WorldWideScience

Sample records for residues occurs emission

  1. Corn residue removal and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the primary greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the soil due to agricultural activities. In the short-term, increases in CO2 emissions indicate increased soil microbial activity. Soil micro-organisms decompose crop residues and release...

  2. Near Earth space sporadic radio emission busts occurring during sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, A. V.; Zaljubovsky, I. I.; Kartashev, V. M.; Lasarev, A. V.; Shmatko, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    During the period of low solar activity at sunrise the effect of sporadic high frequency near Earth space radio emission was experimentally discovered at middle latitudes. The possible mechanism of its origin is discussed.

  3. Nitrous oxide emission from soils amended with crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Kuikman, P.J.; Oenema, O.

    2002-01-01

    Crop residues incorporated in soil are a potentially important source of nitrous oxide (N2O), though poorly quantified. Here, we report on the N2O emission from 10 crop residues added to a sandy and a clay soil, both with and without additional nitrate (NO3-). In the sandy soil, total nitrous oxide

  4. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent toxicity testing. A representative crude oil (Bayou Sweet) was burned in ocean-salinity seawater and emissions were collected from the plume by means of a crane-suspended emission sampling platform. A comprehensive array of emissions was characterized, accounting for over 92% by mass of the combustion products even without accounting for H2O. The particulate matter emissions were 70 g/kg (±8.3) of oil consumed, composed of 81% (±8) elemental carbon, and 80% were 1 µm in diameter or less. The particulate matter emissions were strongly light absorbing and had a single scattering albedo of 0.4 (±0.01) at 532 nm. Emissions of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were approximately 1 g/kg of oil consumed. While the oil burn particles were highly PAH-enriched, less than 30% of the PAHs were particle-bound, the rest being in the gas phase. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/DF) was observed at 1.2 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg of oil consumed. Analysis of the particles showed the major elements to be Na, S, Cl and Si with no other elements, including metals, exceeding 5 mg/kg oil consumed. The unburned oil mass was 29% of the original crude oil mas

  5. Evidence for denitrification as main source of N2O emission from residue-amended soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Sørensen, Peter; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    -leguminous species (ryegrass). Plant material was placed in a discrete layer surrounded by soil in which the nitrate View the MathML source pool was enriched with 15N to distinguish N2O derived from denitrification and nitrification. Net N mineralisation from leguminous catch crops was significant (30–48 mg N kg−1....... Emission of N2O occurred at all moisture levels, but was higher at 50 and 60% WFPS than at 40% in soil with leguminous residues. The 15N enrichment of N2O indicated that denitrification was the dominant source independent of moisture level and residue type. We conclude that catch crop residues...... will stimulate N2O emissions via denitrification over a wide range of soil moisture conditions, but that emission levels may depend significantly on residue quality and soil moisture....

  6. Light-particle emission and heavy residues from nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplar, R.; Hoelbling, S.; Gentner, R.; Lassen, L.; Oberstedt, A.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the interrelation between light-particle multiplicities and mass resp. charge distributions of heavy residues from complete and incomplete fusion of heavy ions. We have shown that a simple statistical model provides the possibility of quantitatively correlating heavy-residue distributions and corresponding light-particle multiplicities both at the Coulomb barrier and at higher energies where preequilibrium emission occurs. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. Hotspots of soil N2O emission enhanced through water absorption by plant residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Toosi, E.R.; Guber, A.K.; Ostrom, N.E.; Yu, J.; Azeem, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Robertson , G.P. (UAF Pakistan); (UC); (Hubei); (MSU)

    2017-06-05

    N2O is a highly potent greenhouse gas and arable soils represent its major anthropogenic source. Field-scale assessments and predictions of soil N2O emission remain uncertain and imprecise due to the episodic and microscale nature of microbial N2O production, most of which occurs within very small discrete soil volumes. Such hotspots of N2O production are often associated with decomposing plant residue. Here we quantify physical and hydrological soil characteristics that lead to strikingly accelerated N2O emissions in plant residue-induced hotspots. Results reveal a mechanism for microscale N2O emissions: water absorption by plant residue that creates unique micro-environmental conditions, markedly different from those of the bulk soil. Moisture levels within plant residue exceeded those of bulk soil by 4–10-fold and led to accelerated N2O production via microbial denitrification. The presence of large (Ø >35 μm) pores was a prerequisite for maximized hotspot N2O production and for subsequent diffusion to the atmosphere. Understanding and modelling hotspot microscale physical and hydrologic characteristics is a promising route to predict N2O emissions and thus to develop effective mitigation strategies and estimate global fluxes in a changing environment.

  8. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Uranium-Rich Coals and Associated Coal Combustion Residues from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Nancy; Vengosh, Avner; Dai, Shifeng

    2017-11-21

    Most coals in China have uranium concentrations up to 3 ppm, yet several coal deposits are known to be enriched in uranium. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in these U-rich coals and associated coal combustion residues (CCRs) have not been well characterized. Here we measure NORM (Th, U, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 210 Pb) in coals from eight U-rich coal deposits in China and the associated CCRs from one of these deposits. We compared NORM in these U-rich coals and associated CCRs to CCRs collected from the Beijing area and natural loess sediments from northeastern China. We found elevated U concentrations (up to 476 ppm) that correspond to low 232 Th/ 238 U and 228 Ra/ 226 Ra activity ratios (≪1) in the coal samples. 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities correlate with 238 U and 232 Th activities, respectively, and 226 Ra activities correlate well with 210 Pb activities across all coal samples. We used measured NORM activities and ash yields in coals to model the activities of CCRs from all U-rich coals analyzed in this study. The activities of measured and modeled CCRs derived from U-rich coals exceed the standards for radiation in building materials, particularly for CCRs originating from coals with U > 10 ppm. Since beneficial use of high-U Chinese CCRs in building materials is not a suitable option, careful consideration needs to be taken to limit potential air and water contamination upon disposal of U- and Ra-rich CCRs.

  9. The emission of fluorine gas during incineration of fluoroborate residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yuheng, E-mail: fengyh@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jiang, Xuguang [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Dezhen [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Gaseous fluorine products were identified when combusting fluoroborate residue. • BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} tend to be hydrolyzed into HF with the increase of temperature. • The emission of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} from the chamber could be negligible at 1100 °C. - Abstract: The emission behaviors of wastes from fluorine chemical industry during incineration have raised concerns because multiple fluorine products might danger human health. In this study, fluorine emission from a two-stage incineration system during the combustion of fluoroborate residue was examined. In a TG-FTIR analysis BF{sub 3}, SiF{sub 4} and HF were identified as the initial fluorine forms to be released, while fluorine gases of greenhouse effect such as CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6} were not found. Below 700 °C, NaBF{sub 4} in the sample decomposed to generate BF{sub 3}. Then part of BF{sub 3} reacted with SiO{sub 2} in the system to form SiF{sub 4} or hydrolyzed to HF. At higher temperatures, the NaF left in the sample was gradually hydrolyzed to form HF. A lab-scale two-stage tube furnace is established to simulate the typical two-stage combustion chamber in China. Experimental tests proved that HF was the only fluorine gas in the flue gas, and emissions of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} can be negligible. Thermodynamic equilibrium model predicted that all SiF{sub 4} would be hydrolyzed at 1100 °C in the secondary-chamber, which agreed well with the experimental results.

  10. Distribution of natural occurring radionuclide in some industral residues used in new type wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingmin; Li Fusheng; Xu Jiaang; Deng Daping; Yuan Ming; Ma Shi; Chen Yue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the natural radioactive nuclide distribution characteristic of fly ash, gangue and various kinds of slag used in the new-type wall material and offer scientific basis for reducing the radiation dosage that the public suffers. Methods: The activity concentrations of the contents of natural radioactive nuclides of different industral waste residues have been determined by HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry. Results: The mean Raeq is successively fly ash (279.13 Bq kg -1 ), slag (225.69 Bq kg -1 ), gangue (141.26 Bq kg -1 ) from high to low and all of the samples is lower than the limit set in the OECD. The arithmetic mean activities of 236 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K in fly-ash samples are 127.88, 93.83, 221.75 Bq kg -1 ; for coal slag samples are 73.89, 97.13, 283.44 Bq kg -1 and for coal gangue samples are 47.85, 45.21, 413.56 Bq kg -1 . For the same power plant, the radioactive nuclide activity of the fly ash gathered in different time may have very great differences, the maximum can reach more than 2 times of the minimum. Conclusion: the fly ash and slag should be controlled strictly on rational proportion, which should not exceed 70% of the total mass. The mixing of the average radioactive level of the gangue is nearly equal that of to clay, it can be unrestricted in the mixing proportion in process of production. The manufacturer of new-type wall materials should often measure the radioactive level of the industrial waste residue in production. Make the content of radioactive nuclide in the products reach the rational level as low as possible. (authors)

  11. Emissions of naturally occurring radioactivity from aluminum and copper facilities. Report No. 6 (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, V.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes five surveys which were conducted at a Bauxite mining operation, an alumina reduction plant, an aluminum reduction plant, an underground copper mine and mill, and an open pit copper mine and concentrator. Process components and controlled source releases were sampled for naturally occurring radioactivity. Particular emphasis was given to radon-222, lead-210, and polonium-210 emissions from crushing and drying processes

  12. How Often Do Thermally Excited 630.0 nm Emissions Occur in the Polar Ionosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwagala, Norah Kaggwa; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Lorentzen, Dag A.; Johnsen, Magnar G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies thermally excited emissions in the polar ionosphere derived from European Incoherent Scatter Svalbard radar measurements from the years 2000-2015. The peak occurrence is found around magnetic noon, where the radar observations show cusp-like characteristics. The ionospheric, interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind conditions favor dayside magnetic reconnection as the dominant driving process. The thermal emissions occur 10 times more frequently on the dayside than on the nightside, with an average intensity of 1-5 kR. For typical electron densities in the polar ionosphere (2 × 1011 m-3), we find the peak occurrence rate to occur for extreme electron temperatures (>3000 K), which is consistent with assumptions in literature. However, for extreme electron densities (>5 × 1011 m-3), we can now report on a completely new population of thermal emissions that may occur at much lower electron temperatures (˜2300 K). The empirical atmospheric model (NRLMSISE-00) suggests that the latter population is associated with enhanced neutral atomic oxygen densities.

  13. Effects of Carbon and Cover Crop Residues on N2O and N2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, M.; Cooperman, Y.; Horwath, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    In Mediterranean climate, nitrous oxide emissions occurring with the first rainfall after the dry summer season can contribute up to 50% of agricultural systems' total annual emissions, but the drivers of these emissions have not been clearly identified, and there are only few measurements of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) production (denitrification) during these events. In lab incubations, we investigated N2O and N2 production, gross ammonification and nitrification, and microbial N immobilization with wet-up in soil from a vineyard that was previously fallow or where cover crop residue had been incorporated the previous spring. Before the first rainfall, we measured 120 mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC-C) kg-1 soil in the 0-5 cm layer of this vineyard, and after the rain 10 mg DOC-C kg-1, while nitrate levels before the rain were cover cropped soil. The N2O/N2 production was 2, 7, 9, and 86% in fallow, legume-grass mixture, rye, and legume cover cropped soil. The N2O/N2 ratio tended to increase with lower DOC (post-rain) levels in the soil. The results suggest that accumulated carbon in dry surface soil is the main driving factor of N2O and N2 emissions through denitrification with the first rainfall after prolonged dry periods.

  14. Modeling crop residue burning experiments to evaluate smoke emissions and plume transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residue burning is a common land management practice that results in emissions of a variety of pollutants with negative health impacts. Modeling systems are used to estimate air quality impacts of crop residue burning to support retrospective regulatory assessments and also ...

  15. Modeling crop residue burning experiments to evaluate smoke emissions and plume transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxi Zhou; Kirk R. Baker; Sergey L. Napelenok; George Pouliot; Robert Elleman; Susan M. O' Neill; Shawn P. Urbanski; David C. Wong

    2018-01-01

    Crop residue burning is a common land management practice that results in emissions of a variety of pollutants with negative health impacts. Modeling systems are used to estimate air quality impacts of crop residue burning to support retrospective regulatory assessments and also for forecasting purposes. Ground and airborne measurements from a recent field experiment...

  16. Improved Rice Residue Burning Emissions Estimates: Accounting for Practice-Specific Emission Factors in Air Pollution Assessments of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, Kristofer; Vadrevu, Krishna

    2018-01-01

    In Southeast Asia and Vietnam, rice residues are routinely burned after the harvest to prepare fields for the next season. Specific to Vietnam, the two prevalent burning practices include: a). piling the residues after hand harvesting; b). burning the residues without piling, after machine harvesting. In this study, we synthesized field and laboratory studies from the literature on rice residue burning emission factors for Particulate Matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). We found significant differences in the resulting burning-practice specific emission factors, with 16.9 grams per square kilogram (plus or minus 6.9) for pile burning and 8.8 grams per square kilogram (plus or minus 3.5) for non-pile burning. We calculated burning practice specific emissions based on rice area data, region-specific fuel-loading factors, combined emission factors, and estimates of burning from the literature. Our results for year 2015 estimate 180 gigagrams of PM2.5 result from the pile burning method and 130 gigagrams result from non-pile burning method, with the most-likely current emission scenario of 150 gigagrams PM2.5 emissions for Vietnam. For comparison purposes, we calculated emissions using generalized agricultural emission factors employed in global biomass burning studies. These results estimate 80 gigagrams PM2.5, which is only 44 percent of the pile burning-based estimates, suggesting underestimation in previous studies. We compare our emissions to an existing all-combustion sources inventory, results show emissions account for 14-18 percent of Vietnam's total PM2.5 depending on burning practice. Within the highly-urbanized and cloud-covered Hanoi Capital region (HCR), we use rice area from Sentinel-1A to derive spatially-explicit emissions and indirectly estimate residue burning dates. Results from HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) back-trajectory analysis stratified by season show autumn has most emission trajectories originating in

  17. Industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials: twenty years of emission data in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the dose assessment of discharges to air of two industries processing NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) in the Netherlands. An industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus (thermal process, unique within Europe) reports since 1987 its emission data to the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (VROM: Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment). This plant accounts for the highest release of Po-210 to air in the Netherlands, with a yearly average of approximately 500 GBq. Other significant NORM discharges to air arise from an industrial plant with blast-furnaces for steel production. Yearly discharges fall under permit, and are reported, since 1993. RIVM, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, is tasked by the Ministry to assess the dose to the general public arising from these discharges to air. Air transport modelling is used to determine both air concentration (for inhalation exposure) and deposition rate of the radionuclides. A (conservative) committed ingestion dose is determined by modelling the uptake of radionuclides from contaminated farmland, and assuming a food basket to be fairly representative for the population of the Netherlands. Discharges to water in the Netherlands have decreased in the past twenty years, due both to the closure of two phosphoric acid plants a decade ago and the improved treatment of waste fluids by other NORM industries. The collective dose assessed from discharges to air since 1987 is presented here. (author)

  18. Fluorescence of Bacteria, Pollens, and Naturally Occurring Airborne Particles: Excitation/Emission Spectra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven C; Mayo, Michael W; Chang, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    The fluorescence intensity as a function of excitation and emission wavelengths (EEM spectra) was measured for different species of bacteria, biochemical constituents of cells, pollens, and vegetation...

  19. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  20. Not carbon neutral: Assessing the net emissions impact of residues burned for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Mary S.

    2018-03-01

    Climate mitigation requires emissions to peak then decline within two decades, but many mitigation models include 100 EJ or more of bioenergy, ignoring emissions from biomass oxidation. Treatment of bioenergy as ‘low carbon’ or carbon neutral often assumes fuels are agricultural or forestry residues that will decompose and emit CO2 if not burned for energy. However, for ‘low carbon’ assumptions about residues to be reasonable, two conditions must be met: biomass must genuinely be material left over from some other process; and cumulative net emissions, the additional CO2 emitted by burning biomass compared to its alternative fate, must be low or negligible in a timeframe meaningful for climate mitigation. This study assesses biomass use and net emissions from the US bioenergy and wood pellet manufacturing sectors. It defines the ratio of cumulative net emissions to combustion, manufacturing and transport emissions as the net emissions impact (NEI), and evaluates the NEI at year 10 and beyond for a variety of scenarios. The analysis indicates the US industrial bioenergy sector mostly burns black liquor and has an NEI of 20% at year 10, while the NEI for plants burning forest residues ranges from 41%-95%. Wood pellets have a NEI of 55%-79% at year 10, with net CO2 emissions of 14-20 tonnes for every tonne of pellets; by year 40, the NEI is 26%-54%. Net emissions may be ten times higher at year 40 if whole trees are harvested for feedstock. Projected global pellet use would generate around 1% of world bioenergy with cumulative net emissions of 2 Gt of CO2 by 2050. Using the NEI to weight biogenic CO2 for inclusion in carbon trading programs and to qualify bioenergy for renewable energy subsidies would reduce emissions more effectively than the current assumption of carbon neutrality.

  1. Maximum warming occurs about one decade after a carbon dioxide emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricke, Katharine L; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-01-01

    It is known that carbon dioxide emissions cause the Earth to warm, but no previous study has focused on examining how long it takes to reach maximum warming following a particular CO 2 emission. Using conjoined results of carbon-cycle and physical-climate model intercomparison projects (Taylor et al 2012, Joos et al 2013), we find the median time between an emission and maximum warming is 10.1 years, with a 90% probability range of 6.6–30.7 years. We evaluate uncertainties in timing and amount of warming, partitioning them into three contributing factors: carbon cycle, climate sensitivity and ocean thermal inertia. If uncertainty in any one factor is reduced to zero without reducing uncertainty in the other factors, the majority of overall uncertainty remains. Thus, narrowing uncertainty in century-scale warming depends on narrowing uncertainty in all contributing factors. Our results indicate that benefit from avoided climate damage from avoided CO 2 emissions will be manifested within the lifetimes of people who acted to avoid that emission. While such avoidance could be expected to benefit future generations, there is potential for emissions avoidance to provide substantial benefit to current generations. (letter)

  2. Maximum warming occurs about one decade after a carbon dioxide emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, Katharine L.; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-12-01

    It is known that carbon dioxide emissions cause the Earth to warm, but no previous study has focused on examining how long it takes to reach maximum warming following a particular CO2 emission. Using conjoined results of carbon-cycle and physical-climate model intercomparison projects (Taylor et al 2012, Joos et al 2013), we find the median time between an emission and maximum warming is 10.1 years, with a 90% probability range of 6.6-30.7 years. We evaluate uncertainties in timing and amount of warming, partitioning them into three contributing factors: carbon cycle, climate sensitivity and ocean thermal inertia. If uncertainty in any one factor is reduced to zero without reducing uncertainty in the other factors, the majority of overall uncertainty remains. Thus, narrowing uncertainty in century-scale warming depends on narrowing uncertainty in all contributing factors. Our results indicate that benefit from avoided climate damage from avoided CO2 emissions will be manifested within the lifetimes of people who acted to avoid that emission. While such avoidance could be expected to benefit future generations, there is potential for emissions avoidance to provide substantial benefit to current generations.

  3. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-01-01

    Waste incineration can be considered a robust technology for energy recovery from mixed waste. Modern incinerators are generally able to maintain relatively stable performance, but changes in waste input and furnace operation may affect emissions. This study investigated how inorganic air emissions...... including ‘as-large-as-possible’ changes in furnace operation (oxygen levels, air supply and burnout level) only using normal MSW as input. The experiments showed that effects from the added waste materials were significant in relation to: air emissions (in particular As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb), element transfer...... coefficients, and residue composition (As, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Zn). Changes in furnace operation could not be directly linked to changes in emissions and residues. The results outlined important elements in waste which should be addressed in relation to waste incinerator performance. Likely...

  4. Development of the crop residue and rangeland burning in the 2014 National Emissions Inventory using information from multiple sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This workbook contains all the activity data, emission factor data, and ancillary data used to compute crop residue burning and rangeland emissions for the 2014 NEI...

  5. Modeling Emissions and Vertical Plume Transport of Crop Residue Burning Experiments in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Baker, K. R.; Napelenok, S. L.; Pouliot, G.; Elleman, R. A.; ONeill, S. M.; Urbanski, S. P.; Wong, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Crop residue burning has long been a common practice in agriculture with the smoke emissions from the burning linked to negative health impacts. A field study in eastern Washington and northern Idaho in August 2013 consisted of multiple burns of well characterized fuels with nearby surface and aerial measurements including trace species concentrations, plume rise height and boundary layer structure. The chemical transport model CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality Model) was used to assess the fire emissions and subsequent vertical plume transport. The study first compared assumptions made by the 2014 National Emission Inventory approach for crop residue burning with the fuel and emissions information obtained from the field study and then investigated the sensitivity of modeled carbon monoxide (CO) and PM2.5 concentrations to these different emission estimates and plume rise treatment with CMAQ. The study suggests that improvements to the current parameterizations are needed in order for CMAQ to reliably reproduce smoke plumes from burning. In addition, there is enough variability in the smoke emissions, stemming from variable field-specific information such as field size, that attempts to model crop residue burning should use field-specific information whenever possible.

  6. Emission of Carbon Dioxide Influenced by Different Water Levels from Soil Incubated Organic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. B.; Puteh, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO2-C (265.45 mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120 days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO2-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO2-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO2-C. Maximum CO2-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO2-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO2-C (158.23 mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO2-C (349.91 mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO2-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003 g d−1) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon. PMID:24163626

  7. Nitrous oxide emissions and controls as influenced by tillage and crop residue management strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutegi, James; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2010-01-01

    (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Each of these tillage treatments further varied in respect to whether the resulting plot crop residues were retained (+Res) or removed (-Res). Sampling took place from autumn 2007 to the end of spring 2008. Overall N2O emissions were 27 and 26% lower in DD and RT...

  8. The 2014 National Emission Inventory for Rangeland Fires and Crop Residue Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass burning has been identified as an important contributor to the degradation of air quality because of its impact on ozone and particulate matter. One component of the biomass burning inventory, crop residue burning, has been poorly characterized in the National Emissions I...

  9. Emissions, energy return and economics from utilizing forest residues for thermal energy compared to onsite pile burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; Woodam Chung; Susan Hummel

    2010-01-01

    The emissions from delivering and burning forest treatment residue biomass in a boiler for thermal energy were compared with onsite disposal by pile-burning and using fossil fuels for the equivalent energy. Using biomass for thermal energy reduced carbon dioxide emissions on average by 39 percent and particulate matter emissions by 89 percent for boilers with emission...

  10. Aerobic composting of digested residue eluted from dry methane fermentation to develop a zero-emission process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Lian; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Wang, Ting-Ting; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Digested residue remained at the end of a process for the production of fuel ethanol and methane from kitchen garbage. To develop a zero-emission process, the compostability of the digested residue was assessed to obtain an added-value fertilizer. Composting of the digested residue by adding matured compost and a bulking agent was performed using a lab-scale composting reactor. The composting process showed that volatile total solid (VTS) degradation mainly occurred during the first 13days, and the highest VTS degradation efficiency was about 27% at the end. The raw material was not suitable as a fertilizer due to its high NH 4 + and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration. However, the composting process produced remarkable results; the physicochemical properties indicated that highly matured compost was obtained within 62days of the composting process, and the final N concentration, NO 3 - concentration, and the germination index (GI) at the end of the composting process was 16.4gkg -1 -TS, 9.7gkg -1 -TS, and 151%, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of ammonia oxidizers indicated that the occurrence of nitrification during the composting of digested residue was attributed to the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soil and crop residue CO2-C emission under tillage systems in sugarcane-producing areas of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate management of agricultural crop residues could result in increases on soil organic carbon (SOC and help to mitigate gas effect. To distinguish the contributions of SOC and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. residues to the short-term CO2-C loss, we studied the influence of several tillage systems: heavy offset disk harrow (HO, chisel plow (CP, rotary tiller (RT, and sugarcane mill tiller (SM in 2008, and CP, RT, SM, moldboard (MP, and subsoiler (SUB in 2009, with and without sugarcane residues relative to no-till (NT in the sugarcane producing region of Brazil. Soil CO2-C emissions were measured daily for two weeks after tillage using portable soil respiration systems. Daily CO2-C emissions declined after tillage regardless of tillage system. In 2008, total CO2-C from SOC and/or residue decomposition was greater for RT and lowest for CP. In 2009, emission was greatest for MP and CP with residues, and smallest for NT. SOC and residue contributed 47 % and 41 %, respectively, to total CO2-C emissions. Regarding the estimated emissions from sugarcane residue and SOC decomposition within the measurement period, CO2-C factor was similar to sugarcane residue and soil organic carbon decomposition, depending on the tillage system applied. Our approach may define new emission factors that are associated to tillage operations on bare or sugarcane-residue-covered soils to estimate the total carbon loss.

  12. Air Toxics Emissions from Open Burning of Crop Residues in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Permadi, D. A.; Hopke, P. K.; Smith, K. R.; Nguyet, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural crops production in Southeast Asia (SEA) increases annually to meet domestic consumption of growing population and also for export. Crop residue open burning (CROB) is commonly practiced by farmers to quickly dispose of huge amounts of the agricultural waste, such as rice straw, generated after each crop cycle. This CROB activity emits various toxic air pollutants as well as short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon particles. Our study focused on quantifying the 2015 annual emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), along with other conventional trace gases, particulate matter, and greenhouse gases from CROB in 10 major agricultural crop producing SEA countries. Crop production statistics and current field OB practices were gathered from our primary surveys and relevant secondary data sources. Emission factors for rice straw and maize residue burning were taken mainly from our measurements in Thailand while for other crops relevant published data were used. The best emission estimates of air toxics from CROB in SEA were 112 g-TEQ/yr of PCDD/PCDF, 33 t/yr of OCP, and 25 Gg/yr of total PAH of which the well-known carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene was 0.3 Gg/yr. The CROB of rice production had the highest shares of emissions (33-95%) among considered 8 crop types. Indonesia was the top contributor to the total SEA emissions (30-45%) followed by Vietnam (16-26%), Thailand (6-22%) and Myanmar (5-18%). The spatial distributions of emissions, 0.1º x 0.1º, for each specie were prepared using MODIS land cover data. Temporally, higher emissions were observed in the harvesting months of the main rice crops. This emissions database can be used in regional air quality modeling studies to assess the impacts of CROB activity and to promote non-open burning alternatives.

  13. Evaluation of greenhouse gas emission risks from storage of wood residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wihersaari, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels is one of the most important means of limiting greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. In Finland, wood energy is considered to be a very important potential energy source in this sense. There might, however, still be some elements of uncertainty when evaluating biofuel production chains. By combining data from a stack of composting biodegradable materials and forest residue storage research there was an indication that rather great amounts of greenhouse gases maybe released during storage of wood chip, especially if there is rapid decomposition. Unfortunately, there have not been many evaluations of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass handling and storage heaps. The greenhouse gas emissions are probably methane, when the temperature in the fuel stack is above the ambient temperature, and nitrous oxide, when the temperature is falling and the decaying process is slowing down. Nowadays it is still rather unusual to store logging residue as chips, because the production is small, but in Finland storage of bark and other by-products from the forest industry is a normal process. The evaluations made indicate that greenhouse gas emissions from storage can, in some cases, be much greater than emissions from the rest of the biofuel production and transportation chain

  14. Nitrosospira sp. Govern Nitrous Oxide Emissions in a Tropical Soil Amended With Residues of Bioenergy Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késia S. Lourenço

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic vinasse, a residue produced during bioethanol production, increases nitrous oxide (N2O emissions when applied with inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer in soil. The present study investigated the role of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB community on the N2O emissions in soils amended with organic vinasse (CV: concentrated and V: non-concentrated plus inorganic N fertilizer. Soil samples and N2O emissions were evaluated at 11, 19, and 45 days after fertilizer application, and the bacterial and archaea gene (amoA encoding the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme, bacterial denitrifier (nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes and total bacteria were quantified by real time PCR. We also employed a deep amoA amplicon sequencing approach to evaluate the effect of treatment on the community structure and diversity of the soil AOB community. Both vinasse types applied with inorganic N application increased the total N2O emissions and the abundance of AOB. Nitrosospira sp. was the dominant AOB in the soil and was correlated with N2O emissions. However, the diversity and the community structure of AOB did not change with vinasse and inorganic N fertilizer amendment. The results highlight the importance of residues and fertilizer management in sustainable agriculture and can be used as a reference and an input tool to determine good management practices for organic fertilization.

  15. Emissions of N2O and CH4 from agricultural soils amended with two types of biogas residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlare, M.; Abubaker, J.; Lindmark, J.; Pell, M.; Thorin, E.; Nehrenheim, E.

    2012-01-01

    Biogas residues contain valuable plant nutrients, important to the crops and also to soil microorganisms. However, application of these materials to the soils may contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) causing global warming and climate change. In the present study, incubation experiment was carried out, where the emission rates of N 2 O and CH 4 were measured after amending two soils with two types of biogas residues: (1) a regular residue from a large scale biogas plant (BR) and (2) a residue from an ultra-filtration membrane unit connected to a pilot-scale biogas plant (BRMF). The emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 were measured at two occasions: at 24 h and at 7 days after residue amendment, respectively. Amendment with filtered biogas residues (BRMF) led to an increase in N 2 O emissions with about 6–23 times in organic and clay soil, respectively, in comparison to unfiltered biogas residues (BR). Methane emission was detected in small amounts when filtered biogas residue was added to the soil. Amendment of unfiltered biogas to the organic soil resulted in net consumption. In conclusion, fertilization with BRMF can be combined with risk of an increase N 2 O emission, especially when applied to organic soils. However, in order to transfer these results to real life agriculture, large scale field studies need to be carried out. -- Highlights: ► Membrane filtration of biogas process water is a promising method. ► Fertilization of biogas residue may increase the N 2 O emission from soil. ► Organic soils produced higher emissions than clay soils.

  16. Sensitivity of Emissions to Uncertainties in Residual Gas Fraction Measurements in Automotive Engines: A Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Aithal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial conditions of the working fluid (air-fuel mixture within an engine cylinder, namely, mixture composition and temperature, greatly affect the combustion characteristics and emissions of an engine. In particular, the percentage of residual gas fraction (RGF in the engine cylinder can significantly alter the temperature and composition of the working fluid as compared with the air-fuel mixture inducted into the engine, thus affecting engine-out emissions. Accurate measurement of the RGF is cumbersome and expensive, thus making it hard to accurately characterize the initial mixture composition and temperature in any given engine cycle. This uncertainty can lead to challenges in accurately interpreting experimental emissions data and in implementing real-time control strategies. Quantifying the effects of the RGF can have important implications for the diagnostics and control of internal combustion engines. This paper reports on the use of a well-validated, two-zone quasi-dimensional model to compute the engine-out NO and CO emission in a gasoline engine. The effect of varying the RGF on the emissions under lean, near-stoichiometric, and rich engine conditions was investigated. Numerical results show that small uncertainties (~2–4% in the measured/computed values of the RGF can significantly affect the engine-out NO/CO emissions.

  17. Net emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere when using forest residues for production of heat and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetterberg, L.; Hansen, O.

    1998-05-01

    This study estimates net emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from the use of forest residues for production of heat and electricity. In the report, the use of forest residues for energy production is called residue-usage. Our results show that for a turnover period of 80 years, the net emission of CO 2 to the atmosphere is 15.8 kg CO 2 -C/MWh (3.1-31.6 kg CO 2 -C/MWh), which represents 16% of the total carbon content in the wood fuel (3%-32%). Fossil fuel consumption is responsible for 3.1 kg CO 2 -C/MWh of this. Residue-usage may produce indirect emissions or uptake of carbon dioxide, e.g. through changes in production conditions, changes in the turnover of carbon in the humus layer or through a reduction of the amount of forest fires. Due to uncertainties in data it is hard to quantify these indirect effects. In some cases it is hard even to determine their signs. As a consequence of this, we have chosen not to include the indirect effects in our estimates of net emissions from residue-usage. Instead we discuss these effects in a qualitative manner. It may seem surprising that the biogenic part of the residue-usage produces a net emission of carbon dioxide considering that carbon has originated from the atmosphere. The explanation is that the residue-usage systematically leads to earlier emissions than would be the case if the residues were left on the ground. If forest residues are left to decay, in the long run a pool of carbon might be created in the ground. This does not happen with residue-usage 33 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  18. 2-¹⁸fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for postchemotherapy seminoma residual lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachner, M; Loriot, Y; Gross-Goupil, M

    2012-01-01

    2-¹⁸fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been recommended in international guidelines in the evaluation of postchemotherapy seminoma residuals. Our trial was designed to validate these recommendations in a larger group of patients.......2-¹⁸fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been recommended in international guidelines in the evaluation of postchemotherapy seminoma residuals. Our trial was designed to validate these recommendations in a larger group of patients....

  19. Selected emissions and efficiencies of energy systems based on logging and sawmill residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, Helena; Virtanen, Yrjoe

    2003-01-01

    Bioenergy has an important role in the implementation of the Kyoto agreement in Finland. The main sources of wood residues for energy production are logging areas and sawmills. The use of forest chips can be of great significance in reducing carbon dioxide emissions by replacing fossil fuels. Increasing the use of forest chips has environmental benefits, but it also includes possible environmental disadvantages. Therefore, system research is needed to assess the forest chip utilisation prospects for their environmental quality to secure sustainable forest management. Life-cycle methodology was developed and applied to assess environmental burdens and impacts of the logging and sawmill residues throughout the whole fuel chain from the forest to energy production. According to the study, the energy efficiencies of the forest chip systems are quite high. Net CO 2 emissions of the systems are low owing to the low input of external primary energy required to operate the systems. Although wood energy is renewable, it has many similarities with fossil fuels, e.g. as the emissions of the conversion phase are significant

  20. Application of proton-induced X-ray emission technique to gunshot residue analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Panigrahi, N.; Rao, M.S.; Varier, K.M.; Sen, S.; Mehta, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was applied to the identification and analysis of gunshot residues. Studies were made of the type of bullet and bullet hole identification, firearm discharge element profiles, the effect of various target backings, and hand swabbings. The discussion of the results reviews the sensitivity of the PIXE technique, its nondestructive nature, and its role in determining the distance from the gun to the victim and identifying the type of bullet used and whether a wound was made by a bullet or not. The high sensitivity of the PIXE technique, which is able to analyze samples as small as 0.1 to 1 ng, and its usefulness for detecting a variety of elements should make it particularly useful in firearms residue investigations

  1. Emission factors of polycyclic and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential combustion of coal and crop residue pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Liu, Shijie; Xu, Yisheng; Liu, Yu; Chen, Lijiang; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2017-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are toxic pollutants mainly produced during fossil fuel combustion. Domestic coal stoves, which emit large amounts of PAHs and NPAHs, are widely used in the Chinese countryside. In this study, emission factors (Efs) for 13 PAH species and 21 NPAH species for four raw coal (three bituminous and one anthracite), one honeycomb briquette, and one crop residue pellet (peanut hulls) samples burned in a typical Chinese rural cooking stove were determined experimentally. The PAH and NPAH Efs for the six fuels were 3.15-49 mg/kg and 0.32-100 μg/kg, respectively. Peanut hulls had very high Efs for both PAHs and NPAHs, and honeycomb briquettes had the lowest Efs. 2-Nitropyrene and 2-nitrofluoranthene, which are NPAHs typically found in secondary organic aerosol, were detected in the emissions from some fuels, suggesting that chemical reactions may have occurred in the dilution tunnel between the flue gas leaving the stove and entering the sampler. The 1-nitropyrene to pyrene diagnostic ratios for coal and peanut hulls were 0.0001 ± 0.0001 and 0.0005, respectively. These were in the same order of magnitude as reference ratios for emissions during coal combustion. The 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene to benzo[a]pyrene ratios for the fuels were determined, and the ratios for coal and peanut hulls were 0.0010 ± 0.0001 and 0.0014, respectively. The calculated potential toxic risks indicated that peanut hull emissions were very toxic, especially in terms of NPAHs, compared with emissions from the other fuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

    2014-01-01

    The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions.

  3. Non-enzymatic N-acetylation of Lysine Residues by AcetylCoA Often Occurs via a Proximal S-acetylated Thiol Intermediate Sensitive to Glyoxalase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. James

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA, a key intermediate in mitochondrial metabolism, N-acetylates lysine residues, disrupting and, in some cases, regulating protein function. The mitochondrial lysine deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3 reverses this modification with benefits reported in diabetes, obesity, and aging. We show that non-enzymatic lysine N-acetylation by AcCoA is greatly enhanced by initial acetylation of a cysteine residue, followed by SN-transfer of the acetyl moiety to a nearby lysine on mitochondrial proteins and synthetic peptides. The frequent occurrence of an S-acetyl intermediate before lysine N-acetylation suggests that proximity to a thioester is a key determinant of lysine susceptibility to acetylation. The thioesterase glyoxalase II (Glo2 can limit protein S-acetylation, thereby preventing subsequent lysine N-acetylation. This suggests that the hitherto obscure role of Glo2 in mitochondria is to act upstream of Sirt3 in minimizing protein N-acetylation, thus limiting protein dysfunction when AcCoA accumulates. : James et al. show that the non-enzymatic N-acetylation of lysine residues in mitochondrial proteins frequently occurs via a proximal S-acetylated thiol intermediate. Glutathione equilibrates with this intermediate, allowing the thioesterase glyoxalase II to limit protein lysine N-acetylation. These findings expand our understanding of how protein acetylation arises. Keywords: AcetylCoA, lysine acetylation, glyoxalase

  4. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    concentrations in the residue solid ash of PVC as compared to those from the other types of plastic. The open-air burning of plastic material and their toxic emissions is of growing concern in areas of municipal solid waste where open-fires occur intentionally or accidentally. Another problem is building fires in which victims may suffer severe smoke inhalation from burning plastic materials in homes and in working places

  5. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-08-15

    concentrations in the residue solid ash of PVC as compared to those from the other types of plastic. The open-air burning of plastic material and their toxic emissions is of growing concern in areas of municipal solid waste where open-fires occur intentionally or accidentally. Another problem is building fires in which victims may suffer severe smoke inhalation from burning plastic materials in homes and in working places.

  6. Methane emissions, body composition, and rumen fermentation traits of beef heifers differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Deighton, M H; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and digestion in beef heifers. Individual DMI and growth performance were measured for 22 Simmental heifers (mean initial BW 449 kg, SD = 46.2 kg) offered grass silage ad libitum for 120 d. Ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, BCS, muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood variables, rumen fermentation (via stomach tube), and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were measured. Methane production was estimated using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique over two 5-d periods beginning on d 20 and 75 of the RFI measurement period. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. The residuals of the regression of DMI on ADG and midtest metabolic body weight, using all heifers, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Heifers were ranked by RFI and assigned to low (efficient), medium, or high (inefficient) groupings. Overall ADG and DMI were 0.58 kg (SD = 0.18) and 7.40 kg (SD = 0.72), respectively. High-RFI heifers consumed 9 and 15% more (P composition traits did not differ (P > 0.05) between low- and high-RFI groups. High-RFI heifers had higher concentrations of plasma glucose (6%) and urea (13%) and lower concentrations of plasma creatinine (9%) than low-RFI heifers (P 0.05) between RFI groups, although acetate:propionate ratio was lowest (P = 0.07) for low-RFI (3.5) and highest for high-RFI (4.6) heifers. Methane production expressed as grams per day or grams per kilogram metabolic body weight was greater (P methane emissions. Results suggest that improved RFI will reduce methane emissions without affecting productivity of growing beef cattle.

  7. Modeling long-term carbon residue in the ocean-atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towles, N. J.; Olson, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2013-12-01

    We use the LOSCAR carbon cycle model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012) to calculate the residual carbon in the ocean and atmosphere following large CO2 emissions. We consider the system response to CO2 emissions ranging from 100 to 20000 PgC, and emission durations from 100 yr to 100 kyr, subject to a wide range of system parameters such as the strengths of silicate weathering and the oceanic biological carbon pump. We define the carbon gain factor as the ratio of residual carbon in the ocean-atmosphere to the total emitted carbon. For moderate sized emissions shorter than about 50 kyr, we find that the carbon gain factor grows during the emission and peaks at about 1.7, primarily due to the erosion of carbonate marine sediments. In contrast, for longer emissions, the carbon gain factor peaks at a smaller value, and for very large emissions (more than 5000 PgC), the gain factor decreases with emission size due to carbonate sediment exhaustion. This gain factor is sensitive to model parameters such as low latitude efficiency of the biological pump. The timescale for removal of the residual carbon (reducing the carbon gain factor to zero) depends strongly on the assumed sensitivity of silicate weathering to atmospheric pCO2, and ranges from less than one million years to several million years.

  8. Relationship between residual feed intake and daily methane emission in young Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Melo Caliman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cattle production is a sector of agricultural activity that has impact on global warming due to enteric fermentation from digestive process that releases methane (CH4, with energy loss of food and consequent inefficiency of system. Residual feed intake (RFI is a feed efficiency trait defined as the difference between actual feed intake and the one predicted on the basis of requirements for body weight production and maintenance. There are evidences that more efficient cattle (low RFI have lower methane daily emissions than less efficient cattle (high RFI. This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of CH4 daily emission and its relationship with RFI obtained during the CH4 collection in Nelore previously evaluated for this trait. A sample of 23 from 62 young bulls, previously classified into low RFI72 and high RFI72 in the 72-days performance test (RFI72, were evaluated. After the 72-days test, the individual feed intake was recorded for a further 45 days. Another RFI was obtained from the last 32 days (RFI32, and the animals were classified into two RFI32 classes: below zero (low RFI32 and above zero (high RFI32. CH4 daily emissions of each animal were collected during the last 7 days of this period, being preceded by 7 days for adaptation of animals to the collection apparatus. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique was used for estimating enteric methane emissions. CH4 and SF6 local background were also collected each day from inside of the installation using the same apparatus. The SF6 and CH4 gases were analyzed by gas chromatography. The correlation between RFI72 and RFI32 was not high (0.41 as a 32 days is a short period for accurately measuring the average daily gain. However, the additional period of 32 days is more representative of age, weight and feed intake at the time of CH4 collecting period than 72-days performance test itself. The averages of age, weight and CH4 daily emission were 351±24 days, 343±34 kg, and 155.5

  9. Proceedings of a specialist meeting on regulatory approaches for the control of environmental residues containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are present in most material. The most common naturally occurring radionuclides in material are those of the uranium and thorium series and potassium-40. This material is commonly referred to as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). In some material the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides are significantly higher, to the extent that regulatory control may be required for radiation protection purposes. Regulation of NORM presents a range of new challenges for both regulators and operators. Unlike more traditional industries dealing with radionuclides, NORM industries have generally not had any radiological oversight and, for example, are not equipped for radiological monitoring. Some consumer goods containing NORM, which have not traditionally been considered as a radiological problem (such as some fertilizers), may require regulation and this may have social and economic consequences. The transport and disposal of NORM are also a concern, particularly due to the large volumes, which may need to be considered. For the majority of NORM, disposal has been by conventional means in the same way as for non-hazardous waste with no specific attention to radiological aspects. In some cases, there may be a need for intervention into existing NORM disposal sites. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published ICRP No. 82, Protection of the Public in Situations of Prolonged Radiation Exposure in 2000. This document provides guidance on managing residues, such as those arising from NORM industries, with potential impact on the public. However, with NORM residual waste there may be three different situations: residual waste created as the result of a past practice, residual waste created by an ongoing practice and waste which will arise from future activities. Regulation of NORM may therefore be consistent with consideration of a practice, an intervention or a combination of both. Different regulatory

  10. Proceedings of a specialist meeting on regulatory approaches for the control of environmental residues containing naturally occurring radioactive material. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are present in most material. The most common naturally occurring radionuclides in material are those of the uranium and thorium series and potassium-40. This material is commonly referred to as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). In some material the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides are significantly higher, to the extent that regulatory control may be required for radiation protection purposes. Regulation of NORM presents a range of new challenges for both regulators and operators. Unlike more traditional industries dealing with radionuclides, NORM industries have generally not had any radiological oversight and, for example, are not equipped for radiological monitoring. Some consumer goods containing NORM, which have not traditionally been considered as a radiological problem (such as some fertilizers), may require regulation and this may have social and economic consequences. The transport and disposal of NORM are also a concern, particularly due to the large volumes, which may need to be considered. For the majority of NORM, disposal has been by conventional means in the same way as for non-hazardous waste with no specific attention to radiological aspects. In some cases, there may be a need for intervention into existing NORM disposal sites. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) published ICRP No. 82, Protection of the Public in Situations of Prolonged Radiation Exposure in 2000. This document provides guidance on managing residues, such as those arising from NORM industries, with potential impact on the public. However, with NORM residual waste there may be three different situations: residual waste created as the result of a past practice, residual waste created by an ongoing practice and waste which will arise from future activities. Regulation of NORM may therefore be consistent with consideration of a practice, an intervention or a combination of both. Different regulatory

  11. PM2.5 emissions and source profiles from open burning of crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haiyan; Tian, Jie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Qiyuan; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Long, Xin; Chen, L.-W. Antony; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Huang, Ru-Jin; Dusek, Ulrike

    2017-11-01

    Wheat straw, rice straw, and corn stalks, the major agricultural crop residues in China, were collected from six major crop producing regions, and burned in a laboratory combustion chamber to determine PM2.5 source profiles and speciated emission factors (EFs). Organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble ions (the sum of NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42-) are major constituents, accounting for 43.1 ± 8.3% and 27.4 ± 14.6% of PM2.5, respectively. Chloride (Cl-) and water-soluble potassium (K+) are the dominant ionic species, with an average abundance of 14.5 ± 8.2% and 6.4 ± 4.4% in PM2.5, respectively. The average K+/Cl- ratio is ∼0.4, lower than 2.8-5.4 for wood combustion. Similarity measures (i.e., Student's t-test, coefficient of divergence, correlations, and residual to uncertainty ratios) show the crop profiles are too similar for the species measured to be resolved from one another by receptor modeling. The largest difference was found between rice straw and corn stalk emissions, with higher OC and lower Cl- and K+ abundances (50%, 8%, and 3% of PM2.5, respectively) for corn stalks; lower OC, and higher Cl- and K+ abundances (38%, 21%, and 10% of PM2.5, respectively) for rice straw. Average EFs were 4.8 ± 3.1 g kg-1 for OC, 1.3 ± 0.8 g kg-1 for Cl- and 0.59 ± 0.56 g kg-1 for K+. Flaming and smoldering combustions resulted in an average modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of 0.92 ± 0.03, and low elemental carbon (EC) EFs (0.24 ± 0.12 g kg-1). OC/EC ratios from individual source profiles ranged from 12.9 ± 4.3 for rice straw to 24.1 ± 13.5 for wheat straw. The average K+/EC ratio was 2.4 ± 1.5, an order of magnitude higher than those from residential wood combustion (0.2-0.76). Elevated emission rates were found for OC (387 Gg yr-1) and Cl- (122 Gg yr-1), accounting for 44% and 14% of 2008 PM2.5 emissions in China.

  12. Comparison of long-term stability of containment systems for residues and wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides at an arid site and two humid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, M.; Merry-Libby, P.; Hinchman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term stability of near-surface containment systems designed for the management of radioactive wastes and residues contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides are compared at the three different sites. The containment designs are: (1) a diked 8.9-m high mound, including a 3.2-m layered cap at a site (humid) near Lewiston, New York, (2) a 6.8-m-high mound, including a similar 3.2-m cap at a site (humid) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and (3) 4.8-m deep trenches with 3.0-m backfilled caps at a site (arid) near Hanford, Washington. Geological, hydrological, and biological factors affecting the long-term (1000-year) integrity of the containment systems at each site are examined, including: erosion, flooding, drought, wildfire, slope and cover failure, plant root penetration, burrowing animals, other soil-forming processes, and land-use changes. For the containment designs evaluated, releases of radon-222 at the arid site are predicted to be several orders of magnitude higher than at the two humid sites - upon initial burial and at 1000 years (after severe erosion). Transfer of wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides from a humid to an arid environment offers little or no advantage relative to long-term stability of the containment system and has a definite disadvantage in terms of gaseous radioactive releases. 26 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  13. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  14. Earthworm-induced N2O emissions in a sandy soil with surface-applied crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannopoulos, G.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research with endogeic and epigeic earthworm species in loamy arable soil has shown that both earthworm groups can increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, provided that crop residue placement matches the feeding strategy of the earthworm ecological group(s). However, it is not yet clear

  15. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  16. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. ► The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. ► AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO 2 , biogenic CO 2 , CH 4, and avoided CO 2 as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO 2 -eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO 2 ), while the net CO 2 -eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO 2 ). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO 2 -eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO 2 -eq reduction.

  17. Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Jan; Bergman, Ann-Charlotte; Adamson, Ulf; Blombäck, Margareta; Wallén, Håkan; Jörneskog, Gun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. ► Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. ► The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. ► No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent – a phenomenon called “aspirin resistance”. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to “aspirin resistance” in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5–10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the α-chain: αK191, αK208, αK224, αK429, αK457, αK539, αK562, in the β-chain: βK233, and in the γ-chain: γK170 and γK273. Glycations were found at βK133 and γK75, alternatively γK85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [ 14 C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [ 14 C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013–0.084 and 0.12–0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9–100 μM aspirin) and physiologically (2–8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of fibrinogen. This may mechanistically explain why aspirin facilitates fibrin degradation. We find no support for the idea that glycation of fibrin(ogen) interferes with acetylation of

  18. Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Jan, E-mail: jan.svensson@ki.se [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergman, Ann-Charlotte [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamson, Ulf [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden); Blombaeck, Margareta [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Wallen, Hakan; Joerneskog, Gun [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent - a phenomenon called 'aspirin resistance'. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to 'aspirin resistance' in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5-10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the {alpha}-chain: {alpha}K191, {alpha}K208, {alpha}K224, {alpha}K429, {alpha}K457, {alpha}K539, {alpha}K562, in the {beta}-chain: {beta}K233, and in the {gamma}-chain: {gamma}K170 and {gamma}K273. Glycations were found at {beta}K133 and {gamma}K75, alternatively {gamma}K85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [{sup 14}C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [{sup 14}C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013-0.084 and 0.12-0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9-100 {mu}M aspirin) and physiologically (2-8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of

  19. Evaluation of Tillage, Residue Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on CO2 Emission in Maize (Zea Mays L. Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholla Moradi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs will continue to increase and cause climatic change (16. These conditions are also true for Iran. The three greenhouse gases associated with agriculture are carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. The three GHGs associated with agriculture CO2, CH4, and N2O differ in their effectiveness in trapping heat and in their turnover rates in the atmosphere. This environmental change will have serious impacts on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photoassimilates. Farmers are not able to change or manage the climatic conditions, but some factors such as soil, water, seed and agricultural practices can be managed to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change (32. Mitigation and adaptation are two known ways for reducing the negative impacts of climate change. Mitigation strategies are associated with decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions through management practices such as reducing chemical fertilizer application, mechanization, increasing carbon storage in agroecosystems, planting biofuel crops and moving towards organic farming (42, etc. Material and Methods: This study was carried out at the experimental field of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011 and was repeated in 2012. The Research Station (36°16´N, 59°36´E is located at about 985 m a.s.l. Average temperature and precipitation rate of the research station in two years are shown in Figure. 1. The three-factor experiment was set up in a strip-split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments were tillage systems (conventional and reduced tillage and residual management (remaining and leaving of maize residual assigned to main plots

  20. Determination of the shapes and sizes of the regions in which in hadron-nucleus collisions reactions leading to the nucleon emission, particle production, and fragment evaporation occur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Shapes and sizes of the regions in target-nuclei in which reactions leading to the nucleon emission, particle production and fragment evaporation occur are determined. The region of nucleon emission is of cylindrical shape, with the diameter as large as two nucleon diameters, centered on the incident hadron course. The reactions leading to the particle production happen predominantly along the incident hadron course in nuclear matter. The fragment evaporation goes from the surface layer of the part of the target-nucleus damaged in nucleon emission process

  1. Environmental performance of the Kvaerner BFB boilers for MSW combustion -- Analysis of gaseous emissions and solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, M.; Hagman, U.; Andersson, B.A.; Olofsson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Kvaerner Pulping AB (formerly Kvaerner EnviroPower AB) has, due to the stringent demands on emissions performance, developed a state-of-the-art bubbling fluidized bed boiler (BFB) designed for waste fuel firing with very low emissions to the air. A complete evaluation of the environmental performance of the Kvaerner BFB technique for MSW combustion is now possible thanks to a thorough characterization study of the solid residues from the Lidkoeping plant. This paper gives an overall mapping of the emissions performance. Data from the operating plants on solid residue characteristics and leachability, heavy metal and dioxin emissions, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, acid gases, and other emissions to air are presented. Comparisons are made with legislative limits and data from the mass burning technique. It is concluded that the emissions are low compared both with data from traditional mass burn incinerators and with legislative limits in the USA and Europe. Furthermore, the bottom and cyclone ash characteristics are shown not to cause any particular problem from an environmental point of view, and that the leachability is well below the existing legislative limits in Europe and the USA. The results show that fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste is a very competitive alternative to the traditional mass burning technique in every respect

  2. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado Pitombo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS generated with high carbon (C and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L. was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer, 1SS (recommended rate and 2SS (double rate. Carbon stocks (0-40 cm were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

  3. Copper Determination in Gunshot Residue by Cyclic Voltammetric and Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hashim Nurul’Afiqah Hashimah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gunshot residue (GSR is a crucial evidences for a forensic analyst in the fastest way. GSR analysis insists a suitable method provides a relatively simple, rapid and precise information on the spot at the crime scene. Therefore, the analysis of Cu(II in GSR using cyclic voltammetry (CV on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE is a better choice compared to previous alternative methods such as Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES those required a long time for analysis. SPCE is specially designed to handle with microvolumes of sample such as GSR sample. It gives advantages for identification of copper in GSR on-site preliminary test to prevent the sample loss on the process to be analyzed in the laboratory. SPCE was swabbed directly on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and acetate buffer was dropped on SPCE before CV analysis. For ICP-OES analysis, cotton that had been soaked in 0.5 M nitric acid was swabbed on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and kept in a tightly closed sampling tube. Gold coated SPCE that had been through nanoparticles modification exhibits excellent performance on voltammograms. The calibration was linear from 1 to 50 ppm of copper, the limit of detection for copper was 0.3 ppm and a relative standard deviation was 6.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of copper in GSR. The Cu determination on SPCE was compared and validated by ICP-OES method with 94 % accuracy.

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions from yellow brown soil as affected by incorporation of crop residues with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios: a case study in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Shaaban, Muhammad; Cai, Jianbo; Chen, Xi

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the influence of crop residues decomposition on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, a field study was performed with application of crop residues with different C:N ratios in a bare yellow brown soil at the experimental station of Zhangjiachong at Zigui, China. We set up six experimental treatments: no crop residue (CK), rapeseed cake (RC), potato stalk (PS), rice straw (RS), wheat straw (WS), and corn straw (CS). The carbon (C) to nitrogen (N) ratios of these crop residues were 7.5, 32.9, 40.4, 65.7, and 90.9, respectively. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured using a static closed chamber method. N2O emissions were significantly enhanced by incorporation of crop residues. Cumulative N2O emissions negatively correlated with C:N ratio (R (2) = 0.9821) of the crop residue, but they were positively correlated with average concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. Nitrogen emission fraction, calculated as N2O-N emissions originated from the crop residues N, positively correlated with C:N ratio of the residues (P emissions because a significant correlation (P emissions in all treatments except the control. In contrast, a significant relationship between soil moisture and N2O emissions was found in the control only. Furthermore, N2O emission significantly correlated (P carbon and nitrogen contents can significantly alter soil N2O flux rates; and (2) soil biotic as well as abiotic variables are critical in determining soil-atmospheric N2O emissions after crop residue incorporation into soil.

  5. Quantitative assessment of lipoprotein metabolism by positron emission tomography with an 18F-containing residualizing label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, A.; Sobel, B.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Thorpe, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Residualizing labels for proteins are designed to remain entrapped within cells following uptake and degradation of the carrier protein. In the present work we report the synthesis of a novel residualizing label, N-lactitol-S-([ 18 F]fluorophenacyl)-cysteamine ([ 18 F]LCSH), and its use for quantifying the accumulation of low density lipoprotein in tissues in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). The retention of degradation products in tissues from lipoprotein or from other rapidly catabolized protein pharmaceuticals tagged with [ 18 F]LCSH reduces leakage of tracer into the plasma compartment. Thus, residualizing labels provide a valuable tool for enhancing signal-to-noise ratios, even during the relatively short interval of PET studies. (author)

  6. Forest treatment residues for thermal energy compared with disposal by onsite burning: Emissions and energy return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; David Calkin; Woodam Chung

    2010-01-01

    Mill residues from forest industries are the source for most of the current wood-based energy in the US, approximately 2.1% of the nation's energy use in 2007. Forest residues from silvicultural treatments, which include limbs, tops, and small non-commercial trees removed for various forest management objectives, represent an additional source of woody biomass for...

  7. Non-enzymatic N -acetylation of Lysine Residues by AcetylCoA Often Occurs via a Proximal S -acetylated Thiol Intermediate Sensitive to Glyoxalase II

    OpenAIRE

    James, Andrew M.; Hoogewijs, Kurt; Logan, Angela; Hall, Andrew R.; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), a key intermediate in mitochondrial metabolism, N-acetylates lysine residues, disrupting and, in some cases, regulating protein function. The mitochondrial lysine deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) reverses this modification with benefits reported in diabetes, obesity, and aging. We show that non-enzymatic lysine N-acetylation by AcCoA is greatly enhanced by initial acetylation of a cysteine residue, followed by SN-transfer of the acetyl moiety to a nearby lysin...

  8. Decrease of noxious emissions in the residual fuel oil combustion; Disminucion de emisiones nocivas en la combustion de aceite combustible residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandoki W, Jorge [Econergia S. de R. L. de C. V. Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The residual fuel oil combustion emits noxious substances such as carbonaceous particulate, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur trioxide at unacceptable levels. Water emulsified in the fuel substantially reduces such emissions, achieving besides, in most of the cases, a net saving in the fuel consumption. The beneficial effects are shown in burning the residual fuel oil as a water emulsion, as well as the method to produce an adequate emulsion. The emulsified fuel technology offers a low cost option to reduce air pollution. The fuel oil quality has been declining during the last decades due to: 1. Increase in the production of crude heavy oils, generally with higher content of asphaltens and sulfur. 2. Less availability of vacuum distillation residues due to its conversion into greater value products. 3. More intensive conversion processes such as catalytic cracking, visbreaking, etc. that increase the asphaltenes concentration in the bottoms, causing instability problems. 4. The increase in the vanadium and other metals content as the concentration of asphaltenes increases. The use of emulsified fuel oil provides an efficient and economical method to substantially reduce the noxious emissions to the atmosphere. The emulsion contains water particles in a diameter between 2 and 20 microns, uniformly distributed in the fuel oil, generally in a proportion generally of 5 to 10%; besides, it contains a tensioactive agent to assure a stable emulsion capable of withstanding the shearing forces of the pumping and distribution systems. When the atomized oil drops get into the combustion chamber, the emulsified water flashes into high pressure steam, originating a violent secondary atomization. The effect of this secondary atomization is the rupture of the oil drops of various hundred microns, producing drops of 5 to 15 microns in diameter. Since the necessary time for combustion is an exponential function of the drop diameter, a very substantial improvement in the combustion is

  9. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, James; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission in the soft X-ray energy range. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for solar flares. This improvement over the isothermal approximation helps to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. For this current project we are interested in breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. As in our earlier work, thermal emission is modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature. Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner.For this study, we have examined the DEM and non-thermal resuidual emission for a sample of relatively large (GOES M class and above) solar flares observed from 2011 to 2014. The results for the DEM and non-thermal parameters found using the combined EVE-RHESSI data are compared with those found using only RHESSI data.

  10. SELF and VLF electromagnetic emissions that preceded the M6.2 Central Italy earthquake occurred on August 24, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Daniele; Cataldi, Gabriele; Straser, Valentino

    2017-04-01

    On August 24, 2016 at 01:36:32 UTC a destructive earthquake hit Central Italy with a magnitude of M6.2. The authors of this study have recorded some electromagnetic signals that have preceded this strong earthquake. These signals were recorded through two electromagnetic monitoring stations realized by Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi, located near the town of Albano Laziale (Rome, Italy) and near the city of Lariano (Rome, Italy) and can monitor the radio spectrum 24h7 between 0.001 Hz and 96 kHz (SELF-LF band). The electromagnetic monitoring allowed to identify two interesting types of electromagnetic anomalies: the first electromagnetic anomaly was recorded on August 18, 2016 between 02:47 UTC and 06:21 UTC, in the VLF band prevalently between 18kHz and 26kHz; the second electromagnetic anomaly was registered between 08:00 UTC on August 23, 2016 and 05:00 UTC on August 24, 2016, prevalently between 0.01 and 0.7Hz: the most intense signals were recorded at 08:50 UTC on August 23, 2016 and approximately 1 hour before the strong earthquake. The Earth's electromagnetic background monitoring in the SELF-VLF band (0HzM6+ earthquakes that occur on a global scale are always preceded by an increase of the solar wind proton density near Earth, the solar and geomagnetic activity monitoring is a seismic prediction method that has proven reliable for understanding when we can expect a recovery of the M6+ global seismic activity and could be used internationally as an indicator of seismic risk in the countries where there are potentially destructive earthquakes and tsunamis.

  11. Non-enzymatic N-acetylation of Lysine Residues by AcetylCoA Often Occurs via a Proximal S-acetylated Thiol Intermediate Sensitive to Glyoxalase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew M; Hoogewijs, Kurt; Logan, Angela; Hall, Andrew R; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Murphy, Michael P

    2017-02-28

    Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), a key intermediate in mitochondrial metabolism, N-acetylates lysine residues, disrupting and, in some cases, regulating protein function. The mitochondrial lysine deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) reverses this modification with benefits reported in diabetes, obesity, and aging. We show that non-enzymatic lysine N-acetylation by AcCoA is greatly enhanced by initial acetylation of a cysteine residue, followed by SN-transfer of the acetyl moiety to a nearby lysine on mitochondrial proteins and synthetic peptides. The frequent occurrence of an S-acetyl intermediate before lysine N-acetylation suggests that proximity to a thioester is a key determinant of lysine susceptibility to acetylation. The thioesterase glyoxalase II (Glo2) can limit protein S-acetylation, thereby preventing subsequent lysine N-acetylation. This suggests that the hitherto obscure role of Glo2 in mitochondria is to act upstream of Sirt3 in minimizing protein N-acetylation, thus limiting protein dysfunction when AcCoA accumulates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. BECCS potential in Brazil: Achieving negative emissions in ethanol and electricity production based on sugar cane bagasse and other residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, José Roberto; Romeiro, Viviane; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Pacca, Sérgio A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Demonstrates the cost competitiveness of sugarcane based bioenergy carbon capture and storage (BECCS). • Evaluates BECCS based on emissions from sugar fermentation, which is the low hanging fruit technology available. • Determines the BECCS cost premium of CO_2, ethanol and electricity. • Determines the full mitigation potential of this BECCS technology in Brazil. • Discusses polices to enable BECCS deployment by society. - Abstract: Stabilization at concentrations consistent with keeping global warming below 2 °C above the pre-industrial level will require drastic cuts in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the century; net negative emissions approaching 2100 are required in the vast majority of current emission scenarios. For negative emissions, the focus has been on bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), where carbon-neutral bioenergy would be combined with additional carbon capture thus yielding emissions lower than zero. Different BECCS technologies are considered around the world and one option that deserves special attention applies CCS to ethanol production. It is currently possible to eliminate 27.7 million tonnes (Mt) of CO_2 emissions per year through capture and storage of CO_2 released during fermentation, which is part of sugar cane-based ethanol production in Brazil. Thus, BECCS could reduce the country’s emissions from energy production by roughly 5%. Such emissions are additional to those due to the substitution of biomass-based electricity for fossil-fueled power plants. This paper assesses the potential and cost effectiveness of negative emissions in the joint production system of ethanol and electricity based on sugar cane, bagasse, and other residues in Brazil. An important benefit is that CO_2 can be captured twice along the proposed BECCS supply chain (once during fermentation and once during electricity generation). This study only considers BECCS from fermentation because capturing

  13. 78 FR 66107 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Residual Risk and Technology Review for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... estimate VCS voluntary consensus standards WWW world wide web Organization of this Document. The... oxidizer RTR residual risk and technology review SAB Science Advisory Board SBA Small Business... acceptable in the world in which we live'' (Risk Report at 178, quoting NRDC v. EPA, 824 F.2d 1146, 1165 (D.C...

  14. Availability of Biomass Residues for Co-Firing in Peninsular Malaysia: Implications for Cost and GHG Emissions in the Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Michael Griffin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels comprise 93% of Malaysia’s electricity generation and account for 36% of the country’s 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions. The government has targeted the installation of 330 MW of biomass electricity generation capacity by 2015 to avoid 1.3 Mt of CO2 emissions annually and offset some emissions due to increased coal use. One biomass option is to co-fire with coal, which can result in reduced GHG emissions, coal use, and costs of electricity. A linear optimization cost model was developed using seven types of biomass residues for Peninsular Malaysia. Results suggest that about 12 Mt/year of residues are available annually, of which oil-palm residues contribute 77%, and rice and logging residues comprise 17%. While minimizing the cost of biomass and biomass residue transport, co-firing at four existing coal plants in Peninsular Malaysia could meet the 330 MW biomass electricity target and reduce costs by about $24 million per year compared to coal use alone and reduces GHG emissions by 1.9 Mt of CO2. Maximizing emissions reduction for biomass co-firing results in 17 Mt of CO2 reductions at a cost of $23/t of CO2 reduced.

  15. Effects of biodiesel made from swine and chicken fat residues on carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddern, Vivian; Cunha Junior, Anildo; De Prá, Marina C; Busi da Silva, Marcio L; Nicoloso, Rodrigo da S; Higarashi, Martha M; Coldebella, Arlei; de Abreu, Paulo G

    2017-07-01

    The effects of two alternative sources of animal fat-derived biodiesel feedstock on CO 2 , CO, NO x tailpipe emissions as well as fuel consumption were investigated. Biodiesel blends were produced from chicken and swine fat waste (FW-1) or floating fat (FW-2) collected from slaughterhouse wastewater treatment processes. Tests were conducted in an unmodified stationary diesel engine operating under idling conditions in attempt to simulate slow traffic in urban areas. Significant reductions in CO (up to 47% for B100; FW-2) and NO x (up to 20% for B5; FW-2 or B100; FW-1) were attained when using biodiesel fuels at the expense of 5% increase in fuel consumption. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to elucidate possible associations among gas (CO 2 , CO, and NO x ) emissions, cetane number and iodine index with different sources of feedstock typically employed in the biodiesel industry. NO x , cetane number and iodine index were inversely proportional to CO 2 and biodiesel concentration. High NO x emissions were reported from high iodine index biodiesel derived especially from forestry, fishery and some agriculture feedstocks, while the biodiesel derived from animal sources consistently presented lower iodine index mitigating NO x emissions. The obtained results point out the applicability of biodiesel fuels derived from fat-rich residues originated from animal production on mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The information may encourage practitioners from biodiesel industry whilst contributing towards development of sustainable animal production. Emissions from motor vehicles can contribute considerably to the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The use of biodiesel to replace or augment diesel can not only decrease our dependency on fossil fuels but also help decrease air pollution. Thus, different sources of feedstocks are constantly being explored for affordable biodiesel production. However, the amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon

  16. Linseed plus nitrate in the diet for fattening bulls: effects on methane emission, animal health and residues in offal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreau, M; Arbre, M; Popova, M; Rochette, Y; Martin, C

    2018-03-01

    The combination of linseed and nitrate is known to decrease enteric methane emission in dairy cows but few studies have been carried out in fattening cattle for animal liveweight gain, enteric methane emission, animal health and presence of residues in beef products. To address this gap, 16 young bulls received a control (C) diet between weaning at 9 months and 14 months, then were split into two groups of eight balanced on feed intake, BW gain and methane emission to receive either the C diet or a diet moderately supplemented with extruded linseed and calcium nitrate (LN) for 2 months before being slaughtered. On a dry matter (DM) basis, the C diet contained 70% baled grass silage and 30% concentrate mainly made of maize, wheat and rapeseed meal. In the LN diet, rapeseed meal and a fraction of cereals were replaced by 35% extruded linseed and 6% calcium nitrate; linseed fatty acids and nitrate supply in the LN diet were 1.9% and 1.0%, respectively. Methane emission was measured continuously using the GreenFeed system. Methaemoglobin was determined every week in peripheral blood from bulls receiving the LN diet. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were determined in rumen, liver and tongue sampled at slaughter. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for LN diet (P=0.10). Body weight gain was lower for LN diet (P=0.01; 1.60 and 1.26 kg/day for C and LN diet, respectively). Daily methane emission was 9% lower (Pmethane yield did not differ between diets (24.1 and 23.2 g/kg DM intake for C and LN diet, respectively, P=0.34). Methaemoglobin was under the limit of detection (methane yield and impaired bull liveweight gain but without adverse effects for animal health and food safety.

  17. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in evaluation of residual intramuscular myxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zade, Anand; Ahire, Archana; Shetty, Shishir; Rai, Sujith; Bokka, Rajashekharrao; Velumani, Arokiaswamy; Kabnurkar, Rasika

    2015-01-01

    Intramuscular myxoma (IM) is a rare benign neoplasm. In a patient diagnosed with IM of left thigh, we report the utility of a postoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan in assessing the efficacy of surgical excision

  18. Characterization of Emissions and Residues from Simulations of the Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface oil burns conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard from April to July 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico were simulated by small scale burns to characterize the pollutants, determine emission factors, and gather particulate matter for subsequent...

  19. Nitrous Oxide Emission and Denitrifier Abundance in Two Agricultural Soils Amended with Crop Residues and Urea in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Gao

    Full Text Available The application of crop residues combined with Nitrogen (N fertilizer has been broadly adopted in China. Crop residue amendments can provide readily available C and N, as well as other nutrients to agricultural soils, but also intensify the N fixation, further affecting N2O emissions. N2O pulses are obviously driven by rainfall, irrigation and fertilization. Fertilization before rainfall or followed by flooding irrigation is a general management practice for a wheat-maize rotation in the North China Plain. Yet, little is known on the impacts of crop residues combined with N fertilizer application on N2O emission under high soil moisture content. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of two crop residue amendments (maize and wheat, individually or in combination with N fertilizer, on N2O emissions and denitrifier abundance in two main agricultural soils (one is an alluvial soil, pH 8.55, belongs to Ochri-Aquic Cambosols, OAC, the other is a lime concretion black soil, pH 6.61, belongs to Hapli-Aquic Vertosols, HAV under 80% WFPS (the water filled pore space in the North China Plain. Each type soil contains seven treatments: a control with no N fertilizer application (CK, N0, 200 kg N ha-1 (N200, 250 kg N ha-1 (N250, maize residue plus N200 (MN200, maize residue plus N250 (MN250, wheat residue plus N200 (WN200 and wheat residue plus N250 (WN250. Results showed that, in the HAV soil, MN250 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emissions by 60% and 30% compared with N250 treatment, respectively, but MN200 and WN200 decreased the cumulative N2O emissions by 20% and 50% compared with N200. In the OAC soil, compared with N200 or N250, WN200 and WN250 increased the cumulative N2O emission by 40%-50%, but MN200 and MN250 decreased the cumulative N2O emission by 10%-20%. Compared with CK, addition of crop residue or N fertilizer resulted in significant increases in N2O emissions in both soils. The cumulative N2O

  20. Drought occurence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Is Drought Important? Drought is an important forest disturbance that occurs regularly in the Western United States and irregularly in the Eastern United States (Dale and others 2001). Moderate drought stress tends to slow plant growth while severedrought stress can also reduce photosynthesis (Kareiva and others 1993). Drought can also interact with...

  1. Green residues from Bangkok green space for renewable energy recovery, phosphorus recycling and greenhouse gases emission reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitanuwat, Bussarakam; Polprasert, Chongchin; Englande, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    Effective ways to integrate human life quality, environmental pollution mitigation and efficient waste management strategies are becoming a crisis challenge for sustainable urban development. The aims of this study are: (1) to evaluate and recommend an optimum Urban Green Space (UGS) area for the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA); and (2) to quantify potential renewable resources including electricity generation and potential nutrient recovery from generated ash. Green House Gases (GHGs) emissions from the management of Green Residues (GR) produced in a recommended UGS expansion are estimated and compared with those from the existing BMA waste management practice. Results obtained from this study indicate that an increase in UGS from its current 2.02% to 22.4% of the BMA urban area is recommended. This optimum value is primarily due to the area needed as living space for its population. At this scale, GR produced of about 334kt·y -1 may be used to generate electricity at the rate of 206GWh·y -1 by employing incineration technology. Additionally, instead of going to landfill, phosphorus (P) contained in the ash of 1077 t P·y -1 could be recovered to produce P fertilizer to be recycled for agricultural cultivation. Income earned from selling these products is found to offset all of the operational cost of the proposed GR management methodology itself plus 7% of the cost of BMA's Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) operations. About 70% of the current GHGs emission may be reduced based on incineration simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of Interface Treatment to Reduce Emissions from Residuals in Lower Permeability Zones to Groundwater flowing Through More Permeable Zones (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P.; Cavanagh, B.; Clifton, L.; Daniels, E.; Dahlen, P.

    2013-12-01

    Many soil and groundwater remediation technologies rely on fluid flow for contaminant extraction or reactant delivery (e.g., soil vapor extraction, pump and treat, in situ chemical oxidation, air sparging, enhanced bioremediation). Given that most unconsolidated and consolidated settings have permeability contrasts, the outcome is often preferential treatment of more permeable zones and ineffective treatment of the lower permeability zones. When this happens, post-treatment contaminant emissions from low permeability zone residuals can cause unacceptable long-term impacts to groundwater in the transmissive zones. As complete remediation of the impacted lower permeability zones may not be practicable with conventional technologies, one might explore options that lead to reduction of the contaminant emissions to acceptable levels, rather than full remediation of the lower permeability layers. This could be accomplished either by creating a sustained emission reaction/attenuation zone at the high-low permeability interface, or by creating a clean soil zone extending sufficiently far into the lower permeability layer to cause the necessary reduction in contaminant concentration gradient and diffusive emission. These options are explored in proof-of-concept laboratory-scale physical model experiments. The physical models are prepared with two layers of contrasting permeability and either dissolved matrix storage or nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in the lower permeability layer. A dissolved oxidant is then delivered to the interface via flow across the higher permeability layer and changes in contaminant emissions from the low permeability zone are monitored before, during, and after oxidant delivery. The use of three oxidants (dissolved oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium persulfate) for treatment of emissions from petroleum hydrocarbon residuals is examined.

  3. Long-term C-CO2 emissions and carbon crop residue mineralization in an oxisol under different tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil C-CO2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM. The main soil C-CO2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification, mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 ºC. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a conventional tillage (CT and (b no tillage (NT in combination with three cropping systems: (a R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat, (b R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat, and (c R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/ black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat. The soil C-CO2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements, by trapping the CO2 in an alkaline solution. The soil gravimetric moisture in the 0-0.05 m layer was determined concomitantly with the C-CO2 efflux measurements. The crop residue C mineralization was evaluated with the mesh-bag method, with sampling 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days after the beginning of the evaluation period for C measurements. Four C conservation indexes were used to assess the relation between C-CO2 efflux and soil C stock and its compartments. The crop residue C mineralization fit an exponential model in time. For black oat, wheat and maize residues, C mineralization was higher in CT than NT, while for soybean it was similar. Soil moisture was higher in NT than CT, mainly in the second year of evaluation. There was no difference in tillage systems for annual average C-CO2 emissions, but in some individual evaluations, differences between

  4. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  5. GHG AND AEROSOL EMISSION FROM FIRE PIXEL DURING CROP RESIDUE BURNING UNDER RICE AND WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEMS IN NORTH-WEST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Acharya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission of smoke and aerosol from open field burning of crop residue is a long-standing subject matter of atmospheric pollution. In this study, we proposed a new approach of estimating fuel load in the fire pixels and corresponding emissions of selected GHGs and aerosols i.e. CO2, CO, NO2, SO2, and total particulate matter (TPM due to burning of crop residue under rice and wheat cropping systems in Punjab in north-west India from 2002 to 2012. In contrasts to the conventional method that uses RPR ratio to estimate the biomass, fuel load in the fire pixels was estimated as a function of enhanced vegetation index (EVI. MODIS fire products were used to detect the fire pixels during harvesting seasons of rice and wheat. Based on the field measurements, fuel load in the fire pixels were modelled as a function of average EVI using second order polynomial regression. Average EVI for rice and wheat crops that were extracted through Fourier transformation were computed from MODIS time series 16 day EVI composites. About 23 % of net shown area (NSA during rice and 11 % during wheat harvesting seasons are affected by field burning. The computed average fuel loads are 11.32 t/ha (±17.4 during rice and 10.89 t/ha (±8.7 during wheat harvesting seasons. Calculated average total emissions of CO2, CO, NO2, SO2 and TPM were 8108.41, 657.85, 8.10, 4.10, and 133.21 Gg during rice straw burning and 6896.85, 625.09, 1.42, 1.77, and 57.55 Gg during wheat burning. Comparison of estimated values shows better agreement with the previous concurrent estimations. The method, however, shows its efficiency parallel to the conventional method of estimation of fuel load and related pollutant emissions.

  6. Process and device for separating gaseous and solid noxious substances from residues occurring in thermal processes, particularly in the pyrolysis of waste material. Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Abscheidung von gasfoermigen und festen Schadstoffen aus Rueckstaenden, die bei thermischen Prozessen, insbesondere der Pyrolyse von Abfallstoffen, anfallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-10

    The invention concerns a process for separating gaseous and solid noxious substances from residues which occur in a thermal process, particularly the pyrolysis of waste material in the form of crude gas and solid remnants. The purpose of the invention is to create a process and a device of this kind, where it is possible to remove the part containing the noxious substances separately from the remaining solid residue of the thermal process, particularly the residue from pyrolysis, and to deposit it, and also to make it possible to free the crude gas, particularly pyrolysis gas, from gaseous noxious substances. According to the invention the problem is solved by taking the fine solid part of the solid residue together with the crude gas from the solid residue, which is removed from the thermal process as free falling material, to a reaction vessel, where, by adding additives the sold part or the gaseous noxious substances are bound and removed.

  7. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for non-thermal parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.

  8. Mitigating N2O emissions from clover residues by 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) without adverse effects on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xianwang; Duan, YunFeng; Schramm, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    in a 28-d mesocosm experiment, where DMPP spraying prior to tillage was simulated. Above-ground parts of 15N-labelled clover residues were treated with DMPP and either placed at 10 cm depth to simulate ploughing (PL), or mixed with soil at 0–10 cm depth to simulate rotovation (RO). Earthworms (Lumbricus...... terrestris) were introduced to study their role in residue decomposition and N2O emissions. Fluxes and isotopic composition of N2O were determined with dynamic chambers using laser spectroscopy. A gradual increase in 15N-enrichment of N2O indicated that denitrification was the main source. DMPP reduced...... cumulative N2O emissions in PL from 241 to 146 mg N m−2; the reduction in RO was smaller, from 103 to 94 mg N m−2, and not significant, possibly due to higher oxygen and soil NO3− availability. After 28 d incubation, on average > 90% of the earthworms were recovered, and in vivo N2O production from L...

  9. Enteric methane emissions from low- and high-residual feed intake beef heifers measured using GreenFeed and respiration chamber techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, A W; Vyas, D; Manafiazar, G; Basarab, J A; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI; g/d) and enteric methane (CH) production (g/kg DM) and to compare CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions measured using respiration chambers (RC) and the GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). A total of 98 crossbred replacement heifers were group housed in 2 pens and fed barley silage ad libitum and their individual feed intakes were recorded by 16 automated feeding bunks (GrowSafe, Airdrie, AB, Canada) for a period of 72 d to determine their phenotypic RFI. Heifers were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI, and 16 heifers (8 with low RFI and 8 with high RFI) were randomly selected for enteric CH and CO emissions measurement. Enteric CH and CO emissions of individual animals were measured over two 25-d periods using RC (2 d/period) and GEM systems (all days when not in chambers). During gas measurements metabolic BW tended to be greater ( ≤ 0.09) for high-RFI heifers but ADG tended ( = 0.09) to be greater for low-RFI heifers. As expected, high-RFI heifers consumed 6.9% more feed ( = 0.03) compared to their more efficient counterparts (7.1 vs. 6.6 kg DM/d). Average CH emissions were 202 and 222 g/d ( = 0.02) with the GEM system and 156 and 164 g/d ( = 0.40) with RC for the low- and high-RFI heifers, respectively. When adjusted for feed intake, CH yield (g/kg DMI) was similar for high- and low-RFI heifers (GEM: 27.7 and 28.5, = 0.25; RC: 26.5 and 26.5, = 0.99). However, CH yield differed between the 2 measurement techniques only for the high-RFI group ( = 0.01). Estimates of CO yield (g/kg DMI) also differed between the 2 techniques ( ≤ 0.03). Our study found that high- and low-efficiency cattle produce similar CH yield but different daily CH emissions. The 2 measurement techniques differ in estimating CH and CO emissions, partially because of differences in conditions (lower feed intakes of cattle while in chambers, fewer days

  10. Carbon emissions associated with the procurement and utilization of forest harvest residues for energy, northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant M. Domke; Dennis R. Becker; Anthony W. D' Amato; Alan R. Ek; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the use of forest-derived biomass for energy has prompted comparisons to fossil fuels and led to controversy over the atmospheric consequences of its utilization. Much of the debate has centered on the carbon storage implications of utilizing whole trees for energy and the time frame necessary to offset the carbon emissions associated with fixed-life...

  11. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  12. Influence of soil organic C content on the greenhouse gas emission potential after application of biogas residues or cattle slurry - Results from a pot experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Gawan

    2017-04-01

    Influence of soil organic C content on the greenhouse gas emission potential after application of biogas residues or cattle slurry - Results from a pot experiment Gawan Heintze1,2, Tim Eickenscheidt1, Urs Schmidthalter2 and Matthias Drösler1 1University of Applied Sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Chair of Vegetation Ecology, Weihenstephaner Berg 4, 85354 Freising, Germany 2Technische Universität München, Chair of Plant Nutrition, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354 Freising, Germany The European Union Renewable Energy Directive, which sets a binding target of a final energy consumption of 20% from renewable sources by 2020, has markedly promoted the increase of biogas plants, particularly in Germany. As a consequence, a large amount of biogas residue remains as a by-product of the fermentative process. These residues are now widely used instead of mineral fertilizers or animal slurries to maintain soil fertility and productivity. However, to date, the effect of the application of biogas residue on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, compared to that of other organic fertilizers, is contradictory in literature, not having been completely understood. It is often stated that GHG fluxes are closely related to the quality of the raw material, particularly the type of soil to which the digestates are applied. This study addresses the questions (a) to what extent are the applications of biogas digestate and cattle slurry different in terms of their GHG emission (CO2, CH4 and N2O) potential, and (b) how do different soil organic carbon contents (SOCs) influence the rate of GHG exchange. We hypothesize that, i) cattle slurry application enhances the CO2 and N2O fluxes compared to the biogas digestate due to the overall higher C and N input, and ii) that with increasing SOC and N content, higher emissions of CO2 and N2O can be expected. The study was conducted as a pot experiment. Biogas digestate and cattle slurry were applied to and incorporated into three different soil types with

  13. Characteristics of ash and particle emissions during bubbling fluidised bed combustion of three types of residual forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João Peres; Vicente, Estela Domingos; Alves, Célia; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio; Tarelho, Luís A C

    2017-04-01

    Combustion of residual forest biomass (RFB) derived from eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus), pine (Pinus pinaster) and golden wattle (Acacia longifolia) was evaluated in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor (BFBR). During the combustion experiments, monitoring of temperature, pressure and exhaust gas composition has been made. Ash samples were collected at several locations along the furnace and flue gas treatment devices (cyclone and bag filter) after each combustion experiment and were analysed for their unburnt carbon content and chemical composition. Total suspended particles (TSP) in the combustion flue gas were evaluated at the inlet and outlet of cyclone and baghouse filter and further analysed for organic and elemental carbon, carbonates and 57 chemical elements. High particulate matter collection efficiencies in the range of 94-99% were observed for the baghouse, while removal rates of only 1.4-17% were registered for the cyclone. Due to the sand bed, Si was the major element in bottom ashes. Fly ashes, in particular those from eucalypt combustion, were especially rich in CaO, followed by relevant amounts of SiO 2 , MgO and K 2 O. Ash characteristics varied among experiments, showing that their inorganic composition strongly depends on both the biomass composition and combustion conditions. Inorganic constituents accounted for TSP mass fractions up to 40 wt%. Elemental carbon, organic matter and carbonates contributed to TSP mass fractions in the ranges 0.58-44%, 0.79-78% and 0.01-1.7%, respectively.

  14. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  15. Scale-up study on combustibility and emission formation with two biomass fuels (B quality wood and pepper plant residue) under BFB conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Atif Ahmed; de Jong, Wiebren; Jansens, Peter Johannes [Department of Process and Energy, Section Energy Technology, Faculty 3ME, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, NL-2628 CA, Delft (Netherlands); Aho, Martti; Vainikka, Pasi [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Spliethoff, Hartmut [TU Munich, Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Kraftanlagen, Boltzmannstrasse 15, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Combustion of two biomass fuels: demolition wood (DW) and pepper plant residue (PPR), was investigated from an emission viewpoint in a 20 kW{sub th} fluidized bubbling bed reactor and a 1 MW{sub th} fluidized bubbling bed test boiler. Fluidization velocity and boiler output were varied in the larger facility whereas they were kept constant in the smaller reactor. Traditional flue gases were analyzed. In addition, impactor measurements were carried out to determine the mass flow of the finest fly ash and toxic elements. These measurements were compared with EU emission directives for biomass co-incineration. It was possible to combust DW without operational problems. However, the DW was contaminated with lead, which tended to get strongly enriched in the fine fly ash. Pb tends to be adsorbed on the measurement line surfaces stronger than many other toxic elements and therefore proved difficult to collect and measure. Enrichment of Pb in the fine fly ash can be weakened by co-firing DW with PPR. Increasing the share of PPR up to 50% markedly reduces the toxic metal concentration in the finest fly ash. This, however, leads to increased mass flow of fine fly ash and increases the potential risks of operational problems such as bed agglomeration and fouling. (author)

  16. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging of Residual Skull Base Chordoma Before Radiotherapy Using Fluoromisonidazole and Fluorodeoxyglucose: Potential Consequences for Dose Painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mammar, Hamid, E-mail: hamid.mammar@unice.fr [Radiation Oncology Department, Antoine Lacassagne Center, Nice (France); CNRS-UMR 6543, Institute of Developmental Biology and Cancer, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); Kerrou, Khaldoun; Nataf, Valerie [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmacy, Tenon Hospital, and University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Pontvert, Dominique [Proton Therapy Center of Orsay, Curie Institute, Paris (France); Clemenceau, Stephane [Department of Neurosurgery, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Lot, Guillaume [Department of Neurosurgery, Adolph De Rothschild Foundation, Paris (France); George, Bernard [Department of Neurosurgery, Lariboisiere Hospital, Paris (France); Polivka, Marc [Department of Pathology, Lariboisiere Hospital, Paris (France); Mokhtari, Karima [Department of Pathology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Paris (France); Ferrand, Regis; Feuvret, Loiec; Habrand, Jean-louis [Proton Therapy Center of Orsay, Curie Institute, Paris (France); Pouyssegur, Jacques; Mazure, Nathalie [CNRS-UMR 6543, Institute of Developmental Biology and Cancer, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); Talbot, Jean-Noeel [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmacy, Tenon Hospital, and University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To detect the presence of hypoxic tissue, which is known to increase the radioresistant phenotype, by its uptake of fluoromisonidazole (18F) (FMISO) using hybrid positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging, and to compare it with the glucose-avid tumor tissue imaged with fluorodeoxyglucose (18F) (FDG), in residual postsurgical skull base chordoma scheduled for radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Seven patients with incompletely resected skull base chordomas were planned for high-dose radiotherapy (dose {>=}70 Gy). All 7 patients underwent FDG and FMISO PET/CT. Images were analyzed qualitatively by visual examination and semiquantitatively by computing the ratio of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the tumor and cerebellum (T/C R), with delineation of lesions on conventional imaging. Results: Of the eight lesion sites imaged with FDG PET/CT, only one was visible, whereas seven of nine lesions were visible on FMISO PET/CT. The median SUVmax in the tumor area was 2.8 g/mL (minimum 2.1; maximum 3.5) for FDG and 0.83 g/mL (minimum 0.3; maximum 1.2) for FMISO. The T/C R values ranged between 0.30 and 0.63 for FDG (median, 0.41) and between 0.75 and 2.20 for FMISO (median,1.59). FMISO T/C R >1 in six lesions suggested the presence of hypoxic tissue. There was no correlation between FMISO and FDG uptake in individual chordomas (r = 0.18, p = 0.7). Conclusion: FMISO PET/CT enables imaging of the hypoxic component in residual chordomas. In the future, it could help to better define boosted volumes for irradiation and to overcome the radioresistance of these lesions. No relationship was founded between hypoxia and glucose metabolism in these tumors after initial surgery.

  17. Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring Disorders and ... 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 820 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone (703) 684.7722 Toll Free (800) 969.6642 ...

  18. Soil CO2 emission as related to incorporation of sugarcane crop residues and aggregate breaking after rotary tiller Emissão de CO2 do solo em função da incorporação de palha de cana-de-açúcar e quebra de agregados após preparo com enxada rotativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G Teixeira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil tillage is a process that accelerates soil organic matter decomposition transferring carbon to atmosphere, mainly in the CO2 form. In this study, the effect of rotary tillage on soil CO2 emission was investigated, including the presence of crop residues on the surface.Emissions were evaluated during 15 days after tillage in 3 plots: 1 non-tilled and without crop residues on soil surface (NTwo, 2 rotary tiller without the presence of crop residues on soil surface (RTwo, and 3 rotary tiller with the presence of crop residues in soil surface (RTw. Emissions from the RTw plot were higher than the other plots, (0.777 g CO2 m-2 h-1, with the lowest emissions recorded in the NTwo plot (0.414 g CO2 m-2 h-1. Total emission indicates that the difference of C-CO2 emitted to atmosphere corresponds to 3% of the total additional carbon in the crop residues in the RTw plot compared to RTwo. The increase in the RTwo emission in comparison to NTwo was followed by changes in the aggregate size distribution, especially those with average diameter lower than 2 mm. The increase in emission from the RTw plot in relation to RTwo was related to a decrease in crop residue mass on the surface, and its higher fragmentation and incorporation in soil. When the linear correlation between soil CO2 emission, and soil temperature and soil moisture is considered, only the RTw treatment showed significant correlation (pO preparo do solo é um dos processos que aceleram a decomposição da matéria orgânica, transferindo carbono para atmosfera, principalmente na forma de CO2. Neste trabalho, investigou-se o efeito do preparo com enxada rotativa sobre as emissões de CO2 do solo durante 02 semanas após o preparo do solo, incluindo-se a presença de resíduos vegetais sobre a superfície. As emissões foram avaliadas por 15 dias após preparo em 3 parcelas: 1 sem preparo e sem palha superficial (SPs; 2 preparo com enxada rotativa sem a presença de palha na superfície (ERs

  19. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2010-04-15

    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of encapsulated nitrate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, nitrate residues in tissues, and enteric methane emissions in beef steers: Finishing phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-08-01

    A finishing feedlot study was conducted with beef steers to determine effects of encapsulated nitrate (EN) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, methane production, and nitrate (NO) residues in tissues. The 132 crossbred steers were backgrounded in a feedlot for 91 d and transitioned for 28 days to the high-concentrate diets evaluated in the present study, maintaining the treatment and pen assignments designated at the start of the backgrounding period. The steers were initially assigned to 22 pens (6 animals per pen) in a randomized complete block design with BW (18 pens) and animals designated for methane measurement (4 pens) as blocking factors. Five animals in each pen designated for methane measurement (total of 20 animals) were monitored for methane emissions in respiratory chambers twice during the experiment. Pens received 3 dietary treatments (7 pens each): Control, a finishing diet supplemented with urea; 1.25% EN, control diet supplemented with 1.25% encapsulated NO in dietary DM that partially replaced urea; and 2.5% EN, control diet supplemented with 2.5% EN (DM basis) fully replacing urea. The final pen designated only for methane measurement received a fourth dietary treatment, 2.3% UEN, the control diet supplemented with unencapsulated NO (UEN) fully replacing urea. The cattle weighed 449 ± SD 32 kg at the start of the 150-d finishing period. The 2.5% EN diet decreased ( methane production (g/d) and yield (g/kg DMI) were observed among treatments. Inclusion of EN in the diets increased ( ≤ 0.03) sorting in favor of large and medium particles and against small and fine particles. Plasma NO and NO concentrations were elevated ( < 0.01) with EN in a dose-response manner, but total blood methemoglobin levels for all treatments were low, below the detection limit. Feeding EN increased ( < 0.01) NO concentrations of samples from muscle, fat, liver, and kidney; NO concentrations of these tissues were similar between 1.25% EN and 2.3% UEN. In

  1. Impact of the Application Technique on Nitrogen Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Budgets in Case of Energy Maize Fertilized with Biogas Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Monique; Fränzke, Manuel; Schuster, Carola; Kreuter, Thomas; Augustin, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    Despite an increasing cultivation of energy maize fertilized with ammonia-rich biogas residues (BR), little is known about the impact of the application technique on gaseous nitrogen (N) losses as well as N budgets, indicative of N use efficiency. To contribute to closing this knowledge gap we conducted a field experiment supplemented by a laboratory incubation study. The field experiment was carried out in Dedelow, located in the Northeastern German Lowlands and characterized by well-drained loamy sand (haplic luvisol). Two treatments with different application technique for BR fertilization - i) trail hoses and ii) injection - were compared to an unfertilized control (0% N). Seventy percent of the applied N-BR was assumed to be plant-available. In 2013, biweekly nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements were conducted during the time period between BR application and maize harvest (18.04.-11.09.2013; 147 days) using non-flow-through non-steady-state chamber measurements. To quantify soil Nmin status, soil samples were taken from 0-30 cm soil depth in the spring (before fertilization) and autumn (after maize harvest). Immediately after BR application, ammonia (NH3) volatilization was measured intensively using the open dynamic chamber Dräger-Tube method. Export of N due to harvest was determined via plant N content (Nharvest). Based on the measured N gas fluxes, N soil and plant parameters, soil N budgets were calculated using a simple difference approach. Values of N output (Nharvest, NN2O_cum and NNH3_cum) are subtracted from N input values (Nfertilizer and Nmin_autumnminus Nmin_spring). In order to correctly interpret N budgets, other N fluxes must be integrated into the budget calculation. Apart from soil-based mobilization and immobilization turnover processes and nitrate leaching, this applies specifically to N2 losses due to denitrification. Therefore, we measured the N2 emissions from laboratory-incubated undisturbed soil cores (250 cm3) by means of the helium

  2. Availability of Biomass Residues for Co-Firing in Peninsular Malaysia: Implications for Cost and GHG Emissions in the Electricity Sector

    OpenAIRE

    W. Michael Griffin; Jeremy Michalek; H. Scott Matthews; Mohd Nor Azman Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels comprise 93% of Malaysia’s electricity generation and account for 36% of the country’s 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has targeted the installation of 330 MW of biomass electricity generation capacity by 2015 to avoid 1.3 Mt of CO 2 emissions annually and offset some emissions due to increased coal use. One biomass option is to co-fire with coal, which can result in reduced GHG emissions, coal use, and costs of electricity. A linear optimization cost model wa...

  3. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  4. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  5. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  6. Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Wooster

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning emissions factors are vital to quantifying trace gas release from vegetation fires. Here we evaluate emissions factors for a series of savannah fires in Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa using ground-based open path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and an IR source separated by 150–250 m distance. Molecular abundances along the extended open path are retrieved using a spectral forward model coupled to a non-linear least squares fitting approach. We demonstrate derivation of trace gas column amounts for horizontal paths transecting the width of the advected plume, and find for example that CO mixing ratio changes of ~0.01 μmol mol−1 [10 ppbv] can be detected across the relatively long optical paths used here. Though FTIR spectroscopy can detect dozens of different chemical species present in vegetation fire smoke, we focus our analysis on five key combustion products released preferentially during the pyrolysis (CH2O, flaming (CO2 and smoldering (CO, CH4, NH3 processes. We demonstrate that well constrained emissions ratios for these gases to both CO2 and CO can be derived for the backfire, headfire and residual smouldering combustion (RSC stages of these savannah fires, from which stage-specific emission factors can then be calculated. Headfires and backfires often show similar emission ratios and emission factors, but those of the RSC stage can differ substantially. The timing of each fire stage was identified via airborne optical and thermal IR imagery and ground-observer reports, with the airborne IR imagery also used to derive estimates of fire radiative energy (FRE, allowing the relative amount of fuel burned in each stage to be calculated and "fire averaged" emission ratios and emission factors to be determined. These "fire averaged" metrics are dominated by the headfire contribution, since the FRE data indicate that the vast majority

  7. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

  8. Biochar from Sugarcane Filtercake Reduces Soil CO2 Emissions Relative to Raw Residue and Improves Water Retention and Nutrient Availability in a Highly-Weathered Tropical Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S.; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

  9. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Joy Eykelbosh

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w. were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w. raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w. in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions.

  10. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %, sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %, and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water. For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %, sulfate (23.4 %, and ammonium (16 %. Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb, making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud

  11. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  12. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  13. Energy and greenhouse gas balance of the use of forest residues for bioenergy production in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Carly; Mortimer, Nigel; Murphy, Richard; Matthews, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle analysis is used to assess the energy requirements and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with extracting UK forest harvesting residues for use as a biomass resource. Three forest harvesting residues were examined (whole tree thinnings, roundwood and brash bales), and each have their own energy and emission profile. The whole forest rotation was examined, including original site establishment, forest road construction, biomass harvesting during thinning and final clear-fell events, chipping and transportation. Generally, higher yielding sites give lower GHG emissions per ‘oven dried tonne’ (ODT) forest residues, but GHG emissions ‘per hectare’ are higher as more biomass is extracted. Greater quantities of biomass, however, ultimately mean greater displacement of conventional fuels and therefore greater potential for GHG emission mitigation. Although forest road construction and site establishment are “one off” events they are highly energy-intensive operations associated with high diesel fuel consumption, when placed in context with the full forest rotation, however, their relative contributions to the overall energy requirements and GHG emissions are small. The lower bulk density of wood chips means that transportation energy requirements and GHG emissions are higher compared with roundwood logs and brash bales, suggesting that chipping should occur near the end-user of application. -- Highlights: ► GHGs and fuel consumption assessed for UK clear-fell conifer forest residues. ► Energy use and GHG emissions for forest road construction characterised. ► Lower energy requirements and GHG emissions per ODT for higher yielding sites. ► Transport energy and GHG emissions higher for wood chip than roundwood or brash bales. ► Results useful in predicting GHG mitigation potential from UK commercial conifer forest residues.

  14. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Christian, Ted J.; Goetz, J. Douglas; Jayarathne, Thilina; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Saikawa, Eri; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Panday, Arnico K.

    2016-09-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient) combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning), crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS), and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm) based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs) for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg-1 fuel burned), single scattering albedos (SSAs), and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs). From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC) emission factors (g kg-1 fuel burned). The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg-1) for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ˜ 80 gases in all). The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68) was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10). Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg-1), organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg-1), and HCN (2.01 ± 1.25 g kg-1), where the latter could

  15. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Stockwell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning, crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS, and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg−1 fuel burned, single scattering albedos (SSAs, and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs. From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC emission factors (g kg−1 fuel burned. The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg−1 for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ∼ 80 gases in all. The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68 was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10. Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg−1, organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg−1, and HCN

  16. Residue Derived Fuels as an Alternative Fuel for the Hellenic Power Generation Sector and their Potential for Emissions ReductionConstantinos S. Psomopoulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos S. Psomopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Landfill Directive (1999/31 EC promotes more environmental friendly waste management options, by reducing the amount of wastes and more specific of biodegradable wastes, disposed of in landfills. The EU member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment process for municipal solid waste and non-hazardous industrial wastes to comply with the abovementioned Directive's targets on landfill diversion, and produce waste derived fuels such as refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel. Waste derived fuels present high calorific values depending on their synthesis and are being used both in dedicated waste-to-energy plants and as fuel substitutes in industrial processes. In this paper the refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel production and utilisation options in European Union are presented, and the possibilities in Greece based on the waste production and National Plan for Waste Management of the Ministry of Environment is attempted. The existing and ongoing studies on co-combustion and co-gasification with brown coal support the use of refuse derived fuel and solid recovered fuel as fuel on Hellenic Power Sector, adopting in the existing lignite power plants adequate Air Pollution Control systems. If the co-combustion or co-gasification of these alternative fuels is adopted from the Hellenic Power Sector a reduction on emissions is expected that cannot be neglected.

  17. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  18. Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Julie D; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-11-01

    Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during the resting period. As the resting period proceeded, atmospheric air re-entered the pore space at all depth levels. The methane (CH 4 ) concentration was at its highest during the first part of the resting period, and then declined as the sludge residue became more dewatered and thereby aerated. In the pore space, the concentration of CH 4 often exceeded the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). However, the total emission of CO 2 from the surface of the sludge residue exceeded the total emission of CH 4 , suggesting that CO 2 was mainly produced in the layer of newly applied sludge and/or that CO 2 was emitted from the sludge residue more readily compared to CH 4 .

  19. Postharvest nitrous oxide emissions from a subtropical oxisol as influenced by summer crop residues and their management Emissão de óxido nitroso do solo no periodo pós-colheita alterada pelos resíduos das culturas de verão e seu manejo em latossolo do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Escobar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is the most important non-CO2 greenhouse gas and soil management systems should be evaluated for their N2O mitigation potential. This research evaluated a long-term (22 years experiment testing the effect of soil management systems on N2O emissions in the postharvest period (autumn from a subtropical Rhodic Hapludox at the research center FUNDACEP, in Cruz Alta, state of Rio Grande do Sul. Three treatments were evaluated, one under conventional tillage with soybean residues (CTsoybean and two under no-tillage with soybean (NTsoybean and maize residues (NTmaize. N2O emissions were measured eight times within 24 days (May 2007 using closed static chambers. Gas flows were obtained based on the relations between gas concentrations in the chamber at regular intervals (0, 15, 30, 45 min analyzed by gas chromatography. After soybean harvest, accumulated N2O emissions in the period were approximately three times higher in the untilled soil (164 mg m-2 N than under CT (51 mg m-2 N, with a short-lived N2O peak of 670 mg m-2 h-1 N. In contrast, soil N2O emissions in NT were lower after maize than after soybean, with a N2O peak of 127 g m-2 h-1 N. The multivariate analysis of N2O fluxes and soil variables, which were determined simultaneously with air sampling, demonstrated that the main driving variables of soil N2O emissions were soil microbial activity, temperature, water-filled pore space, and NO3- content. To replace soybean monoculture, crop rotation including maize must be considered as a strategy to decrease soil N2O emissions from NT soils in Southern Brazil in a Autumn.O óxido nitroso (N2O é o mais importante gás de efeito estufa excetuando o CO2, e os sistemas de manejo devem ser avaliados quanto ao potencial de mitigação da emissão desse gás. O presente estudo foi realizado em experimento de longa duração (22 anos e teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de sistemas de manejo nas emissões de N2O no período p

  20. Oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Carla Maria; Ferreira, António César Silva; Freitas, Victor De; Silva, Artur M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present review aims to show the state of the art on the oxidation mechanisms occurring in wines, as well as the methods to monitor, classify and diagnose wine oxidation. Wine oxidation can be divided in enzymatic oxidation and non-enzymatic oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation almost entirely occurs in grape must and is largely correlated with the content of hydroxycinnamates, such as caffeoyltartaric acid and paracoumaroyltartaric acid, and flavan-3-ols. Non-enzymatic oxidation, al...

  1. Crop residues as raw materials for biorefinery systems - A LCA case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, Francesco; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Our strong dependence on fossil fuels results from the intensive use and consumption of petroleum derivatives which, combined with diminishing oil resources, causes environmental and political concerns. The utilization of agricultural residues as raw materials in a biorefinery is a promising alternative to fossil resources for production of energy carriers and chemicals, thus mitigating climate change and enhancing energy security. This paper focuses on a biorefinery concept which produces bioethanol, bioenergy and biochemicals from two types of agricultural residues, corn stover and wheat straw. These biorefinery systems are investigated using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, which takes into account all the input and output flows occurring along the production chain. This approach can be applied to almost all the other patterns that convert lignocellulosic residues into bioenergy and biochemicals. The analysis elaborates on land use change aspects, i.e. the effects of crop residue removal (like decrease in grain yields, change in soil N 2 O emissions and decrease of soil organic carbon). The biorefinery systems are compared with the respective fossil reference systems producing the same amount of products/services from fossils instead of biomass. Since climate change mitigation and energy security are the two most important driving forces for biorefinery development, the assessment focuses on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cumulative primary energy demand, but other environmental categories are evaluated as well. Results show that the use of crop residues in a biorefinery saves GHG emissions and reduces fossil energy demand. For instance, GHG emissions are reduced by about 50% and more than 80% of non-renewable energy is saved. Land use change effects have a strong influence in the final GHG balance (about 50%), and their uncertainty is discussed in a sensitivity analysis. Concerning the investigation of the other impact categories, biorefinery systems

  2. Management of municipal solid waste incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbas, T.; Polettini, A.; Pomi, R.; Astrup, T.; Hjelmar, O.; Mostbauer, P.; Cappai, G.; Magel, G.; Salhofer, S.; Speiser, C.; Heuss-Assbichler, S.; Klein, R.; Lechner, P.

    2003-01-01

    The management of residues from thermal waste treatment is an integral part of waste management systems. The primary goal of managing incineration residues is to prevent any impact on our health or environment caused by unacceptable particulate, gaseous and/or solute emissions. This paper provides insight into the most important measures for putting this requirement into practice. It also offers an overview of the factors and processes affecting these mitigating measures as well as the short- and long-term behavior of residues from thermal waste treatment under different scenarios. General conditions affecting the emission rate of salts and metals are shown as well as factors relevant to mitigating measures or sources of gaseous emissions

  3. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  4. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training)

  5. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  6. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  7. Early occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with health-risk estimates for early and continuing effects of exposure to ionizing radiations that could be associated with light water nuclear power plants accidents. Early and continuing effects considered are nonneoplastic diseases and symptoms that normally occur soon after radiation exposure, but may also occur after years have passed. They are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) doses. For most of the effects considered, there is a practical dose threshold. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or the likelihood of receiving a large radiation dose, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. In utero exposure of the fetus is also considered. New data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study (WASH 1400, 1975) were used along with data cited in the Study to develop improved health-risk models for morbidity and mortality. The new models are applicable to a broader range of accident scenarios, provide a more detailed treatment of dose protraction effects, and include morbidity effects not considered in the Reactor Safety Study. 115 references, 20 figures, 19 tables

  8. Naturally-occurring alpha activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayneord, W V

    1960-12-01

    In view of the difficulties of assessing the significance of man-made radioactivity it is important to study for comparison the background of natural radioactivity against which the human race has evolved and lives. It is also important to define the present levels of activity so that it will be possible to detect and study as quickly as possible any changes which may occur owing to the release into the environment of new radioactive materials. Moreover, by the study of the behaviour of natural radioactivity light may be shed upon that of the artificially produced isotopes and a number of analogies traced between the two groups. These concepts have led to studies of naturally-occurring radioactive materials alongside a programme of research into fission products in food, water and air, as well as studies of the metabolism of both sets of materials in the human body. Since the last report there has been a useful increase in our knowledge of natural radioactivity in the biosphere, and its levels relative to the new man-made activities. These studies have necessitated technical developments, particularly in the methods of measuring and identifying alpha-ray emitters, to which group many of the more important natural radioactive materials belong.

  9. Naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ping; Liu, Zizhen; Xie, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Wang, Xiaohong; Meng, Shen; She, Gaimei

    2014-01-01

    As an important part of non steroids anti-inflammation drug (NSAIDs), salicylate has developed from natural substance salicylic acid to natrium salicylicum, to aspirin. Now, methyl salicylate glycoside, a new derivative of salicylic acid, is modified with a -COOH group integrated one methyl radical into formic ether, and a -OH linked with a monosaccharide, a disaccharide or a trisaccharide unit by glycosidic linkage. It has the similar pharmacological activities, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic as the previous salicylates' without resulting in serious side effects, particularly the gastrointestinal toxicity. Owing to the superiority of those significant bioactivities, methyl salicylate glycosides have became a hot research area in NSAIDs for several years. This paper compiles all 9 naturally occurring methyl salicylate glycosides, their distribution of the resource and pharmacological mechanism, which could contribute to the new drug discovery.

  10. What occurred in the reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Described is what occurred in the reactors of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant at the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) from the aspect of engineering science. The tsunami attacked the Plant 1 hr after the quake. The Plant had reactors in buildings no.1-4 at 10 m height from the normal sea level which was flooded by 1.5-5.5 m high wave. All reactors in no.1-6 in the Plant were the boiling water type, and their core nuclear reactions were stopped within 3 sec due to the first quake by control rods inserted automatically. Reactors in no.1-5 lost their external AC power sources by the breakdown and subsequent submergence (no.1-4) of various equipments and in no.1, 2 and 4, the secondary DC power was then lost by the battery death. Although the isolation condenser started to cool the reactor in no.1 after DC cut, its valve was then kept closed to heat up the reactor, leading to the reaction of heated Zr in the fuel tube and water to yield H 2 which was accumulated in the building: the cause of hydrogen explosion on 12th. The reactor in no.2 had the reactor core isolation cooling system (RCIC) which operated normally for few hrs, then probably stopped to heat up the reactor, resulting in meltdown of the core but no explosion occurred because of the opened door of the blowout panel on the wall by the blast of no.1 explosion. The reactor in no.3 had RCIC and high pressure coolant injection system, but their works stopped to result in the core damage and H 2 accumulation leading to the explosion on 14th. The reactor in no.4 had not been operated because of its periodical annual examination, but was explored on 15th, of which cause was thought to be due to backward flow of H 2 from no.3. Finally, the author discusses about this accident from the industrial aspect of the design of safety level (defense in depth) on international views, and problems and tasks given. (T.T.)

  11. Earl occurring and continuing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter develops health-risk models for early and continuing effects of exposure to beta or gamma radiation that could be associated with light water nuclear power plant accidents. The main purpose of the chapter is to provide details on each health-risk model and on the data used. Early and continuing effects considered are prodromal symptoms and nonneoplastic diseases that usually occur soon after a brief radiation exposure. These effects are generally associated with relatively high (greater than 1 Gy) absorbed organ doses. For most of the effects considered, there is an absorbed organ dose threshold below which no effects are seen. Some information is provided on health effects observed in victims of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Organs of primary interest, because of their high sensitivity or their potential for receiving large doses, are bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid glands, lungs, skin, gonads, and eyes. Exposure of the fetus is also considered. Additional data and modeling techniques available since publication of the Reactor Safety Study were used to obtain models for morbidity and mortality

  12. Does overtraining occur in triathletes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Margaritis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. Objective: Long distance triathlon training is characterized by considerably high volume training loads. This volume can provoke an overtraining state. The aim of the study was to determine whether overtraining occurs in well-trained male triathletes in relation with their volume training loads. 2. Experimental design: A questionnaire investigation was completed two days before the Nice long-distance triathlon (October 1995: 4-km swim, 120-km bike ride and 30-km run. 3. Participants: Ninety-three well-trained male triathletes who took part in the triathlon race. 4. Measures: A questionnaire to relate clinical symptoms, which are known to appear in case of overtraining, was collected. 5. Results: 39.8% of the questioned triathletes reported a decrease in triathlon performances within the last month preceding the race. Moreover, these triathletes exhibited significantly more overtraining-relied symptoms than the others (5.9±3.8 vs 3.4±2.6, P<0.05. Surprisingly, the occurrence of overtraining in triathletes appears not to depend on the volume training loads. 6. Conclusions: These results suggest that overtraining has to be considered in the case of triathletes. This preliminary study evidences the need for further investigation in order to monitor triathletes training respond and prevent overtraining.

  13. Field determination of biomass burning emission ratios and factors via open-path FTIR spectroscopy and fire radiative power assessment: headfire, backfire and residual smouldering combustion in African savannahs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wooster, MJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning emissions factors are vital to quantifying trace gases releases from vegetation fires. Here the authors evaluate emissions factors for a series of savannah fires in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa using ground-based open...

  14. The environmental impacts of production and use of energy. Part IV - The comparative assessment of the environmental impacts of energy sources. Phase I - Comparative data on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources. Report of the Executive Director

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolba, Mostafa K [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1985-01-01

    Technical Research Centre of Finland and will represent Phase Two of the Comparative Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Energy Sources. The intention of this report is to provide basic information on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources in a comparative way. It is hoped that this report, together with its complementary Phase Two study and the planned Phase Three, on tools and methods for incorporating the environmental factor in the energy decision-making process, will provide information on environmental data and environmental costs and benefits of commercial sources of energy and assist those responsible for decisions to evaluate these factors in a rational way. It is essential that adequate account is taken of environmental factors before a decision is made to adopt a certain policy or to develop an energy mix to satisfy a country's needs. It is also our intention to bring into focus the inadequacies in our knowledge of the environmental impacts of production and use of energy so that these can be given priority by the scientific community.

  15. The environmental impacts of production and use of energy. Part IV - The comparative assessment of the environmental impacts of energy sources. Phase I - Comparative data on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources. Report of the Executive Director

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolba, Mostafa K.

    1985-01-01

    Technical Research Centre of Finland and will represent Phase Two of the Comparative Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Energy Sources. The intention of this report is to provide basic information on the emissions, residuals and health hazards of energy sources in a comparative way. It is hoped that this report, together with its complementary Phase Two study and the planned Phase Three, on tools and methods for incorporating the environmental factor in the energy decision-making process, will provide information on environmental data and environmental costs and benefits of commercial sources of energy and assist those responsible for decisions to evaluate these factors in a rational way. It is essential that adequate account is taken of environmental factors before a decision is made to adopt a certain policy or to develop an energy mix to satisfy a country's needs. It is also our intention to bring into focus the inadequacies in our knowledge of the environmental impacts of production and use of energy so that these can be given priority by the scientific community

  16. Fact Sheet for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities Residual Risk and Technology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities to address the results of the residual risk and technology review

  17. Residual entanglement and sudden death: A direct connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.G.G. de; Peixoto de Faria, J.G.; Nemes, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the results of [V. Coffman, et al., Phys. Rev. A 61 (2000) 052306] derived for general tripartite states in a dynamical context. We study a class of physically motivated tripartite systems. We show that whenever entanglement sudden death occurs in one of the partitions residual entanglement will appear. For fourpartite systems however, the appearance of residual entanglement is not conditioned by sudden death of entanglement. We can only say that if sudden death of entanglement occurs in some partition there will certainly be residual entanglement. -- Highlights: ► For tripartite systems we show there exists residual entanglement if sudden death occurs. ► For fourpartite systems, the residual entanglement is not conditioned by sudden death. ► If sudden death of entanglement occurs there will certainly be residual entanglement.

  18. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  19. Advantages and pitfalls of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in detecting locally residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Chen; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Ng, Shu-Hang; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Yen-Chao; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Wang, Hung-Ming; Liao, Chun-Ta

    2006-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to elucidate the advantages and pitfalls of 18 F-FDG PET in detecting locally residual/recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in comparison with MRI. We recruited NPC patients from two ongoing prospective trials. One is being performed to evaluate suspected local recurrence (group A) and the other to assess local treatment response 3 months after therapy (group B). Both groups received 18 F-FDG PET and head and neck MRI. The gold standard was histopathology or clinical/imaging follow-up. An optimal cut-off standardised uptake value (SUV) was retrospectively determined. From January 2002 to August 2004, 146 patients were eligible. Thirty-four were from group A and 112 from group B. In all, 26 had locally recurrent/residual tumours. Differences in detection rate between 18 F-FDG PET and MRI were not statistically significant in either group. However, 18 F-FDG PET showed significantly higher specificity than MRI in detecting residual tumours among patients with initial T4 disease (p=0.04). In contrast, the specificity of 18 F-FDG PET for patients with an initial T1-2 tumour treated with intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) was significantly lower than that for patients not treated by ICBT (72.2% vs 98.1%, p=0.003). At an SUV cut-off of 4.2, PET showed an equal and a higher accuracy compared with MRI in groups A and B, respectively. 18 F-FDG PET is superior to MRI in identifying locally residual NPC among patients with initial T4 disease but demonstrates limitations in assessing treatment response in patients with initial T1-2 disease after ICBT. A cut-off SUV is a useful index for aiding in the visual detection of locally residual/recurrent NPC. (orig.)

  20. Thermodynamic Effects of Replacements of Pro Residues in Helix Interiors of Maltose-Binding Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, RS; Lingaraju, GM; Bacchawat, Kiran; Surolia, Avadhesha; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2003-01-01

    Introduction of Pro residues into helix interiors results in protein destabilization. It is currently unclear if the converse substitution (i.e., replacement of Pro residues that naturally occur in helix interiors would be stabilizing). Maltose-binding protein is a large 370-amino acid protein that contains 21 Pro residues. Of these, three nonconserved residues (P48, P133, and P159) occur at helix interiors. Each of the residues was replaced with Ala and Ser. Stabilities were characterized by...

  1. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  2. Feed or bioenergy production from agri-industrial residues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    induced GHG emissions). All in all, the use of biomasses that are today used as animal feed (e.g. beet molasses) induced significant GHG emissions through iLUC. These were quantified at between 1-3.5 t CO2/t dry residue depending upon the nutritional value. The recommendation is to avoid the use...

  3. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  4. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Nitrous oxide production from soils amended with biogas residues and cattle slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubaker, J; Odlare, M; Pell, M

    2013-07-01

    The amount of residues generated from biogas production has increased dramatically due to the worldwide interest in renewable energy. A common way to handle the residues is to use them as fertilizers in crop production. Application of biogas residues to agricultural soils may be accompanied with environmental risks, such as increased NO emission. In 24-d laboratory experiments, NO dynamics and total production were studied in arable soils (sandy, clay, and organic) amended with one of two types of anaerobically digested biogas residues (BR-A and BR-B) generated from urban and agricultural waste and nondigested cattle slurry (CS) applied at rates corresponding to 70 kg NH-N ha. Total NO-N losses from the sandy soil were higher after amendment with BR-B (0.32 g NO-N m) than BR-A or CS (0.02 and 0.18 g NO-N m, respectively). In the clay soil, NO-N losses were very low for CS (0.02 g NO-N m) but higher for BR-A and BR-B (0.25 and 0.15 g NO-N m, respectively). In the organic soil, CS gave higher total NO-N losses (0.31 g NO-N m) than BR-A or BR-B (0.09 and 0.08 g NO-N m, respectively). Emission peaks differed considerably between soils, occurring on Day 1 in the organic soil and on Days 11 to 15 in the sand, whereas in the clay the peak varied markedly (Days 1, 6, and 13) depending on residue type. In all treatments, NH concentration decreased with time, and NO concentration increased. Potential ammonium oxidation and potential denitrification activity increased significantly in the amended sandy soil but not in the organic soil and only in the clay amended with CS. The results showed that fertilization with BR can increase NO emissions and that the size is dependent on the total N and organic C content of the slurry and on soil type. In conclusion, the two types of BR and the CS are not interchangeable regarding their effects on NO production in different soils, and, hence, matching fertilizer type to soil type could reduce NO emissions. For instance, it could be

  6. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    . This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish...... emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic...... compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH3 to 73 800 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission...

  7. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  8. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  9. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  10. A New Top-Down Decadal Constraint on Black Carbon Emissions over Asia - Capturing The Influence of Widespread and Regularly Occurring Fires and Urbanization: Greater Atmospheric Loading and Variability, Larger Impacts on Radiative Forcing at the Surface and in the Atmosphere, and Possible Feedback Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    A global top-down study of Black Carbon (BC) Emissions has found that sources are considerably higher than present day emissions datasets, with most of this underestimation stemming from the rapidly developing areas of East and Southeast Asia. An additional source in these regions is the frequent and sometimes annual influence of extreme biomass burning events, which emit additional BC and other aerosols into the atmosphere. An additional top-down study has shown that the emissions of BC from these biomass burning events in Southeast Asia contribute an additional 30% increase in the annual average BC emissions, and an additional 110% increase during the highest fire year. One important reason for this underestimation is that many of these source regions do not appear as fires, due to missing MODIS overpasses, intense cloud cover, and low fire temperatures at the wet surface. These new temporally and spatially varying emissions of BC are run in a state-of-the art combined model of aerosol physics, chemistry, and general circulation, including urban scale chemical processing and core/shell aerosol mixture impacts on radiation. The results reveal that this new dataset matches in space, time, and magnitude, an array of observations (remotely sensed, ground, and column) far better than other emission datasets: IPCC SRES, AEROCOM, BOND, and GFED. The modeled mean atmospheric extinction and loading are both much higher and more variable than previous modelling efforts, leading to a larger negative surface radiative forcing. At the same time, atmospheric absorption is enhanced and more variable, leading to intense atmospheric heating, with the average impact from 1.0-1.5 W/m2. This has impacts on the vertical stability in the source areas, and leads to changes in the dynamics such as a shifting of the ITCZ, reducing light precipitation and increasing strong convection. To support this, a bit of measurement-based evidence presented for each of these phenomena.

  11. Optimization of manuring with fermentation residues in order to reduce the nitrogen emissions and optimization of the humus balance; Optimierung der Gaerrestduengung zur Reduzierung der Stickstoffemissionen und Optimierung der Humusbilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Kurt [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Kulturpflanzenwissenschaften

    2011-07-01

    On the one hand, the introduction of a biogas plant is connected with the possibility of optimizing the internal nutrient cycles and the reduction of nitrogen losses. On the other hand, the improper handling of the digestate and ''stupid'' cropping systems increase the nitrogen emissions significantly. Therefore, biogas plants are faced with many challenges in order to optimize the nutrient cycling, to reduce their nitrogen losses to a minimum and to keep the humus balance in mind. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on some opportunities for optimization.

  12. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  13. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  14. Influx of CO2 from Soil Incubated Organic Residues at Constant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukat Ali Abro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature induced CO2 from genotypic residue substances is still less understood. Two types of organic residues (wheat- maize were incubated at a constant temperature (25°C to determine the rate and cumulative influx of CO2 in laboratory experiment for 40 days. Further, the effect of surface and incorporated crop residues with and without phosphorus addition was also studied. Results revealed that mixing of crop residues increased CO2-C evolution significantly & emission rare was 37% higher than that of control. At constant temperature, soil mixed residues, had higher emission rates CO2-C than the residues superimposed. There was linear correlation of CO2-C influxed for phosphorus levels and residue application ways with entire incubation at constant temperature. The mixing of organic residues to soil enhanced SOC levels and biomass of microbially bound N; however to little degree ammonium (NH4-N and nitrate NO3-N nitrogen were decreased.

  15. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  16. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  17. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  18. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  19. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-10-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data.

  20. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data

  1. Optimization of heat-liberating batches for ash residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlackova, G.A.; Ojovan, M.I.; Tivansky, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ash residue obtained after incineration of solid radioactive waste is a dusting poly-dispersed powder like material that contains radioactive nuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu, hor ( ellipsis)). Specific radioactivity of the ash can be about 10 5 --10 7 Bq/kg. In order to dispose of the ash, residue shall be stabilized by producing a monolith material. The ash residue can be either vitrified or stabilized into a ceramic matrix. For this purpose the ash residue is mixed with fluxing agents followed by melting of obtained composition in the different type melters. As a rule this requires both significant energy consumption and complex melting equipment. A stabilization technology of ash residue was proposed recently by using heat liberating batches-compositions with redox properties. The ash residue is melted due to exothermic chemical reactions in the mixture with heat-liberating batch that occur with considerable release of heat. Stabilization method has three stages: (1) preparation of a mixture of heating batch and ash residue with or without glass forming batch (frit); (2) ignition and combustion of mixed composition; (3) cooling (quenching) of obtained vitreous material. Combustion of mixed composition occurs in the form of propagation of reacting wave. The heat released during exothermic chemical reactions provides melting of ash residue components and production of glass-like phase. The final product consists of a glass like matrix with embedded crystalline inclusions of infusible ash residue components

  2. Rare Earth Element Phases in Bauxite Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vind

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present work was to provide mineralogical insight into the rare earth element (REE phases in bauxite residue to improve REE recovering technologies. Experimental work was performed by electron probe microanalysis with energy dispersive as well as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. REEs are found as discrete mineral particles in bauxite residue. Their sizes range from <1 μm to about 40 μm. In bauxite residue, the most abundant REE bearing phases are light REE (LREE ferrotitanates that form a solid solution between the phases with major compositions (REE,Ca,Na(Ti,FeO3 and (Ca,Na(Ti,FeO3. These are secondary phases formed during the Bayer process by an in-situ transformation of the precursor bauxite LREE phases. Compared to natural systems, the indicated solid solution resembles loparite-perovskite series. LREE particles often have a calcium ferrotitanate shell surrounding them that probably hinders their solubility. Minor amount of LREE carbonate and phosphate minerals as well as manganese-associated LREE phases are also present in bauxite residue. Heavy REEs occur in the same form as in bauxites, namely as yttrium phosphates. These results show that the Bayer process has an impact on the initial REE mineralogy contained in bauxite. Bauxite residue as well as selected bauxites are potentially good sources of REEs.

  3. Methods of measuring residual stresses in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, N.S.; Dassisti, M.; Benyounis, K.Y.; Olabi, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Defining the different methods of measuring residual stresses in manufactured components. ► Comprehensive study on the hole drilling, neutron diffraction and other techniques. ► Evaluating advantage and disadvantage of each method. ► Advising the reader with the appropriate method to use. -- Abstract: Residual stresses occur in many manufactured structures and components. Large number of investigations have been carried out to study this phenomenon and its effect on the mechanical characteristics of these components. Over the years, different methods have been developed to measure residual stress for different types of components in order to obtain reliable assessment. The various specific methods have evolved over several decades and their practical applications have greatly benefited from the development of complementary technologies, notably in material cutting, full-field deformation measurement techniques, numerical methods and computing power. These complementary technologies have stimulated advances not only in measurement accuracy and reliability, but also in range of application; much greater detail in residual stresses measurement is now available. This paper aims to classify the different residual stresses measurement methods and to provide an overview of some of the recent advances in this area to help researchers on selecting their techniques among destructive, semi destructive and non-destructive techniques depends on their application and the availabilities of those techniques. For each method scope, physical limitation, advantages and disadvantages are summarized. In the end this paper indicates some promising directions for future developments.

  4. Drill machine guidance using natural occurring radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, H.D.; Schroeder, R.L.; Williams, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A drilling machine guidance system is described which uses only the naturally occuring radiation within the seam or stratum of interest. The apparatus can be used for guiding horizontal drilling machines through coal seams and the like. (U.K.)

  5. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and literature ..... thyroid cancers, pancreatic tumors, renal cancers, and melanoma. ... Hsing AW, Yeboah E, Biritwum R, Tettey Y, De Marzo AM,. Adjei A, et ...

  6. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  7. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  8. Laboratory technique for quantitative thermal emissivity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emission of radiation from a sample occurs due to thermal vibration of its .... Quantitative thermal emissivity measurements of geological samples. 393. Figure 1. ...... tral mixture modeling: A new analysis of rock and soil types at the Viking ...

  9. Primary intraosseous carcinoma occurring in the maxilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Ja [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) is a rare odontogenic carcinoma defined as a squamous cell carcinoma arising within a jaw having no initial connection with the oral mucosa, and presumably developing from residues of the odontogenic epithelium. A 56-year-old patient who complained of delayed healing after extraction of upper left central incisor visited our department. The conventional radiographs showed a bony destructive lesion with ill-defined margin and moth-eaten appearance. On the computed tomographic images, the lesion perforated the labial cortex of alveolar bone, elevated the left nasal floor superiorly, and perforated partially both nasal floor. The magnetic resonance images showed low signal intensity at T2 and T1 weighted images at the area and adjacent soft tissue. Histologically, there were irregular epithelial islands with cell atypia, nuclear hyperchromatism, pleomorphism, atypical mitosis. The final diagnosis was PIOC.

  10. Primary intraosseous carcinoma occurring in the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Ja

    2004-01-01

    Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) is a rare odontogenic carcinoma defined as a squamous cell carcinoma arising within a jaw having no initial connection with the oral mucosa, and presumably developing from residues of the odontogenic epithelium. A 56-year-old patient who complained of delayed healing after extraction of upper left central incisor visited our department. The conventional radiographs showed a bony destructive lesion with ill-defined margin and moth-eaten appearance. On the computed tomographic images, the lesion perforated the labial cortex of alveolar bone, elevated the left nasal floor superiorly, and perforated partially both nasal floor. The magnetic resonance images showed low signal intensity at T2 and T1 weighted images at the area and adjacent soft tissue. Histologically, there were irregular epithelial islands with cell atypia, nuclear hyperchromatism, pleomorphism, atypical mitosis. The final diagnosis was PIOC.

  11. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  12. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  13. Corn Residue Use by Livestock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty R. Schmer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn ( L. residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha, Iowa (385,000 ha, South Dakota (361,000 ha, and Kansas (344,000 ha. Average grazing days ranged from 10 to 73 d (mean = 40 d. Corn residue harvests predominantly occurred in the central and northern Corn Belt, with an estimated 2.9 Tg of corn residue harvested across the 19 states. This survey highlights the importance of corn residue for US livestock, particularly in the western Corn Belt.

  14. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  15. Biological treatment of crop residues for ruminant feeding: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Further, recent studies have indicated low methane emission from feedstuffs subjected to solid state fermentation (SSF) with ... many tropical countries subsist mainly on crop residue based diets. The increasing ... partial breakdown of the lignin-carbohydrate complex. (Keller et al., 2003) thus improving their ...

  16. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues

  17. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  18. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    /current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...

  19. Formal synthesis of naturally occurring norephedrine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A concise and simple synthesis of 1-hydroxy-phenethylamine derivatives has been achieved following classical organic transformations using commercially available chiral pools. The said derivatives were explored for the synthesis of naturally occurring bio-active small molecules. Formal synthesis of norephedrine, virolin ...

  20. Percieved functions of naturally occurring autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, L. S.; Henriksen, J. R.; Lundhus, S.

    2005-01-01

    The main empirical reference on functions of autobiographical memories is still Hyman & Faries (1992) who used the cue-word-method and retrospective judgements. We used diaries to sample naturally occurring autobiographical memories and participants? perceived use of these. Results partly replicate...

  1. A naturally occurring trap for antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eades, J.; Morita, N.; Ito, T.M.

    1993-05-01

    The phenomenon of delayed annihilation of antiprotons in helium is the first instance of a naturally occurring trap for antimatter in ordinary matter. Recent studies of this effect at CERN are summarized, and plans are described for laser excitation experiments to test its interpretation in terms of metastable exotic helium atom formation. (author)

  2. Jerky periods: myoclonus occurring solely during menses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, Arthur W. G.; Gelauff, Jeannette M.; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic

  3. Improving sensitivity of residual current transformers to high frequency earth fault currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czapp Stanislaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For protection against electric shock in low voltage systems residual current devices are commonly used. However, their proper operation can be interfered when high frequency earth fault current occurs. Serious hazard of electrocution exists then. In order to detect such a current, it is necessary to modify parameters of residual current devices, especially the operating point of their current transformer. The authors proposed the modification in the structure of residual current devices. This modification improves sensitivity of residual current devices when high frequency earth fault current occurs. The test of the modified residual current device proved that the authors’ proposition is appropriate.

  4. Preferential flow occurs in unsaturated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Because it commonly generates high-speed, high-volume flow with minimal exposure to solid earth materials, preferential flow in the unsaturated zone is a dominant influence in many problems of infiltration, recharge, contaminant transport, and ecohydrology. By definition, preferential flow occurs in a portion of a medium – that is, a preferred part, whether a pathway, pore, or macroscopic subvolume. There are many possible classification schemes, but usual consideration of preferential flow includes macropore or fracture flow, funneled flow determined by macroscale heterogeneities, and fingered flow determined by hydraulic instability rather than intrinsic heterogeneity. That preferential flow is spatially concentrated associates it with other characteristics that are typical, although not defining: it tends to be unusually fast, to transport high fluxes, and to occur with hydraulic disequilibrium within the medium. It also has a tendency to occur in association with large conduits and high water content, although these are less universal than is commonly assumed. Predictive unsaturated-zone flow models in common use employ several different criteria for when and where preferential flow occurs, almost always requiring a nearly saturated medium. A threshold to be exceeded may be specified in terms of the following (i) water content; (ii) matric potential, typically a value high enough to cause capillary filling in a macropore of minimum size; (iii) infiltration capacity or other indication of incipient surface ponding; or (iv) other conditions related to total filling of certain pores. Yet preferential flow does occur without meeting these criteria. My purpose in this commentary is to point out important exceptions and implications of ignoring them. Some of these pertain mainly to macropore flow, others to fingered or funneled flow, and others to combined or undifferentiated flow modes.

  5. Enrichment of naturally occurring radionuclides and trace elements in Yatagan and Yenikoy coal-fired thermal power plants, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Banu; Guler, Erkan; Vaasma, Taavi; Horvath, Maria; Kiisk, Madis; Kovacs, Tibor

    2018-08-01

    Coal, residues and waste produced by the combustion of the coal contain naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 40 K and trace elements such as Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn. In this work, coal and its combustion residues collected from Yatagan and Yenikoy coal fired thermal power plants (CPPs) in Turkey were studied to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides and trace elements, and their enrichments factors to better understand the radionuclide concentration processes within the combustion system. In addition, the utilization of coal fly ash as a secondary raw material in building industry was also studied in terms of radiological aspects. Fly ash samples were taken at different stages along the emission control system of the thermal power plants. Activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides were determined with Canberra Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector BE3830-P and ORTEC Soloist PIPS type semiconductor detector. The particle size distribution and trace elements contents were determined in various ash fractions by the laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer and inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). From the obtained data, natural radionuclides tend to condense on fly ash with and the activity concentrations increase as the temperature drop in CPPs. Measured 210 Pb and 210 Po concentration varied between 186 ± 20-1153 ± 44 Bq kg -1 , and 56 ± 5-1174 ± 45 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The highest 210 Pb and 210 Po activity concentrations were determined in fly ash taken from the temporary storage point as 1153 ± 44 Bq kg -1 and 1174 ± 45 Bq kg -1 , respectively. There were significant differences in the activity concentrations of some natural radionuclide and trace elements (Pb and Zn) contents in ash fractions among the sampling point inside both of the plants (ANOVA, p ash sample analysis showed an increase activity concentration and enrichment factors towards the

  6. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  7. Peptides containing internal residues of pyroglutamic acid: proton NMR characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The proton NMR characteristics of internal pyroglutamic acid (Glp; 5-oxoproline) residues in seven tripeptides of the general structure Boc-Xxx-Glp-Yyy-NH 2 were studied. In general, the chemical shifts of several diagnostic protons moved downfield on going from the Glu-containing peptides (Boc-Xxx-Glu-Yyy-NH 2 ) to the corresponding Glp-containing peptides. The C-2 proton of the Xxx residue was shifted by about 1.1 ppm. The N-2 proton of the Yyy residue was shifted by about 0.5 ppm. The C-2 proton of the Glx residue itself was shifted by about 0.5 ppm. One of the Glx C-3 protons was also shifted by about 0.5 ppm, but the other remained essentially unchanged. Finally, the Glx C-4 protons were shifted by about 0.3 ppm. Internal Glu residues are readily converted chemically into internal Glp residues. This conversion also occurs as a side reaction during HP cleavage of the protecting group from Glu(OBzl) residues. The spontaneous fragmentation of serum proteins C3, C4 and λ 2 -macroglobulin under denaturing conditions is probably due to regioselective hydrolysis of an internal Glp residue formed in each of these proteins upon denaturation. These proton NMR characteristics may be useful in establishing the presence of internal Glp residues in synthetic and natural peptides

  8. Emission inventory; Inventaire des emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontelle, J.P. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Statistics on air pollutant (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonium) emissions, acid equivalent emissions and their evolution since 1990 in the various countries of Europe and the USA, are presented. Emission data from the industrial, agricultural, transportation and power sectors are given, and comparisons are carried out between countries based on Gnp and population, pollution import/export fluxes and compliance to the previous emission reduction objectives

  9. Fraud risks in emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The system of emission trading is a complex composed entity with on the one hand a strong environmental component and on the other hand a financial world that hooked on this instrument. In chapter 2 an introduction is provided to the emission trading system. The subsequent chapters elaborate Types of Fraud (Chapter 3), Powers (Chapter 4), and Instruments (Chapter 5). The report shows that various forms of fraud are occurring in emission trading, such as VAT fraud and identity theft. [nl

  10. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  11. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emara, A E [National Center for radiation Research and Technology Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs.

  12. Natural occurring radioactive substances. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive substances produced by cosmic rays of those of terrestrial origin are surveyed. The different radioactive decay series are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the element radium as regards its properties and distribution in different environmental samples. The properties of naturally occurring k-40 and its distribution in different natural media are also outlined. Induced radionuclides which are formed as a result of the interaction of cosmic rays with the constituents of the atmosphere are mentioned. In this respect the intensity of natural background radiation and the dose at different locations and levels is surveyed. Some regions of exceptionally high radioactivity which result in high exposure rates are mentioned. Monazite deposits and water springs are mentioned in some detail. The Oklo phenomenon as a natural reactor is also discussed. 8 tabs

  13. Cardiac positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Ejmalian, G.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography is an intrinsically tool that provide a unique and unparalleled approach for clinicians and researchers to interrogate the heart noninvasively. The ability to label substances of physiological interest with positron-emitting radioisotopes has permitted insight into normal blood flow and metabolism and the alterations that occur with disease states. Positron emission tomography of the heart has evolved as a unique, noninvasive approach for the assessment of myocardial perfusion, metabolism, and function. Because of the intrinsic quantitative nature of positron emission tomography measurements as well as the diverse compounds that can be labeled with positron- emitting radioisotopes, studies with positron emission tomography have provided rich insight into the physiology of the heart under diverse conditions

  14. Jerky Periods - Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur W. Buijink; Jeannette M. Gelauff; Sandra M. van der Salm; Marina A. Tijssen; Anne-Fleur van Rootselaar

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report: A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. Discussion: This appears to be the first descr...

  15. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Johansen, Anders; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    that accelerated emissions of N2O associated with the production of biomass for bio-fuel purposes will outweigh the avoided emissions of fossil fuel-derived CO2 (Crutzen et al., 2008). In the present study we examined the effects on N2O and CH4 emissions when residues from bio-energy production were recycled...

  16. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human

  17. [Residual pleural thickening in tuberculous pleuritis. Associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, E; Alegre, J; Alemán, C; Vizcaya, S; Armadans, L; Segura, R M; Andreu, J; Iglesias, D; Fernández de Sevilla, T

    2000-10-01

    To study the factors related to the development of residual pleural thickening in pleural tuberculosis. We studied 39 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion. A chest X-ray was taken of each patient at the end of treatment. The patients' medical histories, pleural fluid findings and diagnostic chest films were evaluated. Residual pleural thickening was defined as thickening that was visibly greater than 2 mm in the lower side portion of the chest film. Residual pleural thickening developed in 26% of patients and was found mainly in men (RR = 3.86). In no patients with Löwenstein-Jensen cultures positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis did pleural complications develop. Residual pleural thickening is a common complication of tuberculous pleural effusion. Residual pleural thickening in tuberculous pleurisy occurs more often in men and older patients, and in cases in which pleural liquid culture is negative for M. tuberculosis.

  18. Alternative fuels from forest residues for passenger cars - an assessment under German framework conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtig, O.; Leible, L.; Kälber, S.; Kappler, g.; Spicher, U.

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the available volumes, biogenic residues are a promising resource for renewable fuels for passenger cars to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we compare three fuels from forest residues under German framework conditions: biogenic electricity, substitute natural gas (SNG), and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. Methods Fuels from forest residues are compared with regard to their technical efficiency (here defined as ‘pkm per kg b...

  19. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, L.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Forensic Institute of Porto Alegre, Av. Princesa Isabel 1056, CEP 90230-010 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Graduate Program on Materials Science, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, CEP 91540-000 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Amaral, L. [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, P.O. Box 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm{sup 2}. For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm{sup 2}. The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer.

  20. Elemental quantification of large gunshot residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A.; Silva, L.M.; Souza, C.T. de; Stori, E.M.; Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we embarked on the evaluation of the Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba elemental ratios found in relatively large particles (of the order of 50–150 μm across) ejected in the forward direction when a gun is fired. These particles are commonly referred to as gunshot residues (GSR). The aim of this work is to compare the elemental ratios of the GSR with those found in the primer of pristine cartridges in order to check for possible correlations. To that end, the elemental concentration of gunshot residues and the respective ammunition were investigated through PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission) and micro-PIXE techniques. The ammunition consisted of a .38 SPL caliber (ogival lead type) charged in a Taurus revolver. Pristine cartridges were taken apart for the PIXE measurements. The shooting sessions were carried out in a restricted area at the Forensic Institute at Porto Alegre. Residues ejected at forward directions were collected on a microporous tape. The PIXE experiments were carried out employing 2.0 MeV proton beams with a beam spot size of 1 mm 2 . For the micro-PIXE experiments, the samples were irradiated with 2.2 MeV proton beams of 2 × 2 μm 2 . The results found for the ratios of Sb/Pb, Ba/Pb and Sb/Ba do not correlate with those stemming from the analysis of the primer

  1. Jerky periods: myoclonus occurring solely during menses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijink, Arthur W G; Gelauff, Jeannette M; van der Salm, Sandra M A; Tijssen, Marina A J; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. This appears to be the first description of myoclonus appearing only during menses. We suggest a cortical origin for myoclonus.

  2. Jerky Periods - Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur W. Buijink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report: A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. Discussion: This appears to be the first description of myoclonus appearing only during menses. We suggest a cortical origin for myoclonus.

  3. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the

  4. Radioactivity of combustion residues from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vom Berg, W.; Puch, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Each year in Germany, about 18 mill. t of combustion residues are produced from the combustion of bituminous coal and lignite. They are utilized to a great extent in the construction industry and in mining. During the combustion of coal, the radio-nuclides remain predominantly in the ash. The radionuclide concentration in lignite ash is within the range of that in natural soil. The combustion residues of bituminous coal contain radio-nuclides of a similar order of magnitude as also can occur in natural rock. The utilization of combustion residues in construction materials makes a negligible contribution to radiation exposure through retention in buildings. (orig.) [de

  5. Leachability of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Feduzi, L.; Meli, M.A.; Roselli, C.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are present in the environment and can be concentrated by technical activities, particularly those involving natural resources. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under environmental conditions at the earth's surface. However, reducing or oxidant conditions or pH changes may enable a fraction of naturally occurring radionuclides to eventually be released to the environment. Leachability of 210 Pb and 210 Po was determined in three samples coming from a refractories production plant (dust, sludge, finished product), in one dust sample from a steelwork and in one ash sample coming from an electric power station. A sequential extraction method consisting of five operationally-defined fractions was used. The average leaching potential observed in the samples from the refractory industry is very low (mean values: 5.8% for 210 Pb and 1.7% for 210 Po). The 210 Pb and 210 Po leachability increases for the ash sample coming from an electric power plant using carbon (17.8% for 210 Pb and 10.0% for 210 Po); for the dust sample coming from a steelwork, the percent soluble fraction is 41.1% for 210 Pb and 8.5% for 210 Po. For all samples the results obtained show that 210 Pb is slightly more soluble than 210 Po. (author)

  6. Inventory and mitigation opportunities for HFC-134a emissions from nonprofessional automotive service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tao; Potts, Winston; Collins, John F.; Austin, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    Many vehicle owners in the United States recharge their vehicles' air conditioning systems with small containers of hydrofluorocarbon-134a (HFC-134a, CH2FCF3), at a frequency estimated to be once every year on average. Such nonprofessional service produces immediate emissions of this potent greenhouse gas during service and from the residual heel in partially used containers. The nonprofessional operations are also associated with increased delayed refrigerant emissions that occur because owners are less likely to repair leaks than professional technicians. In California, an estimated 1.3 million nonprofessional service operations performed each year generate 0.27 ± 0.07 million metric ton CO2 equivalent (MMTCO2e) of immediate emissions and 0.54 ± 0.08 MMTCO2e of delayed emissions, using a Global Warming Potential of 1300 for HFC-134a. The immediate emissions can be largely mitigated by a regulation that requires self-sealing valves and improved labeling instructions on the containers, a deposit-return-recycling program for the containers, and a consumer education program. If 95% of the used containers were to be returned by consumers for recycling of the container heel, the annual immediate emissions would be reduced by 0.26 ± 0.07 MMTCO2e. In the United States, an estimated 24 million nonprofessional service operations are performed each year, generating 5.1 ± 1.4 MMTCO2e of immediate emissions and 10.4 ± 1.5 MMTCO2e of delayed emissions. Mitigation measures equivalent to the California regulation would reduce nationwide immediate emissions by 4.9 ± 1.4 MMTCO2e, if 95% of the used cans were returned for recycling. These business-as-usual emissions and mitigation potentials are projected to stay approximately constant until around 2022, and remain at significant levels into the 2030s.

  7. Incorrectly Interpreting the Carbon Mass Balance Technique Leads to Biased Emissions Estimates from Global Vegetation Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawski, N. C.; Sullivan, A. L.; Roxburgh, S. H.; Meyer, M.; Polglase, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation fires are a complex phenomenon and have a range of global impacts including influences on climate. Even though fire is a necessary disturbance for the maintenance of some ecosystems, a range of anthropogenically deleterious consequences are associated with it, such as damage to assets and infrastructure, loss of life, as well as degradation to air quality leading to negative impacts on human health. Estimating carbon emissions from fire relies on a carbon mass balance technique which has evolved with two different interpretations in the fire emissions community. Databases reporting global fire emissions estimates use an approach based on `consumed biomass' which is an approximation to the biogeochemically correct `burnt carbon' approach. Disagreement between the two methods occurs because the `consumed biomass' accounting technique assumes that all burnt carbon is volatilized and emitted. By undertaking a global review of the fraction of burnt carbon emitted to the atmosphere, we show that the `consumed biomass' accounting approach overestimates global carbon emissions by 4.0%, or 100 Teragrams, annually. The required correction is significant and represents 9% of the net global forest carbon sink estimated annually. To correctly partition burnt carbon between that emitted to the atmosphere and that remaining as a post-fire residue requires the post-burn carbon content to be estimated, which is quite often not undertaken in atmospheric emissions studies. To broaden our understanding of ecosystem carbon fluxes, it is recommended that the change in carbon content associated with burnt residues be accounted for. Apart from correctly partitioning burnt carbon between the emitted and residue pools, it enables an accounting approach which can assess the efficacy of fire management operations targeted at sequestering carbon from fire. These findings are particularly relevant for the second commitment period for the Kyoto protocol, since improved landscape fire

  8. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  9. Wegener's granulomatosis occurring de novo during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfhaily, F; Watts, R; Leather, A

    2009-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is rarely diagnosed during the reproductive years and uncommonly manifests for the first time during pregnancy. We report a case of de novo WG presenting at 30 weeks gestation with classical symptoms of WG (ENT, pulmonary). The diagnosis was confirmed by radiological, laboratory, and histological investigations. With a multidisciplinary approach, she had a successful vaginal delivery of a healthy baby. She was treated successfully by a combination of steroids, azathioprine and intravenous immunoglobulin in the active phase of disease for induction of remission and by azathioprine and steroids for maintenance of remission. The significant improvement in her symptoms allowed us to continue her pregnancy to 37 weeks when delivery was electively induced. Transplacental transmission of PR3-ANCA occurred but the neonate remained well. This case of de novo WG during pregnancy highlights the seriousness of this disease and the challenge in management of such patients.

  10. GHG emissions due to deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croezen, H.; Van Valkengoed, M.

    2009-05-01

    An assessment was made for the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests in Malaysia and Indonesia related to Dutch economic activities. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated in relation to (1) the emissions related to vegetation removal sec; and (2) the emissions related to removal and more long term effects related to assimilation of CO2 in forest regrowth and changes in organic material in soils. Emissions related to vegetation removal and aggregated emissions for both vegetation removal and long term effects are reported separately. Soil organic carbon stock changes are considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emissions. Changes in carbon stocks and N2O emissions and actually also changes in vegetation all are events that occur gradually, rather than immediately. Only removal of existing vegetation and possible burning of this vegetation and associated emissions related to both activities are immediate by nature. Carbon stocks and N2O emissions change to a new level within several decades after deforestation or forest degradation. Removed vegetation can grow back or be replaced eventually by other vegetation, thereby changing the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation or forest degradation. Vegetation extracted for commercial purposes such as timber or pulp will also take years or decades to become waste and be converted into CO2. In IPCC and LCA's all these emissions are taken into account - or at least all emissions occurring within a period of 20 years, as required by IPCC. Soil organic carbon stock changes are also considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emmissions.

  11. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  12. Accumulation of {sup 14}C-trinitrotoluene and related nonextractable (bound) residues in Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, Jason B., E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Lotufo, Guillerme R. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Fisher, Jonathan C. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Dave R.; Boyd, Robert E.; Sims, Jerre G. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To determine if trinitrotoluene (TNT) forms nonextractable residues in earthworms and to measure the relative degree of accumulation as compared to TNT and its deaminated metabolites, Eisenia fetida was exposed to {sup 14}C-TNT using dermal contact to filter paper or exposure to soil. Nonextractable residues made up 32-68% of total body burden depending on exposure media and depuration time. Parent TNT accounted for less than 3% of radioactivity, while ADNTs accounted for 7-38%. Elimination half-lives were 61-120 h for TNT, ADNTs, and DANTs, which was significantly lower than the half-lives found for nonextractable residues, 201-240 h. However, over 80% of the nonextractable residue was solubilized using weak acid (pH 2). Based on our findings that TNT accumulation occurs primarily as nonextractable residues, which have a longer half-life, and that nonextractable residues can be solubilized, we propose that nonextractable residues could be used as a selective biomarker for assessing TNT contamination. - Highlights: > Trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms primarily occurs as nonextractable residues. > Nonextractable residues have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites. > Nonextractable residue may be useful as a biomarker for exposure to TNT. - The majority of trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms occurs as nonextractable residues that have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites.

  13. Multifragment emission times in Xe induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Bowman, D.R. [AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada); Bruno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Buttazzo, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Celano, L. [INFN, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Colonna, N. [INFN, Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); D`Agostino, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Dinius, J.D. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Ferrero, A. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Fiandri, M.L. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Gelbke, K. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Glasmacher, T. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Gramegna, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea 4, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Handzy, D.O. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Horn, D. [AECL Research, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ont. (Canada); Hsi Wenchien [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Huang, M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Iori, I. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Lisa, M. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Lynch, W.G. [NSCL, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, 48824 MI (United States); Margagliotti, G.V. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via A. Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Mastinu, P.F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Milazzo, P.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Montoya, C.

    1995-02-06

    Multifragment emission is studied in {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Cu reactions. The emission process for central collisions occurs on a time scale of similar 200fm/c at 30MeV/n. Intermediate-mass-fragment yields, velocity correlation functions and emission velocities of Z=6 fragments are compared with predictions of statistical decay models. ((orig.)).

  14. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. Some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to exclamation point We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these

  15. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  16. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  17. Uranium occurence in California near Bucaramanga (Columbia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heider Polania, J.

    1980-01-01

    The mining district of California, Bucaramanga, is on the west side of the Cordillera Oriental in the Santander massif region. The oldest rocks of the area form a complex of metamorphites and migmatites of the predevonic age. Amphibolite various types of paragneiss and orthogneiss are represented. Several stages of metamorphism can be documented in some rocks, as well as double anatexis. Triassic to jurassic quarz diorites and leukogranites show wide distribution. Porphyric rocks of granodioritic to granitic composition, to which the uranium mineralization is mainly bonded, intruded into the sediments of the lower cretaceous. Atomic absorption spectral analyses were carried out for the elements Cu, Zn and Li, as well as the uranium contents of some samples using fluorimetry. Uranium is primarily bonded to pitch blende and coffinite. The latter mostly occur in fine distribution grown in quarz and belong to the most recent mineralization phase. Autunite, meta-autunite, torbernite, meta-torbernite, zeunerite, meta-zeunerite and meta uranocircite detected as secondary uranium minerals. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Bioassay of naturally occurring allelochemicals for phytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leather, G R; Einhellig, F A

    1988-10-01

    The bioassay has been one of the most widely used tests to demonstrate allelopathic activity. Often, claims that a particular plant species inhibits the growth of another are based entirely on the seed germination response to solvent extracts of the suspected allelopathic plant; few of these tests are of value in demonstrating allelopathy under natural conditions. The veracity of the bioassay for evaluating naturally occurring compounds for phytotoxicity depends upon the physiological and biochemical response capacity of the bioassay organism and the mechanism(s) of action of the allelochemicals. The possibility that more than one allelochemical, acting in concert at very low concentrations, may be responsible for an observed allelopathic effect makes it imperative that bioassays be extremely sensitive to chemical growth perturbation agents. Among the many measures of phytotoxicity of allelochemicals, the inhibition (or stimulation) of seed germination, radicle elongation, and/or seedling growth have been the parameters of choice for most investigations. Few of these assays have been selected with the view towards the possible mechanism of the allelopathic effect.

  19. Naturally occurring radioactive materials in construction integrating radiation protection in Reuse

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeyers, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Construction (COST Action NORM4Building) discusses the depletion of energy resources and raw materials and its huge impact not only on the building market, but also in the development of new synthetic building materials, whereby the reuse of various (waste) residue streams becomes a necessity. It is based on the outcome of COST Action TU 1301, where scientists, regulators, and representatives from industry have come together to present new findings, sharing knowledge, experiences, and technologies to stimulate research on the reuse of residues containing enhanced concentrates of natural radionuclides (NORM) in tailor-made building materials. Chapters address legislative issues, measurement, and assessment of building materials, physical and chemical aspects, from raw materials, to residues with enhanced concentrations of natural radionuclides (NORM), processes, building products containing NORM, and end-of-life and reuse requirements. Presents a holistic app...

  20. Vision for utilization of livestock residue as bioenergy resource in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Junichi; Morita, Akihiro; Matsuoka, Yasunari; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    Utilization of livestock residue is important not only for energy recovery and material recycling but also for preventing environmental pollution. This paper focuses on the following options from the viewpoint of the Law on Promoting Proper Management and Use of Livestock Excreta and the Kyoto protocol: energy use from livestock residue, reductions in CO 2 emissions resulting from substitution of fossil fuels, and reduction of other greenhouse gas emissions through appropriate treatment of livestock residue. Bioenergy potential of livestock residue in Japan was estimated to be 167 PJ in the year 2000. This is equivalent to about 0.7% of total primary energy supply. Biogas production with methane fermentation and burning poultry residue at power plants can produce 4.1 TWh of electricity and 46 PJ of heat. The amount of CO 2 substitution for fossil fuels is 6.9 Mt-CO 2 . This corresponds to about 0.6% of total CO 2 emissions in 1990. This also has an additional effect of reducing other greenhouse gas (CH 4 and N 2 O) emissions from conventional treatment of livestock residue. Development of biogas plants, promotion of biogas utilization, and effective use of fertilizer components extracted from livestock residue are expected to gain importance in the future

  1. Motor sequence learning occurs despite disrupted visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has demonstrated the importance of proprioception for the development of internal representations of the forces encountered during a task. Evidence also exists for a significant role for proprioception in the execution of sequential movements. However, little work has explored the role of proprioceptive sensation during the learning of continuous movement sequences. Here, we report that the repeated segment of a continuous tracking task can be learned despite peripherally altered arm proprioception and severely restricted visual feedback regarding motor output. Methods Healthy adults practiced a continuous tracking task over 2 days. Half of the participants experienced vibration that altered proprioception of shoulder flexion/extension of the active tracking arm (experimental condition and half experienced vibration of the passive resting arm (control condition. Visual feedback was restricted for all participants. Retention testing was conducted on a separate day to assess motor learning. Results Regardless of vibration condition, participants learned the repeated segment demonstrated by significant improvements in accuracy for tracking repeated as compared to random continuous movement sequences. Conclusion These results suggest that with practice, participants were able to use residual afferent information to overcome initial interference of tracking ability related to altered proprioception and restricted visual feedback to learn a continuous motor sequence. Motor learning occurred despite an initial interference of tracking noted during acquisition practice.

  2. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  3. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  4. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  5. Naturally occurring flavonoids against human norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-06-01

    Naturally occurring plant-derived flavonoids are reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The objectives of this study were to determine the antiviral effects of four flavonoids (myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, and naringenin) on the infectivity of food borne norovirus surrogates after 2 h at 37 °C. The lab-culturable surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) at titers of ~7 log₁₀ PFU/ml (high titer) or ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml (low titer) and murine norovirus (MNV-1) at ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml, were mixed with equal volumes of myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, or naringenin at concentrations of 0.5 or 1 mM, and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C. Treatments of viruses were neutralized in cell culture medium containing 10 % heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, serially diluted, and plaque assayed. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 (low titer) was not found to be reduced by tangeretin or naringenin, but was reduced to undetectable levels by myricetin at both concentrations. Low titer FCV-F9 was also decreased by 1.40 log₁₀ PFU/ml with L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM. FCV-F9 at high titers was decreased by 3.17 and 0.72 log₁₀ PFU/ml with myricetin and L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml with myricetin at 0.25 mM, respectively. However, MNV-1 showed no significant inactivation by the four tested treatments. The antiviral effects of the tested flavonoids are dependent on the virus type, titer, and dose. Further research will focus on understanding the antiviral mechanism of myricetin and L-epicatechin.

  6. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane

    1998-08-01

    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa

  7. Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.; Chen, G.Q.; Lai, T.M.; Ahmad, B.; Chen, Z.M.; Shao, L.; Ji, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive inventory of cities' greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is the basis for cities to make appropriate mitigation plans. However, previous studies on cities' GHG emissions consider emissions occurring within the city boundary (Scope 1) and out of boundary electricity emissions (Scope 2), but neglect indirect emissions associated with commodities consumed by cities (Scope 3), resulting in emission leakage. To cope with this problem, a systematic accounting covering all 3 scopes is presented in a case study of Macao for the years 2005–2009, based on the latest embodied emission intensity databases for China and for the world. The results show that total emissions are dominated by indirect emissions mainly embodied in imports, which is 3–4 times direct emissions during the period concerned. It is verified that accounting under Scopes 1 and 2 cannot capture the full picture of cities' emissions, especially cities like Macao which are dominated by service industry and inevitably sustained by massive materials and services from other regions. Our study suggests that Macao should adjust its current GHG mitigation policies which consider only its emissions occurring within its border, as Macao is a net GHG emissions importer. This work is the first assessment of Macao's embodied GHG emissions. - Highlights: • A systematic accounting procedure is presented to inventory a city's GHG emissions. • A comprehensive review of GHG emissions is performed for Macao. • Indirect GHG emissions dominate Macao's embodied GHG emissions. • Macao induced large amount of GHG emissions in other regions through trade. • The variation in GHG emission structure against socio-economic changes is revealed

  8. Measuring and modeling of soil N2O emissions - How well are we doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Ralf, K.; Werner, C.; Wolf, B.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial processes in soils are the primarily source of atmospheric N2O. Fertilizer use to boost food and feed production of agricultural systems as well as nitrogen deposition to natural and semi-natural ecosystems due to emissions of NOx and NH3 from agriculture and energy production and re-deposition to terrestrial ecosystems has likely nearly doubled the pre-industrial source strength of soils for atmospheric N2O. Quantifying soil emissions and identifying mitigation options is becoming a major focus in the climate debate as N2O emissions from agricultural soils are a major contributor to the greenhouse gas footprint of agricultural systems, with agriculture incl. land use change contributing up to 30% to total anthropogenic GHG emissions. The increasing number of annual datasets show that soil emissions a) are largely depended on soil N availability and thus e.g. fertilizer application, b) vary with management (e.g. timing of fertilization, residue management, tillage), c) depend on soil properties such as organic matter content and pH, e) are affected by plant N uptake, and e) are controlled by environmental factors such as moisture and temperature regimes. It is remarkable that the magnitude of annual emissions is largely controlled by short-term N2O pulses occurring due to fertilization, wetting and drying or freezing and thawing of soils. All of this contributes to a notorious variability of soil N2O emissions in space and time. Overcoming this variability for quantification of source strengths and identifying tangible mitigation options requires targeted measuring approaches as well as the translation of our knowledge on mechanisms underlying emissions into process oriented models, which finally might be used for upscaling and scenario studies. This paper aims at reviewing current knowledge on measurements, modelling and upscaling of soil N2O emissions, thereby identifying short comes and uncertainties of the various approaches and fields for future

  9. Information Needs While A Disaster Is Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    that rainfall intensity at their homes might be less than the intensity up in the mountains where the debris flows would start. Nor did they know that debris flows travel too quickly to be outrun. These and many other examples indicate need for social and natural scientists to increase awareness of what to expect when the disaster strikes. This information must be solidly understood before the event occurs - while a disaster is unfolding there are no teachable moments. Case studies indicate that even those who come into a disaster well educated about the phenomenon can struggle to apply what they know when the real situation is at hand. In addition, psychological studies confirm diminished ability to comprehend information at times of stress.

  10. Field emission studies at Saclay and Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, J.

    1996-01-01

    During the last five years, DC and RF equipment for field emission studies have been developed at Saclay and Orsay laboratories. Combining these devices, straight comparison has been carried out between DC and RF field emission from artificial emission sites on the same sample. Other topics are also reviewed: high field cleaning, plausible origins of thermal effects that occurred on emission sites in RF, behaviour of alumina particles under RF field, and optical observations and measurements. (author)

  11. Electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Arunasalam, V.; Cano, R.

    1977-07-01

    Experimental measurements of electron cyclotron emission from the PLT tokamak plasma reveal that black-body emission occurs at the fundamental frequency. Such emission, not possible by direct thermal excitation of electromagnetic waves, is herein attributed to thermal excitation of electrostatic (Bernstein) waves which then mode convert into electromagnetic waves. The local feature of the electrostatic wave generation permits spatially and time resolved measurements of electron temperature as for the second harmonic emission

  12. Emission of climate relevant volatile organochlorines by plants occurring in temperate forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forczek, Sándor; Laturnus, F.; Doležalová, Jana; Holík, Josef; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2015), s. 103-108 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11101S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons * biodegradation * Sphagnum moss Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2015

  13. Fluorescence of Bacteria, Pollens, and Naturally Occurring Airborne Particles: Excitation/Emission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    35 Figure 29. EEM spectra of kaolin particles, dry...Warrington, PA. Glass beads were obtained from Peirce Chemical Co., Rockford, IL. Kaolin particles were obtained from Particle Information Services...solution concentration of 1 mg/ml. The samples were vortexed and pipetted vigorously to disperse aggregates. Stock bacteria solutions were diluted to a

  14. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  15. Experimental analysis of CO2 emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO 2 emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO 2 emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO 2 emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO 2 emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO 2 emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO 2 emissions from soils during the

  16. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  17. A review of residual stress analysis using thermoelastic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, A F; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Quinn, S [University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Burguete, R L [Airbus UK Ltd., New Filton House, Filton, Bristol, BS99 7AR (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) is a full-field technique for experimental stress analysis that is based on infra-red thermography. The technique has proved to be extremely effective for studying elastic stress fields and is now well established. It is based on the measurement of the temperature change that occurs as a result of a stress change. As residual stress is essentially a mean stress it is accepted that the linear form of the TSA relationship cannot be used to evaluate residual stresses. However, there are situations where this linear relationship is not valid or departures in material properties due to manufacturing procedures have enabled evaluations of residual stresses. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of using a TSA based approach for the evaluation of residual stresses and to provide some examples of where promising results have been obtained.

  18. A review of residual stress analysis using thermoelastic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A F; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Quinn, S; Burguete, R L

    2009-01-01

    Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) is a full-field technique for experimental stress analysis that is based on infra-red thermography. The technique has proved to be extremely effective for studying elastic stress fields and is now well established. It is based on the measurement of the temperature change that occurs as a result of a stress change. As residual stress is essentially a mean stress it is accepted that the linear form of the TSA relationship cannot be used to evaluate residual stresses. However, there are situations where this linear relationship is not valid or departures in material properties due to manufacturing procedures have enabled evaluations of residual stresses. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of using a TSA based approach for the evaluation of residual stresses and to provide some examples of where promising results have been obtained.

  19. Abscess of residual lobe after pulmonary resection for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue, Tommaso; Voltolini, Luca; Ghiribelli, Claudia; Luzzi, Luca; Rapicetta, Cristian; Gotti, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Abscess of the residual lobe after lobectomy is a rare but potentially lethal complication. Between January 1975 and December 2006, 1,460 patients underwent elective pulmonary lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer at our institution. Abscess of the residual lung parenchyma occurred in 5 (0.3%) cases (4 bilobectomies and 1 lobectomy). Postoperative chest radiography showed incomplete expansion and consolidation of residual lung parenchyma. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed persistent bronchial occlusion from purulent secretions and/or bronchial collapse. Computed tomography in 3 patients demonstrated lung abscess foci. Surgical treatment included completion right pneumonectomy in 3 patients and a middle lobectomy in one. Complications after repeat thoracotomy comprised contralateral pneumonia and sepsis in 1 patient. Residual lobar abscess after lobectomy should be suspected in patients presenting with fever, leukocytosis, bronchial obstruction and lung consolidation despite antibiotic therapy, physiotherapy and bronchoscopy. Computed tomography is mandatory for early diagnosis. Surgical resection of the affected lobe is recommended.

  20. The importance of antibiotic residues presence detection in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues are the most present inhibitory substances in milkhaving undesirable effect on human health, technological characteristics and the quality of milk and dairy products. In order to protect consumer's health and to ensure high quality milk production, European Union (EU regulation 2377/90 sets a maximum permitted levels for antibiotic residues in milk. Although the presence of antibiotic residues in milk can be due to animal diseases treatment, and in the case of milking animals, they are mostly present after mastitis treatment. The aim of this work is to stress the importance of the continuous control on antibiotic residues presence in milk, due to the role that milk and dairy products have in human nutrition. In this paper, different groups of antibiotics, mechanisms of theirs action, mistakes occurring in dairy products manufacture as well as the methods for theirs detection are described.

  1. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  2. Profile Monitors Based on Residual Gas Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Forck, P; Giacomini, T; Peters, A

    2005-01-01

    The precise determination of transverse beam profiles at high current hadron accelerators has to be performed non-interceptingly. Two methods will be discussed based on the excitation of the residual gas molecules by the beam particles: Firstly, by beam induced fluorescence (BIF) light is emitted from the residual gas molecules and is observed with an image intensified CCD camera. At most laboratories N2 gas is inserted, which has a large cross section for emission in the blue wave length region. Secondly, a larger signal strength is achieved by detecting the ionization products in an Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM). By applying an electric field all ionization products are accelerated toward a spatial resolving Micro-Channel Plate. The signal read-out can either be performed by observing the light from a phosphor screen behind the MCP or electronically by a wire array. Methods to achieve a high spatial resolution and a fast turn-by-turn readout capability are discussed. Even though various approaches at dif...

  3. Uranium occurence in nature: Geophysical prospecting, and its occurence in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj Rasheed, Zaki

    1985-01-01

    A general idea about naturaly occured uranium minerals such as uranite, pechblende, carnotite, coffinit, and bronnerit is given. At the same time, different geophysical methods and detecting devices applied for uranium exploration have been demonstrated. Investigations and studies carried out in Syria point to a uranium content of 100 ppm in the exploited Syrian phosphorite. 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  5. Crop residue harvest for bioenergy production and its implications on soil functioning and plant growth: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Roberto Cherubin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock is considered a potential strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. However, indiscriminate harvesting of crop residues can induce deleterious effects on soil functioning, plant growth and other ecosystem services. Here, we have summarized the information available in the literature to identify and discuss the main trade-offs and synergisms involved in crop residue management for bioenergy production. The data consistently showed that crop residue harvest and the consequent lower input of organic matter into the soil led to C storage depletions over time, reducing cycling, supply and availability of soil nutrients, directly affecting the soil biota. Although the biota regulates key functions in the soil, crop residue can also cause proliferation of some important agricultural pests. In addition, crop residues act as physical barriers that protect the soil against raindrop impact and temperature variations. Therefore, intensive crop residue harvest can cause soil structure degradation, leading to soil compaction and increased risks of erosion. With regard to GHG emissions, there is no consensus about the potential impact of management of crop residue harvest. In general, residue harvest decreases CO2 and N2O emissions from the decomposition process, but it has no significant effect on CH4 emissions. Plant growth responses to soil and microclimate changes due to crop residue harvest are site and crop specific. Adoption of the best management practices can mitigate the adverse impacts of crop residue harvest. Longterm experiments within strategic production regions are essential to understand and monitor the impact of integrated agricultural systems and propose customized solutions for sustainable crop residue management in each region or landscape. Furthermore, private and public investments/cooperations are necessary for a better understanding of the potential environmental

  6. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  7. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  8. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  9. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  10. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Computer generated data on the performance of the cogeneration energy conversion system are presented. Performance parameters included fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics, and emissions of residual fired process boilers.

  11. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO4- associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle immobilization of heavy metals in hazardous ASR thermal residue in dry condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tidal residual current and its role in the mean flow on the Changjiang Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Jiliang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Huang, Daji; Wang, Taiping; Zhou, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The tidal residual current may play an important role in the mean flow in the Changjiang Bank region, in addition to other residual currents, such as the Taiwan Warm Current, the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. In this paper, a detailed structure of the tidal residual current, in particular the meso-scale eddies, in the Changjiang Bank region is observed from model simulations, and its role in the mean flow is quantified using the well-validated Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model. The tidal residual current in the Changjiang Bank region consists of two components: an anticyclonic regional-scale tidal residual circulation around the edge of the Changjiang Bank and some cyclonic meso-scale tidal residual eddies across the Changjiang Bank. The meso-scale tidal residual eddies occur across the Changjiang Bank and contribute to the regional-scale tidal residual circulation offshore at the northwest boundary and on the northeast edge of the Changjiang Bank, southeastward along the 50 m isobath. Tidal rectification is the major mechanism causing the tidal residual current to flow along the isobaths. Both components of the tidal residual current have significant effects on the mean flow. A comparison between the tidal residual current and the mean flow indicates that the contribution of the tidal residual current to the mean flow is greater than 50%.

  13. Tidal residual current and its role in the mean flow on the Changjiang Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuan, Jiliang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Huang, Daji; Wang, Taiping; Zhou, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Tidal residual current may play an important role in the mean flow in the Changjiang Bank region, in addition to other residual currents, such as the Taiwan Warm Current, the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. In this paper, a detailed structure of the tidal residual current, in particular the meso-scale eddies, in the Changjiang Bank region is observed from model simulations, and its role in the mean flow is quantified using the well-validated Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model). The tidal residual current in the Changjiang Bank region consists of two components: an anticyclonic regional-scale tidal residual circulation around the edge of the Changjiang Bank and some cyclonic meso-scale tidal residual eddies across the Changjiang Bank. The meso-scale tidal residual eddies occur across the Changjiang Bank and contribute to the regional-scale tidal residual circulation offshore at the northwest boundary and at the northeast edge of the Changjiang Bank, southeastward along the 50 m isobath. Tidal rectification is the major mechanism causing the tidal residual current to flow along the isobaths. Both components of the tidal residual current have significant effects on the mean flow. A comparison between the tidal residual current and the mean flow indicates that the contribution of the tidal residual current to the mean flow is greater than 50%.

  14. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  15. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, A.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Di Gaetano, J.O.; D'Atellis, C.E.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  16. Emissions from fireplace and woodstove combustion of prevalent Portuguese woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Célia

    2010-05-01

    P. Fernandes, C. Gonçalves, C.A. Alves, L. Tarelho, F. Mirante, T. Nunes and C. Pio Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal In Portugal, it was estimated that around 390000 ton/year of wood is burned in fireplaces, although the chemical characterisation of emission profiles has not yet been performed. Emission inventories and source apportionment, photochemistry and climate change models use values obtained for American or Alpine wood-fuels, uncommon in South Europe. Previous work has suggested that the species of wood used can have a huge influence on the particle emissions. Since the distribution of compounds emitted differs by species and burning conditions and there are many variations among published profiles, it is desirable to obtain specific data at a regional level on the chemical characterisation of wood smoke. A series of source tests was performed to compare the emission profiles from the woodstove combustion to those of fireplaces. Eight types of biomass were burned in the laboratory: seven species of wood grown in Portugal (Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus, Quercus suber, Acacia longifolia, Quercus faginea, Olea europea, Quercus ilex rotundifolia), and briquettes of biomass residues. The gas sampling was carried out in the exhaust ducts of both combustion systems. The collection of particles (PM2.5) was conducted in the dilution tunnel that was directly coupled to the chimney. Dilution sampling was used to characterise fine particle emissions from the combustion sources because it simulates the rapid cooling and dilution that occurs as exhaust mixes with the atmosphere. During each burning cycle, the concentrations of O2, CO2 and CO, as well as operational parameters (e.g. temperatures, flows, etc.), were automatically monitored. The PM2.5 samples were analysed by a thermal optical technique in order to obtain their organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) content

  17. Flaw evolution monitoring by acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghia, S.; Sala, A.; Lucia, A.

    1986-01-01

    Flaw evolution monitoring during mechanical fatigue test has been performed by acoustic emission (AE) technique. Testing on 1:5 reduced scale vessel containing fabrication defects was carried out in the frame of an European program for pressure component residual life evaluation. Characteristics of AE signals associated to flaw evolution are discussed

  18. Accoustic emission measurements during phase change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tensi, H M; Radtke, W [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Werkstoff- und Verarbeitungswissenschaften

    1978-07-01

    Acoustic emission measurements during solidification and melting of metals are heavily disturbed by noise originating from frictional movements between crucible and specimen. These disturbances may be cancelled by means of specially arranged crucibles. Thus it was possible to use acoustic emission generated during solidification of residual eutectic liquid for real-time judgement of macrosegregation and microsegregation. With the help of crucibles made of silicone tubes the effect of melting velocity and concentration on acoustic emission generated by melting of bismuth and bismuth alloys was measured.

  19. Yields from pyrolysis of refinery residue using a batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prithiraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch pyrolysis was a valuable process of assessing the potential of recovering and characterising products from hazardous waste materials. This research explored the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich refinery residue, from crude oil processes, in a 1200 L electrically-heated batch retort. Furthermore, the off-gases produced were easily processed in compliance with existing regulatory emission standards. The methodology offers a novel, cost-effective and environmentally compliant method of assessing recovery potential of valuable products. The pyrolysis experiments yielded significant oil (70% with high calorific value (40 MJ/kg, char (14% with carbon content over 80% and non-condensable gas (6% with significant calorific value (240 kJ/mol. The final gas stream was subjected to an oxidative clean-up process with continuous on-line monitoring demonstrating compliance with South African emission standards. The gas treatment was overall economically optimal as only a smaller portion of the original residue was subjected to emission-controlling steps. Keywords: Batch pyrolysis, Volatiles, Oil yields, Char, Emissions, Oil recovery

  20. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  1. Measurement of the fluorescence of crop residues: A tool for controlling soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Chappelle, E. W.; Hunter, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    Management of crop residues, the portion of a crop left in the field after harvest, is an important conservation practice for minimizing soil erosion and for improving water quality. Quantification of crop residue cover is required to evaluate the effectiveness of conservation tillage practices. Methods are needed to quantify residue cover that are rapid, accurate, and objective. The fluorescence of crop residue was found to be a broadband phenomenon with emission maxima at 420 to 495 nm for excitations of 350 to 420 nm. Soils had low intensity broadband emissions over the 400 to 690 nm region for excitations of 300 to 600 nm. The range of relative fluorescence intensities for the crop residues was much greater than the fluorescence observed of the soils. As the crop residues decompose their blue fluorescence values approach the fluorescence of the soil. Fluorescence techniques are concluded to be less ambiguous and better suited for discriminating crop residues and soils than reflectance methods. If properly implemented, fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify, not only crop residue cover, but also photosynthetic efficiency in the field.

  2. Measurement and analysis of cross-section for some residues produced in 16O + 27Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Unnati; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B.P.; Prasad, R.; Rakesh Kumar; Golda, K.S.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the theoretical estimate of the cross-section for the evaporation residues has been determined using code ALICE-91 which is based on statistical approach and considers the population of the residues only through CF channels, including PE emission

  3. Consequences of agro-biofuel production for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Johansen, Anders; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect on N2O and CH4 emissions when residues from bio-energy production are recycling as organic fertilizer for a maize energy crop. The study showed that the N2O emission associated with the cultivation of the maize crop offset a considerable faction...

  4. Evaporation residue cross sections for the {sup 64}Ni + {sup 144,154}Sm reaction -- Energy dissipation in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Davids, C.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The fission hindrance of hot nuclei was deduced recently from an enhanced emission of GDR {gamma} rays, neutrons and charged particles prior to scission of heavy nuclei. In the most recent experiments addressing this topic, namely new measurements of the pre-scission {gamma} rays and evaporation residues from the {sup 32}S + {sup 184}W reaction, a rather sharp transition from negligible to full one-body dissipation occurs over the excitation energy region E{sub exc} = 60-100 MeV. However, the cross section does not appear to level out or start to decline again at the upper end of the energy range as expected in this interpretation. It is therefore clearly desirable to extend the excitation energy range to look for such an effect in order to either corroborate or refute this interpretation.

  5. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  6. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  7. Utilization of organic residues using heterotrophic microalgae and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Rumpold, Birgit A

    2018-02-01

    Various organic residues occur globally in the form of straw, wood, green biomass, food waste, feces, manure etc. Other utilization strategies apart from anaerobic digestion, composting and incineration are needed to make use of the whole potential of organic residues as sources of various value added compounds. This review compares the cultivation of heterotrophic microalgae and insects using organic residues as nutrient sources and illuminates their potential with regard to biomass production, productivity and yield, and utilization strategies of produced biomasses. Furthermore, cultivation processes as well as advantages and disadvantages of utilization processes are identified and discussed. It was shown that both heterotrophic algae and insects are able to reduce a sufficient amount of organic residues by converting it into biomass. The biomass composition of both organisms is similar which allows similar utilization strategies in food and feed, chemicals and materials productions. Even though insect is the more complex organism, biomass production can be carried out using simple equipment without sterilization and hydrolysis of organic residues. Contrarily, heterotrophic microalgae require a pretreatment of organic residues in form of sterilization and in most cases hydrolysis. Interestingly, the volumetric productivity of insect biomass exceeds the productivity of algal biomass. Despite legal restrictions, it is expected that microalgae and insects will find application as alternative food and feed sources in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Co-Occurring Atomic Contacts for the Characterization of Protein Binding Hot Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Ren, Jing; Song, Jiangning; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    A binding hot spot is a small area at a protein-protein interface that can make significant contribution to binding free energy. This work investigates the substantial contribution made by some special co-occurring atomic contacts at a binding hot spot. A co-occurring atomic contact is a pair of atomic contacts that are close to each other with no more than three covalent-bond steps. We found that two kinds of co-occurring atomic contacts can play an important part in the accurate prediction of binding hot spot residues. One is the co-occurrence of two nearby hydrogen bonds. For example, mutations of any residue in a hydrogen bond network consisting of multiple co-occurring hydrogen bonds could disrupt the interaction considerably. The other kind of co-occurring atomic contact is the co-occurrence of a hydrophobic carbon contact and a contact between a hydrophobic carbon atom and a π ring. In fact, this co-occurrence signifies the collective effect of hydrophobic contacts. We also found that the B-factor measurements of several specific groups of amino acids are useful for the prediction of hot spots. Taking the B-factor, individual atomic contacts and the co-occurring contacts as features, we developed a new prediction method and thoroughly assessed its performance via cross-validation and independent dataset test. The results show that our method achieves higher prediction performance than well-known methods such as Robetta, FoldX and Hotpoint. We conclude that these contact descriptors, in particular the novel co-occurring atomic contacts, can be used to facilitate accurate and interpretable characterization of protein binding hot spots. PMID:26675422

  9. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  10. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  11. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  12. Controlling BWR pipe cracking by residual stress modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, J.D.; Giannuzzi, A.J.; Childs, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking may occur in the weld heat-affected zone of susceptible stainless steel materials which have been used in some boiling water reactor piping systems. One of the prerequisite conditions for stress corrosion attack is a high tensile stress in the exposed, locally sensitized material near the weld root. Several processes have been developed which can deter stress corrosion attack by altering the residual stress distributions near the welds to ensure that low stresses prevail in critical locations. These residual stress modification remedies and their qualification testing are described in this paper. (author)

  13. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  14. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  15. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  16. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  17. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  18. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  19. Emissions from Biomass Burning in the Yucatan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokelson, R.; Crounse, J. D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Karl, T.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Campos, T.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kapustin, V.; Clarke, A. D.; hide

    2009-01-01

    In March 2006 two instrumented aircraft made the first detailed field measurements of biomass burning (BB) emissions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics as part of the MILAGRO project. The aircraft were the National Center for Atmospheric Research C-130 and a University of Montana/US Forest Service Twin Otter. The initial emissions of up to 49 trace gas or particle species were measured from 20 deforestation and crop residue fires on the Yucatan peninsula. This included two trace gases useful as indicaters of BB (HCN and acetonitrile) and several rarely, or never before, measured species: OH, peroxyacetic acid, propanoic acid, hydrogen peroxide, methane sulfonic acid, and sulfuric acid. Crop residue fires emitted more organic acids and ammonia than deforestation fires, but the emissions from the main fire types were otherwise fairly similar. The Yucatan fires emitted unusually amounts of SO2 and particle chloride, likely due to a strong marine influence on the peninsula.

  20. Genomic selection for methane emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Yvette; Pryce, Jennie E; Wall, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a growing area of international concern, and it is well established that the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a contributing factor. Of the various GHG produced by ruminants, enteric methane (CH4 ) is the most important contributor. One mitigation strategy is to reduce methane...... emission through genetic selection. Our first attempt used beef cattle and a GWAS to identify genes associated with several CH4 traits in Angus beef cattle. The Angus population consisted of 1020 animals with phenotypes on methane production (MeP), dry matter intake (DMI), and weight (WT). Additionally......, two new methane traits: residual genetic methane (RGM) and residual phenotypic methane (RPM) were calculated by adjusting CH4 for DMI and WT. Animals were genotyped using the 800k Illumina Bovine HD Array. Estimated heritabilities were 0.30, 0.19 and 0.15 for MeP, RGM and RPM respectively...

  1. Solid residues; Os residuos solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the solid waste pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the solid waste emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.

  2. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  3. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...

  4. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  5. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  6. Electron emission from pseudospark cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Gundersen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The pseudospark cathode has the remarkable property of macroscopically homogeneous electron emission at very high current density (>1 kA/cm 2 ) over a large area (some cm 2 ). The model of electron emission presented here is based on the assumption that the pseudospark microscopically utilizes explosive arc processes, as distinct from earlier models of ''anomalous emission in superdense glow discharges.'' Explosive emission similar to vacuum are cathode spots occurs rapidly when the field strength is sufficiently high. The plasma remains macroscopically homogeneous since the virtual plasma anode adapts to the cathode morphology so that the current is carried by a large number of homogeneously distributed cathode spots which are similar to ''type 1'' and ''type 2'' spots of vacuum arc discharges. The net cathode erosion is greatly reduced relative to ''spark gap-type'' emission. At very high current levels, a transition to highly erosive spot types occurs, and this ''arcing'' leads to a significant reduction in device lifetime. Assuming vacuum-arc-like cathode spots, the observed current density and time constants can be easily explained. The observed cathode erosion rate and pattern, recent fast-camera data, laser-induced fluorescence, and spectroscopic measurements support this approach. A new hypothesis is presented explaining current quenching at relatively low currents. From the point of view of electron emission, the ''superdense glow'' or ''superemissive phase'' of pseudosparks represents an arc and not a glow discharge even if no filamentation or ''arcing'' is observed

  7. Naturally occurring dominant drug resistance mutations occur infrequently in the setting of recently acquired hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Tanya L; Gaudieri, Silvana; Plauzolles, Anne; Chopra, Abha; Grebely, Jason; Lucas, Michaela; Hellard, Margaret; Luciani, Fabio; Dore, Gregory J; Matthews, Gail V

    2015-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are predicted to transform hepatitis C therapy, yet little is known about the prevalence of naturally occurring resistance mutations in recently acquired HCV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and frequency of drug resistance mutations in the viral quasispecies among HIV-positive and -negative individuals with recent HCV. The NS3 protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase genes were amplified from 50 genotype 1a participants of the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Amino acid variations at sites known to be associated with possible drug resistance were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. A total of 12% of individuals harboured dominant resistance mutations, while 36% demonstrated non-dominant resistant variants below that detectable by bulk sequencing (that is, Resistance variants (resistance from all classes, with the exception of sofosbuvir. Dominant resistant mutations were uncommonly observed in the setting of recent HCV. However, low-level mutations to all DAA classes were observed by deep sequencing at the majority of sites and in most individuals. The significance of these variants and impact on future treatment options remains to be determined. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00192569.

  8. EMISSIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESIDENTIAL PELLET BOILER AND A STOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a residential pellet boiler and a stove are measured at a realistic 6-day operation sequence and during steady state operation. The aim is to characterize the emissions during each phase in order to identify when the major part of the emissions occur to enable actions for emission reduction where the savings can be highest. The characterized emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (...

  9. Regulatory and management approaches to NORM residues in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Teng, I.L.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) processing industries in Malaysia include oil and gas production and mineral processing plants. These industries are controlled by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board of Malaysia (AELB) through the enforcement of the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304). Related regulations have been developed in order to ensure the safety of workers and members of the public. However, more regulations are necessary for the safe handling of NORM. NORM processing generates various types of NORM residues that require proper management. As for low-level NORM residues, landfill disposal can be exempted from regulatory control if the Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) shows that the additional dose to the members of the public is below the limit set by the authority. This paper outlines the regulatory and management approaches to NORM residues in Malaysia. (author)

  10. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  11. Photophysics of fullerenes: Thermionic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Tuinman, A.A.; Huang, J.

    1996-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization of fullerenes using long-pulse length lasers occurs mainly through vibrational autoionization. In many cases the laser ionization can be described as thermionic in analogy to the boiling off of electrons from a filament. Thermionic emission manifests itself as a delayed emission of electrons following pulsed laser excitation. Klots has employed quasiequilibrium theory to calculate rate constants for thermionic emission from fullerenes which seem to quantitatively account for the observed delayed emission times and the measured electron energy distributions. The theory of Klots also accounts for the thermionic emission of C 60 excited by a low power CW Argon Ion laser. Recently Klots and Compton have reviewed the evidence for thermionic emission from small aggregates where mention was also made of experiments designed to determine the effects of externally applied electric fields on thermionic emission rates. The authors have measured the fullerene ion intensity as a function of the applied electric field and normalized this signal to that produced by single photon ionization of an atom in order to correct for all collection efficiency artifacts. The increase in fullerene ion signal relative to that of Cs + is attributed to field enhanced thermionic emission. From the slope of the Schottky plot they obtain a temperature of approximately 1,000 K. This temperature is comparable to but smaller than that estimated from measurements of the electron kinetic energies. This result for field enhanced thermionic emission is discussed further by Klots and Compton. Thermionic emission from neutral clusters has long been known for autodetachment from highly excited negative ions. Similarly, electron attachment to C 60 in the energy range from 8 to 12 eV results in C 60 anions with lifetimes in the range of microseconds. Quasiequilibrium theory (QET) calculations are in reasonable accord with these measurements

  12. Photophysics of fullerenes: Thermionic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, R.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tuinman, A.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Huang, J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Multiphoton ionization of fullerenes using long-pulse length lasers occurs mainly through vibrational autoionization. In many cases the laser ionization can be described as thermionic in analogy to the boiling off of electrons from a filament. Thermionic emission manifests itself as a delayed emission of electrons following pulsed laser excitation. Klots has employed quasiequilibrium theory to calculate rate constants for thermionic emission from fullerenes which seem to quantitatively account for the observed delayed emission times and the measured electron energy distributions. The theory of Klots also accounts for the thermionic emission of C{sub 60} excited by a low power CW Argon Ion laser. Recently Klots and Compton have reviewed the evidence for thermionic emission from small aggregates where mention was also made of experiments designed to determine the effects of externally applied electric fields on thermionic emission rates. The authors have measured the fullerene ion intensity as a function of the applied electric field and normalized this signal to that produced by single photon ionization of an atom in order to correct for all collection efficiency artifacts. The increase in fullerene ion signal relative to that of Cs{sup +} is attributed to field enhanced thermionic emission. From the slope of the Schottky plot they obtain a temperature of approximately 1,000 K. This temperature is comparable to but smaller than that estimated from measurements of the electron kinetic energies. This result for field enhanced thermionic emission is discussed further by Klots and Compton. Thermionic emission from neutral clusters has long been known for autodetachment from highly excited negative ions. Similarly, electron attachment to C{sub 60} in the energy range from 8 to 12 eV results in C{sub 60} anions with lifetimes in the range of microseconds. Quasiequilibrium theory (QET) calculations are in reasonable accord with these measurements.

  13. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  14. Potential of the generation and the emissions avoided of greenhouse gases from urban solid residues from the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, city; Potencial de geracao e de emissoes evitadas de gases de efeito estufa de residuos solidos urbanos na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Saulo Machado [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: saulo@lima.coppe.ufrj.br; Rovere, Emilio Lebre La [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente], e-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br; Mahler, Claudio Fernando [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Grupo de Estudo em Tratamento de Residuos Solidos], e-mail: mahler0503@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    This work calculates the emissions of greenhouse, specifically the methane, coming from the biogas generated in anaerobic decomposition of the organic matter existing on the urban solid earth embankments, particularly the waste produced in the Rio de Janeiro city during the year 2007, besides three possible future mitigation scenarios of those emissions up to the year 2020, considering the present public politics adopted and the projections of population increasing and the per capita of the city (IPEA, 2007), The objective and justification consist of the data actualization for the next emission inventory of greenhouses at the Rio de Janeiro. It will be applied the IPCC (2006) methodology, and the application of alternative technologies in projects of avoided emissions of CH{sub 4}.

  15. Effects on Machining on Surface Residual Stress of SA 508 and Austenitic Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Seong Ho; Park, Chi Yong; Yang, Jun Seok; Lee, Jeong Geun; Park, Jai Hak

    2011-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking has occurred in dissimilar weld areas in nuclear power plants. Residual stress is a driving force in the crack. Residual stress may be generated by weld or surface machining. Residual stress due to surface machining depends on the machining method, e.g., milling, grinding, or EDM. The stress is usually distributed on or near the surface of the material. We present the measured residual stress for machining on SA 508 and austenitic stainless steels such as TP304 and F316. The residual stress can be tensile or compressive depending on the machining method. The depth and the magnitude of the residual stress depend on the material and the machining method

  16. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different plant-based feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms in the fall of 2008. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried in July of 2011 below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a uncharred wood-pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Overall, these findings indicate that no significant alteration in the microbial dynamics of the soil decomposer communities occurred as a consequence of the application of plant-based biochars evaluated here.

  17. Residual volume in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Bezerra, Carolina Martins; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Silva, Viviane Martins da

    2017-06-12

    Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%. 105 samples of antibiotics were selected. The correct use of the antibiotics oxacillin (88.57%) and ceftriaxone (94.28%) predominated with low residual values. The same did not occur for procaine benzylpenicillin + potassium benzylpenicillin, since a greater residual volume was discarded in 74.28% of the vials. We highlight the need for improvements in managing antibiotics in the institution under study, so that the excess volume of the antibiotics in the vials is used within the acceptable stable time. It is also necessary that the disposal of the residual volume be adequately disposed, since it presents a risk to public health and the environment. Quantificar o volume residual contido em frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados na pediatria. Trata-se de um experimento com amostras de frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados em hospital pediátrico. O volume residual foi identificado calculando-se a diferença da aferição do peso antes e após a lavagem do frasco-ampola. A avaliação da diferença dos volumes residuais nos frascos-ampola foi determinada pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon para uma amostra e estabelecido o nível de significância de 5%. Foram selecionadas 105 amostras de antibióticos. Predominou o correto aproveitamento dos antibióticos oxacilina (88,57%) e ceftriaxona (94,28%), com baixos valores residuais. O mesmo não ocorreu com a benzilpenicilina procaína + potássica, pois em 74,28% dos frascos houve descarte de volume residual superior. Destaca-se a necessidade de

  18. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  19. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  20. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  1. Dynamic effects of soil bulk density on denitrification and mineralisation by 15N labelled lettuce residue and paper wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Luo; Cheng Qing; Vinten, A.J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Two laboratory incubation experiments aimed to study the denitrification and mineralisation influenced by different additives ( 15 N labelled lettuce residue, paper wastes and mixture of both) and soil bulk densities were carried out by means of acetylene inhibition at the constant 15 degree C for 107 and 90 days, respectively. The results showed that the changes of N 2 O, CO 2 emission rates, inorganic nitrogen (NO 3 - and NH 4 + ), total N and 15 N abundance in the soils which were affected by adding lettuce residue, paper wastes and mixture of both were investigated. Soil denitrification rate increased after lettuce residue was added into soil for 8 days. The maximum rate of N 2 O emission was 15 times higher than that in soil without any additive. However, paper wastes did not increase N 2 O emission in the first 8 days compared with other treatments, mixed residue and paper wastes could promote soil microbial activity, but N 2 O emission was lower than that in the soil with lettuce residue added and higher than that with paper wastes, indicating that mixture of residue and paper wastes was benefit to soil nitrogen immobilisation. CO 2 emission in all the treatments were declined to the same level on the 107 th day. In the treatment added mixed residues and paper wastes, the released CO 2 quantities were higher than those in other treatments every day. Effect of different bulk density on N 2 O and CO 2 emission were response to the change of bulk density, it seems that N 2 O and CO 2 emission increased with bulk density. High bulk density could affect decomposition of paper wastes and NO 3 - , NH 4 + concentration. (30 ref., 10 tabs.)

  2. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  3. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negassa, Wakene C; Guber, Andrey K; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Marsh, Terence L; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S-18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75-80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g(-1) soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g(-1) soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  4. Properties of Soil Pore Space Regulate Pathways of Plant Residue Decomposition and Community Structure of Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g-1 soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g-1 soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  5. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, Andreas; Niedermayer, Matthias; Sitte, Beate; Hamel, Peter Michael

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.) [de

  6. Economic factors influencing potential use of cellulosic crop residues for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; McCarl, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines cellulosic crop residues for biopower production in the context of (greenhouse gas) GHG emission mitigation. We employ sector modeling to simulate future market potential for biopower production from crop residues. Our findings suggest that in order for crop residues to have any role in electricity generation either the carbon or (carbon dioxide) CO 2 equivalent GHG price must rise to about 15 dollars per ton or the price of coal has to increase to about 43 dollars per ton. We find that crop residues with higher heat content have greater opportunities in biopower production than the residues with lower heat content. In addition, our evidence shows that improvements in crop yields do not have much impact on biopower production. However, the energy recovery efficiency does have significant positive impact but only if the CO 2 equivalent price rises substantially. Moreover, our analysis indicates the desirability of cofiring biomass as opposed to 100% replacement because this reduces transportation cost and increases the efficiency of heat recovery. In terms of policy implications, imposing carbon emission pricing could be an important step in inducing electric power producers to include biomass feedstocks in their fuel-mix power generation portfolios and achieve GHG emission reductions. - Highlights: • Crop residues with higher heat content have greater market opportunities. • Improvement in crop and residue yields does not have much impact on biopower production. • Advancement in biopower production technology does not encourage more use of crop residues. • The main factor that induces biopower production is an increase in future carbon prices

  7. Acoustic emission from polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, I.; Yoda, S.; Oku, T.; Miyamoto, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic emission was monitored from polycrystalline graphites with different microstructure (pore size and pore volume) subjected to compressive loading. The graphites used in this study comprised five brands, that is, PGX, ISEM-1, IG-11, IG-15, and ISO-88. A root mean square (RMS) voltage and event counts of acoustic emission for graphites were measured during compressive loading. The acoustic emission was measured using a computed-based data acquisition and analysis system. The graphites were first deformed up to 80 % of the average fracture stress, then unloaded and reloaded again until the fracture occured. During the first loading, the change in RMS voltage for acoustic emission was detected from the initial stage. During the unloading, the RMS voltage became zero level as soon as the applied stress was released and then gradually rose to a peak and declined. The behavior indicated that the reversed plastic deformation occured in graphites. During the second loading, the RMS voltage gently increased until the applied stress exceeded the maximum stress of the first loading; there is no Kaiser effect in the graphites. A bicrystal model could give a reasonable explanation of this results. The empirical equation between the ratio of σ AE to σ f and σ f was obtained. It is considered that the detection of microfracture by the acoustic emission technique is effective in macrofracture prediction of polycrystalline graphites. (author)

  8. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  9. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  11. Fragment emission from modestly excited nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Souza, R.T. de [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Chen, S.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Cornell, E.W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Davin, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Fox, D. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Hamilton, T.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Mcdonald, K. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Tsang, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Glasmacher, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Dinius, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Gelbke, C.K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Handzy, D.O. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Hsi, W.C.

    1996-07-08

    Fragment emission patterns occurring in nuclear systems of modest excitation are studied. Exclusive measurement of fragment emission in {sup 14}N+{sup 197}Au reactions at E/A=100, 130 and 156 MeV allows selection of central collisions where a single source dominates the decay. Low threshold measurement of IMF emission for these events allows investigation of the influence of detector threshold effects. The time scale of fragment emission is deduced using fragment-fragment velocity correlations. Comparisons are made to the predictions of a statistical decay model. (orig.).

  12. Marshmallowing of nanopillar arrays by field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Hua; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Blick, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    We fabricated nanoscale field electron emitters formed by highly-doped silicon nanopillars on a silicon membrane. Electron-beam induced deposition of carbon-based contaminants is employed as a probe of the spatial activity of electron emission from the nanopillars. In stark contrast to the general assumption that field emission only occurs at the tips of nanoscale emitters, we found strong emission from the sidewalls of the nanopillars. This is revealed by the deposition of carbon contaminants on these sidewalls, so that the nanopillars finally resemble marshmallows. We conclude that field emission from nanostructured surfaces is more intricate than previously expected.

  13. Marshmallowing of nanopillar arrays by field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J; Qin, H; Kim, H-S; Blick, R H

    2009-01-01

    We have fabricated mechanically flexible field electron emitters formed by highly-doped silicon nanopillars on a silicon membrane. Electron beam induced deposition of carbon-based contaminants is employed to probe the spatial activity of electron emission from the nanopillars. The experimental configuration provides a powerful tool to investigate the physics of the field electron emission (FEE). In contrast to the general assumption that field emission only occurs at the tips of nanoscale emitters, we found that the emission from the nanopillars' sidewalls is as strong as from their tips.

  14. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  15. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  16. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  17. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  18. Spatio-temporal availability of field crop residues for biofuel production in Northwest and Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, L.; Wang, X.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Yang, L.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, J.; Xie, G.

    2015-01-01

    Developing bioenergy from plant feedstocks is considered an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure biofuel supply. This study is an assessment of the availability of field crop residues for bioenergy feedstocks in northwest China (NWC) and southwest China (SWC). The amount of

  19. Soil carbon sequestration and changes in fungal and bacterial biomass following incorporation of forest residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Felipe G. Sanchez; Alice W. Ratcliff; John R. Butnor; Emily A. Carter; Robert F. Powers

    2009-01-01

    Sequestering carbon (C) in forest soils can benefit site fertility and help offset greenhouse gas emissions. However, identifying soil conditions and forest management practices which best promote C accumulation remains a challenging task. We tested whether soil incorporation of masticated woody residues alters short-term C storage at forested sites in western and...

  20. Nitrous oxide and N-leaching losses from agricultural soil: Influence of crop residue particle size, quality and placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.; Robertson, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    protection of the crop residue material against microbial attack. Leaching of N tended to be reduced about 40 % with barley and 20 % with pea, but the numbers were not significantly different from residue-free soil, which leached 4.7-4.9 g N m(-2). When wheat and alfalfa residues were mixed into the soil N2O...... emissions increased 6.5 and 1.6 times, respectively, compared with residue placed in a layer. Wheat residue in a layer evolved 3.4-times less N2O than alfalfa in a layer, whereas when mixed the two residue types evolved similar amounts of N2O. This difference was probably due to N-limitations in localised...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas

  2. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  3. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  4. Residual stresses determination in an 8 mm Incoloy 800H weld via neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xizhang; Zhang, Shu Yan; Wang, Jingjun; Kelleher, Joe F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stress through thickness at 5 mm from weld centerline indicates a “U” distribution. • Declining of tensile stress through thickness occurred at weld centerline. • Residual stress between layers is the lowest. - Abstract: To investigate the distribution of residual stresses, the 8 mm 800H alloy was joined by multi-layer butt TIG process. Residual stresses in the longitudinal, transverse and normal directions were measured via neutron diffraction. These residual stress measurements were taken at a series of points 2 mm below the top surface, covering the fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal. In addition, two lines of longitudinal residual stress values at the weld centerline and 5 mm from weld centerline through thickness were measured. Results show that both the longitudinal and transverse stresses from the weld centerline to base metal are mainly tensile stresses. The longitudinal residual stress is the largest, with a maximum value of 330 MPa. As for the normal residual stress, the weld zone shows tensile stress, while the HAZ shows compressive stress. The middle of the thickness shows compressive residual stress along the thickness direction. The longitudinal stress at weld centerline through thickness reveals the interlayer heat treat effects leads to a declining of tensile stress. While the stress at 5 mm from weld centerline indicates a “U” distribution due to the mixed microstructure close to fusion line. With the increasing distance from weld seam, the residual stress decreases gradually

  5. Phosphorylated peptides occur in a non-helical portion of the tail of a catch muscle myosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, L.; Elliott, B.W. Jr.; Cohen, C.

    1987-01-01

    Myosin from a molluscan catch muscle (the Anterior Byssus Retractor (ABRM) of Mytilus edulis) is unusual in being phosphorylated in the rod by an endogenous heavy-chain kinase. This phosphorylation enhances myosin solubility at low ionic strength and induces molecular folding of the myosin tail. Papain and chymotryptic cleavage of this myosin, phosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]ATP, indicates that the phosphorylated residues are associated with the carboxy-terminal end of the light meromyosin. Ion-exchange and reverse-phase HPLC of radiolabeled chymotryptic peptides allow the isolation of two different peptides with high specific activity. One of these peptides is rich in lysine and arginine residues, a finding consistent with the observation that basic residues often determine the substrate specificity of protein kinases. The second peptide contains proline residues. Taken together, these results suggest that, as in the case of Acanthamoeba myosin, phosphorylation occurs in a nonhelical portion of the rod that may also control solubility. Identification of the residues that are phosphorylated and their location in the rod may reveal how the phosphorylation-dependent changes observed in the myosin in vitro are related to changes in intermolecular interactions in the thick filaments in vivo

  6. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  7. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  8. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  9. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  10. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  11. Controlling fugitive emissions from mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that enactment of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Amendments will sharply focus efforts in the process industries to reduce fugitive emissions. Moreover, state and local governments may be imposing stricter laws and regulations which will affect allowable fugitive emissions from U.S. refineries and process plants. Plants outside the U.S. have similar concerns. Clearly, mechanical seals for process pumps represent an enormous population and is one category of equipment destined for careful evaluation as a means to control fugitive emissions. Fugitive are unintentional emissions from valves, pumps, flanges, compressors, etc., as opposed to point-source emissions from stacks, vents and flares. Fugitive emissions do not occur as a part of normal plant operations, but result from the effects of: Malfunctions, Age, Lack of proper maintenance, Operator error, Improper equipment specification, Use of inferior technology, and externally caused damage

  12. Uranium occurences in calcrete and associated sediments in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.; Horwitz, R.C.; Mann, A.W.

    1977-10-01

    The report is a compilation of data pertaining to the occurence and distribution of uranium mineralization in calcretes and associated sediments in Western Australia and contains brief descriptions of many of the calcrete-uranium occurences, including some of the most minor. Virtually all calcretes in the region are liable to contain traces of uranium mineralization, visible as coatings of carnotite. The locations of the uranium occurences are shown on a map which features the distribution of calcrete

  13. Study on the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded steel pipes under bending load using diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Nico; Nitschke-Pagel, Thomas; Dilger, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This research is dedicated to the experimental investigation of the residual stress relaxation in girth-welded pipes due to quasi-static bending loads. Ferritic-pearlitic steel pipes are welded with two passes, resulting in a characteristic residual stress state with high tensile residual stresses at the weld root. Also, four-point bending is applied to generate axial load stress causing changes in the residual stress state. These are determined both on the outer and inner surfaces of the pipes, as well as in the pipe wall, using X-ray and neutron diffraction. Focusing on the effect of tensile load stress, it is revealed that not only the tensile residual stresses are reduced due to exceeding the yield stress, but also the compressive residual stresses for equilibrium reasons. Furthermore, residual stress relaxation occurs both parallel and perpendicular to the applied load stress.

  14. Global warming impact assessment of a crop residue gasification project—A dynamic LCA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic LCA is proposed considering time-varying factors. • Dynamic LCA is used to highlight GHG emission hotspots of gasification projects. • Indicators are proposed to reflect GHG emission performance. • Dynamic LCA alters the static LCA results. • Crop residue gasification project has high GHG abatement potential. - Abstract: Bioenergy from crop residues is one of the prevailing sustainable energy sources owing to the abundant reserves worldwide. Amongst a wide variety of energy conversion technologies, crop residue gasification has been regarded as promising owing to its higher energy efficiency than that of direct combustion. However, prior to large-scale application of crop residue gasification, the lifetime environmental performance should be investigated to shed light on sustainable strategies. As traditional static life cycle assessment (LCA) does not include temporal information for dynamic processes, we proposed a dynamic life cycle assessment approach, which improves the static LCA approach by considering time-varying factors, e.g., greenhouse gas characterization factors and energy intensity. As the gasification project can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) discharge compared with traditional direct fuel combustion, trade-offs between the benefits of global warming mitigation and the impact on global warming of crop residue gasification should be considered. Therefore, indicators of net global warming mitigation benefit and global warming impact mitigation period are put forward to justify the feasibility of the crop residue gasification project. The proposed dynamic LCA and indicators were then applied to estimate the life cycle global warming impact of a crop residue gasification system in China. Results show that the crop residue gasification project has high net global warming mitigation benefit and a short global warming impact mitigation period, indicating its prominent potential in alleviating global warming impact. During

  15. Analysis of explosive and other organic residues by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazic, V., E-mail: lazic@frascati.enea.i [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Palucci, A. [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Jovicevic, S. [Institute of Physics, 11080 Belgrade, Pregrevica 118 (Serbia); Poggi, C.; Buono, E. [ENEA, FIS-LAS, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    With the aim of realizing a compact instrument for detection of energetic materials at trace levels, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied on residues from nine explosives in air surroundings. Different potentially interfering organic materials were also analyzed. The residues were not uniformly distributed on an aluminum support and single-shot discrimination was attempted. For a single residue type, large shot-to-shot fluctuations of the line intensity ratios characteristic for organic samples were observed, which made material classification difficult. It was found that both atomic and molecular emission intensities, as well as their ratios, are strongly affected by an amount of the ablated support material, which mainly determines the plasma temperature. With respect to the spectra from the clean support, emission intensities of atomic oxygen and nitrogen are always reduced in the presence of an organic material, even if its molecules contain these elements. This was attributed to chemical reactions in a plasma containing carbon or its fragments. Hydrogen atomic emission depends strongly on the local humidity above the sampled point and its line intensity shows shot to shot variations up to 50%, also on a homogeneous sample. It is argued that shock waves generated by previous spatially and/or temporally close laser pulses blow away a relatively heavy water aerosol, which later diffuses slowly back towards the sampled point. C{sub 2} and CN exhibit a peak emission behavior with atomic Al emission, and their variable ratio indicates an existence of different formation or removal mechanisms from the plasma, depending on the plasma parameters and on the composition of the organic residue. On the basis of these observations, an attempt is made to establish a suitable procedure for data analysis and to determine the optimal experimental conditions, which would allow for discrimination of explosives from other, potentially interfering, residues.

  16. Emissions from decentralised CHP plants 2007 - Energinet.dk Environmental project no. 07/1882. Project report 5 - Emission factors and emission inventory for decentralised CHP production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Thomsen, M.

    2010-06-15

    Updated emission factors for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) plants with a capacity < 25MWe have been estimated based on project emission measurements as well as emission measurements performed in recent years that were collected. The emission factors valid for 2006/2007 have been estimated for the plant technologies: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, plants combusting straw or wood, natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines, biogas fuelled engines, natural gas fuelled gas turbines, gas oil fuelled reciprocating engines, gas oil fuelled gas turbines, steam turbines combusting residual oil and reciprocating engines combusting biomass producer gas based on wood. The emission factors for MSW incineration plants are much lower than the emission factors that were estimated for year 2000. The considerable reduction in the emission factors is a result of lower emission limit values in Danish legislation since 2006 that has lead to installation of new and improved flue gas cleaning systems in most MSW incineration plants. For CHP plants combusting wood or straw no major technical improvements have been implemented. The emission factors for natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines have been reduced since year 2000 as a result of technical improvements that have been carried out due to lower emission limit values in Danish legislation. The NO{sub x} emission factor for natural gas fuelled gas turbines has decreased 62 % since year 2000. This is a result of installation of low-NO{sub x} burners in almost all gas turbines that has been necessary to meet new emission limits in Danish legislation. The emission measurements programme included screening of the emissions of HCB, PCB, PCDD/-F and PBDD/-F. Compared to the Danish national emission decentralized CHP plants are major emission sources for CH{sub 4}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and HCB. (author)

  17. Analytical solutions for peak and residual uplift resistance of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.F. [Nixon Geotech Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Oswell, J.M. [Naviq Consulting Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Frost heave can occur on cold pipelines that traverse unfrozen, non permafrost terrain. The stresses experienced by the pipeline are partly a function of the strength of the soil on the non heaving side of the frozen-unfrozen interface. This paper proposed three analytical solutions to estimate the soil uplift resistance by considering the pipeline and soil to act similar to a strip footing, a punching shear failure, and by considering the formation of horizontal crack emanating from the spring line of the pipe. Peak uplift resistance and residual uplift resistance were discussed. Results for full scale pipe and for laboratory scale model pipes were presented, with particular reference to cover depth, temperature and crack width; and limits to residual uplift resistance. It was concluded that the peak uplift resistance and the residual uplift resistance are generally independent and controlled by different factors. The peak resistance is related directly to pipe diameter, and less strongly dependent on springline depth. It is also strongly dependent on soil temperature. However, the residual uplift resistance is strongly dependent on burial depth, weakly dependent on pipe displacement rate and also on soil temperature. 15 refs., 19 figs.

  18. Nitrogen Released From Organic Residues Using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, Y.G.M.; Gadalla, A.M.; Abdel Aziz, H.A.; Abdel Salam, A.A.; El-Degwy, S.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Incubation technique was followed under laboratory condition to evaluate and determine the rate of organic residues decomposition as well as N released in media. Rice straw, soybean straw, and leuceana cutting residue were used. These materials were incubated on virgin sandy soil up to 90 days intervals. Cups with mixture of sand and organic residues were inoculated with fungi, bacteria and mixture of them. Un inoculated treatment was also included. Results showed that N released from the different organic materials was significant at 30 days of incubation. It seems that presence of Azotobacter was associated with enhanced demand on soluble N at this stage. Superiority of leucaena over the other two sources of rice straw and soybean straw occurred particularly during the 15 to 30.day period. In greenhouse experiment, the results indicated that N derived from organic materials was high and easily released from compost as mediated materials comparing to leucaena as undigested raw materials. In the same time, barley had more benefits from organic residues than lupine crop

  19. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.

  20. Emission Inventory for Fugitive Emissions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2007. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2, dioxin, PAH and particulate matter. In 2007 the total Danish emission of greenhouse...

  1. Pulping and papermaking properties of the leaf fiber and fibrous residue from Agave tequilana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, T.; Mitsuhashi, S.; Kanetsuna, H.; Iguchi, M.; Shirota, T.; Trujillo, J.J.; Herrera, T.

    1981-01-01

    The leaves and fibrous residue of A. tequilana had fibriles with parallel orientation and helical arrangement to the fiber axis and contained fibers in average length and width of 1.7 mm and 10.3 mu m and 0.8 mm and 25.5 mu m, respectively. The cell wall in leaves was thicker and narrower than those in fibrous residue, and leaves contained cellulose and lignin lower than fibrous residue did. Alkali sulfite cooking of leaves gave pulp, the yield of which was lower than that from fibrous residue. The H/sub 2/On retention and bulk density of leaf pulps increased rapidly on beating suggesting that an internal fibrillation in pulp occurs easily during beating. The breaking length and burst and tear factors of paper from leaf pulp were higher than those from fibrous residue.

  2. Convenient measurement of the residual stress using X-ray penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Takayoshi; Shibano, Junichi

    1994-01-01

    The residual stress measured with a characteristic X-ray is usually evaluated as a surface stress. However, it is a weighted mean value over all penetration depth of X-ray. Thus, the classical sin 2 Ψ method with the characteristic X-ray is difficult to use for measuring the steep gradient of residual stress that occurs along the depth direction in a subsurface layer of the material after cold rolling and grinding. This paper presents a convenient method of the residual stress measurement along the depth direction in a subsurface layer using the penetration depth depending on a characteristic X-ray. The residual stress distribution of JIS SKS51 steel plate was measured as an example of applying this method. As a result, it could be confirmed that a residual stress distribution along the depth direction in a subsurface layer could be evaluated nondestructively by this convenient method. (author)

  3. Reliability assessment of underground pipelines under the combined effect of active corrosion and residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirat, A.; Mohamed-Chateauneuf, A.; Chaoui, K.

    2006-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. Reliability analysis is recognized as a powerful decision-making tool for risk-based design and maintenance. Both the residual stresses generated during the manufacturing process and in-service corrosion reduce the ability to resist internal and external loading. In this study, the residual stress distribution in large diameter pipes has been characterized experimentally in order to be coupled with the corrosion model. During the pipe lifetime, residual stress relaxation occurs due to the loss of pipe thickness as material layers are consumed by corrosion. The reliability-based assessment of residual stress effects is applied to underground pipelines under a roadway, with and without active corrosion. It has been found that the residual stress greatly increases the failure probability, especially in the early stage of the pipe lifetime

  4. FEM simulation study on relationship of interfacial morphology and residual stress in TBCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liqiang Chen; Shengkai Gong; Huibin Xu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang Univ., Beijing, BJ (China)

    2005-07-01

    It is generally believed that the failure of TBCs is attributed to the spallation occurred in the ceramic coat. The spallation is closed linked with sinuate morphology factors, including its amplitude and period, at the TGO/bond coat interface. In this work, dependence of the residual stress distribution on the sinuate morphology in the TBCs has been studied by means of finite element method (FEM) simulation for isothermally annealed specimens. The simulation results indicated that the maximum value of residual stress existed inside the TGO layer. It was also found that the maximum residual stress occurred at different points, near the TGO/bond coat interface at the peak of the sinuate interface, while near the TGO/ceramic coat interface at the valley, respectively. And the maximum residual stress increased with increasing the ratio of the amplitude to period in the sine morphology, which has been proved by the thermal cycle experimental results. (orig.)

  5. Where does particle acceleration occur in extended extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that particle acceleration does not occur in the extended lobes of extragalactic radio sources, but only in the compact heads. Away from these, waves capable of accelerating particles may not propagate. Although wave generation within the lobes would allow acceleration there, it is not obvious that the plasma is sufficiently disturbed for this to occur. (author)

  6. UTILIZATION OF AGROINDUSTRIALES RESIDUES AS BIOFUELS AND BIOREFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyanira Muñoz-Muñoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of residues generated in the process agro-industrials are interest worldwide. At present, research is this in lignocellulosic biomass for energy, fuels, chemicals and biomaterials through clean technologies and closed systems that conserve the environment. In this research, based on the characteristics of the typical agro-industrial residues of Cauca Department, sugarcane bagasse, sisal dust, cassava bran and the mixtures, was evaluated use as biorefinery. Were determined the thermal, physical chemical and morphologic properties in seven samples of residues, were performed exploratory tests, were determined pretreatments and applications and the possible use were identified. We conclude that the sample M6 with 9,93 % moisture, 4,12% ash, 43,97% carbon, 5,86% hydrogen, 0,43% nitrogen, 15 MJ/kg of lower heating value and 22,25%of cellulose, 9,30% of hemicellulose and 4,56% lignin, presents characteristics appropriate to be used in furnaces and boilers less power for the rural sector by the amount of ash, which keeps the low heating power stable and reduces the emission of particulate matter. For the thermal, physical, chemical and morphological characteristics, all the samples of M1 to M7, they can be hydrolyzed, densified and taken advantage like biofuel and / or biorefinery

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Gebetsroither, E.; Orthofer, R.

    2002-07-01

    This report documents the calculations of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Austria of the IPCC-sector 'Agricultural Soils' for the period 1980 to 2001. According to available information, CH 4 emissions from agricultural soils are very small and thus irrelevant. N 2 O emissions were calculated according to the IPCC method; emission sources considered include direct emissions from nitrogen inputs to soils (mineral and organic fertilizers, crop residues, sewage sludge application, biological fixation) as well as indirect emissions (from atmospheric nitrogen deposition and nitrogen leaching) plus emissions from nitrogen input through grazing animal excreta. NH 3 and NO x emissions were calculated according to the CORINAIR method; sources considered were nitrogen inputs through fertilization as well as emissions from unfertilized cultures. In the year 1990 total emissions were 5.680 t N 2 O-N, 24.628 t NH 3 -N and 1.376 t NO x N. In the period 1980-2001 there were considerable fluctuations of emissions, caused by an inter annual variability of crop production and fertilizer consumption data. However, there are no significant emission trends in the past 20 years. Uncertainties were determined through a Monte-Carlo-based simulation; the standard deviation of a normal uncertainty distribution is 24 % for N 2 O, 13 % for NH 3 , and 18 % for NO x . (author)

  8. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  9. Emission of greenhouse gases from Danish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Fenhann, J.V.; Andersen, J.M.; Jacobsen, B.H.

    2001-01-01

    The basis for inventories of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from Danish agriculture has been reviewed and re-evaluated. This has resulted in revised estimates for most of the sources. The revised estimates predict a decline in emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from Danish agriculture from 14.1 Mt CO 2 equivalents in 1990 to 10.6 Mt CO 2 equivalents in 2010. The new estimates give lower emission of methane (4% for 1990 and 15% for 2010), and almost unchanged emissions for nitrous oxide (1% smaller for 1990 and 3% higher for 2010) compared with previous estimates. Since nitrous oxide is a more potent greenhouse gas than methane, the revised estimates are almost identical to the old ones for 2010 when expressed as CO 2 equivalents. The old and the revised estimates give a decline in emissions in CO 2 equivalents from 1990 to 2010 of 23 and 24% respectively. For 1999 the estimated emissions of methane constituted 29% of the total emission of CO 2 equivalents in the form of methane and nitrous oxide. The contribution of nitrous oxide derived from nitrogen turnover in the field was almost 47% of the emission. All emission sources are estimated as the product of an activity and an emission factor. The estimates are associated with uncertainties in both the activities and the emission factors. The uncertainty in the activity data is rather small for most of the items, but probably somewhat larger for N fixation, grazing, and cultivation of organic soils and N leaching. The largest uncertainty is associated with the amount of crop residues, which also constitutes one of the largest contributions to the total greenhouse gas emissions. Emission factors for methane are relatively certain, whereas there are large uncertainties associated with the emission factors for nitrous oxide. This is partly due to the fact that the emission factors are based on emission data representing many different climatic conditions, soil types and crops. The large uncertainty in the

  10. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  11. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  12. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  13. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  14. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  15. Criteria for the restoration of mining residues in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Ettenhuber, E.; Gehrcke, K.; Przyborowski, S.

    2000-01-01

    Residues from uranium mines and mills and from the mining of silver, tin, cobalt, nickel and other ores, as well as of coal mineralized with uranium, are situated in densely populated regions of Germany. Social and political pressure required an urgent investigation and evaluation of these residues in order to identify relevant residues which could not be disregarded from the radiation protection point of view. There were two categories of residues. First, for huge former uranium mining and milling sites, the original owner could be made liable for restoration. A large Federal rehabilitation programme for the Wismut sites was started immediately after the political change in the former East Germany in 1990 and was based on radiological as well as on social and economic concerns. Secondly, for a large number of smaller residues, sometimes dating back to the middle ages, an evaluation of their radiological relevance was necessary before decisions could be taken on the justification of a restoration. This was the objective of a Federal programme on registration, investigation and evaluation of mining residues. Up to now only minor remedial activities have been carried out in cases where an urgent need had been detected. Criteria developed by the German Commission on radiological protection (SSK) were applied for the evaluation of the residues. The primary criterion for the justification of a restoration was an annual individual effective dose of 1 mSv for all exposure pathways except for the inhalation of radon. For inhalation of radon, the primary criterion for justification was a long term average outdoor radon concentration of 50 Bq/m 3 caused by the residues. Both levels were taken in addition to the natural background radiation level at a given site. These criteria were based on the upper end of the 'normal' range of naturally occurring exposure or concentration levels. SSK established reference levels in measurable quantities (activity concentration in soil

  16. Finite element analysis of residual stress in plasma-sprayed ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.L.; Hendricks, R.C.; McDonald, G.

    1985-01-01

    Residual stress in a ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 ceramic coating resulting from the plasma spraying operation is calculated. The calculations were done using the finite element method. Both thermal and mechanical analysis were performed. The resulting residual stress field was compared to the measurements obtained by Hendricks and McDonald. Reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured moment occurred. However, the resulting stress field is not in pure bending

  17. Hungarian situation of the technologically enhanced naturally occuring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, L.; Szerbin, P.; Czoch, I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In Hungary, the main goal is that the Hungarian regulations should meet with the EU Directive No. 96/29. For this aim, a surveying project has been launched in order to collect all relevant information about the Hungarian TENORM situation. This surveying programme covers a lot of data collection (work activities, disposal places, residue quantities) and radiological measurements on the TENORM site. The Hungarian situation of TENORM definitely differs from other countries in the aspect of occurrence forms of natural sources (or in the imported raw materials), in the quantities of exploitation, in the level of the radioactivity and in the applied technological processes. Firstly, those work activities have been choosen where the huge amount of residues have been produced. The other criteria is that the activity concentration in a great portion of the given residues is much higher than the average activity concentration of the typical Hungarian soil. After filtering and ranking, the following main activities enhanced the radioactivity level are left: uranium mining and milling, coal mining, coal firing in power plants, bauxite mining and aluminous earth production. At the uranium mining and milling area the uranium content of residues ranges from 20 to 70 g t -1 , and above those the dose rate is 0.4-10 μSv h -1 . The waste rock piles and heaps for leaching were restored and the remediation of tailings ponds is still under way. In the mountain Mecsek and on the territory from the highland Balaton to the mountain Vertes, the radioactivity level of the coals is 10-50 times higher than the worldwide average. The coal fired plants have piled up in the order of magnitude of 10 million tons of fly ash, bottom ash and slag in ponds around the plants. The radioactivity of U-238 series of ash and slag is in the range from 200 to 2000 Bq·kg -1 . The radionuclide concentrations of bauxite ores range from 200 to 300 Bq·kg -1 . At the refining factories, a lot of red

  18. Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological...... processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during...

  19. Identification of Chemical Agents (Mimics) Residues after Destructive Adsorption Using TPD and UV-vis-IR and Raman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klabunde, Kenneth J

    2001-01-01

    Instrumentation was purchased that helps characterize the chemical structures and chemical reactions that occur when nanocrystalline metal oxides carry out destructive adsorption of chemical agents mimics. The residues (adducts...

  20. Prediction of Fatigue Crack Growth in Gas Turbine Engine Blades Using Acoustic Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiheng; Yang, Guoan; Hu, Kun

    2018-04-25

    Fatigue failure is the main type of failure that occurs in gas turbine engine blades and an online monitoring method for detecting fatigue cracks in blades is urgently needed. Therefore, in this present study, we propose the use of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring for the online identification of the blade status. Experiments on fatigue crack propagation based on the AE monitoring of gas turbine engine blades and TC11 titanium alloy plates were conducted. The relationship between the cumulative AE hits and the fatigue crack length was established, before a method of using the AE parameters to determine the crack propagation stage was proposed. A method for predicting the degree of crack propagation and residual fatigue life based on the AE energy was obtained. The results provide a new method for the online monitoring of cracks in the gas turbine engine blade.

  1. Residues and duality for projective algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Ernst; Dickenstein, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    This book, which grew out of lectures by E. Kunz for students with a background in algebra and algebraic geometry, develops local and global duality theory in the special case of (possibly singular) algebraic varieties over algebraically closed base fields. It describes duality and residue theorems in terms of K�hler differential forms and their residues. The properties of residues are introduced via local cohomology. Special emphasis is given to the relation between residues to classical results of algebraic geometry and their generalizations. The contribution by A. Dickenstein gives applications of residues and duality to polynomial solutions of constant coefficient partial differential equations and to problems in interpolation and ideal membership. D. A. Cox explains toric residues and relates them to the earlier text. The book is intended as an introduction to more advanced treatments and further applications of the subject, to which numerous bibliographical hints are given.

  2. Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

    2000-07-01

    In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

  3. Pyrolysis Gas as a Renewable Reducing Agent for the Recycling of Zinc- and Lead-Bearing Residues: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, C.; Antrekowitsch, J.

    2017-04-01

    The topic "Zero Waste" has been in existence for several years in the industry, and the metallurgical industry has also made efforts to reduce the amounts of residues occurring and have started several investigations to cut down on metallurgical by-products which have to be landfilled. Especially, the additional costs for CO2 emissions in different metallurgical steps have led to investigations into alternative carbon carriers. Charcoal has been identified to serve as an ideal substitute due its CO2-neutrality. For the applications of this renewable carbon carrier in metallurgical processes, charcoal production by means of a carbonization process needs to be optimized. As a by-product during the heating of agricultural wastes or wood by excluding air, pyrolysis gas occurs. Due to the existence of combustible compounds in this gas, an application as a reduction agent instead of fossil carbon carriers in metallurgy is possible. Based on the prevention of dumping metallurgical by-products, an investigation has been developed to treat zinc- and lead-containing materials. To realize this, a dedicated process concept has been designed and developed. As the main focuses, the usage of the pyrolysis gas from charcoal production for the Waelz kiln process and the recycling of zinc- and lead-containing Waelz slag, resulting from the processing of steel mill dust in a vertical retort, have to be mentioned. Within this research, the process concept was executed from laboratory-scale up to pilot-scale testing, described in this article.

  4. Influence of organic waste and residue mud additions on chemical, physical and microbial properties of bauxite residue sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin E H; Haynes, Richard J; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-02-01

    In an alumina refinery, bauxite ore is treated with sodium hydroxide at high temperatures and pressures and for every tone of alumina produced, about 2 tones of alkaline, saline bauxite processing waste is also produced. At Alcoa, a dry stacking system of disposal is used, and it is the sand fraction of the processing waste that is rehabilitated. There is little information available regarding the most appropriate amendments to add to the processing sand to aid in revegetation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the addition of organic wastes (biosolids and poultry manure), in the presence or absence of added residue mud, would affect the properties of the residue sand and its suitability for revegetation. Samples of freshly deposited residue sand were collected from Alcoa's Kwinana refinery. Samples were treated with phosphogypsum (2% v/v), incubated, and leached. A laboratory experiment was then set up in which the two organic wastes were applied at 0 or the equivalent to 60 tones ha(-1) in combination with residue mud added at rates of 0%, 10% and 20% v/v. Samples were incubated for 8 weeks, after which, key chemical, physical and microbial properties of the residue sand were measured along with seed germination. Additions of residue mud increased exchangeable Na(+), ESP and the pH, and HCO (3) (-) and Na(+) concentrations in saturation paste extracts. Additions of biosolids and poultry manure increased concentrations of extractable P, NH (4) (+) , K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. Addition of residue mud, in combination with organic wastes, caused a marked decrease in macroporosity and a concomitant increase in mesoporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. With increasing residue mud additions, the percentage of sample present as sand particles (2 mm diameter) increased; greatest aggregation occurred where a combination of residue mud and poultry manure were added. Stability of aggregates, as measured by

  5. Distribution of residues and primitive roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Replacing the function f by g, we get the required estimate for N(p, N). D. Proof of Theorem 1.1. When p = 7, we clearly see that (1, 2) is a consecutive pair of quadratic residue modulo 7. Assume that p ≥ 11. If 10 is a quadratic residue modulo p, then we have (9, 10) as a consecutive pair of quadratic residues modulo p, ...

  6. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  7. Studies on `allergoids' prepared from naturally occurring allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, D. G.; Lichtenstein, L. M.; Campbell, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    The highly purified major allergenic component of rye grass pollen (Group I) was used to investigate the possibility of destroying selectively the allergenic properties of an antigen, while largely retaining its original immunizing capacities. The allergen was treated under mild conditions with formalin alone or formalin plus a reactive low molecular weight additive. Certain derivatives (allergoids) showed well over 99 per cent reduction in allergenicity, determined by the histamine released from allergic human leucocytes in vitro, but were still able to combine with rabbit antibody against native antigen. Furthermore, the allergoids stimulated production (in guinea-pigs) of appreciable amounts of antibody able to inhibit native allergen-mediated human allergic histamine release in vitro and to cross-react with native antigen by PCA tests in normal guinea-pigs. Residual allergenicity and cross-immunogenicity (by the inhibition assay) of the different formalinized derivatives varied appreciably according to the additive used in formalinization, but the cross-reactivities of the different preparations in quantitative precipitin analysis against rabbit anti-native antigen serum were similar. The residual allergenicities of individual derivatives varied by up to 1000-fold in different cell preparations, suggesting a heterogeneity of allergenic determinants. Allergoid derivatives showed no hapten-like activity in that they were unable to inhibit allergen-mediated histamine release from leucocytes. The theoretical and practical application of allergoids is discussed, including their potential usefulness in improving the immunotheraphy of atopic humans. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:4192674

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hawaii. Household and visitor expenditure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konan, Denise Eby; Chan, Hing Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with economic activities in Hawaii. Data on economic activity, petroleum consumption by type (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, residual, propane), and emissions factors are compiled and analyzed. In the baseline year 1997, emissions are estimated to total approximately 23.2 million metric tons of carbon, 181 thousand metric tons of nitrous oxide, and 31 thousand metric tons of methane in terms of carbon-equivalent global warming potential over a 100-year horizon. Air transportation, electricity, and other transportation are the key economic activity responsible for GHG emissions associated with fossil fuel use. More than 22% of total emissions are attributed to visitor expenditures. On a per person per annum basis, emission rates generated by visitor demand are estimated to be higher than that of residents by a factor of 4.3 for carbon, 3.2 for methane, and 4.8 for nitrous oxide. (author)

  9. Prevalence, Predictors and Clinical Outcome of Residual Pulmonary Hypertension Following Tricuspid Annuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Liu, Ju-Hua; Chan, Daniel; Sit, Ko-Yung; Wong, Chun-Ka; Ho, Kar-Lai; Ho, Lai-Ming; Zhen, Zhe; Lam, Yui-Ming; Lau, Chu-Pak; Au, Wing-Kok; Tse, Hung-Fat; Yiu, Kai-Hang

    2016-07-22

    Tricuspid annuloplasty is increasingly performed during left heart valve surgery, but the long-term clinical outcome postoperatively is not satisfactory. The aim of this study was to determine whether residual pulmonary hypertension (PHT) contributes to the adverse outcome. One-hundred thirty-seven patients (age 61±11 years; men, 30%) who underwent tricuspid annuloplasty during left-side valve surgery were enrolled. The mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure before surgery was 49±13 mm Hg and 32±15 mm Hg following surgery. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to postoperative pulmonary artery systolic pressure: no residual PHT (n=78, 57%), mild residual PHT (n=43, 31%), or significant residual PHT (n=16, 12%). A preoperative larger right ventricular (RV) geometry and tricuspid valve tethering area were associated with mild or significant residual PHT. A total of 24 adverse events (20 heart failures and 4 cardiovascular deaths) occurred during a median follow-up of 25 months. Kaplan-Meier survival curve demonstrated that patients with significant residual PHT had the highest percentage of adverse events followed by those with mild residual PHT. Patients with no residual PHT had a very low risk of adverse events. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that both mild (hazard ratio=4.94; 95% CI =1.34-18.16; P=0.02) and significant residual PHT (hazard ratio=8.67; 95% CI =2.43-30.98; P<0.01) were independent factors associated with adverse events. The present study demonstrated that 43% of patients who underwent tricuspid annuloplasty had residual PHT. The presence of mild or significant residual PHT was associated with adverse events in these patients. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Verification and Validation of Residual Stresses in Bi-Material Composite Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Stacy Michelle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hanson, Alexander Anthony [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Briggs, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Werner, Brian T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Process-induced residual stresses commonly occur in composite structures composed of dissimilar materials. These residual stresses form due to differences in the composite materials’ coefficients of thermal expansion and the shrinkage upon cure exhibited by polymer matrix materials. Depending upon the specific geometric details of the composite structure and the materials’ curing parameters, it is possible that these residual stresses could result in interlaminar delamination or fracture within the composite. Therefore, the consideration of potential residual stresses is important when designing composite parts and their manufacturing processes. However, the experimental determination of residual stresses in prototype parts can be time and cost prohibitive. As an alternative to physical measurement, it is possible for computational tools to be used to quantify potential residual stresses in composite prototype parts. Therefore, the objectives of the presented work are to demonstrate a simplistic method for simulating residual stresses in composite parts, as well as the potential value of sensitivity and uncertainty quantification techniques during analyses for which material property parameters are unknown. Specifically, a simplified residual stress modeling approach, which accounts for coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch and polymer shrinkage, is implemented within the Sandia National Laboratories’ developed SIERRA/SolidMechanics code. Concurrent with the model development, two simple, bi-material structures composed of a carbon fiber/epoxy composite and aluminum, a flat plate and a cylinder, are fabricated and the residual stresses are quantified through the measurement of deformation. Then, in the process of validating the developed modeling approach with the experimental residual stress data, manufacturing process simulations of the two simple structures are developed and undergo a formal verification and validation process, including a mesh

  11. Carbaryl residues in maize and processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Sattar, A. Jr.; Naqvi, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined using a colorimetric method. No significant differences were observed for residues of the two varieties which ranged between 12.0 to 13.75 mg/kg in the crude oil, and averaged 1.04 and 0.67 mg/kg in the flour and cake respectively. In whole maize plants, carbaryl residues declined to approximately 2 mg/kg 35 days after treatment. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. (author)

  12. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Auto-immune haematological complications occurring during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Auto-immune haematological complications occurring during treatment for malignant Iymphoproliferative diseases are described in 5 patients. There appeared to be a temporal relationship between the development of these complications and the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs or extensive radiotherapy.

  14. Variation behavior of residual stress distribution by manufacturing processes in welded pipes of austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near heat affected zone (HAZ) of primary loop recirculation pipes made of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel type 316L in the nuclear power plants. For the non-sensitization material, residual stress is the important factor of SCC, and it is generated by machining and welding. In the actual plants, welding is conducted after machining as manufacturing processes of welded pipes. It could be considered that residual stress generated by machining is varied by welding as a posterior process. This paper presents residual stress variation due to manufacturing processes of pipes using X-ray diffraction method. Residual stress distribution due to welding after machining had a local maximum stress in HAZ. Moreover, this value was higher than residual stress generated by welding or machining. Vickers hardness also had a local maximum hardness in HAZ. In order to clarify hardness variation, crystal orientation analysis with EBSD method was performed. Recovery and recrystallization were occurred by welding heat near the weld metal. These lead hardness decrease. The local maximum region showed no microstructure evolution. In this region, machined layer was remained. Therefore, the local maximum hardness was generated at machined layer. The local maximum stress was caused by the superposition effect of residual stress distributions due to machining and welding. Moreover, these local maximum residual stress and hardness are exceeded critical value of SCC initiation. In order to clarify the effect of residual stress on SCC initiation, evaluation including manufacturing processes is important. (author)

  15. Residual stresses analysis of friction stir welding using one-way FSI simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Wook; Jang, Beom Seon; Song, Ha Cheol

    2015-01-01

    When certain mechanisms, such as plastic deformations and temperature gradients, occur and are released in a structure, stresses remain because of the shape of the structure and external constraints. These stresses are referred to as residual stresses. The base material locally expands during heating in the welding process. When the welding is completed and cooled to room temperature, the residual stresses are left at nearly the yield strength level. In the case of friction stir welding, the maximum temperature is 80% to 90% of the melting point of the materials. Thus, the residual stresses in the welding process are smaller than those in other fusion welding processes; these stresses have not been considered previously. However, friction stir welding residual stresses are sometimes measured at approximately 70% or above. These residual stresses significantly affect fatigue behavior and lifetime. The present study investigates the residual stress distributions in various welding conditions and shapes of friction stir welding. In addition, the asymmetric feature is considered in temperature and residual stress distribution. Heat transfer analysis is conducted using the commercial computational fluid dynamics program Fluent, and results are used in the finite element structural analysis with the ANSYS Multiphysics software. The calculated residual stresses are compared with experimental values using the X-ray diffraction method.

  16. Application of organic geochemistry to coastal tar residues from central California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Hostettler, F.D.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tar residues are common on the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. These coastal tar residues have been washed ashore and usually occur on headlands near the high-tide line. In this study, 18 coastal tar residues were collected and analyzed to determine their carbon isotopic compositions and values of selected biomarker ratios. All of the residues have very heavy ({sup 13}C-enriched) carbon isotopic compositions spanning a narrow range ({delta}{sup 13}C = {minus}22.2 to {minus}23.4{per{underscore}thousand}), and 28,30-bisnorhopane is present in all samples. These same geochemical characteristics are found in Monterey Formation oils from which the coastal tar residues were likely derived. These coastal residues could result from natural seeps or from accidental spills. Statistically the coastal tar residues can be organized into three groups, each of which may represent different spill or seep events. Seven samples of potential local representative sources for the tar residues were examined, but none could account for the coastal tars.

  17. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  18. Classification of hydromagnetic emissions based on frequency--time spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Toya, T.; Koike, K.; Kuwashima, M.; Kawamura, M.

    1981-01-01

    By using 3035 hydromagnetic emission events observed in the frequency range of 0.1--2.0 Hz at Syowa (Lapprox.6), HM emissions have been classified into eight subtypes based on their spectral structures, i.e., HM whistler, periodic HM emission, HM chorus, HM emission burst, IPDP, morning IPDP, Pc 1--2 band, and irregular HM emission. It is seen that each subtype has a preferential magnetic local time interval and also a frequency range for its occurrence. Morning IPDP events and irregular HM emissions occur in the magnetic morning hours, while dispersive periodic HM emissions and HM emission bursts occur around magnetic local noon, then HM chorus emissions occur in the afternoon hours and IPDP events occur in the evening hours. Furthermore, it is noticed that the mid-frequencies of these emissions vary from high frequencies in the morning hours to low frequencies in the afternoon hours. On the basis of these results, the generation mechanisms of each subtype are discussed

  19. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  20. Residual Gas and Dust around Transition Objects and Weak T Tauri Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doppmann, Greg W. [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy., Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carr, John S., E-mail: gdoppmann@keck.hawaii.edu, E-mail: najita@noao.edu, E-mail: carr@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7213, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Residual gas in disks around young stars can spin down stars, circularize the orbits of terrestrial planets, and whisk away the dusty debris that is expected to serve as a signpost of terrestrial planet formation. We have carried out a sensitive search for residual gas and dust in the terrestrial planet region surrounding young stars ranging in age from a few to ∼10 Myr. Using high-resolution 4.7 μ m spectra of transition objects (TOs) and weak T Tauri stars, we searched for weak continuum excesses and CO fundamental emission, after making a careful correction for the stellar contribution to the observed spectrum. We find that the CO emission from TOs is weaker and located farther from the star than CO emission from nontransition T Tauri stars with similar stellar accretion rates. The difference is possibly the result of chemical and/or dynamical effects (i.e., a low CO abundance or close-in low-mass planets). The weak T Tauri stars show no CO fundamental emission down to low flux levels (5 × 10{sup −20} to 10{sup −18} W m{sup −2}). We illustrate how our results can be used to constrain the residual disk gas content in these systems and discuss their potential implications for star and planet formation.

  1. Plasma emission mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melrose, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Only three emission processes are thought to play a role in solar radio emission: plasma emission, gyromagnetic emission and bremsstrahlung. In this chapter plasma emission is discussed and the processes involved in its production are treated, namely, the generation of Langmuir turbulence, the partial conversion into fundamental transverse radiation, production of secondary Langmuir waves and the generation of second-harmonic transverse radiation. (U.K.)

  2. Process for measuring residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfinger, F.X.; Peiter, A.; Theiner, W.A.; Stuecker, E.

    1982-01-01

    No single process can at present solve all problems. The complete destructive processes only have a limited field of application, as the component cannot be reused. However, they are essential for the basic determination of stress distributions in the field of research and development. Destructive and non-destructive processes are mainly used if investigations have to be carried out on original components. With increasing component size, the part of destructive tests becomes smaller. The main applications are: quality assurance, testing of manufactured parts and characteristics of components. Among the non-destructive test procedures, X-raying has been developed most. It gives residual stresses on the surface and on surface layers near the edges. Further development is desirable - in assessment - in measuring techniques. Ultrasonic and magnetic crack detection processes are at present mainly used in research and development, and also in quality assurance. Because of the variable depth of penetration and the possibility of automation they are gaining in importance. (orig./RW) [de

  3. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, O.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs

  5. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS)

  6. Closing the Global Energy and Nutrient Cycles through Application of Biogas Residue to Agricultural Land – Potential Benefits and Drawback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Arthurson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an optimal way to treat organic waste matter, resulting in biogas and residue. Utilization of the residue as a crop fertilizer should enhance crop yield and soil fertility, promoting closure of the global energy and nutrient cycles. Consequently, the requirement for production of inorganic fertilizers will decrease, in turn saving significant amounts of energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, and indirectly leading to global economic benefits. However, application of this residue to agricultural land requires careful monitoring to detect amendments in soil quality at the early stages.

  7. Total greenhouse gas emissions related to the Dutch crop production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.; Nonhebel, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) related to Dutch agricultural crop production. Emissions occur during agricultural processes (direct emissions) as well as in the life cycle of the required inputs (indirect emissions). An integrated approach assesses the total

  8. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1°×1° latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg emissions and its three main chemical species: elemental gaseous Hg, divalent gaseous Hg, and particle-associated Hg are presented. The main emissions occur in southeast Asia (particularly in China), South Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Eastern United States. These are the regions where coal combustion is the main source of electricity and heat production. Waste incineration adds to these emissions in the Eastern United States. Emissions of total Hg and its three species are quite similar in terms of their (global) spatial distributions. They reflect the worldwide distribution of coal consumption in large power plants, industrial burners, and small combustion units, such as residential and commercial furnaces.

  9. Alcohol ADME in primates studied with positron emission tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhong Li

    Full Text Available The sensitivity to the intoxicating effects of alcohol as well as its adverse medical consequences differ markedly among individuals, which reflects in part differences in alcohol's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME properties. The ADME of alcohol in the body and its relationship with alcohol's brain bioavailability, however, is not well understood.The ADME of C-11 labeled alcohol, CH(3 (11CH(2OH, 1 and C-11 and deuterium dual labeled alcohol, CH(3 (11CD(2OH, 2 in baboons was compared based on the principle that C-D bond is stronger than C-H bond, thus the reaction is slower if C-D bond breaking occurs in a rate-determining metabolic step. The following ADME parameters in peripheral organs and brain were derived from time activity curve (TAC of positron emission tomography (PET scans: peak uptake (C(max; peak uptake time (T(max, half-life of peak uptake (T(1/2, the area under the curve (AUC(60 min, and the residue uptake (C(60 min.For 1 the highest uptake occurred in the kidney whereas for 2 it occurred in the liver. A deuterium isotope effect was observed in the kidneys in both animals studied and in the liver of one animal but not the other. The highest uptake for 1 and 2 in the brain was in striatum and cerebellum but 2 had higher uptake than 1 in all brain regions most evidently in thalamus and cingulate. Alcohol's brain uptake was significantly higher when given intravenously than when given orally and also when the animal was pretreated with a pharmacological dose of alcohol.The study shows that alcohol metabolism in peripheral organs had a large effect on alcohol's brain bioavailability. This study sets the stage for clinical investigation on how genetics, gender and alcohol abuse affect alcohol's ADME and its relationship to intoxication and medical consequences.

  10. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the heavy metals immobilization efficiencyof ASR dust/thermal residues after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 . - Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 for heavy metals immobilization in ASR residue. • Heavy metals immobilization in dry condition attained about 95–100%. • Remaining heavy metals were lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit. • The amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR dust surface decreased. • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 has a promising potential for heavy metal remediation. - Abstract: This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95–100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO 4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO 4 − associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO 4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO 4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle

  11. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeong-Kyu, E-mail: bklee@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mitoma, Yoshiharu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562 Nanatsuka-Cho Shobara City, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the heavy metals immobilization efficiencyof ASR dust/thermal residues after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} for heavy metals immobilization in ASR residue. • Heavy metals immobilization in dry condition attained about 95–100%. • Remaining heavy metals were lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit. • The amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR dust surface decreased. • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} has a promising potential for heavy metal remediation. - Abstract: This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} dispersion mixture immobilized 95–100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO{sub 4} mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO{sub 4}− associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO{sub 4} salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} as a simple, suitable and

  12. Chemoselective synthesis and analysis of naturally occurring phosphorylated cysteine peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran-Vicente, Jordi; Penkert, Martin; Nieto-Garcia, Olaia; Jeckelmann, Jean-Marc; Schmieder, Peter; Krause, Eberhard; Hackenberger, Christian P. R.

    2016-09-01

    In contrast to protein O-phosphorylation, studying the function of the less frequent N- and S-phosphorylation events have lagged behind because they have chemical features that prevent their manipulation through standard synthetic and analytical methods. Here we report on the development of a chemoselective synthetic method to phosphorylate Cys side-chains in unprotected peptides. This approach makes use of a reaction between nucleophilic phosphites and electrophilic disulfides accessible by standard methods. We achieve the stereochemically defined phosphorylation of a Cys residue and verify the modification using electron-transfer higher-energy dissociation (EThcD) mass spectrometry. To demonstrate the use of the approach in resolving biological questions, we identify an endogenous Cys phosphorylation site in IICBGlc, which is known to be involved in the carbohydrate uptake from the bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS). This new chemical and analytical approach finally allows further investigating the functions and significance of Cys phosphorylation in a wide range of crucial cellular processes.

  13. Effect of sewage sludge content on gas quality and solid residues produced by cogasification in an updraft gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seggiani, Maurizia, E-mail: m.seggiani@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Puccini, Monica, E-mail: m.puccini@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Raggio, Giovanni, E-mail: g.raggio@tiscali.it [Italprogetti Engineering SPA, Lungarno Pacinotti, 59/A, 56020 San Romano (Pisa) (Italy); Vitolo, Sandra, E-mail: s.vitolo@diccism.unipi.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Material Science, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogasification of sewage sludge with wood pellets in updraft gasifier was analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of sewage sludge content on the gasification process were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sewage sludge addition up to 30 wt.% reduces moderately the process performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At high sewage sludge content slagging and clinker formation occurred. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid residues produced resulted acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous waste. - Abstract: In the present work, the gasification with air of dehydrated sewage sludge (SS) with 20 wt.% moisture mixed with conventional woody biomass was investigated using a pilot fixed-bed updraft gasifier. Attention was focused on the effect of the SS content on the gasification performance and on the environmental impact of the process. The results showed that it is possible to co-gasify SS with wood pellets (WPs) in updraft fixed-bed gasification installations. However, at high content of sewage sludge the gasification process can become instable because of the very high ash content and low ash fusion temperatures of SS. At an equivalent ratio of 0.25, compared with wood pellets gasification, the addition of sewage sludge led to a reduction of gas yield in favor of an increase of condensate production with consequent cold gas efficiency decrease. Low concentrations of dioxins/furans and PAHs were measured in the gas produced by SS gasification, well below the limiting values for the exhaust gaseous emissions. NH{sub 3}, HCl and HF contents were very low because most of these compounds were retained in the wet scrubber systems. On the other hand, high H{sub 2}S levels were measured due to high sulfur content of SS. Heavy metals supplied with the feedstocks were mostly retained in gasification solid residues. The leachability tests performed according to European regulations showed that metals leachability was

  14. Costs and CO{sub 2} benefits of recovering, refining and transporting logging residues for fossil fuel replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden); Linnaeus University, 35195 Vaexjoe (Sweden); Eriksson, Lisa; Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    There are many possible systems for recovering, refining, and transporting logging residues for use as fuel. Here we analyse costs, primary energy and CO{sub 2} benefits of various systems for using logging residues locally, nationally or internationally. The recovery systems we consider are a bundle system and a traditional chip system in a Nordic context. We also consider various transport modes and distances, refining the residues into pellets, and replacing different fossil fuels. Compressing of bundles entails costs, but the cost of chipping is greatly reduced if chipping is done on a large scale, providing an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system entails greater primary energy use, but its lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the harvest site. Thus, the potential replacement of fossil fuels per hectare of harvest area is greater with the bundle system than with the chip system. The fuel-cycle reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions per harvest area when logging residues replace fossil fuels depends more on the type of fossil fuel replaced, the logging residues recovery system used and the refining of the residues, than on whether the residues are transported to local, national or international end-users. The mode and distance of the transport system has a minor impact on the CO{sub 2} emission balance. (author)

  15. Reproduction, growth, and tissue residues of deer fed dieldrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D.A.; Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Feeding tests were conducted from January, 1966, to January, 1969, to ascertain the effects of daily ingestions of sublethal amounts of dieldrin on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Groups of deer on 0 ppm dieldrin (controls), 5 ppm, and 25 ppm dieldrin were maintained at these respective levels, as were their progeny. Treated food was readily accepted. Dieldrin intoxication was not observed, and 9 of 10 animals of each group survived 3 years of treatment. No differences in conception or in utero mortality were found between groups. Fawns from dieldrin-fed does were smaller at birth and greater post-partum mortality occurred. Fertility of male progeny was not affected. Growth was slower and remained reduced in dieldrin-treated females which were immature when the study began. Hematologic values and serum protein concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05) related to treatment. Liver/body weight ratios were significantly (P brain, liver, and thigh muscle tissues showed no evidence of increasing with length of treatment, but showed definite relationships to levels of dieldrin in daily diets. Nursing fawns had higher residues in brain tissues than did older deer on 5 ppm a d 25 ppm dieldrin. Highest brain residues (12.60 and 12.10 ppm, wet weight) occurred in fawns only a few days of age at death. Equilibrium between ingestion and storage or excretion of dieldrin occurred prior to 200 days and continued until nearly 1,100 days. There was no evidence of a sharp decline in residues after a long period of continued dosage. Daily ingestion of 100 and 200 ppm of dieldrin proved fatal to yearling male deer at 27 and 22 days, respectively.

  16. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  17. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  18. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  19. Densification of FL Chains via Residuated Frames

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldi, Paolo; Terui, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-195 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Keywords : densifiability * standard completeness * residuated lattices * residuated frames * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016

  20. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  1. Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerva, Johannes; Plank, Barbara; Bos, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate

  2. Cement production from coal conversion residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.D.; Clavenna, L.R.; Eakman, J.M.; Nahas, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Cement is produced by feeding residue solids containing carbonaceous material and ash constituents obtained from converting a carbonaceous feed material into liquids and/or gases into a cement-making zone and burning the carbon in the residue solids to supply at least a portion of the energy required to convert the solids into cement

  3. Residual stress concerns in containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, F.; Kulak, R. F.; Pfeiffer, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    The manufacturing of steel containment vessels starts with the forming of flat plates into curved plates. A steel containment structure is made by welding individual plates together to form the sections that make up the complex shaped vessels. The metal forming and welding process leaves residual stresses in the vessel walls. Generally, the effect of metal forming residual stresses can be reduced or virtually eliminated by thermally stress relieving the vesseL In large containment vessels this may not be practical and thus the residual stresses due to manufacturing may become important. The residual stresses could possibly tiect the response of the vessel to internal pressurization. When the level of residual stresses is significant it will affect the vessel's response, for instance the yielding pressure and possibly the failure pressure. The paper will address the effect of metal forming residual stresses on the response of a generic pressure vessel to internal pressurization. A scoping analysis investigated the effect of residual forming stresses on the response of an internally pressurized vessel. A simple model was developed to gain understanding of the mechanics of the problem. Residual stresses due to the welding process were not considered in this investigation

  4. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salt...

  5. Effect of Residue Nitrogen Concentration and Time Duration on Carbon Mineralization Rate of Alfalfa Residues in Regions with Different Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid shafiei

    2017-08-01

    -arid (Sardouiyeh. The most suitable temperatures occurred from April to October in arid and semiarid climates and soil moisture is probably the key contributor to the rate of decomposition. The highest carbon loss in alfalfa in the cold, semiarid climate for a period of 8 months was 32.64%. The highest carbon decomposition rate constant was observed in the first 2 months of the incubation time. These results indicate that higher nitrogen residue resulted in greater decomposition of plant residue and lower carbon remaining in all tested climates. The higher nitrogen content of plant residue potentially increases the concentration of nitrogen in crop residue and may increase the decomposition rate. The strong relation between decomposition and climate has led to the belief that favorable climatic conditions can increase the decomposition rate on a global scale and positively decrease and distribute greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In arid and semi-arid ecosystems, it is difficult to assess the decomposition rate based on climatic data; it seems to be related to temperature and available humidity. Furthermore, Austin & Vivanco (2006 reported that, in semi-arid climates, the litter decomposition rate decreased by 60 % when solar radiation was attenuated; they concluded that photodegradation exerts dominant control over litter decomposition in a dry ecosystem. Conclusions The results showed that, precipitation of the study area and soil moisture played a key role in the plant residue decomposition rate. In the cold semi-arid climate which moisture was available for decomposition of plant residues for a longer period of time, OC loss and decomposition rate constant were higher than those obtained for warm-arid and temperate-arid climatic conditions. It may be concluded that crop fertilization, which increases P and N concentrations of plant residue, increases decomposition rate of plant residue but decrease its mean residence time in soils.

  6. Methane emissions from MBT landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, K.-U., E-mail: heyer@ifas-hamburg.de; Hupe, K.; Stegmann, R.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Compilation of methane generation potential of mechanical biological treated (MBT) municipal solid waste. • Impacts and kinetics of landfill gas production of MBT landfills, approach with differentiated half-lives. • Methane oxidation in the waste itself and in soil covers. • Estimation of methane emissions from MBT landfills in Germany. - Abstract: Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency (“Umweltbundesamt”), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18–24 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH{sub 4}/(m{sup 2} h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD

  7. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  8. Spreading depolarizations occur in human ischemic stroke with high incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohmen, C.; Sakowitz, O.W.; Fabricius, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and periinfarct depolarization (PID) have been shown in various experimental models of stroke to cause secondary neuronal damage and infarct expansion. For decades it has been questioned whether CSD or PID occur in human ischemic stroke. Here, we...... potential change spreading between adjacent channels was accompanied by transient depression of ECoG activity. In PID, a slow potential change spread between neighboring channels despite already established suppression of ECoG activity. Most CSDs and PIDs appeared repetitively in clusters. CSD or PID...... was observed in all but two patients. In these two patients, the electrode strip had been placed over infarcted tissue, and accordingly, no local ECoG or recurrent transient depolarization activity occurred throughout the observation period. Interpretation: CSD and PID occurred spontaneously with high...

  9. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki

    1996-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma

  10. Report of the laboratory building for late occurring injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In order to estimate the danger of low level radiation to human beings, the studies of the late-occurring injuries and internal exposure due to radionuclide deposition are necessary. In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, research on the estimation of the danger of late-occurring injuries due to radiation is proceeding. In this connection, a late-occurring injury laboratory building has been completed recently. Basic ideas behind it are as follows. To carry out the above mentioned studies effectively and efficiently, many experimental animals of high quality must be kept under best possible environment. For the observation in a series of experiments, irradiation room and laboratory rooms are essential. The building comprises the following: the first floor for animal receiving, the second floor for laboratory rooms, the third floor for RI facility and X-ray irradiated animal keeping, the fourth floor for SPF animal keeping, and attic floor for water supply, etc. (J.P.N.)

  11. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma.

  12. N 2 O Emissions and Inorganic N Release Following Incorporation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology ... The results from the study demonstrated that whilst there is the potential for N2O emission to be controlled through varying ratios of residue:fertiliser input, the magnitude and direction of interactions between these N sources vary between different species as a result of their ...

  13. Thermochemical Modeling and Experimental Validation of Wood Pyrolysis Occurring During Pre-ignition Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, M.; Lautenberger, C.; Bond, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    The use of wood as a solid fuel for cooking and heating is associated with high particle emission which largely contribute to the dispersion of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere. The majority of those particles are released during the "pre-ignition" phase, i.e., before flaming of the wood occurs. In this work, we investigate the factors that influence the emission of PM during pre-ignition and lead to high particle emission to the atmosphere. During this combustion phase, at elevated temperature, pyrolysis is responsible for wood degradation and the production of gaseous materials that travel and exit the wood. We model the thermal degradation using Gpyro, an open source finite volume method numerical model to simulate heat, mass, and momentum transfer in the wood. In our analysis, we study factors that vary during combustion and that influence emission of PM: wood sample size and boundary conditions. In a fire the boundary conditions represent the thermal energy a piece of wood receives from the surrounding in the form of heat flux. We find that heat transfer is the limiting process governing the production and transport of gas from the wood, and that the amount of emitted PM is dependent on the size of the wood. The dependence of heat transfer from the boundaries on PM emission becomes more important with increasing wood log size. The model shows that a small log of wood (6cm by 2cm) emits close values of total mass of gas at low and high heat fluxes. For a large log of wood (20cm by 5cm) the total mass of gas emitted increases by 30% between low and high heat flux. We validate the model results with a controlled-temperature reactor that accommodates centimeter scale wood samples. The size of the wood used, indicates the abundance of wood in the region where wood is used a solid fuel. Understanding those factors will allow for defining conditions that result in reducing particle emissions during combustion.

  14. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  15. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  16. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  17. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  18. Immunoregulation by naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus H; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The role of naturally occurring autoantibodies (NAbs) in homeostasis and in disease manifestations is poorly understood. In the present chapter, we review how NAbs may interfere with the cytokine network and how NAbs, through formation of complement-activating immune complexes with soluble self......-antigens, may promote the uptake and presentation of self-molecules by antigen-presenting cells. Both naturally occurring and disease-associated autoantibodies against a variety of cytokines have been reported, including NAbs against interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony...

  19. Why Does Bureaucratic Corruption Occur in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...

  20. Total retinal detachment occurring after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircea, Pienaru; Ramona, Serban; Mircea, Filip; Andrei, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the case of a patient with a severe decrease of visual acuity that occurred after an apparently minor head injury. Following the investigations, the patient was diagnosed with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that was triggered by a fall from the same level and which occurred on a background of lattice degeneration. In this case, a minor trauma caused a severe complication because the patient had a contributing factor for the complication. The patient was operated and the end result was satisfactory.

  1. Residual stresses associated with welds in austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidler, R.

    1978-01-01

    Two exploratory welds have been made with AISI 316 austenitic steel and Armex GT electrodes by the manual metal-arc process, and residual stress measurements made in the as-welded condition and after various periods of stress relief. The results show that substantial stress relief occurs at temperatures of 850 0 and 750 0 C after 1 hr, but is not complete. The stress distributions are compared with those obtained from ferritic welds and the effect of differences in thermal expansion coefficients is examined using finite element analysis. (author)

  2. What can we learn from field experiments about the development of SOC and GHG emissions under different management practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Heide; Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Haslmayr, Hans-Peter; Baumgarten, Andreas; ten Berge, Hein

    2015-04-01

    Successful agricultural management practices are required to maintain or enhance soil quality; at the same time climate change mitigation is becoming increasingly important. Within the EU project CATCH-C we analysed the effects of different agricultural practices not only on crop productivity, but also on soil quality indicators (e.g. soil organic carbon (SOC)) and climate change (CC) mitigation indicators (e.g. CO2, CH4, N2O emissions). European data sets and associated literature, mainly from long-term experiments were evaluated. This evaluation of agricultural management practices was carried out comparing a set of improved ("best") and often applied ("current") management practices. Positive and negative effects occurred when best management practices are adopted. As expected, none of the investigated practices could comply with all objectives simultaneously, i.e. maintaining high yields, mitigating climate change and improving chemical, physical and biological soil quality. The studied soil management practices "non-inversion tillage", "organic fertilisation" (application of farm yard manure, slurry, compost) and "incorporation of crop residues" represent important management practices for farmers to increase SOC, thus improving soil quality. However, CO2 and, especially, N2O emissions may rise as well. The evaluation of CC mitigation is often limited by the lack of data from - preferably - continuous GHG emission measurements. Thus, more long-term field studies are needed to better assess the CO2, CH4 and, especially, N2O emissions following the above mentioned favorably rated MPs. Only if SOC and GHG emissions are measured in the same field experiments, it will be possible to compute overall balances of necessary CO2-C equivalent emissions. CATCH-C is funded within the 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Theme 2 - Biotechnologies, Agriculture & Food. (Grant Agreement N° 289782).

  3. Vehicle Emissions Risk Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahem, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicle emissions are considered as a main source for air pollution. Emissions regulation is now well developed in most countries to meet cleaner air quality. Reducing emissions by using cleaner fuels, which meet certain specification, is not enough to get cleaner air, yet the vehicle technology is not improved. Here we will outline the following: - development in fuel specification and emissions regulation. main facts linking vehicle emissions, fuel properties and air quality. catalytic converter technology. Emissions sources: In modem cities, vehicle traffic is potentially a major source of emissions. However sometimes other sources of emissions from industry and other stationary sources can be equally important and include emissions that are of greater toxicity than those from vehicles

  4. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  5. Emissions tradeoffs associated with cofiring forest biomass with coal: A case study in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Cofiring forest biomass residues with coal to generate electricity is often cited for its potential to offset fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but the extent to which cofiring achieves these objectives is highly dependent on case specific variables. This paper uses facility and forest specific data to examine emissions from cofiring forest biomass with...

  6. Rye cover crop effects on nitrous oxide emissions from a corn-soybean system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural activities are a major source nitrous oxide emitted to the atmosphere. Development of management practices to reduce these emissions is needed. Non-leguminous cover crops are efficient scavengers of residual soil nitrate, but their effects on nitrous oxide emissions have not been well d...

  7. Anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1980 to 2012 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Deng, Meihua; Li, Tingqiang; Japenga, Jan; Chen, Qianqian; Yang, Xiaoe; He, Zhenli

    2017-07-01

    China was considered the biggest contributor for airborne mercury in the world but the amount of mercury emission in effluents and solid wastes has not been documented. In this study, total national and regional mercury emission to the environment via exhaust gases, effluents and solid wastes were accounted with updated emission factors and the amount of goods produced and/or consumed. The national mercury emission in China increased from 448 to 2151 tons during the 1980-2012 period. Nearly all of the emissions were ended up as exhaust gases and solid wastes. The proportion of exhaust gases decreased with increasing share of solid wastes and effluents. Of all the anthropogenic sources, coal was the most important contributor in quantity, followed by mercury mining, gold smelting, nonferrous smelting, iron steel production, domestic wastes, and cement production, with accounting for more than 90% of the total emission. There was a big variation of regional cumulative mercury emission during 1980-2012 in China, with higher emissions occurred in eastern areas and lower values in the western and far northern regions. The biggest cumulative emission occurred in GZ (Guizhou), reaching 3974 t, while the smallest cumulative emission was lower than 10 t in XZ (Tibet). Correspondingly, mercury accumulation in soil were higher in regions with larger emissions in unit area. Therefore, it is urgent to reduce anthropogenic mercury emission and subsequent impact on ecological functions and human health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  9. Residual radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, E T

    1962-02-01

    These results show that the fission product fallout and neutron-induced radioactive isotopes can be separated very conveniently by locations in the city, i.e., the fallout occurred in the Koi-Takasu area of Hiroshima and the Nishiyama area of Nagasaki with negligible fallout in the hypocenter area. The activity in the hypocenter areas of both cities can be accounted for as due principally to neutron induced radioactive isotopes. The maximum exposure from fallout in Hiroshima is considered to have been a few r and in Nagasaki approximately 30 r. From one hour to infinite time after the detonations, the maximum possible neutron induced radiation exposure dose at the hypocenter in Hiroshima is estimated to be in the range from 183 r to 24 r, depending upon the method of calculation. Method III, which yileds 24 r appears to be subject to the least number of uncertainties and thus is the most reliable figure. The excellent agreement between these calculations and the measured activities also further supports the soundness of Method III. This method gives 4 r as the infinity dose at the hypocenter in Nagasaki. These values are considered to be of such loss magnitude as to be of negligible consequence. It should also be emphasized that even for the calculation which yields a maximum dose of 183 r, the probability of an individual being exposed to this dose is very small. These facts suggest that after the detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki radiation levels were such that very few individuals, if any, received significant amounts of residual radiation from external sources. 17 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Co-benefits of utilizing logging residues for bioenergy production: The case for East Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Jianbang; Smith, C.T.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the co-benefits associated with the utilization of logging residues for electricity production in East Texas, USA. The benefits evaluated included the value of CO 2 emissions displaced due to substituting logging residues for coal in power generation, reductions in site preparation costs during forest regeneration, and creation of jobs and income in local communities. Based on the 2004 Forest Inventory Analysis data and a 70% biomass recovery rate, annual recoverable logging residues in East Texas were estimated at 1.3 Mt (dry). These residues, if used for electricity production, would displace about 2.44 Mt of CO 2 , valued at some 9M$ at the current CO 2 price traded at the Chicago Climate Exchange (accounting for about 2% of the stumpage value). Removing logging residues would also save $200-250 ha -1 in site preparation costs. In addition, input-output modeling revealed that logging residue procurement and electricity generation together would have a stronger ripple effect on employment than on output or value-added, with about 1340 new jobs created and 215M$ in value-added generated annually. These results offer new insights into the cost-competitiveness of forest biomass and bioenergy production. (author)

  11. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we investigate the effect that naturally occurring impurities in salt mines have both on effective permittivity of the medium and on radio wave propagation at ∼200 MHz. The effective permittivity is determined based on the dielectric properties of salt and the characteristics of the main impurities. We conclude that ...

  12. Transmission of naturally occurring lymphoma in macaque monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, R D; Blake, B J; Chalifoux, L V; Sehgal, P K; King, N W; Letvin, N L

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and ...

  13. Information disclosure of troubles occurring at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatsuya; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Shinozaki, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), efforts are made so that troubles occurred are promptly reported and announced publicly, and for minor troubles, etc., announcement to the society is made through the web-site and publicity magazines, so as to assure the transparency of the business. (author)

  14. Learning by investing: evidence from a naturally occurring auction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2011), s. 125-149 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : learning * naturally occurring auction * stock market Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2011

  15. Cancer Fatigue: Why It Occurs and How to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer fatigue: Why it occurs and how to cope The exact causes of cancer fatigue and how best to treat it aren't ... clear. Find out what doctors know about cancer fatigue and what you can do about it. By ...

  16. Auto-immune Haematological Complications Occurring during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-10-19

    Oct 19, 1974 ... Immunohaematological disorders may complicate the clini- cal course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, lymphocytic lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease.'" Auto- immune haemolytic anaemia is the most common of these complications, occurring in approximately 10 - 25'% of patients with ...

  17. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  18. Adsorption of fluoride ions onto naturally occurring earth materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch sorption system using two naturally occurring earth materials (EM) as adsorbents was investigated to remove fluoride ions from aqueous solution. The system variables studied include initial concentration of the sorbate, agitation time, adsorbent dose, pH, co-ions and temperature. The experimental data fitted well to ...

  19. Does the dilution effect generally occur in animal diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zheng Y.X.; Yu, Yang; Langevelde, Van Frank; Boer, De Willem F.

    2017-01-01

    The dilution effect (DE) has been reported in many diseases, but its generality is still highly disputed. Most current criticisms of DE are related to animal diseases. Particularly, some critical studies argued that DE is less likely to occur in complex environments. Here our meta-analyses

  20. Experimental analysis of CO{sub 2} emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragienė, Sidona [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Šarauskis, Egidijus, E-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@asu.lt [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Romaneckas, Kęstutis, E-mail: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt [Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Science, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Sasnauskienė, Jurgita, E-mail: jurgita.sasnauskiene@asu.lt [Institute of Environment and Ecology, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Masilionytė, Laura, E-mail: laura.masilionyte@gmail.com [Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys distr. (Lithuania); Kriaučiūnienė, Zita, E-mail: zita.kriauciuniene@asu.lt [Experimental Station, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Rapsu str. 7, LT-53363 Noreikiskes, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania)

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO{sub 2} emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO{sub 2} emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO{sub 2

  1. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the la......The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...

  2. The impact of molecular emission in compositional depth profiling using Glow Discharge-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtson, Arne

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to investigate and discuss how molecular emission can affect elemental analysis in glow discharge optical emission (GD-OES), particularly in compositional depth profiling (CDP) applications. Older work on molecular emission in glow discharges is briefly reviewed, and the nature of molecular emission spectra described. Work on the influence of hydrogen in the plasma, in particular elevated background due to a continuum spectrum, is discussed. More recent work from sputtering of polymers and other materials with a large content of light elements in a Grimm type source is reviewed, where substantial emission has been observed from several light diatomic molecules (CO, CH, OH, NH, C 2 ). It is discussed how the elevated backgrounds from such molecular emission can lead to significant analytical errors in the form of 'false' depth profile signals of several atomic analytical lines. Results from a recent investigation of molecular emission spectra from mixed gases in a Grimm type glow discharge are presented. An important observation is that dissociation and subsequent recombination processes occur, leading to formation of molecular species not present in the original plasma gas. Experimental work on depth profiling of a polymer coating and a thin silicate film, using a spectrometer equipped with channels for molecular emission lines, is presented. The results confirm that molecular emission gives rise to apparent depth profiles of elements not present in the sample. The possibilities to make adequate corrections for such molecular emission in CDP of organic coatings and very thin films are discussed

  3. Prediction of the residual strength of clay using functional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are common natural hazards occurring in most parts of the world and have considerable adverse economic effects. Residual shear strength of clay is one of the most important factors in the determination of stability of slopes or landslides. This effect is more pronounced in sensitive clays which show large changes in shear strength from peak to residual states. This study analyses the prediction of the residual strength of clay based on a new prediction model, functional networks (FN using data available in the literature. The performance of FN was compared with support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural network (ANN based on statistical parameters like correlation coefficient (R, Nash--Sutcliff coefficient of efficiency (E, absolute average error (AAE, maximum average error (MAE and root mean square error (RMSE. Based on R and E parameters, FN is found to be a better prediction tool than ANN for the given data. However, the R and E values for FN are less than SVM. A prediction equation is presented that can be used by practicing geotechnical engineers. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to ascertain the importance of various inputs in the prediction of the output.

  4. Rain effect on Aquarius L-band Emissivity and Backscatter Model Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W.; Yueh, S. H.; Fore, A.; Neumann, G.; Hayashi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing of sea surface salinity (SSS) is being performed by Aquarius and SMOS missions, which are using L-band radiometry to sense the microwave emissions from sea surfaces. To enable accurate SSS retrieval, it is essential to correct the impact of sea surface roughness on L-band brightness temperatures. In addition, the impact of rain has to be carefully assessed and accounted for. Although the atmospheric attenuation caused by raindrops are likely negligible at 1.4GHz, other factors must be considered because they may have indirect but important contribution to the surface roughness and consequently L-band brightness temperatures. For example, the wind speed dependent roughness correction will be corrupted when rain striking the water, creating rings, stalks, and crowns from which the signal scatters. It is also unknown how long the freshwater stays at surface while through the oceanic mixing process at various regions over global oceans. We collocated the Aquarius L-band data with various wind products, including SSM/I, NCEP, ASCAT and WindSAT, as well as the SSM/I and WindSAT rain products. During the first four months of Aquarius mission, near 1.9 million pixels are identified under rain conditions by either SSM/I or WindSAT. We derived the L-band emissivity and backscatter geophysical model functions (GMF), parameterized by SSM/I and NCEP winds for rain-free conditions. However, the residual ocean surface emissivity (the Aquarius measured minus the rain-free model predictions) reveals profound resemblance with global precipitation pattern. In region dominated by rain, e.g. ITCZ, northern hemisphere storm track, and Indian Ocean partially under the influence of summer monsoon, the GMF built using rain free data underestimates excess emissivity about 0.5 to 1 K. The dependence of residual of emissivity and backscatter is shown as a function of wind speed and rain rate. A modified GMF is developed including rain rate as one of the parameters. Due to

  5. Absorption and emission properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Lili

    2007-01-01

    We study the emission and absorption properties of photonic crystals and metamaterials using Comsol Multiphysics and Ansoft HFSS as simulation tools. We calculate the emission properties of metallic designs using drude model and the results illustrate that an appropriate termination of the surface of the metallic structure can significantly increase the absorption and therefore the thermal emissivity. We investigate the spontaneous emission rate modifications that occur for emitters inside two-dimensional photonic crystals and find the isotropic and directional emissions with respect to different frequencies as we have expected.

  6. The Impact of Post Harvest Agricultural Crop Residue Fires on Volatile Organic Compounds and Formation of Secondary Air Pollutants in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, V.; Chandra, P.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.

    2015-12-01

    The N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) is an agriculturally and demographically important region of the world. Every year during the post harvest months of April-May and October-November, large scale open burning of wheat straw and paddy straw occurs in the region impairing the regional air quality and resulting in air pollution episodes. Here, using online in-situ measurements from the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry Facility (Sinha et al., Atmos Chem Phys, 2014), which is located at a regionally representative suburban site in the agricultural state of Punjab, India, we investigated the effects of this activity on gas phase chemistry. The online data pertaining to the pre harvest and post harvest paddy residue fires in 2012, 2013 and 2014 were analyzed to understand the effect of this anthropogenic activity on atmospheric chemistry and regional air quality with respect to health relevant VOCs such as benzenoids and isocyanic acid and trace gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide. These compounds showed marked increases (factor of 2-3 times higher) in their concentrations which correlated with the biomass combustion tracers such as acetonitrile. Emissions from the paddy residue fires did not result in significant enhancement of ambient ozone in 2012 but instead sustained hourly daytime ozone concentrations at ~ 50 ppb during the late post monsoon season, despite decreases in solar radiation and temperature. Results of such massive perturbations to ambient chemical composition, reactivity and formation of secondary pollutants and its implications for human health will be presented in this paper.

  7. Residual stresses and fatigue in a duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Johan

    1999-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels, consisting of approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite, often combine the best features of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. They generally have good mechanical properties, including high strength and ductility, and the corrosion resistance is often better than conventional austenitic grades. This has lead to a growing use of duplex stainless steels as a material in mechanically loaded constructions. However, detailed knowledge regarding its mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms are still lacking. In this thesis special emphasis has been placed on the residual stresses and their influence on mechanical behaviour of duplex stainless steels. Due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the two phases, tensile microstresses are found in the austenitic phase and balancing compressive microstresses in the ferritic phase. The first part of this thesis is a literature survey, which will give an introduction to duplex stainless steels and review the fatigue properties of duplex stainless steels and the influence of residual stresses in two-phase material. The second part concerns the evolution of the residual stress state during uniaxial loading. Initial residual stresses were found to be almost two times higher in the transverse direction compared to the rolling direction. During loading the absolute value of the microstresses increased in the macroscopic elastic regime but started to decrease with increasing load in the macroscopic plastic regime. A significant increase of the microstresses was also found to occur during unloading. Finite element simulations also show stress variation within one phase and a strong influence of both the elastic and plastic anisotropy of the individual phases on the simulated stress state. In the third part, the load sharing between the phases during cyclic loading is studied. X-ray diffraction stress analysis and transmission electron microscopy show that even if

  8. Residual stresses and fatigue in a duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Johan

    1999-05-01

    Duplex stainless steels, consisting of approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite, often combine the best features of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. They generally have good mechanical properties, including high strength and ductility, and the corrosion resistance is often better than conventional austenitic grades. This has lead to a growing use of duplex stainless steels as a material in mechanically loaded constructions. However, detailed knowledge regarding its mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms are still lacking. In this thesis special emphasis has been placed on the residual stresses and their influence on mechanical behaviour of duplex stainless steels. Due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the two phases, tensile microstresses are found in the austenitic phase and balancing compressive microstresses in the ferritic phase. The first part of this thesis is a literature survey, which will give an introduction to duplex stainless steels and review the fatigue properties of duplex stainless steels and the influence of residual stresses in two-phase material. The second part concerns the evolution of the residual stress state during uniaxial loading. Initial residual stresses were found to be almost two times higher in the transverse direction compared to the rolling direction. During loading the absolute value of the microstresses increased in the macroscopic elastic regime but started to decrease with increasing load in the macroscopic plastic regime. A significant increase of the microstresses was also found to occur during unloading. Finite element simulations also show stress variation within one phase and a strong influence of both the elastic and plastic anisotropy of the individual phases on the simulated stress state. In the third part, the load sharing between the phases during cyclic loading is studied. X-ray diffraction stress analysis and transmission electron microscopy show that even if

  9. Residues from waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, T.; Juul Pedersen, A.; Hyks, J.; Frandsen, F.J.

    2009-08-15

    The overall objective of the project was to improve the understanding of the formation and characteristics of residues from waste incineration. This was done focusing on the importance of the waste input and the operational conditions of the furnace. Data and results obtained from the project have been discussed in this report according to the following three overall parts: i) mass flows and element distribution, ii) flue gas/particle partitioning and corrosion/deposition aspects, and iii) residue leaching. This has been done with the intent of structuring the discussion while tacitly acknowledging that these aspects are interrelated and cannot be separated. Overall, it was found that the waste input composition had significant impact of the characteristics of the generated residues. A similar correlation between operational conditions and residue characteristics could not be observed. Consequently, the project recommend that optimization of residue quality should focus on controlling the waste input composition. The project results showed that including specific waste materials (and thereby also excluding the same materials) may have significant effects on the residue composition, residue leaching, aerosol and deposit formation.It is specifically recommended to minimize Cl in the input waste. Based on the project results, it was found that a significant potential for optimization of waste incineration exist. (author)

  10. Global CO2 emissions from cement production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Robbie M.

    2018-01-01

    The global production of cement has grown very rapidly in recent years, and after fossil fuels and land-use change, it is the third-largest source of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. The required data for estimating emissions from global cement production are poor, and it has been recognised that some global estimates are significantly inflated. Here we assemble a large variety of available datasets and prioritise official data and emission factors, including estimates submitted to the UNFCCC plus new estimates for China and India, to present a new analysis of global process emissions from cement production. We show that global process emissions in 2016 were 1.45±0.20 Gt CO2, equivalent to about 4 % of emissions from fossil fuels. Cumulative emissions from 1928 to 2016 were 39.3±2.4 Gt CO2, 66 % of which have occurred since 1990. Emissions in 2015 were 30 % lower than those recently reported by the Global Carbon Project. The data associated with this article can be found at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.831455.

  11. Emissions of hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Mona; Persson, Eva Marie.

    1991-10-01

    Evaluations and measurements of emissions of hydrocarbons from power plants with a capacity exceeding 1 MW using biofuels (wood fuels and peat) have been studied in order to identify and quantify the emissions of incompletely combusted hydrocarbons. The influence of the type of fuel and the combustion technology applied were also studied, using literature references. The report summarizes monitoring results from a number of plants using biofuels. The reported emissions from the different plants can not be compared as they are relatively few and the test results have been obtained under various conditions using different methods of testing and analysis. The methods used are often poorly documented in the studied reports. Few investigations of emissions of hydrocarbons from plants in the range of 1 to 10 MW have been carried out. The plant and the technology used are important factors determining the amount and type of emissions of hydrocarbons. Larger temporary emissions can occur during start up, operational disturbances or when using fuel of inhomogeneous quality. In order to minimize the emissions the combustion process must be efficiently controlled, and a fuel of a hohogeneous quality must be used. The report also summarizes sampling and analysis methods used for monitoring emissions of hydrocarbons. (29 refs., 17 figs.)

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  13. Effects of Bio-char on Soil Microbes in Herbicide Residual Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Gen-lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on soil microbial community were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment, which clarifed the improvement of biochar and its structural properties on soil microenvironment. The results showed that fungi and actinomycetes had the same effect tendency within 0~0.72 mg·kg-1 in clomazone residue which increased the role of stimulation with crop growth process prolonged, especially in high residue treatment, but strong inhibitory effect on bacteria community was occured early which returned to normal until sugar beet growth to fiftieth day. Soil fungi community decreased with bio-char adding, but had no significant difference with the control. When clomazone residue in soil was below 0.24 mg·kg-1, soil actinomycetes community was higher than control without bio-char, bacteria increased first and then reduced after adding carbon as below 0.12 mg·kg-1. Biochar was ‘deep hole’ structure containing C, O, S and other elements. The results showed that a certain concentration clomazone residue in soil would stimulate soil fungi and actinomycetes to grow. After adding the biochar, the inhibition effect of high herbicides residual on bacterial would be alleviated.

  14. Evaluation of the mercaptobenzothiazole degradation by combined adsorption process and Fenton reaction using iron mining residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Adriana Lau da Silva; Teixeira, Luís Alberto César; da Fonseca, Fabiana Valéria; Yokoyama, Lídia

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the degradation of mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), evaluating homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. An iron mineral residue from the desliming step of iron mining was used as a source in the Fenton-like reaction (advanced oxidation process). A granulometric analysis of the residue was performed and yielded fractions with high hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and low quartz content in sieves from 74 to below 44 mm. In this particle size range, the hematite content from 58.9% to 67.4% and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller area from 0.1345 to 1.3137 m 2  g -1 were obtained. The zeta potential curves as a function of pH were obtained for the residue, the MBT solution and mixtures thereof. The adsorption of MBT in the residue and its degradation through the Fenton-like reaction were investigated. Adsorption tests and the Fenton-like reaction were carried out, where the MBT species and the residue are oppositely charged, yielding, respectively, 10% MBT adsorption on the surface of the residue and 100% MBT degradation by the Fenton-like reaction at pH 3, hydrogen peroxide concentration of 25 mg L -1 , residue concentration of 3 g L -1 , 200 rpm and 25°C, from a 100 mg L -1 MBT solution. MBT degradation was found to occur mainly by the heterogeneous Fenton-like process.

  15. Use of ultrasound in petroleum residue upgradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawarkar, A.N.; Pandit, A.B.; Samant, S.D.; Joshi, J.B. [Mumbai Univ., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2009-06-15

    The importance of bottom-of-the barrel upgrading has increased in the current petroleum refining scenario because of the progressively heavier nature of crude oil. Heavy residues contain large concentrations of metals such as vanadium and nickel which foul catalysts and reduce the potential effect of residue fluidized catalytic cracking. This study showed that the cavitational energy induced by ultrasound be be successfully used to upgrade hydrocarbon mixtures. Conventional processes for the upgrading of residual feedstocks, such as thermal cracking and catalytic cracking, were carried out in the temperature range of 400-520 degrees C. Experiments were performed on 2 vacuum residues, Arabian mix vacuum residue (AMVR) and Bombay high vacuum residue (BHVR) and 1 Haldia asphalt (HA). These were subjected to acoustic cavitation for different reaction times from 15 to 120 minutes at ambient temperature and pressure. Two acoustic cavitation devices were compared, namely the ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic horn. In particular, this study compared the ability of these 2 devices to upgrade the petroleum residues to lighter, more value-added products. Different surfactants were used to examine the effect of ultrasound on upgrading the residue when emulsified in water. In order to better understand the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model was developed based on the constituents of the residue. The ultrasonic horn was found to be more effective in bringing about the upgrading than ultrasonic bath. The study also showed that the acoustic cavitation of the aqueous emulsified hydrocarbon mixture could reduce the asphaltenes content to a greater extent than the acoustic cavitation of non-emulsified hydrocarbon mixture. 20 refs., 11 tabs., 17 figs.

  16. CO2 emission factors for waste incineration: Influence from source separation of recyclable materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    variations between emission factors for different incinerators, but the background for these variations has not been thoroughly examined. One important reason may be variations in collection of recyclable materials as source separation alters the composition of the residual waste incinerated. The objective...... routed to incineration. Emission factors ranged from 27 to 40kg CO2/GJ. The results appeared most sensitive towards variations in waste composition and water content. Recycling rates and lower heating values could not be used as simple indicators of the resulting emission factors for residual household...... different studies and when using the values for environmental assessment purposes....

  17. Characterization of spent fuel hulls and dissolution residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, J.P.; Andriessen, H.

    1985-04-01

    The main results obtained within the framework of CEC programmes, by KFK, UKAEA and CEA, are reviewed concerning the characterization of dissolution wastes. The contents were determined of the main radioactive emitters contained in the hulls originating in a whole fuel assembly sampled at the La Hague plant, or from Dounreay PFR fuels. Radiochemical characterizations were carried out by different methods including neutron emission measurement, alpha and beta-gamma spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. Decontamination of the hulls by using rinsings and supplementary treatment were also dealt with. The ignition and explosion risks associated with the zircaloy fines formed during the shearing of LWR fuels were examined, and the ignition properties of irradiated and unirradiated zircaloy powders were determined and compared. The physical properties and compositions of the dissolution residues of PFR fuels were defined, in order to conduct tests on the immobilization of these wastes in cement

  18. Residual stress evaluation by Barkhausen signals with a magnetic field sensor for high efficiency electrical motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Yuji; Enokizono, Masato

    2018-04-01

    The iron loss of industrial motors increases by residual stress during manufacturing processes. It is very important to make clear the distribution of the residual stress in the motor cores to reduce the iron loss in the motors. Barkhausen signals which occur on electrical steel sheets can be used for the evaluation of the residual stress because they are very sensitive to the material properties. Generally, a B-sensor is used to measure Barkhausen signals, however, we developed a new H-sensor to measure them and applied it into the stress evaluation. It is supposed that the Barkhausen signals by using a H-sensor can be much effective to the residual stress on the electrical steel sheets by referring our results regarding to the stress evaluations. We evaluated the tensile stress of the electrical steel sheets by measuring Barkhausen signals by using our developed H-sensor for high efficiency electrical motors.

  19. NUMERICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL STRESSES GENERATED DURING HARDENING OFAISI 4140 BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwan Anderson Ariza Echeverri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the distribution of residual stresses resulting from the combination of volumetric changes due to heat gradients and phase changes occurring during the quenching process of an AISI/SAE 4140 steel cylinder. The mathematical model used for this objective is the AC3 modeling software of thermal treatments (transformation curves, cooling curves and microstructure, whose results were input in an finite element model, considering thermalmechanical coupling and non-linear elastic-plastic behavior, aiming the assessment of residual stresses in quenched 4140 steel cylinders. The observed microstructure confirms quantitatively and qualitatively the previsions of the AC3 Software. The results of the modeling are compared with the residual stresses measurements made using X-Ray diffraction techniques. The finite element numerical simulation shows the existence of 350 MPa compressive residual stresses in the surface region and indicates that the most significant stresses are tangential.

  20. Residual stress measurement by X-ray diffraction with the Gaussian curve method and its automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, M.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray technique with the Gaussian curve method and its automation are described for rapid and nondestructive measurement of residual stress. A simplified equation for measuring the stress by the Gaussian curve method is derived because in its previous form this method required laborious calculation. The residual stress can be measured in a few minutes, depending on materials, using an automated X-ray stress analyzer with a microcomputer which was developed in the laboratory. The residual stress distribution of a partially induction hardened and tempered (at 280 0 C) steel bar was measured with the Gaussian curve method. A sharp residual tensile stress peak of 182 MPa appeared right outside the hardened region at which fatigue failure is liable to occur

  1. Residual subsidence analysis after the end of coal mine work. Example from Lorraine Colliery, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Heib, M.; Nicolas, M.; Noirel, J.F.; Wojtkowiak, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the residual movements associated with the deep coal mines. The studied case relates to works located into Lorraine coal basin. The paper is divided into two sections. The first one describes subsidence phenomena, especially the residual phase in terms of amplitude, duration and localization. The second one focus on Morsbach case: the total and residual subsidence measurements will be analyzed and compared to the state of the art as well as the currant knowledge. The results of the analysis show that the duration of residual movements does not exceed 24 months and their amplitude is about 5% of total subsidence. We analyze also the declarations of the mining damage during and after the mining period. Damages occur, after this period are probably due to late observations. (authors)

  2. Electrical efficiency losses occurred by the air compressor for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubrock, J.; Heideck, G.; Styczynski, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel Cells are characterised by a high efficiency and comparatively small emissions. Depending on their partial load behaviour and their high efficiency, Fuel Cells are well suited for net connected or isolated autonomous energy generators for thermal and electricity power production. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell systems need several external components to produce electricity and thermal power. However, the high theoretical degree of efficiency of 83% is decreased by these components. To reach higher fuel utilisation it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of these components. In this study, the influence of the air supply compressor on the fuel utilisation is investigated and an optimization strategy was developed. The results were reviewed by a real test set up using an autonomous PEM Fuel Cell system. (authors)

  3. Fate and possible nutritional and toxicological significance of methylbromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies on foreign chemical residues in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-03-01

    Methyl bromide residues in cocoa as a result of fumigation under practical conditions have been studied. Cocoa beans were exposed to 14 C-labelled CH 3 Br for 24 hours at 20-32degC and dosage 23.5 to 28mg/1 of fumigants (moisture content of 6-7%). Whole unroasted beans and their shells and nibs as well as shells and nibs of roasted (105degC for 30 min) beans were extracted separately with toluene (for free CH 3 Br) and the dried residues wet combusted. 14 C-activities were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Total methyl bromide (bound and free) was equivalent 83-98ppm in whole unroasted beans 35 hours after treatment and aeration, and 31, 15 and 10ppm after 7, 42 and 70 days respectively in one set of experiments and 37, 53 and 42ppm after 76, 60 and 51 days in another set. Approximately 80% of the residue occurred in the shells which constitute only 12 to 13% of unroasted beans. 99% of the total residues appeared to be in chemically-bound form. Roasting reduced the total residues by 32 to 62% in nibs and 3.6 to 14% in shells. A striking effect of roasting was the occurrence in roasted nibs of residues as (extractable) carbon-14 (62-82% of the total residues compared to 16.5 - 27% in unroasted nibs). The bound residues behaved as methylated derivatives whilst the volatile fraction behaved as volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard type reactions from the 14 C-labelled amino acides and sugars

  4. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  5. The effects of rape residue mulching on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from no-tillage paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha(-1)) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0-20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) to 1654 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9-30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33-71% and GHGI by 35-72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China.

  6. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  7. Residues in food derived from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossklaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs [de

  8. The influence of ion bombardment on emission properties of carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepusov, Alexander; Komarskiy, Alexander; Kuznetsov, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    When electric-vacuum device works its cathode surface experiences bombardment with ions of residual gases. Effects of ion bombardment impact on surface of field emission cathodes made of carbon materials may essentially change emission properties of such cathodes. It changes emission start electric field strength, voltage vs. current characteristic of material, its relief and electron structure of the surface layer. Field emission cathode operating mode, variation of radiation doses allow to obtain both good effects: maximal electric current, surface recovery – and negative ones: the worst emission properties and surface destruction, amorphization.

  9. The influence of ion bombardment on emission properties of carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chepusov, Alexander, E-mail: chepusov@iep.uran.ru [The Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEP UD RAS), 620016, 106 Amundsen Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 620002, 19 Mira Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Komarskiy, Alexander, E-mail: aakomarskiy@gmail.com [The Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEP UD RAS), 620016, 106 Amundsen Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 620002, 19 Mira Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Vadim, E-mail: kuznetsov@iep.uran.ru [The Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEP UD RAS), 620016, 106 Amundsen Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    When electric-vacuum device works its cathode surface experiences bombardment with ions of residual gases. Effects of ion bombardment impact on surface of field emission cathodes made of carbon materials may essentially change emission properties of such cathodes. It changes emission start electric field strength, voltage vs. current characteristic of material, its relief and electron structure of the surface layer. Field emission cathode operating mode, variation of radiation doses allow to obtain both good effects: maximal electric current, surface recovery – and negative ones: the worst emission properties and surface destruction, amorphization.

  10. USE OF ORGANIC RESIDUES FOR THE RECOVERY OF SOIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Galvez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of different organic residues on soil fertility and climate change, through the evaluation of soil organic matter mineralisation, greenhouse gas emission, nutrient availability and soil microbial biomass content and activity. A degraded agricultural soil was amended with three different organic residues (pig slurry digestate, rapeseed meal, and compost at three different doses (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5% w/w and incubated for 30 days at 20 ºC. During incubation, soil CO2 and N2O emissions, K2SO4 extractable organic C, N, NH4+, NO3- and P, soil microbial biomass and some enzymatic activities were determined. Results obtained showed that rapeseed meal and pig slurry are best suited to improve soil chemical and biological fertility, while compost is more appropriate for the enhancement of soil organic matter content and to promote soil C sequestration.

  11. Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Emissions Modeling Clearinghouse (EMCH) supports and promotes emissions modeling activities both internal and external to the EPA. Through this site, the EPA...

  12. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  13. Emissions Trading Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about emissions trading programs, also known as cap and trade programs, which are market-based policy tools for protecting human health and the environment by controlling emissions from a group of sources.

  14. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  15. World Emission RETRO ANTHRO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions data were generated monthly covering a period of 1960 to 2000. Anthropogenic emissions in the RETRO inventory are derived...

  16. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  17. Biodiesel Emissions Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using existing data, the EPA's biodiesel emissions analysis program sought to quantify the air pollution emission effects of biodiesel for diesel engines that have not been specifically modified to operate on biodiesel.

  18. Dioxin emissions and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the seminar discussed dioxin emissions and sources, dioxin pollution of soils, waste water and sewage sludge, stocktaking of emission sources, and exposure and risk analyses for dioxin and other pollutants. (EF) [de

  19. National Emission Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajtakova, E.; Spisakova, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation the Slovak National Emission Information System (NEIS) is presented. The NEIS represents hierarchical oriented modular system of acquisition, verification, saving and reporting of data about annual emissions and payments for pollution of atmosphere

  20. Antibody-mediated neutralization of Ebola virus can occur by two distinct mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedlock, Devon J.; Bailey, Michael A.; Popernack, Paul M.; Cunningham, James M.; Burton, Dennis R.; Sullivan, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Human Ebola virus causes severe hemorrhagic fever disease with high mortality and there is no vaccine or treatment. Antibodies in survivors occur early, are sustained, and can delay infection when transferred into nonhuman primates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from survivors exhibit potent neutralizing activity in vitro and are protective in rodents. To better understand targets and mechanisms of neutralization, we investigated a panel of mAbs shown previously to react with the envelope glycoprotein (GP). While one non-neutralizing mAb recognized a GP epitope in the nonessential mucin-like domain, the rest were specific for GP1, were neutralizing, and could be further distinguished by reactivity with secreted GP. We show that survivor antibodies, human KZ52 and monkey JP3K11, were specific for conformation-dependent epitopes comprising residues in GP1 and GP2 and that neutralization occurred by two distinct mechanisms; KZ52 inhibited cathepsin cleavage of GP whereas JP3K11 recognized the cleaved, fusion-active form of GP.

  1. The Geology And Geochemistry Of Zona Uranium Occurence, Upper Benue Trough; N.E. Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunleye, P.O.; Okujeni, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Zona uranium is located at the NE flank of the Peta syncline, which is an arm of the Middle Gongola Basin. The hostreok- the Cretaceous Bima sandstone bears the imprint of more than two preore tectonic episodes which are thought to have resulted from reactivation of paleolineaments in the basement since the Pan African Orogeny. The mineralized zone occurs at point of intersection of a set of NE-SW trending shear zone and N-S fracture system. The centre of the ore zone exhibits intense alteration features such as sericitization, ferruginization, silification, remobilization and powdering of the rock matrix. These alteration features diminish progressively from the core to the periphery of the ore zone. The main uraniferous minerals identified are phosphouranylite and meta-autunite. These occur mainly absorbed to iron oxides, in silicified veinlets and partly disseminated in the matrix of the sandstone. Evaluation of the analytical data of 9 elements in 67 rock samples suggest a close link between ferruginization and enrichment of uranium. A model involving the leaching of the uranium from conceal volcanics (rhyolites) and granites at depths by heated groundwater residual magmatic solutions is proposed

  2. The Geology And Geochemistry Of Zona Uranium Occurence, Upper Benue Trough; N.E. Nigeria.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunleye, P O [Centre For Energy Research And Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Okujeni, C D [Department Of Geology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)

    1994-12-31

    The Zona uranium is located at the NE flank of the Peta syncline, which is an arm of the Middle Gongola Basin. The hostreok- the Cretaceous Bima sandstone bears the imprint of more than two preore tectonic episodes which are thought to have resulted from reactivation of paleolineaments in the basement since the Pan African Orogeny. The mineralized zone occurs at point of intersection of a set of NE-SW trending shear zone and N-S fracture system. The centre of the ore zone exhibits intense alteration features such as sericitization, ferruginization, silification, remobilization and powdering of the rock matrix. These alteration features diminish progressively from the core to the periphery of the ore zone. The main uraniferous minerals identified are phosphouranylite and meta-autunite. These occur mainly absorbed to iron oxides, in silicified veinlets and partly disseminated in the matrix of the sandstone. Evaluation of the analytical data of 9 elements in 67 rock samples suggest a close link between ferruginization and enrichment of uranium. A model involving the leaching of the uranium from conceal volcanics (rhyolites) and granites at depths by heated groundwater residual magmatic solutions is proposed.

  3. Information about the accident occurred near Rapsodie (1994, March 31th)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmonier, P.; Del Negro, R.

    1997-01-01

    On March 31st, 1994, during the cleaning of the residual sodium contained in a tank located in a hall outside the containment building of the RAPSODIE reactor an explosion occurred. One member of the CEA staff was killed and four people were wounded. A commission of inquiry chaired by the CEA General Inspector for Nuclear Safety was set up by the 'Administrateur Generale' of the CEA the day following the accident. This Commission delivered its first conclusions in July 1994. The sodium present in the tank in which the accident occurred comes from the primary cooling circuit of Rapsodie. After the final shutdown of the reactor, in 1982, all 37 metric tons of primary sodium were drained in 1985, then filtered to be purified from most of their radioactive contamination ; the 137 cesium activity, for instance, was reduced to about one hundredth of its original value. Laboratories of the CEA, the chemical industry, the university and the CNRS were involved in the program of global chemical experiments in order to understand the integral phenomena. The follow-up of the program should provide results that will enable the complex phenomena to be quantified and thus clarify the feedback from this accident and the knowledge acquired since that time. The need exists to maintain the suspension of the implementation of ethylcarbitol cleaning until definite conclusions have been drawn from both the present and future studies

  4. Residual risk over-estimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The way nuclear power plants are built practically excludes accidents with serious consequences. This is attended to by careful selection of material, control of fabrication and regular retesting as well as by several safety systems working independently. But the remaining risk, a 'hypothetic' uncontrollable incident with catastrophic effects is the main subject of the discussion on the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. The this year's 'Annual Meeting on Nuclear Engineering' in Mannheim and the meeting 'Reactor Safety Research' in Cologne showed, that risk studies so far were too pessimistic. 'Best estimate' calculations suggest that core melt-down accidents only occur if almost all safety systems fail, that accidents take place much more slowly, and that the release of radioactive fission products is by several magnitudes lower than it was assumed until now. (orig.) [de

  5. Combinations of Genetic Variants Occurring Exclusively in Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Mellerup

    Full Text Available In studies of polygenic disorders, scanning the genetic variants can be used to identify variant combinations. Combinations that are exclusively found in patients can be separated from those combinations occurring in control persons. Statistical analyses can be performed to determine whether the combinations that occur exclusively among patients are significantly associated with the investigated disorder. This research strategy has been applied in materials from various polygenic disorders, identifying clusters of patient-specific genetic variant combinations that are significant associated with the investigated disorders. Combinations from these clusters are found in the genomes of up to 55% of investigated patients, and are not present in the genomes of any control persons. Keywords: Genetic variants, Polygenic disorder, Combinations of genetic variants, Patient-specific combinations

  6. New data about historical earthquakes occurred on the Romanian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, A.P.; Pantea, A.; Stoica, R.; Amaranadei, C.; Stefan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to enrich qualitatively and quantitatively the existing database about historical earthquakes occurred on the Romanian territory and in the adjacent areas by reevaluating and completing it with new information obtained after some complex research activities. In this respect there were studied the old book funds existing in Bucharest, especially those from the religious and cultural institutions - monasteries, libraries, archives and museums, starting with the documents existing under the custody of the Romanian Patriarchy. For the beginning there were researched three thousand books appeared between 1683-1902 where there were found information about some earthquakes occurred between 1802 and 1913. By this research, there is achieved the extension in the past of the database regarding the seismicity of the Romania's territory, by emphasizing seismic events that, according to some seismicity schemes, can repeat in the future, thus, being taken into account the major contribution of the historical seismicity to the seismic hazard assessment. (authors)

  7. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Christer.

    1993-01-01

    The large difference in coefficient of thermal expansion of the matrix and particles in a metal matrix composite will introduce residual stresses during cooling from process temperature. These stresses are locally very high, and are known to influence the mechanical behaviour of the material. Changes in the stress state will occur during heat treatments and when the material is loaded due to different elastic, plastic, and creep properties of the constituents. The change of residual stresses in an Al-SiC particulate composite after different degree of plastic straining has been studied. The effect of plastic straining was modelled by an Eshelby model. The model and the measurements both show that the stress in the loading direction decreases for a tensile plastic strain and increases for a compressive plastic strain. By x-ray diffraction the stress response in the matrix and particles can be measured independently. This has been used to determine the stress state under and after heat treatments and under mechanical loading in two Al 15% SiC metal matrix composites. By analysing the line width from x-ray experiment the changes in the microstrains in the material were studied. A finite element model was used to model the generation of thermal residual stresses, stress relaxation during heat treatments, and load sharing during the first load cycle. Calculated stresses and microstrains were found to be in good agreement with the measured values. The elastic behaviour of the composite can be understood largely in terms of elastic load transfer between matrix and particles. However, at higher loads when the matrix becomes plastic residual stresses also become important. 21 refs

  8. Guidelines for selection and presentation of residue values of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde-Koerts T van der; Hoeven-Arentzen PH van; Ossendorp BC; RIVM-SIR

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide residue assessments are executed to establish legal limits, called Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). MRLs are derived from the results of these pesticide residue trials, which are performed according to critical Good Agricultural Practice. Only one residue value per residue trial may be

  9. Left Sided Amyand's Hernia, A Rare Occurance: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravishankaran, Praveen; Mohan, G; Srinivasan, A; Ravindran, G; Ramalingam, A

    2013-06-01

    This is a case report about a 35 year old man admitted with complains of obstructed left sided inguinal hernia. On exploration of the left inguinal canal to our surprise a normal appendix was found in addition to a gangrenous omentum. Resection of the gangrenous omentum was done. Appendectomy was done. This case is reported for its rare occurance as only three such cases of left sided amyand's hernia has been reported so far in literature[4-6].

  10. Case of basal cell epithelioma occurring on chronic radiation dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kase, Kayoko; Matsuoka, Yoshitaka; Urushibata, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Soichi (Toho Univ. Ohashi Hosp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-05-01

    A 52-year-old woman had been treated with radiation therapy for lymphoid tuberculosis on the right side of the neck 40 years before. Chronic radiation dermatitis occurred on that site. Blackish small mass has appeared 2 years before on the central part of the dermatitis. Histological examination revealed thinning of the epidermis, swelling of the dermal collagen fibers, and follicular clusters composed of basaloid cells from the epidermis to the upper layer of the dermis. (Namekawa, K).

  11. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  12. Lichen striatus occurring after a tetanus vaccine: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül Yalçınkaya İyidal; Kadir Balaban; Arzu Kılıç

    2017-01-01

    Lichen striatus (LS) is an uncommon, acquired, self-limiting, linear inflammatory dermatosis. The eruption typically presents as pink or tan papules along Blaschko’s lines. It usually occurs in children, rarely affects adults. The rashes usually suddenly emerge in a single extremity and may regress within a few months or years. The incidence is slightly higher among women. The etiology of LS is not exactly known, however, it is thought to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune reaction. Trauma, infe...

  13. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological st...... unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes....

  14. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  15. Airway complication occurring during radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinuya, Seigo; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Michigishi, Takatoshi

    2007-01-01

    Airway complications rarely occur in 131 I radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease. This study presents two cases in which 131 I therapy caused this acute complication. The patients complained of the symptom 6 h and 33 h after administration of 131 I. A histamine H1 receptor antagonist and hydrocortisone rapidly resolved symptoms in both cases. These two cases remind physicians that 131 I therapy for Graves' disease may cause potentially life-threatening complications. (author)

  16. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from biomass waste in China:A case study in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Crop residue,animal manure and MSW are selected as representative biomass waste.Greenhouse gas emissions from treatment and disposal process of biomass waste in Hebei province are estimated for the period from 2002 to 2007,using the methodologies recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.Greenhouse gas emission was about 10 Mt CO2-equivalent annually.About 6% of greenhouse gas emission came from open burning of crop residue,74% from management system of animal manure,and 20% from MSW disposal.Among all the greenhouse gas sources,landfill is the most concentrated one,and has significant potential of emission reduction.

  17. Characterization, leachability and valorization through combustion of residual chars from gasification of coals with pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhetas, Margarida; Lopes, Helena; Freire, Márcia; Abelha, Pedro; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the study of the combustion of char residues produced during co-gasification of coal with pine with the aim of characterizing them for their potential use for energy. These residues are generally rich in carbon with the presence of other elements, with particular concern for heavy metals and pollutant precursors, depending on the original fuel used. The evaluation of environmental toxicity of the char residues was performed through application of different leaching tests (EN12457-2, US EPA-1311 TCLP and EA NEN 7371:2004). The results showed that the residues present quite low toxicity for some of pollutants. However, depending on the fuel used, possible presence of other pollutants may bring environmental risks. The utilization of these char residues for energy was in this study evaluated, by burning them as a first step pre-treatment prior to landfilling. The thermo-gravimetric analysis and ash fusibility studies revealed an adequate thermochemical behavior, without presenting any major operational risks. Fluidized bed combustion was applied to char residues. Above 700°C, very high carbon conversion ratios were obtained and it seemed that the thermal oxidation of char residues was easier than that of the coals. It was found that the char tendency for releasing SO(2) during its oxidation was lower than for the parent coal, while for NO(X) emissions, the trend was observed to increase NO(X) formation. However, for both pollutants the same control techniques might be applied during char combustion, as for coal. Furthermore, the leachability of ashes resulting from the combustion of char residues appeared to be lower than those produced from direct coal combustion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On the noble gas isotopic fractionation in naturally occurring gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, B.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic composition of neon in the mantle is an important geochemical constraint on the formation of the earth and subsequent degassing. Some deviation of neon isotopic composition in natural gas and rock samples from the atmospheric value which can not be accounted for by the known nuclear process has been reported, and Nagao et al. interpreted the deviation as the result of mass fractionation in natural gas in Japan. The possible cause of such fractionation was investigated. Gaseous diffusion, such as (a) free-molecule diffusion, (b) mutual diffusion and (c) thermal diffusion, is able to cause isotopic fractionation. After the detailed consideration on these three diffusion processes, conclusion that free-molecule diffusion occurs only in very particular condition, and it is questionable that thermal diffusion occurs in nature, were obtained. (b) which means the interaction of two or more gases, is supposed to occur in nature, and is able to confirm experimentally. In mutual diffusion only, gas transfer is concerned, but other form of fractionation should not be neglected. In solid diffusion, gas is trapped by fine grained sedimentary rocks, and may be fractionated by adsorption and communication to exterior through minute channels. Underground water also works as noble gas reservoir. For example, when gas stream is in contact with water, continuous exchange is possible to take place at the interface of gas and liquid, which contributes to the fractionation. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  19. Natural Transformation of Campylobacter jejuni Occurs Beyond Limits of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegge, Christina S.; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska-Marzęta, Małgorzata; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni. PMID:23049803

  20. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.