated by the radiolytic decomposition of the reactor water. BWR plants have taken measures to prevent noncondensable gas accumulation. However, in 2001, the detonation of noncondensable gases occurred at Hamaoka-1 and Brunsbuttel, resulting in ruptured piping. The accumulation phenomena of noncondensable gases in BWR closed piping must be investigated and understood in order to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Therefore, an experimental study on noncondensable gas accumulation was carried out. The piping geometries for testing were classified and modeled after the piping of actual BWR plants. The test results showed that 1) noncondensable gases accumulate in vertical piping, 2) it is hard for noncondensable gases to accumulate in horizontal piping, and 3) noncondensable gases accumulate under low-pressure conditions. A simple accumulation analysis method was proposed. To evaluate noncondensable gas accumulation phenomena, the three component gases were treated as a mixture. It was assumed that the condensation amount of the vapor is small, because the piping is certainly wrapped with heat insulation material. Moreover, local thermal equilibrium was assumed. This analysis method was verified using the noncondensable gas accumulation test data on branch piping with a closed top. Moreover, an experimental study on drain trap piping was carried out. The test results showed that the noncondensable gases dissolved in the drain water were discharged from the drain trap, and Henry's law could be applied to evaluate the amount of dissolved noncondensable gases in the drain water. (author)

  5. Field Monitoring Shows Smaller Sediment Deficit to the Louisiana Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanks, K. M.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    Current reports suggest that the Louisiana Coast will undergo significant drowning due to high subsidence rates and low sediment supply. One report suggests that sediment supply is just 30% of the amount necessary to sustain the current land area (Blum & Roberts, 2009). A novel dataset (CRMS) put together by the USGS and Louisiana's Coastal Protection and Restoration Authority provides direct measurements of sediment accumulation, subsidence rates, and sediment characteristics along the Louisiana Coast over the past 10 years (Jankowski et al., 2017). By interpolating bulk density, percent organic matter, and vertical accretion rates across the coast (274 sites), a more accurate estimate of sediment accumulation, both organic and inorganic, can be determined. Preliminary interpolation shows that an average of 53 MT organic and 132 MT inorganic sediment accumulates on coastal marshes each year. Assuming an average 9 mm/yr subsidence rate (Nienhuis et al., 2017) and 3 mm/yr sea-level rise (Blum & Roberts, 2009), this accumulation results in only a 12 MT/yr, or 6.5%, sediment deficit. Assuming a fluvial sediment discharge of 205 MT/yr, 64% of sediment is being trapped on the delta top. Although the sediment load estimates (MT/yr) may be slightly liberal due to interpolation over water, the fraction sediment deficit is unlikely to significantly change. These results suggest that even if current subsidence rates and sea level rise do not change, the gap between accommodation and accumulation may not be as dire as previously thought.

  6. Accumulation of steroid hormones in soil and its adjacent aquatic environment from a typical intensive vegetable cultivation of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Song; Xie, Yun-Feng; Li, Xue-Wen; Wang, Dai-Yi; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Nie, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-12-15

    Steroid hormones released from manure agricultural application are a matter of global concern. The residual levels of steroid hormones were studied in a typical intensive vegetable cultivation area in northeast China, with a long history of heavy manure application. Seven steroids (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, testosterone, androstendione and progesterone) were analyzed from soil sampled from vegetable greenhouses, from sediments and water from the adjacent drainage ditch and from the groundwater. The results showed that target steroids were detected in the soil samples, with detection frequencies varying from 3.13 to 100%. The steroid concentrations varied substantially in soils, ranging from below the detection limit to 109.7μg·kg(-1). Three steroids-progesterone, androstendione and estrone-were found to have relatively high residue concentrations in soil, with maximum concentrations of 109.7, 9.83 and 13.30μg·kg(-1), respectively. In adjacent groundwater, all the steroids, with the exception of estrone, were detected in one or more of the 13 groundwater samples. The concentrations of steroids in groundwater ranged from below the method detection limit to 2.38ng·L(-1). Six of the seven (excluding androstendione) were detected in drainage ditch water samples, with concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 14ng·L(-1). Progesterone, androstendione and estrone accumulated relatively easily in soils; their concentrations in groundwater were lower than those of other steroids. The concentrations of testosterone and estriol were relatively low in soil, while in groundwater were higher than those of other steroids. The residual levels of steroids in soil and groundwater showed a clear spatial variation in the study area. The residual levels of steroid hormones in soil varied substantially between differently planted greenhouses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Over-accumulation of nuclear IGF-1 receptor in tumor cells requires elevated expression of the receptor and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Hua; Lin, Yingbo; Badin, Margherita; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Stroemberg, Thomas [Department of Oncology and Pathology, The Karolinska Institute, Cancer Center Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena [Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Sehat, Bita [Department of Oncology and Pathology, The Karolinska Institute, Cancer Center Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, Olle, E-mail: olle.larsson@ki.se [Department of Oncology and Pathology, The Karolinska Institute, Cancer Center Karolinska, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of IGF-1R which activates transcription. {yields} Here we show that nuclear IGF-1R over-accumulates in tumor cells. {yields} This requires overexpression of the receptor that is a common feature in tumor cells. {yields} An increased expression of the SUMO ligase Ubc9 seems to be an involved mechanism too. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays crucial roles in tumor cell growth and is overexpressed in many cancers. IGF-1R's trans-membrane kinase signaling pathways have been well characterized. Very recently, we showed that SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of the IGF-1R, and that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) binds to enhancer regions and activates transcription. We identified three lysine residues in the {beta}-subunit of the receptor and that mutation of these blocks nuclear translocation and gene activation. Furthermore, accumulation of nIGF-1R was proven strongly dependent on the specific SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. Here we show that nIGF-1R originates solely from the cell membrane and that phosphorylation of the core tyrosine residues of the receptor kinase is crucial for nuclear accumulation. We also compared the levels of nIGF-1R, measured as nuclear/membrane ratios, in tumor and normal cells. We found that the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has 13-fold higher amounts of nIGF-1R than breast epithelial cells (IME) which showed only a small amount of nIGF-1R. In comparison, the total expression of IGF-1R was only 3.7- higher in MCF-7. Comparison of several other tumor and normal cell lines showed similar tumor cell over-accumulation of nIGF-1R, exceeding the total receptor expression substantially. Ectopic overexpression (>10-fold) of the receptor increased nIGF-1R in IME cells but not to that high level as in wild type MCF-7. The levels of Ubc9 were higher in all tumor cell lines, compared to the normal cells, and this probably contributes to over-accumulation

  8. Over-accumulation of nuclear IGF-1 receptor in tumor cells requires elevated expression of the receptor and the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Hua; Lin, Yingbo; Badin, Margherita; Vasilcanu, Daiana; Stroemberg, Thomas; Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena; Sehat, Bita; Larsson, Olle

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of IGF-1R which activates transcription. → Here we show that nuclear IGF-1R over-accumulates in tumor cells. → This requires overexpression of the receptor that is a common feature in tumor cells. → An increased expression of the SUMO ligase Ubc9 seems to be an involved mechanism too. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays crucial roles in tumor cell growth and is overexpressed in many cancers. IGF-1R's trans-membrane kinase signaling pathways have been well characterized. Very recently, we showed that SUMOylation mediates nuclear translocation of the IGF-1R, and that nuclear IGF-1R (nIGF-1R) binds to enhancer regions and activates transcription. We identified three lysine residues in the β-subunit of the receptor and that mutation of these blocks nuclear translocation and gene activation. Furthermore, accumulation of nIGF-1R was proven strongly dependent on the specific SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9. Here we show that nIGF-1R originates solely from the cell membrane and that phosphorylation of the core tyrosine residues of the receptor kinase is crucial for nuclear accumulation. We also compared the levels of nIGF-1R, measured as nuclear/membrane ratios, in tumor and normal cells. We found that the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 has 13-fold higher amounts of nIGF-1R than breast epithelial cells (IME) which showed only a small amount of nIGF-1R. In comparison, the total expression of IGF-1R was only 3.7- higher in MCF-7. Comparison of several other tumor and normal cell lines showed similar tumor cell over-accumulation of nIGF-1R, exceeding the total receptor expression substantially. Ectopic overexpression (>10-fold) of the receptor increased nIGF-1R in IME cells but not to that high level as in wild type MCF-7. The levels of Ubc9 were higher in all tumor cell lines, compared to the normal cells, and this probably contributes to over-accumulation of nIGF-1R

  9. Evaluating residues from batai trees (Paraserianthes falcataria) as alternative sources of nitrogen for grain corn (zeas mays l.) in the humid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharah, A.R.; Chintu, R.; Ghizan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The use of chemical fertilizers for mitigating N deficiency is unsustainable in many tropical areas because of economic constraints and possible deleterious effects on environmental quality. Although organic inputs such as green manures and litter from legumes have shown some potential for improving soil N status, the synchrony of N release from these residues with crop demand needs to be seriously addressed. The potential of above- and below-ground residues of Batai (Paraserianthes falcataria) to improve soil N availability and uptake by corn in an Ultisol (Bungor series) was evaluated under field and controlled conditions. The effect of residue quality on the kinetics of N release and accumulation in the soil was studied in field and laboratory incubation studies, whilst N uptake by grain corn was quantified using direct and indirect 1 5 N isotope labeling techniques. Treatments consist of fresh leaves, roots and 1:1 mixture of roots and leaves of Batai. Residue quality in terms of lignin + polyphenol-to-N ratio, and N mineralization was in the order roots 3 -N leaching occurred between 30 and 60 days after treatment (DAT). Significant amounts of Ca, Mg and K were also leached beyond 20 cm after 60 days. Both 15 N-labeling methods showed that N recovery in corn was much higher in the root than the leaf treatments. However, integrating Batai residues with an inorganic N source could be a more effective management strategy for improving N use efficiency and mitigating soil acidity. (Author)

  10. Bioavailability and release of nonextractable (bound) residues of chiral cycloxaprid using geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi in rice paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuanqi; Xu, Xiaoyong [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Hanxue [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Li, Chao; Shao, Xusheng [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Ye, Qingfu, E-mail: qfye@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: lizhong@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-09-01

    The widespread adoption of neonicotinoids has led to a move away from integrated pest management (IPM) and caused adverse effects on non-target invertebrate species. Due to their living in close contact with and consuming large amounts of soil, earthworms are a model organism used to study bioaccumulation. We investigated the bioaccumulation and release of bound, or non-extractable, residues (BRs) of {sup 14}C labeled racemic cycloxaprid (CYC) and its individual enantiomers by the geophagous earthworm Metaphire guillelmi. In a previous work, the fraction of BRs of {sup 14}C-CYC individual enantiomers reached up to 70–85% of the initially spiked radioactivity after 100 d of treatment. The bulk volume of the soil was then diluted by a factor of 15 with fresh soil. Here we showed that after earthworms lived in the soil-bound residues for 28 d, 11–25% of the previously bound radioactivity in soil was extractable by solvent, mineralized to CO{sub 2}, and accumulated in earthworm tissues. While earthworms were exposed to {sup 14}C-CYC a two-compartment accumulation model could explain the bio-accumulation as individual enantiomers. At the end of the experiment, the biota-sediment accumulation factors were between 0.59 and 0.82, which suggested CYC immobilization in the soil resulted in its bioavailability being reduced which enhanced its degradation. Additionally, the elimination of CYC individual enantiomers from M. guillelmi was fitted to an availability-adjusted decay model with a half-life of 9 d. Stereoselective release or bioavailability between CYC enantiomers was not observed. These results provide the important data about the release of BRs of CYC and potential transfer in the food chain to support the long-term environmental risk assessment of neonicotinoids. - Highlights: • 20% of the BRs were released and bioavailable. • Stereoselective behaviors were not observed.

  11. Three residual income valuation methods and discounted cash flow valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we show that the three residual Income models for equity valuation always yield the same value as the Discounted Cash Flow Valuation models. We use three residual income measures: Economic Profit, Economic Value Added (EVA) and Cash Value Added. We also show that economic profit and EVA are different, although Copeland, Koller and Murrin (2000, page 55) say that economic profit is a synonym of EVA. Specifically, we first show that the present value of the Economic Profit discoun...

  12. Intracellular accumulation of trehalose and glycogen in an extreme oligotroph, Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Takanori; Funamizu, Yuhei; Yoshida, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    An extreme oligotroph, Rhodococcus erythropolis N9T-4, showed intracellular accumulation of trehalose and glycogen under oligotrophic conditions. No trehalose accumulation was observed in cells grown on the rich medium. Deletion of the polyphosphate kinase genes enhanced the trehalose accumulation and decreases the intracellular glycogen contents, suggesting an oligotrophic relationship between among the metabolic pathways of trehalose, glycogen, and inorganic polyphosphate biosyntheses.

  13. Voice disorders in residual paracoccidioidomycosis in upper airways and digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Ananda Dutra; Vargas, Amanda Pereira; Lucena, Marcia Mendonça; Ruas, Ana Cristina Nunes; Braga, Fernanda da Silva Santos; Bom-Braga, Mateus Pereira; Bom-Braga, Frederico Pereira; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi; Igreja, Ricardo Pereira; Valete-Rosalino, Cláudia Maria

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis of acute and chronic evolution, caused by species belonging to the genus Paracoccidioides. It is considered the most prevalent systemic endemic mycosis in Latin America, with cases in the tropical and subtropical regions. Residual PCM refers to the fibrotic scar sequelae resulting from the disease treatment which, when associated with collagen accumulation, leads to functional and anatomic alterations in the organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the vocal function of patients with residual PCM in upper airways and digestive tract. We performed a cross-sectional study in 2010 in a cohort of 21 patients with residual PCM in upper airways and digestive tract. The average age was 49.48±9.1 years, and only two (9.5%) patients were female. The study was performed in the 1-113 month-period (median 27) after the end of drug treatment. Five (23.8%) patients had alterations in the larynx as a sequela of the disease. However, all patients had vocal changes in vocal auditory perceptual analysis by GRBASI scale. The computerized acoustic analysis using the software Vox Metria, showed that 11 patients (52.4%) presented alterations in jitter, 15 (71.4%) in shimmer, 8 (38.1%) in F0, 4 (19%) in glottal to noise excitation (GNE), 7 (33.3%) in the presence of noise and 12 (57.1%) in the presence of vibratory irregularity. The great frequency of alterations in residual PCM suggests that the patients in such phase could benefit from a multidisciplinary treatment, offering them integral monitoring of the disease, including speech rehabilitation after the PCM is healed. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  15. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  16. Dissecting and analyzing key residues in protein-DNA complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulandaisamy, A; Srivastava, Ambuj; Nagarajan, R; Gromiha, M Michael

    2018-04-01

    Protein-DNA interactions are involved in various fundamental biological processes such as replication, transcription, DNA repair, and gene regulation. To understand the interaction in protein-DNA complexes, the integrative study of binding and stabilizing residues is important. In the present study, we have identified key residues that play a dual role in both binding and stability from a nonredundant dataset of 319 protein-DNA complexes. We observed that key residues are identified in very less number of complexes (29%) and only about 4% of stabilizing/binding residues are identified as key residues. Specifically, stabilizing residues have higher preference to be key residues than binding residues. These key residues include polar, nonpolar, aliphatic, aromatic, and charged amino acids. Moreover, we have analyzed and discussed the key residues in different protein-DNA complexes, which are classified based on protein structural class, function, DNA strand, and their conformations. Especially, Ser, Thr, Tyr, Arg, and Lys residues are commonly found in most of the subclasses of protein-DNA complexes. Further, we analyzed atomic contacts, which show that polar-nonpolar is more enriched than other types of contacts. In addition, the charged contacts are highly preferred in protein-DNA complexes compared with protein-protein and protein-RNA complexes. Finally, we have discussed the sequence and structural features of key residues such as conservation score, surrounding hydrophobicity, solvent accessibility, secondary structure, and long-range order. This study will be helpful to understand the recognition mechanism and structural and functional aspects of protein-DNA complexes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  18. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  19. Cadmium uptake and speciation changes in the rhizosphere of cadmium accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Dechun; Xing, Jianping; Jiao, Weiping; Wong, Woonchung

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of cadmium (Cd) uptake kinetics and distribution of Cd speciation in the rhizosphere for Cd accumulator and non-accumulator oilseed rape varieties were investigated under nutrient solution and rhizobox soil culture conditions. The results showed that the maximal influx (V(max)) for Cd2+ and Km were significantly different for the two oilseed rape varieties. The value of V(max) for Cd accumulator oilseed rape Zhucang Huazi was two-fold greater than that for oilseed rape Chuan you II-93. The exchangeable Cd concentration in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than in non-rhizospheric soils supplemented with CdSO4 for both the varieties. Carbonate-bound Cd in the rhizosphere of Cd accumulator oilseed rape was significantly higher than that in the rhizosphere of non-accumulator oilseed rape and non-rhizospheric soil. Cd accumulator oilseed rape had a higher Cd2+ affinity and more ability to uptake insoluble Cd in the soil than the non-accumulator oilseed rape.

  20. Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor contains approximately 20,000 biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) from 20 locations (mostly Superfund sites) for...

  1. Simulation and experiemntal study on damper by accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaobin; Zhou Yong; Chen Wuxing; Hu Junhua

    2010-01-01

    In order to prevent stressing penstocks broken by earthquake or other shock waves, dampers are used widely in nuclear power plant or pipelines transporting radioactive material. A new-style damper by accumulator is introduced. Inside the damper an accumulator is installed, the outward corrugated tubes are added outside the piston rod. So it has advantages of small volume, no oil leakage. The simulation and experimental research show that if the clearance between the piston and cylinder, the spring stiffness of accumulator or the throttle valve size is varied, the dynamic performance of the impact displacement, resistance in low velocity and lock-up velocity of dampe would be influenced. The support of nuclear classified pipelines can be satisfied by using this new-style accumulator damper. (authors)

  2. Projections and residues on manifolds with boundary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarde, Anders Borg

    2008-01-01

    It is a well-known result that the noncommutative residue of a pseudodifferential projection is zero on a compact manifold without boundary. Equivalently, the value of the zeta-function of P at zero, ¿¿(P, 0), is independent of ¿ for any elliptic operator P. Here ¿ denotes the angle of a ray where...... the resolvent of P has minimal growth. In this thesis, we consider the analogous questions on a compact manifold with boundary. We show that the noncommutative residue is zero for any projection in Boutet de Monvel’s calculus of pseudodifferential boundary problems. For an elliptic boundary problem {P+ + G, T...... }, with the corresponding realization B = (P + G)T, we de¿ne the sectorial projection ¿¿,¿(B) and the residue of this projection. We discuss whether this residue is always zero, through various analyses of the structure of the pro jection. The question is interesting since ¿¿(B, 0) is independent of ¿ exactly when...

  3. Analysis and Modeling of Process of Residual Deformations Accumulation in Soils and Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A. S.; Dolgih, G. V.; Kalinin, A. L.

    2017-11-01

    It is established that under the influence of repeated loads the process of plastic deformation in soils and discrete materials is hereditary. To perform the mathematical modeling of plastic deformation, the authors applied the integral equation by solution of which they manage to obtain the power and logarithmic dependencies connecting plastic deformation with the number of repeated loads, the parameters of the material and components of the stress tensor in the principal axes. It is shown that these dependences generalize a number of models proposed earlier in Russia and abroad. Based on the analysis of the experimental data obtained during material testing in the dynamic devices of triaxial compression at different values of the stress deviator, the coefficients in the proposed models of deformation are determined. The authors determined the application domain for logarithmic and degree dependences.

  4. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Toumi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC and liquid chormatograhphy (LC analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc. and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg measured in the rose samples. It appears from the

  5. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Khaoula; Vleminckx, Christiane; van Loco, Joris; Schiffers, Bruno

    2016-09-23

    In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists' exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums) were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur) and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe) method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chormatograhphy (LC) analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc.) and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone) were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg) measured in the rose samples. It appears from the survey that

  6. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  7. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother's age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds.

  8. Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Toshihiro

    1987-01-01

    In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital γ camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na + , K + -ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na + , K + -ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na + , K + -ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na + , K + -ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

  9. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation expense—telecommunications...

  10. Characteristics estimation of coal liquefaction residue; Sekitan ekika zansa seijo no suisan ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itonaga, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The paper studied a possibility of estimating characteristics of coal liquefaction residue from liquefaction conditions in the case of fixing coal kind in the NEDOL process coal liquefaction PSU. Wyoming coal was used for the study, and the already proposed simplified liquefaction reaction models were used. Among material balances explained by the models, those of asphaltene, preasphaltene, THF insoluble matters are concerned with residue composition. Ash content is separately calculated from ash balance. Reaction velocity constants of simplified liquefaction reaction models which influence the residue composition were obtained by the multiple regression method from experimental results in the past. The estimation expression of residue viscosity was introduced from residue ash/composition. When the residue composition is estimated by the model from liquefaction conditions, and the residue viscosity is obtained using it, the higher the liquefaction temperature is, the higher the residue viscosity is. The result obtained well agreed the measuring result. The simplified liquefaction model of a certain coal kind has been established, and characteristics of residue can be estimated even at liquefaction conditions which have never been experienced before if there is a certain amount of the accumulated data on residue composition/characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  12. Electron-Positron Accumulator (EPA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1986-01-01

    After acceleration in the low-current linac LIL-W, the electrons and positrons are accumulated in EPA to obtain a sufficient intensity and a suitable time-structure, before being passed on to the PS for further acceleration to 3.5 GeV. Electrons circulate from right to left, positrons in the other direction. Dipole bending magnets are red, focusing quadrupoles blue, sextupoles for chromaticity-control orange. The vertical tube at the left of the picture belongs to an optical transport system carrying the synchrotron radiation to detectors for beam size measurement. Construction of EPA was completed in spring 1986. LIL-W and EPA were conceived for an energy of 600 MeV, but operation was limited to 500 MeV.

  13. Energy accumulation in photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, G.

    1988-01-01

    The photovoltaic demonstration plant, DELPHOS, in Manfredonia, Italy, is described. The plant was designed to produce 1.2 MW peak. This report assesses the performance, after one year of operation, of the first 300 kW section, developed by ENEA (Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energies). This section, not equipped with a D.C. converter, uses a set of fixed photovoltaic panels which supplies an isolated user installation or connects to the national grid. The site of the pilot plant receives 58% of maximum theoretical sunlight. The accumulator set consists of 250 elements in series (500 V nominal voltage) which can put out 2500 A-hours (10 hour discharge period). The camp is subdivided into 6 blocks of 50 kW peak nominal power. In total, 5760 modules, comprising about 300,000 silicon cells, were used. Different makes of polycrystalline cells were chosen to allow comparative evaluation.

  14. Effects of prion protein devoid of the N-terminal residues 25-50 on prion pathogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandita Rani; Miyata, Hironori; Hara, Hideyuki; Uchiyama, Keiji; Chida, Junji; Yano, Masashi; Watanabe, Hitomi; Kondoh, Gen; Sakaguchi, Suehiro

    2017-07-01

    The N-terminal polybasic region of the normal prion protein, PrP C , which encompasses residues 23-31, is important for prion pathogenesis by affecting conversion of PrP C into the pathogenic isoform, PrP Sc . We previously reported transgenic mice expressing PrP with residues 25-50 deleted in the PrP-null background, designated as Tg(PrP∆preOR)/Prnp 0/0 mice. Here, we produced two new lines of Tg(PrP∆preOR)/Prnp 0/0 mice, each expressing the mutant protein, PrP∆preOR, 1.1 and 1.6 times more than PrP C in wild-type mice, and subsequently intracerebrally inoculated RML and 22L prions into them. The lower expresser showed slightly reduced susceptibility to RML prions but not to 22L prions. The higher expresser exhibited enhanced susceptibility to both prions. No prion transmission barrier was created in Tg(PrP∆preOR)/Prnp 0/0 mice against full-length PrP Sc . PrP Sc ∆preOR accumulated in the brains of infected Tg(PrP∆preOR)/Prnp 0/0 mice less than PrP Sc in control wild-type mice, although lower in RML-infected Tg(PrP∆preOR)/Prnp 0/0 mice than in 22L-infected mice. Prion infectivity in infected Tg(PrP∆preOR)/Prnp 0/0 mice was also lower than that in wild-type mice. These results indicate that deletion of residues 25-50 only slightly affects prion susceptibility, the conversion of PrP C into PrP Sc , and prion infectivity in a strain-specific way. PrP∆preOR retains residues 23-24 and lacks residues 25-31 in the polybasic region. It is thus conceivable that residues 23-24 rather than 25-31 are important for the polybasic region to support prion pathogenesis. However, other investigators have reported that residues 27-31 not 23-24 are important to support prion pathogenesis. Taken together, the polybasic region might support prion pathogenesis through multiple sites including residues 23-24 and 27-31.

  15. Primitive Accumulation and Temporalities of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of the article is the statement that capitalism is composed of many different, incoherent temporalities, as well as that apprehension of capitalism from the angle of primitive accumulation enables the more accurate grasp of the modes of its functioning, including the complexity created by the interactions of the temporalities mentionned. The problem of primitive accumulation is, as Sandro Mezzadra proves, a good starting point for analysing this issue. It allows us to pose two questions: first, the question of the relation between the historical dimension and the structural logic of capitalism; second, the question of hierarchical relation between the center and the periphery of the capitalist system.Dipesh Chakrabarty’s project of ‘provincializing Europe’ proves helpful here, as it’s goal is deconstruction of the categories of progress, modernization and the capital with its abstract structure. The aim is not to negate the fact that capitalist abstraction is a real force, but to show that this force develops by means of constant assimiliation of the other – redefined as ‘backward’ or archaic. The linear scheme is in force, because it is the main mechanism of imposing the power of capital; as such, it is not politically neutral.

  16. The respective effects of soil heavy metal fractions by sequential extraction procedure and soil properties on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine heavy metal accumulation in rice grains and brassicas and to identify the different controls, such as soil properties and soil heavy metal fractions obtained by the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction, in their accumulation. In Guangdong Province, South China, rice grain and brassica samples, along with their rhizospheric soil, were collected from fields on the basis of distance downstream from electroplating factories, whose wastewater was used for irrigation. The results showed that long-term irrigation using the electroplating effluent has not only enriched the rhizospheric soil with Cd, Cr, Cu, and Zn but has also increased their mobility and bioavailability. The average concentrations of Cd and Cr in rice grains and brassicas from closest to the electroplating factories were significantly higher than those from the control areas. Results from hybrid redundancy analysis (hRDA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the BCR fractions of soil heavy metals could explain 29.0 and 46.5 % of total eigenvalue for heavy metal concentrations in rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while soil properties could only explain 11.1 and 33.4 %, respectively. This indicated that heavy metal fractions exerted more control upon their concentrations in rice grains and brassicas than soil properties. In terms of metal interaction, an increase of residual Zn in paddy soil or a decrease of acid soluble Cd in the brassica soil could enhance the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Cr, and Pb in both rice grains and brassicas, respectively, while the reducible or oxidizable Cd in soil could enhance the plants' accumulation of Cr and Pb. The RDA showed an inhibition effect of sand content and CFO on the accumulation of heavy metals in rice grains and brassicas. Moreover, multiple stepwise linear regression could offer prediction for Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn concentrations in the two crops by soil heavy metal fractions and soil properties.

  17. Aging of residual surface resistance of superconducting lead cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, M.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of the residual surface resistance of superconducting lead cavities as a function of time during a period of a month showed an oscillating variation. An explanation of the ageing curves is proposed. ©1972 The American Institute of Physics......Measurements of the residual surface resistance of superconducting lead cavities as a function of time during a period of a month showed an oscillating variation. An explanation of the ageing curves is proposed. ©1972 The American Institute of Physics...

  18. Fluorescence properties of porcine odorant binding protein Trp 16 residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albani, Jihad Rene, E-mail: Jihad-Rene.Albani@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moleculaire, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2010-11-15

    Summary: The present work deals with fluorescence studies of adult porcine odorant binding protein at pH=7.5. At this pH, the protein is a dimer, each monomer contains one tryptophan residue. Our results show that tryptophan residue displays significant motions and emits with three fluorescence lifetimes. Decay associated spectra showed that the three lifetime's components emanate from sub-structures surrounded by the same microenvironment.

  19. Botanicals and Phosphonate Show Potential to Replace Copper for Control of Potato Late Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rudolf Forrer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Potato late blight (PLB caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi is the most harmful disease in potato production worldwide. In organic farming, copper is used despite its persistence in soil and toxicity to soil organisms. To replace copper, suspensions of powders from three promising botanicals, including bark of buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA, roots of medicinal rhubarb (Rheum palmatum and galls of the nutgall tree (Galla chinensis, were tested in multi-year field experiments. The current study shows for the first time that botanicals could replace copper under field conditions and best PLB reduction on leaves was achieved with FA, reaching a level close to that of 2 to 3 kg copper per hectare and year. Better results than with copper were achieved with Phosfik® (Ph, a phosphonate-based product. For both FA and Ph, the mode of action is based on induced resistance, for Ph also on direct fungicidal effects. A disadvantage of Ph is the accumulation of residues in potato tubers. Nevertheless, two to three applications with 2 to 3 L/ha of Ph would be feasible to not exceed a minimal risk level (MLR of 20 mg/kg of phosphorous acid as proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Due to an excellent environmental profile and a complex mode of action counteracting Pi resistance, phosphonate-based products would be most suitable for sustainable PLB management in integrated pest management (IPM programmes.

  20. Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in market-sold vegetables and fish in a northern metropolis of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yanyan; Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yanmei; Die, Qingqi; Liu, Feng; He, Jie; Huang, Qifei

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns about food safety and stricter national standards in China, attention has focused on vegetables and fish as they are an important part of the Chinese daily diet, and pesticide residues can accumulate in these foodstuffs. The local consumption habits of vegetables and fish were determined using questionnaires distributed in the major regions of the northern metropolis. Then, the samples of fruit-like vegetables, leafy and root vegetables, and five species of fish (freshwater and marine) were collected from supermarkets and traditional farmers' markets in the city. The concentrations and profiles of pesticide residues (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), and endosulfan) in the samples were determined and compared. For the vegetables, the concentration ranges of ΣDDT, ΣHCH, and Σendosulfan were not detectable (ND) to 10.4 ng/g fresh weight (f.w.), ND to 58.8 ng/g f.w., and ND to 63.9 ng/g f.w., respectively. For the fish samples, the corresponding values were 0.77-25.0 ng/g f.w., 0.02-1.42 ng/g f.w., and 1.22-22.1 ng/g f.w., respectively. Only one celery sample exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of HCH residues set by Chinese regulations (GB2763-2014). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using data from the recently published Exposure Factors Handbook for the Chinese Population. The EDIs and HRs showed that the levels of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in vegetables and fish in this area are safe.

  1. Use of demolition residues construction in soil-lime bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, S.S.; Silva, C.G.; Silva, I.A.; Neves, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Besides being responsible for several environmental damage caused by its residues, the construction industry is also considered the greatest natural resources consumer. When finely ground, such residues can exhibit cementing properties, which may replace part of the lime used in the manufacture of soil-lime bricks. This study aimed to verify the viability of using demolition residues (DR) in soil-lime bricks without structural function. For this, test specimens were prepared using mixes in a 1:10 ratio of lime:soil and embedding residue in partial replacement of lime in the proportions of 25%, 50% and 75%. The test specimens were submitted to curing periods of 28 and 52 days, then it was determined the compression strength. The results showed that when embedded on moderate percentages, demolition residues construction can be used in the production of soil-lime bricks. (author)

  2. Obtention of ceramic pigments with residue from electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, A.; Kniess, C.T.; Aguiar, B.M. de; Prates, P.B.; Milanez, K.

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of industrial residues in industrial processes opens up new business opportunities and reduces the volume of extraction of raw materials, preserving natural resources, which are limited. An important residue is the mud from galvanic industry, consisting of alkali and transition metals. According to NBR 10004/2004, this residue can be classified as Class I (hazardous), depending on the concentration of metals present in the mud. This paper proposes a method for reusing the residue from electroplating in ceramic pigments. The characterization of residual plating was obtained by chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis and pH measurements. The electroplating waste was incorporated in different percentages on a standard pigment formula of industrial ceramic, consisting mainly of Zn, Fe and Cr. The obtained pigments were applied in ceramic glazes to colorimetric and visual analysis, which showed good results with the addition of up to 15% of industrial waste. (author)

  3. Characteristics and engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Y. S.; Sugiarti, K.; Soebowo, E.

    2018-02-01

    Residual soil knowledge of volcanic-sedimentary rock products provides important information on the soil bearing capacity and its engineering properties. The residual soil is the result of weathering commonly found in unsaturated conditions, having varied geotechnical characteristics at each level of weathering. This paper summarizes the results of the research from the basic engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic-sedimentary rocks from several different locations. The main engineering properties of residual soil such as specific gravity, porosity, grain size, clay content (X-Ray test) and soil shear strength are performed on volcanic rock deposits. The results show that the variation of the index and engineering properties and the microstructure properties of residual soil have the correlation between the depths of weathering levels. Pore volume and pore size distribution on weathered rock profiles can be used as an indication of weathering levels in the tropics.

  4. Dispersed and piled woody residues volumes in coastal Douglas-fir cutblocks determined using high-resolution imagery from a UAV and from ground-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Gougeon, F.

    2015-12-01

    After forest harvest significant amounts of woody residues are left dispersed on site and some subsequently piled and burned. Quantification of residues is required for estimating C budgets, billable waste, harvest efficiency, bioenergy potential and smoke emissions. Trofymow (et al 2014 CJFR) compared remote sensing methods to ground-based waste and residue survey (WRS) methods for residue piles in 4 cutblocks in the Oyster River (OR) area in coastal BC. Compared to geospatial methods using 15cm orthophotos and LiDAR acquired in 2011 by helicopter, the WRS method underestimated pile wood by 30% to 50% while a USFS volume method overestimated pile wood by 50% if site specific packing ratios were not used. A geospatial method was developed in PCI Geomatica to analyze 2-bit images of logs >15cm diameters to determine dispersed wood residues in OR and compare to WRS methods. Across blocks, geospatial and WRS method wood volumes were correlated (R2=0.69), however volumes were 2.5 times larger for the geospatial vs WRS method. Methods for dispersed residues could not be properly compared as individual WRS plots were not georeferenced, only 12 plots were sampled in total, and low-resolution images poorly resolved logs. Thus, a new study in 2 cutblocks in the Northwest Bay (NWB) area acquired 2cm resolution RGB air-photography in 2014-15 using an Aeryon Sky Ranger UAV prior to and after burn pile construction. A total of 57 dispersed WRS plots and 24 WRS pile or accumulation plots were georeferenced and measured. Stero-pairs were used to generate point-clouds for pile bulk volumes. Images processed to 8-bit grey scale are being analyzed with a revised PCI method that better accounts for log overlaps. WRS methods depend on a good sample of plots and accurate determination of stratum (dispersed, roadside, piles, accumulations) areas. Analysis of NWB blocks shows WRS field methods for stratum area differ by 5-20% from that determined using orthophotos. Plot-level wood

  5. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs

  6. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  7. Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since these elements occur widely dispersed in the earth crust with concentrations of several mgṡkg-1 (Ge 1.6 mgṡkg-1, Nd 25 mgṡkg-1) a new possibility to gain these elements could be phytomining, a technique that uses plants to extract elements from soils via their roots. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species (Salix spec., Populus spec., Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus). In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg (Saxony, Germany), differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cd). On each site plant tissues (wood and leaves, respectively) of different species were sampled. In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions (mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous). Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and plant tissues were measured with ICP-MS. The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves (0.31 mgṡkg-1Nd) were several times higher than in herbaceous species (0.05 mgṡkg-1 Nd). The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude. Within the tree

  8. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    production, and reduced greenhouse gas emission. Overall, the conversion of sugarcane harvest residue to biochar as soil amendment improves sugarcane production for both agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane residue biochar also showed the potential of other environmental use for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  9. Residual stress analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques which are or could be employed to measure residual stresses are outlined. They include X-ray and neutron diffraction. Comments are made on the reliability and accuracy to be expected from particular techniques

  10. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  11. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  13. Residual Stress Analysis Based on Acoustic and Optical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanichiro Yoshida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-application of acoustoelasticity and optical interferometry to residual stress analysis is discussed. The underlying idea is to combine the advantages of both methods. Acoustoelasticity is capable of evaluating a residual stress absolutely but it is a single point measurement. Optical interferometry is able to measure deformation yielding two-dimensional, full-field data, but it is not suitable for absolute evaluation of residual stresses. By theoretically relating the deformation data to residual stresses, and calibrating it with absolute residual stress evaluated at a reference point, it is possible to measure residual stresses quantitatively, nondestructively and two-dimensionally. The feasibility of the idea has been tested with a butt-jointed dissimilar plate specimen. A steel plate 18.5 mm wide, 50 mm long and 3.37 mm thick is braze-jointed to a cemented carbide plate of the same dimension along the 18.5 mm-side. Acoustoelasticity evaluates the elastic modulus at reference points via acoustic velocity measurement. A tensile load is applied to the specimen at a constant pulling rate in a stress range substantially lower than the yield stress. Optical interferometry measures the resulting acceleration field. Based on the theory of harmonic oscillation, the acceleration field is correlated to compressive and tensile residual stresses qualitatively. The acoustic and optical results show reasonable agreement in the compressive and tensile residual stresses, indicating the feasibility of the idea.

  14. Phytomass production and nutrient accumulation by green manure species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Soares Mangaravite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is recognized as a viable alternative to improve nutrient cycling in soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation in shoots of the summer green manures jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.], dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajanvar var. Flavus DC., dwarf mucuna [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort Merr] and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., under nitrogen fertilization and/or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria. A split plot design was arranged with the four Fabaceae species as main plots and nitrogen fertilization (with and without and inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria (with and without as the subplots, in a 2² factorial. The experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the conditions of this trial, the sunn hemp had the highest production of shoot phytomass (12.4 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation, while the dwarf mucuna had the lowest production of shoot phytomass (3.9 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation. The results showed no effect of nitrogen fertilization or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria on the production of shoot phytomass and nutrient accumulation, except for inoculation without nitrogen fertilization, resulting in greater P accumulation (p <0.05 in the sunn hemp and greater Zn and Mn accumulation in the dwarf mucuna. These findings indicate that N fertilization or inoculation with N2-fixing bacteria for Fabaceae are low efficiency practices in the edaphoclimatic conditions of this study.

  15. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  16. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  17. Arginine residues are more effective than lysine residues in eliciting the cellular uptake of onconase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundlass, Nadia K; Raines, Ronald T

    2011-11-29

    Onconase is an amphibian member of the pancreatic ribonuclease family of enzymes that is in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Onconase, which has an abundance of lysine residues, is internalized by cancer cells through endocytosis in a mechanism similar to that of cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we compare the effect of lysine versus arginine residues on the biochemical attributes necessary for Onconase to elicit its cytotoxic activity. In the variant R-Onconase, 10 of the 12 lysine residues in Onconase are replaced with arginine, leaving only the two active-site lysines intact. Cytometric assays quantifying internalization showed a 3-fold increase in the internalization of R-Onconase compared with Onconase. R-Onconase also showed greater affinity for heparin and a 2-fold increase in ribonucleolytic activity. Nonetheless, arginine substitution endowed only a slight increase in toxicity toward human cancer cells. Analysis of denaturation induced with guanidine-HCl showed that R-Onconase has less conformational stability than does the wild-type enzyme; moreover, R-Onconase is more susceptible to proteolytic degradation. These data indicate that arginine residues are more effective than lysine in eliciting cellular internalization but can compromise other aspects of protein structure and function.

  18. Identification of key amino acid residues modulating intracellular and in vitro microcin E492 amyloid formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina eAguilera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcin E492 (MccE492 is a pore-forming bacteriocin produced and exported by Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492. Besides its antibacterial activity, excreted MccE492 can form amyloid fibrils in vivo as well as in vitro. It has been proposed that bacterial amyloids can be functional playing a biological role, and in the particular case of MccE492 it would control the antibacterial activity. MccE492 amyloid fibril’s morphology and formation kinetics in vitro have been well characterized, however it is not known which amino acid residues determine its amyloidogenic propensity, nor if it forms intracellular amyloid inclusions as has been reported for other bacterial amyloids. In this work we found the conditions in which MccE492 forms intracellular amyloids in E. coli cells, that were visualized as round-shaped inclusion bodies recognized by two amyloidophillic probes, 2-4´-methylaminophenyl benzothiazole and thioflavin-S. We used this property to perform a flow cytometry-based assay to evaluate the aggregation propensity of MccE492 mutants, that were designed using an in silico prediction of putative aggregation hotspots. We established that the predicted amino acid residues 54-63, effectively act as a pro-amyloidogenic stretch. As in the case of other amyloidogenic proteins, this region presented two gatekeeper residues (P57 and P59, which disfavor both intracellular and in vitro MccE492 amyloid formation, preventing an uncontrolled aggregation. Mutants in each of these gatekeeper residues showed faster in vitro aggregation and bactericidal inactivation kinetics, and the two mutants were accumulated as dense amyloid inclusions in more than 80% of E. coli cells expressing these variants. In contrast, the MccE492 mutant lacking residues 54-63 showed a significantly lower intracellular aggregation propensity and slower in vitro polymerization kinetics. Electron microscopy analysis of the amyloids formed in vitro by these mutants revealed that, although

  19. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  20. 78 FR 16243 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... pesticide residues; and establishing maximum limits for environmental and industrial contaminants showing... on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary for Food Safety, USDA. ACTION... at the 45th Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) of the Codex Alimentarius...

  1. Availability of nitrogen in 15N-labelled mature pea residues to subsequent crops in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The availability of N in N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues to subsequent autumn-sown or spring-sown crops was studied in two experiments in field microplots. The residues were incorporated in the soil in August or September. Winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and winter oilseed...... incorporation of the residues. At maturity, the pea residue N constituted soil did not significantly influence the amount of non-labelled soil (+ fertilizer) N accumulated by crops. The recovery of pea residue N in successive autumn-sown crops of barley......, oilseed rape and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was 14, 3 and 2% respectively; spring-sown barley, oilseed rape and wheat recovered only 6, 2 and 2% respectively. Similarly, the amount of non-labelled soil N accumulated was almost twice as high in autumn-sown crops as compared to spring-sown crops...

  2. Accumulation of Pollutants in Highway Detention Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    -dimensional flow is described with a numerical CFD model. The particulate matter is analysed for grain size distributions, settling velocity distributions and corresponding heavy metal and PAH concentration. Erosion/resuspension experiments for detention pond sediments are carried out in the laboratory...... with currents and waves. In general the study shows that the bulk of hydrocarbons, PAH's and heavy metals accumulate in detention pond sediments and the removal efficiency for particulate matter in the detention ponds is around 80 %. An important parameter for retention of particulate matter in Denmark...... of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from an arbitrary detention pond to the natural environment. The present thesis is a part of a co-operation between the Danish Road Directorate (Vejdirektoratet) and Aalborg University and is founded in the Danish construction act for new highways...

  3. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  4. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Residual stress measurement by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akita, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Neutron diffraction method has great advantages, allowing us to determine the residual stress deep present within the bulk materials and components nondestructively. Therefore, the method has been applied to confirm the structural integrity of the actual mechanical components and structures and to improve the manufacturing process and strength reliability of the products. This article reviews the residual stress measurement methodology of neutron diffraction. It also refers to the appropriate treatments of diffraction plane, stress-free lattice spacing, coarse grain and surface error to obtain reliable results. Finally, a few applications are introduced to show the capabilities of the neutron stress measurement method for the studies on the strength and elasto-plastic behaviors of crystalline materials. (author)

  6. Adaptive residual DPCM for lossless intra coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xun; Lim, Jae S.

    2015-03-01

    In the Differential Pulse-code Modulation (DPCM) image coding, the intensity of a pixel is predicted as a linear combination of a set of surrounding pixels and the prediction error is encoded. In this paper, we propose the adaptive residual DPCM (ARDPCM) for intra lossless coding. In the ARDPCM, intra residual samples are predicted using adaptive mode-dependent DPCM weights. The weights are estimated by minimizing the Mean Squared Error (MSE) of coded data and they are synchronized at the encoder and the decoder. The proposed method is implemented on the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) reference software. Experimental results show that the ARDPCM significantly outperforms HEVC lossless coding and HEVC with the DPCM. The proposed method is also computationally efficient.

  7. [Waste over history: perceptions about residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Marta Pimenta

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how Man, over history, felt about the residues produced by human activity. The text is divided into three parts: In the first part it tells the story of the black plague pandemic during the XIV century, showing how this disease was associated with the residues produced by the human body. In the second part it explains how the first notions of waste were, and still are, related to dirt, disease and death. Finally, in the third part, it describes the first measures of hygiene in the Renaissance and refers to the first public health actions at the beginning of the XX century, starting to combat the agents of infectious diseases and their vectors.

  8. Experimental study on viscosity reduction for residual oil by ultrasonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xintong; Zhou, Cuihong; Suo, Quanyu; Zhang, Lanting; Wang, Shihan

    2018-03-01

    Because of characteristics of large density, high viscosity and poor mobility, the processing and transportation of residual oil are difficult and challenging, viscosity reduction of residual oil is of great significance. In this paper, the effects of different placement forms of ultrasonic transducers on the sound pressure distribution of ultrasonic inside a cubic container have been simulated, the characteristics of oil bath heating and ultrasonic viscosity reduction were compared, viscosity reduction rule of residual oil was experimentally analyzed by utilizing Response Surface Method under conditions of changing ultrasonic exposure time, power and action mode, the mechanism of viscosity reduction was studied by applying Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the viscosity retentivity experiment was carried out at last. Experiments were conducted using two kinds of residual oil, and results show that ultrasonic effect on the viscosity reduction of residual oil is significant, the higher viscosity of residual oil, the better effect of ultrasonic, ultrasonic power and exposure time are the significant factors affecting the viscosity reduction rate of residual oil. The maximum viscosity reduction rate is obtained under condition of ultrasonic power is 900W, exposure time is 14min and action mode of exposure time is 2s and interrupting time is 2s, viscosity reduction rate reaching up to 63.95%. The infrared spectroscopy results show that light component in residual oil increased. The viscosity retentivity experiment results show that the viscosity reduction effect remains very well. This paper can provide data reference for the application of ultrasonic in the field of viscosity reduction for residual oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Residual stress and crack initiation in laser clad composite layer with Co-based alloy and WC + NiCr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Changmin; Park, Hyungkwon; Yoo, Jaehong [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changhee, E-mail: chlee@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, WanChuck [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sunhong [Research Institute of Industrial Science & Technology, Hyo-ja-dong, Po-Hang, Kyoung-buk, San 32 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Major problem, clad cracking in laser cladding process, was researched. • Residual stress measurements were performed quantitatively by neutron diffraction method along the surface of specimens. • Relationship between the residual stress and crack initiation was showed clearly. • Ceramic particle effect in the metal matrix was showed from the results of residual stress measurements. • Initiation sites of generating clad cracks were specifically studied in MMC coatings. - Abstract: Although laser cladding process has been widely used to improve the wear and corrosion resistance, there are unwanted cracking issues during and/or after laser cladding. This study investigates the tendency of Co-based WC + NiCr composite layers to cracking during the laser cladding process. Residual stress distributions of the specimen are measured using neutron diffraction and elucidate the correlation between the residual stress and the cracking in three types of cylindrical specimens; (i) no cladding substrate only, (ii) cladding with 100% stellite#6, and (iii) cladding with 55% stellite#6 and 45% technolase40s. The microstructure of the clad layer was composed of Co-based dendrite and brittle eutectic phases at the dendritic boundaries. And WC particles were distributed on the matrix forming intermediate composition region by partial melting of the surface of particles. The overlaid specimen exhibited tensile residual stress, which was accumulated through the beads due to contraction of the coating layer generated by rapid solidification, while the non-clad specimen showed compressive. Also, the specimen overlaid with 55 wt% stellite#6 and 45 wt% technolase40s showed a tensile stress higher than the specimen overlaid with 100% stellite#6 possibly, due to the difference between thermal expansion coefficients of the matrix and WC particles. Such tensile stresses can be potential driving force to provide an easy crack path ways for large brittle fractures

  10. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ractopamine residues in retinal tissue of treated food-producing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulić, Ana; Pleadin, Jelka; Perši, Nina; Milić, Dinka; Radeck, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Ractopamine is a β(2)-adrenergic agonist, which reduces fat deposition and promotes muscle growth in animals for meat production. In the European Union countries, systematic monitoring and control of this contaminant residue is regularly performed by use of validated analytical methods of detection in different biological materials. The aim of the present study was to assess persistence of ractopamine in retina as a pigmented tissue by determination of its residues using UPLC-MS/MS as a quantitative confirmatory method after pig exposure to a ractopamine dose of 0.51 mg/kg b.w. Experimental group (n=9) of pigs were orally administered ractopamine for 28 days and then randomly sacrificed (n=3) on days 1, 3 and 8 of treatment discontinuation, whereas control animals (n=3) were left untreated. Study results showed mean ractopamine residue concentrations of 110.36 μg/kg, 67.11 μg/kg and 89.93 μg/kg on days 1, 3 and 8 after withdrawal, respectively, indicating high accumulation of ractopamine in retina despite a low dose applied. These data pointed to high affinity of ractopamine for binding to the pigmented segment of the eye, thus supporting the use of pigmented tissues as matrices in the regulatory monitoring of this β(2)-adrenergic agonist. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy Analysis of a Rotary Drum Bioreactor for Composting Tomato Plant Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad N. Alkoaik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy produced from plant residue composting has stimulated great interest in heat recovery and utilization. Composting is an exothermic process often controlled through temperature measurements. However, energy analysis of the overall composting system, especially the rotary bioreactors, is generally not well known and very limited. This study presents detailed energy analysis in a laboratory-scale, batch-operated, rotary bioreactor used for composting tomato plant residues. The bioreactor was considered as a thermodynamic system operating under unsteady state conditions. The composting process was described, the input generated and lost energy terms as well as the relative importance of each term were quantitatively evaluated, and the composting phases were clearly identified. Results showed that the compost temperature peaked at 72 h of operation reaching 66.7 °C with a heat generation rate of 9.3 W·kg−1 of organic matter. During the composting process, the accumulated heat generation was 1.9 MJ·kg−1 of organic matter; only 4% of this heat was gained by the composting material, and 96% was lost outside the bioreactor. Contributions of thermal radiation, aeration, cylindrical, and side-walls surfaces of the reactor on the total heat loss were 1%, 2%, 69%, and 28%, respectively. The information obtained is applicable in the design, management, and control of composting operations and in improvement of bioreactor effectiveness and productivity.

  12. Effect of the sequence data deluge on the performance of methods for detecting protein functional residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Martín, Diego; Pazos, Florencio

    2018-02-27

    The exponential accumulation of new sequences in public databases is expected to improve the performance of all the approaches for predicting protein structural and functional features. Nevertheless, this was never assessed or quantified for some widely used methodologies, such as those aimed at detecting functional sites and functional subfamilies in protein multiple sequence alignments. Using raw protein sequences as only input, these approaches can detect fully conserved positions, as well as those with a family-dependent conservation pattern. Both types of residues are routinely used as predictors of functional sites and, consequently, understanding how the sequence content of the databases affects them is relevant and timely. In this work we evaluate how the growth and change with time in the content of sequence databases affect five sequence-based approaches for detecting functional sites and subfamilies. We do that by recreating historical versions of the multiple sequence alignments that would have been obtained in the past based on the database contents at different time points, covering a period of 20 years. Applying the methods to these historical alignments allows quantifying the temporal variation in their performance. Our results show that the number of families to which these methods can be applied sharply increases with time, while their ability to detect potentially functional residues remains almost constant. These results are informative for the methods' developers and final users, and may have implications in the design of new sequencing initiatives.

  13. Evaluation of agricultural residues for paper manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaide, L.J.; Baldovin, F.L.; Herranz, J.L.F. (Univ. of Cordoba (Spain))

    1993-03-01

    Five agricultural residues-olive tree fellings, wheat straw, sunflower stalks, vine shoots, and cotton stalks-were evaluated for use as raw materials for paper manufacture. The untreated raw materials and their pulps were tested for hot-water solubles, 1%-NaOH solubles, alcohol-benzene extractables, ash, holocellulose, lignin, [alpha]-cellulose, and pentosans. Handsheets were tested for breaking length, stretch, burst index, and tear index. The results showed wheat straw to be the most promising material. Vine shoots showed the least promise.

  14. Surface-atmosphere decoupling limits accumulation at Summit, Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelhammer, Max; Noone, David C; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Bailey, Adriana; Cox, Christopher J; O'Neill, Michael S; Schneider, David; Steffen, Konrad; White, James W C

    2016-04-01

    Despite rapid melting in the coastal regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet, a significant area (~40%) of the ice sheet rarely experiences surface melting. In these regions, the controls on annual accumulation are poorly constrained owing to surface conditions (for example, surface clouds, blowing snow, and surface inversions), which render moisture flux estimates from myriad approaches (that is, eddy covariance, remote sensing, and direct observations) highly uncertain. Accumulation is partially determined by the temperature dependence of saturation vapor pressure, which influences the maximum humidity of air parcels reaching the ice sheet interior. However, independent proxies for surface temperature and accumulation from ice cores show that the response of accumulation to temperature is variable and not generally consistent with a purely thermodynamic control. Using three years of stable water vapor isotope profiles from a high altitude site on the Greenland Ice Sheet, we show that as the boundary layer becomes increasingly stable, a decoupling between the ice sheet and atmosphere occurs. The limited interaction between the ice sheet surface and free tropospheric air reduces the capacity for surface condensation to achieve the rate set by the humidity of the air parcels reaching interior Greenland. The isolation of the surface also acts to recycle sublimated moisture by recondensing it onto fog particles, which returns the moisture back to the surface through gravitational settling. The observations highlight a unique mechanism by which ice sheet mass is conserved, which has implications for understanding both past and future changes in accumulation rate and the isotopic signal in ice cores from Greenland.

  15. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs

  16. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Comparison of clenbuterol and salbutamol accumulation in the liver of two different mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulić, Ana; Pleadin, Jelka; Durgo, Ksenija; Scortichini, Giampiero; Stojković, Ranko

    2014-06-01

    In the European Union, β(2)-adrenergic agonists like clenbuterol and salbutamol are banned from use as growth promoters. Although clenbuterol and salbutamol both accumulate in the liver, differences in the accumulation rate can be seen among animal species due to different β(2)-adrenoreceptor distributions. The aim of this study was to compare the accumulation of the two in the liver tissue of two different mouse strains. The study included 200 8-week-old BALB/c and C57/BL/6 mice. One group of BALB/c (40) and one group of C57/BL/6 (40) mice were treated with 2.5 mg/kg body mass clenbuterol per os for 28 days. The remaining two animal groups were treated with salbutamol in the same manner. The animals were then randomly sacrificed on day 1, 15 and 30 post treatments. Despite of the same treatment dose, the results revealed clenbuterol to persist in the liver tissue longer than salbutamol. On post treatment day 30, the concentration of clenbuterol residue in C57/BL/6 and BALB/c mice liver tissue were 0.23 ± 0.02 and 0.21 ± 0.03 ng/g, respectively, while residues of salbutamol were not detected. When comparing the accumulation of both compounds between the two mouse strains, it becomes apparent that no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the accumulation rate can be found.

  18. Prediction of residual stress distributions due to surface machining and welding and crack growth simulation under residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Katsuyama, JInya; Onizawa, Kunio; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mikami, Yoshiki; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Residual stress distributions due to welding and machining are evaluated by XRD and FEM. → Residual stress due to machining shows higher tensile stress than welding near the surface. → Crack growth analysis is performed using calculated residual stress. → Crack growth result is affected machining rather than welding. → Machining is an important factor for crack growth. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near the weld zone of the core shroud and primary loop recirculation (PLR) pipes made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel Type 316L. The joining process of pipes usually includes surface machining and welding. Both processes induce residual stresses, and residual stresses are thus important factors in the occurrence and propagation of SCC. In this study, the finite element method (FEM) was used to estimate residual stress distributions generated by butt welding and surface machining. The thermoelastic-plastic analysis was performed for the welding simulation, and the thermo-mechanical coupled analysis based on the Johnson-Cook material model was performed for the surface machining simulation. In addition, a crack growth analysis based on the stress intensity factor (SIF) calculation was performed using the calculated residual stress distributions that are generated by welding and surface machining. The surface machining analysis showed that tensile residual stress due to surface machining only exists approximately 0.2 mm from the machined surface, and the surface residual stress increases with cutting speed. The crack growth analysis showed that the crack depth is affected by both surface machining and welding, and the crack length is more affected by surface machining than by welding.

  19. Charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen Knøster; McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1999-01-01

    At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries such that the mat......At present, the phenomenon of charge accumulation in solid dielectrics is under intense experimental study. Using a field theoretical approach, we review the basis for charge accumulation in lossy dielectrics. Thereafter, this macroscopic approach is applied to planar geometries...... such that the material parameters which influence charge accumulation are clearly identified; viz. the conductivity, permittivity and dimensions of the insulating media. The two former parameters, together with the applied voltage, govern both the magnitude and polarity of the accumulated charge....

  20. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  1. Study on Biodegradation of Pesticide Residue in Environment by Bacterial Consortiam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanasupong, Anchana; Piadang, Nattayana; Wannissorn, Bhusita; Sompakdee, Nidtayaporn

    2006-09-01

    The microbial consortium isolated from soil samples of paddy fields in Japan and were shown to have capability in degrading both carbendazim fungicide (methyl-2-benzimidazole; MBC) and 2,4D herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) were determined for its ability to degrade both chemicals accumulated in water samples collected from paddy fields in the Central part of Thailand. It was found that the consortium was able to degrade 10 μ MBC and 1 mM 2,4-D in those samples. Two isolates from the group of bacterial strains purified from this consortium could degrade approximately 99% of 1 mM 2,4-D within 7 days. Identification by using 16S rDNA sequencing method revealed that both isolates are Achrobobacter xylosoxidans. Improvement of their 2,4-D biodegradation ability was carreid degrading ability in water and soil samples collected from paddy fields in Thailand. The preliminary results showed that the microbial consortium from paddy field in Japan and the mutant strains could be applied for biodegradation of pesticide residues accumulated in paddy fields in our country.

  2. Residual complaints after neuralgic amyotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cup, Edith H; Ijspeert, Jos; Janssen, Renske J; Bussemaker-Beumer, Chaska; Jacobs, Joost; Pieterse, Allan J; van der Linde, Harmen; van Alfen, Nens

    2013-01-01

    To develop recommendations regarding outcome measures and topics to be addressed in rehabilitation for persons with neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), this study explored which functions and activities are related to persisting pain in NA and which questionnaires best capture these factors. A questionnaire-based survey from 2 cross-sectional cohorts, one of patients visiting the neurology outpatient clinic and a cohort seen at a multidisciplinary plexus clinic. Two tertiary referral clinics based in the Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation from a university medical center provided the data. A referred sample of patients (N=248) with either idiopathic or hereditary NA who fulfilled the criteria for this disorder, in whom the last episode of NA had been at least 6 months ago and included brachial plexus involvement. Not applicable. Two custom clinical screening questionnaires were used as well as the Shoulder Rating Questionnaire-Dutch Language Version, the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI), the Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ), and Overall Disability Sum Score. The survey confirms the high prevalence of persisting pain and impairments. More than half of the patients were restricted by pain, while in those without pain 60% experienced residual paresis. Correlations show an intimate relation between pain, scapular instability, problems with overhead activities, and increased fatigability. A standard physical therapy approach was ineffective or aggravated symptoms in more than 50%. Pain and fatigue are strongly correlated to persisting scapular instability and increased fatigability of the affected muscles in NA. Our results suggest that an integrated rehabilitation approach is needed in which all of these factors are addressed. We further recommend using the SPADI and SDQ in future studies to evaluate the natural course and treatment effects in NA. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. ACCUMULATION AND CONSUMPTION IN MICROECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghey A. Amelkin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two main processes are common for an economic system. They are consumption and accumulation. The first one is described by utility function, either cardinal or ordinal one. The mathematical model for accumulation process can be constructed using wealth function introduced within the frame of irreversible microeconomics. Characteristics of utility and wealth functions are compared and a problem of extreme performance of resources exchange process is solved for a case when both the consumption and accumulation exist.

  4. Residues and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in farmland soils irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, C.X.; Wang, Z.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Ecoenvironmental Science Research Center

    2005-08-01

    Sewage and industrial effluents from biological treatment plant have been widely used for agricultural irrigation in north part of China. In the present study, field surveys were carried out in the farmlands irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants that receive sewage wastewater and industrial discharges. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils irrigated using both ground water and effluents were compared. The origins of PAHs in the soils were discussed. The results showed that wastewater irrigation could cause accumulation of PAHs in soils close to the pollution discharge. Significantly higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the sampling sites close to the entrance of main channel in contrast to those along branches and the reference sites. There was no significant relationship between the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and organic matter content in soil (TOC). Soil contamination of these persistent organic pollutants as affected by effluent irrigation was characterized by the dominant accumulation of high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs). In the case study, concentration of benzo(a)pyrane (BaP, 45.6 ng/g), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IcP, 86.3 ng/g), benzo(g,h,i)perlene (BgP, 66.9 ng/g) could exceed the limits of the soil quality standard for biodegraded soils. In identification of the sources, the IcP/BgP values of PAHs in soils were more close to that in air particulates from coal/coke source (1.09 {+-} 0.03 ng/g). Therefore, both of the PAHs residues in effluents and emission from a nearby coal/coke plant were responsible. Also in this case study, low levels of the OCPs were observed and were not of significant concern in this wastewater irrigation area.

  5. A survey of chlortetracycline concentration in feed and its residue in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-04

    Apr 4, 2014 ... Food Control 15 99–105. Kan C A and Petz M 2000 Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white. J. Agri. Food Chem. 48 6397–6403. Kennedy DG, McCracken RJ, Hewitt SA and McEvoy JDG 1998. Metabolism of chlortetracycline: drug accumulation and excre-.

  6. Soil carbon sequestration and changes in fungal and bacterial biomass following incorporation of forest residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Felipe G. Sanchez; Alice W. Ratcliff; John R. Butnor; Emily A. Carter; Robert F. Powers

    2009-01-01

    Sequestering carbon (C) in forest soils can benefit site fertility and help offset greenhouse gas emissions. However, identifying soil conditions and forest management practices which best promote C accumulation remains a challenging task. We tested whether soil incorporation of masticated woody residues alters short-term C storage at forested sites in western and...

  7. X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement in the rolled-joint zone of Zr - 2.5 % Nb pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinu, A.; Nedelcu, L.

    1995-01-01

    The in-service experience of Zr - 2.5 % Nb pressure tubes in CANDU-type nuclear reactors has demonstrated very good performance over a long period of time. However, analyses done by AECL specialists on most failure cases, showed that a big percentage of defects are manufacturing defects, which appear mostly at the beginning of the rolled-joint zone. It has been observed that a correct rolling ensures an acceptable distribution of residual stress, but an incorrect one leads to an accumulation of big values of residual stress. This determines a preferential radial orientation of hydrides, which during operation in the reactor can produce DHC. To ensure a suitable performance of the Zr - 2.5 % Nb pressure tubes in the CANDU reactor, it is very important to have a correct rolling as mentioned in the procedure. This work presents a methodology for the measurement of the stressing state in the surfaces layers of the rolled-joint zone. The X-ray diffraction method can also be used for establishing the residual stress distribution across the tub wall, in order to ensure a good performance at Cernavoda nuclear plant. The results obtained for the investigated tube have led to the conclusion that the rolling process was correctly applied in this case, the values obtained for the residual stress being in good agreement with those accepted in literature. (Author) 2 Figs., 2 Tabs

  8. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  9. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  10. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  11. Phosphate accumulation in farm dam sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, H.D.; Gilkes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Large amounts of phosphate are applied to agricultural regions in Australia each year. Phosphate is incorporated into organic materials, sorbed onto the surface of clay minerals, carbonates, iron oxides/hydroxides and other colloids or dissolved in soil solution. Phosphate in soil solution may leach into dam, or absorbed and particulate phosphate may be washed into dams during soil erosion and eventually accumulate in sediments. Variable and sometimes high concentrations of phosphate in water and sediments occur in farm dams in the York area of Western Australia. Phosphate accumulation in farm dam sediments (O to about 2 cm) was investigated using chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction. Concentrations of phosphorus up to 5 ppm in water and 1100 ppm in sediment were observed. The results of this study indicate that the amounts of total, organic and inorganic phosphate in sediment are approximately equal and are linearly related the dissolved phosphate concentration in dam water. High concentrations of nitrogen also exit in sediments and are closely related to the phosphate content of sediment presumably reflecting the high content of organic matter in sediments, ranging from 3 to 7% C. The concentration of phosphate in sediments is closely related to the organic matter concentration measured by LECO CHN analyser. X-ray diffraction patterns show that clay minerals in sediments consist of minor to large amounts of smectite and kaolinite, minor to moderate amounts of illite, mica and feldspars. Minor amounts of calcite and iron oxides were present only in a few samples. Clay minerals and iron oxides have moderate to high phosphate sorption capacities because the reactive sites on crystal surfaces and their high surface area. Thus colloidal minerals, organic materials and organo-mineral complexes may provide reactive sites for phosphate sorption

  12. A summary of data on accumulated occupational radiation doses among Canadian workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sont, W.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based on work done on accumulated career doses. The data are taken from the National Dose Registry and consist of accumulated doses to the monitored workforce from the years 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, and 1990. Four broad occupational categories are analyzed: medicine, nuclear power, uranium processing (including mining, milling, refining, and fuel fabrication), and industry. Two- and three-dimensional bar charts are used to display workforce sizes, collective accumulated doses, and average accumulated doses over time, broken down by career start. Lognormal plots are used to show the distribution of accumulated doses. Many trends are as could be expected, and some of those may be used for construction of statistical models for career-dose accumulation. The size and accumulated career doses in the workforces of the uranium processing category do not vary regularly with time, and in this case modeling is likely to be difficult. 5 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  13. Relationship Between Accumulation and Influx of Pollutants in Highway Ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    been compared to the long-term influx, estimated from short-term measurements of concentrations in highway runoff. The results show that a large proportion of the incoming heavy metals in short-term runoff events has accumulated in the ponds. This is not the case for the toxic organic compounds...

  14. Effect of temperature on accumulation of chlorophylls and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White young shoots from albino tea cultivars have high level of amino acids and are rare and valuable materials for processing green tea. The effects of temperature on leaf colour, accumulation of chlorophylls and leaf ultrastructures of an albino tea cultivar 'Xiaxueya' were investigated. The study showed that the shoot ...

  15. Role of mineral matrix composition and properties in the transformation of corn residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pinskiy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the composition and properties of the mineral matrix in soils on the humification of corn residues was studied. The substrate (silica sand, loam, silica sand + 10% bentonite, or silica sand + 30% kaolinite was mixed with 10% corn residues (milled to 3–5 mm and incubated under stationary conditions for 6–19 months. Sampling for the analysis was performed every month, and a few times in the first month. The dynamics of mineralization and humification of plant residues was studied by applying elemental and bulk analyses of neogenic organic matter (OM, densitometric fractionation of substrates, FTIR spectroscopy, solid-phase 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with an electron microprobe. It was shown that the humification processes had a wavelike character for loam and sand substrates, which could be explained by the transformation of the microorganism populations together with the change in the amount and quality of OM in the system. The main mechanism for the stabilization of neogenic OM was adsorption on a mineral matrix with formation of relatively resistant compounds. This adsorption can be selective, depending on the composition and properties of the mineral matrix. The FTIR and 13C-NMR analyses of OM distribution in different substrates and densitometric fractions showed that sand and heavy fractions (HF >2.2 g/cm3 were enriched with compounds of an aromatic nature and polypeptides. Light fractions (LF-2, 1.4–2.2 g/cm3 accumulated compounds that also contained alkyl and carboxyl groups. The sandy substrate and HF have higher aromaticity indices than LF-2. Higher aromaticity index values of humus substances in the sandy substrate and HF in the loamy substrate, compared to LF-2, evidenced the formation of steady aromatic compounds, in which there may be kernels of humic acids (HA. We do not exclude the possibility of the matrix synthesis of the HA-like substances.

  16. Reactivity of Athabasca residue and of its SARA fractions during residue hydroconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, J.; Danial-Fortain, P.; Gauthier, T.; Merdrignac, I. [IFP-Lyon, Vermaison (France); Budzinski, H. [Bordeaux Univ. (France). ISM-LPTC, UMR CNRS

    2009-07-01

    unit showed similar trends, suggesting that the reactivity of Athabasca is related to the SARA fraction of the residue. It was concluded that based on SARA composition of residue, it is possible to estimate the reactivity of a given residue in terms of conversion. tabs., figs.

  17. Uranium decay daughters from isolated mines: Accumulation and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvier, A; Panza, F; Pourcelot, L; Foissard, B; Cagnat, X; Prunier, J; van Beek, P; Souhaut, M; Le Roux, G

    2015-11-01

    This study combines in situ gamma spectrometry performed at different scales, in order to accurately locate the contamination pools, to identify the concerned radionuclides and to determine the distribution of the contaminants from soil to bearing phase scale. The potential mobility of several radionuclides is also evaluated using sequential extraction. Using this procedure, an accumulation area located downstream of a former French uranium mine and concentrating a significant fraction of radioactivity is highlighted. We report disequilibria in the U-decay chains, which are likely related to the processes implemented on the mining area. Coupling of mineralogical analyzes with sequential extraction allow us to highlight the presence of barium sulfate, which may be the carrier of the Ra-226 activities found in the residual phase (Ba(Ra)SO4). In contrast, uranium is essentially in the reducible fraction and potentially trapped in clay-iron coatings located on the surface of minerals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lead Tolerance and Accumulation in White Poplar Cultivated In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Kovačević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This paper analyses the lead tolerance and accumulation in white poplar genotypes in vitro, in order to optimize genotype evaluation and other procedures in their implementation in phytoremediation projects and landscaping in areas endangered by lead accumulation. Material and Methods: The lead tolerance and accumulation of five white poplar genotypes after 35 days in vitro cultivation on media supplemented with lead was examined. The following Pb(NO32 concentrations were used: 0, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3 M. Tolerance analysis (described by tolerance indices was based on morphological parameters, biomass accumulation and the content of photosynthetic pigments, while lead accumulation was described by shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content. Results and Conclusions: The chosen lead concentrations appeared not to be lethal. Moreover, the obtained results showed that the tested lead concentrations had a positive effect on: number of formed roots, shoot moisture content and shoot height. The best differentiation among the examined genotypes was gained by the tolerance index based on the shoot height on 10-4 M Pb(NO32. The shoot lead accumulation and shoot lead content significantly increased on 10-4 and 10-3 M Pb(NO32 media. Thus, the concentration of 10-4 M Pb(NO32 is recommended for further research. Two examined genotypes of horticultural value (LCM and LBM achieved a significantly higher lead shoot content compared to the wide spread genotype “Villafranca” (almost 200% and 125% higher, respectively.

  19. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  20. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  1. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  2. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  3. Cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, M.W.; Williamson, F.B.

    1977-01-01

    The characteristics of cadmium accumulation by the marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis L. in culture are reported. The time course of uptake under various light conditions shows that cadmium is concentrated as the result of an on-going anabolic process and not as a consequence of a pH gradient as provided by photosynthesis. The effect of cycloheximide is in agreement with de novo protein synthesis being a prerequisite for cadmium accumulation. Autoradiography suggests a specific intracellular location for bound cadmium--apparently the nucleus.

  4. Bound residues of 14C-chlorotoluron in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi; Shi Ying; Huang Shile

    1992-07-01

    Dynamics of bound residues of 14 C-chlorotoluron, distribution of the bound residues in the components of humus, and their absorption by step-crop (rice) were investigated in paddy soil and black soil under simulated aerobic and anaerobic conditions respectively. The results show that: (1) The bound residues of 14 C-chlorotoluron in soil were very considerable and increasing with the incubation time. The organic substance and humidity contained in the soil affected the bound residues remarkably. The bound residues in black soil with more organic substance and clay particles were higher than those in paddy soil, and under anaerobic conditions were higher than under aerobic conditions. (2) Bound residues of 14 C-chlorotoluron mainly bound with the components of soil humus, the distribution of which was in the order of humin>humic acid>fulvic acid. (3) Bound residues of 14 C-chlorotoluron in soils could be absorbed by step-crop (rice) and moved to the upper part, that would cause chemical injury, chlorosis and necrosis for the leaf tip

  5. Studies on bound (14)C-chlorsulfuron residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiangfeng; Sun, Jinhe

    2002-04-10

    The cause for phytotoxicity of bound residues of chlorsulfuron (2-chloro-N-[[4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino] carbonyl]benzenesulfonamide) to rotational crops is unknown. This study was conducted to determine the formation of nonextractable (bound) residues of chlorsulfuron in soil, and the distribution of bound residues in different organic matter fractions. The results showed that over 150 days, the extractable fraction of (14)C-residues decreased to 25.1% of applied chlorsulfuron, while bound residues concurrently increased to 47.1%. The distribution of (14)C-bound residues in soil organic matter fractions followed an order of humic acid (HA) humin humin fraction increased with time. After soil treatment by autoclaving, it was found that bound (14)C-chlorsulfuron residues became available again in the soil. One of the released products was 2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine (identified by GC-MS), which is a degradation product of chlorsulfuron.

  6. Microclimate effects of crop residues on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Prueger, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    Residues from crops left on the soil surface have an impact on the microclimate, primarily temperature, within the soil and the atmosphere; but, the impact on the biological system is largely unknown. Residue is assumed to have a positive impact on the biological system in the soil and a negative impact on crop growth. This report investigates the effect of standing residue on the microclimate surrounding a cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) crop in a semi-arid environment and the effect of flat residue on the seasonal soil temperature and soil water regimes in a humid climate with a corn ( Zea mays L.) and soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system. A study was conducted during 1987 and 1988 in a semi-arid climate at Lubbock, Texas using standing wheat stubble to shelter cotton from wind. In this study soil water, microclimatic variables, and plant growth were measured within standing stubble and bare soil during the early vegetative growth period. Air temperatures were warmer at night within the standing residue and the air more humid throughout the day. This led to a reduction in the soil water evaporation rate and an increase in the water use efficiency of the cotton plant within the stubble. Studies on corn residue with continuous corn and corn-soybean rotations with no-till, chiselplow, and moldboard plow tillage practices in central Iowa showed that the average soil temperatures in the upper soil profile were not affected by the presence of flat residue after tillage. Diurnal temperature ranges were most affected by the residue throughout the year. The largest effect of the residue on soil temperature was in the fall after harvest when no-till fields cooled more slowly than tilled fields. In the spring, surface residue decreased the soil water evaporation rate and increased the soil water storage within the soil profile covered with residue. In years with below normal rainfall, the additional stored soil water due to the surface residue was used by the

  7. Uptake and accumulation of four PPCP/EDCs in two leafy vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodgen, L.K.; Li, J.; Parker, D.; Gan, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in reclaimed water, leading to concerns of human health risks from the consumption of food crops irrigated with reclaimed water. This study evaluated the potential for plant uptake and accumulation of four commonly occurring PPCP/EDCs, i.e., bisphenol A (BPA), diclofenac sodium (DCL), naproxen (NPX), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and collards (Brassica oleracea) in hydroponic culture, using 14 C-labeled compounds. In both plant species, plant accumulation followed the order of BPA > NP > DCL > NPX and accumulation in roots was much greater than in leaves and stems. Concentrations of 14 C-PPCP/EDCs in plant tissues ranged from 0.22 ± 0.03 to 927 ± 213 ng/g, but nearly all 14 C-residue was non-extractable. PPCP/EDCs, particularly BPA and NP, were also extensively transformed in the nutrient solution. Dietary uptake of these PPCP/EDCs by humans was predicted to be negligible. -- Highlights: •Accumulation of bisphenol A, diclofenac, naproxen, and 4-nonylphenol by lettuce and collards was examined. •Plant accumulation had the order of BPA > NP > DCL > NPX. •Accumulation in roots was greater than in new leaves, original leaves, and stems. •Nearly all accumulated analyte was non-extractable. -- Four commonly occurring PPCP/EDCs were taken up into roots of lettuce and collards, but translocation into edible leaves was limited and nearly all residue was non-extractable

  8. The Hog1p kinase regulates Aft1p transcription factor to control iron accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Telma S; Pereira, Clara; Canadell, David; Vilaça, Rita; Teixeira, Vítor; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc; Costa, Vítor

    2018-01-01

    Iron acquisition systems have to be tightly regulated to assure a continuous supply of iron, since it is essential for survival, but simultaneously to prevent iron overload that is toxic to the cells. In budding yeast, the low‑iron sensing transcription factor Aft1p is a master regulator of the iron regulon. Our previous work revealed that bioactive sphingolipids modulate iron homeostasis as yeast cells lacking the sphingomyelinase Isc1p exhibit an upregulation of the iron regulon. In this study, we show that Isc1p impacts on iron accumulation and localization. Notably, Aft1p is activated in isc1Δ cells due to a decrease in its phosphorylation and an increase in its nuclear levels. Consistently, the expression of a phosphomimetic version of Aft1p-S210/S224 that favours its nuclear export abolished iron accumulation in isc1Δ cells. Notably, the Hog1p kinase, homologue of mammalian p38, interacts with and directly phosphorylates Aft1p at residues S210 and S224. However, Hog1p-Aft1p interaction decreases in isc1Δ cells, which likely contributes to Aft1p dephosphorylation and consequently to Aft1p activation and iron overload in isc1Δ cells. These results suggest that alterations in sphingolipid composition in isc1Δ cells may impact on iron homeostasis by disturbing the regulation of Aft1p by Hog1p. To our knowledge, Hog1p is the first kinase reported to directly regulate Aft1p, impacting on iron homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in snow accumulation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, I.; Beguería, S.; García-Ruiz, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Water stored in winter snowpack represents a valuable resource in mountainous regions. The distribution of the snow determines the availability of water resources during snowmelt period, as well as the development of the economy based on winter sports. This work analyses the main factors that explain the variation in snow accumulation in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Data about evolution of snowpack is provided by the measurement of 106 sticks installed in the study area from 1985. The snow depth is measured in two moments of the year, at the beginning of March and at the end of April or beginning of May. Snow depth, of both measurements moments, has been mapped using linear regression between snow depth and different topographic and geographic variables derived from the digital terrain model. In order to improve the estimation interpolated residuals values have been subtracted. The variability of the interannual snow distribution has been analysed with a factorial analysis in order to obtain different annual patterns of snowpack distribution. Relation between the dominant winter weather-type and the different patterns, provided by the factorial analysis, has been studied. The weather-type classification has been obtained using the Jenkinson and Collison system based on daily series of sea level atmospheric pressure measured around the Iberian Peninsula with a 5º x 10º scale. Thus, it is possible to know the influence of the prevailing winter synoptic situations in the snowpack distribution. The results show that topographic and geographic variables have a high capacity to explain the spatial distribution of the average snow cover during the study period. Nevertheless, the annual snow accumulation is the result of the arrival of frontal disturbances that come from different directions. By that, it is complex to relate the different snow distribution patterns to the main winter synoptic conditions of each year.

  10. Accumulation of some metal ions on Bacillus licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.B.; El-Desouky, W.; Fouad, A.

    2001-01-01

    Pure species of Bacillus licheniformis was used to remove ions from aqueous and simulated waste solutions. Metal ion accumulation on B. licheniformis was fast. Maximum uptake occurred at pH 4± 0.5 and at 25 ± 3 deg C. One gram of dry B. licheniformis was found to accumulate 115 mg cerium, 34 mg copper and 11 mg cobalt from aqueous solutions. The presence of certain foreign ions such as calcium, sodium and potassium decreased the uptake of ions by B. licheniformis, while citrate and EDTA prevent the uptake. Electron microscopic investigations showed that cerium (III), copper (II) and cobalt (II) accumulated extracellulary around the surface wall of B. licheniformis cells. A bio-adsorption mechanism between the metal ions and B. licheniformis cell wall was proposed. (author)

  11. Antimony Accumulation Risk in Lettuce Grown in Brazilian Urban Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mancarella

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of the Brazilian population inhabits urban areas. Diffused poverty and the lack of fresh vegetables have generated malnutrition and unbalanced diets. Thus, the interest in growing food locally, in urban allotments and community gardens, has increased. However, urban agriculture may present some risks caused by the urban pollution. Road traffic is considered the biggest source of heavy metals in urban areas. Hence, the objective of the study was the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in an urban garden in the city of Recife, at different distances from a road with high traffic burden. The results showed that the distance from the street decreased the accumulation of many potentially toxic elements. Furthermore, the human health risk was estimated, revealing that greater danger was associated with the accumulation of antimony. Concentration of other elements in the leaf tissues were within previously reported thresholds.

  12. Simulation of peat accumulation: an aid in carbon cycling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Hugo de Vries Laboratory)

    1992-01-01

    Some preliminary results of a technique used to compare primary production and peat accumulation data mainly from published sources and the results of a peat accumulation simulation model are presented. Emphasis is on differences among micro-sites (hummock, lawn, hollow and pool) and among various Sphagnum species (S. fuscum, S. magellanicum, S. cuspidatum and S. balticum) associated with raised bogs. The primary production of lawns and pools were significantly greater than those of hummocks and hollows. Sphagnum balticum had the highest primary production (mean=339 g/m[sup -]2a[sup -1]) Over 90 % of the primary production of Sphagnum fuscum is accumulated while for the other Sphagnum species, the value is <50 %. The data are used in a simulation model to show the influence of doubling of rainfall on primary production over a 50 year period

  13. Simulation of peat accumulation: an aid in carbon cycling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van

    1992-01-01

    Some preliminary results of a technique used to compare primary production and peat accumulation data mainly from published sources and the results of a peat accumulation simulation model are presented. Emphasis is on differences among micro-sites (hummock, lawn, hollow and pool) and among various Sphagnum species (S. fuscum, S. magellanicum, S. cuspidatum and S. balticum) associated with raised bogs. The primary production of lawns and pools were significantly greater than those of hummocks and hollows. Sphagnum balticum had the highest primary production (mean=339 g/m - 2a -1 ) Over 90 % of the primary production of Sphagnum fuscum is accumulated while for the other Sphagnum species, the value is <50 %. The data are used in a simulation model to show the influence of doubling of rainfall on primary production over a 50 year period

  14. Weld Residual Stress in Corner Boxing Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyoshi, Matsuoka; Tokuharu, Yoshii; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport

    1998-01-01

    Fatigue damage often occurs in corner boxing welded joints because of stress concentration and residual stress. The hot spot stress approach is applicable to stress concentration. However, the number of suitable methods for estimating residual stress in welded joints is limited. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the residual stress in corner boxing joints. The method of estimating residual stresses based on the inherent stress technique is presented. Residual stress measurements are per...

  15. Capacity of the aquatic fern (Salvinia minima Baker) to accumulate high concentrations of nickel in its tissues, and its effect on plant physiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, Ignacio I.; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Talavera-May, Carlos; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M., E-mail: jorgesm@cicy.mx

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We document the capacity of an aquatic fern to hyper-accumulate Ni. • Effects of high Ni concentrations uptake on plant performance is documented. • High concentration of Ni in tissues damage photosynthesis. • Damage is related to carboxylation mechanisms than to electron transfer efficiency. • S. minima is a good candidate for remediation of water bodies contaminated with Ni. - Abstract: An experiment was designed to assess the capacity of Salvinia minima Baker to uptake and accumulate nickel in its tissues and to evaluate whether or not this uptake can affect its physiology. Our results suggest that S. minima plants are able to take up high amounts of nickel in its tissues, particularly in roots. In fact, our results support the idea that S. minima might be considered a hyper-accumulator of nickel, as it is able to accumulate 16.3 mg g{sup −1} (whole plant DW basis). Our results also showed a two-steps uptake pattern of nickel, with a fast uptake of nickel at the first 6 to 12 h of being expose to the metal, followed by a slow take up phase until the end of the experiment at 144 h. S. minima thus, may be considered as a fern useful in the phytoremediation of residual water bodies contaminated with this metal. Also from our results, S. minima can tolerate fair concentrations of the metal; however, at concentrations higher than 80 μM Ni (1.5 mg g{sup −1} internal nickel concentration), its physiological performance can be affected. For instance, the integrity of cell membranes was affected as the metal concentration and exposure time increased. The accumulation of high concentrations of internal nickel did also affect photosynthesis, the efficiency of PSII, and the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, although at a lower extent.

  16. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deposition of rough papers, plastics, bottles and other non- biodegradable household refuse (Still and Foxon, 2012). It has been reported that household refuse can contribute, on average, to a 15% increase in the sludge accumulation rate in pit latrines. (Still, 2002). Sludge accumulation rates vary between countries.

  17. Capital accumulation, social reproduction and social struggle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper analyses the historical data through a triangular matrix of capital accumulation, state reproduction and planning strategies and popular movements pressurizing to benefit from demanded land usages. Capital accumulation is viewed as a process through which wealth produced by labour accrues both to owners ...

  18. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum show different sensitivity and accumulation of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina V A Hansen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The single-dose benzimidazoles used against Trichuris trichiura infections in humans are not satisfactory. Likewise, the benzimidazole, fenbendazole, has varied efficacy against Trichuris suis whereas Oesophagostomum dentatum is highly sensitive to the drug. The reasons for low treatment efficacy of Trichuris spp. infections are not known. METHODOLOGY: We studied the effect of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole on the motility of T. suis and O. dentatum and measured concentrations of the parent drug compounds and metabolites of the benzimidazoles within worms in vitro. The motility and concentrations of drug compounds within worms were compared between species and the maximum specific binding capacity (Bmax of T. suis and O. dentatum towards the benzimidazoles was estimated. Comparisons of drug uptake in living and killed worms were made for both species. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The motility of T. suis was generally less decreased than the motility of O. dentatum when incubated in benzimidazoles, but was more decreased when incubated in levamisole. The Bmax were significantly lower for T. suis (106.6, and 612.7 pmol/mg dry worm tissue than O. dentatum (395.2, 958.1 pmol/mg dry worm tissue when incubated for 72 hours in fenbendazole and albendazole respectively. The total drug concentrations (pmol/mg dry worm tissue were significantly lower within T. suis than O. dentatum whether killed or alive when incubated in all tested drugs (except in living worms exposed to fenbendazole. Relatively high proportions of the anthelmintic inactive metabolite fenbendazole sulphone was measured within T. suis (6-17.2% as compared to O. dentatum (0.8-0.9%. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The general lower sensitivity of T. suis towards BZs in vitro seems to be related to a lower drug uptake. Furthermore, the relatively high occurrence of fenbendazole sulphone suggests a higher detoxifying capacity of T. suis as compared to O. dentatum.

  19. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum show different sensitivity and accumulation of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Nejsum, Peter; Friis, Christian

    2014-01-01

    treatment efficacy of Trichuris spp. infections are not known. METHODOLOGY: We studied the effect of fenbendazole, albendazole and levamisole on the motility of T. suis and O. dentatum and measured concentrations of the parent drug compounds and metabolites of the benzimidazoles within worms in vitro......: The motility of T. suis was generally less decreased than the motility of O. dentatum when incubated in benzimidazoles, but was more decreased when incubated in levamisole. The Bmax were significantly lower for T. suis (106.6, and 612.7 pmol/mg dry worm tissue) than O. dentatum (395.2, 958.1 pmol/mg dry worm...

  20. Biomass accumulation and chemical composition of Massai grass intercropped with forage legumes on an integrated crop-livestock-forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da Costa Moreno Gama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the use of woody legumes (Albizia lebbeck, Cratylia argentea, Dipteryx Allata (Baru, a Leucaena hybrid (L. leucocephala + L. diversifolia, and Leucaena leucocephalacv. Cunningham and herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Massai, simultaneously implanted in a maize crop. The study made use of a randomized block experimental design with four replications. Assessments of biomass accumulation and forage nutritional value were made after the maize harvest, between June 2008 and October 2010. It was found that the residues of maize provided better growing conditions for Massai grass during the dry season. L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham and the Leucaena hybrid had the highest accumulation of all forage legumes evaluated, and provided the best nutritional value of all the arrangements tested. Of all woody legumes tested in this system, Leucaena was considered feasible for intercropping with Massai grass. The intercrop of perennial woody Baru with maize is not recommended. Albizia lebbeck and Cratylia argentea require further study, especially the yield assessment at different cutting intervals and cutting heights. Arachis pintoi had a low participation in the intercropping, showing greater performance over time, indicating slow thriving in this experimental condition.

  1. Accumulation and release of 99Tc by a macrophyte of the Yenisei River (Elodea canadensis) in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsunovsky, A.; Bondareva, L.

    2008-01-01

    The study addresses 99 Tc accumulation and release by Elodea canadensis, one of the abundant species of submerged plants in the Yenisei River. 99 Tc in water samples of the 'Elodea - Yenisei River water' model system and in the biomass fractions was measured using a liquid scintillation analyzer. Experiments on accumulation of 99 Tc by Elodea showed that 99 Tc activity concentration can reach 120±6 Bq/g dry wt, with the concentration factor for 99 Tc 2700±500 l/kg dry wt. In experiments on 99 Tc release, over 504 hours about 82% of the total 99 Tc activity was released into the water from the plant; most of 99 Tc was released within the first 192 hours. The data obtained using sequential chemical fractionation of biomass confirmed the experimental data on 99 Tc release, which suggested that most of the biomass-bound 99 Tc was adsorbed on the surface of Elodea. 99 Tc tightly bound to biomass (fractions of organics and mineral residue) constituted just 17% of the total 99 Tc activity. (author)

  2. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  3. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  4. Machine Arithmetic in Residual Classes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-03

    rsmainder/residue, as this ascape /-nsues from thp determination of system. It can be. zaalizpd ;n the presence of th- arithmetic urit, which wor~s in thz sys...modules Nj. Page 417. Proof. Proof ascaps /ensues directly from the theorem of Gauss. Actually/really, since according to condition (py, qj)-=-. then

  5. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  6. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  7. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...

  8. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-03-01

    grain and biological yield resulted from the treated plants with F1 there was no difference among F2 and F1 fertilizer rate for grain yield of wheat. Also cereal straw + legume (GM in CR4 and CR5 treatments in F2 performed better than F1 fertilizer in no residue treatment and Wheat grain yield under F2 × CR5 treatments was 25% greater than under F1 × CR8 treatments. The combined use of NPK fertilizer plays an important role in wheat production. Application of NPK in balanced share at proper time has great impact on wheat yield. In order to achieve higher crop production, balanced and integrated nutrient supply and proper management of soil fertility is essential. Application of crop residues/green manures along with suitable does of major nutrients for efficient growth of crop prevent the decline in organic carbon and also bridge up gap between potential and actual yield of wheat. Further, use of crop residue had favorable effect on physic chemical and biological properties of soil due to supply of macro and micro-nutrients to crop properly. Furthermore the decomposition and mineralization of crop residue is a slow process which could match the nutrient requirement of crop. The protein percentage, which is higher in CR5 and CR4 ,shows in whole crop residue treatments, the lowest valuable in F3 and improves with the increase in fertilization researching the highest value with the rate F1. No significant difference was observed between the rate F2 and F3; this would suggest a lower efficiency of the latter, at least for protein accumulation. Increased wheat yield and component yield due to different crop residue incorporation and NPK rate were reported by Verhulst et al. (2011 and Aulakh et al. (2012. Conclusion Application of (140N- 90P- 80K kg.ha-1 and straw wheat along with mungbean and application straw barley + green manure was more effective than (180N- 120P- 100K kg.ha-1 application in no residue incorporation on grain yield and based on this research findings

  9. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    grain and biological yield resulted from the treated plants with F1 there was no difference among F2 and F1 fertilizer rate for grain yield of wheat. Also cereal straw + legume (GM in CR4 and CR5 treatments in F2 performed better than F1 fertilizer in no residue treatment and Wheat grain yield under F2 × CR5 treatments was 25% greater than under F1 × CR8 treatments. The combined use of NPK fertilizer plays an important role in wheat production. Application of NPK in balanced share at proper time has great impact on wheat yield. In order to achieve higher crop production, balanced and integrated nutrient supply and proper management of soil fertility is essential. Application of crop residues/green manures along with suitable does of major nutrients for efficient growth of crop prevent the decline in organic carbon and also bridge up gap between potential and actual yield of wheat. Further, use of crop residue had favorable effect on physic chemical and biological properties of soil due to supply of macro and micro-nutrients to crop properly. Furthermore the decomposition and mineralization of crop residue is a slow process which could match the nutrient requirement of crop. The protein percentage, which is higher in CR5 and CR4 ,shows in whole crop residue treatments, the lowest valuable in F3 and improves with the increase in fertilization researching the highest value with the rate F1. No significant difference was observed between the rate F2 and F3; this would suggest a lower efficiency of the latter, at least for protein accumulation. Increased wheat yield and component yield due to different crop residue incorporation and NPK rate were reported by Verhulst et al. (2011 and Aulakh et al. (2012. Conclusion Application of (140N- 90P- 80K kg.ha-1 and straw wheat along with mungbean and application straw barley + green manure was more effective than (180N- 120P- 100K kg.ha-1 application in no residue incorporation on grain yield and based on this research findings

  10. Identification of Key Residues for Enzymatic Carboxylate Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Stolterfoht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylate reductases (CARs, E.C. 1.2.1.30 generate aldehydes from their corresponding carboxylic acid with high selectivity. Little is known about the structure of CARs and their catalytically important amino acid residues. The identification of key residues for carboxylate reduction provides a starting point to gain deeper understanding of enzymatic carboxylate reduction. A multiple sequence alignment of CARs with confirmed activity recently identified in our lab and from the literature revealed a fingerprint of conserved amino acids. We studied the function of conserved residues by multiple sequence alignments and mutational replacements of these residues. In this study, single-site alanine variants of Neurospora crassa CAR were investigated to determine the contribution of conserved residues to the function, expressability or stability of the enzyme. The effect of amino acid replacements was investigated by analyzing enzymatic activity of the variants in vivo and in vitro. Supported by molecular modeling, we interpreted that five of these residues are essential for catalytic activity, or substrate and co-substrate binding. We identified amino acid residues having significant impact on CAR activity. Replacement of His 237, Glu 433, Ser 595, Tyr 844, and Lys 848 by Ala abolish CAR activity, indicating their key role in acid reduction. These results may assist in the functional annotation of CAR coding genes in genomic databases. While some other conserved residues decreased activity or had no significant impact, four residues increased the specific activity of NcCAR variants when replaced by alanine. Finally, we showed that NcCAR wild-type and mutants efficiently reduce aliphatic acids.

  11. Identification of Key Residues for Enzymatic Carboxylate Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolterfoht, Holly; Steinkellner, Georg; Schwendenwein, Daniel; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Gruber, Karl; Winkler, Margit

    2018-01-01

    Carboxylate reductases (CARs, E.C. 1.2.1.30) generate aldehydes from their corresponding carboxylic acid with high selectivity. Little is known about the structure of CARs and their catalytically important amino acid residues. The identification of key residues for carboxylate reduction provides a starting point to gain deeper understanding of enzymatic carboxylate reduction. A multiple sequence alignment of CARs with confirmed activity recently identified in our lab and from the literature revealed a fingerprint of conserved amino acids. We studied the function of conserved residues by multiple sequence alignments and mutational replacements of these residues. In this study, single-site alanine variants of Neurospora crassa CAR were investigated to determine the contribution of conserved residues to the function, expressability or stability of the enzyme. The effect of amino acid replacements was investigated by analyzing enzymatic activity of the variants in vivo and in vitro . Supported by molecular modeling, we interpreted that five of these residues are essential for catalytic activity, or substrate and co-substrate binding. We identified amino acid residues having significant impact on CAR activity. Replacement of His 237, Glu 433, Ser 595, Tyr 844, and Lys 848 by Ala abolish CAR activity, indicating their key role in acid reduction. These results may assist in the functional annotation of CAR coding genes in genomic databases. While some other conserved residues decreased activity or had no significant impact, four residues increased the specific activity of Nc CAR variants when replaced by alanine. Finally, we showed that Nc CAR wild-type and mutants efficiently reduce aliphatic acids.

  12. Topographic controls on black carbon accumulation in Alaskan black spruce forest soils: implications for organic matter dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.S. Kane; W.C. Hockaday; M.R. Turetsky; C.A. Masiello; D.W. Valentine; B.P. Finney; J.A. Badlock

    2010-01-01

    There is still much uncertainty as to how wildfire affects the accumulation of burn residues (such as black carbon [BC]) in the soil, and the corresponding changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) composition in boreal forests. We investigated SOC and BC composition in black spruce forests on different landscape positions in Alaska, USA. Mean BC stocks in surface mineral...

  13. Understanding Accumulation: The Relevance of Marx’s Theory of Primitive Accumulation in Media and Communication Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Ekman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss and use Marx’s theory on primitive accumulation, outlined in the first volume of Capital, in relation to media and communication research. In order to develop Marx’s argument the discussion is revitalized through Harvey’s concept of accumulation by dispossession. The article focuses on two different fields within media and communication research where the concept of accumulation by dispossession is applicable. First, the role of news media content, news flows and news media systems are discussed in relation to social mobilization against capitalism, privatizations, and the financial sector. Second, Marx’s theory is used to examine how communication in Web 2.0 and the development of ICTs could advance the processes of capital accumulation by appropriating the work performed by users of Web 2.0 and by increasing the corporate surveillance of Internet users. In conclusion, by analyzing how primitive accumulation is intertwined with contemporary expanded reproduction of capital, the article shows that Marx’s theory can contribute to critical media and communication research in several ways.

  14. Effects of shot peening on the residual stress of welded SS400 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Man; Kim, Tae Hyung; Cheong, Seong Kyun; Lee, Seung Ho

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue life of structures is usually determined by welding zone. The tensile residual stress, which is induced by welding, reduces the fatigue life and fatigue strength of welded structures. If we remove the tensile residual stress or induce the compressive residual stress, the fatigue life of welded structures will be improved. The change of hardness and compressive residual stress of welded zone after shot peening was investigated in this paper. The results show that the hardness was increased by shot peening. The residual stress was reduced by shot peening

  15. Particulate soil organic carbon and stratification ratio increases in response to crop residue decomposition under no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clever Briedis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In soils under no-tillage (NT, the continuous crop residue input to the surface layer leads to carbon (C accumulation. This study evaluated a soil under NT in Ponta Grossa (State of Paraná, Brazil for: 1 the decomposition of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. residues, 2 relation of the biomass decomposition effect with the soil organic carbon (SOC content, the particulate organic carbon (POC content, and the soil carbon stratification ratio (SR of an Inceptisol. The assessments were based on seven samplings (t0 to t6 in a period of 160 days of three transects with six sampling points each. The oat dry biomass was 5.02 Mg ha-1 at t0, however, after 160 days, only 17.8 % of the initial dry biomass was left on the soil surface. The SOC in the 0-5 cm layer varied from 27.56 (t0 to 30.07 g dm-3 (t6. The SR increased from 1.33 to 1.43 in 160 days. There was also an increase in the POC pool in this period, from 8.1 to 10.7 Mg ha-1. The increase in SOC in the 0-5 cm layer in the 160 days was mainly due to the increase of POC derived from oat residue decomposition. The linear relationship between SOC and POC showed that 21 % of SOC was due to the more labile fraction. The results indicated that the continuous input of residues could be intensified to increase the C pool and sequestration in soils under NT.

  16. Ubiquinone accumulates in the mitochondria of yeast mutated in the ubiquinone binding protein, Qcr8p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerman, Ruth A.; Waring, Natashya J.; Willis, Richard A.; Hagerman, Ann E.

    2006-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the trans-membrane helix of Qcr8p, the ubiquinone binding protein of complex III, contributes to the Q binding site. In wild-type cells, residue 62 of the helix is non-polar (proline). Substitution of proline 62 with a polar, uncharged residue does not impair the ability of the cells to respire, complex III assembly is unaffected, ubiquinone occupancy of the Q binding site is unchanged, and mitochondrial ubiquinone levels are in the wild-type range. Substitution with a +1 charged residue is associated with partial respiratory competence, impaired complex III assembly, and loss of cytochrome b. Although ubiquinone occupancy of the Q binding site is similar to wild-type, total mitochondrial ubiquinone doubled in these mutants. Mutants with a +2 charged substitution at position 62 are unable to respire. These results suggest that the accumulation of ubiquinone in the mitochondria may be a compensatory mechanism for impaired electron transport at cytochrome b

  17. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  18. Residual stress in ceramics and ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oden, M.

    1992-01-01

    Residual stresses in Si 3 N 4 and SiC have been measured with X-ray diffraction after grinding and thermal shock. The produced surface stresses are compressive after both treatments. The stresses show a strong dependence on the quenching temperature up to a certain temperature when cracks relax the stresses. The influence of the amount of reinforcing phase on the residual stress state in a Al 2 O 3 /SiC whisker composite was investigated and correlated to a modified Eshelby model. The agreement is excellent. The composite was quenched in liquid He (4K) and the stress state measured after show no relaxation of stresses, indicating elastic behaviour. An in situ strain measurement as a function of temperature conducted on a Al 2 O 3 /SiC whisker composite and a SiC/TiB 2 particle composite show very good agreement with the Eshelby model for the Al 2 O 3 /SiC system but not agreement for the SiC/TiB 2 system. The reason is believed to be stress relaxation during sample preparation. (au) (53 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.)

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION ORGANOCHLORINE RESIDUES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    phyla Crustacea, Echinodermata and Mollusca. Except for pp'-DDE in the phyla Echinodermata,. BHC was quantitatively highest for the various OCPs in the three phyla. In the marine fauna,. Crustaceans were detected to accumulate the highest levels of BHC while Echinodermata were detected to have on average the ...

  20. Evaluation of Crops Sensitivity to Atrazine Soil Residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Izadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the sensitivity of 9 crops to atrazine soil residual, two separate experiments were conducted in field and greenhouse conditions. First experiment was conducted in a field with treated soil by atrazine based on split plot and the results evaluated in greenhouse conditions. Treatments in the field experiment included two organic manure application rates (0 and 50 t/ha as main plots and 2 atrazine application rates (2 and 4 kg/ha atrazine a.i. as sob plots. After corn harvesting soil was sampled at 0-15 cm surface layer in each plots in 15 points, after mixing the samples. Wheat, barley, sugar beet, pea, lens and colza planted in pots at greenhouse. Second experiment conducted in greenhouse conditions for evaluation of atrazine soil residual in completely randomized design. Treatments included atrazine soil residual concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg soil and crops included wheat, barley, sugar beet, pea, lens, rape, bean and tomato. Results showed that atrazine residue had no effect on crops growth in field experiment treated with atrazine. It seems that atrazine residue in filed soil is lower that its damage threshold for crops or maybe for its fast removal in field than in control conditions. But in bioassay experiment (greenhouse experiment crops response to atrazine residues were different. Results showed that onion and pea were most susceptible ant tolerant crops between studied species and based of ED50 parameter the other crops tolerance to total residue ranked as: pea< bean< lentil< sugar beet< tomato< barley< wheat< rape< onion. Keywords: Atrazine residue, Pea, Bean, Lentil, Sugar beet, Barley, Wheat, Rape, Tomato

  1. RECOVERY OF WHEAT RESIDUE NITROGEN 15 AND RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore 85 kg ha-1 N as labelled ammonium sulfate (9.764% atomic excess) was applied in a three-split application. Fertiliser N recovery by wheat in the first year was 33.1%. At harvest, 64.8% of fertiliser N was found in the 0 - 80 cm profile as residual fertiliser-derived N; 2.1% of the applied N could not be accounted for ...

  2. Impact of diverse soil microbial communities on crop residues decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrad, Fida; Bennegadi-Laurent, Nadia; Ailhas, Jérôme; Leblanc, Nathalie; Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Isabelle; Laval, Karine; Gattin, Richard

    2017-04-01

    mineralization, and chemical measures. Physicochemical composition of crop residues was assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR technique at 0 and 83 days. The experiment was conducted in microcosms over 83 days for the biological measurements and 175 days for the C mineralization. The first results showed variations in the C & N rates, and the microbial abundances and functions over time, with a peak at 5 days and a decrease at 83 days for most of the measurements. The soil microbial communities' composition (different management practices) highly impacted the crop residues decomposition. The biochemical composition of crop residues influenced less the microbial communities of each soil. Further studies on the valorization of these residues into agro materials will be carried out. References: Andrews SS., Karlen DL., and Cambardella CA. (2004) The soil management assessment framework: a quantitative soil quality evaluation method. Soil Science Society of America, 68: 1945-1962

  3. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halem, Doris van; Vet, Weren de; Verberk, Jasper; Amy, Gary; Dijk, Hans van

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Accumulated iron was not found to clog the well or aquifer after 12 years of subsurface iron removal. → 56-100% of accumulated iron hydroxides were found to be crystalline. → Subsurface iron removal favoured certain soil layers, either due to hydraulics or mineralogy. → Other groundwater constituents, such as manganese and arsenic were found to co-accumulate with iron. - Abstract: The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O 2 -rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+ , creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO 3 , showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in

  4. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  5. Prediction of residue-residue contact matrix for protein-protein interaction with Fisher score features and deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tianchuan; Liao, Li; Wu, Cathy H; Sun, Bilin

    2016-11-01

    Protein-protein interactions play essential roles in many biological processes. Acquiring knowledge of the residue-residue contact information of two interacting proteins is not only helpful in annotating functions for proteins, but also critical for structure-based drug design. The prediction of the protein residue-residue contact matrix of the interfacial regions is challenging. In this work, we introduced deep learning techniques (specifically, stacked autoencoders) to build deep neural network models to tackled the residue-residue contact prediction problem. In tandem with interaction profile Hidden Markov Models, which was used first to extract Fisher score features from protein sequences, stacked autoencoders were deployed to extract and learn hidden abstract features. The deep learning model showed significant improvement over the traditional machine learning model, Support Vector Machines (SVM), with the overall accuracy increased by 15% from 65.40% to 80.82%. We showed that the stacked autoencoders could extract novel features, which can be utilized by deep neural networks and other classifiers to enhance learning, out of the Fisher score features. It is further shown that deep neural networks have significant advantages over SVM in making use of the newly extracted features. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Evaluation of gunshot residue (GSR) evidence: Surveys of prevalence of GSR on clothing and frequency of residue types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Thomas J; McDermott, Sean D; Greaney, Claire M; O'Shaughnessy, John; O'Brien, Cliona M

    2015-12-01

    The evaluative approach is a logical approach to interpreting scientific findings in criminal cases, applying knowledge regarding the transfer, persistence and recovery of particulate material. The application of this approach to interpreting the finding of gunshot residue on the clothing of a suspect requires knowledge of background levels of GSR on clothing and on the frequency of different residue types in a particular environment. The cuffs of 100 upper outer garments submitted to a forensic laboratory in connection with non-firearms offences were sampled for gunshot residue. No 3-component lead/antimony/barium particles were found on 98 of them. Two 3-component particles were found on one of them and one 3-component particle was found on another. The frequency of occurrence of various particle types regarded as consistent with GSR was also explored. The findings show that, while 3-component particles were somewhat more likely to be encountered by chance on clothing than on hands, they are still relatively uncommon events. To investigate the frequency of occurrence of particular residue types, 100 discharged rounds of ammunition recovered at crime scenes were sampled and the types of residue present were determined. The results show that some residue types are significantly more common than others. Both sets of data will be of value in evaluating the significance of finding GSR on clothing of suspects in criminal cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of chewing gum on dental plaque accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Nogourani M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in the first two periods sugar-free or sugar-containing chewing gums (Olips and Orbit, respectively and in the last period did not chew any gum. Participants were asked to chew daily five gum sticks after meals for about twenty minutes. The data were statistically analyzed using Repeated Measure ANOVA and paired-T test. "nResults: The results showed that chewing any gum even sucrose-containing gum decreased the level of dental plaque accumulation (P<0.001. However, the decreasing effect of sugar-free gums was significantly higher (P<0.001. "nConclusion: Although sugar free gum was more effective than sugar containing gum on reducing dental plaque accumulation, chewing even sugar containing gums could decrease the level of dental plaque.

  8. A model for estimating carbon accumulation in cork products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims to develop a calculation model for estimating carbon accumulation in cork products, both whilst in use and when in landfills, and to apply the model to Portugal as an example.Area of study: The model is applicable worldwide and the case-study is Portugal.Material and methods: The model adopts a flux-data method based on a lifetime analysis and quantifies carbon accumulation in cork products according to three approaches that differ on how carbon stocks (or emissions are allocated to cork product consuming and producing countries. These approaches are: stock-change, production and atmospheric-flow. The effect on carbon balance of methane emissions from the decay of cork products in landfills is also evaluated.Main results: The model was applied to Portugal and the results show that carbon accumulation in cork products in the period between 1990 and 2010 varied between 24 and 92 Gg C year-1. The atmospheric-flow approach provided the highest carbon accumulation over the whole period due to the net export of carbon in cork products. The production approach ranked second because exported cork products were mainly manufactured from domestically produced cork. The net carbon balance in cork products was also a net carbon accumulation with all the approaches, ranging from 5 to 81 Gg C eq year-1.Research highlights: The developed model can be applied to other countries and may be a step forward to consider carbon accumulation in cork products in national greenhouse gas inventories, as well as in future climate agreements.Keywords: Atmospheric-flow approach; Greenhouse gas balance; Modelling; Production approach; Stock-change approach.

  9. Regional Antarctic snow accumulation over the past 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Melchior van Wessem, J.; Roberts, Jason; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Schlosser, Elisabeth; Fudge, Tyler J.; Vallelonga, Paul; Medley, Brooke; Lenaerts, Jan; Bertler, Nancy; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Dixon, Daniel A.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Stenni, Barbara; Curran, Mark; Ekaykin, Alexey A.

    2017-11-01

    Here we present Antarctic snow accumulation variability at the regional scale over the past 1000 years. A total of 79 ice core snow accumulation records were gathered and assigned to seven geographical regions, separating the high-accumulation coastal zones below 2000 m of elevation from the dry central Antarctic Plateau. The regional composites of annual snow accumulation were evaluated against modelled surface mass balance (SMB) from RACMO2.3p2 and precipitation from ERA-Interim reanalysis. With the exception of the Weddell Sea coast, the low-elevation composites capture the regional precipitation and SMB variability as defined by the models. The central Antarctic sites lack coherency and either do not represent regional precipitation or indicate the model inability to capture relevant precipitation processes in the cold, dry central plateau. Our results show that SMB for the total Antarctic Ice Sheet (including ice shelves) has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt decade-1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ˜ 0.02 mm decade-1 since 1800 and ˜ 0.04 mm decade-1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula (˜ 75 %) where the annual average SMB during the most recent decade (2001-2010) is 123 ± 44 Gt yr-1 higher than the annual average during the first decade of the 19th century. Only four ice core records cover the full 1000 years, and they suggest a decrease in snow accumulation during this period. However, our study emphasizes the importance of low-elevation coastal zones, which have been under-represented in previous investigations of temporal snow accumulation.

  10. Regional Antarctic snow accumulation over the past 1000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we present Antarctic snow accumulation variability at the regional scale over the past 1000 years. A total of 79 ice core snow accumulation records were gathered and assigned to seven geographical regions, separating the high-accumulation coastal zones below 2000 m of elevation from the dry central Antarctic Plateau. The regional composites of annual snow accumulation were evaluated against modelled surface mass balance (SMB from RACMO2.3p2 and precipitation from ERA-Interim reanalysis. With the exception of the Weddell Sea coast, the low-elevation composites capture the regional precipitation and SMB variability as defined by the models. The central Antarctic sites lack coherency and either do not represent regional precipitation or indicate the model inability to capture relevant precipitation processes in the cold, dry central plateau. Our results show that SMB for the total Antarctic Ice Sheet (including ice shelves has increased at a rate of 7 ± 0.13 Gt decade−1 since 1800 AD, representing a net reduction in sea level of ∼ 0.02 mm decade−1 since 1800 and ∼ 0.04 mm decade−1 since 1900 AD. The largest contribution is from the Antarctic Peninsula (∼ 75 % where the annual average SMB during the most recent decade (2001–2010 is 123 ± 44 Gt yr−1 higher than the annual average during the first decade of the 19th century. Only four ice core records cover the full 1000 years, and they suggest a decrease in snow accumulation during this period. However, our study emphasizes the importance of low-elevation coastal zones, which have been under-represented in previous investigations of temporal snow accumulation.

  11. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  12. Manganese accumulation in the brain: MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, A.; Nomiyama, K.; Takase, Y.; Nakazono, T.; Nojiri, J.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan); Noguchi, T. [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    Manganese (Mn) accumulation in the brain is detected as symmetrical high signal intensity in the globus pallidi on T1-weighted MR images without an abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. In this review, we present several cases of Mn accumulation in the brain due to acquired or congenital diseases of the abdomen including hepatic cirrhosis with a portosystemic shunt, congenital biliary atresia, primary biliary cirrhosis, congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt without liver dysfunction, Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome with a diffuse intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and patent ductus venosus. Other causes of Mn accumulation in the brain are Mn overload from total parenteral nutrition and welding-related Mn intoxication. (orig.)

  13. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrabi, K.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  14. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested

  15. Lack of Glycogenin Causes Glycogen Accumulation and Muscle Function Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testoni, Giorgia; Duran, Jordi; García-Rocha, Mar; Vilaplana, Francisco; Serrano, Antonio L; Sebastián, David; López-Soldado, Iliana; Sullivan, Mitchell A; Slebe, Felipe; Vilaseca, Marta; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura; Guinovart, Joan J

    2017-07-05

    Glycogenin is considered essential for glycogen synthesis, as it acts as a primer for the initiation of the polysaccharide chain. Against expectations, glycogenin-deficient mice (Gyg KO) accumulate high amounts of glycogen in striated muscle. Furthermore, this glycogen contains no covalently bound protein, thereby demonstrating that a protein primer is not strictly necessary for the synthesis of the polysaccharide in vivo. Strikingly, in spite of the higher glycogen content, Gyg KO mice showed lower resting energy expenditure and less resistance than control animals when subjected to endurance exercise. These observations can be attributed to a switch of oxidative myofibers toward glycolytic metabolism. Mice overexpressing glycogen synthase in the muscle showed similar alterations, thus indicating that this switch is caused by the excess of glycogen. These results may explain the muscular defects of GSD XV patients, who lack glycogenin-1 and show high glycogen accumulation in muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... qualitatively similar, show features different from that caused by progressive waves. The pore water pressure builds up (or accumulated) in the areas around the node and subsequently spreads out toward the antinodes. The experimental results imply that this transport is caused by a diffusion mechanism...

  17. Trehalose Accumulation Triggers Autophagy during Plant Desiccation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change, increasingly erratic weather and a burgeoning global population are significant threats to the sustainability of future crop production. There is an urgent need for the development of robust measures that enable crops to withstand the uncertainty of climate change whilst still producing maximum yields. Resurrection plants possess the unique ability to withstand desiccation for prolonged periods, can be restored upon watering and represent great potential for the development of stress tolerant crops. Here, we describe the remarkable stress characteristics of Tripogon loliiformis, an uncharacterised resurrection grass and close relative of the economically important cereals, rice, sorghum, and maize. We show that T. loliiformis survives extreme environmental stress by implementing autophagy to prevent Programmed Cell Death. Notably, we identified a novel role for trehalose in the regulation of autophagy in T.loliiformis. Transcriptome, Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, immunoblotting and confocal microscopy analyses directly linked the accumulation of trehalose with the onset of autophagy in dehydrating and desiccated T. loliiformis shoots. These results were supported in vitro with the observation of autophagosomes in trehalose treated T. loliiformis leaves; autophagosomes were not detected in untreated samples. Presumably, once induced, autophagy promotes desiccation tolerance in T.loliiformis, by removal of cellular toxins to suppress programmed cell death and the recycling of nutrients to delay the onset of senescence. These findings illustrate how resurrection plants manipulate sugar metabolism to promote desiccation tolerance and may provide candidate genes that are potentially useful for the development of stress tolerant crops.

  18. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  19. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  20. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650μmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300μmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of advanced accumulator and its application in CPR1000 LBLOCA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongwei; Shan, Jianqiang; Gou, Junli; Cao, Jianhua; Shen, Yonggang; Fu, Xiangang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis model was developed for advanced accumulator. • The sensitivity analysis of each key parameter was performed. • The LBLOCA was analyzed for the CPR1000 with advanced accumulator. • The analysis shows that advanced accumulator can improve CPR1000 safety performance. - Abstract: The advanced accumulator is designed to improve the safety and reliability of CPR1000 by providing a small injection flow to keep the reactor core in flooded condition. Thus, the core still stays in a cooling state without the intervention of low pressure safety injection and the startup grace time of the low pressure safety injection pump can be greatly extended. A new model for the advanced accumulator, which is based on the basic conservation equations, is developed and incorporated into RELAP5/MOD 3.3. The simulation of the advanced accumulator can be carried out and results show that the behavior of the advanced accumulator satisfied its primary design target. There is a large flow in the advanced accumulator at the initial stage. When the accumulator water level is lower than the stand pipe, a vortex appears in the damper, which results in a large pressure drop and a small flow. And then the sensitivity analysis is performed and the major factors which affected the flow rate of the advanced accumulator were obtained, including the damper diameter, the initial volume ratio of the water and the nitrogen and the diameter ratio of the standpipe and the small pipe. Additionally, the primary coolant loop cold leg double-ended guillotine break LBLOCA in CPR1000 with advanced accumulator is analyzed. The results show that the criterion for maximum cladding temperature limit (1477 K) (NRC, 1992) can be met ever with 200 s after the startup of the low pressure safety injection. From this point of view, passive advanced accumulator can strive a longer grace time for LPSI. Thus the reliability, safety and economy of the reactor system can be improved

  2. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  3. Accumulation of explosives in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Kirschenbaum, Louis J; Shinde, Kajal P; Marimganti, Suvarna

    2005-07-01

    The sorption of explosives (TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP, EGDN) to hair during exposure to their vapors is examined. Three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Following exposure of hair, the sorbed explosive was removed by extraction with acetonitrile and quantified. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is significantly greater than to blond, brown or bleached hair. Furthermore, the rate of sorption is directly related to the vapor density of the explosive: EGDN > TATP >TNT > PETN > RDX. In some cases, the explosive-containing hair was subject to repeated washings with sodium dodecylsulfate or simply left out in an open area to determine the persistence of the explosive contamination. While explosive is removed from hair with time or washing, some persists. These results indicate that hair can be a useful indicator of explosive exposure/handling.

  4. A Humanin Derivative Reduces Amyloid Beta Accumulation and Ameliorates Memory Deficit in Triple Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Takako; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Hirata-Fukae, Chiho; Aisen, Paul S.; Matsuoka, Yasuji

    2011-01-01

    Humanin (HN), a 24-residue peptide, was identified as a novel neuroprotective factor and shows anti-cell death activity against a wide spectrum of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related cytotoxicities, including exposure to amyloid beta (Abeta), in vitro. We previously demonstrated that the injection of S14G-HN, a highly potent HN derivative, into brain ameliorated memory loss in an Abeta-injection mouse model. To fully understand HN's functions under AD-associated pathological conditions, we examined the effect of S14G-HN on triple transgenic mice harboring APPswe, tauP310L, and PS-1M146V that show the age-dependent development of multiple pathologies relating to AD. After 3 months of intranasal treatment, behavioral analyses showed that S14G-HN ameliorated cognitive impairment in male mice. Moreover, ELISA and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Abeta levels in brains were markedly lower in S14G-HN-treated male and female mice than in vehicle control mice. We also found the expression level of neprilysin, an Abeta degrading enzyme, in the outer molecular layer of hippocampal formation was increased in S14G-HN-treated mouse brains. NEP activity was also elevated by S14G-HN treatment in vitro. These findings suggest that decreased Abeta level in these mice is at least partly attributed to S14G-HN-induced increase of neprilysin level. Although HN was identified as an anti-neuronal death factor, these results indicate that HN may also have a therapeutic effect on amyloid accumulation in AD. PMID:21264226

  5. A humanin derivative reduces amyloid beta accumulation and ameliorates memory deficit in triple transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Niikura

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN, a 24-residue peptide, was identified as a novel neuroprotective factor and shows anti-cell death activity against a wide spectrum of Alzheimer's disease (AD-related cytotoxicities, including exposure to amyloid beta (Abeta, in vitro. We previously demonstrated that the injection of S14G-HN, a highly potent HN derivative, into brain ameliorated memory loss in an Abeta-injection mouse model. To fully understand HN's functions under AD-associated pathological conditions, we examined the effect of S14G-HN on triple transgenic mice harboring APP(swe, tau(P310L, and PS-1(M146V that show the age-dependent development of multiple pathologies relating to AD. After 3 months of intranasal treatment, behavioral analyses showed that S14G-HN ameliorated cognitive impairment in male mice. Moreover, ELISA and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Abeta levels in brains were markedly lower in S14G-HN-treated male and female mice than in vehicle control mice. We also found the expression level of neprilysin, an Abeta degrading enzyme, in the outer molecular layer of hippocampal formation was increased in S14G-HN-treated mouse brains. NEP activity was also elevated by S14G-HN treatment in vitro. These findings suggest that decreased Abeta level in these mice is at least partly attributed to S14G-HN-induced increase of neprilysin level. Although HN was identified as an anti-neuronal death factor, these results indicate that HN may also have a therapeutic effect on amyloid accumulation in AD.

  6. Catheter for Cleaning Surgical Optics During Surgical Procedures: A Possible Solution for Residue Buildup and Fogging in Video Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Igor Renato Louro Bruno; Abrão, Fernando Conrado; Silva, Alessandra Rodrigues; Corrêa, Larissa Teresa Cirera; Younes, Riad Nain

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is a tendency to perform surgical procedures via laparoscopic or thoracoscopic access. However, even with the impressive technological advancement in surgical materials, such as improvement in quality of monitors, light sources, and optical fibers, surgeons have to face simple problems that can greatly hinder surgery by video. One is the formation of "fog" or residue buildup on the lens, causing decreased visibility. Intracavitary techniques for cleaning surgical optics and preventing fog formation have been described; however, some of these techniques employ the use of expensive and complex devices designed solely for this purpose. Moreover, these techniques allow the cleaning of surgical optics when they becomes dirty, which does not prevent the accumulation of residue in the optics. To solve this problem we have designed a device that allows cleaning the optics with no surgical stops and prevents the fogging and residue accumulation. The objective of this study is to evaluate through experimental testing the effectiveness of a simple device that prevents the accumulation of residue and fogging of optics used in surgical procedures performed through thoracoscopic or laparoscopic access. Ex-vivo experiments were performed simulating the conditions of residue presence in surgical optics during a video surgery. The experiment consists in immersing the optics and catheter set connected to the IV line with crystalloid solution in three types of materials: blood, blood plus fat solution, and 200 mL of distilled water and 1 vial of methylene blue. The optics coupled to the device were immersed in 200 mL of each type of residue, repeating each immersion 10 times for each distinct residue for both thirty and zero degrees optics, totaling 420 experiments. A success rate of 98.1% was observed after the experiments, in these cases the device was able to clean and prevent the residue accumulation in the optics.

  7. Residues and world-sheet instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, Chris [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail: cbeasley@princeton.edu; Witten, Edward [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail: witten@ias.edu

    2003-10-01

    We reconsider the question of which Calabi-Yau compactifications of the heterotic string are stable under world-sheet instanton corrections to the effective space-time superpotential. For instance, compactifications described by (0; 2) linear sigma models are believed to be stable, suggesting a remarkable cancellation among the instanton effects in these theories. Here, we show that this cancellation follows directly from a residue theorem, whose proof relies only upon the right-moving world-sheet supersymmetries and suitable compactness properties of the (0; 2) linear sigma model. Our residue theorem also extends to a new class of 'half-linear' sigma models. Using these half-linear models, we show that heterotic compactifications on the quintic hypersurface in CP{sup 4} for which the gauge bundle pulls back from a bundle on CP{sup 4} are stable. Finally, we apply similar ideas to compute the superpotential contributions from families of membrane instantons in M-theory compactifications on manifolds of G{sub 2} holonomy. (author)

  8. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  9. Non-enzymatic N-acetylation of Lysine Residues by AcetylCoA Often Occurs via a Proximal S-acetylated Thiol Intermediate Sensitive to Glyoxalase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. James

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA, a key intermediate in mitochondrial metabolism, N-acetylates lysine residues, disrupting and, in some cases, regulating protein function. The mitochondrial lysine deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3 reverses this modification with benefits reported in diabetes, obesity, and aging. We show that non-enzymatic lysine N-acetylation by AcCoA is greatly enhanced by initial acetylation of a cysteine residue, followed by SN-transfer of the acetyl moiety to a nearby lysine on mitochondrial proteins and synthetic peptides. The frequent occurrence of an S-acetyl intermediate before lysine N-acetylation suggests that proximity to a thioester is a key determinant of lysine susceptibility to acetylation. The thioesterase glyoxalase II (Glo2 can limit protein S-acetylation, thereby preventing subsequent lysine N-acetylation. This suggests that the hitherto obscure role of Glo2 in mitochondria is to act upstream of Sirt3 in minimizing protein N-acetylation, thus limiting protein dysfunction when AcCoA accumulates. : James et al. show that the non-enzymatic N-acetylation of lysine residues in mitochondrial proteins frequently occurs via a proximal S-acetylated thiol intermediate. Glutathione equilibrates with this intermediate, allowing the thioesterase glyoxalase II to limit protein lysine N-acetylation. These findings expand our understanding of how protein acetylation arises. Keywords: AcetylCoA, lysine acetylation, glyoxalase

  10. 46 CFR 58.30-25 - Accumulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pressure vessel in which energy is stored under high pressure in the form of a gas or a gas and hydraulic... result in contamination of the hydraulic fluid and loss of gas through absorption. (c) Each accumulator...

  11. Stochastic cooling and the accumulation of antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    van der Meer, S

    1985-01-01

    The large project mentioned in the motivation of the 1985 Nobel award in physics includes, in addition to the experiments proper described by Carlo Rubbia, the complex machinery for colliding high-energy protons and antiprotons. Protons (ps) are accelerated to a momentum of 26 GeV/c in the Proton Synchrotron (PS) machine and are used to produce antiprotons (ps) in a copper target. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA) ring accepts a batch of these with momenta around 3.5 GeV/c every 2.4 seconds. After, typically, a day of accumulation, a large number of the accumulated ps ( approximately 10/sup 11/) are extracted from the AA. The author discusses stochastic cooling, a method used to accumulate the antiprotons. (23 refs).

  12. Rock bed heat accumulators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, M.

    1977-12-01

    The principal objectives of the research program on rock bed heat accumulators (or RBHA) are: (1) to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of storing large amounts of thermal energy (in the tens of MWt range) at high temperature (up to 500/sup 0/C) over extended periods of time (up to 6 months) using native earth or rock materials; (2) to conduct studies to establish the performance characteristics of large rock bed heat accumulators at various power and temperature levels compatible with thermal conversion systems; and (3) to assess the materials and environmental problems associated with the operation of such large heat accumulators. Results of the study indicate that rock bed heat accumulators for seasonal storage are both technically and economically feasible, and hence could be exploited in various applications in which storage plays an essential role such as solar power and total energy systems, district and cogeneration heating systems.

  13. HORMONAL REGULATION OF SELENIUM ACCUMULATION BY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Golubkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal regulation is considered to be a unique mechanism controlling growth and development of living organism. The review discusses the correlations between pant hormonal status of non-accumulators and hyper-accumulators of Se with the accumulation levels of this microelement. The phenomenon of stimulation and redistribution of selenium as a result of phytohormone treatment, the peculiarities of phytohormones effect among different species and cultivars, and influence of plant sexualization on selenium accumulation are described in article. Data of hormonal regulation of selenium level for spinach, garlic, perennial onion, Brassica chinenesis and Valeriana officialis are presented in the review.

  14. Application of the contour method to validate residual stress predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welding is the most widespread method employed to join metallic components in nuclear power plants. This is an aggressive process that introduces complex three-dimensional residual stresses of substantial magnitude into engineering components. For safety-critical applications it can be of crucial importance to have an accurate characterisation of the residual stress field present in order to assess plant lifetime and risk of failure. Finite element modelling approaches are being increasingly employed by engineers to predict welding residual stresses. However, such predictions are challenging owing to the innate complexity of the welding process and can give highly variable results. Therefore, it is always desirable to validate residual stress predictions by experimental data. This paper illustrates how the contour method of measuring residual stress can be applied to various weldments in order to provide high quality experimental data. The contour method results are compared with data obtained by other well-established residual stress measurement techniques such as neutron diffraction and slitting methods and show a very satisfactory correlation. (author)

  15. Identification of chemical signatures of gunshot residues in different fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Joao Carlos Dias de

    2010-01-01

    The modern forensic science goes hand in hand with scientific research. The forensic scientists are faced every day with many cases requiring the analysis of residues from firing gun (gunshot residues). This works describes the development of a methodology to determine chemical signatures of shots from a firearm, by measuring the concentrations of Pb, Ba e Sb in the residues from these shots deposited near the entrance hole of bullets, based on the technique with high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS). Shots were performed on five types of target-fabrics and collected testimonies from regions close to the entrance hole of projectiles. The results showed that the method enabled us to identify and distinguish the residues of the .38 caliber revolver and pistols .40 and 9mm caliber. The use of ternary graphs as a tool for data analysis helped to identify specific patterns of distribution of blank samples and gunshot residues deposited after firing revolvers and pistols. The methodology enabled the assignment of the origin of the shot through the confirmation of the residues collected also from the hands of shooters. As a result the methodology in police procedures and aims to add a valuable contribution to forensic investigations. (author)

  16. Longitudinal Analysis of Residual Feed Intake in Mink using Random Regression with Heterogeneous Residual Variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    Heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) increased from low to high over the growing period in male and female mink. The lowest heritability for RFI (male: 0.04 ± 0.01 standard deviation (SD); female: 0.05 ± 0.01 SD) was in early and the highest heritability (male: 0.33 ± 0.02; female: 0.34 ± 0.......02 SD) was achieved at the late growth stages. The genetic correlation between different growth stages for RFI showed a high association (0.91 to 0.98) between early and late growing periods. However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.29 to 0.50. The residual variances were substantially higher...

  17. Fast and accurate multivariate Gaussian modeling of protein families: predicting residue contacts and protein-interaction partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Baldassi

    Full Text Available In the course of evolution, proteins show a remarkable conservation of their three-dimensional structure and their biological function, leading to strong evolutionary constraints on the sequence variability between homologous proteins. Our method aims at extracting such constraints from rapidly accumulating sequence data, and thereby at inferring protein structure and function from sequence information alone. Recently, global statistical inference methods (e.g. direct-coupling analysis, sparse inverse covariance estimation have achieved a breakthrough towards this aim, and their predictions have been successfully implemented into tertiary and quaternary protein structure prediction methods. However, due to the discrete nature of the underlying variable (amino-acids, exact inference requires exponential time in the protein length, and efficient approximations are needed for practical applicability. Here we propose a very efficient multivariate Gaussian modeling approach as a variant of direct-coupling analysis: the discrete amino-acid variables are replaced by continuous Gaussian random variables. The resulting statistical inference problem is efficiently and exactly solvable. We show that the quality of inference is comparable or superior to the one achieved by mean-field approximations to inference with discrete variables, as done by direct-coupling analysis. This is true for (i the prediction of residue-residue contacts in proteins, and (ii the identification of protein-protein interaction partner in bacterial signal transduction. An implementation of our multivariate Gaussian approach is available at the website http://areeweb.polito.it/ricerca/cmp/code.

  18. Fast and accurate multivariate Gaussian modeling of protein families: predicting residue contacts and protein-interaction partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassi, Carlo; Zamparo, Marco; Feinauer, Christoph; Procaccini, Andrea; Zecchina, Riccardo; Weigt, Martin; Pagnani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the course of evolution, proteins show a remarkable conservation of their three-dimensional structure and their biological function, leading to strong evolutionary constraints on the sequence variability between homologous proteins. Our method aims at extracting such constraints from rapidly accumulating sequence data, and thereby at inferring protein structure and function from sequence information alone. Recently, global statistical inference methods (e.g. direct-coupling analysis, sparse inverse covariance estimation) have achieved a breakthrough towards this aim, and their predictions have been successfully implemented into tertiary and quaternary protein structure prediction methods. However, due to the discrete nature of the underlying variable (amino-acids), exact inference requires exponential time in the protein length, and efficient approximations are needed for practical applicability. Here we propose a very efficient multivariate Gaussian modeling approach as a variant of direct-coupling analysis: the discrete amino-acid variables are replaced by continuous Gaussian random variables. The resulting statistical inference problem is efficiently and exactly solvable. We show that the quality of inference is comparable or superior to the one achieved by mean-field approximations to inference with discrete variables, as done by direct-coupling analysis. This is true for (i) the prediction of residue-residue contacts in proteins, and (ii) the identification of protein-protein interaction partner in bacterial signal transduction. An implementation of our multivariate Gaussian approach is available at the website http://areeweb.polito.it/ricerca/cmp/code.

  19. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2002-01-01

    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...... mixed with sludge (FAS) from a wet flue gas cleaning system. The process was performed in batches of 165-175 kg residue. It generates a wastewater that is highly saline but has a low content of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, and Pb. The stabilized and raw residues have been subject to a range of leaching...... tests: the batch leacing test, the pH-static leaching test, the availability test, and the column test. These tests showed that the stabilized residues have remarkably improved leaching properties, especially with respect to Pb but also with respect to Cd, Cu, and Zn. The release of Pb was reduced...

  20. Monitoring of Benomyl Residue in Mushroom Marketed in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pesticide residues in environment and food have a negative impact on the health of living organisms. Therefore, this study was carried out for evaluation of benomyl residues in mushroom marketed in Hamadan city in 2014 using spectrophotometry. Materials & Methods: 10 specimens of mushroom were collected from greenhouses and market basket of Hamadan city. After preparation and processing the samples in the laboratory, be-nomyl residues in samples were determined using a spectrophotometric method in 3 replica-tions. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The mean concentration of benomyl residues in samples were 5.90±0.75, 2.10± 0.487, 40.04±1.346, 0.32±0.044, 14.0±0.785, 1.54±0.304, 40.0±0.45, 0.87±0.055, 0.66± 0.032 and 49.60±0.303 µg kg-1 and more than the maximum residue limit (MRL provided by the World Health Organization (10 ppb. The results of the comparison of the mean concentration of pesticide residues among samples revealed significant differences in most of the samples (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that mean concentrations of benomyl residues in mushroom samples were exceeding that of the MRL. Therefore, it is essential to impart proper education to the farming community about hazards involved in the overuse of toxic pesticides. Also, codification of laws and their enforcement and implementation of programs for the regular periodic monitoring of pesticide residues in foodstuffs especially in vegetables cultivated un-der greenhouse conditions at the national level to protect consumers’ health are recom-mended.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 137-143

  1. Excessive sulfur supply reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jianling [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71st East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu Zhengyi, E-mail: zhyhu@gucas.ac.c [College of Resources and Environment, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Ziadi, Noura [Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2560 Hochelaga Boulevard, Quebec, QC, G1V 2J3 (Canada); Xia Xu; Wu Congyanghui [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71st East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Human activities have resulted in cadmium (Cd) and sulfur (S) accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of excessive S supply on iron plaque formation and Cd accumulation in rice plants, using two Cd levels (0, 1.5 mg kg{sup -1}) combined with three S concentrations (0, 60, 120 mg kg{sup -1}). The results showed that excessive S supply significantly decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice due to the decrease of Cd availability and the increase of glutathione in rice leaves. But excessive S supply obviously increased Cd accumulation in roots due to the decrease of iron plaque formation on the root surface of rice. Therefore, excessive S supply may result in loss of rice yield, but it could effectively reduce Cd accumulation in brown rice exposed to Cd contaminated soils. - Excessive sulfur reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice.

  2. Bidens tripartite L.: A Cd-accumulator confirmed by pot culture and site sampling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Niu Rongcheng; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Zhou Qixing; Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng; Hu Yahu; Li Yunmeng

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in Bidens tripartite L. were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating properties. In this study, pot culture experiment and site sampling experiments were conducted to assess whether this plant is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator or accumulator. The results indicated that the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of B. tripartite was principally >1 in pot culture and concentration gradient experiments. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the site sampling experiment, B. tripartite also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, B. tripartite could be identified as a Cd-accumulator. Thus, B. tripartite should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator.

  3. TOR (target of rapamycin) is a key regulator of triacylglycerol accumulation in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Sousuke; Kawase, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Ikki; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kan

    2016-01-01

    Most microalgae abundantly accumulate lipid droplets (LDs) containing triacylglycerols (TAGs) under several stress conditions, but the underlying molecular mechanism of this accumulation remains unclear. In a recent study, we found that inhibition of TOR (target of rapamycin), a highly conserved protein kinase of eukaryotes, by rapamycin resulted in TAG accumulation in microalgae, indicating that TOR negatively regulates TAG accumulation. Here, we show that formation of intracellular LDs and TAG accumulation were also induced in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii after exposure to Torin1 or AZD8055, which are novel TOR inhibitors that inhibit TOR activity in a manner different from rapamycin. These results supported quite well our previous conclusion that TOR is a central regulator of TAG accumulation in microalgae.

  4. Temporal accumulation of oriented visual features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for accumulating on-line a model of a moving object (e.g., when manipulated by a robot). The proposed scheme is based on Bayesian filtering of local features, filtering jointly position, orientation and appearance information. The work presented here is novel......, while making use of the available uncertainty model. The accumulated representations have been used in three different contexts: pose estimation, robotic grasping, and driver assistance scenario....

  5. Mitochondrial accumulation of APP and Abeta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Pavel F; Petersen, Anna Camilla Hansson; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that alterations in energy metabolism are among the earliest events that occur in the Alzheimer disease (AD) affected brain. Energy consumption is drastically decreased in the AD-affected regions of cerebral cortex and hippocampus pointing towards compromised mitocho....... We will focus on the consequences of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid-beta peptide accumulation in mitochondria and their involvement in AD pathogenesis....

  6. Genetics of nitrate accumulation in lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Reinink, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the prospects of breeding for low nitrate content in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.). A lettuce collection was screened and accessions with low nitrate content were identified. These were used to study the genetics of nitrate accumulation. Nitrate accumulation inherited quantitatively, in a mainly additive fashion with only minor effects of dominance. No important maternal effects were detected. Estimates of the additive genotypic variance and t...

  7. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  8. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  10. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  11. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The induction of free proline accumulation by endogenous ABA in Arabidopsis thaliana during drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, M.L.; Bray, E.A. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and free proline increase in response to drought stress. Exogenous ABA has been shown to induce proline accumulation, suggesting that ABA triggers the amino acid response. To determine if endogenous ABA induces free proline accumulation, increases in ABA and proline during drought stress were compared between wild type (WT), ABA-insensitive (abi) and ABA-deficient (aba) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. If elevated levels of endogenous ABA signal the proline response, then the mutants would not be expected to accumulate proline during stress. abi should be unable to respond to increased levels of endogenous ABA, while aba should be unable to accumulate sufficient ABA to elicit a proline response. Drought-stressed three week old shoots of WT, abi, and aba exhibited different patterns of endogenous ABA accumulation, but similar patterns of proline accumulation over 24 hours. Although the patterns of endogenous ABA accumulation differed, maximum levels were similar in WT and abi, but aba produced approximately 25% less. However, free proline accumulated in all three plant lines. abi exhibited a greater, more rapid increase in free proline over that in either WT or aba. aba, however, showed the same pattern and levels of accumulation as that in WT. Since free proline accumulated to at least similar levels in both WT and mutants, regardless of the levels of ABA accumulation, it may be that only a small endogenous ABA accumulation is required for proline accumulation. Alternatively, endogenous ABA may not be the direct signal for the proline response during drought stress.

  13. Strategies for preserving residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Assanatham, Montira; Panorchan, Kwanpeemai; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Although there have been many advancements in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) over the last 50 years, in terms of reducing cardiovascular risk, mortality remains unacceptably high, particularly for those patients who progress to stage 5 CKD and initiate dialysis (CKD5d). As mortality risk increases exponentially with progressive CKD stage, the question arises as to whether preservation of residual renal function once dialysis has been initiated can reduce mortality risk. Observational studies to date have reported an association between even small amounts of residual renal function and improved patient survival and quality of life. Dialysis therapies predominantly provide clearance for small water-soluble solutes, volume and acid-base control, but cannot reproduce the metabolic functions of the kidney. As such, protein-bound solutes, advanced glycosylation end-products, middle molecules and other azotaemic toxins accumulate over time in the anuric CKD5d patient. Apart from avoiding potential nephrotoxic insults, observational and interventional trials have suggested that a number of interventions and treatments may potentially reduce the progression of earlier stages of CKD, including targeted blood pressure control, reducing proteinuria and dietary intervention using combinations of protein restriction with keto acid supplementation. However, many interventions which have been proven to be effective in the general population have not been equally effective in the CKD5d patient, and so the question arises as to whether these treatment options are equally applicable to CKD5d patients. As strategies to help preserve residual renal function in CKD5d patients are not well established, we have reviewed the evidence for preserving or losing residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients, as urine collections are routinely collected, whereas few centres regularly collect urine from haemodialysis patients, and haemodialysis dialysis

  14. Characterization of accumulated precipitates during subsurface iron removal

    KAUST Repository

    Van Halem, Doris

    2011-01-01

    The principle of subsurface iron removal for drinking water supply is that aerated water is periodically injected into the aquifer through a tube well. On its way into the aquifer, the injected O2-rich water oxidizes adsorbed Fe 2+, creating a subsurface oxidation zone. When groundwater abstraction is resumed, the soluble Fe 2+ is adsorbed and water with reduced Fe concentrations is abstracted for multiple volumes of the injection water. In this article, Fe accumulation deposits in the aquifer near subsurface treatment wells were identified and characterized to assess the sustainability of subsurface iron removal regarding clogging of the aquifer and the potential co-accumulation of other groundwater constituents, such as As. Chemical extraction of soil samples, with Acid-Oxalate and HNO3, showed that Fe had accumulated at specific depths near subsurface iron removal wells after 12 years of operation. Whether it was due to preferred flow paths or geochemical mineralogy conditions; subsurface iron removal clearly favoured certain soil layers. The total Fe content increased between 11.5 and 390.8 mmol/kg ds in the affected soil layers, and the accumulated Fe was found to be 56-100% crystalline. These results suggest that precipitated amorphous Fe hydroxides have transformed to Fe hydroxides of higher crystallinity. These crystalline, compact Fe hydroxides have not noticeably clogged the investigated well and/or aquifer between 1996 and 2008. The subsurface iron removal wells even need less frequent rehabilitation, as drawdown increases more slowly than in normal production wells. Other groundwater constituents, such as Mn, As and Sr were found to co-accumulate with Fe. Acid extraction and ESEM-EDX showed that Ca occurred together with Fe and by X-ray Powder Diffraction it was identified as calcite. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A 40-year accumulation dataset for Adelie Land, Antarctica and its application for model validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agosta, C.; Favier, V.; Genthon, C.; Gallée, H.; Krinner, G.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The GLACIOCLIM-SAMBA (GS) Antarctic accumulation monitoring network, which extends from the coast of Adelie Land to the Antarctic plateau, has been surveyed annually since 2004. The network includes a 156-km stake-line from the coast inland, along which accumulation shows high spatial and

  16. Study of the acceleration of ammonia generation process from poultry residues aiming at hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Elementary Analysis (CHN), Thermogravimetry and GC/MS - Gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  17. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 ± 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 ± 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 ± 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 ± 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 ± 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 ± 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Potential source regions of dust accumulated in northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowska, S.; Woronko, B.

    2012-04-01

    Sahara is the largest source of the dust in the world. The material sampled from dust storms in Tunisia (Nefta Oasis, El Kantoui Harbor), north Egypt (Alexandria) and Morocco (Mhamid Oasis) (March 2001, March and April 2009) was taken to identify the potential sources of dust accumulation and transport paths in North Africa. The samples were analyzed on grain size, micromorphology of silt grain surfaces in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), elemental composition of grains and their surface crusts, loss on ignition, mineralogical composition of samples and carbonate content. Additionally the meteorological situation was analyzed during the dust storm occurrences and preceding periods. The results of grain size analyses show that all studied sediments belong to the small dust type, and dust accumulated in Mhamid is the clay mineral agglomerated (CMA) dust. The source of the CMA are the old dry lake beds. Dust particles are mobilized as aggregates of clay minerals, what is controlled by structure (particle packing) of the original lake sediment, and accumulation is dry and wet as well. The results of the analysis of the quartz grain surface micromorphology, the elemental composition and loss on ignition indicate that dust accumulated in Morocco originated from a relatively homogenous sediment source and, on the other hand, dust found in Alexandria comes from a diversified source. Dust sampled in Tunisia is characterized by the highest content of carbonates and organic matter which suggests the intensive dispelling acting on the weathered material from carbonate rocks and local Mediterranean soil covers rich in CaCO3. The analyses of meteorological conditions during the dust storms and the analyses of the textural characteristics of deposits show that it is highly probable that analysed aeolian dust was transported both for shorter and longer distances. Hypothetic source areas of dust accumulated in Mhamid could be the old ergs, some located 300-500 km away like

  19. Image quality assessment metric for frame accumulated image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianping; Li, Gang; Wang, Shaohui; Lin, Ling

    2018-01-01

    The medical image quality determines the accuracy of diagnosis, and the gray-scale resolution is an important parameter to measure image quality. But current objective metrics are not very suitable for assessing medical images obtained by frame accumulation technology. Little attention was paid to the gray-scale resolution, basically based on spatial resolution and limited to the 256 level gray scale of the existing display device. Thus, this paper proposes a metric, "mean signal-to-noise ratio" (MSNR) based on signal-to-noise in order to be more reasonable to evaluate frame accumulated medical image quality. We demonstrate its potential application through a series of images under a constant illumination signal. Here, the mean image of enough images was regarded as the reference image. Several groups of images by different frame accumulation and their MSNR were calculated. The results of the experiment show that, compared with other quality assessment methods, the metric is simpler, more effective, and more suitable for assessing frame accumulated images that surpass the gray scale and precision of the original image.

  20. Step changes in leaf oil accumulation via iterative metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Divi, Uday K; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Mitchell, Madeline; Taylor, Matthew C; Eastmond, Peter J; Bryant, Fiona; Mechanicos, Anna; Blundell, Cheryl; Zhi, Yao; Belide, Srinivas; Shrestha, Pushkar; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Ral, Jean-Philippe; White, Rosemary G; Green, Allan; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis and accumulation of plant oils in the entire vegetative biomass offers the potential to deliver yields surpassing those of oilseed crops. However, current levels still fall well short of those typically found in oilseeds. Here we show how transcriptome and biochemical analyses pointed to a futile cycle in a previously established Nicotiana tabacum line, accumulating up to 15% (dry weight) of the storage lipid triacylglycerol in leaf tissue. To overcome this metabolic bottleneck, we either silenced the SDP1 lipase or overexpressed the Arabidopsis thaliana LEC2 transcription factor in this transgenic background. Both strategies independently resulted in the accumulation of 30-33% triacylglycerol in leaf tissues. Our results demonstrate that the combined optimization of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, storage lipid assembly and lipid turnover in leaf tissue results in a major overhaul of the plant central carbon allocation and lipid metabolism. The resulting further step changes in oil accumulation in the entire plant biomass offers the possibility of delivering yields that outperform current oilseed crops. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Residual Analysis of Generalized Autoregressive Integrated Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of residuals of generalized autoregressive integrated moving average bilinear time series model was considered. The adequacy of this model was based on testing the estimated residuals for whiteness. Jarque-Bera statistic and squared-residual autocorrelations were used to test the estimated ...

  2. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  3. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  4. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael; Gnaëpel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-11-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines.

  5. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  6. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. linked by α-(1- 4) glycosidic bonds into chains and chains. branch via α-(1- 6) linkage. Branching points are about every fourth residue – allows. glucose ...

  7. Treatment of mine water and solid residues (RS) in San Rafael mining and milling complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Armando R.; Perrino, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    San Rafael Mining and Milling Complex is located in Mendoza Province, in San Rafael Department, 38 km West from San Rafael city and 240 km south from Mendoza city, capital of the province. Activities related with yellow cake production were performed from 1979 to 1999. Nowadays the mine and the plant are in stand by. At the moment technical, economic and environmental studies are being done in order to restart the activities. Different kind of residues are accumulated in the site: a) Tailing; b) Sludges; c) Low grade ores; e) Waste rock; f) Mine water; g) Solid residues (RS). In this paper methodology to treat mine water and solid residues (RS) will be informed. a) Mine water: 800.000 m 3 of mine water are accumulated in different open pit. Uranium, radium and arsenic are the main ions to take into account to treat the water. Several laboratory and pilot test have been performed in order to define the treatment of the water, according with the regulatory requirement. A methodology using anion exchange resin to fix uranium and precipitation using barium chloride and iron sulfate to separate radium and arsenic has been developed. b) Solid residues (RS): these residues (precipitates) have been produced by neutralization of effluents in a nuclear purification process (TBP process). They are accumulated in drums. These residues come from Cordoba plant, a factory which produces UO 2 powder. The total content of uranium in the precipitate is 14.249 kg with an average uranium concentration of 1,33%. A methodology using sulfuric acid dissolution of the precipitates and anion exchange resin to recovery the uranium has been developed. (author) [es

  8. Effect of Solder Flux Residues on Corrosion of Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Stentoft; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    that no cleaning after the solder process is required. In some cases, however, this statement is not correct. Experiments with ‘No Clean’ wave solder flux have been performed, and the results show, that the solder temperature plays an important role; temperatures below 170°C cause more flux residues than solder......Flux from ‘No Clean’ solder processes can cause reliability problems in the field due to aggressive residues, which may be electrical conducting or corrosive in humid environments. The solder temperature during a wave solder process is of great importance to the amount of residues left on a PCBA...... of dust, which can act as a humidity absorber. The experiments have been made on SnPb wave solder flux, later experiments will show if the problems are less for Lead-free reflow and wave soldering, because the solder temperature is about 20°C higher. Furthermore an example of failure after humidity...

  9. Treatment of residual waters of slaughterhouses with filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz A, Jesus Mario

    1995-01-01

    For studying the anaerobic treatment of the residual waters coming from a slaughterhouse of bovine livestock, they were used a system of two filters in series and a third unique filter as witness. With values average of load organic volumetric and time of retention of 1.6 kg/(m 3 d) and 26 hours respectively, the efficiencies of removal of total DQO were similar in the unique filter and in the system in series, of the order of 64% on the average. Likewise, the retention and accumulation of biological solids in the channel were shown as the main road of removal of the DQO. The differentiation of the process achieved with the two filters in series allowed establishing that most of the accumulation happened in the primary filter, as long as the fundamental of the bioconversion in methane took place in the secondary filter of the system in series. The first relative level of methanegenization obtained could be explained by the limitations to the activity of the methanogenic biomass imposed by the low temperatures, although it could not discard a probable inhibition for the hydrolysis products of the accumulated fats

  10. Cadmium accumulation characteristics and removal potentials of high cadmium accumulating rice line grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Li, Tingxuan; Yu, Haiying; Zhang, Xizhou

    2016-08-01

    Phytoextraction is a promising technique to remove cadmium (Cd) from contaminated soils. In this research, the two different Cd accumulation rice lines of Lu527-8 (the high Cd accumulating rice line) and Lu527-4 (the normal rice line) were grown in soils with different Cd treatments (0, 5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) to evaluate Cd accumulation characteristics and Cd removal potentials. When the concentration of Cd in soil increased, Lu527-8 showed less symptoms of phytotoxicity when compared to Lu527-4. Furthermore, Lu527-8 demonstrated greater shoot Cd accumulation (321.17-964.95 mg plant(-1)) than Lu527-4 (50.37-201.66 μg plant(-1)) at the jointing and filling stages. The soil available Cd content of Lu527-8 significantly decreased by 26.92-38.97 and 27.77-63.44 % at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. Meanwhile, the total Cd content in soil also reduced by 11.64-46.75 and 21.41-54.11 % at jointing and filling stages, respectively. When the Cd concentration in soil was 20 mg kg(-1), the Cd extraction rate in shoots of Lu527-8 reached 2.12 and 2.85 % which increased 10.60 and 6.48 times compared with that of Lu527-4 at the jointing and filling stages, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Lu527-8 shows great abilities of Cd accumulation and Cd removal potential from contaminated soils with different Cd treatments and it is a promising species for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils.

  11. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    mineral for 137Cs in the medium solution. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells lowered in the medium containing higher mineral content. These results indicate that radiocesium was competively accumulated in the cells with minerals in the soil. Higher concentration of stable Cs was accumulated in the cells in the metabolically active condition than in the resting cells condition. XAFS analyses showed that the k3-weighted extended-XAFS functions and the radial structural function of Cs accumulated by the cells in the metabolically active condition were similar to those in the resting condition, indicating that chemical states of the accumulated Cs were nearly the same between both conditions. These results indicate that the fungus accumulates radiocesium by competitively with minerals in the soils, and performs higher retardation of the migration of Cs in the metabolically active condition than the resting one. A part of this study is the results of "Multidisciplinary investigation on radiocesium fate and transport for safety assessment for interim storage and disposal of heterogeneous waste" carried out under the Initiatives for Atomic Energy Basic and Generic Strategic Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  12. Spin Accumulation of Spinor Atoms in Optical Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Jiang Zhanfeng

    2007-01-01

    We obtain an effective spin correlation Hamiltonian describing the interaction of light with a two-level atom, then we investigate the classical trajectory of the two-level atom system by numerical integration of the Heisenberg equation of motion. Our results show that the spin accumulation is a very popular phenomenon as long as the spin character cannot be ignored in the Hamiltonian. We propose experimental protocol to observe this new phenomenon in further experiments.

  13. Impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Uri

    2017-04-01

    Field measurements indicated on high variability in salt accumulation along natural and cultivated slopes, even for relatively homogeneous soil conditions. It was hypothesised that slope inclination has an impact on the location of salt accumulation along the slope. A set of laboratory experiments and numerical models were used to explore the impact of slope inclination on salt accumulation. It was shown, experimentally, that for conditions of saline water source at the lower boundary of the slope - salt accumulates in low concentrations and homogeneously along the entire slope, for moderate slopes. However, as inclination increases high salt concentrations were observed at the upper parts of the slope, leaving the lower parts of the slope relatively free of salt. The traditional flow and transport models did not predict the experimental observations as they indicated also for the moderate slopes on salt accumulation in the elevated parts of the slope, away of the saline water source. Consequently - a conceptual model was raised to explain the laboratory observations. It was suggested that the interactions between slope angle, evaporation rates, hydraulic conductivity of the medium and distribution of wetness along the slope affect the saline water flow path through the medium. This lead to preferential flow path close to the soil-atmosphere interface for the steep slopes, which leads to constant wash of the salts from the evaporation front upward towards the slope upper parts, whereas for the moderate slopes, flow path is below the soil-atmosphere interface, therefore salt that accumulates at the evaporation front is not being transported upward. Understanding of salt dynamics along slopes is important for agricultural and natural environments, as well as for civil engineering purposes. Better understanding of the salt transport processes along slopes will improve our ability to minimize and to cope with soil salinization processes. The laboratory experiments and

  14. Pu(IV) and Fe(III) accumulation ability of heavy metal-tolerant soil fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinskaite, L.; Smirnov, A.; Luksiene, B.; Druteikiene, R.; Remeikis, V.; Baltrunas, D.

    2009-01-01

    The work was aimed at studying abilities of soil microorganisms to participate in metal/radionuclide mobility processes by accumulating them. Soil microorganisms were treated with a mixture of heavy metals (Cr(III), Ni, Fe(III), Mn(II), Cd) in order to isolate the most tolerant ones. Among more metal-tolerant microorganisms microscopic fungi dominated. Tests of fungal tolerance towards each metal showed that the most tolerant fungi to almost all metals were Aspergillus niger, Penicillium oxalicum and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Accumulation ability of metal-tolerant fungi was tested using Pu(IV) and Fe(III). Investigation of Pu accumulation by fungal biomass showed that all the fungi accumulated Pu, and among the most effective radionuclide accumulators Eupenicillium sp., Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger could be mentioned. All the fungi showed high Fe-accumulation capacity. While growing in the medium with 1 mM iron, most fungi accumulated over 90% of Fe in their biomass. Very good accumulation and growth abilities in Fe-supplemented medium were demonstrated by Paecilomyces lilacinus. (authors)

  15. Comparative management of offshore posidonia residues: composting vs. energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudio; Parente, Angelo; Zaccone, Claudio; Mininni, Carlo; Santamaria, Pietro; Miano, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Residues of the marine plant posidonia (Posidonia oceanica, PO) beached in tourist zones represent a great environmental, economical, social and hygienic problem in the Mediterranean Basin, in general, and in the Apulia Region in particular, because of the great disturb to the bathers and population, and the high costs that the administrations have to bear for their removal and disposal. In the present paper, Authors determined the heating values of leaves and fibres of PO, the main offshore residues found on beaches, and, meantime, composted those residues with mowing and olive pruning wood. The final composts were characterized for pH, electrical conductivity, elemental composition, dynamic respiration index, phytotoxicity, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopic fingerprints. The aim of the paper was to investigate the composting and energy recovery of PO leaves and fibres in order to suggest alternative solutions to the landfill when offshore residues have to be removed from recreational beaches. The fibrous portion of PO residues showed heating values close to those of other biofuels, thus suggesting a possible utilization as source of energy. At the same time, compost obtained from both PO wastes showed high quality features on condition that the electrical conductivity and Na content are lowered by a correct management of wetting during the composting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyfluorfen residues in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2010-03-01

    A field study was conducted to determine persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyflorfen residues in onion crop at two growth stages. Oxyfluorfen (23.5% EC) was sprayed at 250 and 500 g ai/ha on the crop (variety, N53). Mature onion and soil samples were collected at harvest. Green onion were collected at 55 days from each treated and control plot and analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with an accepted recovery of 78-92% at the minimum detectable concentration of 0.003 microg g(-1). Analysis showed 0.015 and 0.005 microg g(-1) residues of oxyfluorfen at 250 g a.i. ha(-1) rate in green and mature onion samples, respectively; however, at 500 g a.i.ha(-1) rates, 0.025 and 0.011 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues were detected in green and mature onion samples, respectively. Soil samples collected at harvest showed 0.003 and 0.003 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues at the doses 250 and 500 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. From the study, a pre-harvest interval of 118 days for onion crop after the herbicide application is suggested.

  17. Morphing of geometric composites via residual swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulla, Matteo; Shillig, Steven A; Nardinocchi, Paola; Holmes, Douglas P

    2015-08-07

    Understanding and controlling the shape of thin, soft objects has been the focus of significant research efforts among physicists, biologists, and engineers in the last decade. These studies aim to utilize advanced materials in novel, adaptive ways such as fabricating smart actuators or mimicking living tissues. Here, we present the controlled growth-like morphing of 2D sheets into 3D shapes by preparing geometric composite structures that deform by residual swelling. The morphing of these geometric composites is dictated by both swelling and geometry, with diffusion controlling the swelling-induced actuation, and geometric confinement dictating the structure's deformed shape. Building on a simple mechanical analog, we present an analytical model that quantitatively describes how the Gaussian and mean curvatures of a thin disk are affected by the interplay among geometry, mechanics, and swelling. This model is in excellent agreement with our experiments and numerics. We show that the dynamics of residual swelling is dictated by a competition between two characteristic diffusive length scales governed by geometry. Our results provide the first 2D analog of Timoshenko's classical formula for the thermal bending of bimetallic beams - our generalization explains how the Gaussian curvature of a 2D geometric composite is affected by geometry and elasticity. The understanding conferred by these results suggests that the controlled shaping of geometric composites may provide a simple complement to traditional manufacturing techniques.

  18. Heating oil, distillates and residuals outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    M.J. Ervin and Associates offers strategic planning support to the downstream petroleum industry in terms of price market monitoring, market analysis, media commentary and benchmarking of marketing operations. This presentation included graphs depicting supply and demand for heating oil distillates and residuals from the mid 1990s to 2004. It was noted that the long-term decline in residuals demand in the United States and Canada are due to environmental issues, the use of natural gas as an alternative, and the increasing complexity of refineries. Graphs depicting market impacts of refinery utilization and inventory trends showed that middle distillate production will increase at the expense of gasoline production. Middle distillates and gasoline markets will be more sensitive to supply disruptions, resulting in more frequent price spikes. Inventory trends indicate a greater reliance on product imports. The demand for heating fuel has stabilized due to the continued penetration of natural gas in eastern states and provinces. The demand for diesel fuel has growth 1.5 to 2 per cent while the demand for jet fuel has remained relatively flat and depends greatly on the growth of the gross national product (GNP). tabs., figs

  19. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  20. Proficiency test on the determination of pesticide residues in grapes with multi-residue methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouck, Pieter; Grimalt, Susana; Dabrio, Marta; Cordeiro, Fernando; Fiamegos, Yiannis; Robouch, Piotr; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; de la Calle, Beatriz

    2015-05-22

    This manuscript presents the results of the International Measurement Evaluation Programme 37 (IMEP-37) study, a proficiency test (PT) which was organised to assess the world-wide performance of food control laboratories on the determination of pesticide residues in grapes. This PT supports the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin. Eighty-one participants reported results, forty from EU Member States and forty-one from outside the EU. The test item was a grape sample spiked with 20 selected pesticides. The results of the participants were rated with z- and zeta (ζ-) scores in accordance with ISO 13528 and ISO 17043. The standard deviation for the proficiency assessment, σˆ, of this PT was set at 25% for the 20 measured pesticides based on previous experience with similar measurands. The results reported to IMEP-37 showed that the participants performed satisfactorily, ranging from 81% (carbendazim) to 97% (azoxystrobin, penconazole, pyrimethanil) of the participating laboratories. However, only 30% of the participants managed to analyze all pesticides satisfactorily. Overall, the performance of the participants in this PT was good but there is room for improvement in the development of multi-residue methods for the simultaneous analysis of a large number of pesticides with an increased accuracy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Residual replacement strategies for Krylov subspace iterative methods for the convergence of true residuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H.A. van der; Ye, Q.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a strategy is proposed for alternative computations of the residual vectors in Krylov subspace methods, which improves the agreement of the computed residuals and the true residuals to the level of O(u)kAkkxk. Building on earlier ideas on residual replacement and on insights in

  2. Residual stress measurements of welded stainless steel 304 plate using the HANARO residual stress instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, M. K.; Lee, C. H.; Em, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    In order to nondestructively measure in-depth residual stress distribution of the metallic materials, it is unique method to use neutron diffraction. In this paper the principles of residual stress measurements by neutron diffraction is described. The residual stress distribution of welded strainless steeel 304 plate using te HANARO residual stress instrument is also described

  3. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... residues and ethylamine distillation residues. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...

  4. Detecting Enteral Nutrition Residues and Microorganism Proliferation in Feeding Tubes via Real-Time Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Ippei; Kagawa, Tomohiro; Mizugai, Kazuya; Ebisu, Goro

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) residues that persist in feeding tubes provide substrates for microorganisms to proliferate and occlude the tubes. Visible EN residues in tubes are easily identified, but smaller residues can persist. We developed a new imaging technique to visualize EN residues and proliferation of microorganisms in feeding tubes. (1) Feeding tubes containing EN labeled with fluorescent dye and either with or without various types or amounts of thickeners were flushed once with water and then seeded with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen05 with recombinant luciferase DNA. (2) Because EN fluoresces intrinsically, EN in the feeding tubes without fluorescent dye was repeatedly flushed until the intrinsic fluorescence levels reached background levels. Fluorescent images of EN residues and bioluminescent images of microorganisms were acquired via an optical imaging system. (1) Fluorescence images showed that the amount of EN residues increased at various sites in tubes depending on EN viscosity and the thickening agent, and bioluminescence images showed that microorganism proliferation was associated with a commensurate increase in EN residues. (2) The intrinsic fluorescence of EN also enabled the detection of EN residues in tubes even in the absence of fluorescence dye. Higher EN viscosity required more flushes to reach undetectable levels. EN residues and microorganism proliferation in enteral feeding tubes were detected on fluorescence and bioluminescence images, respectively. This simplified approach allowed the real-time visualization of EN residues and microorganisms in feeding tubes.

  5. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    process. Residuals are ascribed to locations in the empty background, as well as to data points of the point pattern. We obtain variance formulae, and study standardised residuals. There is also an analogy between our spatial residuals and the usual residuals for (non-spatial) generalised linear models...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  6. Effects of coffee processing residues on anaerobic microorganisms and corresponding digestion performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sossa, Juan Pablo; Murillo-Roos, Mariana; Uribe, Lidieth; Uribe-Lorio, Lorena; Marsh, Terence; Larsen, Niels; Chen, Rui; Miranda, Alberto; Solís, Kattia; Rodriguez, Werner; Kirk, Dana; Liao, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of different coffee processing residues on the anaerobic microbes and corresponding digestion performance. The results elucidated that mucilage-rich feed enhanced the accumulation of methanogens, which consequently led to better digestion performance of biogas production. Fifty percent more methane and up to 3 times more net energy (heat and electricity) output were achieved by the digestion of the mucilage-rich feed (M3). The microbial community and statistical analyses further elucidated that different residues in the feed had significant impact on microbial distribution and correspondingly influenced the digestion performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis of high specific active tritiated Leu-enkephalin in the leucine residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, S.; Hasegawa, H.; Shinohara, Y. (Tokyo Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Leu-enkephalin labelled with tritium in the Leu residue has been prepared. Synthesis of the precursor peptide, (4,5-dehydroLeu{sup 5}-)Leu-enkephalin, was carried out by solid phase synthesis using Fmoc amino acid derivatives. The peptide was tritiated catalytically yielding {sup 3}H-Leu-enkephalin with a specific radioactivity of 4.39 TBq/mmol. The distribution of tritium label was investigated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a synchronized accumulating radioisotope detector following acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis, which confirmed that the tritium label was entirely located at the Leu residue. (author).

  8. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M. Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day −1 ), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to “total metal”, the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. - Highlights: • Low plant available zinc and copper concentrations in roadside soils of the southeast U.S. • Metals from vehicular traffic may not be adversely affecting plants in roadside environment. • Traffic volume and site age better predictor of metal pollution than traffic volume alone. - Mobile concentrations of Zn and Cu in roadside soils were below toxic levels. Zn and Cu concentrations were better correlated with lifetime vehicle load, as opposed to traffic volume.

  9. Helium accumulation in groundwater. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, T.; Clarke, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    The groundwaters of the Great Artesian Basin (Australia) have been previously shown to be accumulating in-situ production helium for groundwaters ages 100 kyr. New helium isotope measurements show that the observed in-situ production helium ( 3 He/ 4 He ≅ 1.6x10 -8 ) is isotopically distinct from the crustal degassing helium flux ( 3 He/ 4 He ≅ 6.6x10 -8 ). Furthermore, the crustal degassing helium isotope ratio is marginally in excess of the whole crustal production ratio ( 3 He/ 4 He = 3.5x10 -8 ) and the production ratio in a variety of continental rock types. This suggests that the upper limit on volatile transport across the mantle-crust boundary beneath the (relatively) stable and 'complacent' Australian continent can be characterized by a 'conductive-diffusive' helium/heat flux ratio of 6 4 He atoms mW -1 s -1 which is two orders of magnitude less than the 'intrusive-volcanic' ratio of 2.9x10 8 4 He atoms mW -1 s -1 measured at the Galapagos. These results constrain the transcrustal mantle degassing fluxes of 4 He and 40 Ar to be much less than the mid-ocean ridge degassing fluxes; which are much less than the degassing of 4 He and 40 Ar from continental crust. Thus, the degassing of the Earth's interior is dominated by magmatic processes but the dominant fluxes of 4 He and 40 Ar to the atosphere must come from the continental crust. (orig.)

  10. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  11. Drivers of Holocene peatland carbon accumulation across a climate gradient in northeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Dan J.; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Hinchliffe, William; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Mallon, Gunnar; Blake, William H.; Daley, Tim J.; Gallego-Sala, Angela V.; Mauquoy, Dmitri

    2015-08-01

    Peatlands are an important component of the Holocene global carbon (C) cycle and the rate of C sequestration and storage is driven by the balance between net primary productivity and decay. A number of studies now suggest that climate is a key driver of peatland C accumulation at large spatial scales and over long timescales, with warmer conditions associated with higher rates of C accumulation. However, other factors are also likely to play a significant role in determining local carbon accumulation rates and these may modify past, present and future peatland carbon sequestration. Here, we test the importance of climate as a driver of C accumulation, compared with hydrological change, fire, nitrogen content and vegetation type, from records of C accumulation at three sites in northeastern North America, across the N-S climate gradient of raised bog distribution. Radiocarbon age models, bulk density values and %C measurements from each site are used to construct C accumulation histories commencing between 11,200 and 8000 cal. years BP. The relationship between C accumulation and environmental variables (past water table depth, fire, peat forming vegetation and nitrogen content) is assessed with linear and multivariate regression analyses. Differences in long-term rates of carbon accumulation between sites support the contention that a warmer climate with longer growing seasons results in faster rates of long-term carbon accumulation. However, mid-late Holocene accumulation rates show divergent trends, decreasing in the north but rising in the south. We hypothesise that sites close to the moisture threshold for raised bog distribution increased their growth rate in response to a cooler climate with lower evapotranspiration in the late Holocene, but net primary productivity declined over the same period in northern areas causing a decrease in C accumulation. There was no clear relationship between C accumulation and hydrological change, vegetation, nitrogen content

  12. CSmetaPred: a consensus method for prediction of catalytic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Preeti; Kumar, Shailesh; Bachhawat, Anand Kumar; Pandit, Shashi Bhushan

    2017-12-22

    Knowledge of catalytic residues can play an essential role in elucidating mechanistic details of an enzyme. However, experimental identification of catalytic residues is a tedious and time-consuming task, which can be expedited by computational predictions. Despite significant development in active-site prediction methods, one of the remaining issues is ranked positions of putative catalytic residues among all ranked residues. In order to improve ranking of catalytic residues and their prediction accuracy, we have developed a meta-approach based method CSmetaPred. In this approach, residues are ranked based on the mean of normalized residue scores derived from four well-known catalytic residue predictors. The mean residue score of CSmetaPred is combined with predicted pocket information to improve prediction performance in meta-predictor, CSmetaPred_poc. Both meta-predictors are evaluated on two comprehensive benchmark datasets and three legacy datasets using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and Precision Recall (PR) curves. The visual and quantitative analysis of ROC and PR curves shows that meta-predictors outperform their constituent methods and CSmetaPred_poc is the best of evaluated methods. For instance, on CSAMAC dataset CSmetaPred_poc (CSmetaPred) achieves highest Mean Average Specificity (MAS), a scalar measure for ROC curve, of 0.97 (0.96). Importantly, median predicted rank of catalytic residues is the lowest (best) for CSmetaPred_poc. Considering residues ranked ≤20 classified as true positive in binary classification, CSmetaPred_poc achieves prediction accuracy of 0.94 on CSAMAC dataset. Moreover, on the same dataset CSmetaPred_poc predicts all catalytic residues within top 20 ranks for ~73% of enzymes. Furthermore, benchmarking of prediction on comparative modelled structures showed that models result in better prediction than only sequence based predictions. These analyses suggest that CSmetaPred_poc is able to rank putative catalytic

  13. Comparative Study of the Accumulation of Ni in Different Tissues of Mussels and Soft Clams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalkiadakis O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two bivalves, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the soft clam Callista chione were exposed to various Ni concentrations for a total period of 20 days, and then a depuration period of 10 days followed. Nickel accumulation in gills, mantle and the remaining body of the animals was measured after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of exposure to Ni-contaminated seawater. The two organisms showed different behavior regarding Ni accumulation in all three tissues examined. In all concentrations, Ni accumulation increased with time in all three tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis with gills being the most effective accumulator per dry mass. On the other hand, Callista chione showed an initial response to Ni contamination the first 5 days, followed by stabilization or even a slight decrease of Ni accumulation.

  14. Metallothionein expression in chloroplasts enhances mercury accumulation and phytoremediation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Oscar N; Alvarez, Derry; Torres, Cesar; Roman, Laura; Daniell, Henry

    2011-06-01

    Genetic engineering to enhance mercury phytoremediation has been accomplished by expression of the merAB genes that protects the cell by converting Hg[II] into Hg[0] which volatilizes from the cell. A drawback of this approach is that toxic Hg is released back into the environment. A better phytoremediation strategy would be to accumulate mercury inside plants for subsequent retrieval. We report here the development of a transplastomic approach to express the mouse metallothionein gene (mt1) and accumulate mercury in high concentrations within plant cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that up to 1284 copies of the mt1 gene were found per cell when compared with 1326 copies of the 16S rrn gene, thereby attaining homoplasmy. Past studies in chloroplast transformation used qualitative Southern blots to evaluate indirectly transgene copy number, whereas we used real-time PCR for the first time to establish homoplasmy and estimate transgene copy number and transcript levels. The mt1 transcript levels were very high with 183,000 copies per ng of RNA or 41% the abundance of the 16S rrn transcripts. The transplastomic lines were resistant up to 20 μm mercury and maintained high chlorophyll content and biomass. Although the transgenic plants accumulated high concentrations of mercury in all tissues, leaves accumulated up to 106 ng, indicating active phytoremediation and translocation of mercury. Such accumulation of mercury in plant tissues facilitates proper disposal or recycling. This study reports, for the first time, the use of metallothioneins in plants for mercury phytoremediation. Chloroplast genetic engineering approach is useful to express metal-scavenging proteins for phytoremediation. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Hui [Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Physiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Deng, Xin [Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ma, Mi [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyz@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  16. Engineering metal-binding sites of bacterial CusF to enhance Zn/Cd accumulation and resistance by subcellular targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Pengli; Yuan, Jinhong; Zhang, Hui; Deng, Xin; Ma, Mi; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • mCusF is specifically targeted to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. • Plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF exhibit strongest Zn resistance. • All transgenic lines accumulate more Zn under Zn exposure. • All transgenic lines enhance root-to-shoot translocation of Cd. • Metal homeostasis is improved in mCusF plants under Cd exposure. - Abstract: The periplasmic protein CusF acts as a metallochaperone to mediate Cu resistance in Escherichia coli. CusF does not contain cysteine residues and barely binds to divalent cations. Here, we addressed effects of cysteine-substitution mutant (named as mCusF) of CusF on zinc/cadmium (Zn/Cd) accumulation and resistance. We targeted mCusF to different subcellular compartments in Arabidopsis. We found that plants expressing vacuole-targeted mCusF were more resistant to excess Zn than WT and plants with cell wall-targeted or cytoplasmic mCusF. Under long-term exposure to excess Zn, all transgenic lines accumulated more Zn (up to 2.3-fold) in shoots than the untransformed plants. Importantly, plants with cytoplasmic mCusF showed higher efficiency of Zn translocation from root to shoot than plants with secretory pathway-targeted-mCusF. Furthermore, the transgenic lines exhibited enhanced resistance to Cd and significant increase in root-to-shoot Cd translocation. We also found all transgenic plants greatly improved manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) homeostasis under Cd exposure. Our results demonstrate heterologous expression of mCusF could be used to engineer a new phytoremediation strategy for Zn/Cd and our finding also deepen our insights into mechanistic basis for relieving Cd toxicity in plants through proper root/shoot partitioning mechanism and homeostatic accumulation of Mn and Fe.

  17. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J David; Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N; Bernstein, Diana N

    2017-02-07

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff.

  18. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J. David; Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N.; Bernstein, Diana N.

    2017-02-01

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff.

  19. Comparison of biogas production from rapeseed and wheat residues in compound with cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Safari

    2016-09-01

    process pH was observed in the first few days of the digestion and this is due to high volatile fatty acid (VFA formation. These results were compatible with sanaee moghadam et al. (2013. The results obtained showed that, the highest rate of VS reduction belonged to rapeseed residues at 52.22%.The lowest rate of VS reduction attributed to wheat residues at 36.79%. The rapeseed residues with 311.45 Lit.kg-1 VS had the highest accumulated methane followed by wheat straw with 167.69.28 L.Kg-1 VS in probability level of 5%. The average percentages of methane production for rapeseed straw and wheat straw during the 140 days experiment under mesophilic condition were 66% and 55%, respectively. Production of methane had delay and started after 46th day. Much reason may be possible. Inoculums used in this study were only fresh cattle dung. The mixture of fresh cattle dung and effluent of anaerobic digester or fresh rumen fluid may be decrease retention time and increase biogas production. According results of Budiyono the rumen fluid inoculated to biodigester significantly affected the biogas production. Rumen fluid inoculums caused biogas production rate and efficiency increase more than two times in compare to manure substrate without rumen fluid inoculums (Budyono et al., 2010. The other reason was pretreatment. This study applied just mechanical pretreatment. According to Cecilia studies, different pretreatment combined with mechanical pretreatment decrease retention time and increase biogas production efficiency (Cecilia et al, 2013. However, Zhang et al. claimed that it is hard to say which method is the best because each has its own strong point and weak point. Yet, until now, none of the pretreatment technologies has found a real breakthrough. Conclusions According to this study, rapeseed residues had the highest level of methane production in comparison with wheat residues. The rapeseed residues combine with cattle dung had suitable potential to methane production. The

  20. Monitoring antibiotic residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina Cara,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Next to the beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine, streptomycin is one of the mostly used antibiotics. High concentration of streptomycin could lead to ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Low concentration – as found in food – may cause allergies, destroy the intestinal flora and favor immunity to some pathogenic microorganisms. In 1948 chlortetracycline was isolated by Duggan as a metabolite and this was the first antibiotic substance of the group of tetracyclines. In the present paper there are presented the monitoring of the antibiotic residues in honey from Timis County. The residues of tetracycline and streptomycin in honey were determined by the method ELISA – a quantitative method of detection. The microtitre wells are coated with tetracycline and anti-streptomycin antibodies. Free antibiotic and immobilized antibiotic compete with the added antibiotic antibody (competitive immunoassay reaction. Any unbound antibody is then removed in a washing step. Bound conjugate enzymes convert the colorless chromogen into a blue product. The addition ofthe stop reagent leads to a color change from blue to yellow. The measurement is made photometrically at 450 nm. The absorption is inversely proportional to the antibiotic concentration in the sample.

  1. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  2. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  3. Identification of mannose interacting residues using local composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Agarwal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mannose binding proteins (MBPs play a vital role in several biological functions such as defense mechanisms. These proteins bind to mannose on the surface of a wide range of pathogens and help in eliminating these pathogens from our body. Thus, it is important to identify mannose interacting residues (MIRs in order to understand mechanism of recognition of pathogens by MBPs. RESULTS: This paper describes modules developed for predicting MIRs in a protein. Support vector machine (SVM based models have been developed on 120 mannose binding protein chains, where no two chains have more than 25% sequence similarity. SVM models were developed on two types of datasets: 1 main dataset consists of 1029 mannose interacting and 1029 non-interacting residues, 2 realistic dataset consists of 1029 mannose interacting and 10320 non-interacting residues. In this study, firstly, we developed standard modules using binary and PSSM profile of patterns and got maximum MCC around 0.32. Secondly, we developed SVM modules using composition profile of patterns and achieved maximum MCC around 0.74 with accuracy 86.64% on main dataset. Thirdly, we developed a model on a realistic dataset and achieved maximum MCC of 0.62 with accuracy 93.08%. Based on this study, a standalone program and web server have been developed for predicting mannose interacting residues in proteins (http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/premier/. CONCLUSIONS: Compositional analysis of mannose interacting and non-interacting residues shows that certain types of residues are preferred in mannose interaction. It was also observed that residues around mannose interacting residues have a preference for certain types of residues. Composition of patterns/peptide/segment has been used for predicting MIRs and achieved reasonable high accuracy. It is possible that this novel strategy may be effective to predict other types of interacting residues. This study will be useful in annotating the function

  4. Measurement of residual stress in a friction welded joint by using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Shinobu; Morii, Yukio; Hayashi, Makoto; Minakawa, Nobuaki

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism that produces residual stress near the boundary of two metals connected by friction welding was investigated by neutron diffraction. This investigation showed that the residual stress near the boundary of friction welding was compressive (about 300 MPa) at the surface and tensile (about 200 MPa) at the center of the welded specimen. These results indicate that the residual stress was produced by the heat history during cooling after the upsetting process. (author)

  5. Neutron diffraction analysis of residual stresses near unannealed welds in anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A T; Chumbley, L S; Goettee, D; Russell, A M

    2014-01-01

    Neutron diffraction analysis was employed to measure residual stresses near welds in used anhydrous ammonia nurse tanks. Tensile residual stresses contribute to stress corrosion cracking of nurse tanks, which can cause tanks to release toxic ammonia vapor. The analysis showed that tensile residual stresses were present in the tanks measured, and the magnitudes of these stresses approached the yield strength of the steel. Implications for agricultural safety and health are discussed.

  6. A-site residues move independently from P-site residues in all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the 70S bacterial ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relly Brandman

    Full Text Available The ribosome is a large macromolecular machine, and correlated motion between residues is necessary for coordinating function across multiple protein and RNA chains. We ran two all-atom, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of the bacterial ribosome and calculated correlated motion between residue pairs by using mutual information. Because of the short timescales of our simulation (ns, we expect that dynamics are largely local fluctuations around the crystal structure. We hypothesize that residues that show coupled dynamics are functionally related, even on longer timescales. We validate our model by showing that crystallographic B-factors correlate well with the entropy calculated as part of our mutual information calculations. We reveal that A-site residues move relatively independently from P-site residues, effectively insulating A-site functions from P-site functions during translation.

  7. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  8. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bempah, K.C.

    2009-02-01

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  9. Short communication: Macrocyclic lactone residues in butter from Brazilian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are commonly used in drug formulations for the treatment of parasites in cattle. In Brazil, except for drugs (or formulations) with long-term (half-life) effects, ML are registered for use in bovines. Indiscriminate use of ML may result in the presence of residues in milk and dairy products due to their lipophilic properties and thermal stability. This study applied a method of liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, recently developed and validated for the determination of residues of abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin in butter. The method was applied to 38 samples of commercial butter purchased in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between June and September 2013, analyzed in triplicate. Ivermectin was detected in 89.5% of the samples, with concentrations between 0.3 and 119.4 µg/kg; 76.3% of the samples contained doramectin (0.6 to 64.7 µg/kg) and 55.2% contained abamectin (0.7 to 4.5 µg/kg). Most butter samples (76.3%) contained residues of more than 1 ML; however, no residues of moxidectin were detected. The results showed a high incidence of the presence of avermectins in butter samples. Butter is not included in the Brazilian National Plan for Control of Residues and Contaminants in Animal Products. As ML residues concentrate in lipophilic compounds, butter and other fatty dairy products should be screened for the presence of ML residues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, B

    2002-06-05

    Residues of the oil-extracting process of oilseeds contain bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, which could be used as natural antioxidants for the protection of fats and oils against oxidative deterioration. Thus, the extraction of such constituents from residual material can be considered to contribute to the added value of these residues, which could justify their isolation. In the present work the fat-free residues of eight different oilseeds whose oils are usable for nutritional applications, and also as renewable resources, were extracted with 70% methanol, 70% acetone, water, and ethyl acetate/water, respectively. The resulting extracts were investigated regarding their content of total phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, sinapine, flavanoids, and the UV-absorption spectra. Further, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was characterized by the DPPH method, the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay, and ESR investigations. The fat-free residues of the different oilseeds contained considerable amounts of extractable substances. The yields decreased with decreasing polarity of the solvent in the order water, 70% methanol, 70% acetone, and ethyl acetate. The ratio of total phenolic compounds to the extractable compounds ranged from 3 to 19%. There was no significant correlation between the amount of total extractable compounds and the total phenolic compounds (p < 0.001). All extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities determined with the different methods. The effects depended strongly on the solvent used for the extraction as well as on the extracted residue. A correlation between the methods used for the characterization of the antioxidant activity and the composition of the residues could not be shown.

  11. Increased superoxide accumulation in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Judge, Sharon; Cruz, Alex; Pourang, Deena; Mathews, Clayton E; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) oxidizes pyruvate to acetyl CoA and is critically important in maintaining normal cellular energy homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in PDC give rise to congenital lactic acidosis and to progressive cellular energy failure. However, the subsequent biochemical consequences of PDC deficiency that may contribute to the clinical manifestations of the disorder are poorly understood. We postulated that altered flux through PDC would disrupt mitochondrial electron transport, resulting in oxidative stress. Compared to cells from 4 healthy subjects, primary cultures of skin fibroblasts from 9 patients with variable mutations in the gene encoding the alpha subunit (E1α) of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDA1) demonstrated reduced growth and viability. Superoxide (O(2)(.-)) from the Qo site of complex III of the electron transport chain accumulated in these cells and was associated with decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase. The expression of uncoupling protein 2 was also decreased in patient cells, but there were no significant changes in the expression of cellular markers of protein or DNA oxidative damage. The expression of hypoxia transcription factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) also increased in PDC deficient fibroblasts. We conclude that PDC deficiency is associated with an increase in O(2)(.-) accumulation coupled to a decrease in mechanisms responsible for its removal. Increased HIF1α expression may contribute to the increase in glycolytic flux and lactate production in PDC deficiency and, by trans-activating pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, may further suppress residual PDC activity through phosphorylation of the E1α subunit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases, the accumulated traffic series are more stationary.

  13. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  14. Thermal energy accumulators. A bibliographical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlety, Paul

    1971-01-01

    Energy storage is a challenge, notably for spacecraft, submarines and non-polluting automotive vehicles. After a comparison of mass energies of different principles of energy accumulation (magnetic, electrostatic, solid elasticity, kinetic energy, gaseous elasticity, electro-chemistry, sensitive heat, freezing heat, fuels, radioactivity, nuclear fission or fusion, mass energy), the author discusses the choice of thermal storage, presents the main bodies used for thermal energy accumulation (molten salts such as lithium hydride or lithium salt eutectics, or other compounds such as alumina, paraffins), and gives an overview of the main theoretical problems [fr

  15. Assessment of procurement systems for unutilized logging residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that coarse logging residues can be available as firewood in traditional utilization manner, but a thin material is left in the forest because of high collection and extraction costs. However, it was found that the increasing demand for forest biomass as a bioenergy resource encouraged the use of logging ...

  16. Finite element concept to derive isostatic residual maps ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lies are isolated so as to construct the isostatic residual maps. Very accurate geophysical studies have ... Finite element concept; isostatic anomaly; Gorda Plate; Sierra Nevada. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.), 110 .... The continuous line is obtained by regression analysis. The broken line shows the. FEA regional ...

  17. Biomass yield and modeling of logging residues of Terminalia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Dbh as an independent variable in the prediction of models for estimating the biomass residues of the tree species was adjudged best because it performed well. The validation results showed that the selected models satisfied the assumptions of regression analysis. The practical implication of the models is that ...

  18. Utilization of crop residue and animal wastes among agropastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of crop residue and animal wastes among agropastoral households in Kwara state, Nigeria. ... These included frequency count, percentages, mean, while the inferential statistics used include of chi-square, Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and t- test. The result of analysis showed that (44%) of the ...

  19. Effects of hyacinth residues on chemical properties and productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed that has blocked many navigable water-ways in the tropics. ... amendments more than S2 and showed that maize performance during the first cropping was better on S1 than S2, whereas during the residual cropping the crop performed equally well on both soils.

  20. Detection of antibiotics residues in meat of reformed and marketed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that farmers use eight families of antibiotics: aminoglycosides, diaminopyridines, macrolides, polypeptides, quinolones second and third generation, sulfonamides and tetracyclines. Residues of tetracyclines and aminoglycosides were found only in Abomey-Calavi town with respective proportions of 25.71 ...

  1. Nutrition influence on copper accumulation by Brassica pekinensis Rupr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Yi-Hong; Xu, Bin

    2002-10-01

    Effect of nutrition status in the growth medium on Cu accumulation and plant growth were tested in Brassica pekinensis grown in hydroponic culture in a cultural facility. Cu concentration in the roots and shoots increased with increasing external Cu in the culture solution. On the other hand, it decreased with increasing Hoagland's solution (HS) strength. Interaction between external Cu and HS strength was also observed to affect Cu concentration in the tissues. A low level of external Cu could lead to a high Cu concentration in the plant at low HS strength, while to obtain a high Cu concentration in the plant at high HS strength, a high level of external Cu was needed. Partial nutrient experiments showed an important role of Fe and P in governing Cu accumulation. The influence of nutrients on Cu accumulation were mainly attributed to the osmolarity of the nutrient solution, antagonism between nutrients and Cu, pH change, and cation transporter induction. Root length and shoot biomass were negatively related to Cu concentration in the plant, suggesting an adverse effect of Cu in the tissue on plant growth. Root biomass showed less response to Cu concentration in the plant. This was presumably due to plant resource allocation between shoot and root, by which more resources were shifted to the Cu-stressed roots. The results might have important implications in understanding the sterility of the growth media of plants on Cu fate and effect in the ecosystem.

  2. Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC.: An accumulator of Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Zhou Qixing; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Xiao Hong; Yang Chuanjie; Zhang Qianru

    2009-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a traditional technique that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil and sediments. This is a solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective technology. In a former published article, Kalimeris integrifolia Turcz. ex DC. indicated some basic properties of hyperaccumulators for cadmium (Cd). In this study, concentration gradient experiment and sample-analyzing experiments were used to assess whether this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator. The results showed the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of K. integrifolia was basically >1 in concentration gradient experiment. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. Thus, K. integrifolia should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator. In the sample-analyzing experiments conducted in a Pb-Zn mine area and a wastewater irrigation region, K. integrifolia also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, K. integrifolia could be identified as a Cd-accumulator

  3. Carbonation of residual brines produced by ammonia-soda process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, I. V.; Piriou, P.; Filippov, L. O.; Yvon, J.; Grandjean, M.

    2013-03-01

    This work deals with the carbonation of residual brines produced during the manufacture of soda ash to avoid the unsuitable phase transformation during the land storage. The study resulted in a demonstration pilot, which showed the feasibility of such an approach and the possibility of his extension to an industrial scale. Carbonation of the residual brines is a promising process as it entirely transforms Ca(OH)2, "CaOHCl" and CSH into calcite, avoids the further phase evolution, allows to obtain a neutral pH which considerably reduce the land storage impact on environment and shorten by around 10 % the global CO2 emission of the ammonia-soda process.

  4. Origin of residual particles on transferred graphene grown by CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunishi, Tomohiro; Takabayashi, Yuya; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Ohno, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Large-area single-layer graphene can be grown on Cu foil by CVD, but for device applications, the layer must to be transferred onto an insulating substrate. As residual particles are often observed on transferred graphene, we investigated their origin using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The results show that these residual particles are composed either of silicon or an alloy of a few metals, and hence, likely originate from the quartz tube of the CVD furnace and the impurities contained in the Cu foil.

  5. [Strategy for minimally invasive cochlear implantation and residual hearing preservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y Y; Chen, J Y; Shen, M; Yang, J

    2018-01-07

    In the past few decades, considerable development was achieved in the cochlear implantation following the emergence of innovative electrode array and advances in minimally invasive surgery. Minimally invasive technique led to a better preservation of residual low-frequency hearing. The loss of residual hearing was caused by complicated factors. According to previous studies, a slower and stable speed of electrode insertion and the use of perioperative steroids were demonstrated to have a positive impact on hearing preservation. The selection of electrode array or its insertion approaches didn't show any distinctive benefits in hearing preservation.

  6. A heat accumulation method and a direct-contact, latent melting-heat thermal accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricard, Alain; Moracchioli, Robert; Goffinet, Pierre; Kurka, Gerard; Cachard, Maurice de.

    1974-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thermal accumulation method and to a direct-contact, latent melting-heat thermal accumulator. According to the invention, a fluid is caused to flow in direct contact with a material for storing heat, said material being in divided form. This can be applied to the storage of energy [fr

  7. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, G.L.; Kirk, D.W.; Graydon, J.W.; Seyfried, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  8. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi virus 1 accumulation is correlated with changes in virulence and other phenotypic traits of its fungal host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Minor, Carlos German; Cañizares-Nolasco, Carmen; García-Pedrajas, Maria D D; Pérez-Artés, Encarnación

    2018-03-08

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi virus 1 (FodV1) was detected in isolate Fod 116 (Fod 116V + ) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi (Fod), reaching such a high accumulation level that it was clearly visible after agarose gel electrophoresis of total DNA extracts. FodV1 consists of four double-stranded RNA segments, that correspond to a new mycovirus in the Chrysoviridae family. We obtained an isolate of Fod 116 (Fod 116V - ) with only a residual level of FodV1 RNA accumulation by single-conidia selection. Compared to the Fod 116V - , isolate Fod 116V + showed significant phenotypic alterations in vegetative growth and virulence. The presence of a high titer of mycovirus FodV1 thus associated with a modified morphology and a reduced growth of the colonies on solid medium, and with a diminished conidiation in liquid medium. Inoculation of four susceptible carnation cultivars with either Fod 116V - or Fod 116V + showed that the presence of a high titer of FodV1 was also correlated with a significantly reduced virulence of its fungal host. All the results suggest that FodV1 could be associated with hypovirulence, identifying it as a potential biocontrol agent against Fusarium wilt of carnation. This is the first report of a mycovirus potentially associated to the induction of hypovirulence in the species Fusarium oxysporum.

  9. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32 were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin. The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05. However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05. In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

  10. Study of 99m-Tc-MDP extraosseous accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Eisuke; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Hideo; Matsuo, Sadao; Kimura, Tokuji (Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Ogaki (Japan))

    1983-08-01

    The extraosseous accumulation of 99m-Tc-MDP bone scintigram focusing on the tumoral uptake was studied. The study was performed in 509 cases consisting of 422 malignant tumor, 47 benign bone disease and 40 others disease. The extraosseous accumulation was observed in 43 of 509 cases (8.5%) and tumoral uptake were observed in 12 cases of them (28%). All cases (12 cases) showing tumoral uptake of this radioisotope were malignant tumor, eight of them was metastasis from the alimentary canal tracts and 10 cases was diagnosed histologically as adenocarcinoma. As 99m-Tc-MDP is localized very often into the malignant tumor in an early stage with high frequency, bone scintigraphy using 99m-Tc-MDP seems to have an another significance for the diagnosis of the malignant tumor.

  11. Self-mutilation in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA is the term applied to a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Well-known phenotypic features are progressive regression with extra pyramidal involvement and a variable course. A 10-year-old child born to consanguineous parents presented with progressive generalized opisthotonic dystonia, retrocollis, oromandibular dyskinesias, apraxia for swallowing, optic atrophy and severe self-mutilation of lips. MR imaging showed brain iron accumulation. Other causes of self-mutilation were excluded. Early infantile onset, ophisthotonic dystonia with oromandibular dyskinesias and characteristic MR images are suggestive of NBIA. There is only one case reported in the literature of self-mutilation in this condition.

  12. Green coffee seed residue: A sustainable source of antioxidant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, A C C M; Oda, F B; Almeida-Cincotto, M G J; Davanço, M G; Chiari-Andréo, B G; Cicarelli, R M B; Peccinini, R G; Zocolo, G J; Ribeiro, P R V; Corrêa, M A; Isaac, V L B; Santos, A G

    2018-04-25

    Oil extraction from green coffee seeds generates residual mass that is discarded by agribusiness and has not been previously studied. Bioactive secondary metabolites in coffee include antioxidant phenolic compounds, such as chlorogenic acids. Coffee seeds also contain caffeine, a pharmaceutically important methylxanthine. Here, we report the chemical profile, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxicity of hydroethanolic extracts of green Coffea arabica L. seed residue. The extracts of the green seeds and the residue have similar chemical profiles, containing the phenolic compounds chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Five monoacyl and three diacyl esters of trans-cinnamic acids and quinic acid were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry. The residue extract showed antioxidant potential in DPPH, ABTS, and pyranine assays and low cytotoxicity. Thus, coffee oil residue has great potential for use as a raw material in dietary supplements, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, or as a source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Dietary exposure to tetracycline residues through milk consumption in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalipour, Fathollah; Mirlohi, Maryam; Jalali, Mohammad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    The abundant use of tetracycline antibiotics in veterinary medicine may result in the presence of their residues in milk at unsafe concentrations that can adversely affect public health. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the risk of tetracycline residue (TET) intake via milk consumption amongst different age groups of human consumers in Iran. To quantify the drug residues, HPLC analysis was performed under isocratic conditions using UV detection at 355 nm. Milk consumption patterns were determined using a recent nutrition survey in Iran. The average concentration of total TETs in milk was determined to be 252.41 μg/kg, which is approximately 2.5 times greater than the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by codex. Of the four different tetracycline antibiotics analyzed, oxytetracyclin had the highest share (86 %) of the determined contamination. Daily exposure to TETs through milk using an average data on milk consumption was estimated to range from 58-62 μg. but, distribution based exposure to TETs in milk appeared as 0-99.3 μg per day. Risk characterization of dietary exposure to TETs residue via milk intake in different age groups showed that considering the standard dietary recommendation that advices on two servings of milk per day (480 ml), consumers may receive 7-30 % of the determined ADI via bovine milk consumption.

  14. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide gas residues on selected food produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinetta, Valentina; Vaidya, Nirupama; Linton, Richard; Morgan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables has greatly increased, and so has its association with contamination of several foodborne pathogens (Listeria, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli). Hence, there is a need to investigate effective sanitizer systems for produce decontamination. Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), a strong oxidizing gas with broad spectrum and sanitizing properties, has previously been studied for use on selected fruits and vegetables. ClO(2) gas treatments show great potential for surface pathogen reduction; however its use from a residue safety standpoint has yet to be assessed. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate residues of ClO(2), chlorite, chlorate, and chloride on selected fresh produce surfaces after treatment with ClO(2) gas. A rinse procedure was used and water samples were analyzed by N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine and ion chromatography method (300.0). Seven different foods--tomatoes, oranges, apples, strawberries, lettuce, alfalfa sprouts, and cantaloupe--were analyzed after ClO(2) treatment for surface residues. Very low residues were detectable for all the food products except lettuce and alfalfa sprouts, where the measured concentrations were significantly higher. Chlorine dioxide technology leaves minimal to no detectable chemical residues in several food products, thus result in no significant risks to consumers. Practical Application: Potential for chlorine dioxide gas treatments as an effective pathogen inactivation technology to produce with minimal risk for consumers.

  15. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Using of sawing quartzite fine residual for obtaining ceramic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobrega, L.F.P.M.; Souza, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Quartzite is a metamorphic rock that is consisting mainly of quartz. In Paraiba there is a mining activity of this rock, in the region of Varzea and Junco do Serido especially where many wastes are created, including the sawing residue. The objective is to use the waste cited as the ceramic component coating mass, thereby replacing the quartz. Initially, the raw materials samples were taken and the chemical analysis was done of them. This passed the comminution process to achieve the required minimum particle size. After this, a formulation which added the residue in ceramic mass was made. The specimens were subjected to sintering and it was later made physical tests according to NBR 13818. The results show that the residue can replace the quartz ceramic mass successfully, but not as good as the original raw material. (author)

  17. Graphic Three-Axes Presentation of Residual Gas Analyser Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Levi, Alejandro G.

    1996-01-01

    Residual gas analyzers (RGA) are commonly used to measure the composition of residual gases in thermal-vacuum test chambers. Measurements from RGAs are often used to identify and quantify outgassing contaminants from a test article during thermal-vacuum testing. RGA data is typically displayed as snapshots in time, showing instantaneous concentrations of ions from ionized residual gas molecules at different atomic masses. A method was devised by the authors to present RGA data in a three-axis format, plotting atomic mass unit (AMU), ion concentration as a function of AMU, and time, to provide a clear graphic visualization ot trends in gas concentration changes and to initiate a valuable analytical tool to interpret test article outgassing rates during thermal-vacuum testing.

  18. Proceedings of the 8. biennial residual wood conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference highlighted practical strategies for managing and utilizing residual wood as a true industry resource. Examples of successful wood energy projects were presented along with the technology and products of more than 30 companies involved in the residual wood business. The topics of discussion ranged from biomass supplies, quality issues, and harvesting guidelines to emerging biomass technologies, project overviews, and financing. The presentations outlined the many opportunities that exist for the forest industry to produce energy from biostock, such as healthy and diseased trees, underbrush, sawdust, wood chips, wood pulp and black liquor. Increasing fuel and energy costs along with advances in technology are improving the economy of forest-based biorefineries. The presentations showed how the industry can gain revenue from residual wood, which is steadily becoming a more valuable resource for pellet production and energy generation The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Characterization of amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 that play a role in Ubc9 nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhri, Palak [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, 5947 Gullen Mall, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Tao, Tao [School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Kaplan, Feige [Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Zhang, Xiang-Dong, E-mail: xzhang@wayne.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, 5947 Gullen Mall, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2015-02-27

    As the sole E2 enzyme for SUMOylation, Ubc9 is predominantly nuclear. However, the underlying mechanisms of Ubc9 nuclear localization are still not well understood. Here we show that RNAi-depletion of Imp13, an importin known to mediate Ubc9 nuclear import, reduces both Ubc9 nuclear accumulation and global SUMOylation. Furthermore, Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation previously shown to interrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOs reduces the nuclear enrichment of Ubc9, suggesting that the interaction of Ubc9 with the nuclear SUMOs may enhance Ubc9 nuclear retention. Moreover, Ubc9-R17E mutation, which is known to disrupt the interaction of Ubc9 with both SUMOs and Imp13, causes a greater decrease in Ubc9 nuclear accumulation than Ubc9-R13A or Ubc9-H20D mutation. Lastly, Ubc9-K74A/S89D mutations that perturb the interaction of Ubc9 with nucleus-enriched SUMOylation-consensus motifs has no effect on Ubc9 nuclear localization. Altogether, our results have elucidated that the amino acid residues within the N-terminal region of Ubc9 play a pivotal role in regulation of Ubc9 nuclear localization. - Highlights: • Imp13-mediated nuclear import of Ubc9 is critical for global SUMOylation. • Ubc9 mutations disrupting Ubc9-SUMO interaction decrease Ubc9 nuclear accumulation. • N-terminal amino acid residues of Ubc9 are critical for Ubc9 nuclear enrichment.

  20. Prediction of Active Site and Distal Residues in E. coli DNA Polymerase III alpha Polymerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuram, Ramya; Coulther, Timothy A; Hollander, Judith M; Keston-Smith, Elise; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Beuning, Penny J

    2018-02-20

    The process of DNA replication is carried out with high efficiency and accuracy by DNA polymerases. The replicative polymerase in E. coli is DNA Pol III, which is a complex of 10 different subunits that coordinates simultaneous replication on the leading and lagging strands. The 1160-residue Pol III alpha subunit is responsible for the polymerase activity and copies DNA accurately, making one error per 10 5 nucleotide incorporations. The goal of this research is to determine the residues that contribute to the activity of the polymerase subunit. Homology modeling and the computational methods of THEMATICS and POOL were used to predict functionally important amino acid residues through their computed chemical properties. Site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical assays were used to validate these predictions. Primer extension, steady-state single-nucleotide incorporation kinetics, and thermal denaturation assays were performed to understand the contribution of these residues to the function of the polymerase. This work shows that the top 15 residues predicted by POOL, a set that includes the three previously known catalytic aspartate residues, seven remote residues, plus five previously unexplored first-layer residues, are important for function. Six previously unidentified residues, R362, D405, K553, Y686, E688, and H760, are each essential to Pol III activity; three additional residues, Y340, R390, and K758, play important roles in activity.

  1. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  2. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The

  3. Isomerization of Asp residues plays an important role in αA-crystallin dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Takumi; Fujii, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Aged cataract formation is caused by the accumulative precipitation of lens proteins incorporating diverse post-translational modifications. α-Crystallin, a major structural and functional lens protein, consists of a large polymeric structure that is dissociated and insolubilized with accumulative post-translational modifications. One such modification, isomerization of Asp, was recently identified in αB-crystallin monomers derived from aged lens. However, the distributions of Asp isomers in each lens fraction remain unknown. Here, α-crystallin fractions from aged lens were separated into heteropolymeric and monomeric forms to determine the Asp isomerization ratios in each fraction. Lens of four different ages were homogenized and centrifuged, and the soluble fraction was applied to size-exclusion chromatography. The heteropolymeric α-crystallin and monomeric crystallin fractions were obtained and concentrated. After trypsin digestion, each fraction was independently applied to liquid chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry to extract α-crystallin-derived peptides containing Asp isomers. The results showed that Asp58, Asp84 and Asp151 of αA-crystallin were highly isomerized in the monomeric fraction, but not isomerized to the same level in the heteropolymeric fraction. Each type of Asp isomerization increased in an age-dependent manner, was site-specific and was similar to previous results from lens water-insoluble fractions. These results imply that isomerization of Asp residues leads to dissociation of αA-crystallin from the heteropolymeric state and induces insolubilization in aged lens. Taken together, our findings suggest that isomerization of Asp might disrupt the higher order polymeric state of α-crystallin, resulting in decreased solubility and function, ultimately contributing to lens protein impairment and cataract formation with aging. © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  5. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  6. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  7. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... nitrate salts supply on nitrate accumulation, amino acid biosynthesis, total protein production, nitrate reductase activity and carbohydrate biosynthesis in the roots and leaves of the plants. The results indicate that both sodium and potassium nitrate supplementation had stimulatory effects on all of the.

  8. Immunohistochemical evaluation of iron accumulation in term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classical immunohistochemical studies on placenta have shown that there is a linear increase in iron storage in the placenta in the first half of a normal pregnancy, however, these stocks are decreased in normal 3rd trimester placenta. Iron accumulation in term placentas of preeclamptic and normal pregnancies were ...

  9. Capital accumulation in private information economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2005), s. 1-22 ISSN 1534-5998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : moral hazard * capital accumulation Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1172&context=bejm

  10. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  11. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  12. Differential nitrate accumulation, nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... reductase activity and nitrite accumulation depend on the exogenous nitrate. Nitrite itself is reduced to ammonium by palstidic nitrite reductase. Nitrite reductase is activated by both nitrate and nitrite ions by positive feed forward, whereas nitrate metabolites, most likely ammonium and glutamine; down.

  13. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rasika M Potdukhe

    2018-02-06

    Feb 6, 2018 ... factors and metal transporters, biosynthesis of chelating compounds involved in uptake and accumulation mechanisms were identified. .... To validate the mRNA abundance of arsenic related genes, we randomly selected 6 genes .... Arsenic is ubiquitous in the earth's crust in the form of arsenopyrite (Zhao ...

  14. Uptake, accumulation and some biochemical responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under the conditions of these increasing zinc concentrations, the highest zinc accumulation was obtained in the roots of the plants treated with 10 mM applications. The zinc concentration in the vegetative parts, was highest in the root and was lowest in the cotyledons. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) value was ...

  15. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  16. Accumulation of nanocarriers in the ovary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädlich, Andreas; Hoffmann, Stefan; Mueller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Several nanocarrier systems are frequently used in modern pharmaceutical therapies. Within this study a potential toxicity risk of all nanoscaled drug delivery systems was found. An accumulation of several structurally different nanocarriers but not of soluble polymers was detected in rodent ovar...... but the results might as well open a new field of targeted ovarian therapies....

  17. Accumulating Project Management Knowledge Using Process Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederman, Fred; March, Salvatore T.; Mueller, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Process theory has become an important mechanism for the accumulation of knowledge in a number of disciplines. In contrast with variance theory, which focuses on co-variation of dependent and independent variables, process theory focuses on sequences of activities, their duration and the intervals

  18. Hippocampal Networks Habituate as Novelty Accumulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; Ballard, Ian C.; Macduffie, Katherine E.; Krebs, Ruth M.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2013-01-01

    Novelty detection, a critical computation within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, necessarily depends on prior experience. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to investigate dynamic changes in MTL activation and functional connectivity as experience with novelty accumulates. fMRI data were…

  19. Contextual investigation of factors affecting sludge accumulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pit latrines in slums areas of Uganda fill up faster than might be expected from some estimates owing to inappropriate use and failure to consider critical factors affecting sludge accumulation rates at the planning, design and construction stages. This study sought to investigate factors affecting filling rates of lined pit latrines ...

  20. Capital accumulation, social reproduction and social struggle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'accumulation de capital est considérée comme un processus par lequel la richesse produite par le travail ... expense of real investment, a shift in the balance of productive to financial imperatives within the private ... agents, rather than as essential givens, requires specific concepts of what constitutes the economic and the ...

  1. Capital accumulation and embodied technological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.

    This paper combines technology adoption with capital accumulation taking into account technological progress. We model this as a multi-stage optimal control problem and solve it using the corresponding maximum principle. The model with linear revenue can be solved analytically, while the model with

  2. Intracellular accumulation of norfloxacin in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, S; Chevalier, J; Cremieux, A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the intracellular accumulation of norfloxacin in mycobacteria, two methods were used with Mycobacterium smegmatis. A radiometric method (K. V. Cundy, C. E. Fasching, K. E. Willard, and L. R. Peterson, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 28:491-497, 1991) was used without great modification, but the fluorometric method (P. G. S. Mortimer and L. J. V. Piddock, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 28:639-653, 1991) was changed considerably. Indeed, adsorption of the quinolone to the bacterial surface was characterized by measuring the level of accumulation of 0 degree C. Taking into account the adsorption, the pH of the washing buffer was increased from 7.0 to 9.0 to improve the desorption of norfloxacin from the cell surface. Both the fluorometric method, with the technical improvement, and the radiometric method could be used to estimate the intracellular accumulation of norfloxacin, which resulted from the difference between the whole uptake measured at 37 degrees C and the adsorption measured at 0 degrees C. A total of 35 ng of norfloxacin per mg of cells (dry weight) penetrated into the M. smegmatis cell, and the steady state was achieved in 5 min. Use of inhibitors of the proton motive force revealed that transport of norfloxacin was energy independent. Thus, the same mechanisms of quinolone accumulation that occur in eubacteria seem to occur in mycobacteria, at least in M. smegmatis. PMID:8585727

  3. Root transcripts associated with arsenic accumulation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hyperaccumulation of arsenic (As) by brake fern Pteris vittata has been described as an important genetic trait that providesan option for development of a sustainable phytoremediation process for As mitigation. Accumulation of very highconcentration of arsenic in above-ground tissues may be the result of arsenic vacuole ...

  4. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  5. [3H]Dopamine accumulation and release from striatal slices in young, mature and senescent rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Examinations of [ 3 H]dopamine ([ 3 H]DA) release following KCl or amphetamine administration in striatal slices from young (7 month), mature (12 month) and senescent (24 month) Wistar rats showed no age-related changes. Further, the amount of [ 3 H]DA accumulated in the striatal slices showed no changes with age. Thus, previously reported age-related deficits in motor behavior (i.e. rotational) are not produced by changes in striatal DA accumulation or release. (Auth.)

  6. Massive accumulation of highly polluted sedimentary deposits by river damming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanques, Albert, E-mail: albertp@icm.csic.es [Institute of Marine Sciences (CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, Barcelona 08003 (Spain); Grimalt, Joan [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18, Barcelona 08034 (Spain); Belzunces, Marc; Estrada, Ferran; Puig, Pere; Guillén, Jorge [Institute of Marine Sciences (CSIC), Passeig Maritim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, Barcelona 08003 (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Uncontrolled dumping of anthropogenic waste in rivers regulated by dams has created contaminated deposits in reservoirs that have remained unidentified for decades. The Flix Reservoir is located in the Ebro River, the second largest river flowing into the NW Mediterranean, has been affected by residue dumping from a chlor-alkali electrochemical plant for decades. High-resolution seismic profiles, bathymetric data, surficial sediment samples and sediment cores were obtained in the Flix Reservoir to study the characteristics of the deposit accumulated by this dumping. These data were used to reconstruct the waste deposit history. Since the construction of the Flix Dam in 1948, more than 3.6 × 10{sup 5} t of industrial waste has accumulated in the reservoir generating a delta-like deposit formed by three sediment lobes of fine-grained material highly contaminated by Hg, Cd, Zn and Cr (max: 640, 26, 420 and 750 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively). This contamination was associated with the Hg that was used for the cathode in the electrochemical plant from 1949 and with the production of phosphorite derivatives from 1973. After the construction of two large dams only a few kilometres upstream during the 1960s, the solids discharged from the industrial complex became the main sediment source to the Flix Reservoir. The deposit has remained in the reservoir forming a delta that obstructs about 50% of the river water section. Its stability only depended on the flow retention by the Flix Dam. At present, this contaminated waste deposit is being removed from the water reservoir as it is a cause of concern for the environment and for human health downriver. - Highlights: • A delta-like anthropogenic deposit prograded into the reservoir behind the Flix dam. • More than 3.6 × 10{sup 5} t of anthropogenic waste was accumulated in less than 4 decades. • A waste deposit with extreme levels of Hg and Cd was trapped in the Flix Reservoir. • The main pollution was related to

  7. Presence of pesticide residues on produce cultivated in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoel Wahid, F; Wickliffe, J; Wilson, M; Van Sauers, A; Bond, N; Hawkins, W; Mans, D; Lichtveld, M

    2017-06-01

    Agricultural pesticides are widely used in Suriname, an upper middle-income Caribbean country located in South America. Suriname imported 1.8 million kg of agricultural pesticides in 2015. So far, however, national monitoring of pesticides in crops is absent. Reports from the Netherlands on imported Surinamese produce from 2010 to 2015 consistently showed that samples exceeded plant-specific pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) of the European Union (EU). Consumption of produce containing unsafe levels of pesticide residues can cause neurological disorders, and particularly, pregnant women and children may be vulnerable. This pilot study assessed the presence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed produce items cultivated in Suriname. Thirty-two insecticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, and pyrethroids) and 12 fungicides were evaluated for their levels in nine types of produce. Pesticide residue levels exceeding MRLs in this study regarded cypermethrin (0.32 μg/g) in tomatoes (USA MRL 0.20 μg/g), lambda-cyhalothrin (1.08 μg/g) in Chinese cabbage (USA MRL 0.40 μg/g), endosulfan (0.07 μg/g) in tannia (EU MRL 0.05 μg/g), and lindane (0.02 and 0.03 μg/g, respectively) in tannia (EU MRL 0.01 μg/g). While only a few pesticide residues were detected in this small pilot study, these residues included two widely banned pesticides (endosulfan and lindane). There is a need to address environmental policy gaps. A more comprehensive sampling and analysis of produce from Suriname is warranted to better understand the scope of the problem. Preliminary assessments, using intake rate, hazard quotient, and level of concern showed that it is unlikely that daily consumption of tannia leads to adverse health effects.

  8. Novel approaches to determining residual stresses by ultramicroindentation techniques: Application to sandblasted austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutos, E.; Multigner, M.; Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses the determination of residual stresses in sandblasted austenitic steel by ultramicroindentation techniques using a sharp indenter, of which the sensitivity to residual stress effects is said to be inferior to that of spherical ones. The introduction of an angular correction in the model of Wang et al. which relates variations in the maximum load to the presence of residual stresses is proposed. Similarly, the contribution to the hardness of grain size refinement and work hardening, developed as a consequence of the severe plastic deformation during blasting, is determined in order to avoid overestimation of the residual stresses. Measurements were performed on polished cross sections along a length of several microns, thus obtaining a profile of the residual stresses. Results show good agreement with those obtained by synchrotron radiation on the same specimens, which validates the method and demonstrates that microindentation using sharp indenters may be sensitive to the residual stress effect.

  9. Comparison of neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements of residual stress in bead-on-plate weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradowska, A.M.; Price, J.W.; Finlayson, T.R.; Lienert, U.; Ibrahim, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the use of neutron and synchrotron diffractions for the evaluation of residual stresses in welded components. It has been shown that it is possible to achieve very good agreement between the two independent diffraction techniques. This study shows the significance of the weld start and end sites on the residual strain/stress distribution. Quantitative evaluation of the residual stress development process for multibead weldments has been presented. Some measurements were also taken before and after postweld stress relieving to establish the reduction and redistribution of the residual stress. The detailed measurements of residual stress around the weld achieved in this work significantly improve the knowledge and understanding of residual stress in welded components.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Processes for Recovery of Rare Earths from Bauxite Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, Chenna Rao; Blanpain, Bart; Pontikes, Yiannis; Binnemans, Koen; Van Gerven, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Environmental concerns and lack of space suggest that the management of bauxite residue needs to be re-adressed. The utilization of the residue has thus become a topic high on the agenda for both academia and industry, yet, up to date, it is only rarely used. Nonetheless, recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) with or without other metals from bauxite residue, and utilization of the left-over residue in other applications like building materials may be a viable alternative to storage. Hence, different processes developed by the authors for recovery of REEs and other metals from bauxite residue were compared. In this study, preliminary energy and cost analyses were carried out to assess the feasibility of the processes. These analyses show that the combination of alkali roasting-smelting-quenching-leaching is a promising process for the treatment of bauxite residue and that it is justified to study this process at a pilot scale.

  11. The release of 14C-chlorsulfuron bound residue by autoclaving method and its identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jiangfeng; Sun Jinhe; Ye Qingfu

    1999-01-01

    When individual microorganisms were used to release bound pesticide residues, it was usually not take into full account whether the autoclaving method could lead to the release of bound residues. The soil containing bound 14 C-chlorsulfuron residues was treated with an autoclave in this study. The results reveal that the bound 14 C-chlorsulfuron residue can be released from the soil when treated with the autoclave and the release rate can be remarkably enhanced by adding water into the soil when subjected to such treatment. A TLC analysis showed that the released 14 C-residue was one of the degraded products of 14 C-chlorsulfuron. After derivatization and analysis using the GC-MS, the released 14 C-residue was tentatively identified as 2-amino-4-hydroxyl-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine

  12. Residual stress measurement of the jacket material for ITER coil by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Nickel-Iron based super alloy INCOLOY 908 is used for the jacket of a central solenoid coil (CS coil) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). INCOLOY 908, however, has a possibility of fracture due to Stress Accelerated Grain Boundary Oxidation (SAGBO) under a tensile residual stress beyond 200MPa. Therefore it is necessary to measure the residual stress of the jacket to avoid SAGBO. We performed residual stress measurement of the jacket by neutron diffraction using the neutron diffractometer for residual stress analysis (RESA) installed at JRR-3M in JAERI. A sample depth dependence of internal strain was obtained from the (111) plane spacing. A residual stress distribution was calculated from the strain using Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio that were evaluated by a tensile test with neutron diffraction. The result shows that the tensile residual stress exceeds 200MPa of the SAGBO condition in some regions inside the jacket. (author)

  13. Evaluation and optimization of nutritional and environmental impact of biogas residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichti, Fabian Heribert

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the dynamic growth of biogas plants in Germany the fertilization with biogas residues has obtained an important role for recirculation of plant nutrients, particularly with regard to nitrogen. In this work the effect of N nutrition with biogas residues was assessed in a 3-year on-field trial conducted at four sites throughout Bavaria. The fertilizing effects were tested by varying rate and time of biogas residues application, using different application techniques and the addition of nitrification inhibitors on several crops. The biogas residues achieved mineral fertilizer equivalents of 30 - 45 %. Overall, the untreated biogas residues showed a slightly increased N efficiency compared to cattle manure, whereas particularly site-dependent differences resulted in large differences in N efficiency of biogas residues.

  14. Novel approaches to determining residual stresses by ultramicroindentation techniques: Application to sandblasted austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frutos, E. [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain)] [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Multigner, M. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Gonzalez-Carrasco, J.L., E-mail: jlg@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CENIM-CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Centro de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    This research addresses the determination of residual stresses in sandblasted austenitic steel by ultramicroindentation techniques using a sharp indenter, of which the sensitivity to residual stress effects is said to be inferior to that of spherical ones. The introduction of an angular correction in the model of Wang et al. which relates variations in the maximum load to the presence of residual stresses is proposed. Similarly, the contribution to the hardness of grain size refinement and work hardening, developed as a consequence of the severe plastic deformation during blasting, is determined in order to avoid overestimation of the residual stresses. Measurements were performed on polished cross sections along a length of several microns, thus obtaining a profile of the residual stresses. Results show good agreement with those obtained by synchrotron radiation on the same specimens, which validates the method and demonstrates that microindentation using sharp indenters may be sensitive to the residual stress effect.

  15. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  16. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  17. Seasonal variation of persistent organochlorine accumulation in birds from Lake Baikal, Russia, and the role of the south Asian region as a source of pollution for wintering migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Minh, Tu Binh; Fukuda, Kayo; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Titenko, Alexei M

    2002-04-01

    Concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in whole body soft tissue homogenates and in muscles of resident and migratory birds collected from Lake Baikal, Russia. The residue pattern in both resident and migratory birds was in the following order: PCBs > DDTs > HCHs > CHLs. OC concentrations in migratory birds varied, depending on the feeding habit. The maximum levels of OCs were found in piscivores, followed by insectivores, omnivores, and herbivores. OC residue levels in Lake Baikal birds were lower than those in the Great Lakes region as well as in other lakes in Europe and Japan. Concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in most of the migratory birds collected in the spring were higher than for those collected in the autumn, indicating a notable accumulation in wintering grounds. Compilation and analysis of the available data in fish and birds from Asia suggested that the tropical and subtropical regions in south Asian countries may be a source of pollution for the wintering accumulation of migratory birds from Lake Baikal. Relatively higher compositions of alpha- and gamma-HCH in total HCHs, p,p'-DDT in total DOTs were observed in some migratory species, indicating recent exposure to HCHs and DDTs in Lake Baikal or wintering areas. PCB isomer patterns were different between residents and migrants, with the predominance of lower chlorinated congeners in migratory species, suggesting recent PCB accumulation in stopover sites during wintering. TEQ concentrations of toxic non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs in common terns from Lake Baikal were comparable to those reported in some species from Japan, the United States, and Europe. Relative contributions of non-ortho coplanar congeners to toxic equivalents (TEQs) were predominant, in which CB-126 accounted for the highest toxicity contribution. Estimated TEQ

  18. Late-night talk show v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Halamásek, Šimon

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the history of talk show in USA with emphasis on its specific form, which is late-night talk show. The first chapter focuses on the creation of new television networks and the overall state of american broadcasting during the first era of the television talk show format. The thesis briefly describes radio broadcasting which served not only as an important source of inspiration for television but also as a starting platform for most talk show hosts. Next chapter theoreti...

  19. Effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on microbial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Iqbal, Z.; Asi, M.R.; Tahira, R.; Chudhary, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity and some nitrogen transformations in a loam soil was investigated under laboratory conditions. The soil samples containing bound residues arising from 10 mg g-1 of the applied malathion were mixed in equal quantity with fresh soil and compared with solvent extracted control soil without bound residues (extracted in the same way as soil containing bound residues). Another control comprising un extracted fresh soil without bound residues was also kept to study the effect of solvent extraction on the biological activity. Rate of Carbon mineralization (CO/sub 2/ evolution) was decreased in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. Bound residues also affected dehydrogenase activity of soil. Over 40% inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was observed after 4 days and the inhibition persisted at least for 12 days. Nitrogen mineralization was stimulated in soil containing bound residues of malathion and this stimulatory effect increased with time of incubation. Nitrification was partially inhibited in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. The inhibitory effect of the soil-bound residues on nitrification did not show much variation with time. The soil-bound residues did not affect denitrification rate (N/sub 2/O evolution). Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was partially inhibited in soil amended with bound residues of malathion and the inhibitory effect persisted for at least one week. In general, soil bound residues of malathion inhibited CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity, nitrification and nitrogen fixation while mineralization of nitrogen was stimulated. Denitrification was not affected by the applied insecticide. (author)

  20. Intestinal accumulation of /sup 111/In-granulocytes in patients studied because of occult infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrjaelae, M.T.; Valtonen, V.; Liewendahl, K.; Gripenberg, J.

    1987-06-01

    /sup 111/In-granulocyte scintigraphy was performed on 245 patients in whom a localized infection was suspected. In 123 patients scintigraphy was positive and of these 35 (28%) had intestinal accumulations of /sup 111/In-granulocytes. Specific local causes for the intestinal uptake of radioactivity were antibiotic associated colitis (eight patients), local pyogenic bowel infection (four patients), systemic disease (two patients), bowel necrosis (two patients), colonic cancer (one patient) and Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (one patient). Nonspecific mechanisms of bowel accumulation were desquamation of labelled granulocytes (12 patients) and bleeding (two patients). In three cases the mechanism of colonic accumulation of granulocytes was not revealed. These results show that unexpected accumulations of labelled granulocytes in the gut is not a rare phenomenon and is often due to clinically significant intestinal inflammation or other disease, especially in patients who do not have signs of respiratory, pancreatic or oesophageal inflammation causing desquamated granulocytes to accumulate in the gut.