WorldWideScience

Sample records for residue physical properties

  1. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  2. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  3. Influence of organic waste and residue mud additions on chemical, physical and microbial properties of bauxite residue sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin E H; Haynes, Richard J; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-02-01

    In an alumina refinery, bauxite ore is treated with sodium hydroxide at high temperatures and pressures and for every tone of alumina produced, about 2 tones of alkaline, saline bauxite processing waste is also produced. At Alcoa, a dry stacking system of disposal is used, and it is the sand fraction of the processing waste that is rehabilitated. There is little information available regarding the most appropriate amendments to add to the processing sand to aid in revegetation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the addition of organic wastes (biosolids and poultry manure), in the presence or absence of added residue mud, would affect the properties of the residue sand and its suitability for revegetation. Samples of freshly deposited residue sand were collected from Alcoa's Kwinana refinery. Samples were treated with phosphogypsum (2% v/v), incubated, and leached. A laboratory experiment was then set up in which the two organic wastes were applied at 0 or the equivalent to 60 tones ha(-1) in combination with residue mud added at rates of 0%, 10% and 20% v/v. Samples were incubated for 8 weeks, after which, key chemical, physical and microbial properties of the residue sand were measured along with seed germination. Additions of residue mud increased exchangeable Na(+), ESP and the pH, and HCO (3) (-) and Na(+) concentrations in saturation paste extracts. Additions of biosolids and poultry manure increased concentrations of extractable P, NH (4) (+) , K, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. Addition of residue mud, in combination with organic wastes, caused a marked decrease in macroporosity and a concomitant increase in mesoporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. With increasing residue mud additions, the percentage of sample present as sand particles (2 mm diameter) increased; greatest aggregation occurred where a combination of residue mud and poultry manure were added. Stability of aggregates, as measured by

  4. Physical and sensory properties of corn flakes with added dry residue of wild oregano distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košutić Milenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern nutritionist opinions, cereal products such as flakes and snacks are the most common foods in the daily diet. Extrusion technology makes it possible to apply different sources of ingredients for the enrichment of cereal-based flakes or snack products. Substances with strong antioxidant properties such as wild oregano have a positive impact on human health. Therefore, they attract the attention of scientists, consumers and food industry experts. This paper investigates the effects of the simultaneous addition of dry residue from wild oregano distillation (0.5 g / 100g of sample and 1 g / 100g of sample, on the physical-textural and color properties of corn flakes in order to create a new product with improved nutritional properties. The addition of dry residue of wild oregano positively influenced physical characteristics (decreased bulk density 30.2 %, increased expansion rate 44.9 %, as well as texture hardness and the work of compression, 38.1 % and 40.3 %, respectively. Also, oregano significantly changed the color of flakes. Tukey’s HSD test showed statistically significant differences between most of the mean values of physical-textural, color and sensory attributes in the oregano-added corn flakes compared to the control sample. Principal component analysis has been applied to classify the samples according to differences in the studied parameters. The data pointed out that investigated corn flakes with the addition of wild oregano are new food products with good physical-textural and sensory properties due to a higher level of antioxidant activity. Moreover, it may contribute to the valorization of edible industrial waste in food production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46005 i br. TR 31027

  5. Determination of crop residues and the physical and mechanical properties of soil in different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring and management of soil quality is crucial for sustaining soil function in ecosystem. Tillage is one of the management operations that drastically affect soil physical quality. Conservation tillage methods are one of the efficient solutions in agriculture to reduce the soil erosion, air pollution, energy consumption, and the costs, if there is a proper management on the crop residues. One of the serious problems in agriculture is soil erosion which is rapidly increased in the recent decades as the intensity of tillage increases. This phenomenon occurs more in sloping lands or in the fields which are lacking from crop residues and organic materials. The conservation tillage has an important role in minimizing soil erosion and developing the quality of soil. Hence, it has attracted the attention of more researchers and farmers in the recent years. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of different tillage methods has been investigated on the crop residues, mechanical resistance of soil, and the stability of aggregates. This research was performed on the agricultural fields of Urmia University, located in Nazloo zone in 2012. Wheat and barley were planted in these fields, consecutively. The soil texture of these fields was loamy clay and the factorial experiments were done in a completely randomized block design. In this study, effect of three tillage systems including tillage with moldboard (conventional tillage, tillage with disk plow (reduced tillage, chisel plow (minimum tillage and control treatment on some soil physical properties was investigated. Depth is second factor that was investigated in three levels including 0-60, 60-140, and 140-200 mm. Moreover, the effect of different percentages of crop residues on the rolling resistance of non-driving wheels was studied in a soil bin. The contents of crop residues have been measured by using the linear transects and image processing methods. In the linear

  6. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  7. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  8. Physical and mechanical properties of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from local agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sakhawy, M.M.; Hassan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested

  9. The influence of clay-to-carbon ratio on soil physical properties in a humid sandy loam soil with contrasting tillage and residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Getahun, Gizachew Tarekegn; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Schjønning, Per

    2016-01-01

    Tillage and residue management influence soil organic carbon (SOC) and lead to changes in soil physical behav-iour and functioning. We examined the effect of the clay-to-carbon ratio on soil physical properties in a humid sandy loam soil with contrasting tillage and residue management. Soil was sa...

  10. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiel, MP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.

  11. Physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Research activities into the physical properties of metals and ceramics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during 1976 are reported. Topics covered include: high field superconductivity; microstructure and mechanical behavior of ceramics, glass-metal, and ceramic-metal systems; high temperature reactions; relation of microstructure to properties in ceramics; and structure and properties of carbon materials and composite materials

  12. Utilization of crops residues as compost and biochar for improving soil physical properties and upland rice productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Barus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of crops waste in the agricultural field can be converted to organic fertilizer throughout the process of composting or pyrolysis to return back into the soil. The study aimed to elucidate the effect of compost and biochar application on the physical properties and productivity of upland rice at Village of Sukaraja Nuban, Batanghari Nuban Sub district, East Lampung Regency in 2015. The amendment treatments were A. control; B. 10 t rice husk biochar/ ha; C. 10 t maize cob biochar/ha; D. 10 t straw compost/ha; E. 10 t stover compost/ha, F. 10 t rice husk biochar/ha + 10 t straw compost/ha; F. 10 t maize cob biochar/ha + 10 t maize stover compost/ha. The treatments were arranged in randomized block design with four replicates. The plot size for each treatment was 10 x 20 m. After incubation for about one month, undisturbed soil samples were taken using copper ring at 10–20 cm depth for laboratory analyzes. Analyses of soil physical properties included bulk density, particle density, total porosity, drainage porosity, and soil water condition. Plant observations conducted at harvest were plant height, number of panicle, number of grain/panicle, and grain weight/plot. Results of the study showed that biochar and compost improved soil physical properties such as bulk density, total porosity, fast drainage pores, water content, and permeability of soil. The combination of rice husk biochar and straw compost gave better effect than single applications on rice production components (numbers of panicle and grains of rice, and gave the highest yield of 4.875 t/ha.

  13. Physical properties and fisheries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.

    The physical aspects influencing the different stages of behaviour of the marine fish can be divided into two categories (1) the physical properties of the ocean like temperature, salinity, oxygen, high penetration etc.; and (2) the physical...

  14. Properties of residuals for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Møller, Jesper; Pakes, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    For any point process in Rd that has a Papangelou conditional intensity λ, we define a random measure of ‘innovations' which has mean zero. When the point process model parameters are estimated from data, there is an analogous random measure of ‘residuals'. We analyse properties of the innovation...... and residuals, including first and second moments, conditional independence, a martingale property, and lack of correlation. Some large sample asymptotics are studied. We derive the marginal distribution of smoothed residuals by solving a distributional equivalence....

  15. Physical properties of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. K.; Young, Jr, F. W.

    1977-10-01

    Research at ORNL into the physical properties of solids is described. Topics covered include: optical, electrical, and magnetic properties of magnesium oxide; ionic conductivity and superconductivity; surface physics and catalysis; defects and impurities in insulating crystals; photovoltaic conversion of solar energy; and fracture studies. (GHT)

  16. Properties of residuals for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Møller, Jesper; Pakes, A.G.

    For any point process in $R^d$ that has a Papangelou conditional intensity $lambda$, we define a random measure of ‘innovations’ which has mean zero. When the point process model parameters are estimated from data, there is an analogous random measure of ‘residuals’. We analyse properties of the ...... of the innovations and residuals, including first and second moments, conditional independence, a martingale property, lack of correlation, and marginal distributions....

  17. The Finite Embeddability Property for Residuated Groupoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haniková, Zuzana; Horčík, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-13 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1632 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : residuated groupoid * distributive lattice * finite embeddability property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2014

  18. Adsorption Property and Mechanism of Oxytetracycline onto Willow Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Xu, Haiyang; Yang, Shengke; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Yanhua

    2017-12-22

    To elucidate the adsorption property and the mechanism of plant residues to reduce oxytetracycline (OTC), the adsorption of OTC onto raw willow roots (WR-R), stems (WS-R), leaves (WL-R), and adsorption onto desugared willow roots (WR-D), stems (WS-D), and leaves (WL-D) were investigated. The structural characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and an elemental analyzer. OTC adsorption onto the different tissues of willow residues was compared and correlated with their structures. The adsorption kinetics of OTC onto willow residues was found to follow the pseudo-first-order model. The isothermal adsorption process of OTC onto the different tissues of willow residues followed the Langmuir and Freundlich model and the process was also a spontaneous endothermic reaction, which was mainly physical adsorption. After the willow residues were desugared, the polarity decreased and the aromaticity increased, which explained why the adsorption amounts of the desugared willow residues were higher than those of the unmodified residues. These observations suggest that the raw and modified willow residues have great potential as adsorbents to remove organic pollutants.

  19. Characteristics and engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Y. S.; Sugiarti, K.; Soebowo, E.

    2018-02-01

    Residual soil knowledge of volcanic-sedimentary rock products provides important information on the soil bearing capacity and its engineering properties. The residual soil is the result of weathering commonly found in unsaturated conditions, having varied geotechnical characteristics at each level of weathering. This paper summarizes the results of the research from the basic engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic-sedimentary rocks from several different locations. The main engineering properties of residual soil such as specific gravity, porosity, grain size, clay content (X-Ray test) and soil shear strength are performed on volcanic rock deposits. The results show that the variation of the index and engineering properties and the microstructure properties of residual soil have the correlation between the depths of weathering levels. Pore volume and pore size distribution on weathered rock profiles can be used as an indication of weathering levels in the tropics.

  20. MAGNETIC WOVEN FABRICS - PHYSICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A coated material is a composite structure that consists of at least two components: base material and coating layer. The purpose of coating is to provide special properties to base material, with potential to be applied in EMI shielding and diverse smart technical fields. This paper reports the results of a study about some physical and magnetic properties of coated woven fabrics made from cotton yarns with fineness of 17 metric count. For this aim, a plain woven fabric was coated with a solution hard magnetic polymer based. As hard magnetic powder, barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 was selected. The plain woven fabric used as base has been coated with five solutions having different amounts of hard magnetic powder (15% - 45% in order to obtain five different magnetic woven fabrics. A comparison of physical properties regarding weight (g/m2, thickness (mm, degree of charging (% and magnetic properties of magnetic woven samples were presented. Saturation magnetizing (emu/g, residual magnetizing (emu/g and coercive force (kA/m of pure hard magnetic powder and woven fabrics have been studied as hysteresis characteristics. The magnetic properties of the woven fabrics depend on the mass percentage of magnetic powder from coating solution. Also, the residual magnetism and coercive field of woven fabrics represents only a part of bulk barium hexafferite residual magnetism and coercive field.

  1. On the residual properties of damaged FRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbino, R.; Torrijos, M. C.; Giaccio, G.

    2017-09-01

    A discussion on the residual behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) is performed based on two selected cases of concrete degradation: the exposure at High Temperatures and the development of Alkali Silica Reactions. In addition, and taking in mind that the failure mechanism in FRC is strongly related with the fibre pull-out strength, the bond strength in damaged matrices was shown concluding that the residual bond strength is less affected than the matrix strength. As the damage increases, the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity decrease, being the modulus of elasticity the most affected. There were no significant changes produced by the incorporation of fibres on the residual behaviour when compared with previous experience on plain damage concrete. Regarding the tensile behaviour although the first peak decreases as the damage increases, even for a severely damage FRC the residual stresses remain almost unaffected.

  2. Chemical and physical properties of organic residues Caracterização química e física de resíduos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Satoshi Higashikawa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to human activity, large amounts of organic residue are generated daily. Therefore, an adequate use in agricultural activities requires the characterization of the main properties. The chemical and physical characterization is important when planning the use and management of organic residue. In this study, chemical and physical properties of charcoal, coffee husk, pine-bark, cattle manure, chicken manure, coconut fiber, sewage sludge, peat, and vermiculite were determined. The following properties were analyzed: N-NH4+, N-N0(3-, and total concentrations of N, P, S, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B, as well as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC and bulk density. Coffee husk, sewage sludge, chicken manure and cattle manure were generally richer in nutrients. The EC values of these residues were also the highest (0.08 - 40.6 dS m-1. Peat and sewage sludge had the highest bulky density. Sodium contents varied from 0 to 4.75 g kg-1, with the highest levels in chicken manure, cattle manure and sewage sludge. Great care must be taken when establishing proportions of organic residues in the production of substrates with coffee husk, cattle or chicken manure or sewage sludge in the calculation of the applied fertilizer quantity in crop fertilization programs.Uma diversidade de resíduos orgânicos, oriundos das atividades humanas, é gerada diariamente e demanda pesquisas para avaliar a viabilidade técnica, econômica e ambiental do seu uso agrícola. A caracterização química e física auxiliam no planejamento de uso e no manejo dos resíduos orgânicos, pois permitem avaliar atributos que tornam o uso na agricultura atrativo ou limitante. Este trabalho teve como objetivos a caracterização química e física e a avaliação de teores de nutrientes e de Na em carvão vegetal, casca de café, casca de pínus, esterco bovino, esterco de galinha, fibra de coco, lodo de esgoto, turfa e vermiculita. Os seguintes atributos foram analisados: N-amônio e N

  3. Durability of cement-based materials: modeling of the influence of physical and chemical equilibria on the microstructure and the residual mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, E.

    2004-09-01

    A large part of mechanical and durability characteristics of cement-based materials comes from the performances of the hydrated cement, cohesive matrix surrounding the granular skeleton. Experimental studies, in situ or in laboratory, associated to models, have notably enhanced knowledge on the cement material and led to adapted formulations to specific applications or particularly aggressive environments. Nevertheless, these models, developed for precise cases, do not permit to specifically conclude for other experimental conclusions. To extend its applicability domain, we propose a new evolutive approach, based on reactive transport expressed at the microstructure scale of the cement. In a general point of view, the evolution of the solid compounds of the cement matrix, by dissolutions or precipitations, during chemical aggressions can be related to the pore solution evolution, and this one relied to the ionic exchanges with the external environment. By the utilization of a geochemical code associated to a thermodynamical database and coupled to a 3D transport model, this approach authorizes the study of all aggressive solution. The approach has been validated by the comparison of experimental observations to simulated degradations for three different environments (pure water, mineralized water, seawater) and on three different materials (CEM I Portland cement with 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 water-to cement ratio). The microstructural approach permits also to have access to mechanical properties evolutions. During chemical aggressions, the cement matrix evolution is traduced in a microstructure evolution. This one is represented from 3D images similarly to the models developed at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). A new finite-element model, validated on previous tests or models, evaluates the stiffness of the cement paste, using as a mesh these microstructures. Our approach identifies and quantifies the major influence of porosity and its spatial

  4. Mutational properties of amino acid residues: implications for evolvability of phosphorylatable residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Schoof, Erwin M.; Tan, Chris Soon Heng

    2012-01-01

    in terms of their mutational activity. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the genetic code and physico-chemical properties of the amino acid residues as likely causes of these inequalities and uncover serine as a mutational hot spot. Finally, we explore the consequences that these different......; it is typically assumed that all amino acid residues are equally likely to mutate or to result from a mutation. Here, by reconstructing ancestral sequences and computing mutational probabilities for all the amino acid residues, we refute this assumption and show extensive inequalities between different residues...... mutational properties have on phosphorylation site evolution, showing that a higher degree of evolvability exists for phosphorylated threonine and, to a lesser extent, serine in comparison with tyrosine residues. As exemplified by the suppression of serine's mutational activity in phosphorylation sites, our...

  5. Residual Stresses and Other Properties of Teardrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rios, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duque, Juan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-26

    The Department of Energy’s 3013 Standard for packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage up to fifty years specifies a minimum of two individually welded, nested containers herein referred to as the 3013 outer and the 3013 inner.1 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a potential failure mechanism for 3013 inner containers.2,3 The bagless transfer container (BTC), a 3013 inner container used by Hanford and Savanna River Site (SRS) made from 304L stainless steel (SS), poses the greatest concern for SCC.4,5 The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) use stressed metal samples known as teardrops as screening tools in SCC studies to evaluate factors that could result in cracks in the 3013 containers.6,7 This report provides background information on the teardrops used in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) SMP studies including method of construction, composition and variability. In addition, the report discusses measurements of residual stresses in teardrops and compares the results with residual stresses in BTCs reported previously.4 Factors affecting residual stresses, including teardrop dimensions and surface finish, are also discussed.

  6. Occurrence of pesticide non extractable residues in physical and chemical fractions from two natural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, K.; Jones, K.; Semple, K.

    2009-04-01

    Distribution of pesticide non extractable residues resulted from the incubation of two natural soils with each of the isoproturon, diazinon and cypermethrin pesticide was assessed in this study. Pesticide non extractable residues distribution in soil physical and chemical fractions is known to ultimately affect their fate. This study aimed to address the fate and behaviour of the non extractable residues in the context of their association with soil physical and chemical fractions with varying properties and characteristics. Non extractable residues were formed from incubation of each pesticide in the two natural soils over a period of 24 months. Soils containing the non extractable residues were fractionated into three solid phase fractions using a physical fractionation procedure as follows: Sediment (SED, >20 μm), (II) Microaggregate (MA, 20-2 μm) and (III) Colloid phase (COL, 2-0.05 μm). Each soil fraction was then fractionated into organic carbon chemical fractionations as follows: Fulvic acid (FA), Humic acid (HA) and Humin (HM). Significant amount of the pesticides was lost during the incubation period. Enrichment factors for the organic carbon and the 14C-pesticide residues were higher in the MA and COL fraction rather than the SED fraction. Greater association and enrichment of the fulvic acid fraction of the organic carbon in the soil was observed. Non extractable residues at the FA fraction showed to diminish while in the HA fraction were increased with decreasing the fraction size. An appreciable amount of non extractable residues were located in the HM fraction but this was less than the amount recovered in the humic substances. Long term fate of pesticide non extractable residues in the soil structural components is important in order to assess any risk associated with them.

  7. The physical properties of coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Van Schoor2_2015.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 15563 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Van Schoor2_2015.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 22 2 the physIcAl propert...Ies of coAl Michael van Schoor, Leonie Mare This chapter explains why geophysicists usually want to know as much as possible about the physical properties of the different lithological units in an area before embarking on a geophysical survey. We also...

  8. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  9. Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, George W; Spiess, Hans W

    1999-01-01

    This handbook is a unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of the physics of liquid crystals. In over 500 pages it provides detailed information on the physical properties of liquid crystals as well as the recent theories and results on phase transitions, defects and textures of different types of liquid crystals. An in-depth understanding of the physical fundamentals is a prerequisite for everyone working in the field of liquid crystal research. With this book the experts as well as graduate students entering the field get all the information they need.

  10. Significance of residual stress on fatigue properties of welded pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, A.; Maeda, Y.; Kanao, M.

    1984-01-01

    The mean stress effect on the fatigue properties of two kinds of welded pipes was investigated in cantilever bending. The fatigue strength changed with the mean stress on fillet welded pipes, but did not change on butt welded pipes. The fatigue crack initiated from the toe of weld on the outer surface of fillet welded pipes and from the undercut on the inner surface of butt welded pipes. The measurement of the fatigue crack propagation rate and the residual stress distribution through the thickness of pipe revealed that the difference in the fatigue properties between fillet and butt welded pipes arose from the weld-induced residual stress, tension on the inner surface and compression on the outer surface. It is suggested that the production of compressive residual stress along the inner surface would be an effective means for improving the fatigue strength of butt welded pipes. (author)

  11. Beliefs about emotional residue: the idea that emotions leave a trace in the physical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Kumar, Satishchandra; Naidu, N V R; Dweck, Carol S

    2011-10-01

    Drawing upon the literatures on beliefs about magical contagion and property transmission, we examined people's belief in a novel mechanism of human-to-human contagion, emotional residue. This is the lay belief that people's emotions leave traces in the physical environment, which can later influence others or be sensed by others. Studies 1-4 demonstrated that Indians are more likely than Americans to endorse a lay theory of emotions as substances that move in and out of the body, and to claim that they can sense emotional residue. However, when the belief in emotional residue is measured implicitly, both Indians and American believe to a similar extent that emotional residue influences the moods and behaviors of those who come into contact with it (Studies 5-7). Both Indians and Americans also believe that closer relationships and a larger number of people yield more detectable residue (Study 8). Finally, Study 9 demonstrated that beliefs about emotional residue can influence people's behaviors. Together, these finding suggest that emotional residue is likely to be an intuitive concept, one that people in different cultures acquire even without explicit instruction. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Preservation properties for the discrete mean residual life ordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Al-Babtain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove several preservation properties of stochastic comparisons based on the discrete mean residual life ordering d-MRL under the reliability operations of convolutions, mixtures. Fi…nally we introduce a discrete renewal process application

  13. The physical properties of glycerin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimsanov, B.Kh.; Karimov, M.B.; Khuseynov, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors describe physical properties of glycerin. The pure glycerin presents syrup-vivid insipid transparent solution odorless and sweet on taste. The glycerin is very hygroscopic and can absorb from air till 40% moisture against its mass

  14. Physical properties of polymers handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This book offers concise information on the properties of polymeric materials, particularly those most relevant to physical chemistry and chemical physics. Extensive updates and revisions to each chapter include eleven new chapters on novel polymeric structures, reinforcing phases in polymers, and experiments on single polymer chains. The study of complex materials is highly interdisciplinary, and new findings are scattered among a large selection of scientific and engineering journals. This book brings together data from experts in the different disciplines contributing to the rapidly growing area of polymers and complex materials.

  15. Physical properties of europium sesquioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilchrist, K.E.; Brown, R.G.; Preston, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Europium sesquioxide (Eu 2 O 3 ) is a neutron-absorbing material of potential use in reactor control rods and is being evaluated for use in fast reactors. This paper presents the results of physical and mechanical property measurements performed on unirradiated europia. The material exists in two useful crystallographic forms. Both the monoclinic form and a cubic variety, stabilized by the addition of 17 wt% molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3 ), have been examined. The properties reported are density, specific heat, thermal diffusivity and conductivity, thermal expansivity, Young's modulus, and strength. The data are compared with similar information in the literature. (Auth.)

  16. Effect of Tillage and Mulch Combination on Soil Physical Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tillage method and mulching on selected soil physical properties and performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) was studied in rainforest zone of South West Nigeria. Treatments were 4 x 2 factorial combination of tillage methods (zero tillage, manual clearing, heap, ridge), 12t/ha dry plant residue mulch, and ...

  17. Preparation and Properties of Agricultural Residuals-Iron Concentrate Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhulin; Bi, Xuegong; Gao, Zeping; Wang, Yayu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, carbon-containing pellets were prepared by using crop-derived charcoal made from agricultural residuals and iron ore concentrates, and their pelletizing performance and properties were studied. Experimental results showed that the strengths of pellets were related to the particle size of concentrates and the content of moisture, bentonite, and crop-derived charcoal fines in the pelletizing mixture and the temperature of roasting and reduction. That the granularity of raw materi...

  18. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  19. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearby Supernova Factory; Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gangler, E.; Greskovic, P.; Guy, J.; Kowalski, M.; Lombardo, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.

    2014-01-17

    Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak- brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spec- trophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ? 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at ? 1?, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement the Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.045 ? 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch param- eters: Steps at> 2? significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light- curve width and color around peak (similar to the∆m15 and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20 to 30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  20. Type Ia supernova Hubble residuals and host-galaxy properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Fleury, M.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et des Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Université Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Feindt, U.; Greskovic, P.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Nußallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Childress, M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Université de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2014-03-20

    Kim et al. introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ± 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at <<1σ, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement of the Hubble residual step with the host mass is 0.045 ± 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch parameters: steps at >2σ significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light-curve width and color around peak (similar to the Δm {sub 15} and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20-30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  1. Physical properties and mantle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankland, T.J.; Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.] [and others

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Because planetary interiors are remote, laboratory methods and associated theory are an essential step for interpreting geophysical measurements in terms of quantities that are needed for understanding Earth--temperature, composition, stress state, history, and hazards. One objective is the study of minerals and rocks as materials using experimental methods; another is to develop new methods, as in high pressure research, codes for computation in rock/soil physics, or nuclear-based analysis. Accomplishments include developing a single-crystal x-ray diffraction apparatus with application to materials at extremely high pressure and temperature; P-V-T equations of state and seismic velocity measurements for understanding the composition of Earth`s outer 1,000 km; creating computational tools to explain complex stress-strain histories of rocks; and measuring tungsten/thorium ratios W/Th that agree with the hypothesis that Earth accreted heterogeneously. Work performed in this project applies to geosciences, geothermal energy, mineral and rock properties, seismic detection, and isotope dating.

  2. Physical properties of organic coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbage, A.G.; Garton, D.A.; Kinneir, J.H.

    1963-03-01

    Density, viscosity, specific heat, vapour pressure and calorific value were measured within the temperature range 100 - 400 deg C for mixtures of Santowax R with pyrolytic high boiler and Santowax R with O.M.R.E. radiolytic high boiler; in addition measurements were made on Santowax OM, X-7 standard, X-7 loop coolant and O.M.R.E. coolant supplied by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. The accuracy of the measurements made were density (± 1/4%), viscosity (± 2%), specific heat (± 2%), vapour pressure (± 2%) and calorific value (± 1/2%). Thermal conductivity was calculated from an improved form of the Smiths equation with an accuracy within ± 6%. Equations fitted to the vapour pressure results were used to provide data outside the experimental range for burnout correlation purposes. The general effect of high boiler content on the specific heat and calorific values was small. The differences in physical property values for corresponding values of either pyrolytic or radiolytic high boiler were small for density (0.3%) and specific heat (2%), but quite large for viscosity (70%) with the pyrolytic high boiler mixture giving the higher value. The chemical analysis of all materials was based on gas chromatography and the relationship between this and an earlier distillation method established. (author)

  3. Ammonia emission from crop residues : quantification of ammonia volatilization based on crop residue properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.

  4. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2005-01-01

    Provides detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. This textbook emphasizes understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and features an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems.

  5. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic properties. Th...

  6. Viscoelastic properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rheological properties of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) produced from agricultural residue corn stover were investigated. The corn stover MFC gels exhibited concentration-dependent viscoelastic solid properties. Higher corn stover MFC concentrations resulted in stronger viscoelastic propertie...

  7. Identification of Catalytic Residues Using a Novel Feature that Integrates the Microenvironment and Geometrical Location Properties of Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Song, Jiangning; Liu, Ming S.; Zhang, Ziding

    2012-01-01

    Enzymes play a fundamental role in almost all biological processes and identification of catalytic residues is a crucial step for deciphering the biological functions and understanding the underlying catalytic mechanisms. In this work, we developed a novel structural feature called MEDscore to identify catalytic residues, which integrated the microenvironment (ME) and geometrical properties of amino acid residues. Firstly, we converted a residue's ME into a series of spatially neighboring residue pairs, whose likelihood of being located in a catalytic ME was deduced from a benchmark enzyme dataset. We then calculated an ME-based score, termed as MEscore, by summing up the likelihood of all residue pairs. Secondly, we defined a parameter called Dscore to measure the relative distance of a residue to the center of the protein, provided that catalytic residues are typically located in the center of the protein structure. Finally, we defined the MEDscore feature based on an effective nonlinear integration of MEscore and Dscore. When evaluated on a well-prepared benchmark dataset using five-fold cross-validation tests, MEDscore achieved a robust performance in identifying catalytic residues with an AUC1.0 of 0.889. At a ≤10% false positive rate control, MEDscore correctly identified approximately 70% of the catalytic residues. Remarkably, MEDscore achieved a competitive performance compared with the residue conservation score (e.g. CONscore), the most informative singular feature predominantly employed to identify catalytic residues. To the best of our knowledge, MEDscore is the first singular structural feature exhibiting such an advantage. More importantly, we found that MEDscore is complementary with CONscore and a significantly improved performance can be achieved by combining CONscore with MEDscore in a linear manner. As an implementation of this work, MEDscore has been made freely accessible at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/mepi/. PMID:22829945

  8. Temporal characteristics of aerosol physical properties at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Realizing the importance of aerosol physical properties at the adjoining continental and coastal locations in the airmass pathways onto the oceanic region, extensive measurements of aerosol physical properties were made at Visakhapatnam (17.7°N, 83.3°E), an eastern coastal location in peninsular India during the ICARB ...

  9. Physical properties of organic soils. Chapter 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elon S. Verry; Don H. Boelter; Juhani Paivanen; Dale S. Nichols; Tom Malterer; Avi Gafni

    2011-01-01

    Compared with research on mineral soils, the study of the physical properties of organic soils in the United States is relatively new. A comprehensive series of studies on peat physical properties were conducted by Don Boelter (1959-1975), first at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) and later throughout the northern Lakes States to investigate how to express bulk...

  10. Electroweak properties of particle physics. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.; Ellis, N.; Falvard, A.; Fayard, L.; Frere, J.M.; Kuehn, J.H.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Roudeau, P.; Wormser, G.

    1991-01-01

    The 23th GIf school was held at Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France from 16 to 20 September 1991. The subject was large: Electroweak properties of heavy quarks. The second part has been devoted to B physics at hadron machines, search for Top, Charm particle physics and Quarkonium physics

  11. Physical properties and moisture relations of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Simpson; Anton TenWolde

    1999-01-01

    The versatility of wood is demonstrated by a wide variety of products. This variety is a result of a spectrum of desirable physical characteristics or properties among the many species of wood. In many cases, more than one property of wood is important to the end product. For example, to select a wood species for a product, the value of appearance- type properties,...

  12. Preparation and Properties of Agricultural Residuals-Iron Concentrate Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, carbon-containing pellets were prepared by using crop-derived charcoal made from agricultural residuals and iron ore concentrates, and their pelletizing performance and properties were studied. Experimental results showed that the strengths of pellets were related to the particle size of concentrates and the content of moisture, bentonite, and crop-derived charcoal fines in the pelletizing mixture and the temperature of roasting and reduction. That the granularity of raw materials was fine and the bentonite content increased was beneficial to the improvement of pellet strengths. The suitable molar ratio of carbon to oxygen was 1.0 and the proper proportioning ratios of moisture and binder were 8.0% and 6.5%, respectively. The pellet strengths increased accordingly with increasing the reduction temperature, and when the temperature reached 1200°C, accompanied by the fast reduction of iron and the formation of crystal stock, the dropping strength of product pellets was 15 times and the compressive strength was 1650 N; this may be improved by grinding of the concentrate, leading to acceptable strength for the blast furnace.

  13. Properties of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to use Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DLCR to modify the asphalt binders and mixtures and to evaluate the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixture were analyzed, and the viscoelastic properties of these modified asphalt mixtures were compared to the base asphalt binder SK-90 and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS modified asphalt mixtures. The master curves of the asphalt mixtures were shown, and dynamic and viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt mixtures were described using the Christensen-Anderson-Marasteanu (CAM model. The test results show that the dynamic moduli of DCLR and DCLR-composite asphalt mixtures are higher than those of the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. Based on the viscoelastic parameters of CAM models of the asphalt mixtures, the high- and low-temperature performance of DLCR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are obviously better than the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. In addition, the DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are more insensitive to the frequency compared to SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  14. Residual torsional properties of composite shafts subjected to impact loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevkat, Ercan; Tumer, Hikmet

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact loading reduces the torsional strength of composite shaft. • Impact energy level determines the severity of torsional strength reduction. • Hybrid composite shafts can be manufactured by mixing two types of filament. • Maximum torque capacity of shafts can be estimated using finite element method. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental and numerical study to investigate residual torsional properties of composite shafts subjected to impact loadings. E-glass/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and E-glass–carbon/epoxy hybrid composite shafts were manufactured by filament winding method. Composite shafts were impacted at 5, 10, 20 and 40 J energy levels. Force–time and energy–time histories of impact tests were recorded. One composite shaft with no impact, and four composite shafts with impact damage, five in total, were tested under torsion. Torque-twisting angle relations for each test were obtained. Reduction at maximum torque and maximum twisting angle induced by impact loadings were calculated. While 5 J impact did not cause significant reduction at maximum torque and maximum twisting angle, remaining impact loadings caused 34–67% reduction at maximum torque, and 30–61% reduction at maximum twisting angle. Reductions increased with increasing energy levels and varied depending on the material of composite shafts. The 3-D finite element (FE) software, Abaqus, incorporated with an elastic orthotropic model, was then used to simulate the torsion tests. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results was achieved

  15. Physical properties of thorium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uitert, L.G.; Guggenheim, H.J.; O'Bryan, H.M.; Warner, A.W. Jr.; Brownlow, D.; Bernstein, J.L.; Pasteur, G.A.; Johnson, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    Thorium fluoride has many properties that make it of interest for infrared windows. It is transparent to about eleven microns, is unaffected by moisture, has a moderate hardness, and suffers little dimensional change upon heating

  16. Physically unclonable functions constructions, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maes, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Physically unclonable functions (PUFs) are innovative physical security primitives that produce unclonable and inherent instance-specific measurements of physical objects; in many ways they are the inanimate equivalent of biometrics for human beings. Since they are able to securely generate and store secrets, they allow us to bootstrap the physical implementation of an information security system. In this book the author discusses PUFs in all their facets: the multitude of their physical constructions, the algorithmic and physical properties which describe them, and the techniques required to

  17. Thermal and physical properties of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, O D; Marcotte, M; Sablani, S S; Castaigne, F

    2001-07-01

    This article reviews the measurement techniques, prediction models, and data on thermo-physical properties of bakery products: specific heat, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and density. Over the last decade, investigation has focused more on thermo-physical properties of nonbread bakery products. Both commonly used and new measurement techniques for thermo-physical properties reported in the publication are presented with directions for their proper use. Data and prediction models are tabulated for the range of moisture content and temperature of the bakery products.

  18. Residual Mechanical Properties of Concrete Made with Crushed Clay Bricks and Roof Tiles Aggregate after Exposure to High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miličević, Ivana; Štirmer, Nina; Banjad Pečur, Ivana

    2016-04-19

    This paper presents the residual mechanical properties of concrete made with crushed bricks and clay roof tile aggregates after exposure to high temperatures. One referent mixture and eight mixtures with different percentages of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed bricks and roof tiles are experimentally tested. The properties of the concrete were measured before and after exposure to 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. In order to evaluate the basic residual mechanical properties of concrete with crushed bricks and roof tiles after exposure to high temperatures, ultrasonic pulse velocity is used as a non-destructive test method and the results are compared with those of a destructive method for validation. The mixture with the highest percentage of replacement of natural aggregate by crushed brick and roof tile aggregate has the best physical, mechanical, and thermal properties for application of such concrete in precast concrete elements exposed to high temperatures.

  19. Treatments that enhance physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Peggy Konkol

    1987-01-01

    This paper was prepared for anyone who wants to know more about enhancing wood’s physical properties, from the amateur wood carver to the president of a forest products company. The authors describe chemical and physical treatments of wood that enhance the strength, stiffness, water repellency, and stability of wood. Five types of treatments are described: 1. water-...

  20. Important physical properties of peat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Boelter

    1968-01-01

    Peat materials from 12 bogs in northern Minnesota, U.S.A., showed significant differences in physical properties. It is pointed out that 1) these properties can be related to the hydrology of organic soils only if the soils represent undisturbed field conditions, and 2) volumetric expressions of water content are necessary to correctly evaluate the amount of water in a...

  1. Structure and physical properties of silkworm cocoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fujia; Porter, David; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    Silkworm cocoons have evolved a wide range of different structures and combinations of physical and chemical properties in order to cope with different threats and environmental conditions. We present our observations and measurements on 25 diverse types of cocoons in a first attempt to correlate physical properties with the structure and morphology of the cocoons. These two architectural parameters appear to be far more important than the material properties of the silk fibres themselves. We consider tensile and compressive mechanical properties and gas permeation of the cocoon walls, and in each case identify mechanisms or models that relate these properties to cocoon structure, usually based upon non-woven fibre composites. These properties are of relevance also for synthetic non-woven composite materials and our studies will help formulate bio-inspired design principles for new materials. PMID:22552916

  2. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  3. Fluorescence properties of porcine odorant binding protein Trp 16 residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albani, Jihad Rene, E-mail: Jihad-Rene.Albani@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moleculaire, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2010-11-15

    Summary: The present work deals with fluorescence studies of adult porcine odorant binding protein at pH=7.5. At this pH, the protein is a dimer, each monomer contains one tryptophan residue. Our results show that tryptophan residue displays significant motions and emits with three fluorescence lifetimes. Decay associated spectra showed that the three lifetime's components emanate from sub-structures surrounded by the same microenvironment.

  4. Effects of hyacinth residues on chemical properties and productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an aquatic weed that has blocked many navigable water-ways in the tropics. ... amendments more than S2 and showed that maize performance during the first cropping was better on S1 than S2, whereas during the residual cropping the crop performed equally well on both soils.

  5. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the well-established Fundamentals of Semiconductors serves to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic. Theories are presented to explain experimental results. This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind. Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. The explanations are based on physical insights. Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems. Many of these problems "lead the student by the hand" to arrive at the results. The major changes made in the fourth edition include: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established deep center known as the DX center, additional problems...

  6. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    1996-01-01

    Fundamentals of Semiconductors attempts to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic Theories are presented to explain experimental results This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors The explanations are based on physical insights Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures and problems Many of these problems 'lead the student by the hand' to arrive at the results

  7. Thermo-Physical Properties of Selected Inconel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski P.K.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper brings results of examinations of main thermo-physical properties of selected Inconel alloys, i.e. their heat diffusivity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity, measured in wide temperature range of 20 – 900 oC. Themathematical relationships of the above properties vs. temperature were obtained for the IN 100 and IN 713C alloys. These data can be used when modelling the IN alloys solidification processes aimed at obtaining required structure and properties as well as when designing optimal work temperature parameters.

  8. Physical and Release Properties of Metronidazole Suppositories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: A study was made of the effects of some bases and adjuvants on the physical and release properties of metronidazole suppositories with a view to providing more information for the optimization of the rectal formulation of metronidazole. Method: Suppositories (1g) containing 200mg of metronidazole each were ...

  9. Masking Property Based Residual Acoustic Echo Cancellation for Hands-Free Communication in Automobile Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonjae; Jeong, Seokyeong; Ko, Hanseok

    A residual acoustic echo cancellation method that employs the masking property is proposed to enhance the speech quality of hands-free communication devices in an automobile environment. The conventional masking property is employed for speech enhancement using the masking threshold of the desired clean speech signal. In this Letter, either the near-end speech or residual noise is selected as the desired signal according to the double-talk detector. Then, the residual echo signal is masked by the desired signal (masker). Experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method by deriving the echo return loss enhancement and by examining speech waveforms and spectrograms.

  10. Heavy residue properties in intermediate energy nuclear collisions with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1990-10-01

    We have measured the target fragment production cross sections and angular distributions for the interaction of 32, 44 and 93 MeV/nucleon argon, 35 and 43 MeV/nucleon krypton with gold. The fragment isobaric yield distributions, moving frame angular distributions and velocities have been deduced from these data. This fission cross section decreases with increasing projectile energy and the heavy residue cross section increases. The ratio v parallel /v cn increases approximately linearly with mass removed from the target. 21 refs., 8 figs

  11. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  12. Physical Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquette from Oil Palm Residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) and Mesocarp Fibre (MF) were used for the production of fuel briquettes in this study in order to supplement the energy mix of the nation. PKS was pulverized and then ... and industrial applications. Keywords: Palm kernel shell; Mesocarp fibre; Briquette; Biomass solid fuel; proximate analysis.

  13. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-03-25

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  14. Elaboration of construction materials from mineral residues, properties and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.

    2003-01-01

    The introduction in 1887 of the leaching process of metals, using the sodium cyanides revolutionized the techniques for the obtaining of gold and silver. Starting from then it is a method used in the entire world for the recovery of these and other metals. The mining activity generates the accustomed to residuals known popularly like 'jales' (voice derived nahuatl of the xalli that means sand). An important case, is it related with those 'jales' whose pyre content (FeS 2 ) it is high and wherefore they are subject to chemical reactions, caused by the intemperateness in 'jales'. Before this panorama, it is important to process the 'jales' to use them for the construction. (Author)

  15. Physical properties of the planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Pamela E.

    1988-01-01

    The global physical properties of Mercury are summarized with attention given to its figure and orbital parameters. The combination of properties suggests that Mercury has an extensive iron-rich core, possibly with a still-functioning dynamo, which is 42 percent of the interior by volume. Mercury's three major axes are comparable in size, indicating that the planet is a triaxial ellipsoid rather than an oblate spheroid. In terms of the domination of its surface by an intermediate plains terrane, it is more Venus- or Mars-like; however, due to the presence of a large metallic magnetic core, its interior may be more earth-like.

  16. Determination of properties of clean coal technology post-process residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities of using modern measuring devices to determine the properties of process residues (Polish acronym: UPP. UPP was taken from the combustion process from a power plant in Silesia. Determining the properties of UPP is the basis for making decisions about its practical application, for example, as a raw material to obtain useful products such as: pozzolan, cenosphere or zeolite, for which there is demand. The development of advanced technology and science has given rise to modern and precise research tools that contribute to the development of appropriate methods to assess the properties of post-process residue. For this study the following were used: scanning electron microscope with EDS microanalysis and an analyzer for particle size-, shape- and number- analysis. The study conducted confirms the effectiveness of SEM analysis to determine the properties of post-process residue from Clean Coal Technologies (CCT. The results obtained are an introduction to further research on the determination of properties of CCT post-process residue. Research to determine the properties of CCT post-process residue only began relatively recently.

  17. F-Canyon Sludge Physical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R.; Hansen, P. R.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-08-22

    The Site Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the 800 underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks). To support this effort, D&D requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to determine the pertinent physical properties to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (Tanks 804, 808, and 809). SDD provided SRNL with samples of the sludge from Tanks 804, 808, and 809. The authors measured the following physical properties for each tank: particle settling rate, shear strength (i.e., settled solids yield stress), slurry rheology (i.e., yield stress and consistency), total solids concentration in the sludge, soluble solids concentration of the sludge, sludge density, and particle size distribution.

  18. IMPROVING PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RAPE BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kiernicki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The researches on the use of biodiesel and fuel derived from waste plastics are presented in the paper. Biodiesel and fuel obtained from waste plastics were both used as fuel components. FAME is a bio-admixture in the fuel. The catalytic cracking of polyolefin was the source of second fuel admixture. The physical properties of the analyzed components of fuel have been presented. The operational parameters of direct injection in diesel engines fuelled by tested fuel blends was set out. The preparation of the fuel mixture was also described. The concept of the diesel fuel which is made from the components of opposite physical properties could have a positive practical effect and could improve the use of biofuels.

  19. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOYBEAN (A RESEARCH REPORT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    ABSTRACT. Physical properties of linear dimensions, sphericity and solid density of four different varieties of dry mature soybean were determined in this study. For the varieties - TGX1768-6F,. TGX-1681-3F, TGX-536-02D, and TGX-1740-3F, the mean sphericity are 0.745, 0.857, 0.830, and 0.829 respectively. It is shown ...

  20. Flash pyrolysis properties of algae and lignin residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg

    of macroalgae showed a promising result with on yield of 54 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 78% energy recovery in the bio-oil. The physiochemical properties of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to higher heating value, molecular mass distribution, viscosity, pH, density and elemental compositions...

  1. Direct and residual effects of manure on soil chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastri, A.; Triberti, L.; Giordani, G.; Comellini, F.; Baldoni, G.

    2009-04-01

    The beneficial effects of manure recycling in cropland on soil fertility are well documented. Nowadays it can help sequestrate C in the soil organic matter, advocated to mitigate the atmospheric CO2 increase. Because of the gradual disappearance of conventional livestock farming in Western Europe, the study of the persistence of the positive effects of manuring after its interruption can be interesting. Any research on soil fertility dynamic, however, requires long-term experiments because it is quite slow and greatly influenced by weather. A field trial, started in 1966 and still in progress in the Experimental Farm of Bologna University, compares 5 crop rotations (a 9-year course: corn-wheat-corn-wheat-corn-wheat-alfalfa-alfalfa-alfalfa, corn-wheat and sugarbeet-wheat, continuous corn and continuous wheat), at 3 levels of cattle manure supply combined with 3 inorganic NP fertilizers rates in a split-split plot replicated twice. The soil is an alluvial silty loam, fertile but low in organic matter (13.3 g kg-1). Manure is spread before corn, sugarbeet and alfalfa, at a mean yearly rate of 0 (M0), 20 (M1) and 40 (M2) t ha-1 of fresh material. Since 1984 M2 has been interrupted to evaluate residual effects. Regarding mineral fertilizer rates, for this study we considered only the unfertilized control (N0P0) and N1P1 level, corresponding to a mean yearly application of 220 kg N ha-1 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Each year, since 1972 till now, we have sampled soil in the ploughed layer (0-0.4 m) to assess its pH (in water) and its content of organic carbon (SOC, Lotti method), total nitrogen (TN, Kjeldahl) and available phosphorus (P2O5, Olsen). To reduce the influence of crops and weather, statistical analyses were conducted on the averages of data obtained in the 4-year periods at the end of four 9-year cycles (1972-75, 81-84, 90-93 and 99-02). In 30 years, the continuous M1 supply without any inorganic integration increased SOC, TN and P2O5 by +3.6 t ha-1 (+11%), +1.09 t

  2. Occurrence of non extractable pesticide residues in physical and chemical fractions of two soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Kostas; Semple, Kirk; Jones, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Soils are considered to be a significant sink for organic contaminants, including pesticides, in the environment. Understanding the distribution and localisation of aged pesticide residues in soil is of great importance for assessing the mobility and availability of these chemicals in the environment. This study aimed to characterise the distribution of radiolabeled herbicide isoproturon and the radiolabeled insecticides diazinon and cypermethrin in two organically managed soils. The soils were spiked and aged under laboratory conditions for 17 months. The labile fraction of the pesticides residues was recovered in CaCl2 (0.01M) and then subjected to physical size fractionation using sedimentation and centrifugation steps, with >20μm, 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm soil factions collected. Further, the distribution of the pesticide residues in the organic matter of the fractionated soil was investigated using a sequential alkaline extraction (0.1N NaOH) into humic and fulvic acid and humin. Soil fractions of 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm had the largest burden of the 14C-residues. Different soil constituents have different capacities to form non-extractable residues. Soil solid fractions of 20-2 µm and 20 µm). Fulvic acid showed to play a vital role in the formation and stabilisation of non-extractable 14C-pesticide residues in most cases.Assessment of the likelihood of the pesticide residues to become available to soil biota requires an understanding of the structure of the SOM matrix and the definition of the kinetics of the pesticide residues in different SOM pools as a function of the time.

  3. Physical and Frictional Properties of NERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and frictional properties of the seeds and husks of New Rice for Africa (NERICA were studied at varying moisture contents of 13%, 17%, and 20% (w.b. In the study, four varieties of NERICA namely; FARO 44, FARO 51, FARO 52 and FARO 57 were selected to represent the different size ranges common to NERICA. The physical properties of NERICA such as shape, size, volume, moisture contents, density, weights, surface area, aspect ratio and sphericity were obtained through physical measurement of the grains samples of each of the four varieties. Results of the physical measurements indicate that the size ranges for the varieties are as follows: FARO 44; 3.653mm to 3.858mm, FARO 51; 3.685mm to 3.916mm, FARO 52; 3.674mm to 3.863mm and FARO 57; 3.924mm to 4.019mm. Results of the frictional properties, shows that plywood material has the highest value of 28.4(1.36 = 33.0(1.41, 29.9(1.38 = 35.2(1.45 and 30.4(1.28 = 37.6(1.51 at 13%, 17% and 20% (w.b respectively, while plastic material has the lowest coefficient of friction value of 20.8(1.21 = 17.7(1.14, 19.4(1.17 = 21.8(1.24 and 21.3(1.24 = 22.9(1.26 at 13%, 17% and 20% (w.b respectively.

  4. Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbide residue (CCR is a waste by-product from acetylene gas production. The main component of CCR is Ca(OH2, which can react with siliceous materials through pozzolanic reactions, resulting in a product similar to those obtained from the cement hydration process. Thus, it is possible to use CCR as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete. In this research, we synthesized CCR and silica fume through a chemical combustion technique to produce a new reactive cementitious powder (RCP. The properties of paste and mortar in fresh and hardened states (setting time, shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% cement replacement by RCP were evaluated. The hydration of RCP and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement pastes was also examined through SEM (scanning electron microscope. Test results showed that in comparison to control OPC mix, the hydration products for the RCP mix took longer to formulate. The initial and final setting times were prolonged, while the drying shrinkage was significantly reduced. The compressive strength at the age of 45 days for RCP mortar mix was found to be higher than that of OPC mortar and OPC mortar with silica fume mix by 10% and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the synthesized RCP was proved to be a sustainable active cementitious powder for the strength enhanced of building materials, which will result in the diversion of significant quantities of this by-product from landfills.

  5. 31 CFR 544.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 544.204 Section 544.204 Money and Finance: Treasury... maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property. (a) Except as otherwise authorized..., all expenses incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to § 544.201(a) shall...

  6. 31 CFR 543.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 543.204 Section 543.204 Money and Finance: Treasury... physical property; liquidation of blocked property. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding... to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to § 543.201(a) shall be the responsibility...

  7. 31 CFR 547.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 547.204 Section 547.204 Money and Finance: Treasury... maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property. (a) Except as otherwise authorized..., all expenses incident to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to § 547.201(a) shall...

  8. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  9. Corrosion and physical properties of microalloyed rebar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico). Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico]|[UNAM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Hernandez, G.; Carpio, J.J. [Univ. Autonoma de Campeche, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico). Programa de Corrosion del Golfo de Mexico; Arganis, C. [Inst. Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Salazar (Mexico)

    1995-06-01

    The modifications of the Construction Code of Mexico City after the 1985 earthquakes included a recommendation to use low-alloy rebar as a first option for the reinforced-concrete buildings; main structural components. The first Mexican specification of low-alloy concrete rebar of weldable grade and optimal mechanical response during plastic deformation caused by earthquakes was issued in 1987. Reported here are the results of a comparative study of features of standard and microalloyed rebar considering physical and electrochemical properties of these materials embedded in plain and chloride-contaminated concrete.

  10. Physical Properties of the Glycoprotein Mucin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Garrett; Davis, William; Superfine, Richard; Boucher, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Epithelial cell surfaces are covered by a protective gel known as mucus. The physiological function of this gel depends on its rheological properties, and these properties are largely derived from the secreted glycoprotein mucin. The genetic disease Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is characterized by the adhesion of thick, viscous mucus on these tissues. In the lungs, this results in the interruption of mucus transport thus compromising the first line of defense against pathogens in these tissues. In order to restore the flow of tracheobronchial mucus out of the body, knowledge of the molecular and physical properties of mucin and mucin solutions would be greatly beneficial. The present model for these molecules is that of a long linear strand consisting of highly glycosylated regions linked by cystein-rich globular regions. It is thought that the globular regions may interact either through intermolecular disulfide bonds or through hydrophobic interactions. It has also been speculated that the glycosylated regions may have lectin-like interactions. In the present work, single mucin molecules were imaged at high resolution using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Phase mode imaging was used to map the interactions between functionalized AFM tips and the molecular topography. Additionally, using force-distance curves with the AFM, the adhesion between mucin bound tips and cell surface glycocalyx and glycocalyx-like model surfaces, was measured. And, finally, the viscoelastic properties of mucin solutions were measured using the recently developed technique, single particle tracking microrheology. A model is being developed that will incorporate the properties of mucins beginning at the single molecule and ending with the bulk viscoelastic properties.

  11. Symmetry and physical properties of crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Malgrange, Cécile; Schlenker, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Crystals are everywhere, from natural crystals (minerals) through the semiconductors and magnetic materials in electronic devices and computers or piezoelectric resonators at the heart of our quartz watches to electro-optical devices. Understanding them in depth is essential both for pure research and for their applications. This book provides a clear, thorough presentation of their symmetry, both at the microscopic space-group level and the macroscopic point-group level. The implications of the symmetry of crystals for their physical properties are then presented, together with their mathematical description in terms of tensors. The conditions on the symmetry of a crystal for a given property to exist then become clear, as does the symmetry of the property. The geometrical representation of tensor quantities or properties is presented, and its use in determining important relationships emphasized. An original feature of this book is that most chapters include exercises with complete solutions. This all...

  12. Chemistry and physical properties of estolides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbell, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Estolides are a developing class of natural and synthetic compounds that have been synthesized from hydroxy oils like castor and lesquerella or by the condensation of fatty acids across the olefin of a second fatty acid. Castor and lesquerella estolides are derived from either their triglycerides or their free fatty acids utilizing their hydroxyl moiety to establish the estolide bond. The triglyceride estolides have pour points of 9 to -36 degrees centigrade but suffer poor oxidative stability with RPVOT times of 29 - 52 minutes even with 1% of an anti-oxidant package incorporated into the samples. In contrast to the triglyceride estolides of castor and lesquerella, the estolides from lesquerolic and ricinoleic acids have very good pour points of -36 to - 54 degrees centigrade. Estolides derived from the acid catalyzed condensation of oleic acid with a variety of fatty acids can be made in good yield and posses a wide range of physical properties. Of particular interest are the saturated capped estolides of oleic that have both good low temperature properties (pour point -5 to -39 degrees centigrade) and good oxidative stability. Estolides from meadow foam fatty acids do not have good low temperature properties but have been extensively used in cosmetics where they provide good moisturizing properties. (Author).

  13. Influence of Surface Properties and Impact Conditions on Adhesion of Insect Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Smith, Joseph G.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Shanahan, Michelle H.; Penner, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Insect residues can cause premature transition to turbulent flow on laminar flow airfoils. Engineered surfaces that mitigate the adhesion of insect residues provide, therefore, a route to more efficient aerodynamics and reduced fuel burn rates. Areal coverage and heights of residues depend not only on surface properties, but also on impact conditions. We report high speed photography of fruit fly impacts at different angles of inclination on a rigid aluminum surface, optical microscopy and profilometry, and contact angle goniometry to support the design of engineered surfaces. For the polyurethane and epoxy coatings studied, some of which exhibited superhydrophobicity, it was determined that impact angle and surface compositions play critical roles in the efficacy of these surfaces to reduce insect residue adhesion.

  14. Selected physical properties of various diesel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaváčová, Zuzana; Božiková, Monika; Hlaváč, Peter; Regrut, Tomáš; Ardonová, Veronika

    2018-01-01

    The quality determination of biofuels requires identifying the chemical and physical parameters. The key physical parameters are rheological, thermal and electrical properties. In our study, we investigated samples of diesel blends with rape-seed methyl esters content in the range from 3 to 100%. In these, we measured basic thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, using two different transient methods - the hot-wire method and the dynamic plane source. Every thermophysical parameter was measured 100 times using both methods for all samples. Dynamic viscosity was measured during the heating process under the temperature range 20-80°C. A digital rotational viscometer (Brookfield DV 2T) was used for dynamic viscosity detection. Electrical conductivity was measured using digital conductivity meter (Model 1152) in a temperature range from -5 to 30°C. The highest values of thermal parameters were reached in the diesel sample with the highest biofuel content. The dynamic viscosity of samples increased with higher concentration of bio-component rapeseed methyl esters. The electrical conductivity of blends also increased with rapeseed methyl esters content.

  15. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MCU SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-03-19

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone., Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of MCU (Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit) saltstone relative to two permeating fluids. These fluids included simulated groundwater equilibrated with vault concrete and simulated saltstone pore fluid. Samples of the MCU saltstone were prepared by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and allowed to cure for twenty eight days prior to testing. These samples included two three-inch diameter by six inch long mold samples and three one-inch diameter by twelve inch long mold samples.

  16. Physical Properties of Silicone Gel Breast Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Mark L; Bengtson, Bradley P; Smither, Kate; Nuti, Gina; Perry, TracyAnn

    2018-04-28

    Surgical applications using breast implants are individualized operations to fill and shape the breast. Physical properties beyond shape, size, and surface texture are important considerations during implant selection. Compare form stability, gel material properties, and shell thickness of textured shaped, textured round, and smooth round breast implants from 4 manufacturers: Allergan, Mentor, Sientra, and Establishment Labs through bench testing. Using a mandrel height gauge, form stability was measured by retention of dimensions on device movement from a horizontal to vertical supported orientation. Dynamic response of gel material (gel cohesivity, resistance to gel deformation, energy absorption) was measured using a synchronized target laser following application of graded negative pressure. Shell thickness was measured using digital thickness gauge calipers. Form stability, gel material properties, and shell thickness differed across breast implants. Of textured shaped devices, Allergan Natrelle 410 exhibited greater form stability than Mentor MemoryShape and Sientra Shaped implants. Allergan Inspira round implants containing TruForm 3 gel had greater form stability, higher gel cohesivity, greater resistance to gel deformation, and lower energy absorption than those containing TruForm 2 gel and in turn, implants containing TruForm 1 gel. Shell thickness was greater for textured versus smooth devices, and differed across styles. Gel cohesivity, resistance to gel deformation, and energy absorption are directly related to form stability, which in turn determines shape retention. These characteristics provide information to aid surgeons choosing an implant based on surgical application, patient tissue characteristics, and desired outcome.

  17. Physical properties of beryllium oxide - Irradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elston, J.; Caillat, R.

    1958-01-01

    This work has been carried out in view of determining several physical properties of hot-pressed beryllium oxide under various conditions and the change of these properties after irradiation. Special attention has been paid on to the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal diffusivity coefficient. Several designs for the measurement of the thermal conductivity coefficient have been achieved. They permit its determination between 50 and 300 deg. C, between 400 and 800 deg. C. Some measurements have been made above 1000 deg. C. In order to measure the thermal diffusivity coefficient, we heat a perfectly flat surface of a sample in such a way that the heat flux is modulated (amplitude and frequency being adjustable). The thermal diffusivity coefficient is deduced from the variations of temperature observed on several spots. Tensile strength; compressive strength; expansion coefficient; sound velocity and crystal parameters have been also measured. Some of the measurements have been carried out after neutron irradiation. Some data have been obtained on the change of the properties of beryllium oxide depending on the integrated neutron flux. (author) [fr

  18. Influence of the inherent properties of drinking water treatment residuals on their phosphorus adsorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; He, Liansheng; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption on five drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) collected from different regions in China. The physical and chemical characteristics of the five WTRs were determined. Combined with rotated principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the inherent properties of the WTRs and their P adsorption capacities. The results showed that the maximum P adsorption capacities of the five WTRs calculated using the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4.17 to 8.20mg/g at a pH of 7 and further increased with a decrease in pH. The statistical analysis revealed that a factor related to Al and 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Al (Alox) accounted for 36.5% of the variations in the P adsorption. A similar portion (28.5%) was attributed to an integrated factor related to the pH, Fe, 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe (Feox), surface area and organic matter (OM) of the WTRs. However, factors related to other properties (Ca, P and 5 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe and Al) were rejected. In addition, the quantity of P desorption was limited and had a significant negative correlation with the (Feox+Alox) of the WTRs (p<0.05). Overall, WTRs with high contents of Alox, Feox and OM as well as large surface areas were proposed to be the best choice for P adsorption in practical applications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pickenheim, B. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); BIBLER, N. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-09

    This document has been revised to add analytical data for fresh, 1 year old, and 4 year old glycolic acid as recommended in Revision 2 of this document. This was needed to understand the concentration of formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid, impurities present in the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments. Based on this information, the concentration of these impurities did not change during storage. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in the first two versions of this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends.

  20. Alternative Gas Mixtures in Arc Spraying: A Chance to Improve Coating Properties and Residual Stress States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Michél; Henkel, Knuth Michael; Krebs, Sebastian; Kroemmer, Werner

    2018-01-01

    The highly cavitation erosion-resistant propeller alloys CuAl9Ni5Fe4Mn (Ni-Al-Bronze) and CuMn13Al8Fe3Ni2 (Mn-Al-Bronze) were arc-sprayed using a mixture of nitrogen and 2% of hydrogen as atomizing gas and different traverse speeds. The objective was to identify the influences of the different spraying conditions, such as temperature regime and melting loss, on the resulting residual stress states and coating properties. Residual stresses were measured by the incremental hole-drilling method using ESPI. Temperature measurements were carried out by thermographic imaging. Microstructural, chemical and mechanical analyses were realized to examine adhesive and cohesive properties. Additionally, the cavitation erosion behavior was investigated to analyze cohesive coating properties. The spraying process itself was improved, which was apparent by mainly enhanced deposition efficiency and reduced surface temperatures. The amount of oxides and pores as well as the melting loss of alloying elements were reduced. Moreover, an increased cavitation erosion resistance and thus coating cohesion as well as less residual stresses were identified. The change in atomizing gas diminished the impact of the quenching stresses on the coating properties. In contrast, the adhesive strength, Young's moduli and partially the hardness were slightly reduced. With regard to materials, Ni-Al-Bronze revealed superior coating properties in comparison with Mn-Al-Bronze.

  1. Feasibility of Residual Stress Nondestructive Estimation Using the Nonlinear Property of Critical Refraction Longitudinal Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual stress has significant influence on the performance of mechanical components, and the nondestructive estimation of residual stress is always a difficult problem. This study applies the relative nonlinear coefficient of critical refraction longitudinal (LCR wave to nondestructively characterize the stress state of materials; the feasibility of residual stress estimation using the nonlinear property of LCR wave is verified. The nonlinear ultrasonic measurements based on LCR wave are conducted on components with known stress state to calculate the relative nonlinear coefficient. Experimental results indicate that the relative nonlinear coefficient monotonically increases with prestress and the increment of relative nonlinear coefficient is about 80%, while the wave velocity only decreases about 0.2%. The sensitivity of the relative nonlinear coefficient for stress is much higher than wave velocity. Furthermore, the dependence between the relative nonlinear coefficient and deformation state of components is found. The stress detection resolution based on the nonlinear property of LCR wave is 10 MPa, which has higher resolution than wave velocity. These results demonstrate that the nonlinear property of LCR wave is more suitable for stress characterization than wave velocity, and this quantitative information could be used for residual stress estimation.

  2. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-05

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of residual sericin on the structural characteristics and properties of regenerated silk films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Song, Dae Woong; Park, Young Hwan; Um, In Chul

    2016-08-01

    Regenerated silk film has been increasingly attracting the research community's attention for biomedical applications due to its good biocompatibility and excellent cyto-compatibility. However, some limitations regarding its mechanical properties, such as brittleness, have restricted the use of silk films for industrial biomedical applications. In this study, regenerated silk films with different residual sericin content were prepared applying controlled degumming conditions to evaluate the effect of sericin content on the structure and properties of the films generated. When the residual sericin content increased to 0.6%, crystallinity index and breaking strength of silk films were increased. Above this value, these parameters then decreased. A 1.5 fold increase of silk film elongation properties was obtained when incorporating 16% sericin. Regardless of sericin content, all regenerated silk films showed excellent cyto-compatibility, comparable to the one obtained with tissue culture plates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Property of char from fast pyrolysis of direct coal liquefaction residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jian-guang; Fang Yi-tian; Zhang Yong-qi; Li Chun-yu; Wang Yang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Coal liquefaction residue was fast pyrolyzed in a fixed-bed reactor and slow pyrolyzed in thermal blance under N{sub 2} atmosphere. The influence of final temperature, residence time and particle size on char property was examined. It is found that final temperature and reside time are the dominant factors on flash pyrolysis. With the final temperature increasing, the char yields decrease and the char becomes crisper and less reactive. Less char yields and more porous char are obtained as the residence time becomes longer. At the same time, char yield reduces as the residual particle size becomes smaller in a large size range. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. CO2 Separation and Capture Properties of Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Leather Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arenillas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonaceous porous materials derived from leather skin residues have been found to have excellent CO2 adsorption properties, with interestingly high gas selectivities for CO2 (α > 200 at a gas composition of 15% CO2/85% N2, 273K, 1 bar and capacities (>2 mmol·g−1 at 273 K. Both CO2 isotherms and the high heat of adsorption pointed to the presence of strong binding sites for CO2 which may be correlated with both: N content in the leather residues and ultrasmall pore sizes.

  6. CO2 Separation and Capture Properties of Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Leather Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, José M.; Dominguez, Pablo Haro; Arenillas, Ana; Cot, Jaume; Weber, Jens; Luque, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Carbonaceous porous materials derived from leather skin residues have been found to have excellent CO2 adsorption properties, with interestingly high gas selectivities for CO2 (α > 200 at a gas composition of 15% CO2/85% N2, 273K, 1 bar) and capacities (>2 mmol·g−1 at 273 K). Both CO2 isotherms and the high heat of adsorption pointed to the presence of strong binding sites for CO2 which may be correlated with both: N content in the leather residues and ultrasmall pore sizes. PMID:28788352

  7. Physical properties of Al-R melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, V.; Gornov, O.; Bykov, V.; Son, L.; Ryltsev, R.; Uporov, S.; Shevchenko, V.; Kononenko, V.; Shunyaev, K.; Ilynykh, N.; Moiseev, G.; Kulikova, T.; Sordelet, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present experimental data of physical properties (viscosity, surface tension, magnetic susceptibility and electroresistivity) studies for Al-R (R = Ce, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Yb and Y) alloys and first intermetallic compounds from aluminum side, Al 11 R 3 (Al 3 R). All properties were measured during heating up to 2000 K and the following cooling down under helium atmosphere. The main results are: (1) the electronic characteristics of the objects are in good correlation with R positions in the periodic table, but rather lower than for pure elements. The conclusion is that through all investigated temperature range, the rare-earth elements have partly covalent but not only metallic states; (2) all the melts remain strongly microheterogeneous even at high overheatings above liquidus. The existence of associations with Al 2 R type is highly probable here. Some destruction of these associations takes place with increasing temperature above melting point at the composition of Al 2 R compound. However, the transformation into true solution state is somewhere above 1900 K. To check the idea, the thermodynamic modeling of the melts was performed. It was shown that associates with Al 2 R type are stable up to 2000 K

  8. 31 CFR 548.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 548.204 Section 548.204 Money and Finance: Treasury... property; liquidation of blocked property. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding the... maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to § 548.201(a) shall be the responsibility of the owners or...

  9. 31 CFR 546.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... physical property; liquidation of blocked property. 546.204 Section 546.204 Money and Finance: Treasury... property; liquidation of blocked property. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and notwithstanding the... maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to § 546.201(a) shall be the responsibility of the owners or...

  10. Glycolic acid physical properties and impurities assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D. P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickenheim, B. R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bibler, N. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hay, M. S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-08

    This document has been revised due to recent information that the glycolic acid used in Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) experiments contains both formaldehyde and methoxyacetic acid. These impurities were in the glycolic acid used in the testing included in this report and in subsequent testing using DuPont (now called Chemours) supplied Technical Grade 70 wt% glycolic acid. However, these impurities were not reported in earlier revisions. Additional data concerning the properties of glycolic acid have also been added to this report. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is planning to implement a nitric-glycolic acid flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates during Sludge Batch 9. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in Technical Grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.033 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H2 and cause an adverse effect in the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process. It has been cited that glycolic acid

  11. Effects of heating durations on normal concrete residual properties: compressive strength and mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Shahidan, Shahiron; Khaida Baharuddin, Nur; Beddu, Salmia; Hisyam Abu Bakar, Badorul

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of high temperature with five different heating durations on residual properties of 30 MPa normal concrete. Concrete cubes were being heated up to 600°C for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The temperature will keep constant for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. The standard temperature-time curve ISO 834 is referred to. After heating the specimen were left to cool in the furnace and removed. After cooling down to ambient temperature, the residual mass and residual compressive strength were observed. The obtained result shows that, the compressive strength of concrete decrease as the heating duration increases. This heating duration influence, might affects the loss of free water present and decomposition of hydration products in concrete. As the heating duration increases, the amount of water evaporated also increases led to loss in concrete mass. Conclusively, the percentage of mass and compressive strength loss increased as the heating duration increased.

  12. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical Properties of Moringa ( Moringa oleifera ) Seeds in relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical properties are very important in the design and manufacturing of processing machines. In this research work, the physical properties of Moringa were determined as design parameters for the development of an oil expeller for the crop. The properties were: length, width, thickness, arithmetic and geometric ...

  14. Changes in some physical properties of a typic haplorthox in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the impacts of different crop rotations on soil physical properties is needed to identify those with the potential to improve such properties which enhance crops´ responses to soil nutrients. The effects of eight crop rotations on physical properties of a Rhodic Ferralsol (Typic Haplorthox) were assessed in ...

  15. 40 CFR 716.50 - Reporting physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical properties. Studies of physical and chemical properties must be reported under this subpart if... they investigated one or more of the following properties: (a) Water solubility. (b) Adsorption... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting physical and chemical...

  16. Spectra and physical properties of Taurid meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlovič, Pavol; Tóth, Juraj; Rudawska, Regina; Kornoš, Leonard

    2017-09-01

    Taurids are an extensive stream of particles produced by comet 2P/Encke, which can be observed mainly in October and November as a series of meteor showers rich in bright fireballs. Several near-Earth asteroids have also been linked with the meteoroid complex, and recently the orbits of two carbonaceous meteorites were proposed to be related to the stream, raising interesting questions about the origin of the complex and the composition of 2P/Encke. Our aim is to investigate the nature and diversity of Taurid meteoroids by studying their spectral, orbital, and physical properties determined from video meteor observations. Here we analyze 33 Taurid meteor spectra captured during the predicted outburst in November 2015 by stations in Slovakia and Chile, including 14 multi-station observations for which the orbital elements, material strength parameters, dynamic pressures, and mineralogical densities were determined. It was found that while orbits of the 2015 Taurids show similarities with several associated asteroids, the obtained spectral and physical characteristics point towards cometary origin with highly heterogeneous content. Observed spectra exhibited large dispersion of iron content and significant Na intensity in all cases. The determined material strengths are typically cometary in the KB classification, while PE criterion is on average close to values characteristic for carbonaceous bodies. The studied meteoroids were found to break up under low dynamic pressures of 0.02-0.10 MPa, and were characterized by low mineralogical densities of 1.3-2.5 g cm-3. The widest spectral classification of Taurid meteors to date is presented.

  17. Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlare, M; Pell, M; Svensson, K

    2008-01-01

    A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates corresponding to 100kgNha(-1)year(-1). The effects of the different types of organic waste were evaluated by subjecting soil samples, taken each autumn 4 weeks after harvest, to an extensive set of soil chemical (pH, Org-C, Tot-N, Tot-P, Tot-S, P-AL, P-Olsen, K-AL, and some metals) and microbiological (B-resp, SIR, microSIR active and dormant microorganisms, PDA, microPDA, PAO, Alk-P and N-min) analyses. Results show that compost increased pH, and that compost as well as sewage sludge increased plant available phosphorus; however, the chemical analysis showed few clear trends over the 4 years and few clear relations to plant yield or soil quality. Biogas residues increased substrate induced respiration (SIR) and, compared to the untreated control amendment of biogas residues as well as compost, led to a higher proportion of active microorganisms. In addition, biogas residues increased potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO), nitrogen mineralization capacity (N-min) as well as the specific growth rate constant of denitrifiers (microPDA). Despite rather large concentrations of heavy metals in some of the waste products, no negative effects could be seen on either chemical or microbiological soil properties. Changes in soil microbial properties appeared to occur more rapidly than most chemical properties. This suggests that soil microbial processes can function as more sensitive indicators of short-term changes in soil properties due to amendment of organic wastes.

  18. Physical properties of molten carbonate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, T.; Yanagida, M.; Tanimoto, K. [Osaka National Research Institute (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Recently many kinds of compositions of molten carbonate electrolyte have been applied to molten carbonate fuel cell in order to avoid the several problems such as corrosion of separator plate and NiO cathode dissolution. Many researchers recognize that the addition of alkaline earth (Ca, Sr, and Ba) carbonate to Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} eutectic electrolytes is effective to avoid these problems. On the other hand, one of the corrosion products, CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion is found to dissolve into electrolyte and accumulated during the long-term MCFC operations. This would affect the performance of MCFC. There, however, are little known data of physical properties of molten carbonate containing alkaline earth carbonates and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. We report the measured and accumulated data for these molten carbonate of electrical conductivity and surface tension to select favorable composition of molten carbonate electrolytes.

  19. Crop residue management and fertilization effects on soil organic matter and associated biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingzi; Zhang, Jiabao; Yu, Yueyue; Karlen, Douglas L; Hao, Xiying

    2016-09-01

    Returning crop residue may result in nutrient reduction in soil in the first few years. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether this negative effect is alleviated by improved crop residue management (CRM). Nine treatments (3 CRM and 3 N fertilizer rates) were used. The CRM treatments were (1) R0: 100 % of the N using mineral fertilizer with no crop residues return; (2) R: crop residue plus mineral fertilizer as for the R0; and (3) Rc: crop residue plus 83 % of the N using mineral and 17 % manure fertilizer. Each CRM received N fertilizer rates at 270, 360, and 450 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). At the end of the experiment, soil NO3-N was reduced by 33 % from the R relative to the R0 treatment, while the Rc treatment resulted in a 21 to 44 % increase in occluded particulate organic C and N, and 80 °C extracted dissolved organic N, 19 to 32 % increase in microbial biomass C and protease activity, and higher monounsaturated phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA):saturated PLFA ratio from stimulating growth of indigenous bacteria when compared with the R treatment. Principal component analysis showed that the Biolog and PLFA profiles in the three CRM treatments were different from each other. Overall, these properties were not influenced by the used N fertilizer rates. Our results indicated that application of 17 % of the total N using manure in a field with crop residues return was effective for improving potential plant N availability and labile soil organic matter, primarily due to a shift in the dominant microorganisms.

  20. Chemistry and physical properties of estolides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbell, Terry A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Estolides are a developing class of natural and synthetic compounds that have been synthesized from hydroxy oils like castor and lesquerella or by the condensation of fatty acids across the olefin of a second fatty acid. Castor and lesquerella estolides are derived from either their triglycerides or their free fatty acids utilizing their hydroxyl moiety to establish the estolide bond. The triglyceride estolides have pour points of 9 to –36ºC but suffer poor oxidative stability with RPVOT times of 29 – 52 minutes even with 1% of an anti-oxidant package incorporated into the samples. In contrast to the triglyceride estolides of castor and lesquerella, the estolides from lesquerolic and ricinoleic acids have very good pour points of –36 to –54ºC. Estolides derived from the acid catalyzed condensation of oleic acid with a variety of fatty acids can be made in good yield and posses a wide range of physical properties. Of particular interest are the saturated capped estolides of oleic that have both good low temperature properties (pour point –5 to – 39ºC and good oxidative stability. Estolides from meadowfoam fatty acids do not have good low temperature properties but have been extensively used in cosmetics where they provide good moisturizing properties.

    Los estólidos son una familia de compuestos sintetizados a partir de aceites hidroxilados como los de ricino o lesquerella o mediante la condensación de ácidos grasos sobre el doble enlace de un segundo ácido graso insaturado. Los estólidos de ricino y lesquerela se derivan tanto de sus triglicéridos como de sus ácidos grasos libres empleándose el residuo hidroxilo para formar los ésteres estólidos de los mismos. Los triglicéridos estólidos tienen puntos de fluidez crítica de entre 9 y -36ºC y baja estabilidad, con tiempos de oxidación en recipiente vacío a presión (RPVOT de entre 29 y 52 minutos incluso con la adición de un 1% de una mezcla antioxidante a las

  1. Physical properties of 5 root canal sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui-min; Shen, Ya; Zheng, Wei; Li, Li; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH change, viscosity and other physical properties of 2 novel root canal sealers (MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC) in comparison with 2 epoxy resin-based sealers (AH Plus and ThermaSeal), a silicone-based sealer (GuttaFlow), and a zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer (Pulp Canal Sealer). ISO 6876/2001 specifications were followed. The pH change of freshly mixed and set sealers was evaluated during periods of 1 day and 5 weeks, respectively. The viscosity was investigated at different injection rates (72, 10, and 5 mm/min) at room temperature by using a syringe-based system that was based on the Instron 3360 series universal testing system. The flow, dimensional change, solubility, and film thickness of all the tested sealers were in agreement with ISO 6876/2001 recommendations. The MTA Fillapex sealer exhibited a higher flow than the Endosequence BC sealer (P pH at all times. The pH of fresh samples of the AH Plus and ThermaSeal sealers was alkaline at first but decreased significantly after 24 hours. The viscosity of the tested sealers increased with the decreased injection rates. The tested sealers were pseudoplastic according to their viscosities as determined in this study. The MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC sealers each possessed comparable flow and dimensional stability but higher film thickness and solubility than the other sealers tested. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Mechanical Properties and Residual Stress in API 5L X80 Steel Welded Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Lins, Amilton; de Souza, Luís Felipe Guimarães; Fonseca, Maria Cindra

    2018-01-01

    The use of high-strength and low-alloy steels, high design factors and increasingly stringent safety requirements have increased the operating pressure levels and, consequently, the need for further studies to avoid and prevent premature pipe failure. To evaluate the possibility of improving productivity in manual arc welding of this type of steel, this work characterizes the mechanical properties and residual stresses in API 5L X80 steel welded joints using the SMAW and FCAW processes. The residual stresses were analyzed using x-ray diffraction with the sin2 ψ method at the top and root of the welded joints in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the weld bead. The mechanical properties of the welded joints by both processes were characterized in terms of tensile strength, impact toughness and Vickers microhardness in the welded and shot peening conditions. A predominantly compressive residual stress was found, and shot peening increased the tensile strength and impact toughness in both welded joints.

  3. RESIDUAL PROPERTIES OF FIBER-REINFORCED REFRACTORY COMPOSITES WITH A FIRECLAY FILLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Jogl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to develop a composite material for industrial use that is resistant to the effect of high temperatures. The binder system based on aluminous cement was modified by adding finely-ground ceramic powder and metakaolin to reduce costs and also to reduce adverse effects on the environment due to high energy consumption for cement production. Additives were applied as a partial aluminous cement replacement in doses of 10, 20 and 30% by weight. The composites were evaluated on the basis of their mechanical properties and their bulk density after gradual temperature loading. The influence of basalt fibers and modifications to the binder system were studied at the same time. Basalt fibers were applied in doses of 0.5% and 2.0% by volume. The results confirmed the potential of the mineral additives studied here for practical applications, taking into account the residual mechanical parameters after thermal loading. The addition of ceramic powder reduced the bulk density by 5% for each 10% of cement substitution, but the residual values were very similar. The bulk density and the compressive strength were reduced when basalt fibers were applied, and the flexural strength was significantly increased in proportion to the fiber dosages. Metakaolin seems to be a more suitable additive than the ceramic powder that was applied here, because there was a significant increase in the mechanical parameters and also in the residual values of all properties that were studied.

  4. Properties of sintered glass-ceramics prepared from plasma vitrified air pollution control residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roether, J A; Daniel, D J; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D E; Cheeseman, C R; Boccaccini, A R

    2010-01-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues, obtained from a major UK energy from waste (EfW) plant, processing municipal solid waste, have been blended with silica and alumina and melted using DC plasma arc technology. The glass produced was crushed, milled, uni-axially pressed and sintered at temperatures between 750 and 1150 degrees C, and the glass-ceramics formed were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical properties assessed included Vickers's hardness, flexural strength, Young's modulus and thermal shock resistance. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 950 degrees C. This produced a glass-ceramic with high density (approximately 2.58 g/cm(3)), minimum water absorption (approximately 2%) and relatively high mechanical strength (approximately 81+/-4 MPa). Thermal shock testing showed that 950 degrees C sintered samples could withstand a 700 degrees C quench in water without micro-cracking. The research demonstrates that glass-ceramics can be readily formed from DC plasma treated APC residues and that these have comparable properties to marble and porcelain. This novel approach represents a technically and commercially viable treatment option for APC residues that allow the beneficial reuse of this problematic waste.

  5. Application of backpropagation neural networks to evaluate residual properties of thermally damaged concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, W.L.; Shigaki, Y.; Tolentino, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this work it was analyzed the residual performance of Portland cement concretes, when cold after heat-treated up to 600 deg C. Granite-gneiss was used in the three concrete mix proportions as the coarse aggregate, and river sand with finesses modulus of 2.7 as the fine aggregate. Ultrasonic pulse tests were performed on all the specimens and ultrasonic dynamic modulus were obtained. An artificial neural network of the backpropagation type was trained to evaluate and apply models in predicting residual properties of Portland cement concretes. The input layer for both models consists of an external layer input vector of the temperature. The hidden layer has two processing units with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer functions (tansig for short), and the output layer contains one processing unit that represents the network's output (ultrasonic pulse velocity or modulus of elasticity) for each input vector. The training phase of the network converged for reasonable results after 5.000 epochs approximately, resulting in mean squared errors less than 0.02 for the normalized data. The neural network developed for modeling residual properties of Portland cement concretes was shown to be efficient in both the training phase and the test. From the results reasonable predictions could be made for the ultrasonic pulse velocity or dynamic modulus of elasticity by using temperature. (author)

  6. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of ozone treatment on chemical and physical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gluten, glutenin and gliadin. Methods: Wheat proteins isolated from wheat flour were treated with ozone gas. The physical and chemical properties of gluten proteins were investigated after treatment ...

  7. Structural and physical properties of Sm doped magnesium zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-22

    Sep 22, 2017 ... and physical properties of prepared glass samples were characterized. The X-ray diffraction pattern verified their amorphous nature. The physical properties such as density, refractive index, molar volume, rare earth ion concentration, etc. were ..... We are grateful to UTM and Ministry of Education for the.

  8. Atomic structure and physical properties of liquid Pb Bi alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, I.; Hoyer, W.; Plevachuk, Yu; Sklyarchuk, V.

    2004-09-01

    The atomic structure and physical properties (dynamic viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermopower) of liquid Pb-Bi alloys have been investigated in a wide temperature range. Gradual and reversible changes of the physical properties during heating and cooling of the Pb-Bi liquid alloys have been observed. No drastic structural transformations or atomic rearrangement with temperature variation have been found.

  9. Influence of substrate temperature on certain physical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of substrate temperature on certain physical properties and antibacterial activity of nanocrystalline Ag-doped In 2 O 3 thin films ... films were subjected to various characterization studies, to explore certain features like the influence of various deposition temperatures on physical and antibacterial properties.

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of the Physical and Chemical Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical and chemical properties of tamarind seeds (Tamarindus indica L.) in Nigeria were investigated. Tamarind fruits were randomly collected from 18 towns in the savannah region of Nigeria. The seeds were manually separated from the pulp and membranes, sun-dried and the physical properties determined.

  11. Proximate, Physical And Sensory Properties Of Soy-Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flour mixtures consisting of full-fat soy flour and sweet potato flour at 25-75% levels were used in cookie production. Proximate, physical and sensory properties of the cookies were determined. Physical and sensory properties investigated included thickness, diameter, spread factor, spread ratio, fragility, appearance, ...

  12. Residual Stress Induced Mechanical Property Enhancement in Steel Encapsulated Light Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudger, Sean James

    Macro hybridized systems consisting of steel encapsulated light metal matrix composites (MMCs) were produced with the goal of creating a low cost/light weight composite system with enhanced mechanical properties. MMCs are frequently incorporated into advanced material systems due to their tailorable material properties. However, they often have insufficient ductility for many structural applications. The macro hybridized systems take advantage of the high strength, modulus, and damage tolerance of steels and high specific stiffness and low density of MMCs while mitigating the high density of steels and the poor ductility of MMCs. Furthermore, a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch induced residual compressive stress method is utilized as a means of improving the ductility of the MMCs and overall efficiency of the macro hybridized systems. Systems consisting of an A36, 304 stainless steel, or NitronicRTM 50 stainless steel shell filled with an Al-SiC, Al-Al2O3, or Mg-B4C MMC are evaluated in this work. Upon cooling from processing temperatures, residual strains are generated due to a CTE mismatch between each of the phases. The resulting systems offer higher specific properties and a more structurally efficient system can be attained. Mechanical testing was performed and improvements in yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and ductility were observed. However, the combination of these dissimilar materials often results in the formation of intermetallic compounds. In certain loading situations, these typically brittle intermetallic layers can result in degraded performance. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) are utilized to characterize the intermetallic layer formation at the interface between the steel and MMC. As the residual stress condition in each phase has a large impact on the mechanical property improvement, accurate quantification of these strains/stresses is

  13. Universal size dependence of the physical properties of nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, E. N.; Yurov, V. M.; Guchenko, S. A.; Laurynas, V. Ch

    2017-06-01

    Dimensional analysis of the experimentally observed dependence of the physical properties of nanoparticles, nanofilms and nanomaterials showed that there is a universal equation that accurately describes the observed size effects. It is shown that the size factor is also a universal value and is determined only by the atomic structure of the nanomaterial. Discovered universal relationships enable us to calculate the physical properties (mechanical, electrical, magnetic, thermal, etc.) of small particles and thin films based on knowledge of the properties of bulk materials.

  14. Mechanical and physical properties of plasma-sprayed stabilized zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemers, P. A.; Mehan, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties were determined for plasma-sprayed MgO- or Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings. Properties were determined for the ceramic coating in both the freestanding condition and as-bonded to a metal substrate. The properties of the NiCrAlY bond coating were also investigated.

  15. Complexity and the Emergence of Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Fuentes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the effective complexity measure, proposed by M. Gell-Mann and S. Lloyd, we give a quantitative definition of an emergent property. We use several previous results and properties of this particular information measure closely related to the random features of the entity and its regularities.

  16. Physical properties of organic fullerene cocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macovez, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The basic facts and fundamental properties of binary fullerene cocrystals are reviewed, focusing especially on solvates and salts of Buckminsterfullerene (C60), and hydrates of hydrophilic C60 derivatives. The examined properties include the lattice structure and the presence of orientational disorder and/or rotational dynamics (of both fullerenes and cocrystallizing moieties), thermodynamic properties such as decomposition enthalpies, and charge transport properties. Both thermodynamic properties and molecular orientational disorder shed light on the extent of intermolecular interactions in these binary solid-state systems. Comparison is carried out also with pristine fullerite and with the solid phases of functionalized C60. Interesting experimental findings on binary fullerene cocrystals include the simultaneous occurrence of rotations of both constituent molecular species, crystal morphologies reminiscent of quasi-crystalline behaviour, the observation of proton conduction in hydrate solids of hydrophilic fullerene derivatives, and the production of super-hard carbon materials by application of high pressures on solvated fullerene crystals.

  17. CHANGE OF CHOSEN SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHERNOZEM AFTER SEVEN YEARS OF NO-TILL SOIL CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarna Hrckov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil physical properties were investigated in two types of growing systems - integrated no-till system and conventional system with ploughing, in 1999 2005 on chernozem in maize growing region. Bulk density decreased and total porosity increased during 7 years in both growing systems. In integrated system the improvement of soil physical properties could be explained by remaining of plant residues on soil surface. In conventional system the plant residues were incorporated into soil by ploughing. This led to the higher proportion of organic matter in soil. Soil cultivated conventionally had significantly higher value of reduced bulk density, significantly lower porosity and significantly higher values of soil moisture compared to soil in integrated no-till system. Maximum capillary water capacity was not significantly influenced by soil cultivation. Values of investigated soil physical properties in both systems were not markedly different from the typical values of cultivated chernozem.

  18. Dielectric Properties of Zinc Oxide Leach Residues Relevant to Microwave Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifeng; Luo, Zhumei; Chen, Junruo; Zhang, Libo; Liu, Peng

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the first study on dielectric properties of zinc oxide leach residues (ZOLR) relating to microwave drying. Dielectric properties of ZOLR were measured by cylindrical cavity perturbation method. The three-dimensional response surface plots show that both the dielectric constant and the loss factor of ZOLR tend to decline while the penetration depth of the microwave energy in ZOLR increases in the process of microwave drying. The largest penetration depth of microwave energy in ZOLR is 50 mm. The results obtained from the experiments are useful not only in developing large-scale industrial microwave drying system but also in numerical simulating of the distribution of the temperature field of ZOLR.

  19. Role of mineral matrix composition and properties in the transformation of corn residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pinskiy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the composition and properties of the mineral matrix in soils on the humification of corn residues was studied. The substrate (silica sand, loam, silica sand + 10% bentonite, or silica sand + 30% kaolinite was mixed with 10% corn residues (milled to 3–5 mm and incubated under stationary conditions for 6–19 months. Sampling for the analysis was performed every month, and a few times in the first month. The dynamics of mineralization and humification of plant residues was studied by applying elemental and bulk analyses of neogenic organic matter (OM, densitometric fractionation of substrates, FTIR spectroscopy, solid-phase 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with an electron microprobe. It was shown that the humification processes had a wavelike character for loam and sand substrates, which could be explained by the transformation of the microorganism populations together with the change in the amount and quality of OM in the system. The main mechanism for the stabilization of neogenic OM was adsorption on a mineral matrix with formation of relatively resistant compounds. This adsorption can be selective, depending on the composition and properties of the mineral matrix. The FTIR and 13C-NMR analyses of OM distribution in different substrates and densitometric fractions showed that sand and heavy fractions (HF >2.2 g/cm3 were enriched with compounds of an aromatic nature and polypeptides. Light fractions (LF-2, 1.4–2.2 g/cm3 accumulated compounds that also contained alkyl and carboxyl groups. The sandy substrate and HF have higher aromaticity indices than LF-2. Higher aromaticity index values of humus substances in the sandy substrate and HF in the loamy substrate, compared to LF-2, evidenced the formation of steady aromatic compounds, in which there may be kernels of humic acids (HA. We do not exclude the possibility of the matrix synthesis of the HA-like substances.

  20. Contribution of cysteine residue to the properties of Listeria monocytogenes listeriolysin O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Radosław; Wiśniewski, Jarosław; Osińska, Olga; Bielecki, Jacek

    2009-10-01

    Listeriolysin (LLO) is the key virulence factor critical for Listeria monocytogenes pathogenesis. Listerial cytolysin belongs to the family of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), a group of pore-forming toxins produced by related gram-positive bacteria. Most CDCs contain a cysteine residue in the conserved undecapeptide - a sequence that is highly preserved among this group of proteins. Substitutions of cysteine do not always lead to loss of hemolytic activity, questioning the purpose of such strong conservation of this amino acid in the sequence of CDC. The properties of 3 L. monocytogenes strains, a wild type and 2 mutants expressing modified LLO within the cysteine residue, were analyzed in this work. The first of these mutants producing a toxin with cysteine to alanine substitution showed similar features to the wild type except that a thiol-reducing agent was not necessary for hemolytic activity. Another strain secreting LLO containing serine instead of cysteine exhibited strikingly different properties than the wild type. Modified toxin is independent of the reducing reagents, less stable, and shows accelerated kinetics of cytolysis in comparison with the unchanged protein. However, both mutant strains are less invasive in the cell culture model showing the important role of cysteine in L. monocytogenes virulence.

  1. Modelling of physical properties - databases, uncertainties and predictive power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    Physical and thermodynamic property in the form of raw data or estimated values for pure compounds and mixtures are important pre-requisites for performing tasks such as, process design, simulation and optimization; computer aided molecular/mixture (product) design; and, product-process analysis...... in the estimated/predicted property values, how to assess the quality and reliability of the estimated/predicted property values? The paper will review a class of models for prediction of physical and thermodynamic properties of organic chemicals and their mixtures based on the combined group contribution – atom...

  2. 10428 PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    beta carotene contents increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the level of substitution increased. The standard recorded ... Key words: Cookies, sweet potato, mango mesocarp, physical, Chemical, Sensory, Beta carotene ... baking powder and eggs were purchased from Wurukum Market, Makurdi, Benue State. Preparation of ...

  3. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  4. Impacts of land leveling on lowland soil physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Parfitt, José Maria Barbat; Timm, Luís Carlos; Reichardt, Klaus; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The practice of land leveling alters the soil surface to create a uniform slope to improve land conditions for the application of all agricultural practices. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impacts of land leveling through the magnitudes, variances and spatial distributions of selected soil physical properties of a lowland area in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; the relationships between the magnitude of cuts and/or fills and soil physical properties after the leveling pro...

  5. Creep and residual mechanical properties of cast superalloys and oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Tensile, stress-rupture, creep, and residual tensile properties after creep testing were determined for two typical cast superalloys and four advanced oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. The superalloys examined included the nickel-base alloy B-1900 and the cobalt-base alloy MAR-M509. The nickel-base ODS MA-757 (Ni-16CR-4Al-0.6Y2O3 and the iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 (Fe-20Cr-5Al-0.8Y2O3) were extensively studied, while limited testing was conducted on the ODS nickel-base alloys STCA (Ni-16Cr-4.5Al-2Y2O3) with a without Ta and YD-NiCrAl (Ni-16Cr-5Al-2Y2O3). Elevated temperature testing was conducted from 114 to 1477 K except for STCA and YD-NiCrAl alloys, which were only tested at 1366 K. The residual tensile properties of B-1900 and MAR-M509 are not reduced by prior creep testing (strains at least up to 1 percent), while the room temperature tensile properties of ODS nickel-base alloys can be reduced by small amounts of prior creep strain (less than 0.5 percent). The iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 does not appear to be susceptible to creep degradation at least up to strains of about 0.25 percent. However, MA-956 exhibits unusual creep behavior which apparently involves crack nucleation and growth.

  6. Thermal and physiochemical properties of pellets with power aims made of sawmill residual product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova Treto, Pedro; Solis, Kattia; Carrillo, Tonny

    2017-01-01

    Sawmill residual product of Pylon (Hyeronima alchorneoides) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp) species was used to produce pellets under different conditions of densification. Experimental equipment was used to determine the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat. Physicochemical properties of the pellets obtained under different conditions of densification, such as ash content and calorific value were determined. The content of nitrogen, chlorine and sulfur present in the material used to produce the pellets was estimated. Thermal conductivity values were determined between 0,253 W/m·K and 0,279 W/m·K; 1,748 m2 /s and 2,314 m2 /s for the thermal diffusivity, and in the case of specific heat were determined values between 3,019 kJ/kg·K and 2,183 kJ/kg·K. The high heat values was between 18 907 kJ/kg and 18 960 kJ/kg. An ash content of 1,31% was determined on a dry basis. Finally, the content of nitrogen, chlorine and sulfur determined in the residual biomass used, corresponds to 0,1129%, 0,0592 % and 0,0317%, respectively. A direct relationship between increasing the bulk density of the pellets and the thermal properties was determined. The calorific value and the ash content had a negligible effect due to the treatments applied. The estimated content of N, Cl and S corresponds to that expected in the selected biomass. Comparison of the properties of the pellets produced under the conditions studied -densification, against regulations-, showed acceptable results, entering these in terms of different categories of quality. (author) [es

  7. Synthesis and Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals: An Interdisciplinary Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Gerald R.; Karukstis, Kerry K.; Hanhan Li; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Cosand, Andrew J.; Fox, Marja M.

    2005-01-01

    A study involves multiple chemistry and physics concepts applied to a state of matter that has biological relevance. An experiment involving the synthesis and physical properties of liquid crystals illustrates the interdisciplinary nature of liquid crystal research and the practical devices derived from such research.

  8. Let Students Discover an Important Physical Property of a Slinky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gash, Philip

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a simple experiment that lets first-year physics and engineering students discover an important physical property of a Slinky. The restoring force for the fundamental oscillation frequency is provided only by those coils between the support and the Slinky center of mass.

  9. Evaluation of anatomical and physical properties of Khaya nthotheca

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anatomical and physical properties of Khaya anthotheca (Welw.) C. DC wood from the transition forest of middle altitude (zone 1) and the humid dense forest of low altitude (zone 2) in the East of the Democratic Republic of Congo were evaluated to ascertain the effect of growth area on the anatomical and physical ...

  10. Physical Properties of Climbing Black Pepper ( Piper nigrum ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass, density and moisture loss of climbing pepper were significantly affected by drying temperature and duration at 5% level of significance. Other climbing pepper physical properties under study were not influenced significantly. All alligator pepper properties considered were not significant (p > 0.05). Climbing pepper ...

  11. Physical, Chemical and Sensory Properties of Baked Products from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AYBWEP) were processed into bread and cookies in the following ratios: 100: 0; 95: 5; 90: 10; 85: 15; 80: 20. The proximate composition, physical, chemical properties and sensory properties of bread and cookies samples from the blends were ...

  12. Impact of UV radiation on the physical properties of polypropylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence of simulated sun light radiation (xenon lamp) on physical properties of polypropylene (PP) nonwoven material, which is used for the production of agrotextiles. The research showed that the properties of row cover change when radiated with UV light. Tensile, tearing ...

  13. Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils under Contrasting Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The soil chemical properties studied were soil pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available P, exchangeable base (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+) and exchangeable acidity (H+ and Al3+). The physical properties were aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, water dispersible clay and clay flocculation index. Two fractions of ...

  14. Prediction of thermo-physical properties of liquid formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Conte, Elisa; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to give an overview of the models, methods and tools that may be used for the estimation of liquid formulated products. First a classification of the products is given and the thermo-physical properties needed to represent their functions are listed. For each...... property, a collection of the available models are presented according to the property type and the model type. It should be noted, however, that the property models considered or highlighted in this chapter are only examples and are not necessarily the best and most accurate for the corresponding property....

  15. Life cycle of soil sggregates: from root residue to microbial and physical hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Or, D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil aggregation is a physical state of soil in which clumps of primary soil particles are held together by biological and/or chemical cementing agents. Aggregations plays important role in storage and movement of water and essential gases, nutrient cycling, and ultimately supporting microbial and plant life. It is also one of the most dynamic and sensitive soil qualities, which readily responds to disturbances such as cultivation, fire, drought, flooding, and changes in vegetation. Soil aggregation that is primarily controlled by organic matter generally exhibits hierarchical organization of soil constituents into stable units that range in size from a few microns to centimeters. However, this conceptual model of soil aggregation as the key unifying mechanism remains poorly quantified and is rarely included in predictive soil models. Here we provide a biophysical framework for quantitative and predictive modeling of soil aggregation and its attendant soil characteristics. The framework treats aggregates as hotspots of biological, chemical and physical processes centered around roots and root residue. We keep track of the life cycle of an individual aggregate from it genesis in the rhizosphere, fueled by rhizodeposition and mediated by vigorous microbial activity, until its disappearance when the root-derived resources are depleted. The framework synthesizes current understanding of microbial life in porous media; water holding and soil binding capacity of biopolymers; and environmental controls on soil organic matter dynamics. The framework paves a way for integration of processes that are presently modeled as disparate or poorly coupled processes, including storage and protection of carbon, microbial activity, greenhouse gas fluxes, movement and storage of water, resistance of soils against erosion.

  16. Influence of the microstructural changes and induced residual stresses on tensile properties of wrought magnesium alloy friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commin, Loreleï; Dumont, Myriam; Rotinat, René; Pierron, Fabrice; Masse, Jean-Eric; Barrallier, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study of AZ31 FSW mechanical behaviour. ► Early yielding occurs in the TMAZ, the nugget and base metal zones undergo almost no plastic strains. ► Texture gradient in the TMAZ localises the deformations in this area. ► Residual stresses have a major influence in FSW mechanical behaviour. - Abstract: Friction stir welding induces a microstructural evolution and residual stresses that will influence the resulting mechanical properties. Friction stir welds produced from magnesium alloy hot rolled plates were studied. Electron back scattered diffraction was used to determine the texture evolution, residual stresses were analysed using X ray diffraction and tensile tests coupled with speckle interferometry were performed. The residual stresses induced during friction stir welding present a major influence on the final mechanical properties.

  17. Biochar from different residues on soil properties and common bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isley Cristiellem Bicalho da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The production of biochar from organic residues promises to be an interesting strategy for the management of organic waste. To assess the effect of biochar on soil properties and the production and nutrition of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., three simultaneous experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with different biochar from organic residues (rice husk, sawdust, and sorghum silage used as filtration material for swine biofertilizer. In each experiment the treatments consisted of five different biochar concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 L m−3, arranged in a completely randomized design, with four repetitions. In the experiments, the use of biochar increased soil pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrient availability in the soil, and nutrient accumulation in grains. The biochar concentrations corresponding to the maximum production of grain dry matter of bean plants were 100, 68, and 71 L m−3 for biochar from rice husk filter (BRHF, biochar from sawdust filter (BSF, and biochar from sorghum silage filter (BSSF, respectively.

  18. Winery solid residue revalorization into oil and antioxidant with nutraceutical properties by an enzyme assisted process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, P; Moure, A; Soto, C; Chamy, R; Zúñiga, M E

    2005-01-01

    Revalorization of the winery industry residue, grape seed is studied for the production of an oil and defatted meal with nutraceutical properties. Conventional grape seed oil extraction process is carried out by pressing at high temperature affecting the product quality. Oil extraction by cold pressing improves product quality, but it gives a low oil yield. Oil extracted is increased at the pressing stage, when an enzymatic pre-treatment is incorporated in to the conventional process. The yield is determined by determining the residual oil in the pressed cake. Using an enzymatic treatment during 9 hours at 45 degrees C and 50% of moisture, with a mixture of two commercial enzymes grape seed oil extraction yield by cold pressing is raised up to 72%, being a 59.4% increment in comparison to the yield obtained by the control, without enzymes. The defatted meal by enzimatic assisted process improves its phenolic compounds between 2 and 4 times, depending on the conditions of phenolics extraction in comparison to the control samples.

  19. On the evolution of local material properties and residual stress in a three-pass SA508 steel weld

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, A. F.; Francis, J. A.; Dai, H.; Turski, M.; Hurrell, P. R.; Bate, S. K.; Kornmeier, J. R.; Withers, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    In multi-pass welds, the development of residual stress generally depends on the response of the weld metal, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and nearby parent material to complex thermo-mechanical cycles. Here, the evolution of local material properties and residual stress was investigated for each of these zones during the manufacture of a three-pass groove weld in SA508 steel. Residual stress distributions were measured by neutron diffraction for a sample in which only one weld bead had been depos...

  20. High Temperature Exposure of HPC – Experimental Analysis of Residual Properties and Thermal Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlík Zbyšek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high temperature exposure on properties of a newly designed High Performance Concrete (HPC is studied in the paper. The HPC samples are exposed to the temperatures of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1000°C respectively. Among the basic physical properties, bulk density, matrix density and total open porosity are measured. The mechanical resistivity against disruptive temperature action is characterised by compressive strength, flexural strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity. To study the chemical and physical processes in HPC during its high-temperature exposure, Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA is performed. Linear thermal expansion coefficient is determined as function of temperature using thermodilatometry (TDA. In order to describe the changes in microstructure of HPC induced by high temperature loading, MIP measurement of pore size distribution is done. Increase of the total open porosity and connected decrease of the mechanical parameters for temperatures higher than 200 °C were identified.

  1. Involvement of alanine 103 residue in kinetic and physicochemical properties of glucose isomerases from Streptomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Rhimi, Moez; Bejar, Samir

    2007-02-01

    The Ala103 to Gly mutation, introduced within the glucose isomerase from Streptomyces sp. SK (SKGI) decreased its catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) toward D-glucose from 7.1 to 3 mM(-1) min(-1). The reverse counterpart replacement Gly103Ala introduced into the glucose isomerase of Streptomyces olivochromogenes (SOGI) considerably improved its catalytic efficiency to be 6.7 instead of 3.2 mM(-1) min(-1). This later mutation also increased the half-life time of the enzyme from 70 to 95 min at 80 degrees C and mainly modified its pH profile. These results provide evidence that the residue Ala103 plays an essential role in the kinetic and physicochemical properties of glucose isomerases from Streptomyces species.

  2. Study of Chromium Multilayers Properties Obtained by Pulsed Current Density: Residual Stress and Microhardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta TORRES-GONZÁLEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromium multilayers deposits were obtained from three different bath solutions, they were prepared by switching current density between 10 and 70 Adm-2. Two temperatures were studied, 35°C and 55°C. At 35°C two different microstructures are alternated: columnar obtained at 10 Adm-2 and equiaxial obtained at 70 Adm-2. At 55°C only the columnar type microstructure is present, at 10 and 70 Adm-2, the only difference among the layers is a slight disorientation of grains. The properties of these chromium multilayers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. In general the deposits are microcracked with a high microhardness, high residual stress and a small grain size.

  3. Prediction and measurement of relieved residual stress by the cryogenic heat treatment for Al6061 alloy: mechanical properties and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dae Hoon; Ko, Dae Cheol; Kim, Byung Min; Lim, Hak Jin; Lee, Jung Min

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to predict the residual stress resulting from the cryogenic heat treatment (CHT) which affects the mechanical properties and microstructure for Al6061 alloy. The CHT is very effective method to reduce the residual stress by quenching media such as liquid nitrogen, boiling water and steam. In this study, experimental T6 and CHT are carried out to measure the temperature of Al parts and to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient. This coefficient is used to predict the residual stress during FE-simulation. In order to consider the relaxation of residual stress during artificial ageing, the Zener-Wert-Avrami function with elasto-plastic nonlinear analysis is used in this study. The predicted residual stress is compared with the measured one by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and is found to be in good agreement with results of the FE-simulation. Further, after T6 and CHT, the electrical conductivity and hardness of the Al6061 alloy are measured to estimate the mechanical properties and its microstructure such as precipitates is observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, the creation of precipitates during T6 and CHT are verified by XRD with component analysis. It is found that CHT affects the residual stress, mechanical properties, and precipitation of the Al 6061 alloy.

  4. PREDICTION OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RORAIMA SOILS BY NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson E. Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils testing are time consuming and costly to operate, and can generate as high toxicity residues for the people or environment. Near Infrared Spectroscopy is one good alternative to replace conventional techniques, because it is fast – 60 seconds by sample, without producing residues and applicable to all soil properties, like physics and chemical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the NIR technique in quantifying various Roraima soil properties. Eighty-four soil samples collected in XI RCC soil profiles were analyzed for K and Na available, organic carbon, total nitrogen, Si, Fe and Al oxides and sand and clay contents by conventional and NIR techniques. NIR spectra were obtained in the range of 10000 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1, with spectral resolution of 4 cm-1. With the all bands were adjusted by calibration and validation models submitted to pre-treatments with the purpose of reducing the noise effect and the absence of linearity. Except in relation to the available K, calibration models had R2 values for calibration and validation above 80% for all other soil properties tested. It is concluded that the NIR technique had good predictive capacity of the soil properties tested, and can be used for any variable whose interpretation is obtained based on continuous value intervals. Keywords: soil testing; green chemistry; Amazon.

  5. Chalk: composition, diagenesis and physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2007-01-01

    entry pressure, and elastic moduli are consequences of primary sediment composition and of subsequent diagenetic history as caused by microbial action, burial stress, temperature, and pore pressure. Porosity is a main determining factor for other properties. For a given porosity, the specific surface...... of burial, and over-pressuring. These factors cause the stress, temperature and pore-pressure to increase at different rates during burial in different localities....... of the sediment controls permeability and capillary entry pressure. As diagenesis progresses, the specific surface is less and less due to the calcite component and more and more due to the fine-grained silicates, as a reflection of the coarsening and cementation of the calcite crystals. The elastic moduli, which...

  6. A physically-motivated model describing the dynamic interactions between residual limb and socket in lower limb prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noll Veronika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The amputee’s well-being and mobility are distinclty related to socket fit and resulting biomechanical interaction between residual limb and prosthetic socket. Understanding the dynamic interactions at the interface may lead to new socket standards. This paper introduces a physically-motivated reduced model of the interface, describing the dynamic interactions between residual limb and prosthetic socket. The model allows to investigate the sensitivity to changes of specific parameters in an isolated matter. A simulation study shows how stress distribution changes if friction coefficients are varied which might advance liner design.

  7. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negassa, Wakene C; Guber, Andrey K; Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Marsh, Terence L; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S-18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75-80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g(-1) soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g(-1) soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  8. Properties of soil pore space regulate pathways of plant residue decomposition and community structure of associated bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakene C Negassa

    Full Text Available Physical protection of soil carbon (C is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i decomposition of added plant residue, (ii CO2 emission from soil, and (iii structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S-18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm pores, 75-80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g(-1 soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g(-1 soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of

  9. Properties of Soil Pore Space Regulate Pathways of Plant Residue Decomposition and Community Structure of Associated Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negassa, Wakene C.; Guber, Andrey K.; Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Marsh, Terence L.; Hildebrandt, Britton; Rivers, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Physical protection of soil carbon (C) is one of the important components of C storage. However, its exact mechanisms are still not sufficiently lucid. The goal of this study was to explore the influence of soil structure, that is, soil pore spatial arrangements, with and without presence of plant residue on (i) decomposition of added plant residue, (ii) CO2 emission from soil, and (iii) structure of soil bacterial communities. The study consisted of several soil incubation experiments with samples of contrasting pore characteristics with/without plant residue, accompanied by X-ray micro-tomographic analyses of soil pores and by microbial community analysis of amplified 16S–18S rRNA genes via pyrosequencing. We observed that in the samples with substantial presence of air-filled well-connected large (>30 µm) pores, 75–80% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 1,200 µm C g-1 soil, and movement of C from decomposing plant residue into adjacent soil was insignificant. In the samples with greater abundance of water-filled small pores, 60% of the added plant residue was decomposed, cumulative CO2 emission constituted 2,000 µm C g-1 soil, and the movement of residue C into adjacent soil was substantial. In the absence of plant residue the influence of pore characteristics on CO2 emission, that is on decomposition of the native soil organic C, was negligible. The microbial communities on the plant residue in the samples with large pores had more microbial groups known to be cellulose decomposers, that is, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes, while a number of oligotrophic Acidobacteria groups were more abundant on the plant residue from the samples with small pores. This study provides the first experimental evidence that characteristics of soil pores and their air/water flow status determine the phylogenetic composition of the local microbial community and directions and magnitudes of soil C

  10. Study on the properties of chromium residue-cement matrices (CRCM) and the influences of superplasticizers on chromium(VI)-immobilising capability of cement matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui-Sheng; Kan, Li-Li

    2009-03-15

    The study of cementitious activity of chromium residue (CR) was carried out to formulate the properties of chromium residue-cement matrices (CRCM) by blending CR with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The particle size distribution, microstructures of CR were investigated by some apparatuses, and physical properties, leaching behavior of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] of CRCM were also determined by some experiments. Three types of commonly used superplasticizers (sulphonated acetone formaldehyde superplasticizer (J1), polycarboxylate-based superplasticizer (J2) and naphthalene superplasticizer (J3)) were chosen to investigate their influences on the physical properties and the Cr(VI)-immobilisation in the leachate of the CRCM hardened pastes. The results show that the CR has a certain cementitious activity. The incorporation of CR improves the pore size distribution of CRCM. The Cr(VI) concentrations in the leachate of CRCM significantly decrease by incorporation of J2. Among three superplasticizers, J2 achieves lowest Cr(VI) leaching ratio. Based on this study, it is likely to develop CR as a potential new additive used in cement-based materials.

  11. Investigating correlation between legal and physical property: possibilities and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulou, E.; Kitsakis, D.; Tsiliakou, E.

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary urban environment is characterized by complexity and mixed use of space, in which overlapping land parcels and different RRRs (Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities) are frequent phenomena. Internationally, real property legislation either focuses on surface property or has introduced individual 3D real property units. The former approach merely accommodates issues related to subdivision, expropriation and transactions on part of the real property above or below surface, while the latter provides for defining and registering 3D real property units. National laws require two-dimensional real property descriptions and only a limited number of jurisdictions provide for threedimensional data presentation and recording. International awareness on 3D Cadastre may be apparent through the proposals for transition of existing cadastral systems to 3D along with legal amendments improving national 3D Cadastre legislation. Concurrently the use of appropriate data sources and the correct depiction of 3D property units' boundaries and spatial relationships need to be addressed. Spatial relations and constraints amongst real world objects could be modeled geometrically and topologically utilizing numerous modeling tools, e.g. CityGML, BIM and further sophisticated 3D software or by adapting international standards, e.g. LADM. A direct correlation between legal and physical property should be based on consistent geometry between physical and legal space, improving the accuracy that legal spaces' volumes or locations are defined. To address these issues, this paper investigates correlation possibilities and constraints between legal and physical space of typical 3D property cases. These cases comprise buildings or their interior spaces with mixed use, as well as complex structures described by explicit facade patterns, generated by procedural or by BIM ready 3D models. The 3D models presented are evaluated, regarding compliancy to physical or legal reality.

  12. Unusual chemical properties of N-terminal histidine residues of glucagon and vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefford, M.A.; Evans, R.M.; Oda, G.; Kaplan, H.

    1985-01-01

    An N-terminal histidine residue of a protein or peptide has two functional groups, viz., an alpha-amino group and an imidazole group. A new procedure, based on the competitive labeling approach described by Duggleby and Kaplan has been developed by which the chemical reactivity of each functional group in such a residue can be determined as a function of pH. Only very small amounts of material are required, which makes it possible to determine the chemical properties in dilute solution or in proteins and polypeptides that can be obtained in only minute quantities. With this approach, the reactivity of the alpha-amino group of histidylglycine toward 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene gave an apparent pK /sub a/ value of 7.64 +/- 0.07 at 37 degrees C, in good agreement with a value of 7.69 +/- 0.02 obtained by acid-base titration. However, the reactivity of the imidazole function gave an apparent pK /sub a/ value of 7.16 +/- 0.07 as compared to the pK /sub a/ value of 5.85 +/- 0.01 obtained by acid-base titration. Similarly, in glucagon and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), apparent pKa values of 7.60 +/- 0.04 and 7.88 +/- 0.18, respectively, were obtained for the alpha-amino of their N-terminal histidine, and pKa values of 7.43 +/- 0.09 and 7.59 +/- 0.18 were obtained for the imidazole function

  13. Physical properties of Aten, Apollo and Amor asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, Lucy-Ann; Tholen, David J.; Veeder, Glenn J.

    1989-01-01

    Data available on the physical properties of a group of planet-crossing asteroids, the Aten, Apollo, and Amor objects (AAAO) (include data on the taxonomy, mineralogical surface composition, diameter, rotation rate, shape, and surface texture) are presented together with the type of observations used for obtaining these data. These data show that the population of the AAAO is diverse in all of their physical characteristics. This diversity implies that the AAAO come from multiple sources and had different evolutionary histories.

  14. Physical properties of sidewall cores from Decatur, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Carolyn A.; Kaven, Joern; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.

    2017-10-18

    To better assess the reservoir conditions influencing the induced seismicity hazard near a carbon dioxide sequestration demonstration site in Decatur, Ill., core samples from three deep drill holes were tested to determine a suite of physical properties including bulk density, porosity, permeability, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and failure strength. Representative samples of the shale cap rock, the sandstone reservoir, and the Precambrian basement were selected for comparison. Physical properties were strongly dependent on lithology. Bulk density was inversely related to porosity, with the cap rock and basement samples being both least porous (

  15. Prediction of transport and other physical properties of fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Bretsznajder, S

    1971-01-01

    Prediction of Transport and Other Physical Properties of Fluids reviews general methods for predicting the transport and other physical properties of fluids such as gases and liquids. Topics covered range from the theory of corresponding states and methods for estimating the surface tension of liquids to some basic concepts of the kinetic theory of gases. Methods of estimating liquid viscosity based on the principle of additivity are also described. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and opens by presenting basic information on gases and liquids as well as intermolecular forces and con

  16. Physical Properties of Low-Molecular Weight Polydimethylsiloxane Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Graham, Alan [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Nemer, Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phinney, Leslie M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garcia, Robert M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stirrup, Emily Kate [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Physical property measurements including viscosity, density, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity of low-molecular weight polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluids were measured over a wide temperature range (-50°C to 150°C when possible). Properties of blends of 1 cSt and 20 cSt PDMS fluids were also investigated. Uncertainties in the measurements are cited. These measurements will provide greater fidelity predictions of environmental sensing device behavior in hot and cold environments.

  17. Novel Dilute Bismide, Epitaxy, Physical Properties and Device Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dilute bismide in which a small amount of bismuth is incorporated to host III-Vs is the least studied III-V compound semiconductor and has received steadily increasing attention since 2000. In this paper, we review theoretical predictions of physical properties of bismide alloys, epitaxial growth of bismide thin films and nanostructures, surface, structural, electric, transport and optic properties of various binaries and bismide alloys, and device applications.

  18. Physical properties of charged particle beams for use in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The physical properties of the possible charged particle beams used for cancer radiotherapy are reviewed. Each property is discussed for all interesting particles (π, p, α, Ne ion) and the differences are emphasized. This is followed by a short discussion of the several beam delivery systems used in particle therapy today, emphasizing the differences in the problems for the several different radiations, particularly the differences between the accelerated particle beams and those of a secondary nature. Dose calculation techniques are described

  19. Influence of texture on the physical properties of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penelle, R.; Baudin, T.

    1996-01-01

    The principles of crystallographic texture characterization by the means of X-ray or neutron diffraction statistical techniques are reviewed, and examples of their application to the study of the effects of texture on the properties of materials are presented: texture of magnetic steels, magneto-crystalline anisotropy, elasticity anisotropy and Young's modulus, plastic anisotropy (textural hardening), residual stresses. Neutron diffraction allows for the continuous monitoring of the recrystallization texture generation kinetics during in-situ annealing or for the follow-up of phase transformations. Backscattered electron diffraction allows for the quantification of the spatial distribution of grain and grain joint orientations and thus microstructure reconstruction

  20. Effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack-growth properties of D6AC steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1974-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5 mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. This report presents the analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions.

  1. The effects of shot-peening residual stresses on the fracture and crack growth properties of D6AC steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1973-01-01

    The fracture strength and cyclic crack-growth properties of surface-flawed, shot-peened D6AC steel plate were investigated. For short crack lengths (up to 1.5mm) simple linear elastic fracture mechanics - based only on applied loading - did not predict the fracture strengths. Also, Paris' Law for cyclic crack growth did not correlate the crack-growth behavior. To investigate the effect of shot-peening, additional fracture and crack-growth tests were performed on material which was precompressed to remove the residual stresses left by the shot-peening. Both tests and analysis show that the shot-peening residual stresses influence the fracture and crack-growth properties of the material. The analytical method of compensating for residual stresses and the fracture and cyclic crack-growth test results and predictions are presented.

  2. Impacts of land leveling on lowland soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Barbat Parfitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The practice of land leveling alters the soil surface to create a uniform slope to improve land conditions for the application of all agricultural practices. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impacts of land leveling through the magnitudes, variances and spatial distributions of selected soil physical properties of a lowland area in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; the relationships between the magnitude of cuts and/or fills and soil physical properties after the leveling process; and evaluation of the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. In the 0-0.20 m layer, a 100-point geo-referenced grid covering two taxonomic soil classes was used in assessment of the following soil properties: soil particle density (Pd and bulk density (Bd; total porosity (Tp, macroporosity (Macro and microporosity (Micro; available water capacity (AWC; sand, silt, clay, and dispersed clay in water (Disp clay contents; electrical conductivity (EC; and weighted average diameter of aggregates (WAD. Soil depth to the top of the B horizon was also measured before leveling. The overall effect of leveling on selected soil physical properties was evaluated by paired "t" tests. The effect on the variability of each property was evaluated through the homogeneity of variance test. The thematic maps constructed by kriging or by the inverse of the square of the distances were visually analyzed to evaluate the effect of leveling on the spatial distribution of the properties and of the top of the B horizon in relation to the soil surface. Linear regression models were fitted with the aim of evaluating the relationship between soil properties and the magnitude of cuts and fills. Leveling altered the mean value of several soil properties and the agronomic effect was negative. The mean values of Bd and Disp clay increased and Tp, Macro and Micro, WAD, AWC and EC decreased. Spatial distributions of all

  3. Fat properties during homogenization, spray-drying, and storage affect the physical properties of dairy powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignolles, M L; Lopez, C; Madec, M N; Ehrhardt, J J; Méjean, S; Schuck, P; Jeantet, R

    2009-01-01

    Changes in fat properties were studied before, during, and after the drying process (including during storage) to determine the consequences on powder physical properties. Several methods were combined to characterize changes in fat structure and thermal properties as well as the physical properties of powders. Emulsion droplet size and droplet aggregation depended on the homogenizing pressures and were also affected by spray atomization. Aggregation was usually greater after spray atomization, resulting in greater viscosities. These processes did not have the same consequences on the stability of fat in the powders. The quantification of free fat is a pertinent indicator of fat instability in the powders. Confocal laser scanning microscopy permitted the characterization of the structure of fat in situ in the powders. Powders from unhomogenized emulsions showed greater free fat content. Surface fat was always overrepresented, regardless of the composition and process parameters. Differential scanning calorimetry melting experiments showed that fat was partially crystallized in situ in the powders stored at 20 degrees C, and that it was unstable on a molecular scale. Thermal profiles were also related to the supramolecular structure of fat in the powder particle matrix. Powder physical properties depended on both composition and process conditions. The free fat content seemed to have a greater influence than surface fat on powder physical properties, except for wettability. This study clearly showed that an understanding of fat behavior is essential for controlling and improving the physical properties of fat-filled dairy powders and their overall quality.

  4. Influence of substrate temperature on certain physical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The deposited films were subjected to various characterization studies, to explore certain features like the influence of various deposition temperatures on physical and antibacterial properties. XRD results showed that all the samples exhibited preferential orientation along the (2 2 2) plane. The variation in the crystalline ...

  5. A comparative study of the physical and mechanical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the compliance of the physical and mechanical properties of granites produced in some parts of Ogun State to relevant codes and standards. The desire to carry out the study was borne by personal on – site experience that single size aggregates produced in some parts of Ogun State do not conform ...

  6. The physical fibre properties of Gonometa postica after degumming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical properties of the silk fibres that were evaluated in this study included weight loss determination, degumming efficiency and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the weight loss of G. postica fibres ranged from 27 to 41% over a time period of 10 days for the different methods evaluated.

  7. Tillage and manure effect on soil physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tillage and liquid manure applications on some physical and chemical properties and also on the carbon and nitrogen mineralization potential from a meadow soil. Our results indicated that tillage and manure applications had no effect on the concentration of Cu, Mn, total N and organic C in the 0 - 15 cm layer of soil after ...

  8. Physical and mechanical properties of saligna eucalyptus grown in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Gerhards

    1965-01-01

    Physical and mechanical properties were determined for saligna eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna, Smith) grown in Hawaii. In comparison with wood of the same species grown in Australia, saligna eucalyptus grown in Hawaii was lower in density, shrinkage, and compressive strength parallel to grain; it was about equal in strength in bending and shear; and it was stiffer....

  9. Some Physical And Mechanical Properties Of Uapaca Kirkiana, A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation of test samples and laboratory procedure to determine some physical and mechanical properties followed standard methods. Analysis of variance was used to determine the variation between and within trees and regression analysis was used to determine relationship between wood basic density and ...

  10. Physical, chemical and sensory properties of cookies produced from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was a result of the need for utilization of local raw materials for food production and diversification as well as an attempt to reduce the rising cost of wheat imports. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical, chemical and sensory properties of cookies produced from sweet potato and mango ...

  11. Molecular clips based on propanediurea : synthesis and physical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Robertus Johannes

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and physical properties of a series of molecular clips derived from the concave molecule propanediurea. These molecular clips are cavity-containing receptors that can bind a variety of aromatic guests. This binding is a result of hydrogen bonding and pi-pi

  12. Some physical and mechanical properties of African birch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of locally manufactured or waste materials in structural buildings without loss of performance is very crucial to the growth of developing countries. This report provides the results of some physical and mechanical property tests carried out on air dried African birch (Anogeissus leiocarpus) timber grown in Nigeria.

  13. Moisture dependent of some physical and morphological properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The static coefficients for friction of dent corn seeds were determined steel, plywood, wood, glass and galvanized sheet at various moisture contents. The highest static coefficient of friction was found on the wood and the lowest on the glass sheet among the materials tested. Key words: Dent corn, physical properties, ...

  14. determination of some physical properties of three groundnut varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    groundnuts. Three varieties of groundnuts namely ICGV-SM-93523, RMP-9 and RMP- 12 were collected and some of the physical properties, such as weight, angle of repose, coefficient of friction, bulk density, size, shape and moisture content were determined. The angle of repose for the three varieties was found to range ...

  15. Physical properties of peats as related to degree of decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Boelter

    1969-01-01

    Important physical characteristics, such as water retention, water yield coefficient, and hydraulic conductivity, vary greatly for representative northern Minnesota peat materials. The differences are related to the degree of decomposition, which largely determines the porosity and pore size distribution. Fiber content (> 0.1 mm) and bulk density are properties...

  16. Evaluation of the mechanical and physical properties of a posterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the mechanical and physical properties of a micro-hybrid resin composite used in adult posterior restorations A micro-hybrid, light curing resin composite Unolux BCS Composite Restorative, (UnoDent, England) was used to restore 74 carious classes I and II cavities on posterior teeth of 62 adult patients.

  17. Tillage Effects on Maize Performance and Physical Properties of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of six tillage methods on soil physical properties maize (Zea mays L.) germination, growth and yield were evaluated in field experiments during 1995 and 1996 cropping seasons. The selected treatments represented both conventional and conservation tillage practices common within the study area. The soil ...

  18. Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, A K; Rotaru, G-M; Derler, S; Spano, F; Camenzind, M; Annaheim, S; Stämpfli, R; Schmid, M; Rossi, R M

    2016-02-01

    For many applications in research, material development and testing, physical skin models are preferable to the use of human skin, because more reliable and reproducible results can be obtained. This article gives an overview of materials applied to model physical properties of human skin to encourage multidisciplinary approaches for more realistic testing and improved understanding of skin-material interactions. The literature databases Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms 'skin model', 'skin phantom', 'skin equivalent', 'synthetic skin', 'skin substitute', 'artificial skin', 'skin replica', and 'skin model substrate.' Articles addressing material developments or measurements that include the replication of skin properties or behaviour were analysed. It was found that the most common materials used to simulate skin are liquid suspensions, gelatinous substances, elastomers, epoxy resins, metals and textiles. Nano- and micro-fillers can be incorporated in the skin models to tune their physical properties. While numerous physical skin models have been reported, most developments are research field-specific and based on trial-and-error methods. As the complexity of advanced measurement techniques increases, new interdisciplinary approaches are needed in future to achieve refined models which realistically simulate multiple properties of human skin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Influence of vermicompost on soil chemical and physical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effects of vermicompost on soil chemical and physical properties was evaluated in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var Super Beta) field. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Different amounts of vermicompost (0, 5, 10, 15 t ha-1) were incorporated ...

  20. Physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of pure and doped ceria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Sammes, N.M.; Tompsett, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an extract of available data on the physical, chemical, electrochemical and mechanical properties of pure and doped ceria, predominantly in the temperature range from 200 to 1000 degrees C. Several areas are pointed out where further research is needed in order to make a better...

  1. Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Daniellia Ogea Harms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the antediluvian and up to date, humans keep understanding the nature of wood which has been used to meet some bunches of human's demands such as in industry, in framing and in war. This paper presents some physical and mechanical properties of Daniellia ogea (Iya) green timber specie freshly felled ...

  2. Physical and Pasting Properties of 'Ofada' Rice ( Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, grain physical and pasting properties of ofada rice cultivated in South-West Nigeria was evaluated using Standard Evaluation System (SES) for rice with the aim of providing basic information for brand development and utilization of ofada in the development of novel food products. Results showed that size and ...

  3. Proximate Composition, Physical and Sensory Properties of Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility of preparing non-wheat cakes using acha and Bambara nut flour blends and generate base line data on the chemical, physical and sensory properties of the cakes. Materials and methods: Acha grains and Bambara nut seeds were processed into flour ...

  4. Tillage effects on soil. Physical properties and sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physical properties and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) yield under convectional tillage (CT) and zero-tillage (Z,TJ. was monitored for 3 consecutive years in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria (SGSZN). While bulk density of CT increased slightly over the years, significant decrease of 12 and 8% were ...

  5. Evaluation of physical, functional and pasting properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical, functional and pasting properties of fermented cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) flour (lafun) from 10 different sources in Southwest Nigeria were evaluated by standard methods. The fermented flour was collected in polyethylene bags (500 g) each from the processing centers and transferred to the ...

  6. Effects of soil physical properties on erodibility and infiltration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looked at the physical properties of soil of selected areas of Gidan Kwano campus of Federal University of Technology Minna, Nigeria and their effects on erodibility and infiltration parameters. Infiltration rate of the selected areas were conducted using a double ring infiltrometer and soil samples collected at ...

  7. Tillage and manure effect on soil physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of tillage and liquid manure applications on some physical and chemical properties and also on the carbon and nitrogen mineralization potential from a meadow soil. Our results indicated that tillage and manure applications had no effect on the concentration of Cu, Mn, total ...

  8. Influence of substrate temperature on certain physical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-12

    Nov 12, 2016 ... influence of various deposition temperatures on physical and antibacterial properties. ... terial agents include metal oxide semiconductors as they are ... This method is found to be simple, cost-effective and can be used to prepare dense films on large areas with better quality. 2. Experimental details for the ...

  9. Proximate Compositions and physical properties of selected maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical properties such as germination capacity, hydration capacity, floater test and thousand-grain weight differed significantly (P≤ 0.05) among the selected varieties. The suitability of the maize grain varieties to processing and production of different maize based food products were highlighted. Key words: Maize ...

  10. Investigation of the mechanical and physical properties of greywacke specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Konečný, Pavel; Knejzlík, Jaromír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2009), s. 188-193 ISSN 1365-1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : greywacke * mechanical and physical properties Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2009 www.elsevier.com/locate ijrmms

  11. Tillage Effects on Maize Performance and Physical Properties of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The effects of six tillage methods on soil physical properties maize (Zea mays L.) germination, growth and yield were evaluated in field experiments during 1995 and 1996 cropping seasons. The selected treatments represented both conventional and conservation tillage practices common within the study area.

  12. Physical Properties And Maize Production In A Spent Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on the use of plant species and organic nutrients to improve the physical properties of oil-contaminated soil, with a view to making it conducive for crop production, is very important. Three legumes (Gliricidia sepium, Leucenae leucocephala and Calapogonium caeruleam) combined or not with poultry manure ...

  13. Characterization of physical and aerodynamic properties of walnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to study the physical and aerodynamic properties of freshly harvested walnuts. Measurements were carried out for three walnut varieties, Tulare, Howard and Chandler cultivated in California, USA. The nuts treated with and without Ethephon were collected from mechan...

  14. Assessment of physical properties of foods commonly consumed by children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Neeraja

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The physical properties and texture of food can be considered to be a risk factor for evaluating the relationship between food retention and dental caries. This information can further be used as an educative tool to parents and caregivers for effective modification of diet.

  15. The physical fibre properties of Gonometa postica after degumming

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    paste, which is currently in use as a chemical degumming agent. The physical properties of the silk fibres that were evaluated in this study included weight loss determination, degumming efficiency and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the weight loss of G. postica fibres ranged from 27 to 41% over a.

  16. Terrestrial gamma dose rates and physical-chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is the purpose of this study to provide a better perspective on the high radioactivity area in Jos Plateau and its implication on farm soil and would seek for any correlation between natural radioactivity and soil physical-chemical properties following the decades of mining activities in the area. To achieve this, soil samples ...

  17. Design, synthesis and physical properties of poly(styrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. Poly(thiourea-azo-sulfone); SBS; electrical conductivity; thermal stability; tensile strength. 1. Introduction. Elastomer blends have been recurrently exploited in various industries to obtain best compromised physical properties including processability. In this regard, styrene– butadiene block copolymers form an ...

  18. Some physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine physical and strength properties of immature Pinus patula grown in Iringa and Njombe regions of Tanzania. Sample trees aged 5 to 15 years were collected from farmers' woodlots. The trees were categorized into 5 age classes: 5 - 7, 8 - 10, 11 - 12, 13 - 14 and 15 years. Four trees from ...

  19. Physical property characterization of 183-H Basin sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.; Delegard, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the characterization of 183-H Basin sludge physical properties, e.g. bulk density of sludge and absorbent, and determination of free liquids. Calcination of crucible-size samples of sludge was also done and the resulting 'loss-on-ignition' was compared to the theoretical weight loss based on sludge analysis obtained from Weston Labs

  20. Investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of Shea Tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of Shea Tree timber ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) used for structural applications in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... strength parallel to grain of 24.7 (N/mm2), compressive strength perpendicular to grain of 8.99 (N/mm2), shear strength of 2.01 (N/mm2), and tensile strength parallel to ...

  1. Microstructural damage and residual mechanical properties in helium-bearing gas metal Arc weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, S. H.; Yang, N. Y. C.

    1992-03-01

    The influence of entrapped helium on microstructural damage and residual mechanical properties subsequent to applying low-penetration gas metal arc (GMA) weld overlays was examined for an AISI Type 304 stainless steel. Two helium levels were examined: 22.5 and 85.0 atomic parts per million (appm) He. Detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the presence of intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ). The crack surfaces exhibited a dimple structure that was characteristic of a gas bubble embrittled material. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the size and spacing of the grain boundary helium gas bubbles remained virtually unchanged (relative to that established by the charging and aging procedure) at distances greater than 1 mm from the fusion line. Within this first millimeter, the diameter of the bubbles increased rapidly, and the bubble spacing increased to the characteristic spacing of the dimples that decorated weld-induced cracks. Mechanical testing revealed a loss in strain-to-fracture and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) at the higher helium level. While the majority of the fracture occurred in a transgranular, ductile manner, some deformation-induced intergranular cracking was observed. This cracking occurred over a very narrow region localized to the HAZ of the weldment. At the lower helium level, ductility and strength were unaffected compared to helium-free specimens.

  2. Preparation and mechanical properties of modified nanocellulose/PLA composites from cassava residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose was prepared by a mechanochemical method using cassava residue as a raw material and phosphoric acid as the auxiliary agent. The prepared nanocellulose was hydrophobically modified with stearic acid to improve its dispersibility. This modified nanocellulose was added to polylactic acid (PLA film-forming liquids at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%, and the effect of modified nanocellulose on the mechanical properties of polylactic acid (PLA films were investigated. When at least 0.5% modified nanocellulose is added, more active groups of modified nanocellulose are adsorbed onto the PLA molecular chain. Although the tensile strength of the film is only improved by 13.59%, the flexibility of the film decreases, and the elastic modulus decreases by 28.91%. When 1% modified nanocellulose is added, the modified nanocellulose and PLA are tangled together through molecular chains and they co-crystallize to form a stable network structure. The tensile strength of the nanocomposite films is enhanced by 40.03%, the elastic modulus is enhanced by 55.65%, and the flexibility of the film decreases.

  3. Preparation and mechanical properties of modified nanocellulose/PLA composites from cassava residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lijie; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Mingzi; Chen, Jie; Shi, Yinghan; Huang, Chongxing; Wang, Shuangfei; An, Shuxiang; Li, Chunying

    2018-02-01

    Nanocellulose was prepared by a mechanochemical method using cassava residue as a raw material and phosphoric acid as the auxiliary agent. The prepared nanocellulose was hydrophobically modified with stearic acid to improve its dispersibility. This modified nanocellulose was added to polylactic acid (PLA) film-forming liquids at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%, and the effect of modified nanocellulose on the mechanical properties of polylactic acid (PLA) films were investigated. When at least 0.5% modified nanocellulose is added, more active groups of modified nanocellulose are adsorbed onto the PLA molecular chain. Although the tensile strength of the film is only improved by 13.59%, the flexibility of the film decreases, and the elastic modulus decreases by 28.91%. When 1% modified nanocellulose is added, the modified nanocellulose and PLA are tangled together through molecular chains and they co-crystallize to form a stable network structure. The tensile strength of the nanocomposite films is enhanced by 40.03%, the elastic modulus is enhanced by 55.65%, and the flexibility of the film decreases.

  4. Physical properties optimization of polycrystalline LiFeAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shiv J., E-mail: s.j.singh@ifw-dresden.de [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Material Research, IFW-Dresden, 01171 Dresden Germany (Germany); Research Center for Environmentally Friendly Materials Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran, Hokkaido, 050-8585 (Japan); Gräfe, Uwe; Beck, Robert; Wolter, Anja U.B.; Grafe, Hans-Joachim [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Material Research, IFW-Dresden, 01171 Dresden Germany (Germany); Hess, Christian [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Material Research, IFW-Dresden, 01171 Dresden Germany (Germany); Center for Transport and Devices of Emergent Materials, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Wurmehl, Sabine [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Material Research, IFW-Dresden, 01171 Dresden Germany (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Büchner, Bernd [Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Material Research, IFW-Dresden, 01171 Dresden Germany (Germany); Center for Transport and Devices of Emergent Materials, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of polycrystalline LiFeAs in a very broad heating temp. range (200–900 °C). • These samples are characterized by various physical and magnetic measurements. • Interestingly, the LiFeAs phase starts to form at 200 °C with T{sub c} of 19.2 K. • 600 °C synthesis temperature yields optimal high quality polycrystalline LiFeAs. • The properties of the best sample are consistent with that of LiFeAs single crystal. - Abstract: We present a study of parameter optimization for synthesizing truly stoichiometric polycrystalline LiFeAs. Stoichiometric LiFeAs has been prepared in a very broad range of synthesis temperature (200–900 °C) under otherwise exactly the same conditions, and has been characterized by structural, magnetic, transport, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and specific heat measurements. Our study showed that the LiFeAs phase is formed at 200 °C with a large amount of impurity phases. The amount of these impurity phases reduces with increasing synthesis temperature and the clean LiFeAs phase is obtained at a synthesis temperature of 600 °C. Magnetic susceptibility and resistivity measurements confirmed that the superconducting properties such as the critical temperature T{sub c}, and the upper critical field H{sub c2} do not depend on the synthesis temperature (≤ 700 °C), remaining at almost the same value of ∼19 K and ∼40 T, respectively. However, the width ΔT{sub c} of the transition and the NQR line width decrease with increasing the synthesis temperature and reached to minimum value for the synthesis temperature of 600 °C. Our careful analysis suggests that the best sample obtained at 600 °C is optimal concerning the low resistivity, high residual resistivity ratio (RRR), low ΔT{sub c}, high T{sub c} and H{sub c2}, and a small NQR line width with values which are comparable to that reported for LiFeAs single crystals. Specific heat measurements confirmed the bulk superconducting nature of the samples

  5. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  6. Using physical properties of molten glass to estimate glass composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwan Sik; Yang, Kyoung Hwa; Park, Jong Kil

    1997-01-01

    A vitrification process is under development in KEPRI for the treatment of low-and medium-level radioactive waste. Although the project is for developing and building Vitrification Pilot Plant in Korea, one of KEPRI's concerns is the quality control of the vitrified glass. This paper discusses a methodology for the estimation of glass composition by on-line measurement of molten glass properties, which could be applied to the plant for real-time quality control of the glass product. By remotely measuring viscosity and density of the molten glass, the glass characteristics such as composition can be estimated and eventually controlled. For this purpose, using the database of glass composition vs. physical properties in isothermal three-component system of SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 , a software TERNARY has been developed which determines the glass composition by using two known physical properties (e.g. density and viscosity)

  7. Mechanical and physical properties of metakaolin based geopolymer paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risdanareni Puput

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the result of studies on utilizing metakaolin obtained from Belitung as fly ash substitute material to produce geopolymer paste. Mechanical properties were assessed by compressive strength while physical properties were assessed by setting time, porosity, microstructure test and density test. The experiment was performed on geopolymer paste with 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% fly ash replacement with metakaolin. Sodium Hidroxide (NaOH with concentration of 10 Molars and Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3 were used as alkaline activator. In addition, activator ratio between sodium silicate to sodium hidroxide of 2 was applied. The result obtains that increasing metakaolin contain in mixture deliver longer setting time, higher open pore number, lower density and lower compressive strength of geopolymer paste. However, adding metakaolin up to 25 % into geopolymer paste mixture could increase mechanical and physical properties of geopolymer paste.

  8. Synthesis of PVA/PVP hydrogels having two layers by radiation and their physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Y.C.; Park, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The radiation can induce chemical reaction to modify polymer under even the solid state or in the low temperature. The radiation crosslinking can be easily adjusted by controlling the radiation dose and is reproducible. The finished product contains no residuals of substances required to initiate the chemical crosslinking that can restrict the application possibilities. In these studies, two layer's hydrogel which consisted of urethane membrane and a mixture of polyvinyl alcohol/poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone /glycerin/chitosan was made by gamma-ray irradiation or two steps of 'freezing and thawing' and gamma-ray irradiation for wound dressing. The physical properties such as gelation, water absorptivity, and gel strength were examined to evaluate the hydrogels for wound dressing. Urethane was dissolved in solvent, the urethane solution was poured on the mould, and then dried to make the thin membrane. Hydrophilic polymer solutions were poured on the urethane membranes, they were exposed to gamma irradiation or 'freezing and thawing' and gamma irradiation doses of 25, 35, 50 and 60 kGy to evaluate the physical properties of hydrogels. The physical properties of hydrogels such as gelation and gel strength were improved, and the evaporation speed of water in hydrogel was low when urethane membrane was used

  9. Effect of residual Al content on microstructure and mechanical properties of Grade B+Steel for castings for locomotives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kaifeng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The bogie made of Grade B+ steel is one of the most important parts of heavy haul trains. Some accidents were found to be the result of fracture failure of the bogies. It is very important to find the reason why the fracture failure occurred. Because Al was added for the final deoxidation during the smelting process of the Grade B+Steel, residual Al existed to some extent in the castings. High residual Al content in the bogie casting was presumed to be the reason for the fracture. In this work, the influence of residual Al content in the range of 0.015wt.% to 0.3wt.% on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Grade B+ Steel was studied. The experimental results showed that when the residual Al content is between 0.02wt.% and 0.20wt.%, the mechanical properties of the steel meet the requirements of technical specification for heavy haul train parts, and the fracture is typical plastic fractures. If the residual Al content is less than 0.02wt.%, the microstructures are coarse, and the mechanical properties can not meet the demand of bogie steel castings. When the residual Al content is more than 0.2wt.%, the elongation, reduction of area, and low-temperature impact energy markedly deteriorate. The fracture mode then changes from plastic fracture to cleavage brittle fracture. Therefore, the amount of Al addition for the final deoxidation during the smelting process must be strictly controlled. The optimum addition amount needs to be controlled within the range of 0.02wt.% to 0.20wt.% for the Grade B+Steel.

  10. PhySIC: a veto supertree method with desirable properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranwez, Vincent; Berry, Vincent; Criscuolo, Alexis; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Guillemot, Sylvain; Scornavacca, Celine; Douzery, Emmanuel J P

    2007-10-01

    This paper focuses on veto supertree methods; i.e., methods that aim at producing a conservative synthesis of the relationships agreed upon by all source trees. We propose desirable properties that a supertree should satisfy in this framework, namely the non-contradiction property (PC) and the induction property (PI). The former requires that the supertree does not contain relationships that contradict one or a combination of the source topologies, whereas the latter requires that all topological information contained in the supertree is present in a source tree or collectively induced by several source trees. We provide simple examples to illustrate their relevance and that allow a comparison with previously advocated properties. We show that these properties can be checked in polynomial time for any given rooted supertree. Moreover, we introduce the PhySIC method (PHYlogenetic Signal with Induction and non-Contradiction). For k input trees spanning a set of n taxa, this method produces a supertree that satisfies the above-mentioned properties in O(kn(3) + n(4)) computing time. The polytomies of the produced supertree are also tagged by labels indicating areas of conflict as well as those with insufficient overlap. As a whole, PhySIC enables the user to quickly summarize consensual information of a set of trees and localize groups of taxa for which the data require consolidation. Lastly, we illustrate the behaviour of PhySIC on primate data sets of various sizes, and propose a supertree covering 95% of all primate extant genera. The PhySIC algorithm is available at http://atgc.lirmm.fr/cgi-bin/PhySIC.

  11. Conformational disorder and solvation properties of the key-residues of a protein in water-ethanol mixed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Dayanidhi; Santra, Santanu; Jana, Madhurima

    2017-12-13

    A small number of key-residues in a protein sequence play vital roles in the function, stability, and folding of the protein. The nonuniform conformational disorder of a small protein Chymotrypsin Inhibitor 2 (CI2) and its secondary segments has been quantified in the ethanol governed temperature induced unfolding process by estimating its change in configurational entropy in several water-ethanol mixed solutions. Such calculations further assist us in identifying the key-residues, from where the unfolding of the protein was initiated. Our findings match well with the reported experimental results. We then make an attempt to explore the properties of the solvent water and ethanol around the key-residues of the protein in its folded and unfolded forms at ambient temperature to identify the individual role of ethanol and water in the protein unfolding. We find that the key-residues of the unfolded protein are in good contact with both water and ethanol as compared to those of the folded protein. In the presence of ethanol, water molecules are noticed to form a rigid structurally bound solvation layer around the key-residues of the protein, irrespective of its conformational state. The restricted translational motion and prominent caging effect of the water and ethanol molecules present around the key-residues of the unfolded protein are a signature of the existence of a rigid mixed water-ethanol layer as compared to that around the folded protein. Furthermore, comparable restricted structural relaxation of the key-residue-water and key-residue-ethanol hydrogen bonds in the unfolded protein as compared to that in the folded one implies that the formation of a strong long-lived hydrogen bonding environment nourishes the unfolding process. We believe that our findings will shed light to several co-solvent governed unfolding processes of a protein in general.

  12. Effect of Solution Properties on Arsenic Adsorption by Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2005-05-01

    purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of solution properties, such as pH, ionic strength and competing ions on the adsorption of As by WTRs and WTR amended soils. Three types of WTRs are being used, namely Fe- WTR, Al- WTR and Ca-WTR. Effect of pH is being studied by varying the pH values between 3 and 9. The solid/solution ratio has been fixed at 1:5 and a 24 h equilibration has been chosen based on the results of earlier adsorption experiments. Furthermore, As adsorption will be studied in presence of potentially competing ions such as phosphate, sulfate, and selenate. Keywords: Adsorption, water treatment residuals, oxyanions, in-situ remediation, Arsenic

  13. A comparative analysis on the physicochemical properties of tick-borne encephalitis virus envelope protein residues that affect its antigenic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukin, Y. S.; Dzhioev, Y.; Tkachev, S. E.; Kozlova, I.; Paramonov, A. I.; Růžek, Daniel; Qu, Z.; Zlobin, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 238, JUN 15 (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0168-1702 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * E protein * physicochemical properties amino acid residue * antigen * antibody Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016

  14. PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZATION AND HARVEST INTERVALS INFLUENCE ENERGETIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BRIQUETTES AND LARGE BRANCHES OF MATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmar Santin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In mate crop, the commercial part consists of leaves and thin branches, while the large branches (LB are considered unused residues and left in the field, although they may have potential for use as energy. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the influence of phosphorus fertilization and harvest interval in productivity of mate large branches and in their physical and energetic properties, as well as in derived briquettes. In a seven-year-old plantation, doses of 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 kg.ha-1 of P2O5 were applied considering harvest intervals of 12, 18 and 24 months. Dry mass, average diameter, P content, and physical and energetic properties of LB were determined. With LB, after its transformation into particles and briquetting, physical and energetic properties were determined, as well as P availability in soil. The phosphorus fertilization increased LB productivity in larger harvest intervals, increasing the amount of energy produced per unit of area, but did not change basic density and gross calorific value of wood. Mate harvest intervals did not affect the apparent density and calorific value of briquettes produced by LB. LB harvested at intervals of 18 and 24 months produced wood with higher basic density and gross calorific value. LB or briquettes have adequate energetic and physical properties, being technically a plant residue with great potential for use as energy.

  15. Physical activity and gastric residuals as biomarkers for region-specific NEC lesions in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Muqing; Andersen, Anders Daniel; Li, Yanqi

    2016-01-01

    surveillance system and they were evaluated twice daily for clinical signs of apathy, discoloration, respiratory distress, abdominal distension and diarrhea. The volume of gastric residuals and the presence of macroscopic NEC-like lesions in the stomach, intestine and colon were recorded at euthanasia on day 5...

  16. Physical properties of biological entities: an introduction to the ontology of physics for biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Cook

    Full Text Available As biomedical investigators strive to integrate data and analyses across spatiotemporal scales and biomedical domains, they have recognized the benefits of formalizing languages and terminologies via computational ontologies. Although ontologies for biological entities-molecules, cells, organs-are well-established, there are no principled ontologies of physical properties-energies, volumes, flow rates-of those entities. In this paper, we introduce the Ontology of Physics for Biology (OPB, a reference ontology of classical physics designed for annotating biophysical content of growing repositories of biomedical datasets and analytical models. The OPB's semantic framework, traceable to James Clerk Maxwell, encompasses modern theories of system dynamics and thermodynamics, and is implemented as a computational ontology that references available upper ontologies. In this paper we focus on the OPB classes that are designed for annotating physical properties encoded in biomedical datasets and computational models, and we discuss how the OPB framework will facilitate biomedical knowledge integration.

  17. Physical properties of sugar cookies containing chia-oat composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglett, George E; Chen, Diejun; Liu, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) and soluble β-glucan of oat products are known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Nutrim, oat bran concentrate (OBC), and whole oat flour (WOF) were composited with finely ground chia, and used in cookies at 20% replacement of wheat flour for improved nutritional and physical quality. The objective was to evaluate physical properties of chia-oat composites, dough, and cookies. These composites had improved water-holding capacities compared to the starting materials. The geometrical properties and texture properties of the cookies were not greatly influenced by a 20% flour replacement using chia-OBC or chia-WOF composites. There was a decrease in the cookie diameter, and increases in the height of cookies and dough hardness using 20% Chia- Nutrim composite. These fine-particle chia-oat composites were prepared by a feasible procedure for improved nutritional value and physical properties of foods. The cookies containing chia-oat composites can be considered a health-promoting functional food. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Investigations of Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged Rubberised Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Hassan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several road pavement distresses are related to rheological bitumen properties. Rutting and fatigue cracking are the major distresses that lead to permanent failures in pavement construction. Influence of crumb rubber modifier (CRM on rheological properties of bitumen binder such as improvement of high and intermediate temperatures is investigated in the binder’s fatigue and rutting resistance through physical-rheological changes in this research. The bitumen binders were aged by rolling thin film oven (RTFOT to simulate short-term aging and pressure aging vessel (PAV to simulate long-term aging. The effects of aging on the rheological and physical properties of bitumen binders were studied conducting dynamic shear rheometer test (DSR, Brookfield viscometer test, softening point test, and penetration test. The results showed that the use of rubberised bitumen binder reduces the aging effect on physical and rheological properties of the bitumen binder as illustrated through lower aging index of viscosity, lower aging index of , and an increase in with crumb rubber modifier content increasing, indicating that the crumb rubber might improve the aging resistance of rubberised bitumen binder. In addition, the results showed that the softening point increment ( and penetration aging ratio (PAR of the rubberised bitumen binder decreased significantly due to crumb rubber modification. Furthermore, the higher crumb rubber content, the lower after PAV aging, which led to higher resistance to fatigue cracking bitumen.

  19. Pulping and papermaking properties of the leaf fiber and fibrous residue from Agave tequilana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, T.; Mitsuhashi, S.; Kanetsuna, H.; Iguchi, M.; Shirota, T.; Trujillo, J.J.; Herrera, T.

    1981-01-01

    The leaves and fibrous residue of A. tequilana had fibriles with parallel orientation and helical arrangement to the fiber axis and contained fibers in average length and width of 1.7 mm and 10.3 mu m and 0.8 mm and 25.5 mu m, respectively. The cell wall in leaves was thicker and narrower than those in fibrous residue, and leaves contained cellulose and lignin lower than fibrous residue did. Alkali sulfite cooking of leaves gave pulp, the yield of which was lower than that from fibrous residue. The H/sub 2/On retention and bulk density of leaf pulps increased rapidly on beating suggesting that an internal fibrillation in pulp occurs easily during beating. The breaking length and burst and tear factors of paper from leaf pulp were higher than those from fibrous residue.

  20. Effects of twin-screw extrusion on soluble dietary fibre and physicochemical properties of soybean residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan; Chi, Yu-Jie

    2013-06-01

    Extrusion cooking technology was applied for soluble dietary fibre extraction from soybean residue. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise the effects of extrusion parameters, namely extrusion temperature (90-130°C), feed moisture (25-35%) and screw speed (160-200 rpm) on the content of soluble dietary fibre. According to the regression coefficients significance of the quadratic polynomial model, the optimum extrusion parameters were as follows: extrusion temperature, 115°C; feed moisture, 31%; and screw speed, 180 rpm. Under these conditions, the soluble dietary fibre content of soybean residue could reach to 12.65% which increased 10.60% compared with the unextruded soybean residue. In addition, the dietary fibre in extrude soybean residue had higher water retention capacity, oil retention capacity and swelling capacity than those of dietary fibre in unextruded soybean residue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical Properties of Hanford Transuranic Waste. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The research described herein was undertaken to provide needed physical property descriptions of the Hanford transuranic tank sludges under conditions that might exist during retrieval, treatment, packaging and transportation for disposal. The work addressed the development of a fundamental understanding of the types of systems represented by these sludge suspensions through correlation of the macroscopic rheological properties with particle interactions occurring at the colloidal scale in the various liquid media. The results of the work have advanced existing understanding of the sedimentation and aggregation properties of complex colloidal suspensions. Bench scale models were investigated with respect to their structural, colloidal and rheological properties that should be useful for the development and optimization of techniques to process the wastes at various DOE sites.

  2. Physical and Acoustical Properties of Corn Husk Fiber Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasmi Herlina Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the development of a sustainable acoustic material comprising natural fibers of corn husk that were alkali modified by 1%, 2%, 5%, and 8% NaOH. The morphology and the acoustical, physical, and mechanical properties of the resulting fibers were experimentally investigated. Five different types of sample were produced in panel form, the acoustical properties of which were studied using a two-microphone impedance tube test. The porosity, tortuosity, and airflow resistivity of each panel were investigated, tensile tests were conducted, and the morphological aspects were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy. The sound absorption and tensile properties of the treated panels were better than those of raw fiber panels; the treated panels were of high airflow resistivity and had low porosity. Scanning electron micrographs of the surfaces of the corn husk fibers revealed that the different sound absorption properties of these panels were due to roughness and the lumen structures.

  3. Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, G; Lourenço, P B; Alves, C A S; Pamplona, J

    2008-09-01

    Masonry is the oldest building material that survived until today, being used all over the world and being present in the most impressive historical structures as an evidence of spirit of enterprise of ancient cultures. Conservation, rehabilitation and strengthening of the built heritage and protection of human lives are clear demands of modern societies. In this process, the use of nondestructive methods has become much common in the diagnosis of structural integrity of masonry elements. With respect to the evaluation of the stone condition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity is a simple and economical tool. Thus, the central issue of the present paper concerns the evaluation of the suitability of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method for describing the mechanical and physical properties of granites (range size between 0.1-4.0 mm and 0.3-16.5 mm) and for the assessment of its weathering state. The mechanical properties encompass the compressive and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, and the physical properties include the density and porosity. For this purpose, measurements of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulse velocity with distinct natural frequency of the transducers were carried out on specimens with different size and shape. A discussion of the factors that induce variations on the ultrasonic velocity is also provided. Additionally, statistical correlations between ultrasonic pulse velocity and mechanical and physical properties of granites are presented and discussed. The major output of the work is the confirmation that ultrasonic pulse velocity can be effectively used as a simple and economical nondestructive method for a preliminary prediction of mechanical and physical properties, as well as a tool for the assessment of the weathering changes of granites that occur during the serviceable life. This is of much interest due to the usual difficulties in removing specimens for mechanical characterization.

  4. Ice residual properties in mixed-phase clouds at the high-alpine Jungfraujoch site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiszewski, Piotr; Zanatta, Marco; Mertes, Stephan; Vochezer, Paul; Lloyd, Gary; Schneider, Johannes; Schenk, Ludwig; Schnaiter, Martin; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, Ernest; Gysel, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Ice residual (IR) and total aerosol properties were measured in mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) at the high-alpine Jungfraujoch research station. Black carbon (BC) content and coating thickness of BC-containing particles were determined using single-particle soot photometers. The ice activated fraction (IAF), derived from a comparison of IR and total aerosol particle size distributions, showed an enrichment of large particles in the IR, with an increase in the IAF from values on the order of 10-4 to 10-3 for 100 nm (diameter) particles to 0.2 to 0.3 for 1 μm (diameter) particles. Nonetheless, due to the high number fraction of submicrometer particles with respect to total particle number, IR size distributions were still dominated by the submicrometer aerosol. A comparison of simultaneously measured number size distributions of BC-free and BC-containing IR and total aerosol particles showed depletion of BC by number in the IR, suggesting that BC does not play a significant role in ice nucleation in MPCs at the Jungfraujoch. The potential anthropogenic climate impact of BC via the glaciation effect in MPCs is therefore likely to be negligible at this site and in environments with similar meteorological conditions and a similar aerosol population. The IAF of the BC-containing particles also increased with total particle size, in a similar manner as for the BC-free particles, but on a level 1 order of magnitude lower. Furthermore, BC-containing IR were found to have a thicker coating than the BC-containing total aerosol, suggesting the importance of atmospheric aging for ice nucleation.

  5. Nuclear materials thermo-physical property database and property analysis using the database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Seok

    2002-02-01

    It is necessary that thermo-physical properties and understand of nuclear materials for evaluation and analysis to steady and accident states of commercial and research reactor. In this study, development of nuclear materials thermo-properties database and home page. In application of this database, it is analyzed of thermal conductivity, heat capacity, enthalpy, and linear thermal expansion of fuel and cladding material and compared thermo-properties model in nuclear fuel performance evaluation codes with experimental data in database. Results of compare thermo-property model of UO 2 fuel and cladding major performance evaluation code, both are similar

  6. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HEARTWOOD AND SAPWOOD OF EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Cihad BAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some of the physical propertiesof heartwood and sapwood of Eucalyptus grandisgrown in Karabucak, Turkey were determined. Thephysical properties determined were air-drieddensity, oven-dried density, basic density, shrinkage,swelling, fiber saturation point, and maximummoisture content. According to the test results, thephysical properties of the heartwood samplesdiffered from those of the sapwood samples due tothe presence of high proportion of juvenile wood inthe heartwood. It can be said that the shrinkage andswelling percentages were better for heartwood thansapwood. Air-dried density, oven-dried density, andbasic density of sapwood were higher than those ofheartwood.

  7. Physical and performance properties of coal tar urethanes - pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickney, J.; Hendry, M.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review certain physical properties of coal tar extended urethane coatings designed specifically for use in the pipe coatings market. The blend of coal tar and urethane resins provides a novel finished product with properties cumulatively inherent in its constituents. Typically, coal tar and coal tar pitch offer exceptional water resistance and cathodic alkali resistance when blended with other resins. An example is the standard coal tar epoxies used for many years in the marine markets for shipbottoms

  8. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-04-15

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual aluminum concentrations after coagulation and filtration was investigated. The dissolved residual aluminum concentrations at a given coagulation pH differed among the PACls tested. Very-high-basicity PACl yielded low dissolved residual aluminum concentrations and higher natural organic matter (NOM) removal. The low residual aluminum concentrations were related to the low content of monomeric aluminum (Ala) in the PACl. Polymeric (Alb)/colloidal (Alc) ratio in PACl did not greatly influence residual aluminum concentration. The presence of sulfate in PACl contributed to lower residual aluminum concentration only when coagulation was performed at around pH 6.5 or lower. At a wide pH range (6.5-8.5), residual aluminum concentrations residual aluminum concentrations did not increase with increasing the dosage of high-basicity PACl, but did increase with increasing the dosage of normal-basicity PACl. We inferred that increasing the basicity of PACl afforded lower dissolved residual aluminum concentrations partly because the high-basicity PACls could have a small percentage of Ala, which tends to form soluble aluminum-NOM complexes with molecular weights of 100 kDa-0.45 μm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of physical imaging properties in various digital radiography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological technology, Shingu University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Su [Dept. of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Health and Environmental Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the physical imaging properties in various digital radiography systems with charged coupled device (CCD), computed radiography (CR), and indirect flat panel detector (FPD). The imaging properties measured in this study were modulation transfer function (MTF) wiener spectrum (WS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) to compare the performance of each digital radiography system. The system response of CCD were in a linear relationship with exposure and that of CR and FPD were proportional to the logarithm of exposure. The MTF of both CR and FPD indicated a similar tendency but in case of CCD, it showed lower MTF than that of CR and FPD. FPD showed the lowest WS and also indicated the highest DQE among three systems. According to the results, digital radiography system with different type of image receptor had its own image characteristics. Therefore, it is important to know the physical imaging characteristics of the digital radiography system accurately to obtain proper image quality.

  10. Cesium Eluate Evaporation Solubility and Physical Property Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The baseline flowsheet for low activity waste (LAW) in the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) includes pretreatment of supernatant by removing cesium using ion exchange. When the ion exchange column is loaded, the cesium will be eluted with a 0.5M nitric acid (HNO3) solution to allow the column to be conditioned for re-use. The cesium eluate solution will then be concentrated in a vacuum evaporator to minimize storage volume and recycle HNO3. To prevent the formation of solids during storage of the evaporator bottoms, criteria have been set for limiting the concentration of the evaporator product to 80 percent of saturation at 25 degrees C. A fundamental element of predicting evaporator product solubility is to collect data that can be used to estimate key operating parameters. The data must be able to predict evaporator behavior for a range of eluate concentrations that are evaporated to the point of precipitation. Parameters that were selected for modeling include solubility, density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Of central importance is identifying the effect of varying feed components on overall solubility. The point of solubility defines the upper limit for eluate evaporation operations and liquid storage. The solubility point also defines those chemical compounds that have the greatest effects on physical properties. Third, solubility behavior identifies intermediate points where physical property data should be measured for the database. Physical property data (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity) may be an integral part of tracking evaporator operations as they progress toward their end point. Once the data have been collected, statistical design software can develop mathematical equations that estimate solubility and other physical properties

  11. Structural and physical properties of Sm 3 doped magnesium zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samarium (Sm 3 + ) doped magnesium zinc sulfophosphate glass system of composition ( 60 – x )P 2 O 5 –20MgO–20ZnSO 4 – x Sm 2 O 3 ( x = 0.0 , 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol%) were synthesized using melt-quenching technique. The structure and physical properties of prepared glass samples were characterized.

  12. Effects of moisture content on some physical properties of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical properties of red pepper seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The average length, width and thickness were 4.46, 3.66 and 0.79 mm, respectively, at 7.27% d.b. moisture content. In the moisture range of 7.27 to 20.69% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted red pepper seed showed that the ...

  13. Generalized Spin Coherent States: Construction and Some Physical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrada, K.; El Baz, M.; Hassouni, Y.

    2009-12-01

    A generalized deformation of the su(2) algebra and a scheme for constructing associated spin coherent states is developed. The problem of resolving the unity operator in terms of these states is addressed and solved for some particular cases. The construction is carried using a deformation of Holstein-Primakoff realization of the su(2) algebra. The physical properties of these states is studied through the calculation of Mandel's parameter. (author)

  14. Physical and functional properties of breakfast cereals from maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed the following ranges of physical and functional properties; pH (4.70- 6.56), bulk density (0.29 - 0.71g/ml), water absorption capacity (68.31- 76.39%), oil absorption capacity (0.87- 1.32%), foam capacity (2.48- 3.49%), viscosity (19.73-31.08%), gelation temperature (121-157°C), emulsification capacity ...

  15. Some physical and mechanical properties of palm kernel shell (PKS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, some of the mechanical and physical properties of palm kernel shells (PKS) were evaluated. These are moisture content, 7.8325 ± 0.6672%; true density, 1.254 ± 5.292 x 10-3 g/cm3; bulk density, 1.1248g/cm3; mean rupture force along width, and thickness were 3174.52 ± 270.70N and 2806.94 ± 498.45N for ...

  16. Some physical properties of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical properties of spinach seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. Average length, width and thickness were 4.03, 3.51 and 2.44 mm, respectively, at 11.93% dry basis (d.b). moisture content. In the moisture range from 11.93 to 21.52% d.b. studies on rewetted spinach seed showed that the thousand ...

  17. Physical Properties and Antibacterial Efficacy of Biodegradable Chitosan Films

    OpenAIRE

    中島, 照夫

    2009-01-01

    [Synopsis] Chitin, chitosan and quaternary chitosan films were prepared, and the physical properties and the antibacterial activities of chitosan and quaternary chitosan films were evaluated. The tensile strength of chitin films was 30~40% lower than that of chitosan films, but the crystallinity of chitin film was much higher than that of chitosan films. The crystallinity and orientation of crystallites were hardly affected by the four kinds of solvent chosen to cast chitosan films, but a de...

  18. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Selected Rice Varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Physical and chemical properties of nine rice varieties grown and processed in Ebonyi State were studied. Average length and width of the tested varieties ranged between 6.31 and 7.63mm and 2.04 to 2.28mm respectively. All the grains are long grain but, Afikpo mars had the longest grain length of 7.63mm while ...

  19. Biochar Impacts on Soil Physical Properties and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar, a co-product of a controlled pyrolysis process, can be used as a tool for sequestering C in soil to offset greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and as a soil amendment. Whereas the impacts of biochar application on soil chemical properties are widely known, the research information on soil physical properties is scarce. The objectives of this review are to (i synthesize available data on soil physical properties and GHG emissions, (ii offer possible mechanisms related to the biochar-amended soil processes, and (iii identify researchable priorities. Application rates of 1%–2% (w/w of biochar can significantly improve soil physical quality in terms of bulk density (BD, and water holding capacity (WHC. However, little data are available on surface area (SA, aggregation stability, and penetration resistance (PR of biochar-amended soil. While biochar amendment can initially accentuate the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2, the emission of GHGs may be suppressed over time. A 2-phase complexation hypothesis is proposed regarding the mechanisms of the interaction between soil and biochar.

  20. IAEA NAPRO coordinated research project: physical properties of sodium - 15331

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passerini, S.; Gerardi, C.; Grandy, C.; Azpitarte, O.E.; Chocron, M.; Japas, M.L.; Bubelis, E.; Perez-Martin, S.; Jayaraj, S.; Roelofs, F.; Latge, C.; Gerschenfeld, A.; Long, Bin; Selvaraj, P.; Marinenko, E.; Zagorulko, Y.; Ohira, H.; Monti, S.

    2015-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recently established a CRP on 'Sodium properties and safe operation of experimental facilities in support of the development and deployment of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors - NAPRO', to be carried out in the period 2013-2017. The first phase of the CRP is focused on the collection and assessment of sodium properties, and it will lead to a consistent property data set which will be published in the form of a handbook. This work is carried out by the 11 participating organizations from 10 Member States through the review and evaluation of the existing available data, the identification of the data gaps and the development of recommendations for experimental programmes to support closing these data gaps. A specific work package (WP 1.1), under the leadership of Argonne National Laboratory, is focused on the analysis of physical properties of sodium: 19 thermodynamic properties (including gaseous state) and 12 transport properties. The expected outcome includes the improved understanding of the availability, accuracy and range of applications of sodium properties centered on fast reactors and other technological applications. The implemented methodology for WP 1.1 (including the division of work among participants and an overall overview of the collected references) is described and so the properties included in WP 1.1 and their classification. Major findings to date related to WP 1.1 are presented in this work, including detailed analysis of two selected properties. The availability of relevant data in principal and out-of-principal references is discussed. Finally, challenges encountered with the collection of references, uncertainty and lack of recent experimental investigation are also listed and adjustments to the methodological approach are proposed as future work. (authors)

  1. Defining allowable physical property variations for high accurate measurements on polymer parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A.; Sonne, M. R.; Madruga, D. G.; De Chiffre, L.; Hattel, J. H.

    2016-06-01

    Measurement conditions and material properties have a significant impact on the dimensions of a part, especially for polymers parts. Temperature variation causes part deformations that increase the uncertainty of the measurement process. Current industrial tolerances of a few micrometres demand high accurate measurements in non-controlled ambient. Most of polymer parts are manufactured by injection moulding and their inspection is carried out after stabilization, around 200 hours. The overall goal of this work is to reach ±5μm in uncertainty measurements a polymer products which is a challenge in today`s production and metrology environments. The residual deformations in polymer products at room temperature after injection molding are important when micrometer accuracy needs to be achieved. Numerical modelling can give a valuable insight to what is happening in the polymer during cooling down after injection molding. In order to obtain accurate simulations, accurate inputs to the model are crucial. In reality however, the material and physical properties will have some variations. Although these variations may be small, they can act as a source of uncertainty for the measurement. In this paper, we investigated how big the variation in material and physical properties are allowed in order to reach the 5 μm target on the uncertainty.

  2. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  3. DOE's process and implementation guidance for decommissioning, deactivation, decontamination, and remedial action of property with residual contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domotor, S.; Peterson, H. Jr.; Wallo, A. III

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents DOE's requirements, process, and implementation guidance for the control and release of property that may contain residual radioactive material. DOE requires that criteria and protocols for release of property be approved by DOE and that such limits be selected using DOE's As Low as is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) process. A DOE Implementation Guide discusses how the levels and details (e.g., cleanup volumes, costs of surveys, disposal costs, dose to workers and doses to members of the public, social and economic factors) of candidate release options are to be evaluated using DOE's ALARA process. Supporting tools and models for use within the analysis are also highlighted. (author)

  4. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.; Harbour, J.; Phifer, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  5. Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues--summary of field and laboratory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Håkan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens

  6. Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on Residual Stress and Tensile Properties for 6061 Al Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kijung; Cho, Young-Rae; Ko, Dea Hoon; Kim, Byung Min; Lim, Hak Jin; Lee, Jung Min

    2011-01-01

    To develop a 6061 aluminum alloy with low residual stress and high tensile strength, a cryogenic treatment process was investigated. Compared to the conventional heat treatment process for precipitation hardening with artificial aging, the cryogenic treatment process has two additional steps. The first step is cryogenic quenching of the sample into liquid nitrogen, the second step is up-hill quenching of the sample into boiling water. The residual stress for the sample was measured by the sin 2 ψ method with X-ray diffraction. The 6061 aluminum alloy sample showed 67% relief in stress at the cryogenic treatment process with artificial aging at 175°C. From this study, it was found that the optimum cryogenic treatment process for a sample with low residual stress and high tensile strength is relatively low cooling speed in the cryogenic quenching step and a very high heating speed in the up-hill quenching step.

  7. Chemical and physical properties of opencast lignite minesoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, C.; Vazquez, C.; Gonzalez-Sangregorio, M.V.; Leiros, M.C.; Gil-Sotres, F. (Facultad de Farmacia de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola)

    1993-09-01

    The evolution of chemical and physical properties in a series of mine soils aged between 0 and 5 years, developed from spoil materials of the Meirama opencast lignite mine in Galicia (NW Spain), was studied. The soils are recovered without use of topsoil and are subject to identical management. In the surface horizon (0-7 cm), total C and N, CEC, and pyrophosphate-extracted Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] increased with soil age. Oxalic-oxalate-extracted Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] and Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] on the other hand, increased with soil age in all the horizons studied. Rapid recovery in terms of physical properties was also observed: bulk density dropped, while total porosity, percentage of macropores, and hydraulic conductivity increased, and aggregates showed greater stability on immersion in water. The results indicate that mineral weathering and organometallic complexation are the dominant processes at these early stages of edaphogenesis and that properties associated with gas exchange showed more rapid development than those associated with water movement. In spite of the above rapid modifications, the characteristics of the oldest soils in the series were still very different from those of native Galician soils.

  8. Variability in soil physical properties in landslide-prone areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia d’Agosto Miguel Fonseca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the physical properties of the soil and relief in areas that are susceptible to landslides in the sub-basin of the Córrego do Yung, a creek in the urban district Três Moinhos of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. Depth measurements of the solum were made at the soil sampling points, and the subsurface material was collected and analyzed for the two factors of particle size and type of horizon. In the laboratory, we determined the hydraulic conductivity, bulk and particle density, and total porosity, macroporosity and microporosity. The values of the physical properties throughout the sub-basin were predicted and mapped. Thematic maps were generated and showed a relation to each other: the clay was related to a higher hydraulic conductivity, higher porosity and lower soil density. In the steeper areas, the greater silt contents were mapped in the deeper layers and indicated the thin thickness of horizon B in these areas. A close relation of the curvature with the soil thickness was detected and was greater in the flat areas with less slope. The geostatistical analysis showed that the range of values for the properties of macroporosity, microporosity and silt was the lowest in the deeper layers, indicating low structural continuity in potentially erodible areas.

  9. Physical and rheological properties of Titanium Dioxide modified asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhari, Rosnawati; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Khairul Ahmad, Mohd; Chong, Ai Ling; Haini, Rosli; Khatijah Abu Bakar, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) has been known as a useful photocatalytic material that is attributed to the several characteristics includes high photocatalytic activity compared with other metal oxide photocatalysts, compatible with traditional construction materials without changing any original performance. This study investigates the physical and rheological properties of modified asphalt with TiO2. Five samples of asphalt with different concentration of TiO2 were studied, namely asphalt 2%, 4%, 6% 8% and 10% TiO2. The tests includes are penetration, softening point, ductility, rotational viscosity and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) test. From the results of this study, it is noted that addition of TiO2 has significant effect on the physical properties of asphalt. The viscosity tests revealed that asphalt 10% TiO2 has good workability among with reducing approximately 15°C compared to base asphalt. Based on the results from DSR measurements, asphalt 10% TiO2 has reduced temperature susceptibility and increase stiffness and elastic behaviour in comparison to base asphalt. As a result, TiO2 can be considered to be an additive to modify the properties of asphalt.

  10. Study on the microstructure, mechanical property and residual stress of SLM Inconel-718 alloy manufactured by differing island scanning strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanjin; Wu, Songquan; Gan, Yiliang; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Chuanguang; Junjie, Lin; Lin, Jinxin

    2015-12-01

    Inconel-718 has received an extensive using in mold industry. The selective laser melting (SLM) is providing an ideal means for manufacturing mold insert with complex geometrical features and internal architecture. During the manufacturing of high quality mold inserts with conformal cooling channel, the parameters play a vital role in the SLM process. In the study, the Inconel-718 alloys were manufactured by SLM with 2×2 mm2, 3×3 mm2, 5×5 mm2, and 7×7 mm2 island scanning strategies. The microstructure, mechanical property, and residual stress were investigated by optical microscope, tensile test and Vickers micro-indentation, respectively. It can be found that the relative density increased with enlarging the island size; the results on the microstructure indicated that the cracks and more pores were detected in the 22-specimen; whilst the microstructures of all specimens were composed of fine dendritic grains, cellular, and columnar structures; the tensile testing suggested that the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of all samples was similar; while the outcome of the residual stress showed that the value of residual stress was ranked in the following sequence: 22-specimen<55-specimen<77-specimen<33-specimen. Although the 22-specimen had lower residual stress compared with the other groups, the occurrence of cracks limited its processing application in SLM. Through integrated into account, the 55-scanning strategy is a promising candidate for manufacturing of mold inserts.

  11. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub-surface soil, respectively, while R+ compared with fallow increased these properties by 33.7, 47.4, 21.4 and 32.2% at surface and 36.8, 51, 21.9 and 35.4% at sub-surface soil, respectively. Inclusion of mung bean with its residues incorporated and application of 20 t FYM ha-1 and reducing inorganic N fertilizer to 60 kg N ha-1 for wheat is recommended for improving microbiological properties of slightly eroded lands

  12. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FOUR SALIX SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Nisgoski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of Salix species in the manufacture of various products has been attracting interest towards the Salicaceae family in South America. This paper reports the physical and mechanical parameters of Salix viminalis L. (purple osier, Salix x rubens Schrank (basket willow, Salix purpurea Linné (purple willow and Salix sp., cultivated in the Canoas River Valley, in the Serra Catarinense region of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The evaluations were conducted with raw material, the most commonly used format in handcrafts, and the results indicate there are differences in physical and mechanical properties among the species. Salix viminalis and Salix purpurea were similar in density and in their modulus of elasticity, and had higher values of tensile and strength modulus than Salix x rubens and Salix sp.

  13. Improvement of physical properties of soyabeans by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Kwon, J.-H.; Mori, Tomohiko

    1993-01-01

    Physical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans were evaluated at different temperatures by determining water absorption pattern and cooking characteristics of the sample. Irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy caused the reduction of soaking time in soybeans by 2-5 hours and the increase of hydration capacity by 10-20%, respectively, compared to the non-irradiated control at 20 o C. The activation energy for water absorption was lower in irradiated soybeans than in the non-irradiated control. Irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy caused the reduction of cooking time in soybeans by 30-60% compared to the non-irradiated control and the cooking rate constant of irradiated samples was higher about 2 times than that of the non-irradiated control. The irradiation efficacy on physical quality improvement was also recognized in the stored soybeans for one year at room temperature. (author)

  14. Physical properties of W gravities and W strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Dhar, A.; Rama, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates some basic physical properties of W gravities and W strings, using a free field realization. The authors argue that the configuration space of W gravities have global characteristics in addition to the Euler characteristic. The authors identify one such global quantity to be a monopole charge and show how this charge appears in the exponents. The free energy would then involve a θ parameter. Using a BRST procedure the authors find all the physical states of W 3 and W 4 gravities, and show that physical operators are nonsingular composites of the screening charge operators. (The latter are not physical operators for N ≥ 3.) For W strings we show how the W constraints lead to the emergence of a single (and not many) extra dimension coming from the W-gravity sector. By analyzing the resulting dispersion relations the authors find that both the lower and upper critical dimensions are lowered compared to ordinary two-dimensional gravity. The pure W gravity spectrum reveals an intriguing numerological connection with unitary minimal models coupled to ordinary gravity

  15. Synergistic analyses of optical and microphysical properties of agricultural crop residue burning aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Shibata, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). The present study deals with the spatial variability including the vertical structure of optical and microphysical properties of aerosols, during the crop residue burning season (October and November) of 2009 over the IGB. Increased number of fire counts observed by MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) that is associated with high aerosol optical depth (MODIS-AOD > 0.7) and enhanced tropospheric columnar NO2 concentrations observed by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), suggests agriculture crop residue burning as a main source of aerosol loading over the IGB during October and November. PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar) observations show an increase in fine mode AOD (at 865 nm) from October (0.1-0.2) to November (0.2-0.3) over the IGB, which is well corroborated with MODIS observations. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) data shows the elevated aerosol plume (4.0-4.5 km) over the north-west IGB (associated with burning activities) that could have been caused by positive buoyancy through pyro-convection. However, large concentrations of aerosol were found below 1.0 km altitude. The averaged vertical structure of crop residue burning aerosols shows an exponential decrease with altitude (mean scale height ˜1.44 ± 0.20 km). Aerosol optical and microphysical properties coupled with backward air trajectories analyses at Kanpur indicated regional transport of biomass burning aerosols in a downwind direction from north-west IGB to south-east IGB. Aerosol classification, using AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)-derived absorption properties coupled with size parameter (2006-2010) showed clear seasonal dependency of aerosol types which revealed the presence of biomass burning aerosols only during the crop

  16. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  17. Chemical and physical properties of bone cement for vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Liang Lai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral compression fracture is the most common complication of osteoporosis. It may result in persistent severe pain and limited mobility, and significantly impacts the quality of life. Vertebroplasty involves a percutaneous injection of bone cement into the collapsed vertebrae by fluorescent guide. The most commonly used bone cement in percutaneous vertebroplasty is based on the polymerization of methylmethacrylate monomers to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA polymers. However, information on the properties of bone cement is mostly published in the biomaterial sciences literature, a source with which the clinical community is generally unfamiliar. This review focuses on the chemistry of bone cement polymerization and the physical properties of PMMA. The effects of altering the portions and contents of monomer liquid and polymer powders on the setting time, polymerization temperature, and compressive strength of the cement are also discussed. This information will allow spine surgeons to manipulate bone cement characteristics for specific clinical applications and improve safety.

  18. Physical properties of coriander seeds at different moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Singh, K. K.; Kumar, R.

    2012-10-01

    Physical properties of coriander seeds were determined at moisture content of 3.5-17.7%, d.b. The major axis and 1 000 seeds mass were found to decrease nonlinearly with increase in seed moisture. The medium and minor axes, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, unit volume, surface area and angle of repose increased linearly. Bulk density decreased linearly, however the true density increased non-linearly. The coefficient of static friction increased nonlinearly for different surfaces with increase in moisture level and its maximum was found for plywood surface. The rupture force and energy absorbed decreased linearly with increasing moisture content.

  19. Vanadium Doped Tungsten Oxide Material - Electrical Physical and Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin N. Y.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical physical and sensing (to VOCs and inorganic gases properties of vanadium doped tungsten oxide in the regions of phase transition temperature were investigated. Vanadium oxide (II dimerization was observed in the doped material, corresponding to new phase transition. The extreme sensitivity and selectivity to chemically active gases and vapors in small concentrations: CO, NOx, NH3 acetone, ethanol near phase transitions temperature was found. Sensor elements were manufactured for the quantitative detection (close to 1 ppm of alcohol and ammonia.

  20. Physical and chemical properties of wami tilapia skin gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Da Trindade Alfaro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin was extracted from the skin of tilapia (Oreochromis urolepis hornorum and characterized according to its physical and chemical properties. It had pH 4.66, which is slightly higher than the values reported for gelatins processed by acid solubilization. In general, the ionic content was low, and the average yield of the process was 5.10 g/100 g. The proximal composition of the gelatin was similar to that of the commercial gelatins, with slightly higher moisture content. The tilapia skin gelatin had whitish-yellow color and average turbidity of 67 NTU.

  1. Physical and chemical properties of wami tilapia skin gelatin

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro, Alexandre Da Trindade; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Balbinot, Evellin; Machado, Alessandra; Prentice, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin was extracted from the skin of tilapia (Oreochromis urolepis hornorum) and characterized according to its physical and chemical properties. It had pH 4.66, which is slightly higher than the values reported for gelatins processed by acid solubilization. In general, the ionic content was low, and the average yield of the process was 5.10 g/100 g. The proximal composition of the gelatin was similar to that of the commercial gelatins, with slightly higher moisture content. The tilapia ski...

  2. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of Phaeodactylum tricornutum microalgal residual biomass.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    German-Baez, L.J.; Valdez-Flores, M.A.; Felix-Medina, J.V.; Norzagaray-Valenzuela, C.D.; Santos-Ballardo, D.U.; Reyes-Moreno, C.; Shelton, L.M.; Valdez-Ortiz, A.

    2017-01-01

    The production of photosynthetic biofuels using microalgae is a promising strategy to combat the use of non-renewable energy sources. The microalgae residual biomass is a waste by-product of biofuel production; however, it could prove to have utility in the development of sustainable nutraceuticals

  3. Microstructural changes and residual properties of fiber reinforced cement composites exposed to elevated temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppert, M.; Vejmelková, E.; Švarcová, Silvie; Bezdička, Petr; Černý, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2012), s. 77-89 ISSN 1425-8129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : fiber reinforced cementcomposites * high temperatures * mineralodical composition * microstructure * residual strength * apparent moisture diffusivity Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.385, year: 2012

  4. Mutation of tryptophan residues in lipoprotein lipase. Effects on stability, immunoreactivity, and catalytic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lookene, A.; Groot, N. B.; Kastelein, J. J.; Olivecrona, G.; Bruin, T.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies had pointed to an important function of a putative exposed loop in the C-terminal domain of lipoprotein lipase for activity against emulsified lipid substrates. This loop contains 3 tryptophan residues (Trp390, Trp393, and Trp394). We have expressed and characterized lipase mutants

  5. Residual Tensile Strength and Bond Properties of GFRP Bars after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Devon S; Tabatabai, Habib; Nabizadeh, Azam

    2018-02-27

    The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars in reinforced concrete members enhances corrosion resistance when compared to traditional steel reinforcing bars. Although there is ample research available on the behavior of FRP bars and concrete members reinforced with FRP bars under elevated temperatures (due to fire), there is little published information available on their post-fire residual load capacity. This paper reports residual tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and bond strength (to concrete) of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars after exposure to elevated temperatures of up to 400 °C and subsequent cooling to an ambient temperature. The results showed that the residual strength generally decreases with increasing temperature exposure. However, as much as 83% of the original tensile strength and 27% of the original bond strength was retained after the specimens were heated to 400 °C and then cooled to ambient temperature. The residual bond strength is a critical parameter in post-fire strength assessments of GFRP-reinforced concrete members.

  6. Compatibility of vegetable fibers with Portland cement and its relationship with the physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Marques

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of vegetable fiber residue in cementitious matrices can be a sustainable technological alternative; however, it still has problems related to the chemical compatibility between the cement and the fibers. The present study evaluated the compatibility of vegetable fibers with cement using three methods of calculation and determined certain physical properties of the fibers and the curve of the temporal evolution of temperature for each composite. The surfaces of the composites were evaluated through atomic force microscope images and the results showed that the pretreatment of fiber washing significantly favors the compatibility with cement for fibers of eucalyptus, coconut and cocoa, with no influence for water hyacinth fiber. Bivariate correlation analyses showed that the compatibility of the composites is favored by the reduction in the degree of swelling, packing density and specific mass. The results showed that there is a potential use of plant fiber in civil construction and that the physical properties of each type of fiber can offer elements for its selection and pretreatment.

  7. 41 CFR 109-1.5110 - Physical inventories of personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... property records, and with applicable financial control accounts. (j) The results of physical inventories... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Physical inventories of...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5110 Physical inventories of...

  8. 31 CFR 593.204 - Expenses of maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... physical property; liquidation of blocked account. 593.204 Section 593.204 Money and Finance: Treasury... maintaining blocked physical property; liquidation of blocked account. (a) Except as otherwise authorized, and... to the maintenance of physical property blocked pursuant to § 593.201(a) shall be the responsibility...

  9. Physical-chemical property based sequence motifs and methods regarding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Werner [Friendswood, TX; Mathura, Venkatarajan S [Sarasota, FL; Schein, Catherine H [Friendswood, TX

    2008-09-09

    A data analysis system, program, and/or method, e.g., a data mining/data exploration method, using physical-chemical property motifs. For example, a sequence database may be searched for identifying segments thereof having physical-chemical properties similar to the physical-chemical property motifs.

  10. SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA, DAN FUNGSIONAL DAMAR [Brief Review on: Physical, Chemical and Functional Properties of Dammar

    OpenAIRE

    Noryawati Mulyono1); Anton Apriyantono2)

    2004-01-01

    Dammar is one of Indonesian forestry products which is abundant. It has unique physical, chemical and functional properties. The important physical properties of dammar include its solubility in some organic solvents, softening temperature, viscosity and its absorbance. The important chemical properties reviewed here include its properties as resin, composition of terpenoid compounds present in dammar, and essential oil yielded from distillation of fresh dammar. Physical and chemical properti...

  11. Correlation between some mechanical and physical properties of polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Shinichi; Fujisaki, Katsuo

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of polycrystalline graphites, tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength, Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, electrical resistivity, volume fraction of porosity, and graphitisation were measured for ten brand graphites. Correlation between the mechanical and physical properties of the graphites were studied. Young's modulus and thermal expansion coefficient of the graphites depend on volume fraction of porosity. The Young's modulus of the graphites tended to increase with increasing the thermal expansion coefficient. For an anisotropic graphite, an interesting relationship between the Young's modulus E and the thermal expansion coefficient al pha was found in any specimen orientations; alpha E=constant. The value of alphah E was dependent upon the volume fraction of porosity. It should be noted here that the electrical resistivity increased with decreasing grain size. The flexural and the compressive strength were related with the volume fraction of porosity while the tensile strength was not, The relationships between the tensile, the compressive and the flexural strength can be approximately expressed as linear functions over a wide range of the stresses. (author)

  12. Hypoxia alters the physical properties of the tumor microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkes, Daniele

    Of all the deaths attributed to cancer, 90% are due to metastasis, or the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant organs, and treatments that prevent or cure metastasis remain elusive. Emerging data indicate that low oxygen states within a tumor, termed hypoxia, can alter the chemical and physical parameters of the extracellular matrix (ECM), or scaffold of the tumor tissue. These changes generate a microenvironment that may be more conducive for promoting metastasis. During tumor evolution, changes in the composition and the overall content of the ECM reflect both its biophysical and biological properties and these strongly influence the cells properties, such as cellular proliferation and cell motility. The talk will cover how hypoxia arises within normal tissue and also in tumors. We will cover the role of hypoxia in collagen biogenesis which influences compositional changes to the tumor microenvironment and discuss how these changes lead to a stiffer tumor stroma. The challenges in determining the influence of chemical versus physical cues on cancer progression will also be considered.

  13. Measuring (bio)physical tree properties using accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Hut, Rolf; Gentine, Pierre; Selker, John; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Trees play a crucial role in the water, carbon and nitrogen cycle on local, regional and global scales. Understanding the exchange of heat, water, and CO2 between trees and the atmosphere is important to assess the impact of drought, deforestation and climate change. Unfortunately, ground measurements of tree dynamics are often expensive, or difficult due to challenging environments. We demonstrate the potential of measuring (bio)physical properties of trees using robust and affordable acceleration sensors. Tree sway is dependent on e.g. mass and wind energy absorption of the tree. By measuring tree acceleration we can relate the tree motion to external loads (e.g. precipitation), and tree (bio)physical properties (e.g. mass). Using five months of acceleration data of 19 trees in the Brazilian Amazon, we show that the frequency spectrum of tree sway is related to mass, precipitation, and canopy drag. This presentation aims to show the concept of using accelerometers to measure tree dynamics, and we acknowledge that the presented example applications is not an exhaustive list. Further analyses are the scope of current research, and we hope to inspire others to explore additional applications.

  14. Understanding the physical properties of hybrid perovskites for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinsong; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Yan, Yanfa

    2017-07-01

    New photovoltaic materials have been searched for in the past decades for clean and renewable solar energy conversion with an objective of reducing the levelized cost of electricity (that is, the unit price of electricity over the course of the device lifetime). An emerging family of semiconductor materials — organic-inorganic halide perovskites (OIHPs) — are the focus of the photovoltaic research community owing to their use of low cost, nature-abundant raw materials, low-temperature and scalable solution fabrication processes, and, in particular, the very high power conversion efficiencies that have been achieved within the short time of their development. In this Review, we summarize and critically assess the most recent advances in understanding the physical properties of both 3D and low-dimensional OIHPs that favour a small open-circuit voltage deficit and high power conversion efficiency. Several prominent topics in this field on the unique properties of OIHPs are surveyed, including defect physics, ferroelectricity, exciton dissociation processes, carrier recombination lifetime and photon recycling. The impact of ion migration on solar cell efficiency and stability are also critically analysed. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges in the commercialization of OIHP photovoltaics.

  15. Physical properties of heat-treated rattan waste binderless particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Maisarah; Ahmad, Zuraida; Halim, Zahurin; Maleque, Md Abd; Ismail, Hanafi; Sarifuddin, Norshahida

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of heat treatment on the properties of binderless particleboard (BPB) fabricated via hot-pressing process with pressing temperature, pressing time and pressing pressure of 180°C, 5 minutes and 1 MPa, respectively. The fabricated BPB with density in the range of 0.8-0.95g cm-3 was heated in a temperature-controlled laboratory chamber at 80°C, 120°C and 160°C for period of 2 and 8 hours before underwent physical observation, mass loss measurement and thickness swelling test. The samples had remarkable color changes, mainly with samples of treatment temperature of 160˚C, where the color differences were 9.5 and 20.3. This changed the fabricated BPB samples from yellowish brown to dark brown color when treatment conditions increased. Darker color indicates greater mass loss due to severity of chemical component in the powder. Dimensional stability of fabricated BPB was improved with higher treatment temperature as more cellulose cross-linked and hemicellulose degraded that removed the hygroscopicity behavior of powder. These results revealed that heat treatment helped in improving the BPB physical properties, particularly in dimensional stability of boards.

  16. Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions

  17. Investigating the properties of residues. Characterization of pellets from fermentation residues; Den Eigenschaften der Reststoffe auf der Spur. Untersuchung widmet sich der Charakterisierung von Pellets aus Gaerresten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzeisen, Martin; Mueller, Joachim [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Starcevic, Nikica [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik; Strabag Umweltanlagen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Projekt Produktentwicklung/Schlammbehandlung

    2009-09-15

    Fermentation residues are by-products of the biogas process. Farmers use them as fertilizers, but as the size of biogas plants grows, so does the residues volume. It is now too much for local use, and transport to other sites is expensive. Fuel pellets production may be an alternative. Pellets from fermentation residues are not accepted as yet because too little is known about their characteristics. The contribution describes an investigation that intends to identify the fuel characteristics of pellets from fermentation residues. (orig.)

  18. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  19. Determination of Thermal Properties and Morphology of Eucalyptus Wood Residue Filled High Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Kabakci

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behaviors of eucalyptus wood residue (EWR filled recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE composites have been measured applying the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Morphology of the materials was also studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM. Addition of the EWR into the recycled HDPE matrix reduced the starting of degradation temperature. EWR filled recycled HDPE had two main decomposition peaks, one for EWR around 350 °C and one for recycled HDPE around 460 °C. Addition of EWR did not affect the melting temperature of the recycled HDPE. Morphological study showed that addition of coupling agent improved the compatibility between wood residue and recycled HDPE.

  20. Influence of lubricant oil residual fraction on recycled high density polyethylene properties and plastic packaging reverse logistics proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Moraes Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To recycle post-consumer HDPE contaminated with waste lubricating oils, companies include prior washing and drying in the process. This consumes large amounts of water and energy, generates significant effluent requiring treatment. This study assesses lubricating oil influence on HDPE properties to evaluate the feasibility of its direct mechanical recycling without washing. The current lubricating oil packaging reverse logistics in Rio de Janeiro municipality is also analyzed. HDPE bottle samples were processed with seven oil contents ranging from 1.6-29.4 (wt%. The results indicated the possibility to reprocess the polymer with oily residue not exceeding 3.2%. At higher levels, the external oil lubricating action affects the plastic matrix processing in the extruder and injection, and the recycled material has a burnt oil odor and free oil on the surface. Small residual oil amounts retain the plastic properties comparable to the washed recycled polymer and exhibited benefits associated with the oil plasticizer action. However, oil presence above 7.7% significantly changes the properties and reduces the elasticity and flexural modulus and the plastic matrix crystallinity.

  1. Minimizing residual aluminum concentration in treated water by tailoring properties of polyaluminum coagulants

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Masaoki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Kenta; Ishikawa, Tairyo B.; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum coagulants are widely used in water treatment plants to remove turbidity and dissolved substances. However, because high aluminum concentrations in treated water are associated with increased turbidity and because aluminum exerts undeniable human health effects, its concentration should be controlled in water treatment plants, especially in plants that use aluminum coagulants. In this study, the effect of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) coagulant characteristics on dissolved residual al...

  2. Impact of repeated long term application of atrazine on soil properties and bound residues formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behki, R.; Khan, S.U.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of repeated long term application of the herbicide atrazine on the activities of microorganisms, enzymes, as well as on the bound residues formation, was investigated. Bacteria, fungi and soil respiration were in general inhibited in the first year of application. However, in the second and third year no such trend was observed. Similarly, a decreasing trend in the Fe(III)-reduction, nitrification and arginine deamination was observed in the first year whereas in the subsequent two years no such trend was prominent. The dehydrogenase and arylsulfatase activities showed an increasing trend after the application of the herbicide. Column studies showed that extractable residues of atrazine and carbofuran gradually decreased after the application of the pesticides. Amendments of the soil containing 14 C-bound residues did not increase 14 CO 2 evolution. Unextractable 14 C was higher and mineralization of 14 C-2,4-D was lower in previously untreated soil than in soils with histories of atrazine and carbofuran application. (author)

  3. Properties of residual marine fuel produced by thermolysis from polypropylene waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Miknius

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal degradation of waste plastics with the aim of producing liquid fuel is one of the alternative solutions to landfill disposal or incineration. The paper describes thermal conversion of polypropylene waste and analysis of produced liquid fuel that would satisfy ISO 8217-2012 requirements for a residual marine fuel. Single pass batch thermolysis processes were conducted at different own vapour pressures (20-80 barg that determined process temperature, residence time of intermediates what resulted in different yields of the liquid product. Obtained products were stabilized by rectification to achieve required standard flash point. Gas chromatography and 1H NMR spectrometry show aliphatic nature of the liquid product where majority of the compounds are isoalkanes and isoalkenes. Only lightest fractions boiling up to a temperature of 72 oC have significant amount of n-pentane. Distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons is not even along the boiling range. The fractions boiling at a temperature of 128 oC and 160 oC have the highest content of monocyclic arenes – 3.16 % and 4.09 % respectively. The obtained final liquid residual product meets all but one requirements of ISO 8217-2012 for residual marine fuels.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6105

  4. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  5. Optical and Physical Properties of ONP Deinked Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Akbarpoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are protein molecules with complex structures that accelerate the biochemical reactions. Activity of these chemical compounds is accomplished at limited range of pH, temperature and concentration. In this study, the effects of different concentrations of cellulose enzyme were investigated on deinking of old newsprint. Old newsprint (ONP was repulped at 5% consistency for 10 minutes in disintegrator with total revolution number of 26500. Enzymatic treatments of recycled ONP pulp were done under constant conditions (10% consistency,treatment time of 15 minutes, pH range of 5-5.5 at different cellulose concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% (based on oven-dry waste paper. The optical and physical properties of the standard paper (60g/m2 made at different concentrations of cellulose were evaluated in comparison with control pulp (untreated ONP pulp with cellulase. Overall, the results achieved by comparison the optical properties of the paper produced indicated that using cellulase in deinking of ONP led to increase the brightness and the yellowness and decrease the opacity. The brightness was improved to a maximum level of 47.5 ISO %, but the yellowness was decreased to a minimum level of 11.3 ISO %, while the brightness reduced and the yellowness increased at higher concentrations than 0.05% cellulase. The highest opacity of 99.3 ISO % was achieved using 0.1% cellulase even higher than control pulp. The results gained by comparison the physical properties of the paper showed that using cellulase resulted in decrease of paper calliper, air resistance and density and improve the freeness of pulp

  6. Physical Properties of Ethyl Methacrylate as a Bolus in Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atousa Montaseri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bolus is a soft and resilient material which is used for increasing skin dose or to even out the irregular patient contour. The main property of various materials used presently as bolus is the water-equivalent electron density. Ethyl methacrylate is used as a soft-liner in dentistry and its physical and chemical properties are proved to be nontoxic for human body. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of using this material as bolus in radiotherapy and also evaluating some parameters such as mass, electron densities, and transmission factors. Materials and Methods Computed tomography data from the sample material were acquired to assess mass and electron densities with various techniques (mA and kVp. Circular ROIs were delineated on CT DICOM images and densities were calculated using CT numbers. Transmission factors were calculated for 6 and 18 MV. Results Evaluation of our results are evident that showed that mass and electron densities of ethyl methacrylate are similar to those of water and soft tissue. Furthermore, transmission factors are close to those of water. Conclusion According to the results of this study and other properties such as flexibility and harmlessness, it seems that ethyl methacrylate is a suitable material to be used as bolus in radiotherapy.

  7. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of wonder kelp--Laminaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Bhatnagar, Ira

    2011-01-01

    Laminaria is a kelp that finds its place in the brown algae family. It has been an area of study for past many years, and its wonderful biological properties have always attracted medical professionals and researchers to explore more and more from this wonder kelp. The constituents of Laminaria include iodine, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. Iodine compounds, TEA-hydroiodide in particular, are great lipolytic agents as they stimulate lipase activity. Laminarins on the other hand are used as a tumor angiogenic blocker. This genus of the kelps is also rich in algin, a high molecular weight polysaccharide that forms viscous colloidal solutions or gels in water leading to the use of kelp derivatives as bulk laxatives. It has great applications in cosmeceutical science, as well as some antibacterial properties have also been assigned to Laminaria. A deeper insight into the physical, biological, and chemical properties of this wonder kelp would lead to further exploitation of Laminaria for medicinal and cosmeceutical purpose. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciesla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Le Tien, C.

    2004-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling

  9. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Briquettes Produced from Energy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oľga Urbanovičová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the use of energy crops for the production of thermal energy in the form of briquettes and devising appropriate parameters for their production. Briquettes were produced from seven kinds of energy crops, Salix viminalis, Miscanthus sinensis, Rosa multiflora, Polygonum sachalinensis, Helianthus tuberosus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina pectinata, specifically. In the production of briquettes, moisture is the most important properties of material to be pressed, which ranges from 8 to 15 % as it was observed. At a higher humidity it has not been possible to produce briquettes farther in the study conditions. Another important condition for the successful production of briquettes was the particle size of chopped mass. The optimum particle size range from 8 to 20 %. The briquettes were pressed at a pressure of 21 MPa and with diameter of 50 %. Subsequently, physical and mechanical properties (density, moisture, mechanical resistance and chemical properties (chlorine, iron, nitrogen, calcium, ash, lignin content were measured. The briquettes density reached from 800 to 900 kg.m−3 with calorific value from 14 to 19 MJ.kg−1 which refers to fact that energy crops are competitive to fossil fuels by their calorific value.

  10. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  11. Identification of Soil Properties and Organophosphate Residues From Agricultural Land in Wanasari Sub-District, Brebes, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joko, Tri; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Rachmawati, Savitri

    2018-02-01

    Organophosphates have been used to eradicate pests and prevent losses from harvest failures caused by pest attack. It is undeniable that the organophosphate persist in soil. This study aims to identify the organophosphate residue and soil properties include pH, soil texture, and permeability. The soil samples were taken from cropland in 10 villages, Wanasari sub-district, Brebes, Indonesia. Organophosphate residue determined by gas chromatography using Flame Photometric Detector. Soil texture was determined by soil texture triangle from NRCS USDA, and the permeability value was determined by falling head method. The mean value of chlorpyrifos, profenofos, diazinon were 0.0078; 0.0388; 0.2271 mg/l respectively. The soil texture varies from clay, silt clay, loam, silt loam, and silt clay loam with permeability value at 10-7 with the soil pH value between 6.4 - 8.1. The results showed that organophosphate residues found in the soil and its potential affect the soil fertility decline. We recommend to conduct routine soil quality analysis to prevent soil damage in the agricultural environment.

  12. Prediction of hydrodynamic and other solution properties of rigid proteins from atomic- and residue-level models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A; Amorós, D; García de la Torre, J

    2011-08-17

    Here we extend the ability to predict hydrodynamic coefficients and other solution properties of rigid macromolecular structures from atomic-level structures, implemented in the computer program HYDROPRO, to models with lower, residue-level resolution. Whereas in the former case there is one bead per nonhydrogen atom, the latter contains one bead per amino acid (or nucleotide) residue, thus allowing calculations when atomic resolution is not available or coarse-grained models are preferred. We parameterized the effective hydrodynamic radius of the elements in the atomic- and residue-level models using a very large set of experimental data for translational and rotational coefficients (intrinsic viscosity and radius of gyration) for >50 proteins. We also extended the calculations to very large proteins and macromolecular complexes, such as the whole 70S ribosome. We show that with proper parameterization, the two levels of resolution yield similar and rather good agreement with experimental data. The new version of HYDROPRO, in addition to considering various computational and modeling schemes, is far more efficient computationally and can be handled with the use of a graphical interface. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilization of steel, pulp and paper industry solid residues in forest soil amendment: relevant physicochemical properties and heavy metal availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Watkins, Gary; Pöykiö, Risto; Nurmesniemi, Hannu; Dahl, Olli

    2012-03-15

    Industrial residue application to soil was investigated by integrating granulated blast furnace or converter steel slag with residues from the pulp and paper industry in various formulations. Specimen analysis included relevant physicochemical properties, total element concentrations (HCl+HNO3 digestion, USEPA 3051) and chemical speciation of chosen heavy metals (CH3COOH, NH2OH·HCl and H2O2+H2O2+CH3COONH4, the BCR method). Produced matrices showed liming effects comparable to commercial ground limestone and included significant quantities of soluble vital nutrients. The use of converter steel slag, however, led to significant increases in the total concentrations of Cr and V. Subsequently, total Cr was attested to occur as Cr(III) by Na2CO3+NaOH digestion followed by IC UV/VIS-PCR (USEPA 3060A). Additionally, 80.6% of the total concentration of Cr (370 mg kg(-1), d.w.) occurred in the residual fraction. However, 46.0% of the total concentration of V (2470 mg kg(-1), d.w.) occurred in the easily reduced fraction indicating potential bioavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychometric properties of the PROMIS Physical Function item bank in patients receiving physical therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine H P Crins

    Full Text Available The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS is a universally applicable set of instruments, including item banks, short forms and computer adaptive tests (CATs, measuring patient-reported health across different patient populations. PROMIS CATs are highly efficient and the use in practice is considered feasible with little administration time, offering standardized and routine patient monitoring. Before an item bank can be used as CAT, the psychometric properties of the item bank have to be examined. Therefore, the objective was to assess the psychometric properties of the Dutch-Flemish PROMIS Physical Function item bank (DF-PROMIS-PF in Dutch patients receiving physical therapy.Cross-sectional study.805 patients >18 years, who received any kind of physical therapy in primary care in the past year, completed the full DF-PROMIS-PF (121 items.Unidimensionality was examined by Confirmatory Factor Analysis and local dependence and monotonicity were evaluated. A Graded Response Model was fitted. Construct validity was examined with correlations between DF-PROMIS-PF T-scores and scores on two legacy instruments (SF-36 Health Survey Physical Functioning scale [SF36-PF10] and the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability-Index [HAQ-DI]. Reliability (standard errors of theta was assessed.The results for unidimensionality were mixed (scaled CFI = 0.924, TLI = 0.923, RMSEA = 0.045, 1th factor explained 61.5% of variance. Some local dependence was found (8.2% of item pairs. The item bank showed a broad coverage of the physical function construct (threshold-parameters range: -4.28-2.33 and good construct validity (correlation with SF36-PF10 = 0.84 and HAQ-DI = -0.85. Furthermore, the DF-PROMIS-PF showed greater reliability over a broader score-range than the SF36-PF10 and HAQ-DI.The psychometric properties of the DF-PROMIS-PF item bank are sufficient. The DF-PROMIS-PF can now be used as short forms or CAT to measure the level of

  15. Durability of cement-based materials: modeling of the influence of physical and chemical equilibria on the microstructure and the residual mechanical properties; Durabilite des materiaux cimentaires: modelisation de l'influence des equilibres physico-chimiques sur la microstructure et les proprietes mecaniques residuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillon, E

    2004-09-15

    A large part of mechanical and durability characteristics of cement-based materials comes from the performances of the hydrated cement, cohesive matrix surrounding the granular skeleton. Experimental studies, in situ or in laboratory, associated to models, have notably enhanced knowledge on the cement material and led to adapted formulations to specific applications or particularly aggressive environments. Nevertheless, these models, developed for precise cases, do not permit to specifically conclude for other experimental conclusions. To extend its applicability domain, we propose a new evolutive approach, based on reactive transport expressed at the microstructure scale of the cement. In a general point of view, the evolution of the solid compounds of the cement matrix, by dissolutions or precipitations, during chemical aggressions can be related to the pore solution evolution, and this one relied to the ionic exchanges with the external environment. By the utilization of a geochemical code associated to a thermodynamical database and coupled to a 3D transport model, this approach authorizes the study of all aggressive solution. The approach has been validated by the comparison of experimental observations to simulated degradations for three different environments (pure water, mineralized water, seawater) and on three different materials (CEM I Portland cement with 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 water-to cement ratio). The microstructural approach permits also to have access to mechanical properties evolutions. During chemical aggressions, the cement matrix evolution is traduced in a microstructure evolution. This one is represented from 3D images similarly to the models developed at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). A new finite-element model, validated on previous tests or models, evaluates the stiffness of the cement paste, using as a mesh these microstructures. Our approach identifies and quantifies the major influence of porosity and its spatial

  16. Statistical properties of proportional residual energy intake as a new measure of energetic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Pouya

    2017-08-01

    Traditional ratio measures of efficiency, including feed conversion ratio (FCR), gross milk efficiency (GME), gross energy efficiency (GEE) and net energy efficiency (NEE) may have some statistical problems including high correlations with milk yield. Residual energy intake (REI) or residual feed intake (RFI) is another criterion, proposed to overcome the problems attributed to the traditional ratio criteria, but it does not account for production or intake levels. For example, the same REI value could be considerable for low producing and negligible for high producing cows. The aim of this study was to propose a new measure of efficiency to overcome the problems attributed to the previous criteria. A total of 1478 monthly records of 268 lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In addition to FCR, GME, GEE, NEE and REI, a new criterion called proportional residual energy intake (PREI) was calculated as REI to net energy intake ratio and defined as proportion of net energy intake lost as REI. The PREI had an average of -0·02 and range of -0·36 to 0·27, meaning that the least efficient cow lost 0·27 of her net energy intake as REI, while the most efficient animal saved 0·36 of her net energy intake as less REI. Traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) had high correlations with milk and fat corrected milk yields (absolute values from 0·469 to 0·816), while the REI and PREI had low correlations (0·000 to 0·069) with milk production. The results showed that the traditional ratio criteria (FCR, GME, GEE and NEE) are highly influenced by production traits, while the REI and PREI are independent of production level. Moreover, the PREI adjusts the REI magnitude for intake level. It seems that the PREI could be considered as a worthwhile measure of efficiency for future studies.

  17. Influence of Surface Properties and Impact Conditions on Insect Residue Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Shanahan, Michelle H.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Penner, Ronald K.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2015-01-01

    Airflow over airfoils used on current commercial aircraft transitions from laminar to turbulent at relatively low chord positions. As a result, drag increases, requiring more thrust to maintain flight. An airfoil with increased laminar flow would experience reduced drag and a lower fuel burn rate. One of the objectives of NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation project is to identify and demonstrate technologies that will enable more environmentally friendly commercial aircraft. While more aerodynamically efficient airfoil shapes can be designed, surface contamination from ice, dirt, pollen, runway debris, and insect residue can degrade performance.

  18. CHANGES IN THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fortuna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the physical properties of breadcrumb during five days of storage in vacuum containers and polyethylene bags. On the basis of result it was stated, that storage of baguettes in vacuum condition and in polyethylene foil did not prevent the staling of breadcrumb. Hardness of breadcrumb stored in plastic bags on the fifth day was higher than hardness of bread stored in vacuum containers. The others texture values did not differ significantly on the fifth day of storage between packaging methods. The changes in water activity values both in vacuum containers and polyethylene bags were negligible during storage. Increase in lightness and decrease in yellowness were observed over the storage period, regardless of packaging method, while the values of a* remained essentially unchanged.doi:10.5219/194

  19. Dynamic simulation of flash drums using rigorous physical property calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of flash drums is simulated using a formulation adequate for phase modeling with equations of state (EOS. The energy and mass balances are written as differential equations for the internal energy and the number of moles of each species. The algebraic equations of the model, solved at each time step, are those of a flash with specified internal energy, volume and mole numbers (UVN flash. A new aspect of our dynamic simulations is the use of direct iterations in phase volumes (instead of pressure for solving the algebraic equations. It was also found that an iterative procedure previously suggested in the literature for UVN flashes becomes unreliable close to phase boundaries and a new alternative is proposed. Another unusual aspect of this work is that the model expressions, including the physical properties and their analytical derivatives, were quickly implemented using computer algebra.

  20. Regional dust deposits on Mars: Physical properties, age, and history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Major dust storms on Mars play an important role in the deposition and removal of fine dust material. Thermal, radar, and visual remote sensing observations provide important constraints on the Martian regolith which have been used to determine the location and physical properties of regional dust deposits. These deposits are located in three northern equatorial regions, Tharsis (-20 0 S to 50 0 N, 60 0 to 190 0 W), Arabia (-5 0 S to 30 0 N, 300 0 to 360 0 W), and Elysium (10 0 to 30 0 N, 210 0 to 225 0 W). They are covered by fine (approx.2--40 μm), bright (albedo >0.27) particles, with fewer exposed rocks and coarse deposits than found elsewhere. Dust is currently deposited uniformly throughout the equatorial region at a rate of approx.40 μm/global storm

  1. Physical properties of wild mango fruit and nut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiem, J. C.; Simonyan, K. J.

    2012-02-01

    Physical properties of two wild mango varieties were studied at 81.9 and 24.5% moisture (w.b.) for the fruits and nuts, respectively. The shape and size of the fruit are the same while that of nuts differs at P = 0.05. The mass, density and bulk density of the fruits are statistically different at P = 0.05 but the volume is the same. The shape and size, volume and bulk density of the nuts are statistically the same at P = 0.05. The nuts of both varieties are also the same at P = 0.05 in terms of mass and density. The packing factor for both fruits and nut of the two varieties are the same at 0.95. The relevant data obtained for the two varieties would be useful for design and development of machines and equipment for processing and handling operations.

  2. Study of physical properties of the dynamic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Roberto Salomon

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents a characterization of the physical properties of the dynamic filter of Clinac 2300 CD linear accelerator of Varian Medical Systems, installed at the Cancer National Institute (INCA), Rio de Janeiro. The 'dynamic filter factors' were measured for the 6 and 15 MV photons, in squared and rectangular fields, and compared with factors furnished at the accelerator manual and used by the planning system, IN and OUT positions, at the maximum dose depths, 5 cm, 10 cm and 29 cm, for the 6 and 15 MV photons energies. The results demonstrated that the 'dynamic filter factors' does not changes with depth and the PDP for the opened field are the same for the fields with dynamic filters. Last but not least the dynamic filters were measured and compared with the nominal angles of the accelerator and the planning system, where some discrepancies were reported

  3. Influence of physical properties of soil on 137 Cs mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanapickas, A.; Paulaitiene, I.; Mazeika, J.; Bauziene, I.

    2005-01-01

    A model to account for the mobility of radiocesium in soil is presented. The model requires a minimal set of coefficients that describe radiocesium migration and fixation rates, which can be related to physical soil properties. The peculiarities of experimental radiocesium profiles in soil are explained by the composition of soil, which affects the radiocesium fixation rate. It is shown that the migration of radiocesium in soil is governed by vertical convection of a mobile form, whereas diffusion is a slower process due to strong fixation. The results show that the velocity of vertical migration downward of mobile radiocesium can be set constant, because the overall migration rate depends on fixation. Modeling of experimental radiocesium soil profiles suggests that organic (humic) layers with reduced mineral content and humidity have a high radiocesium fixation rate. Soil structure that maintains high soil humidity and mineral content has an increased cesium exchangeability and. consequently, higher radiocesium mobility. (author)

  4. Maximum Likelihood Blood Velocity Estimator Incorporating Properties of Flow Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaikjer, Malene; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    )-data under investigation. The flow physic properties are exploited in the second term, as the range of velocity values investigated in the cross-correlation analysis are compared to the velocity estimates in the temporal and spatial neighborhood of the signal segment under investigation. The new estimator...... has been compared to the cross-correlation (CC) estimator and the previously developed maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The results show that the CMLE can handle a larger velocity search range and is capable of estimating even low velocity levels from tissue motion. The CC and the MLE produce...... for the CC and the MLE. When the velocity search range is set to twice the limit of the CC and the MLE, the number of incorrect velocity estimates are 0, 19.1, and 7.2% for the CMLE, CC, and MLE, respectively. The ability to handle a larger search range and estimating low velocity levels was confirmed...

  5. Study of chemical and physical properties of synthetic carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloc, M.; Lesko, J.; Martineg, P.; Rojak, A.; Roubicek, V.; Weiss, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of studying the chemical and physical properties of 17 samples of synthetic carbonaceous materials (''carbons'') of different origin and with different degree of thermal treatment, and for comparison two samples of natural graphite were tested. For all the samples an analysis was made of the element composition and they were studied by the methods DTA, TGA, IR-spectrometry, x-ray analysis and electron screen microscopy. The studies indicated that proper combination of these methods can provide a high quality evaluation of the initial materials and the processes of their processing, and also the attained carbonaceous materials from the viewpoint of using them in the modern sectors of technology: electrical metallurgy, electrical chemistry and electrothermal production, nuclear technology, production of semiconductor materials, etc.

  6. Spectroscopic Properties of Star-Forming Host Galaxies and Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals in a Nearly Unbiased Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Andrea, Chris B. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); et al.

    2011-12-20

    We examine the correlation between supernova host galaxy properties and their residuals on the Hubble diagram. We use supernovae discovered during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II - Supernova Survey, and focus on objects at a redshift of z < 0.15, where the selection effects of the survey are known to yield a complete Type Ia supernova sample. To minimize the bias in our analysis with respect to measured host-galaxy properties, spectra were obtained for nearly all hosts, spanning a range in magnitude of -23 < M_r < -17. In contrast to previous works that use photometric estimates of host mass as a proxy for global metallicity, we analyze host-galaxy spectra to obtain gas-phase metallicities and star-formation rates from host galaxies with active star formation. From a final sample of ~ 40 emission-line galaxies, we find that light-curve corrected Type Ia supernovae are ~ 0.1 magnitudes brighter in high-metallicity hosts than in low-metallicity hosts. We also find a significant (> 3{\\sigma}) correlation between the Hubble residuals of Type Ia supernovae and the specific star-formation rate of the host galaxy. We comment on the importance of supernova/host-galaxy correlations as a source of systematic bias in future deep supernova surveys.

  7. Physical properties and chemical composition of Segamat Kaolin, Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar Hamzah; Learn, K.K.; Sahibin Rahim

    2010-01-01

    Kaolin is a source of secondary mineral as a product of a weathering process of primary minerals. Its main component is fine grain kaolinite (< 2 μm) and it also contains other elements such as aluminium and iron phyllosilicate as the pigment. Aluminium rich kaolin is light in colour with high plasticity and is normally used in the ceramic, plastic, paint, paper, pesticide, pharmacology and cosmetic industries. The physical and chemical characteristics of kaolins are important for its potential application. In this study, about 25 kaolin samples were hand-augered from depths of 1-2 m at Buloh Kasap Segamat, Johor, Malaysia. Chemical analysis carried out included determination of oxides and types of minerals by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. Shrinkage rate, rupture modulus and water absorption rate tests were carried out in the physical properties analysis. Plastic and liquid limits of the kaolin were also measured for plastic index. The Segamat kaolin was light in colour due to its high silicate composition. The highest mineral content in the kaolin was kaolinite and quartz occurred as impurities. The low shrinkage rate showed that the kaolin was dense with little voids, hence very suitable for use in the ceramic industry. This kaolin has low water absorption, plasticity and durable according to the rupture modulus test. (author)

  8. Measurement of the physical properties of the snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinar, N. J.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews measurement techniques and corresponding devices used to determine the physical properties of the seasonal snowpack from distances close to the ground surface. The review is placed in the context of the need for scientific observations of snowpack variables that provide inputs for predictive hydrological models that help to advance scientific understanding of geophysical processes related to snow in the near-surface cryosphere. Many of these devices used to measure snow are invasive and require the snowpack to be disrupted, thereby precluding the possibility for multiple measurements to be made at the same sampling location. Moreover, many devices rely on the use of empirical calibration equations that may not be valid at all geographic locations. The spatial density of observations with most snow measurement devices is often inadequate. There is a need for improved automation of snowpack measurement instrumentation with an emphasis on field-based feedback of measurement validity in lieu of postprocessing of samples or data at a lab or office location. The scientific future of snow measurement instrumentation thereby requires a synthesis between science and engineering principles that takes into consideration geophysics and the physics of device operation.

  9. Physical Properties of Intermetallic FE2VA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Ye [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Fe2VAl has recently been discovered to have a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity, moderately enhanced specific heat coefficient, and a large DOS at the Fermi level by photoemission. This triggered a round of heated research to understand the ground state of this material, both theoretically and experimentally. here they report a comprehensive characterization of Fe2VAl. X-ray diffraction exhibited appreciable antisite disorder in all of our samples. FTIR spectroscopy measurements showed that the carrier density and scattering time had little sample-to-sample variation or temperature dependence for near-stoichiometric samples. FTIR and DC resistivity suggest that the transport properties of Fe2VAl are influenced by both localized and delocalized carriers, with the former primarily responsible for the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. Magnetization measurements reveal that near-stoichiometric samples have superparamagnetic clusters with at least two sizes of moments. X-ray photoemission from Fe core level showed localized magnetic moments on site-exchanged Fe. They conclude that in Fe2VAl, antisite disorder causes significant modification to the semi-metallic band structure proposed by LDA calculations. With antisite disorder considered, they are now able to explain most of the physical properties of Fe2VAl.

  10. Influence of the Soil Genesis on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Marschalko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of soil genesis on the physical-mechanical properties. The presented case study was conducted in the region of the Ostrava Basin where there is a varied genetic composition of the Quaternary geological structure on the underlying Neogeneous sediments which are sediments of analogous granulometry but different genesis. In this study, 7827 soil samples of an eolian, fluvial, glacial, and deluvial origin and their laboratory analyses results were used. The study identified different values in certain cases, mostly in coarser-grained foundation soils, such as sandy loam S4 (MS and clayey sand F4 (CS. The soils of the fluvial origin manifest different values than other genetic types. Next, based on regression analyses, dependence was proved neither on the deposition depth (depth of samples nor from the point of view of the individual foundation soil classes or the genetic types. The contribution of the paper is to point at the influence of genesis on the foundation soil properties so that engineering geologists and geotechnicians pay more attention to the genesis during engineering-geological and geotechnical investigations.

  11. Physical Properties of Intermetallic FE2VA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Feng

    2002-01-01

    Fe 2 VAl has recently been discovered to have a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity, moderately enhanced specific heat coefficient, and a large DOS at the Fermi level by photoemission. This triggered a round of heated research to understand the ground state of this material, both theoretically and experimentally. here they report a comprehensive characterization of Fe 2 VAl. X-ray diffraction exhibited appreciable antisite disorder in all of our samples. FTIR spectroscopy measurements showed that the carrier density and scattering time had little sample-to-sample variation or temperature dependence for near-stoichiometric samples. FTIR and DC resistivity suggest that the transport properties of Fe 2 VAl are influenced by both localized and delocalized carriers, with the former primarily responsible for the negative temperature coefficient of resistivity. Magnetization measurements reveal that near-stoichiometric samples have superparamagnetic clusters with at least two sizes of moments. X-ray photoemission from Fe core level showed localized magnetic moments on site-exchanged Fe. They conclude that in Fe 2 VAl, antisite disorder causes significant modification to the semi-metallic band structure proposed by LDA calculations. With antisite disorder considered, they are now able to explain most of the physical properties of Fe 2 VAl

  12. Effect of Ultrasonication on Physical Properties of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Parashos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect on physical properties of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA of using direct hand compaction during placement and when using hand compaction with indirect ultrasonic activation with different application times. Methods. One hundred acrylic canals were obturated in 3 increments with MTA in sample sizes of 10. One group was obturated by hand with an endodontic plugger and the remainder obturated with indirect ultrasonic application, with times ranging from 2 seconds to 18 seconds per increment. Microhardness values, dye penetration depths, and radiographs of the samples were evaluated. Results. As ultrasonic application time per increment increased, microhardness values fell significantly (P<0.001 while dye penetration values increased (P<0.001. Microhardness of MTA ultrasonicated for 2 seconds was significantly higher than hand compaction (P=0.03. Most radiographic voids were visible in the hand-compacted group (P<0.001, which also had higher dye penetration depths than the 2-second ultrasonicated samples. Ultrasonication of MTA for 10–18 seconds resulted in significantly more voids than 2–8 seconds of ultrasonication (P=0.02. Conclusion. The use of ultrasonics with MTA improved the compaction and flow of MTA, but excessive ultrasonication adversely affected MTA properties. A time of 2 seconds of ultrasonication per increment presented the best compromise between microhardness values, dye penetration depths, and lack of radiographic voids.

  13. Structural and Physical Properties of Ionic Liquid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seoncheol; Kim, Doseok

    Ionic liquids are the materials consisting of only cations and anions and existing at liquid phase below 100 °C. They are called designer solven as the physical properties of the materials can be tuned by changing their constituent ions. Mixing ionic liquids is a new way of maximizing this advantage because the material properties can be changed continuously in the mixture. The excess molar volumes, a difference between the molar volumes of the mixtures and a linear interpolation between the volumes of pure components, have been found to differ significantly for some ionic liquid mixtures, but the origin of this difference is not well understood. The different microstructures of the mixtures, which can range from a simple mixture of two different consisting ionic liquids to a different structure from those of pure materials, have been suggested as the origin of this difference. We investigated ionic liquid mixture systems by IR spectroscopy by utilizing a particular peak in the IR spectrum for the moiety participating in the hydrogen bonding (νC(2)-H) that changes sensitively with the change of the anion in the ionic liquid. The absorbance of νC(2)-H changed proportionally to the composition for the mixtures consisting of halide anion. By contrast, the absorbance changed nonlinearly for the mixtures of which one of the anion had multiple interaction sites

  14. Physical and structural properties of polyaniline/microcrystalline cellulose nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Mahnaz M.; Liyana, Rawaida; Tahir, Paridah Md; Heng, Lee Yook; Sulaiman, Yusran; Waheeda, Nur Farhana; Hassan, Nabihah Abu

    2017-12-01

    A composite of Polyaniline/Microcrystalline Cellulose (PAni/MCC) was prepared via a chemical polymerization method in the presence of ammonium persulfate (NH4)2S2O8 as oxidant and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. The results of FESEM showed that the morphology of nanocomposite depends on the monomer concentration. Wire-like and porous nanostructure was observed for PAni/MCC/CTAB composite that could be suitable for enzyme immobilization and sensor applications. The electrochemical properties of the composites were studied using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and it was shown that PAni/MCC/CTAB composite generated a higher current response compared to the pure PAni. The synergy effect of MCC and CTAB on the physical and electrochemical properties of composite resulted in higher electron transferring in PAni/MCC/CTAB. The presence of significant peaks of PAni and MCC in FT-IR spectrum of nanocomposite indicating polymerization of aniline on the surface of MCC. Characteristic peaks of crystalline cellulose were observed at 22.8 and 14.7 2theta in XRD pattern.

  15. Recovering physical properties from narrow-band photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenell, W.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Benítez, N.; Vale Asari, N.

    2013-05-01

    Our aim in this work is to answer, using simulated narrow-band photometry data, the following general question: What can we learn about galaxies from these new generation cosmological surveys? For instance, can we estimate stellar age and metallicity distributions? Can we separate star-forming galaxies from AGN? Can we measure emission lines, nebular abundances and extinction? With what precision? To accomplish this, we selected a sample of about 300k galaxies with good S/N from the SDSS and divided them in two groups: 200k objects and a template library of 100k. We corrected the spectra to z = 0 and converted them to filter fluxes. Using a statistical approach, we calculated a Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for each property of each object and the library. Since we have the properties of all the data from the STARLIGHT-SDSS database, we could compare them with the results obtained from summaries of the PDF (mean, median, etc). Our results shows that we retrieve the weighted average of the log of the galaxy age with a good error margin (σ ≈ 0.1 - 0.2 dex), and similarly for the physical properties such as mass-to-light ratio, mean stellar metallicity, etc. Furthermore, our main result is that we can derive emission line intensities and ratios with similar precision. This makes this method unique in comparison to the other methods on the market to analyze photometry data and shows that, from the point of view of galaxy studies, future photometric surveys will be much more useful than anticipated.

  16. Physical properties of dense, low-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmer, R.

    1997-01-01

    Plasmas occur in a wide range of the density-temperature plane. The physical quantities can be expressed by Green's functions which are evaluated by means of standard quantum statistical methods. The influences of many-particle effects such as dynamic screening and self-energy, structure factor and local-field corrections, formation and decay of bound states, degeneracy and Pauli exclusion principle are studied. As a basic concept for partially ionized plasmas, a cluster decomposition is performed for the self-energy as well as for the polarization function. The general model of a partially ionized plasma interpolates between low-density, nonmetallic systems such as atomic vapors and high-density, conducting systems such as metals or fully ionized plasmas. The equations of state, including the location of the critical point and the shape of the coexistence curve, are determined for expanded alkali-atom and mercury fluids. The occurrence of a metal-nonmetal transition near the critical point of the liquid-vapor phase transition leads in these materials to characteristic deviations from the behavior of nonconducting fluids such as the inert gases. Therefore, a unified approach is needed to describe the drastic changes of the electronic properties as well as the variation of the physical properties with the density. Similar results are obtained for the hypothetical plasma phase transition in hydrogen plasma. The transport coefficients (electrical and thermal conductivity, thermopower) are studied wthin linear response theory given here in the formulation of Zubarev which is valid for arbitrary degeneracy and yields the transport coefficients for the limiting cases of nondegenerate, weakly coupled plasmas (Spitzer theory) as well as degenerate, strongly coupled plasmas (Ziman theory). mercury within the MHNC scheme via effective ion-ion potentials which are derived from the polarization function within an extended RPA. The optical properties of dense plasmas, the shift

  17. Physical characterization of functionalized spider silk: electronic and sensing properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eden Steven, Jin Gyu Park, Anant Paravastu, Elsa Branco Lopes, James S Brooks, Ongi Englander, Theo Siegrist, Papatya Kaner and Rufina G Alamo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explores functional, fundamental and applied aspects of naturally harvested spider silk fibers. Natural silk is a protein polymer where different amino acids control the physical properties of fibroin bundles, producing, for example, combinations of β-sheet (crystalline and amorphous (helical structural regions. This complexity presents opportunities for functional modification to obtain new types of material properties. Electrical conductivity is the starting point of this investigation, where the insulating nature of neat silk under ambient conditions is described first. Modification of the conductivity by humidity, exposure to polar solvents, iodine doping, pyrolization and deposition of a thin metallic film are explored next. The conductivity increases exponentially with relative humidity and/or solvent, whereas only an incremental increase occurs after iodine doping. In contrast, iodine doping, optimal at 70 °C, has a strong effect on the morphology of silk bundles (increasing their size, on the process of pyrolization (suppressing mass loss rates and on the resulting carbonized fiber structure (that becomes more robust against bending and strain. The effects of iodine doping and other functional parameters (vacuum and thin film coating motivated an investigation with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR to monitor doping-induced changes in the amino acid-protein backbone signature. MAS-NMR revealed a moderate effect of iodine on the helical and β-sheet structures, and a lesser effect of gold sputtering. The effects of iodine doping were further probed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, revealing a partial transformation of β-sheet-to-amorphous constituency. A model is proposed, based on the findings from the MAS-NMR and FTIR, which involves iodine-induced changes in the silk fibroin bundle environment that can account for the altered physical properties. Finally, proof

  18. Determination of Residual Stresses and Mechanical Properties using Neutron, X-ray Diffraction, Micro- and Nanoindentation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Cecilia

    2003-12-01

    The existence of residual stresses in engineering materials can significantly affect subsequent lifetime by augmenting or impeding failure. Consequently, for an accurate assessment of engineering lifetimes, there is a need to quantify residual stresses. Furthermore, knowledge of the origin of these stresses in conjunction with mechanical properties such as hardness and fracture toughness, among others, can be used to improve functionality by tailoring the microstructure through processing. In this work, neutron, x-ray diffraction, micro- and nanoindentation techniques were used for residual stress determination and mechanical characterization of WC-Co functionally graded composites, a Co-based Haynes 25 alloy weld, compressed steel and compacted Fe-brass powders. The neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to assess residual strains and stresses while the instrumented indentation techniques were used to determine hardness, fracture toughness and elastic modulus. In each of these engineering materials, valuable insight relating to the overall mechanical performance was obtained. X-ray diffraction was used to determine thermal residual stresses that develop in a functionally graded WC-Co composite, commonly used as tool bits. Microstresses in the graded zone were attributed to the thermal mismatch between WC and the Co phase. The compressive macrostresses were determined to be a result of the compositional gradient. Micro- and nanoindentation experiments were used to determine hardness as a function of depth in two WC-Co functionally graded materials (FGMs). A relationship between hardness and Co phase content was established and explained for the two graded and five homogeneous samples. An experimental and simulation study of residual stresses was made in the vicinity of a gas tungsten arc weld in a Co-based Haynes 25 alloy used in a satellite component. The experimental measurements were made by neutron diffraction on the recently commissioned

  19. Development of Analytical Method for Predicting Residual Mechanical Properties of Corroded Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. R. S. Appuhamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bridge infrastructure maintenance and assurance of adequate safety is of paramount importance in transportation engineering and maintenance management industry. Corrosion causes strength deterioration, leading to impairment of its operation and progressive weakening of the structure. Since the actual corroded surfaces are different from each other, only experimental approach is not enough to estimate the remaining strength of corroded members. However, in modern practices, numerical simulation is being used to replace the time-consuming and expensive experimental work and to comprehend on the lack of knowledge on mechanical behavior, stress distribution, ultimate behavior, and so on. This paper presents the nonlinear FEM analyses results of many corroded steel plates and compares them with their respective tensile coupon tests. Further, the feasibility of establishing an accurate analytical methodology to predict the residual strength capacities of a corroded steel member with lesser number of measuring points is also discussed.

  20. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates. Part 1: Mechanical properties and residual stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Y C; Doyle, C; Clyne, T W

    1998-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been sprayed on to substrates of Ti-6Al-4V, using a range of input power levels and plasma gas mixtures. Coatings have also been produced on substrates of mild steel and tungsten, in order to explore certain aspects of the mechanical behaviour of HA without the complication of yielding or creep in the substrate. Studies have been made of the phase constitution, porosity, degree of crystallinity, OH ion content, microstructure and surface roughness of the HA coatings. The Young's moduli in tension and in compression were evaluated by the cantilever beam bend test using a tungsten/HA composite beam. The flexural Young's modulus was determined using a free-standing deposit under the same test. Adhesion was characterised using the single-edge notch-bend test; this is considered superior to the tensile bond strength test in common use. Measured interfacial fracture energies were of the order 1-10 J m(-2). Stress levels were investigated using specimen curvature measurements in conjunction with a numerical process model. The quenching stress for HA was measured to be about 10-25 MPa and the residual stress level in HA coatings at room temperature are predicted to lie in the approximate range of 20-40 MPa (tensile). These residual stresses could be reduced in magnitude by maintaining the substrate at a low temperature (possibly below room temperature) during spraying and it may be worthwhile to explore this. Ideally, the HA coating should have low porosity, high cohesive strength, good adhesion to the substrate, a high degree of crystallinity and high chemical purity and phase stability. In practice, such combinations are rather difficult to achieve by just varying the spraying parameters.

  1. Changes in soil physical properties of a coal mining site influenced by liming, poultry manure and revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A.L.; Albuquerque, J.A.; de Almeida, J.A.; Mafra, A.L.; Medeiros, J.C.; Alberton, A. [UDESC, Lages (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    The physical, chemical and biological properties of soils of reconstructed areas after coal mining are altered. This study aimed to evaluate liming, mineral and organic fertilizers and revegetation effects on the physical properties of a reconstructed soil after open-pit mining. The experiment was carried out in a former mine in Lauro Muller County - SC, in southern Brazil, from 2001 to 2005. The site was mined in 1991 and reconstructed in 1995. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications. The treatments consisted of. (1) Control; (2) 'dregs' (alkaline residue); (3) Lime; (4) Lime + Brachiaria brizantha; (5) Lime + Brachiaria brizantha + poultry litter. Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus saligna seedlings were transplanted to subplots of all treatments. Dolomitic limestone and dregs were incorporated in the soil at a depth of 10 cm. Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous fertilizers were added on the soil surface of all plots according to the official recommendation. Soil samples were collected in February 2005 (from the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm), and their physical and chemical properties evaluated. The treatments had no effects on soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, macroporosity and microporosity. Liming increased pH, caused clay dispersion and reduced aggregates stability in water, while dregs increased pH without dispersing clay. Poultry litter and Brachiaria brizantha increased the aggregate stability and volumetric water content, thus favoring the recovery of soil physical quality in degraded areas.

  2. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  3. Physical properties of organic and biomaterials: Fundamentals and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Eden

    Silk materials are natural protein-based materials with an exceptional toughness. In addition to their toughness, silk materials also possess complex physical properties and functions resulting from a particular set of amino-acid arrangement that produces structures with crystalline beta-sheets connected by amorphous chains. Extensive studies have been performed to study their structure-function relationship leading to recent advancements in bio-integrated devices. Applications to fields other than textiles and biomedicine, however, have been scarce. In this dissertation, an investigation of the electronic properties, functionalization, and role of silk materials (spider silk and Bombyx mori cocoon silk) in the field of organic materials research is presented. The investigation is conducted from an experimental physics point of view where correlations with charge transport mechanisms in disordered, semiconducting, and insulating materials are made when appropriate. First, I present the electronic properties of spider silk fibers under ambient, humidified, iodized, polar solvent exposure, and pyrolized conditions. The conductivity is exponentially dependent on relative humidity changes and the solvent polarity. Iodine doping increases the conductivity only slightly but has pronounced effects on the pyrolization process, increasing the yield and flexibility of the pyrolized silk fibers. The iodized samples were further studied using magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealing non-homogenous iodine doping and I2 induced hydrogenation that are responsible for the minimal conductivity improvement and the pyrolization effects, respectively. Next, I present the investigation of silk fiber functionalization with gold and its role in electrical measurements. The gold functionalized silk fiber (Au-SS) is metallic down to cryogenic temperatures, has a certain amount of flexibility, and possesses

  4. Soil physical properties regulate lethal heating during burning of woody residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Busse; Carol Shestak; Ken Hubbert; Eric Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Temperatures well in excess of the lethal threshold for roots (60°C) have been measured in forest soils when woody fuels are burned. Whether this heat pulse is strongly moderated by soil moisture or soil texture is not fully understood, however. We measured soil heat profi les during 60 experimental burns, identifying changes in maximum soil temperature and heat...

  5. Thermo-physical Properties and Mechanical Properties of Burn-resistant Titanium Alloy Ti40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAI Yunjin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As a functional material of burn-resistant titanium alloy, the physical properties of Ti40 alloy were first reported. The chemical compositions of Ti40 alloy ingots by VAR were uniform. The microstructures of Ti40 alloy slab manufactured by HEFF+WPF were uniform. The results show that the room temperature tensile strength of Ti40 alloy is 950 MPa degree. The properties of high temperature heat exposure, creep resistance and lasting time are good at 500 ℃. In the range from room temperature to 600 ℃, Young's modulus and shear modulus are decreased linearly with increasing the temperature, Poisson's ratio is increases slowly as the temperature rises, and linear thermal expansion coefficient and average linear expansion coefficient is increase as the temperature rises.

  6. Genetic properties of residual feed intakes for maintenance and growth and the implications of error measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekaya, R; Aggrey, S E

    2015-03-01

    A procedure for estimating residual feed intake (RFI) based on information used in feeding studies is presented. Koch's classical model consists of using fixed regressions of feed intake on metabolic BW and growth, and RFI is obtained as the deviation between the observed feed intake and the expected intake for an individual with a given weight and growth rate. Estimated RFI following such a procedure intrinsically suffers from the inability to separate true RFI from the sampling error. As the latter is never equal to 0, estimated RFI is always biased, and the magnitude of such bias depends on the ratio between the true RFI variance and the residual variance. Additionally, the classical approach suffers from its inability to dissect RFI into its biological components, being the metabolic efficiency (maintaining BW) and growth efficiency. To remedy these problems we proposed a procedure that directly models the individual animal variation in feed efficiency used for body maintenance and growth. The proposed model is an extension of Koch's procedure by assuming animal-specific regression coefficients rather than population-level parameters. To evaluate the performance of both models, a data simulation was performed using the structure of an existing chicken data set consisting of 2,289 records. Data was simulated using 4 ratios between the true RFI and sampling error variances (1:1, 2:1, 4:1, and 10:1) and 5 correlation values between the 2 animal-specific random regression coefficients (-0.95, -0.5, 0, 0.5, and 0.95). The results clearly showed the superiority of the proposed model compared to Koch's procedure under all 20 simulation scenarios. In fact, when the ratio was 1:1 and the true genetic correlation was equal to -0.95, the correlation between the true and estimated RFI for animals in the top 20% was 0.60 and 0.51 for the proposed and Koch's models, respectively. This is an 18% superiority for the proposed model. For the bottom 20% of animals in the ranking

  7. Glycolic Acid Physical Properties, Impurities, And Radiation Effects Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickenheim, B.; Bibler, N.

    2010-01-01

    The DWPF is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H 2 and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O 2 when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and pumping of the solution may be hindered. A

  8. GLYCOLIC ACID PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, IMPURITIES, AND RADIATION EFFECTS ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.

    2011-06-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and

  9. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liua, S.; Lia, Y.; Chena, P.; Lia, W.; Gaoa, S.; Zhang, B.; Yeb, F.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2MPa and −552.1MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased. [es

  10. An automated flow for directed evolution based on detection of promiscuous scaffolds using spatial and electrostatic properties of catalytic residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The aspiration to mimic and accelerate natural evolution has fueled interest in directed evolution experiments, which endow or enhance functionality in enzymes. Barring a few de novo approaches, most methods take a template protein having the desired activity, known active site residues and structure, and proceed to select a target protein which has a pre-existing scaffold congruent to the template motif. Previously, we have established a computational method (CLASP based on spatial and electrostatic properties to detect active sites, and a method to quantify promiscuity in proteins. We exploit the prospect of promiscuous active sites to serve as the starting point for directed evolution and present a method to select a target protein which possesses a significant partial match with the template scaffold (DECAAF. A library of partial motifs, constructed from the active site residues of the template protein, is used to rank a set of target proteins based on maximal significant matches with the partial motifs, and cull out the best candidate from the reduced set as the target protein. Considering the scenario where this 'incubator' protein lacks activity, we identify mutations in the target protein that will mirror the template motif by superimposing the target and template protein based on the partial match. Using this superimposition technique, we analyzed the less than expected gain of activity achieved by an attempt to induce β-lactamase activity in a penicillin binding protein (PBP (PBP-A from T. elongatus, and attributed this to steric hindrance from neighboring residues. We also propose mutations in PBP-5 from E. coli, which does not have similar steric constraints. The flow details have been worked out in an example which aims to select a substitute protein for human neutrophil elastase, preferably related to grapevines, in a chimeric anti-microbial enzyme which bolsters the innate immune defense system of grapevines.

  11. Active subsite properties, subsite residues and targeting to lysosomes or midgut lumen of cathepsins L from the beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Ticiane F; Dias, Renata O; de Oliveira, Juliana R; Salinas, Roberto K; Juliano, Maria A; Ferreira, Clelia; Terra, Walter R

    2017-10-01

    Cathepsins L are the major digestive peptidases in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Two digestive cathepsins L (TmCAL2 and TmCAL3) from it had their 3D structures solved. The aim of this paper was to study in details TmCAL3 specificity and properties and relate them to its 3D structure. Recombinant TmCAL3 was assayed with 64 oligopeptides with different amino acid replacements in positions P2, P1, P1' and P2'. Results showed that TmCAL3 S2 specificity differs from the human enzyme and that its specificities also explain why on autoactivation two propeptide residues remain in the enzyme. Data on free energy of binding and of activation showed that S1 and S2' are mainly involved in substrate binding, S1' acts in substrate binding and catalysis, whereas S2 is implied mainly in catalysis. Enzyme subsite residues were identified by docking with the same oligopeptide used for kinetics. The subsite hydrophobicities were calculated from the efficiency of hydrolysis of different amino acid replacements in the peptide and from docking data. The results were closer for S1 and S2' than for S1' and S2, indicating that the residue subsites that were more involved in transition state binding are different from those binding the substrate seen in docking. Besides TmCAL1-3, there are nine other cathepsins L, most of them more expressed at midgut. They are supposed to be directed to lysosomes by a Drosophila-like Lerp receptor and/or motifs in their prodomains. The mannose 6-phosphate lysosomal sorting machinery is absent from T. molitor transcriptome. Cathepsin L direction to midgut contents seems to depend on overexpression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical property characterization of a damage zone in granitic rock - Implications for geothermal reservoir properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Quinn; Madonna, Claudio; Amann, Florian; Gischig, Valentin; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal energy offers a viable alternative to mitigate greenhouse gas emitting energy production. A tradeoff between less expensive drilling costs and increased permeability at shallow depths versus increased heat production at deeper depths stipulates the economic energy potential of a given reservoir. From a geological perspective, successful retrieval of geothermal energy from the subsurface requires sufficient knowledge of the structural and stratigraphic relationship of the target formations, which govern the thermal conditions, physical properties, and fluid flow properties of reservoir rocks. In Switzerland, deep basement rocks (~5 km) with fluid conducting damage zones and enhanced fractured systems stimulated by hydraulic shearing are seen as a potential geothermal reservoir system. Damage zones, both natural and induced, provide permeability enhancement that is especially important for creating fluid conductivity where the matrix permeability is low. This study concentrates on characterizing the elastic and transport properties entering into a natural damage zone penetrated by a borehole at the Grimsel underground research laboratory. The borehole drilled from a cavern at 480 m below ground surface penetrates approximately 20 m of mostly intact Grimsel granodiorite before entering the first phyllosilicate-rich shear zone (~0.2 m thick). The borehole intersects a second shear zone at approximately 23.8m. Between the two shear zones the Grimsel granodiorite is heavily fractured. The minimum principle stress magnitude from in-situ measurements decreases along the borehole into the first shear zone. Two mutually perpendicular core samples of Grimsel granodiorite were taken every 0.1 m from 19.5 to 20.1 m to characterize the physical properties and anisotropy changes as a gradient away from the damage zone. Measurements of ultrasonic compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) velocities at 1 MHz frequency are conducted at room temperature and hydrostatic pressures

  13. Comparative effects of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of Southeast Nigeria to assess the effects of amending soil with plant residues on soil physical and chemical properties. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, ...

  14. Accelerator physics and radiometric properties of superconducting wavelength shifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the operation of wave-length shifters at electron storage rings and their use in radiometry. The basic aspects of the radiometry, the technical requirements, the influence of wave-length shifters on the storage ring, and results of first measurements are presented for a device installed at BESSY. Most of the calculations are carried out by the program WAVE, which has been developed within this thesis. WAVE allows to calculate the synchrotron radiation spectra of wavelength shifters within an relative uncertainty of 1/100000. The properties of wave-length shifters in terms of accelerator physics as well as a generating function for symplectic tracking calculations can also be calculated by WAVE. The later was implemented in the tracking code BETA to investigate the influence of insertion devices on the dynamic aperture and emittance of the storage ring. These studies led to the concept of alternating low- and high-beta-sections at BESSY-II, which allow to operate superconducting insertion devices without a significant distortion of the magnetic optics. To investigate the experimental aspects of the radiometry at wave-length shifters, a program based on the Monte-Carlo-code GEANT4 has been developed. It allows to simulate the radiometrical measurements and the absorption properties of detectors. With the developed codes first radiometrical measurements by the PTB have been analysed. A comparison of measurements and calculations show a reasonable agreement with deviations of about five percent in the spectral range of 40-60 keV behind a 1-mm-Cu filter. A better agreement was found between 20 keV and 80 keV without Cu filter. In this case the measured data agreed within a systematic uncertainty of two percent with the results of the calculations. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of Thermo-Physical Properties of EVA/ATH: Application to Gasification Experiments and Pyrolysis Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Girardin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis of solid polymeric materials is a complex process that involves both chemical and physical phenomena such as phase transitions, chemical reactions, heat transfer, and mass transport of gaseous components. For modeling purposes, it is important to characterize and to quantify the properties driving those phenomena, especially in the case of flame-retarded materials. In this study, protocols have been developed to characterize the thermal conductivity and the heat capacity of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA flame retarded with aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH. These properties were measured for the various species identified across the decomposition of the material. Namely, the thermal conductivity was found to decrease as a function of temperature before decomposition whereas the ceramic residue obtained after the decomposition at the steady state exhibits a thermal conductivity as low as 0.2 W/m/K. The heat capacity of the material was also investigated using both isothermal modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and the standard method (ASTM E1269. It was shown that the final residue exhibits a similar behavior to alumina, which is consistent with the decomposition pathway of EVA/ATH. Besides, the two experimental approaches give similar results over the whole range of temperatures. Moreover, the optical properties before decomposition and the heat capacity of the decomposition gases were also analyzed. Those properties were then used as input data for a pyrolysis model in order to predict gasification experiments. Mass losses of gasification experiments were well predicted, thus validating the characterization of the thermo-physical properties of the material.

  16. SucStruct: Prediction of succinylated lysine residues by using structural properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yosvany; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil Pranit; Taherzadeh, Ghazaleh; Michaelson, Jacob; Sattar, Abdul; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Sharma, Alok

    2017-06-15

    Post-Translational Modification (PTM) is a biological reaction which contributes to diversify the proteome. Despite many modifications with important roles in cellular activity, lysine succinylation has recently emerged as an important PTM mark. It alters the chemical structure of lysines, leading to remarkable changes in the structure and function of proteins. In contrast to the huge amount of proteins being sequenced in the post-genome era, the experimental detection of succinylated residues remains expensive, inefficient and time-consuming. Therefore, the development of computational tools for accurately predicting succinylated lysines is an urgent necessity. To date, several approaches have been proposed but their sensitivity has been reportedly poor. In this paper, we propose an approach that utilizes structural features of amino acids to improve lysine succinylation prediction. Succinylated and non-succinylated lysines were first retrieved from 670 proteins and characteristics such as accessible surface area, backbone torsion angles and local structure conformations were incorporated. We used the k-nearest neighbors cleaning treatment for dealing with class imbalance and designed a pruned decision tree for classification. Our predictor, referred to as SucStruct (Succinylation using Structural features), proved to significantly improve performance when compared to previous predictors, with sensitivity, accuracy and Mathew's correlation coefficient equal to 0.7334-0.7946, 0.7444-0.7608 and 0.4884-0.5240, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Properties of nanocellulose isolated from corncob residue using sulfuric acid, formic acid, oxidative and mechanical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Bin; Du, Haishun; Lv, Dong; Zhang, Yuedong; Yu, Guang; Mu, Xindong; Peng, Hui

    2016-10-20

    In this work, nanocellulose was extracted from bleached corncob residue (CCR), an underutilized lignocellulose waste from furfural industry, using four different methods (i.e. sulfuric acid hydrolysis, formic acid (FA) hydrolysis, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and pulp refining, respectively). The self-assembled structure, morphology, dimension, crystallinity, chemical structure and thermal stability of prepared nanocellulose were investigated. FA hydrolysis produced longer cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) than the one obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and resulted in high crystallinity and thermal stability due to its preferential degradation of amorphous cellulose and lignin. The cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with fine and individualized structure could be isolated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation. In comparison with other nanocellulose products, the intensive pulp refining led to the CNFs with the longest length and the thickest diameter. This comparative study can help to provide an insight into the utilization of CCR as a potential source for nanocellulose production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of composition and physical properties of partially ionized plasmas in the function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaporowski, B.

    1992-01-01

    The investigations of various kinds of partially ionized plasma were conducted for the pressure of 0.1 MPa and in the range of temperature of 298.15 K to 24000 K. The physical properties of various kinds of partially ionized plasma depend mainly of their composition and temperature. The composition of particular kinds of partially ionized plasmas varies also in the function of temperature. Simultaneous going on of physical and chemical processes in plasma is the reason of difficulties in the calculations of plasma's physical properties. The use of the laws of macroscopic thermodynamics for the calculations of physical properties of partially ionized plasma is impossible. There are enough exact methods for measuring of physical properties of partially ionized plasma. For these reasons the theoretical method using the base of statistic physics was used to calculate the composition and physical properties of various kinds of partially ionized plasma. (author) 2 refs., 2 figs

  19. Quantifying the impact of livestock grazing on soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fučík, Petr; Zajíček, Antonín; Holubík, Ondřej

    2014-05-01

    Livestock grazing is considered to have a noticeable influence on soil properties, when pedocompaction / soil pore reduction induced either by cattle or sheeps may curtail water residence time and accelerate the beginning and volume of overland flow. However, direct measurements of soil physical parameters and their changes under different pastoral management are seldom reported in central European conditions. Knowledge about these alterations are indispensable for setting the proper, soil and water conservative grazing management in the view of increasing areas of pastures, not only in the Czech Republic. Impact of cattle grazing on changes of soil properties was studied in three experimental upland catchments in the Czech Republic, differing in soil characteristics and grazing management. Values of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), assessed three times a year in-situ during 2012 - 2013 with pressure infiltrometers, were compared for grazed and ungrazed cambisols, pseudogleys and gleysols, for grazing intensity ranging from 0.5 to 2 Livestock units / ha. Soil bulk density (BD) and macroporosity (MP) were determined before and after grazing season every year with ring 100 cm3 steel cyllinders. These parameters were measured also on heavily treaded plots by cattle - hotspots - in each catchment. Ks values on grazed plots were significantly lower (on average by 39 - 66 %) than on ungrazed sites, BD values were reduced on average by 15 % and MP values were lower roughly about 22 % on grazed plots. Ks values on hotspots were lower by 50 - 90 %, BD values by 5 - 18 % and MP values by 8 - 28 % comparing to the rest of grazed areas. Decrease of soil infiltration capacity was influenced by grazing intensity and soil characteristics. The greatest reductions concerning infiltration capacity were manifested in soils being periodically waterlogged (either by surface or by groundwater). A profound influence on the infiltration process was revealed in pasture soils

  20. Effects of coal properties on the production rate of combustion solid residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgun, D. [Catalagzi Thermal Plant, Catalagzi, Zonguldak (Turkey); Genc, A. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    The production rates of furnace bottom ash in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were monitored for a two-year period and its variations with respect to coal properties were analyzed. The power plant was originally designed to fire the coal sludge generated from a washing process; however, the coal sludge and its mixture with low-rank bituminous coal have been started to be used as the main fuel with time. The results of the hardgrove grindability measurements have shown that the grinding properties of sludge or its mixtures could not be predicted based on proximate analysis (moisture, ash, carbon and volatile contents); it could only be determined by experiments. The production rate of bottom ash in this particular power plant remained relatively insensitive to the high ash and moisture contents and could be estimated almost only by knowing the calorific value of the source coal. The evaluated dependency was linear. (author)

  1. Changes in microstructure and physical properties of skutterudites after severe plastic deformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rogl, G.; Grytsiv, A.; Buršík, Jiří; Horky, J.; Anbalagan, R.; Bauer, E.; Mallik, R.Ch.; Rogl, P.; Zehetbauer, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2015), s. 3715-3722 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : physical properties * plastic deformation * TEM, SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.449, year: 2015

  2. Structural and photo-physical properties of spin-coated poly (3-hexylthiophene) thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophenes) (P3HTs) and its blends were studied regarding their structural and photo-physical properties using fullerene as an electron acceptor material. Photo-physical and structural characteristics of the polymer blends...

  3. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid) Green Composites during Thermal Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katogi, Hideaki; Takemura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Motoki

    2016-07-14

    This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35-45 °C and 35-55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 10³ cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35-45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35-55 °C, tensile strength and Young's modulus of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 10³ cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  4. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid Green Composites during Thermal Cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Katogi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid (PLA during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35–45 °C and 35–55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 103 cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35–45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 103 cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35–55 °C, tensile strength and Young’s modulus of composite at 103 cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 103 cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  5. Alkali solution extraction of rice residue protein isolates: Influence of alkali concentration on protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Furong; Ding, Wenhui; Qu, Wenjuan; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Xiong, Feng; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Ronghai; Ma, Haile

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the nutrient property and safety of the rice residue protein isolates (RRPI) product (extracted by different alkali concentrations) by exploring the protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine (LAL) formation. The results showed that with the rising of alkali concentration from 0.03M to 0.15M, the solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of RRPI increased at first and then descended. When the alkali concentration was greater than 0.03M, the RRPI surface hydrophobicity decreased and the content of thiol and disulfide bond, Lys and Cys significantly reduced. By the analysis of HPLC, the content of LAL rose up from 276.08 to 15,198.07mg/kg and decreased to 1340.98mg/kg crude protein when the alkali concentration increased from 0.03 to 0.09M and until to 0.15M. These results indicated that RRPI alkaline extraction concentration above 0.03M may cause severe nutrient or safety problems of protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dependence of Nanoparticle Toxicity on Their Physical and Chemical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanova, Alyona; Bozrova, Svetlana; Sokolov, Pavel; Berestovoy, Mikhail; Karaulov, Alexander; Nabiev, Igor

    2018-02-01

    Studies on the methods of nanoparticle (NP) synthesis, analysis of their characteristics, and exploration of new fields of their applications are at the forefront of modern nanotechnology. The possibility of engineering water-soluble NPs has paved the way to their use in various basic and applied biomedical researches. At present, NPs are used in diagnosis for imaging of numerous molecular markers of genetic and autoimmune diseases, malignant tumors, and many other disorders. NPs are also used for targeted delivery of drugs to tissues and organs, with controllable parameters of drug release and accumulation. In addition, there are examples of the use of NPs as active components, e.g., photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy and in hyperthermic tumor destruction through NP incorporation and heating. However, a high toxicity of NPs for living organisms is a strong limiting factor that hinders their use in vivo. Current studies on toxic effects of NPs aimed at identifying the targets and mechanisms of their harmful effects are carried out in cell culture models; studies on the patterns of NP transport, accumulation, degradation, and elimination, in animal models. This review systematizes and summarizes available data on how the mechanisms of NP toxicity for living systems are related to their physical and chemical properties.

  7. Physical and mechanical properties of Chrysophyllum marginatum wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussan Albarello de Cezaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of the wood of Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. And Arn. Radlk. We used three trees with 20.3 ± 6 cm of diameter. It was determined by regression analysis the variation bottom-up of shrinkage, anisotropic coefficient, saturate moisture content and basic density. To characterize the static bending in the first log, in saturate and air dried conditions, it was performed variance analysis using Tukey›s test. It was observed a decrease in radial and tangential contractions and basic density on bottom-up direction. Saturate moisture content increased, considering the same direction. Anisotropic coefficient presented increase tendency up to 1.30 m height followed by stabilization from that position to the top. It was observed decreasing tendency of longitudinal contraction to approximately 40% of total height, followed by increasing up to the insertion of the first living branch. Mean anisotropic coefficient and basic density were 2.3kg m-³ and 594 kg m-³, respectively. Air dry condition showed greater static bending resistance than when saturate. Values of rupture and elasticity modulus were similar to those found in studies with Eucalyptus saligna and Carya illinoinensis.

  8. Avian magnetic compass: Its functional properties and physical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswitha WILTSCHKO, Wolfgang WILTSCHKO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The avian magnetic compass was analyzed in bird species of three different orders – Passeriforms, Columbiforms and Galliforms – and in three different behavioral contexts, namely migratory orientation, homing and directional conditioning. The respective findings indicate similar functional properties: it is an inclination compass that works only within a functional window around the ambient magnetic field intensity; it tends to be lateralized in favor of the right eye, and it is wavelength-dependent, requiring light from the short-wavelength range of the spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms have been identified as radical pair processes, spin-chemical reactions in specialized photopigments. The iron-based receptors in the upper beak do not seem to be involved. The existence of the same type of magnetic compass in only very distantly related bird species suggests that it may have been present already in the common ancestors of all modern birds, where it evolved as an all-purpose compass mechanism for orientation within the home range [Current Zoology 56 (3: 265–276, 2010].

  9. Chemical, Mineralogical, and Physical Properties of Martian Dust and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Global and regional dust storms on Mars have been observed from Earth-based telescopes, Mars orbiters, and surface rovers and landers. Dust storms can be global and regional. Dust is material that is suspended into the atmosphere by winds and has a particle size of 1-3 micrometer. Planetary scientist refer to loose unconsolidated materials at the surface as "soil." The term ''soil'' is used here to denote any loose, unconsolidated material that can be distinguished from rocks, bedrock, or strongly cohesive sediments. No implication for the presence or absence of organic materials or living matter is intended. Soil contains local and regional materials mixed with the globally distributed dust by aeolian processes. Loose, unconsolidated surface materials (dust and soil) may pose challenges for human exploration on Mars. Dust will no doubt adhere to spacesuits, vehicles, habitats, and other surface systems. What will be the impacts on human activity? The objective of this paper is to review the chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties of the martian dust and soil.

  10. Characterisation of gaharu hydrosol: Physical, chemical and microbiological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Humaira Lau Abdullah; Salmah Moosa

    2010-01-01

    Gaharu hydrosol is produced during the hydro distillation of resinous wood part of Aquilaria sp. This aromatic water is being considered as a by-product in the industry. There is interest to turn this aromatic by-product into aroma therapy products. The present study is carried out in order to understand the properties of gaharu hydrosol, physically, chemically and microbiologically. Gaharu hydrosol from two different extraction facilities for example at Kedaik Agar wood Sdn. Bhd. and Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterised in this study. All the gaharu hydrosol samples displayed acidic nature, with pH in the range of 3.62 - 4.53. Four antioxidant assays were carried out to ascertain the antioxidant capabilities of two gaharu hydrosol samples through the total phenolic content assay, ABTS + radical scavenging activity, DPPH· radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity (FRAP). The results revealed that the samples exhibited lower antioxidant capabilities as compared to the positive control. For microbial population study, fungi was not present in the samples as there was no growth observed on the Plate Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) using membrane filtration technique. The antibacterial activity of the gaharu hydrosol against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined using agar dilution method and disk diffusion method. The results showed that the gaharu hydrosol did not inhibit the growth of both the bacteria. The results obtained from this study will be further evaluated for the development of new products using this aromatic gaharu by-product. (author)

  11. Physical Properties of Copper Based MMC Strengthened with Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmar J. W.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the development of Cu-Al2O3 composites of copper Cu-ETP matrix composite materials reinforced by 20 and 30 vol.% Al2O3 particles and study of some chosen physical properties. Squeeze casting technique of porous compacts with liquid copper was applied at the pressure of 110 MPa. Introduction of alumina particles into copper matrix affected on the significant increase of hardness and in the case of Cu-30 vol. % of alumina particles to 128 HBW. Electrical resistivity was strongly affected by the ceramic alumina particles and addition of 20 vol. % of particles caused diminishing of electrical conductivity to 20 S/m (34.5% IACS. Thermal conductivity tests were performed applying two methods and it was ascertained that this parameter strongly depends on the ceramic particles content, diminishing it to 100 Wm-1K-1 for the composite material containing 30 vol.% of ceramic particles comparing to 400 Wm-1K-1 for the unreinforced copper. Microstructural analysis was carried out using SEM microscopy and indicates that Al2O3 particles are homogeneously distributed in the copper matrix. EDS analysis shows remains of silicon on the surface of ceramic particles after binding agent used during preparation of ceramic preforms.

  12. Thermo-physical properties of (Th,U)O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. H.; Gang, K. W.; Lee, C. B.

    2003-01-01

    The temperature dependance of thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity in (Th 1-y U y )O 2 (y=0.0, 0.345, 0.645) system has been measured using dillatomeler and laser flash apparatus. The thermal expansion of (Th 1-y U y )0 2 linearly increases with U mole fraction y in the measured temperature range. The thermal conductivities of (Th 0.655 U 0. 3 45 )0 2 and (Th 0.. 3 55 U 0.645 )0 2 fuel were found to be lower than that of Th0 2 or U0 2 fuel The degradation of the thermal conductivity by the addition of U0 2 is large at low temperatures but becomes smaller as the temperature increases. The phonon -defect scattering might be associated with the degradation of the thermal conductivity. The measured thermo-physical properties of (Th,U)O 2 system can be well described in terms of the formation of a complete solid solution in the whole composibon range

  13. Theoretical investigation of chemical and physical properties of gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    This thesis is discussing the chemical and physical properties of different gaseous fuels. A mapping of about seventy gaseous fuels resulted in eleven type gases, these gases have mainly five components (inerts, H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and higher order of hydrocarbons) of different quantities. Calculations of heating value and Wobbe number have been done. Dew point temperatures have been estimated by using three different programs. Flammability limits, laminar flame speed and auto ignition temperatures have been calculated by using a kinetic and chemical program developed by Mauss. Flammability limits have been compared with Le Chatelier's law and measurements. Problems related to combustion such as flash back, lift off and instability are closely connected with flame speed and flow patterns. These problems are discussed in terms of laminar flame speed and Reynolds' number. The main results of this study were: Auto ignition temperature for gas mixtures behavior is very complex and unpredictable. In general small quantities of hydrogen decrease the temperature of auto ignition. The calculations of flammability limits by the kinetic and chemical software showed good agreement to measurements. Low Btu gases requires large flow area in order to avoid large pressure drop.

  14. The Fundamental Physical Properties of Wolf-Rayet Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Philip

    Massive stars are the cosmic engines that power the far-infrared luminosities of distant galaxies, and dominate the ionization of nearby HII regions. They are the primary source of carbon and oxygen in the Universe, and their core collapses manufacture all of the elements heavier than Fe. The re-ionization of the early Universe was thanks to Population III massive stars, and the super-massive black holes we find in the cores of galaxies today were seeded as a result of the black holes that formed from the first generations of massive stars. Understanding massive star evolution is the key to unlocking many astrophysical problems. The largest uncertainty in massive star evolution is the question of how Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars form. Our proposal will determine the fundamental physical properties of WRs using four archival NASA data sets for a critical comparison with present day evolution models. It is generally assumed that massive stars spend most of their post-main-sequence lives WRs. For decades we have believed that WRs form as a result of stellar winds stripping off the H-rich outer layers of a star, leaving behind a bare stellar core. In this picture, WRs are a normal stage in the evolution of the most massive stars. Recently, this scenario has been called into question. Stellar wind mass- loss rates are now known to be significantly lower than previously thought, although whether this is a factor of 3 or 10 remains unclear. If the latter is correct, then this poses a serious problem for the formation of WRs. This has created a paradigm shift, with increased importance attached to the role of binary evolution, with Roche-lobe overflow performing the stripping. Attempts to distinguish which scenario is more prevalent is complicated by the possibility of past mergers; i.e., just because a WR is not a binary today does not prove it was not one in the past. We will tackle this question from a fresh perspective, determining reliable fundamental physical properties of

  15. Physical properties of chitosan dispersions in glycolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchisi, Carlo; Maccioni, Anna Maria; Cristina Meloni, Maria

    2004-07-01

    Evaporation-freezing and rheological behaviour of chitosan dispersions at different temperatures and with different molecular weights using glycolic acid as anionic systems were studied. Chitosans of high, 2,000,000, medium, 750,000, and low, 70,000 molecular weight (hC, mC, and lC, respectively) were employed alone or as mixtures (hC/mC, hC/lC, and mC/lC 1:1, w/w). Different concentrations of glycols were added to these base dispersions (propylene glycol and glycerine) to investigate how the above physical properties change. The different rheological and evaporation-freezing behaviours of chitosan dispersions were related both to the molecular weight of chitosan and the vehicle composition of the dispersions. Particularly, the rheological study showed a pseudoplastic and shear thinning behaviour for all chitosan dispersions with flow index values n, tending to <1 at increasing molecular weights. Chitosans dispersions containing glycols showed lower apparent viscosity values than the base dispersions of the corresponding chitosans, but the water loss and the freezing point were lower especially for chitosan dispersions containing glycerine. This work presents a wide range of dispersion series from which to choose the most suitable to formulate pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

  16. Physical properties of orbital debris from spectroscopic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, K.; Africano, J.; Hamada, K.; Stansbery, E.; Sydney, P.; Kervin, P.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, certain physical properties, such as material type and albedo, of orbital debris are assumed when used to determine the size of the objects. A study to ascertain whether or not the assumed values are valid has begun using reflectance spectroscopy as a means of determining the material type of the object. What appears to some as a squiggly line is actually the reflectance of sunlight from the object. By comparing the location, depth, and width of the absorption features on the squiggly lines, the material type of the debris object is identified. Once the material type is known, the albedo of the object can be determined. This paper discusses the results from observations of large rocket bodies and satellites in both lower and geosynchronous Earth orbits (LEO and GEO, respectively) taken at the air force maui optical and supercomputing (AMOS) site located in Maui, Hawaii. Using the 1.6-m telescope and a spectral range of 0.3-0.9 μm, differences between rocket bodies of different types and launch dates, as well as satellites of different types and launch dates are determined. Variations seen in the squiggle lines are due to colors of paint, space weathering, and for the satellites, orientation and size of the solar panels. Future direction of the project will be discussed as well as plans for future observations.

  17. Soil physical properties affecting soil erosion in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Lujan, D.

    2004-01-01

    The total vegetated land area of the earth is about 11,500 hectare. Of this, about 12% is in South America. Of this, about 14% is degraded area. Water erosion, chemical degradation, wind erosion, and physical degradation have been reported as main types of degradation. In South America water erosion is a major process for soil degradation. Nevertheless, water erosion can be a consequence of degradation of the soil structure, especially the functional attributes of soil pores to transmit and retain water, and to facilitate root growth. Climate, soil and topographic characteristics determine runoff and erosion potential from agricultural lands. The main factors causing soil erosion can be divided into three groups: Energy factors: rainfall erosivity, runoff volume, wind strength, relief, slope angle, slope length; Protection factors: population density, plant cover, amenity value (pressure for use) and land management; and resistance factors: soil erodibility, infiltration capacity and soil management. The degree of soil erosion in a particular climatic zone, with particular soils, land use and socioeconomic conditions, will always result from a combination of the above mentioned factors. It is not easy to isolate a single factor. However, the soil physical properties that determine the soil erosion process, because the deterioration of soil physical properties is manifested through interrelated problems of surface sealing, crusting, soil compaction, poor drainage, impeded root growth, excessive runoff and accelerated erosion. When an unprotected soil surface is exposed to the direct impact of raindrops it can produce different responses: Production of smaller aggregates, dispersed particles, particles in suspension and translocation and deposition of particles. When this has occurred, the material is reorganized at the location into a surface seal. Aggregate breakdown under rainfall depends on soil strength and a certain threshold kinetic energy is needed to start

  18. Application of allogeneic bone marrow cells in view of residual alloreactivity: sirolimus but not cyclosporine evolves tolerogenic properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Timrott

    Full Text Available Application of bone marrow cells (BMC is a promising strategy for tolerance induction, but usually requires strong depletion of the host immune system. This study evaluates the ability of immunosuppressants to evolve tolerogenic properties of BMC in view of residual alloreactivity.The rat model used a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II disparate bone marrow transplantation (BMT setting (LEW.1AR1 (RT1auu → LEW.1AR2 (RT1aau. Heart grafts (LEW.1WR1 (RT1uua were disparate for the complete MHC to recipients and for MHC class I to BMC donors. Limited conditioning was performed by total body irradiation of 6 Gy. Cyclosporine (CsA or Sirolimus (Srl were administered for 14 or 28 days. Transplantation of heart grafts (HTx was performed at day 16 or at day 100 after BMT. Chimerism and changes in the T cell pool were detected by flow cytometry.Mixed chimeras accepted HTx indefinitely, although the composition of the regenerated T cell pool was not changed to a basically donor MHC class II haplotype. Non-chimeric animals rejected HTx spontaneously. BMC recipients, who received HTx during T cell recovery at day 16, accepted HTx only after pre-treatment with Srl, although chimerism was lost. CsA pre-treatment led to accelerated HTx rejection as did isolated application of BMC.Srl evolves tolerogenic properties of allogeneic BMC to achieve indefinite acceptance of partly MHC disparate HTx despite residual alloreactivity and in particular loss of chimerism.

  19. Nutraceutical properties of cumin residue generated from Ayurvedic industries using cell line models

    OpenAIRE

    Arun, K. B.; Aswathi, U.; Venugopal, V. V.; Madhavankutty, T. S.; Nisha, P.

    2016-01-01

    Spent cumin (SC), generated from Ayurvedic industry, was evaluated for its nutraceutical potential in terms of antioxidant, antidiabetic and anticancer properties, and compared with that of the raw cumin (RC). SC and RC seeds were extracted with ethyl acetate (E) and methanol (M). SCM (methanol extract) were rich in p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid and cinnamic acid (6.4445, 5.8286, 2.1519, 4.3085 mg/g dry extract). SCM reduced Fe2+ ion (89.68 µM AA/g dry weight), scavenged DPPH ra...

  20. Physical properties of magnesium affected soils in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Ocampo, A.

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium has some capacity to develop higher exchangeable sodium levels in clays and soil materials. The Mg +2 accumulation on the exchange complex of soils to a very high saturation levels affect their physical, chemical and biological properties. Colombia has a large area of these soils, located mainly in the main rivers valleys and in the Caribbean Region. In the Cauca River Valley there are about 117,000 hectares affected. There is a lack of information about the soil forming processes, the Mg +2 effects on soils, the type and source of compounds responsible for the magnesium enrichment, their relationship with the landscape and the way this accumulation occurs. To identify and quantify soil Mg +2 enriched areas over 2500 soil profiles from different landscape positions of the Cauca River Valley were studied. The information was processed to generate Mg-saturation maps, to identify the different soil profile types and to estimate the affected area. A topographic sequence from the alluvial inundation plain to the hills was used to explore the presence of diagnostic horizons and to determine the main soil characteristics and genetic, mineralogical or chemical evidences of soil forming processes. Two 180 kilometer transects parallel to the river were used to: a) study the type and source of Mg-compounds responsible for the Mg-enrichment and the way this accumulation occurs. b) the soil hydraulic properties like infiltration, saturated hydraulic conductivity and matrix potential at different depths were also measured. Samples of nine profiles were collected and the porosity and soil volume changes at different water content were examined. The program RETC was used for prediction of the hydraulic properties of non saturated soils. These properties involved the retention curve, the function of hydraulic conductivity and the diffusivity of the water in the soil. By grouping together the soil profiles, five main type of Mg-affected soils were identified as being

  1. Thermal Properties of Green Fuel Briquettes from Residue Corncobs Materials Mixed Macadamia Shell Charcoal Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeta, Suminya; Nachaisin, Mali; Wanish, Suchana

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this research was to produce green fuel briquettes from corncobs by adding macadamia shell charcoal powder. The study was sectioned into 3 parts: 1) Quality improvement of green fuel briquettes by adding macadamia; 2) Fuel property analysis based on ASTM standards and thermal fuel efficiency; and 3) Economics appropriateness in producing green fuel briquettes. This research produced green fuel briquettes using the ratio of corncobs weight and macadamia shell charcoal powder in 100:0 90:10 80:20 70:30 60:40 and 50:50 and pressing in the cold briquette machine. Fuel property analysis showed that green fuel briquettes at the ratio 50:50 produced maximum heating values at 21.06 Megajoule per kilogram and briquette density of 725.18 kilograms per cubic meter, but the percent of moisture content, volatile matter, ash, and fixed carbon were 10.09, 83.02, 2.17 and 4.72 respectively. The thermal efficiency of green fuel briquettes averaged 20.22%. Economics appropriateness was most effective where the ratio of corncobs weight to macadamia shell charcoal powder was at 50:50 which accounted for the cost per kilogram at 5.75 Baht. The net present value was at 1,791.25 Baht. Internal rate of return was at 8.62 and durations for a payback period of investment was at 1.9 years which was suitable for investment.

  2. Properties of a compost obtained starting from residuals of the production of cane sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis López Bravo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to determine the main properties of a compost made from bagasse, slowness and ash, obtained from the sugar factory process. To elaborate the mixture a characterization of the raw material was carried out in function of the properties related to the composting process. During the process of anaerobic biodigestion, the control of the main monitoring parameters was carried out, until reaching the maturation state. In the raw material used a bulk density of 0.12 to 0.48 g cm-3 was found, the pH oscillated between 5.2 and 8.7, while the electrical conductivity was in the range of 0,4 to 0,9 µ m-1. On the other hand, the contents of P, K, Ca and Mg showed values between 0.3 and 2.8 %. Finally, a bulk density of 0.5 g cm-3 was obtained in the compost. The carbon-nitrogen (C/N ratio, showed a linear relation with respect to the time of composting, showing a suitable maturation of the mixture. The presence of N, P, K, Ca and Mg with values of 1; 1.3; 1.1; 2 and 1.1 % were also verified. After evaluating the results it is concluded that compost shows a suitable composition to be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.

  3. The effect of residual chlorides on resultant properties of solid and liquid phases after carbonization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevova Eva; Sugarkova Vera; Kaloc Miroslav [Institute of Geonics ASCR, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Petrology

    2004-07-01

    The low-concentration condition was employed to model the carbonisation mode for local (Czech Republic) coals with higher concentrations of some metals. After completing the carbonisation, mass balance calculations were performed. Results show that the presence of zinc dichloride, copper dichloride and sodium chloride caused the most pronounced impediment to the formation of tar in contrast to lead dichloride and aluminium chloride that increased tar. The results demonstrated that adding of chloride agents effect both the course of the coking process and the properties of solid and liquid products of coking. Evaluation of the solid phase showed that chloride addition caused a decrease of the caking and swelling value, which corresponds with measurements of plasticity values that are of significant influence on mechanical properties closely related to coking plant processes. Evaluation of the liquid phase pointed towards an increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (especially phenanthrene, fluoranthene, acenaphthylene, pyrene) but a decrease of naphthalene and methylnaphthalene. Chloride addition increased aromaticity and caused a difference in substitution rate at aromatic nucleus. Mesophase estimation indicated extensive mosaic, domain and laminated anisotropic texture occurrence after chloride addition, mainly NaCl and CuCl{sub 2} addition. A more detailed evaluation including detailed screening, TGA, IR and RTG analysis will be subject of further investigation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Material physical properties of 12 chromium ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masanori; Wakai, Takashi; Aoto, Kazumi

    2003-09-01

    High chromium ferritic steel is an attractive candidate for structural material of the next Fast Breeder Reactor, since both of thermal properties and high temperature strength of the steel are superior to those of conventional austenitic stainless steels. In this study, physical properties of 12Cr steels are measured and compared to those obtained in the previous studies to discuss about stochastic dispersions. The effect of measurement technique on Young's modulus and the influence of the specimen size on coefficient of thermal expansion are also investigated. The following conclusions are obtained. (1) Young's modulus of 12Cr steels obtained in this study tends to larger than those obtained in the previous studies especially in high temperature. Such a discrepancy is resulted from the difference in measurement technique. It was clarified that Young's modulus obtained by free vibration method is more adequate those obtained by the cantilever characteristic vibration method. Therefore, the authors recommend using the values obtained by free vibration method as Young's modulus of 12Cr steels. (2) Both instant and mean coefficient of thermal expansion of 12Cr steels obtained in this study is in a good agreement with those obtained in the previous studies. However, the obviously different values are obtained from the measurement by large size specimens. Such a discrepancy is resulted from heterogeneous during heating process of the specimens. Therefore, the authors recommend using the values obtained by φ4 x 20 mm specimens as instant and mean coefficient of thermal expansion of 12Cr steels. (3) Specific heat of 12Cr steels obtained in this study agree with those obtained in the previous studies with a few exceptions. (4)Thermal conductivity of 12Cr steels obtained in this study agree with those obtained in the previous studies. (5) It was confirmed that instant and mean coefficient of thermal expansion, density, specific heat and thermal conductivity of 12Cr steels

  5. Effect of residual stresses on individual phase mechanical properties of austeno-ferritic duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhlaoui, R.; Baczmanski, A.; Braham, C.; Wronski, S.; Wierzbanowski, K.; Oliver, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical properties of both phases in duplex stainless steel have been studied in situ using neutron diffraction during mechanical loading. Important differences in the evolution of lattice strains are observed between tests carried out in tension and compression. An elastoplastic self-consistent model is used to predict the evolution of internal stresses during loading and to identify critical resolved shear stresses and strain hardening parameters of the material. The differences between tensile and compressive behaviours of the phases are explained when the initial stresses are taken into account in model calculations. The yield stresses in each phase of the studied steel have been experimentally determined and successfully compared with the results of the elastoplastic self-consistent model

  6. Crystal growth and physical properties of Ferro-pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aswartham, Saicharan

    2012-11-08

    . Single crystals of KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} were grown with two different fluxes, namely, FeAs-flux and KAs-flux. The superconducting transition is found to be at 3.8 K in both the crystals. The influence of doping with selected elements like Na, Rh, Co and Cr has been investigated systematically in KFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals. With Na-doping at the K-site, yield (K{sub 1-x}Na{sub x})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}; superconductivity is suppressed to lower temperatures. Substitution of Co and Cr at Fe site, yield K(Fe{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}){sub 2}As{sub 2}, K(Fe{sub 0.95}Cr{sub 0.05}){sub 2}As{sub 2} superconductivity is rapidly killed. Single crystals of (Ba{sub 0.6}Eu{sub 0.4})(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} with x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2 were grown with solution growth technique using Fe-As flux and investigated with several physical measurements. The growth conditions are highly optimized to grow flux free large single crystals especially in case of BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} family. The high quality of the crystals were revealed by several physical properties, for e.g. single crystals of Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} are of the highest quality which was confirmed by the magnetic ac susceptibility which showed a very sharp superconducting transition.

  7. ION SERIES AND THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PROTEINS. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, J

    1920-11-20

    1. Our results show clearly that the Hofmeister series is not the correct expression of the relative effect of ions on the swelling of gelatin, and that it is not true that chlorides, bromides, and nitrates have "hydrating," and acetates, tartrates, citrates, and phosphates "dehydrating," effects. If the pH of the gelatin is taken into considertion, it is found that for the same pH the effect on swelling is the same for gelatin chloride, nitrate, trichloracetate, tartrate, succinate, oxalate, citrate, and phosphate, while the swelling is considerably less for gelatin sulfate. This is exactly what we should expect on the basis of the combining ratios of the corresponding acids with gelatin since the weak dibasic and tribasic acids combine with gelatin in molecular proportions while the strong dibasic acid H(2)SO(4) combines with gelatin in equivalent proportions. In the case of the weak dibasic acids he anion in combination with gelatin is therefore monovalent and in the case of the strong H(2)SO(4) it is bivalent. Hence it is only the valency and not the nature of the ion in combination with gelatin which affects the degree of swelling. 2. This is corroborated in the experiments with alkalies which show that LiOH, NaOH, KOH, and NH(4)OH cause the same degree of swelling at the same pH of the gelatin solution and that this swelling is considerably higher than that caused by Ca(OH)(2) and Ba(OH)(2) for the same pH. This agrees with the results of the titration experiments which prove that Ca(OH)(2) and Ba(OH)(2) combine with gelatin in equivalent proportions and that hence the cation in combination with the gelatin salt with these two latter bases is bivalent. 3. The fact that proteins combine with acids and alkalies on the basis of the forces of primary valency is therefore not only in full agreement with the influence of ions on the physical properties of proteins but allows us to predict this influence qualitatively and quantitatively. 4. What has been stated in

  8. General Physical Properties of CGRaBS Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Marcotulli, L.; Ajello, M.; Joshi, M.; Sahayanathan, S.; Rao, A. R.; Hartmann, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of a multi-frequency, time-averaged analysis of blazars included in the Candidate Gamma-ray Blazar Survey catalog. Our sample consists of 324 γ-ray detected (γ-ray loud) and 191 γ-ray undetected (γ-ray quiet) blazars; we consider all the data up to 2016 April 1. We find that both the γ-ray loud and γ-ray quiet blazar populations occupy similar regions in the WISE color-color diagram, and γ-ray loud sources are brighter in the radio and X-ray bands. A simple one-zone synchrotron inverse-Compton emission model is applied to derive the physical properties of both populations. We find that the central black hole mass and accretion disk luminosity ({L}{disk}) computed from the modeling of the optical-UV emission with a Shakura-Sunyaev disk reasonably matches that estimated from the optical spectroscopic emission-line information. A significantly larger Doppler boosting in the γ-ray loud blazars is noted, and their jets are more radiatively efficient. On the other hand, the γ-ray quiet objects are more MeV-peaked and thus could be potential targets for next-generation MeV missions. Our results confirm earlier findings about the accretion-jet connection in blazars; however, many of the γ-ray quiet blazars tend to deviate from the recent claim that the jet power exceeds {L}{disk} in blazars. A broadband study, considering a larger set of γ-ray quiet objects and also including BL Lacs, will be needed to confirm/reject this hypothesis as well as to verify the evolution of the powerful high-redshift blazars into their low-power nearby counterparts.

  9. Waste Feed Evaporation: Physical Properties and Solubility Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Caustic adjustment of the UF recycle stream was required to prevent gel formation for the solutions tested. Actual amounts of caustic adjustment required will vary depending on the composition and volume ratios of the UF recycle. The concentration of recycles in the waste feed evaporator as required to blend with waste feed streams to provide a feed to the ultrafiltration process with a supernate specific gravity of 1.22 is feasible. No problems (such as severe foaming) were noted during the lab-scale testing that would preclude operation of the evaporator. The physical properties of the recycles and waste feed blends fit well to correlations based on sodium concentration and temperature. Evaporation of streams containing high levels of insoluble solids may lead to ''bumping'' or other undesirable behavior in the evaporator at insoluble solids. Sodium alumino-silicate solids were not noted in the evaporator feed or concentrate, but NAS did form in the blends of concentrated recycle and waste feeds. Strontium was found to precipitate during neutralization of the acid cleaning solution and remain precipitated during evaporation. Mercury was found to be significantly soluble in Envelope A simulants and the solubility of mercury increased during evaporation. No mercury was detected in the offgas system after evaporation using Envelope A simulants. Mercury was significantly less soluble in a simulant of AZ-102. Filtration of the Envelope A waste simulants was affected by the addition of recycle to the process, but the impact was primarily due to an increase in the amount of insoluble solids in the blended stream compared to the waste feed

  10. HETDEX: The Physical Properties of Lyman-alpha Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronwall, Caryl; Blanc, G.; Ciardullo, R.; Finkelstein, S.; Gawiser, E.; Gebhardt, K.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in Fall 2012, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will map out 300 square degrees via a blind integral-field spectroscopic survey which will detect 800,000 Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at 1.9 LAE power spectrum, but these emission-line sources are also important probes of galaxy evolution. LAEs are observed "in the act" of formation with low mass, little dust, very young ages, and a two-dimensional clustering scale-length that implies that they are the progenitors of today's Milky Way type galaxies. The unprecedented size of the HETDEX survey will allow us to explore the 3-D clustering of these objects and to measure their halo masses as a function of redshift. We will also be able to explore the physical properties of LAEs over a wide range of environments, and study how their luminosity functions, equivalent width distributions, and star formation rates change with galaxy density and redshift. In preparation for HETDEX, we undertook a 3 year pilot survey to test the feasibility of the experiment and design an optimal observing strategy. These observations were performed with a proto-type HETDEX spectrograph (VIRUS-P) on the McDonald 2.7-m telescope, and covered Ly-alpha in the redshift range 1.9 < z < 3.8. This survey discovered 104 Ly-alpha emitting galaxies in 169 sq. arcmin of sky, and reached objects with Ly-alpha line luminosities as faint as 3 x 1042 ergs/s. We will present the Ly-alpha luminosity function, equivalent width distributions, and star formation rates measured for this sample and discuss the implications of the pilot survey results for HETDEX.

  11. Aqueous aerosol SOA formation: impact on aerosol physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Joseph L; Kim, Derek D; Schwier, Allison N; Li, Ruizhi; McNeill, V Faye

    2013-01-01

    Organic chemistry in aerosol water has recently been recognized as a potentially important source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) material. This SOA material may be surface-active, therefore potentially affecting aerosol heterogeneous activity, ice nucleation, and CCN activity. Aqueous aerosol chemistry has also been shown to be a potential source of light-absorbing products ("brown carbon"). We present results on the formation of secondary organic aerosol material in aerosol water and the associated changes in aerosol physical properties from GAMMA (Gas-Aerosol Model for Mechanism Analysis), a photochemical box model with coupled gas and detailed aqueous aerosol chemistry. The detailed aerosol composition output from GAMMA was coupled with two recently developed modules for predicting a) aerosol surface tension and b) the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the aerosol, based on our previous laboratory observations. The simulation results suggest that the formation of oligomers and organic acids in bulk aerosol water is unlikely to perturb aerosol surface tension significantly. Isoprene-derived organosulfates are formed in high concentrations in acidic aerosols under low-NO(x) conditions, but more experimental data are needed before the potential impact of these species on aerosol surface tension may be evaluated. Adsorption of surfactants from the gas phase may further suppress aerosol surface tension. Light absorption by aqueous aerosol SOA material is driven by dark glyoxal chemistry and is highest under high-NO(x) conditions, at high relative humidity, in the early morning hours. The wavelength dependence of the predicted absorption spectra is comparable to field observations and the predicted mass absorption efficiencies suggest that aqueous aerosol chemistry can be a significant source of aerosol brown carbon under urban conditions.

  12. Physical properties of orbital debris from squiggly lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, K.; Africano, J.; Hamada, K.; Stansbery, E.; Sydney, P.; Kervin, P.

    Currently, certain physical properties, such as material type and albedo, of orbital debris are assumed when used to determine the size of the objects. A study to ascertain whether or not the assumed values are valid has begun using reflectance spectroscopy as a means of determining the material type of the object. What appears to some as a squiggly line is actually the reflectance of sunlight from the object. By comparing the location, depth, and width of the absorption features on the squiggly lines, the material type of the debris object is identified. Once the material type is known, the albedo of the object can be determined. This paper discusses the results from observations of large rocket bodies and satellites in both lower and geosynchronous Earth orbits (LEO and GEO, respectively) taken at the Air Force Maui Optical Supercomputing (AMOS) site located in Maui, Hawaii. Using the 1.6- meter telescope and a spectral range of 0.3 to 0.9 microns, differences between rocket bodies of different types and launch dates, as well as satellites of different types and launch dates are determined. Variations seen in the squiggle lines are due to colors of paint, space weathering, and for the satellites, orientation and size of the solar panels. Initial findings from an additional observation run using the 3.67-meter telescope equipped with both a visible and near-infrared spectrometer (out to 2 microns) are also described. Future direction of the project will be discussed as well as plans for future observations.

  13. Soil physical properties of high mountain fields under bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalmo Arantes de Barros

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining contributes to the life quality of contemporary society, but can generate significant impacts, these being mitigated due to environmental controls adopted. This study aimed to characterize soil physical properties in high-altitude areas affected by bauxite mining, and to edaphic factors responses to restoration techniques used to recover mined areas in Poços de Caldas plateau, MG, Brazil. The experiment used 3 randomized block design involving within 2 treatments (before mining intervention and after environmental recovery, and 4 replicates (N=24. In each treatment, soil samples with deformed structures were determined: granulometry, water-dispersible clay content, flocculation index, particle density, stoniness level, water aggregate stability, and organic matter contend. Soil samples with preserved structures were used to determine soil density and the total volume of pores, macropores, and micropores. Homogenization of stoniness between soil layers as a result of soil mobilization was observed after the mined area recovery. Stoniness decreased in 0.10-0.20 m layer after recovery, but was similar in the 0-0.10 m layer in before and after samples. The recovery techniques restored organic matter levels to pre-mining levels. However, changes in soil, including an increase in soil flocculation degree and a decrease in water-dispersible clays, were still apparent post-recovery. Furthermore, mining operations caused structural changes to the superficial layer of soil, as demonstrated by an increase in soil density and a decrease in total porosity and macroporosity. Decreases in the water stability of aggregates were observed after mining operations.

  14. Physical and chemical properties for sandstone and bentonites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2004-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties such as porosity, pore-size distribution, dry density, solid density, mineralogy and chemical composition, which are important parameters for the understanding and analysis of the diffusion phenomena of radionuclides and ions in bentonite and in the geosphere, were measured. The measurements were performed for sandstone, of which fundamental data and information are limited. For bentonite, 3 kinds of bentonites with different smectite contents (Kunigel-V1, Kunipia-F, MX80) were used. In the measurements of the physical and chemical properties of rock, the measurements of solid density by pychnometer, the measurements of porosity, dry density and solid density by water saturation method, the measurements of porosity, dry density, solid density, pore-size distribution and specific surface area of pores by Hg porosimetry, the identifications of constituent minerals by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), the measurement of chemical composition by whole rock analysis, the observations of micropore structure by Laser Confocal Microscope (LCM), the measurements of water vaporization curves and the measurements of the homogeneity of the rock by penetration of KMnO 4 were performed. While, in the measurements of the physical and chemical properties for bentonite, water basis water content, water content, porosity, dry density, solid density and their distributions in samples were measured, and the degree of inhomogeneity was quantitatively evaluated by comparing with data and information reported up to date. The porosities of sandstone are 15.6±0.21% for water saturation method and 15.5±0.2% for Hg porosimetry, and similar values were obtained in both methods. The solid densities ranged 2.65-2.69 Mg/m 3 for 3 methods, and the average value was 2.668±0.012 Mg/m 3 . The average pore size was 88.8±0.5nm, and pore sizes ≤10μm shared 80% of total pore volume and pore sizes ≤1μm shared 40%. The specific surface area of the pores is 4.09±0.017 m

  15. Summary of tank waste physical properties at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes the physical parameters measured from Hanford Site tank wastes. Physical parameters were measured to determine the physical nature of the tank wastes to develop simulants and design in-tank equipment. The physical parameters were measured mostly from core samples obtained directly below tank risers. Tank waste physical parameters were collected through a database search, interviewing and selecting references from documents. This report shows the data measured from tank waste but does not describe how the analyses wee done. This report will be updated as additional data are measured or more documents are reviewed

  16. Curing characteristics tensile and physical properties of rice straw filled standard Malaysian rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaid, A.; Noriman, N. Z.; Dahham, O. S.; Hamzah, R.; Adam, T.; Al-Samarrai, M. N.; Mohammed, M.; Azlan, U. A. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this research, the effects of Rice Straw (RS) reinforced Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMRL) on curing characteristics, tensile properties and physical properties were investigated. All compounds were prepared using two roll mill at five different RS loading (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 phr). In addition, two different size of RS, fine size (FS) at 300 μm and coarse size (CS) at 10 mm were used. The properties such as cure characteristics, tensile properties and physical properties were determined. Results indicated that the fine size of RS filled SMRL contributed to the better properties such as tensile, hardness and crosslink density compare to coarser size of RS filled SMRL at same loading.

  17. Identification of improvised explosives residues using physical-chemical analytical methods under real conditions after an explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Mareš, Bohumil; Turková, Ivana; Beroun, Ivo

    2016-05-01

    Within the analysis of cases relating to the use of explosives for crimes, we have experienced a shift from using industrial explosives towards substances made in amateur and illegal way. Availability of industrial explosives is increasingly limited to a narrow sphere of subjects with a relevant permission. Thus, on the part of perpetrators, terrorists, ever greater attention is paid to illegal production of explosives that are easily made from readily available raw materials. Another alarming fact is the availability of information found on the internet. Procedures of preparation are often very simple and do not require even a deeper professional knowledge. Explosive characteristics are not actually accessible for many of these substances (detonation velocity, sensitivity, working capacity, brisance, physical and chemical stability, etc.). Therefore, a project is being implemented, which on grounds of assessment of individual information available in literature and on the internet, aiming at choosing individual areas of potentially abusable substances (e.g. mixtures of nitric acid (98%) with organic substances, mixtures nitromethane and tetranitromethane with organic substances, mixtures of chlorates and perchlorates of alkali metals with organic substances, chemically individual compounds of organic base type of perchloric acid, azides, fulminates, acetylides, picrates, styphnates of heavy metals, etc.). It is directed towards preparation of these explosives also in non-stoichiometric mixtures, conducting test explosives, determination of explosive characteristics (if they are unknown) and analysis of both primary phases and post-blast residues through available analytical techniques, such as gas and liquid chromatography with mass detection, FTIR, micro-Raman spectrometry, electron microscopy with microanalysis and Raman microspectrometry directly in SEM chamber for analysis at the level of individual microparticles. The received characteristics will be used to

  18. Nutraceutical properties of cumin residue generated from Ayurvedic industries using cell line models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, K B; Aswathi, U; Venugopal, V V; Madhavankutty, T S; Nisha, P

    2016-10-01

    Spent cumin (SC), generated from Ayurvedic industry, was evaluated for its nutraceutical potential in terms of antioxidant, antidiabetic and anticancer properties, and compared with that of the raw cumin (RC). SC and RC seeds were extracted with ethyl acetate (E) and methanol (M). SCM (methanol extract) were rich in p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid and cinnamic acid (6.4445, 5.8286, 2.1519, 4.3085 mg/g dry extract). SCM reduced Fe 2+ ion (89.68 µM AA/g dry weight), scavenged DPPH radical (IC 50 -238.6 µg/mL), better α-amylase inhibition (IC 50 -337.22 µg/mL) and glucose uptake activity in 30.7% of L6 cells. SCM inhibited viability, retarded migration area up to 41.02%, arrested cell cycle at S phase and induced apoptosis in 2.45% of HT29 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that dietary interventions using nutraceutical food formulation made out of SC can play a significant role in the prevention and management of degenerative diseases.

  19. Concrete for PCRV's: Mechanical properties at elevated temperatures and residual mechanical behaviour after triaxial preloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschl, H.; Moosecker, W.

    1979-01-01

    During the lifetime of reactor vessels stress states will change as a result of changes in loading and heating, shrinkage and creep. For the design of prestressed concrete reactor vessels information is required about the behaviour of concrete under multiaxial short- and long-term loading at elevated temperatures. Therefore, tests were carried out at the Institut fuer Massivbau of the Technical University of Munich to study the properties of mass concrete under uniaxial loading at 353 K. Additionally, biaxial creep of concrete up to 368 K was investigated. Some of the uniaxial test specimens were sealed with a copper foil to avoid drying. The concrete contained calzite gravel. The thermal expansion coefficient of predried concrete was 9.5 x 10 -6 , of sealed concrete 13.6 x 10 -6 and of unsealed concrete 13.2 x 10 -6 . The modulus of elasticity at 353 K (393 K) was reduced by 10 (13)% for sealed and by 15 (22)% for unsealed specimens. Total shrinkage deformations of heated concrete were 190 to 225 microstrains for sealed and 250 to 350 microstrains for unsealed specimens. Creep deformations were highly dependent upon temperature being about 3 times higher at 353 K for sealed and unsealed concrete. (orig.)

  20. Solid state properties of oligomers containing dithienothiophene or fluorene residues suitable for field effect transistor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porzio, William; Destri, Silvia; Giovanella, Umberto; Pasini, Mariacecilia; Marin, Luminita; Iosip, Mariana Dana; Campione, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    A series of three thiophene based oligomers has been extensively characterized. The chemical design has been addressed to obtain ionization potential (IP) and electronic affinity (EA) values matching the work function of commonly used electrode materials. Such IP and EA values were tested by cyclovoltammetry. In order to tune electron-donation and drawing strength the sequence of the molecule subunits in the oligomer has been varied. The thermal properties with particular reference to their stability during preparation and operation were checked by using differential scanning calorimetry, polarised light microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. Prototypes of thin film field effect transistor, based on this series of oligomers have been electrically and structurally characterized. The long axes of the molecules are oriented nearly perpendicular to the gate insulator, in agreement with both highly sensitive X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. From powder diffraction data the structure of oligomer I was solved. A general relation is envisaged between charge mobility and packing closeness in the series. For the most promising molecule a study of mobility/temperature behaviour was performed yielding interesting results

  1. Physical properties of inland valley soils of central Cross River State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical properties of inland valley soils of central Cross River State, Nigeria. ... The physical properties of six Inland valley pedons in central Cross River State, Nigeria were investigated. The percent total sand ... The surface layers were generally loamy in texture while the subsoil layers were clayey. The mean bulk density ...

  2. Study on Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of Some Myanmar Gems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyaw Myint Htoo; Tun Khin; Sein Htoon

    2004-05-01

    Physical properties of some Myanmar gems were studied by using refractometer, dichroscope, polariscope, SG test, UV test and microscope. Then, chemical composition were investigated by XRF-technique. After that, gem identification, evaluation, colour improvement were studied according to these physical properties and chemical composition

  3. Physical and Digital Security Mechanisms: Properties, Combinations and Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cleeff, A.

    2015-01-01

    The usage of information technology implies the replacement of physical systems with digital systems: we use information technology because some properties of software, such as high speed, low cost and high accuracy, are more desirable than the corresponding properties of physical systems.

  4. Analysis of influence of the inclusion of residue of kaolin on the properties and on the variation of major oxides present in clay city Bento Fernandes (RN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Hugo Fernandes Medeiros de; Lima, Cassiano dos Santos; Silva, Gilson Garcia da; Machado, Tercio Graciano; Albuquerque, Rosanne Azevedo de; Gomes, Uilame Umbelino

    2011-01-01

    Research Foundation for Support of Education and Technological Development of Rio Grande do Norte - FUNCERN found that 38% of deposits visited in RN products sold in other states, 20% did not sell tiles RN, 8% preferred the tiles outside. All to supply a market segment demanding and are looking for differentiated products, which require manufacturers of certified quality products contributing to the quality process in the construction industry. It is known that the ceramic bodies are manufactured from the composition of two or more materials with different characteristics in their composition. Thus, one of the key steps is the dosage of raw materials and additives. This device allows to target the many wastes from industry. This paper aims to study the physical and mechanical properties of ceramic body resulting from the inclusion of residual kaolin clay on the city of Bento Fernandes (RN), analyzing the influence of variation of major oxides present in the raw material on the behavior of the final product. (author)

  5. Influence of residual catalyst on the properties of conjugated polyphenylenevinylene materials: Palladium nanoparticles and poor electrical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Nyberg, R.B.; Jørgensen, M.

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of conjugated polymer materials using palladium catalysis was shown to result in a contamination of the polymer product with palladium nanoparticles that were difficult to detect and remove. The particle size was on the order of 20 nm, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy...... (TEM). Further, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to establish the chemical and physical nature of the catalyst remnants. We demonstrate the identity of many physical and chemical properties of the same...... polymer material prepared by two different routes: the palladium route and the condensation route. The performance in a device application of the two polymer materials was, however, very different, and the palladium route was demonstrated to give poor films with low breakdown voltages and short circuits....

  6. Study of chemical and physical properties of irradiated Guar Gum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, H. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different gamma radiation doses to decontamination of micro-organisms present in Guar Gum powder. As well as to study the effect of radiation on the chemical and physical properties of the carbohydrate components of the Gum's material. Two types of samples were used in this study (powder and liquid). All samples were collected from commercially available Guar Gum (G G), which were obtained from the company (Sudanese Guar Gum ltd). Samples putted in polyethylene tightly closed container, then irradiated by applying different doses (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 20,30,40,and 50 kGy) from Co-60 source at room temperature in air. And take zero kGy as control. Irradiated powder samples of (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy) were investigated for contamination by using growth media agar and the result showed that 2.5 kGy is appropriate dose to remove the contamination of the samples. And then analyzed using fourier transform infrared (FTTR) x-ray fluorescence (X RF) and spectroscopy. The FTIR spectroscopy results suggested that there were no major chemical functional group transformation during irradiation. No change occurs by using low dose as 2.5 kGy. Also evaluation impact of radiation on liquid Samples (Aqueous solutions prepared in tow concentration of 1% and 5% wv that is by exposing the samples to the same dose of gamma rays) the effect of irradiation on it were investigated by using ultra violet spectroscopy ( UV.Vis), results showed that low dose has steeply effect in solutions specially in low concentration, it was more pronoun than that in high concentration, high dose has made change similar to that it made in powder. Also for both concentrations of liquid samples and for solutions made of irradiated powder pH measured and viscosity which used in investigations of molecular weight of liquid and powder, comparing the results of impact in the form of powder with the results of effects in the solutions found that the effects of

  7. Optical and physical properties of ceramic crystal laser materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jed A.

    Historically ceramic crystal laser material has had disadvantages compared to single crystal laser material. However, progress has been made in the last decade and a half to overcome the disadvantages associated with ceramic crystal. Today, because of the promise of ceramic crystal as a high power laser material, investigation into its properties, both physical and optical, is warranted and important. Thermal expansion was measured in this thesis for Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) ceramic crystal using an interferometric method. The interferometer employed a spatially filtered HeNe at 633 nm wavelength. Thermal expansion coefficients measured for the ceramic crystal samples were near the reported values for single crystal Nd:YAG. With a similar experimental setup as that for the thermal expansion measurements, dn/dT for ceramic crystal Nd:YAG was measured and found to be slightly higher than the reported value for single crystal. Depolarization loss due to thermal gradient induced stresses can limit laser performance. As a result this phenomenon was modeled for ceramic crystal materials and compared to single crystals for slab and rod shaped gain media. This was accomplished using COMSOL Multiphysics, and MATLAB. Results indicate a dependence of the depolarization loss on the grain size where the loss decreases with decreased grain size even to the point where lower loss may be expected in ceramic crystals than in single crystal samples when the grain sizes in the ceramic crystal are sufficiently small. Deformation-induced thermal lensing was modeled for a single crystal slab and its relevance to ceramic crystal is discussed. Data indicates the most notable cause of deformation-induced thermal lensing is a consequence of the deformation of the top and bottom surfaces. Also, the strength of the lensing along the thickness is greater than the width and greater than that due to other causes of lensing along the thickness of the slab. Emission spectra, absorption

  8. Physical and chemical properties of long-term salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Ruggiero

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In some areas, particularly in the Mediterranean regions, saline water is a source of water for crop irrigation. Consequently during the time, the use of this water may cause significant modifications of the soil physic-chemical properties and plant toxicity. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the variation of soil stability index and of ECe, ESP, pH, exchangeable potassium, bulk density, soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention curve (h(θ, for a clay sandy soil, which was irrigated over 12 years with saline water. The soil stability index was evaluated by 2 methods: after wetting the sample (Water Stability Index = WSI and without the pre-wetting step (Water Stability Dry Index = WSDI. The measures have been taken at three depths along the soil profile: 0-0.30, 0.30-0.60 and 0.60-0.90 m. The saline water was obtained by adding commercial sea salt to the irrigation water with the result of a final concentrations of 0.25 (2.5 g l-1, 0.5 (5 g l-1 and 1% (10 g l-1. A non-salinized control was also included. The increasing salinity of the irrigation water increased at all the depths ECe, ESP and pH, while exchangeable potassium decreased. Assessment of soil aggregates stability without samples pre-wetting (WSDI allowed us to better discriminate among the different samples examined. Aggregate stability for each of the soil layers decreased at increasing salinity of the irrigation water. Long term salinization affected the aggregate stability of the deepest layers. The soil hydraulic conductivity decreased also, while bulk density increased. The shape of the soil water retention curve was also affected by salinity. In the salinized plots less water is relaxed within -150 ÷ -12 cm ψ range. The available water was reduced at increasing salinity. Irrigation with saline water on clay-sandy soils increases ECe, pH and ESP, all of which negatively affect the soil aggregate stability. Damage to the soil structure remarkably reduces the

  9. Physical and chemical properties of long-term salinized soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Ruggiero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In some areas, particularly in the Mediterranean regions, saline water is a source of water for crop irrigation. Consequently during the time, the use of this water may cause significant modifications of the soil physic-chemical properties and plant toxicity. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the variation of soil stability index and of ECe, ESP, pH, exchangeable potassium, bulk density, soil hydraulic conductivity and water retention curve (h(θ, for a clay sandy soil, which was irrigated over 12 years with saline water. The soil stability index was evaluated by 2 methods: after wetting the sample (Water Stability Index = WSI and without the pre-wetting step (Water Stability Dry Index = WSDI. The measures have been taken at three depths along the soil profile: 0-0.30, 0.30-0.60 and 0.60-0.90 m. The saline water was obtained by adding commercial sea salt to the irrigation water with the result of a final concentrations of 0.25 (2.5 g l-1, 0.5 (5 g l-1 and 1% (10 g l-1. A non-salinized control was also included. The increasing salinity of the irrigation water increased at all the depths ECe, ESP and pH, while exchangeable potassium decreased. Assessment of soil aggregates stability without samples pre-wetting (WSDI allowed us to better discriminate among the different samples examined. Aggregate stability for each of the soil layers decreased at increasing salinity of the irrigation water. Long term salinization affected the aggregate stability of the deepest layers. The soil hydraulic conductivity decreased also, while bulk density increased. The shape of the soil water retention curve was also affected by salinity. In the salinized plots less water is relaxed within -150 ÷ -12 cm ψ range. The available water was reduced at increasing salinity. Irrigation with saline water on clay-sandy soils increases ECe, pH and ESP, all of which negatively affect the soil aggregate stability. Damage to the soil structure remarkably reduces the

  10. Physical Properties and Crop Management for Corn in an Albaqualf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Giacomeli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rice monoculture in lowlands can cause problems for management practices in crop fields, for example, in weed control. For this reason, corn in rotation with irrigated rice in lowlands may be advantageous, despite problems with soil compaction and water excess. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil physical properties and corn performance in soil management systems in an Albaqualf soil (lowlands. Two experiments were conducted in the field, in the 2013/14 and 2014/15 crop seasons. The experimental design was randomized blocks with two factors. There were three levels for the first factor, consisting of soil management practices: soil chiseling 45 days before sowing to a depth of 0.3 m; conventional tillage with two diskings to a depth of 0.1 m and subsequent leveling of the soil; and no-till. The second factor was composed of two levels: sowing on raised seedbeds, and without raised seedbeds. The soil parameters of bulk density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, volumetric moisture, and soil resistance to mechanical penetration (RP were evaluated. The corn parameters were plant height, shoot dry matter, leaf area, height of the first ear of corn, grains per ear, and grain yield. Soil chiseling resulted in lower RP and higher macroporosity in the 0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.3 m layers. In raised seedbeds, the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.20 m layers were lower in RP and bulk density. Moreover, higher soil macroporosity was observed in relation to the treatment without raised seedbeds. In general, the highest grain yields were found in the treatments with lower RP and higher macroporosity in the root system region. Increased porosity accelerated water drainage in the soil, reducing the time that soil airspace was filled with water, which is a limiting factor for root development. In Albaqualf soils, planting corn in chiseled soil provides higher corn yields compared to conventional tillage, and planting corn on raised

  11. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Pasir-pasir Wood (Xanthophyllum SP) From North Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Sunandar, Ahmad Dany

    2007-01-01

    As a lasser know species, it is important to explore physical and mechanical properties of pasi-pasir (Xanthophyllum sp) wood. This research was conducted to observe physical and mechanical properties of pasir-pasir (Xanthophyllum sp) originated from North Sumatera. Sample were collected from North Tapanuli District, North Sumatera. Tree samples were divided into three sections and sampled for physical and mechanical test were collected from every section. The results revealed that this wood ...

  12. Effect of barium doping on the physical properties of zinc oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 87; Issue 1. Effect of barium doping on the physical properties of zinc oxide ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: ...

  13. High-pressure physical properties of magnesium silicate post ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Physics, Lanzhou City University, Lanzhou 730070, China; School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070, China; State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China; Laboratory for Shock ...

  14. Preliminary investigation of the effect of air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration on the properties of cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Galluci, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    For preliminary assessment of the engineering properties of concrete with air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration (APC) the possible reactivity of APC and the effect of APC on cement hydration were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, chemical shrinkage (pychnometry), thermal...

  15. Patterns and determinants of wood physical and mechanical properties across major tree species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JiangLing; Shi, Yue; Fang, LeQi; Liu, XingE; Ji, ChengJun

    2015-06-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of wood affect the growth and development of trees, and also act as the main criteria when determining wood usage. Our understanding on patterns and controls of wood physical and mechanical properties could provide benefits for forestry management and bases for wood application and forest tree breeding. However, current studies on wood properties mainly focus on wood density and ignore other wood physical properties. In this study, we established a comprehensive database of wood physical properties across major tree species in China. Based on this database, we explored spatial patterns and driving factors of wood properties across major tree species in China. Our results showed that (i) compared with wood density, air-dried density, tangential shrinkage coefficient and resilience provide more accuracy and higher explanation power when used as the evaluation index of wood physical properties. (ii) Among life form, climatic and edaphic variables, life form is the dominant factor shaping spatial patterns of wood physical properties, climatic factors the next, and edaphic factors have the least effects, suggesting that the effects of climatic factors on spatial variations of wood properties are indirectly induced by their effects on species distribution.

  16. Soil chemical and physical properties that differentiate urban land-use and cover types

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.V. Pouyat; I.D. Yesilonis; J. Russell-Anelli; N.K. Neerchal

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of land use and cover and surface geology on soil properties in Baltimore, MD, with the objectives to: (i) measure the physical and chemical properties of surface soils (0?10 cm) by land use and cover; and (ii) ascertain whether land use and cover explain differences in these properties relative to surface geology. Mean and median values of...

  17. Physical and strength properties of Azadirachta indica , (a. Juss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 160 test samples were used from three trees randomly selected from the study area. Preparations of test samples, actual testing and determination of different properties were carried out following standard methods. All strength property values were adjusted to 12% moisture content. Results showed A. indica to ...

  18. Influence of Different Waxes on the Physical Properties of Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of three different waxes on the thermal and mechanical properties of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was investigated. The samples were prepared through melt blending in a Brabender mixer. The thermal properties of the samples were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ...

  19. High-pressure physical properties of magnesium silicate post ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lable experimental results and the recent theoretical results. The Debye temperature, heat capacity and thermal ... experimental determination of elastic properties at extreme conditions is, however, not an easy task. ... Determination of thermal properties of MgSiO3 post- perovskite is of particular geophysical interest ...

  20. Physics understanding the properties of matter and energy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Without physics, modern life would not exist. Instead of electric light, we would read by the light of candles. We couldn''t build skyscrapers. We could not possibly bridge rivers, much less build a jet or interplanetary craft. Computers and smartphones would be unimaginable. Physics is concerned with the most fundamental aspects of matter and energy and how they interact to make the physical universe work. In accessible language and with explanatory graphics and visual aids, this book introduces readers to the science that is at the very center of all other sciences and essential to our very

  1. An ontology on property for physical, chemical, and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-01-01

    Current metrological literature, including the International vocabulary of basic and general terms in metrology (VIM 1993), presents a special language slowly evolved without consistent use of the procedures of terminological work; furthermore, nominal properties are excluded by definition. Both deficiencies create problems in fields, such as laboratory medicine, which have to report results of all types of property, preferably in a unified systematic format. The present text aims at forming a domain ontology around "property", with intensional definitions and systematic terms, mainly using the terminological tools--with some additions--provided by the International Standards ISO 704, 1087-1, and 10241. "System" and "component" are defined, "quantity" is discussed, and the generic concept "property" is given as 'inherent state- or process-descriptive feature of a system including any pertinent components'. Previously, the term 'kind-of-quantity' and quasi-synonyms have been used as primitives; the proposed definition of "kind-of-property" is 'common defining aspect of mutually comparable properties'. "Examination procedure", "examination method", "examination principle", and "examination" are defined, avoiding the term 'test'. The need to distinguish between instances of "characteristic", "property", "type of characteristic", "kind-of-property", and "property value" is emphasized; the latter is defined together with "property value scale". These fundamental concepts are presented in a diagram, and the effect of adding essential characteristics to give expanded definitions is exemplified. Substitution usually leads to unwieldy definitions, but reveals circularity as does exhaustive consecutive listing of defining concepts. The top concept may be generically divided according to many terminological dimensions, especially regarding which operators are allowed among the four sets =, not equal to; ; +, -; and x, :. The coordinate concepts defined are termed by the

  2. Geophysical testing of rock and its relationships to physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Testing techniques were designed to characterize spatial variability in geotechnical engineering physical parameters of : rock formations. Standard methods using seismic waves, which are routinely used for shallow subsurface : investigation, have lim...

  3. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  4. Structural Dependence of Physical Properties in Sodium Boroaluminosilicate Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Potuzak, Marcel; Mauro, John C.

    Boroaluminosilicate glasses have found applications in many fields. The extent and nature of the mixing of network formers like SiO2, B2O3, and Al2O3 play an important role in controlling the macroscopic properties. To understand the structure-property correlations in these glasses, we study...... a series of sodium boroaluminosilicate glasses with various [Al2O3]/[SiO2] ratios to access different regimes of sodium behavior. We determine dynamic properties, elastic moduli, and hardness of these glasses. The results reveal an existence of local minimum for density, fragility index, Young’s and shear...

  5. Lunar physical properties from analysis of magnetometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of the lunar interior are discussed with emphasis on (1) bulk, crustal, and local anomalous conductivity; (2) bulk magnetic permeability measurements, iron abundance estimates, and core size limits; (3) lunar ionosphere and atmosphere; and (4) crustal magnetic remanence: scale size measurements and constraints on remanence origin. Appendices treat the phase relationship between the energetic particle flux modulation and current disc penetrations in the Jovian magnetosphere (Pioneer 10 inbound) theories for the origin of lunar magnetism; electrical conductivity anomalies associated with circular lunar maria; electromagnetic properties of the Moon; Mare Serenitatis conductivity anomaly detected by Apollo 16 and Lunokhod 2 magnetometers; and lunar properties from magnetometer data: effects of data errors.

  6. Physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from wheat and vitamin A enriched cassava flour blends. Materials and Methods: Cissus gum was extracted from cissus stem and prepared into powder while vitamin A enriched cassava ...

  7. Permeation Behavior and Physical Properties of Natural Rubber Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zukas, Walter; Sennett, Michael; Welsh, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Axel; Ziegler, David; Touchet, Paul

    2004-01-01

    .... A study was carried out to examine the effects of varying nanoparticle morphology and composition on the mechanical and barrier properties of polymer nanocomposites made with natural rubber (NR...

  8. Synthesis, microstructure, and physical properties of metallic barcode nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bum Chul; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-05-01

    With rapid progress in nanotechnology, nanostructured materials have come closer to our life. Single-component nanowires are actively investigated because of their novel properties, attributed to their nanoscale dimensions and adjustable aspect ratio, but their technical limitations cannot be resolved easily. Heterostructured nanomaterials gained attention as alternatives because they can improve the existing single-component structure or add new functions to it. Among them, barcode nanowires (BNWs), comprising at least two different functional segments, can perform multiple functions for use in biomedical sensors, information encoding and security, and catalysts. BNW applications require reliable response to the external field. Hence, researchers have been attempting to improve the reliability of synthesis and regulate the properties precisely. This article highlights the recent progress and prospects for the synthesis, properties, and applications of metallic BNWs with focus on the dependence of the magnetic, optical, and mechanical properties on material, composition, shape, and microstructure.

  9. SYNTHSIS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SILVER NANOCOMPOSITES POLYMER ELECTROLYTE

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 仁和

    2016-01-01

    The silver nano composite polymer electrolytes are prepared by the method of two kinds of the ultrafine particle direct dispersion method and in situ synthesis. The structure of the silver nano composite polymer electrolyte is characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer spectrophotometer (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), and Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) .The optical property is evaluated by the optical absorption. The electrical property is also evaluated by the ac i...

  10. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X D; Jennett, N M

    2017-01-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed. (paper)

  11. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X. D.; Jennett, N. M.

    2017-11-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed.

  12. Nanoindentation data analysis of loading curve performed on DLC thin films: Effect of residual stress on the elasto-plastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchabane, M.; Dublanche-Tixier, Ch.; Dergham, D.

    2017-11-01

    The present work is a contribution to the understanding of the mechanical behavior of DLC thin films through nanoindentation tests. DLC films of different thicknesses deposited by the PECVD process on a silicon substrate contain high residual compressive stresses when they are very thin and the stresses become relatively low and more relaxed as the film thickens. These different levels of residual stress influence the values of hardness (H) and Young's modulus (E) obtained when probing the film-substrate system by nanoindentation. It is observed that the DLC layers exhibit different mechanical behaviors even when they are deposited under the same conditions. It is proposed that the compressive stress induces structural modifications resulting in modifying the elasto-plastic properties of each thin film-substrate system. Data analysis of the loading curve can provide information on the elasto-plastic properties of DLC thin films, particularly the stiffness (S) and Er2/H, as a function of residual compressive stresses. The structural changes induced by residual stresses were probed by using Raman spectroscopy and correlated to the mechanical properties.

  13. SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA, DAN FUNGSIONAL DAMAR [Brief Review on: Physical, Chemical and Functional Properties of Dammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noryawati Mulyono1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dammar is one of Indonesian forestry products which is abundant. It has unique physical, chemical and functional properties. The important physical properties of dammar include its solubility in some organic solvents, softening temperature, viscosity and its absorbance. The important chemical properties reviewed here include its properties as resin, composition of terpenoid compounds present in dammar, and essential oil yielded from distillation of fresh dammar. Physical and chemical properties of dammar need to be studied further in order to optimize its functional properties. So far, dammar is widely used as weighting agent and source of essential oil. However, now, some species of dammar are being explored and developed for sal flour, fat source, triacylglycerol substituent for cocoa butter and wood preservatives.

  14. Physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Nizar Ismail; Kamaruddin Hussin; Mohd Sobri Idris

    2007-01-01

    Fly ash is the finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in electric generating plants. Fly ash consists of inorganic, incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure. Fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and range in size from 2 μm to 10 μm. They consist mostly of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). Fly ash like soil contains trace concentrations of the following heavy metals: nickel, vanadium, cadmium, barium, chromium, copper, molybdenum, zinc and lead. The chemical compositions of the sample have been examined and the fly ash are of ASTM C618 Class F. (Author)

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  16. Soil physical and hydrological properties as affected by long-term addition of various organic amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Marie; Völkel, Jörg; Mercier, Vincent; Labat, Christophe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    The use of organic residues as soil amendments in agriculture not only reduces the amount of waste needing to be disposed of; it may also lead to improvements in soil properties, including physical and hydrological ones. The present study examines a long-term experiment called "Qualiagro", run jointly by INRA and Veolia Environment in Feucherolles, France (near Paris). It was initiated in 1998 on a loess-derived silt loam (787 g/kg silt, 152 g/kg clay) and includes ten treatments: four types of organic amendments and a control (CNT) each at two levels of mineral nitrogen (N) addition: minimal (Nmin) and optimal (Nopt). The amendments include three types of compost and farmyard manure (FYM), which were applied every other year at a rate of ca. 4 t carbon ha-1. The composts include municipal solid waste compost (MSW), co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (GWS), and biowaste compost (BIO). The plots are arranged in a randomized block design and have a size of 450 m²; each treatment is replicated four times (total of 40 plots). Ca. 15 years after the start of the experiment soil organic carbon (OC) had continuously increased in the amended plots, while it remained stable or decreased in the control plots. This compost- or manure-induced increase in OC plays a key role, affecting numerous dependant soil properties like bulk density, porosity and water retention. The water holding capacity (WHC) of a soil is of particular interest to farmers in terms of water supply for plants, but also indicates soil quality and functionality. Addition of OC may affect WHC in different ways: carbon-induced aggregation may increase larger-pore volume and hence WHC at the wet end while increased surface areas may lead to an increased retention of water at the dry end. Consequently it is difficult to predict (e.g. with pedotransfer functions) the impact on the amount of water available for plants (PAW), which was experimentally determined for the soils, along with the entire range

  17. Correlations between physical properties of jawbone and dental implant initial stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Wook-Jin; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Swift, James Q; Hodges, James S; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2009-05-01

    There is confusion in the literature about how physical properties of bone vary between maxillary and mandibular regions and which physical properties affect initial implant stability. The purpose of this study was to determine correlations between physical properties of bone and initial implant stability, and to determine how physical properties and initial stability vary among regions of jawbone. Four pairs of edentulous maxillae and mandibles were retrieved from fresh human cadavers. Six implants per pair were placed in different anatomical regions (maxillary anterior, right and left maxillary posterior, mandibular anterior, right and left mandibular posterior). Immediately after surgery, initial implant stability was measured with a resonance frequency device and a tapping device. Implant surgeries and initial stability measurements were performed within 72 hours of death. Elastic modulus (EM) and hardness were measured using nano-indentation. Composite apparent density (cAD) was measured using Archimedes' principle. Bone-implant contact percentage and cortical bone thickness were recorded histomorphometrically. Mixed linear models and univariate-correlation analyses were used (alpha=.05). Generally, mandibular bone had higher initial implant stability and physical properties than maxillary bone. Initial implant stability was higher in the anterior region than in the posterior. EM was higher in the posterior region than in the anterior; the reverse was true for cAD. Of the properties evaluated, cAD had the highest correlation with initial implant stability (r=0.82). Both physical properties of bone and initial implant stability differed between regions of jawbone.

  18. STP: A mathematically and physically consistent library of steam properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, F.; Hutter, A.C.; Tuttle, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    A new FORTRAN library of subroutines has been developed from the fundamental equation of Keenan et al. to evaluate a large set of water properties including derivatives such as sound speed and isothermal compressibility. The STP library uses the true saturation envelope of the Keenan et al. fundamental equation. The evaluation of the true envelope by a continuation method is explained. This envelope, along with other design features, imparts an exceptionally high degree of thermodynamic and mathematical consistency to the STP library, even at the critical point. Accuracy and smoothness, library self-consistency, and designed user convenience make the STP library a reliable and versatile water property package

  19. Dry matter and root colonization of plants by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with physical fractions of dry olive mill residue inoculated with saprophytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, E.; Sampredro, I.; Diaz, R.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.; Siles, J. A.; Ocampo, J. A.; Garcia-Romera, I.

    2010-07-01

    We studied the influence of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprobe fungi on the phytotoxicity of the physical fractions of dry olive mill residue (DOR). The physical extractions of DOR gave an aqueous (ADOR) and an exhausted (SDOR) fraction with less phytotoxicity for tomato than the original samples. The indigenous AM were able to decrease the phytotoxicity of SDOR inoculated with Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on tomato. However, incubation of ADOR with both saprophytic fungi did not decrease its phytotoxicity in presence of the indigenous AM fungi. The percentage of root length colonized by indigenous AM strongly decreased in presence of DOR, around 80% of decrease at dose of 25 g kg-1of DOR, but the level of mycorrhization was higher in presence of ADOR or SDOR (38% and 44% of decrease respectively at the same dose). There were no relationships between the effects of the physical fractions of DOR incubated with the saprobe fungi on AM colonization and on plant dry weight of tomato. Our results suggest that the phytotoxicity of the olive residues can be eliminated by the combination of physical extraction and by saprobe fungal inoculation and the use of this agrowaste as organic amendment in agricultural soil may be possible. (Author) 33 refs.

  20. Proximate, Physical And Sensory Properties Of Soy-Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with those of cookies made from whole wheat. Results showed that there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in cookie physical characteristics, as compared with the control sample, except in spread factor and fragility. Cookie spread was found to be influenced by the presence of sugar, oil and water absorption of flour.

  1. Physical properties of seeds of African walnut ( Plukenetia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the physical and proximate traits of seeds of African walnut (Plukenetia conophorum) from four locations (states) in south-eastern Nigeria was carried out in 2011. The locations considered were Enugu, Anambra, Abia and Rivers. Results of statistical analysis showed remarkable variation (p < 0.05) in all the seed ...

  2. Evaluation of physical properties of different digital intraoral sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, Wisam; Teich, Sorin

    2013-09-01

    Digital technologies provide clinically acceptable results comparable to traditional films while having other advantages such as the ability to store and manipulate images, immediate evaluation of the image diagnostic quality, possible reduction in patient radiation exposure, and so on. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the physical design of eight CMOS digital intraoral sensors. Sensors tested included: XDR (Cyber Medical Imaging, Los Angeles, CA, USA), RVG 6100 (Carestream Dental LLC, Atlanta, GA, USA), Platinum (DEXIS LLC., Hatfield, PA, USA), CDR Elite (Schick Technologies, Long Island City, NY, USA), ProSensor (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland), EVA (ImageWorks, Elmsford, NY, USA), XIOS Plus (Sirona, Bensheim, Germany), and GXS-700 (Gendex Dental Systems, Hatfield, PA, USA). The sensors were evaluated for cable configuration, connectivity interface, presence of back-scattering radiation shield, plate thickness, active sensor area, and comparing the active imaging area to the outside casing and to conventional radiographic films. There were variations among the physical design of different sensors. For most parameters tested, a lack of standardization exists in the industry. The results of this study revealed that these details are not always available through the material provided by the manufacturers and are often not advertised. For all sensor sizes, active imaging area was smaller compared with conventional films. There was no sensor in the group that had the best physical design. Data presented in this paper establishes a benchmark for comparing the physical design of digital intraoral sensors.

  3. Theoretical Study on Synchronous Characterization of Surface and Interfacial Mechanical Properties of Thin-Film/Substrate Systems with Residual Stress Based on Pressure Blister Test Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-xin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on the pressure blister test technique, a theoretical study on the synchronous characterization of surface and interfacial mechanical properties of thin-film/substrate systems with residual stress was presented, where the problem of axisymmetric deformation of a blistering film with initial stress was analytically solved and its closed-form solution was presented. The expressions to determine Poisson’s ratios, Young’s modulus, and residual stress of surface thin films were derived; the work done by the applied external load and the elastic energy stored in the blistering thin film were analyzed in detail and their expressions were derived; and the interfacial adhesion energy released per unit delamination area of thin-film/substrate (i.e., energy release rate was finally presented. The synchronous characterization technique presented here has theoretically made a big step forward, due to the consideration for the residual stress in surface thin films.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of 1D nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Peter Mchael

    framework is facilitated by the nanometer-sized dimensions of the materials, which leads to accommodation of strain without amorphization. The topotactic approach demonstrated here indicates not just novel intercalation chemistry accessible at nanoscale dimensions but also suggests a facile synthetic route to ternary vanadium oxide bronzes (MxV2O 5) exhibiting intriguing physical properties that range from electronic phase transitions to charge ordering and superconductivity.

  5. Profile distribution of some physical and chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silt showed high variability at all topographic positions while clay content was low at the crest and high at the middle and lower slopes. Lateral variability of the soil properties indicated high variability in clay fraction along the toposequence. Silt fraction, organic carbon and organic matter showed medium variability whereas ...

  6. Effect of ozone gas processing on physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the physiochemical properties of proteins. (i.e., gluten, glutenin, and gliadin) isolated from non-ozone-treated flour were examined by studying chemical characteristics using SDS-. PAGE, free SH groups, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) parameters, secondary structure, and rheological measurements.

  7. Physical-Chemical Properties, Storage Stability and Sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties, storage stability and sensory evaluation of pumpkin seed oil was carried out and compared with other vegetable oils commonly used in Tanzania in order to evaluate its potential as an edible oil with the aim of promoting its utilization in rural areas. Pumpkin seeds were collected from different ...

  8. Effect of solution physical chemistry on the rheological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge on rheological properties of sludge is important for the design of pumping and transport facilities and as a tool in process control during treatment. Concentrated activated sludge is known to behave as a non-Newtonian material. The contribution to non- Newtonian behaviour is believed to originate from the ...

  9. Influence of substrate temperature on certain physical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 16 July 2015; revised 19 November 2015; accepted 18 April 2016; published online 12 November 2016. Abstract. Nanocrystalline Ag-doped ... adhesive property. Moreover, silver-doped materials are chemically durable and release silver ions for a long period of time [11]. Silver-doped indium and ceram-.

  10. Evaluation of physical properties of locally produced Gonometa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silk is a luxurious fibre with a unique combination of properties. However, this and other factors such as the costly production process make silk a very expensive fabric and therefore unaffordable for many consumers. Mixed fabrics might provide a solution to this problem of relative cost if the Gonometa postica silk could be ...

  11. Some Physical Properties of Vernonia amygdalina and Garcinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of polymer concentrations on some of the physicochemical properties of Vernonia amygdalina (Linn) and Garcinia kola (Heckel) extracts loaded microspheres was evaluated. Microspheres of the aqueous extracts was prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation using polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixtures of ...

  12. Antibacterial effects and physical properties of glass-ionomer cements containing chlorhexidine for the ART approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, Y.; Imazato, S.; Kaneshiro, A.V.; Ebisu, S.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Tay, F.R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) involves removal of carious lesions with manual instruments, improvement of filling materials to guarantee greater success should be considered. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial, physical, and bonding properties of glass-ionomer

  13. Material designs and new physical properties in MX- and MMX-chain compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    This book details the structures, physical properties, theoretical treatments, applications, and perspectives of MX and MMX chain compounds for chemists and physicists. It also examines various photoinduced phase transitions and their dynamics.

  14. Evaluation of correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of fired clay samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İlker; Yayla, Zeliha

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of clay samples fired at elevated temperatures. Brick-making clay and pottery clay were studied for this purpose. The physical properties of clay samples were assessed after firing pressed clay samples separately at temperatures of 850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C. A commercial ultrasonic testing instrument (Proceq Pundit Lab) was used to evaluate the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements for each fired clay sample as a function of temperature. It was observed that there became a relationship between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocities of the samples. The results showed that in consequence of increasing densification of the samples, the differences between the ultrasonic pulse velocities were higher with increasing temperature. These findings may facilitate the use of ultrasonic pulse velocity for the estimation of physical properties of fired clay samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical properties of a sediment core from the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    A box core of 7.5 m was collected from the Central Indian Basin for the purpose of geotechnical studies and depthwise variation of physical properties and clay mineralogy. Water content, Atterberg limits, specific gravity are measured at regular...

  16. Physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters, 1969-1976 (NODC Accession 8400194)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One magnetic tape containing the physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay waters was forwarded to NODC by Mr. Richard Smith of the U.S Geological Survey...

  17. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food.

  18. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler's intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  19. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance

  20. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K. [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  1. Toxicity and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products: A literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority`s Environmental Research Center has been developing a means of detoxifying atrazine waste waters using TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. The toxicity and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products will probably be required information in obtaining permits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency for the demonstration of any photocatalytic treatment of atrazine waste waters. The following report is a literature survey of the toxicological and physical properties of atrazine and its degradation products.

  2. Comments on Thermal Physical Properties Testing Methods of Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchao Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no standard testing method of the thermal physical properties of phase change materials (PCM. This paper has shown advancements in this field. Developments and achievements in thermal physical properties testing methods of PCM were commented, including differential scanning calorimetry, T-history measurement, the water bath method, and differential thermal analysis. Testing principles, advantages and disadvantages, and important points for attention of each method were discussed. A foundation for standardized testing methods for PCM was made.

  3. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHESTNUT (Castanea sativa Mill. WOOD OBTAINED FROM MAÇKA-ÇATAK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Ay

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical properties of chestnut were investigated. 8 trees used for experiments were obtained fromTrabzon-Maçka- Çatak region. Samples were prepared according to the related standarts. Oven-dried and air-dried density, volume weight, the amount of shrinkage, the ratio of cell walls, air cavities, the moisture content of wood at green condition, and the fiber saturation point as physical properties were determined.

  4. Bacterial promoter prediction: Selection of dynamic and static physical properties of DNA for reliable sequence classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryasik, Artem; Orlov, Mikhail; Zykova, Evgenia; Ermak, Timofei; Sorokin, Anatoly

    2018-01-30

    Predicting promoter activity of DNA fragment is an important task for computational biology. Approaches using physical properties of DNA to predict bacterial promoters have recently gained a lot of attention. To select an adequate set of physical properties for training a classifier, various characteristics of DNA molecule should be taken into consideration. Here, we present a systematic approach that allows us to select less correlated properties for classification by means of both correlation and cophenetic coefficients as well as concordance matrices. To prove this concept, we have developed the first classifier that uses not only sequence and static physical properties of DNA fragment, but also dynamic properties of DNA open states. Therefore, the best performing models with accuracy values up to 90% for all types of sequences were obtained. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the classifier can serve as a reliable tool enabling promoter DNA fragments to be distinguished from promoter islands despite the similarity of their nucleotide sequences.

  5. Effect of torrefaction pre-treatment on physical and combustion characteristics of biomass composite briquette from rice husk and banana residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Atan Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is an alternative renewable energy sources that can generates energy almost same as fossil fuel. The depletion sources of fossil fuel had increase the potential use of biomass energy. In Malaysia, rice husk and banana residues are abundantly left and not treated with proper disposal method which later may contribute to environment and health problems. Thus the development of biomass composite briquette made from rice husk and banana residue is one of the potential ways to reduce the problems and hence may contribute the better way to treat the waste by recycling the waste into a form of biomass product. The biomass briquettes are used for thermal applications because it can produce a complete combustion as it has a consistent quality and high burning efficiency. However, the quality of the biomass briquette can be added by application of torrefaction pre-treatment method. Torrefaction is a thermal method that can produce more high quality of the briquette with high calorific value, high fixed carbon content, low volatile matter, and low ash content. This study was conducted to assess the physical and combustion characteristic of the biomass briquette from rice husk and banana residue which was produced through torrefaction process. The biomass briquette, were densified by using hot press machine with temperature of 180°C for about 30 minutes. The briquette produce are 150 μm in particle size with varies in mixing ratio of rice husk to banana residue which are 100:0, 80:20 and 60:40. After the briquetting process, the biomass fuel briquettes have been undergoes parameter testing and the data have been analysed. Result showed the best biomass briquette is developed from torrefied rice husk and banana residue mixed at ratio of 60:40. Moreover, SEM image reveal that torrefaction pre-treatment has shrinkage the fibres size which confirming the thermal stability of the briquette.

  6. Physical properties of Kentucky's AML landslides: Case studies analyzed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannacchione, A.T.; Vallejo, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    Once an abandoned mined land (AML) landslide occurs and is identified as an emergency, engineers must rapidly implement a slope stabilization design. Correct slope remediation solutions are generally derived from well-executed geotechnical examinations. This paper summarizes a large body of geotechnical data compiled by the US office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) from AML landslides in eastern Kentucky. Special attention is placed on the examination of subsurface failures, phreatic water levels, soil profiles, and soil composition information from numerous borehole exploration programs. Strength properties calculated from laboratory procedures and stability analysis techniques were also reviewed. Laboratory-determined soil shear strength values were found to be higher than those inferred from stability analysis. This suggests that postfailure determinations of the phreatic surface may be largely inappropriate when used in stability analysis or that laboratory-measured shear strengths are ineffective in replicating in situ colluvium/spoil slope properties

  7. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  8. Determination of physical properties of fibrous thermal insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeandel G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to characterize both experimentally and theoretically, conductive and radiative heat transfer within polyester batting. This material is derived from recycled bottles (PET with fibres of constant diameters. Two other mineral and plant fibrous insulation materials, (glass wool and hemp wool are also characterized for comparative purposes. To determine the overall thermophysical properties of the tested materials, heat flux measurement are carried out using a device developed in house. The radiative properties of the material are determined by an inverse method based on measurements of transmittance and reflectance using a FTIR spectrometer and by solving the equation of radiative heat transfer. These measures are compared to results of numerical simulations.

  9. Physical properties of Cu nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kart, H.H., E-mail: hkart@pau.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Pamukkale University, Kınıklı Campus, 20017 Denizli (Turkey); Yildirim, H.; Ozdemir Kart, S. [Department of Physics, Pamukkale University, Kınıklı Campus, 20017 Denizli (Turkey); Çağin, T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845-3003 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77845-3122 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Thermodynamical, structural and dynamical properties of Cu nanoparticles are investigated by using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations at various temperatures. In this work, MD simulations of the Cu-nanoparticles are performed by means of the MPiSiM codes by utilizing from Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) many-body force potential to define the interactions between the Cu atoms. The diameters of the copper nanoparticles are varied from 2 nm to 10 nm. MD simulations of Cu nanoparticles are carried out at low and high temperatures to study solid and liquid properties of Cu nanoparticles. Simulation results such as melting point, radial distribution function are compared with the available experimental bulk results. Radial distribution function, mean square displacement, diffusion coefficient, Lindemann index and Honeycutt–Andersen index are also calculated for estimating the melting point of the Copper nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Solid and liquid properties of Cu nanoparticles are studied. • Molecular dynamics utilizing the Quantum Sutton Chen potential is used in this work. • Melting temperatures of nanoparticles are strongly depended on nanoparticle sizes. • Heat capacity, radial distribution function and diffusion coefficients are studied. • Structures of nanoparticles are analyzed by Lindemann and Honeycutt–Andersen index.

  10. Physical properties of Cu nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kart, H.H.; Yildirim, H.; Ozdemir Kart, S.; Çağin, T.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamical, structural and dynamical properties of Cu nanoparticles are investigated by using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations at various temperatures. In this work, MD simulations of the Cu-nanoparticles are performed by means of the MPiSiM codes by utilizing from Quantum Sutton-Chen (Q-SC) many-body force potential to define the interactions between the Cu atoms. The diameters of the copper nanoparticles are varied from 2 nm to 10 nm. MD simulations of Cu nanoparticles are carried out at low and high temperatures to study solid and liquid properties of Cu nanoparticles. Simulation results such as melting point, radial distribution function are compared with the available experimental bulk results. Radial distribution function, mean square displacement, diffusion coefficient, Lindemann index and Honeycutt–Andersen index are also calculated for estimating the melting point of the Copper nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Solid and liquid properties of Cu nanoparticles are studied. • Molecular dynamics utilizing the Quantum Sutton Chen potential is used in this work. • Melting temperatures of nanoparticles are strongly depended on nanoparticle sizes. • Heat capacity, radial distribution function and diffusion coefficients are studied. • Structures of nanoparticles are analyzed by Lindemann and Honeycutt–Andersen index

  11. Correlation of Magnetic Properties and Residual Stress Distribution Monitored by X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction in Welded AISI 1008 Steel Sheets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vourna, P.; Hervoches, Charles; Vrána, Miroslav; Ktena, A.; Hristoforou, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2015), s. 6200104 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA MŠk LM2011019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283883 - NMI3-II Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) * neutron diffraction (ND) * residual stress * X- ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.277, year: 2015

  12. Development of an ASPEN PLUS physical property database for biofuels components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, R.J.; Putsche, V.

    1996-04-01

    Physical property data for many of the key components used in the simulation for the ethanol from lignocellulose process are not available in the standard ASPEN PLUS property databases. Indeed, many of the properties necessary to successfully simulate this process are not available anywhere. In addition, inputting the available properties into each simulation is awkward and tedious, and mistakes can be easily introduced when a long list of physical property equation parameters is entered. Therefore, one must evaluate the literature, estimate properties where necessary, and determine a set of consistent physical properties for all components of interest. The components must then be entered into an in-house NREL ASPEN PLUS database so they can be called on without being retyped into each specific simulation. The first phase of this work is complete. A complete set of properties for the currently identifiable important compounds in the ethanol process is attached. With this as the starting base the authors can continue to search for and evaluate new properties or have properties measured in the laboratory and update the central database.

  13. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  14. influence of tillage practices on physical properties of a sandy loam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    investigated after 9-15 years of management. During the growing ... Key words: Tillage, Tillage systems, Soil Physical properties, Moisture storage, Physical quality ... channel. GPS etrex, courtesy GARMIN Corporation 1999-. 2002) was used in determining coordinates of the sites. Treatments and Experimental Design.

  15. Effect of hydrogen on Fe and Pd alloying and physical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Buršík, Jiří; Zemanová, Adéla; Čízek, J.; Hruška, P.; Životský, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 10 (2017), s. 6885-6901 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : positron-lifetime spectroscopy * neutron-diffraction * magnetic-properties * palladium-hydrogen * induced defects * iron Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  16. Impact of petroleum products on soil composition and physical-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakorenko, N. N.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2016-03-01

    The article describes the grain-size distribution, physical and mechanical properties, swelling and specific electrical resistivity of soils before and after the contact with petroleum products. The changes in mechanical properties of soils contaminated with petroleum products have been stated. It leads to the increase in compressibility values, decline in internal friction angle and cohesion.

  17. Physical properties, structure and fracturing of the Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grokhovsky, V. I.; Kohout, Tomáš; Gritsevich, M.; Koneva, E. V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, Special issue 1 (2014), pdf 5364-pdf 5364 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /77./. 08.09.2014-13.09.2014, Casablanca] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Chelyabinsk * LL chondrite * physical properties * structure * mechanical properties * stress Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/metsoc2014/pdf/5364.pdf

  18. Bibliography of physical and chemical properties of plutonium and of some of its compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.

    1957-02-01

    This document proposes two lists of bibliographical references which respectively concern the physical properties of metallic plutonium and intermetallic plutonium compounds (addressed topics in these documents are state diagrams, crystal structure, and so on), and the chemical properties of plutonium and of some of its compounds (addressed topics are heavy elements, transuranium elements, and so on)

  19. Mutual associations among microstructural, physical and mechanical properties of human cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Odgaard, A; Danielsen, CC

    2002-01-01

    were tested to determine the mechanical properties and the physical/compositional properties were evaluated. The type of structure together with anisotropy correlated well with Young's modulus of human tibial cancellous bone. The plate-like structure reflected high mechanical stress and the rod...

  20. The Spectrophotometer II: A Module on the Spectral Properties of Light. Tech Physics Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nathaniel; And Others

    This module is designed to give the learner an understanding of the nature of light and how its properties are used in the design of spectrophotometers. Problems promote the use of spectrophotometers in qualitative analysis, the optical elements used in a monochromator, and the physical properties of the prism and the diffraction grating. Other…

  1. Physical properties of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklaviadis, T.K.; Manuelidis, L.; Manuelidis, E.E.

    1989-03-01

    In this report, the authors present the first physical characterization of the Creutzfeld-Jakob disease agent. Preparations with high yields of infectivity (assayed infectious units) were obtained by a novel, gentle procedure in which initially sedimenting Gp34 (prion protein) was disaggregated by a variety of criteria with no subsequent loss of infectivity. Studies with this preparation indicate that most of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent has both a viruslike size and density. In velocity sedimentation and isopycnic sucrose gradients, infectivity comigrated with nucleic acid-protein complexes of appreciable size.

  2. Physical properties of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklaviadis, T.K.; Manuelidis, L.; Manuelidis, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this report, the authors present the first physical characterization of the Creutzfeld-Jakob disease agent. Preparations with high yields of infectivity (assayed infectious units) were obtained by a novel, gentle procedure in which initially sedimenting Gp34 (prion protein) was disaggregated by a variety of criteria with no subsequent loss of infectivity. Studies with this preparation indicate that most of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent has both a viruslike size and density. In velocity sedimentation and isopycnic sucrose gradients, infectivity comigrated with nucleic acid-protein complexes of appreciable size

  3. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Physical Properties of Nano systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonca, Janez

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena are found when systems are reduced to sizes comparable to the fundamental microscopic length scales of the material investigated. There has been great interest in this research due, in particular, to its role in the development of spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing. The contributions to this volume describe new advances in many of these fundamental and fascinating areas of nanophysics, including carbon nanotubes, graphene, magnetic nanostructures, transport through coupled quantum dots, spintronics, molecular electronics, and quantum information processing.

  4. Optical properties and residual stress in aluminum nitride films prepared by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Lee, Kun-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2011-05-01

    Aluminum nitride films were deposited by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of different nitrogen flow and working pressures at a sputtering power of 5 kW on the refractive index, extinction coefficient, crystalline structure, residual stress, and surface roughness of aluminum nitride films was discussed. The aluminum nitride film would have high refractive index, low extinction coefficient and small residual stress at suitable nitrogen flow rate and low working pressure.

  5. Response of the soil physical properties to restoration techniques in limestone quarries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Vignozzi, Nadia; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2016-04-01

    The devastating effects of soil erosion in mining areas from arid/semiarid environments have prompted efforts geared toward an improvement of the soil physical conditions for a fast establishment of vegetal cover. Restoration practices that increase soil moisture content are essential in drylands where rainfall is irregular or insufficient in order to accelerate ecological restoration. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of organic amendments and mulches on the soil porosity as well as their impact on infiltration, five years after the beginning of an experimental restoration from limestone quarries in Sierra de Gádor (Almería, SE Spain). Nine plots 15 x 5 m were prepared at the site in a completely randomized 2 x 3 factorial design. The first factor, organic amendment, had three levels: sewage sludge (SA), compost from domestic organic residues (CA) and no amendment (NA). The second factor, mulches, also had three levels: gravel (GM), woodchip (WM) and no mulch (NM). In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Infiltration was determined from rainfall simulations and soil porosity was assessed by image analysis of soil thin sections. Total porosity and pores distribution were measured according to pore shape (regular, irregular and elongated) and size (transmission pores [50-500 μm] and fissures [>500 μm]). Natural undisturbed soils around the mine area were used as a reference soil (RS). Restoration treatments showed higher total porosity, fissures and elongated pores than RS and we observed the highest values in treatments with WM. This fact is due to the disruption caused by the application of treatments rather that a good soil structure. Each combination exhibited different values of transmission pores, being greater in the combinations of NA-GM, SA-NM and CA-WM. Infiltration increased with the increase of the total porosity, fissures and elongated pores

  6. Physical properties of salt, anhydrite and gypsum : preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Eugene C.; Robie, Richard A.; Books, Kenneth G.

    1958-01-01

    This summary is the result of a search of the available literature. Emphasis is placed on the mechanical and calorimetric properties of salt; the measurements of elastic, thermal, magnetic, and mass properties of salt are merely tabulated. Under hydrostatic pressure 100 percent at a nearly constant stress difference of about 300 kg/cm2. Similarily, under temperatures > 400?C at one atmosphere, salt deforms plastically to strains > 100 percent under stress differences of about 100 kg/cm2. Entha1pies were calculated for various temperatures to 2,000? C from the low temperature and high temperature heat capacities and the heats of solution of the following minerals: salt (or halite), NaCl; anhydrite, CaS04; quartz, Si02; and calcite, CaC03. Three combinations of these minerals were assumed to represent three possible natural salt beds, and the heats required to raise the temperature of each to 1,500?C and to 2,000?C were calculated. For a half and half mixture of salt and anhydrite, 1,300 cal/gm were required to raise the temperature to 2,000?C. For an evaporite containing 60 percent salt and about equal amounts of anhydrite, calcite, and quartz, 1,100 cal/gm are required to raise the temperature to 2,OOO?C. Most of the measurements of the elastic moduli were made on single crystals of salt, anhydrite, and gypsum. For the most part, the measurements of density, magnetic susceptibility, and other properties were made on natural salt samples.

  7. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  8. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: camilarezende.cr@gmail.com, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vladimirsoler@hotmail.com, E-mail: ahfv02@outlook.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  9. Influence of strain on the physical properties of materials at the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Mohan Prasad

    At the nanoscale, materials properties differ substantially from that at the bulk scale, opening new avenues for technological applications and basic science research. Such size effects arise from dimensional and microstructural constraints, especially when specimen size coincides with the critical fundamental length scales for various physical properties. While the state of the art practice is to investigate the size effects on 'individual' properties (mechanical or electrical or thermal and so on), the focus of this research is to explore the size effects on the 'coupling' among these domains. In particular, the effect of mechanical strain on various physical properties of materials at the nanoscale is studied. This is motivated by the hypothesis that very small elastic strain could be engineered in micro and nanoscale systems to 'tune' materials properties, which is not possible at the bulk scale using strain as a parameter. The objective of this research is to study the influence of strain on various material properties at the nanoscale, such as crystal structure, thermal and electrical conductivity, electronic bandgap and tribological properties through experimental characterization. While characterization of nanoscale materials in single domains remains the state of the art, coupled domain studies usher even stiffer challenges. This is because in addition to the difficulties in nanoscale specimen preparation, handling and properties measurement, meticulous attention has to be given to the boundary conditions for each of the domains. Another desired feature of the experimental setup is the capability for in situ high resolution microscopy so that microstructural details as well as experimental accuracy are achieved. A major contribution of this research is the development of microfabricated integrated systems to perform coupled domain characterization of small scale specimens in situ in thermal (infra-red), micro-Raman and electron microscopes. In addition

  10. Influence of vermicompost on soil chemical and physical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... 3.8400 a. 1.9833 a. 4.9367 ab. 1.6133 b. 38.66 b. 15. 4.2533 a. 1.1400 a. 5.7067 a. 1.5633 c. 40.33 a. In each column means with similar letters do not significantly differ (P ≥ 0.05). Table 4. Effect of vermicompost on soil chemical properties. Treatment with vermicompost (t ha-1). pH. EC (mScm-1). Organic.

  11. Complex Study of the Physical Properties of Reticulated Vitreous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifanov, O. M.; Cherepanov, V. V.; Morzhukhina, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    We give an example of using a two-level identifi cation system incorporating an augmented mathematical model covering the structure, the thermal, electrophysical, and optical properties of nonmetallic ultraporous reticulated materials. The model, when combined with a nonstationary thermal experiment and methods of the theory of inverse heat transfer problems, permits determining the little studied characteristics of the above materials. We present some of the results of investigations of reticulated vitreous carbon confirming the possibility of using it in a number of engineering applications.

  12. Physical properties of encapsulate spent fuel in canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Spent fuel and high-level wastes will be permanently stored in a deep geological repository (AGP). Prior to this, they will be encapsulated in canisters. The present report is dedicated to the study of such canisters under the different physical demands that they may undergo, be those in operating or accident conditions. The physical demands of interest include mechanical demands, both static and dynamic, and thermal demands. Consideration is given to the complete file of the canister, from the time when it is empty and without lid to the final conditions expected in the repository. Thermal analyses of canisters containing spent fuel are often carried out in two dimensions, some times with hypotheses of axial symmetry and some times using a plane transverse section through the centre of the canister. The results obtained in both types of analyses are compared here to those of complete three-dimensional analyses. The latter generate more reliable information about the temperatures that may be experienced by the canister and its contents; they also allow calibrating the errors embodied in the two-dimensional calculations. (Author)

  13. The interaction of physical properties of seawater via statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad; Jaafar, Othman; Sabri, Samsul Rijal Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Jaafar, Khamisah; Arbin, Norazman

    2015-09-01

    It is of importance to determine the relationships between physical parameters in marine ecology. Model and expert opinion are needed for exploration of the form of relationship between two parameters due to the complexity of the ecosystems. These need justification with observed data over a particular periods. Novel statistical techniques such as nonparametric regression is presented to investigate the ecological relationships. These are achieved by demonstrating the features of pH, salinity and conductivity at in Straits of Johor. The monthly data measurements from 2004 until 2013 at a chosen sampling location are examined. Testing for no-effect followed by linearity testing for the relationships between salinity and pH; conductivity and pH, and conductivity and salinity are carried out, with the ecological objectives of investigating the evidence of changes in each of the above physical parameters. The findings reveal the appropriateness of smooth function to explain the variation of pH in response to the changes in salinity whilst the changes in conductivity with regards to different concentrations of salinity could be modelled parametrically. The analysis highlights the importance of both parametric and nonparametric models for assessing ecological response to environmental change in seawater.

  14. Si96: A New Silicon Allotrope with Interesting Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyang Fan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The structural mechanical properties and electronic properties of a new silicon allotrope Si96 are investigated at ambient pressure by using a first-principles calculation method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the framework of generalized gradient approximation. The elastic constants and phonon calculations reveal that Si96 is mechanically and dynamically stable at ambient pressure. The conduction band minimum and valence band maximum of Si96 are at the R and G point, which indicates that Si96 is an indirect band gap semiconductor. The anisotropic calculations show that Si96 exhibits a smaller anisotropy than diamond Si in terms of Young’s modulus, the percentage of elastic anisotropy for bulk modulus and shear modulus, and the universal anisotropic index AU. Interestingly, most silicon allotropes exhibit brittle behavior, in contrast to the previously proposed ductile behavior. The void framework, low density, and nanotube structure make Si96 quite attractive for applications such as hydrogen storage and electronic devices that work at extreme conditions, and there are potential applications in Li-battery anode materials.

  15. Basic Physical Properties of Ammonia-Rich Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandera, S. E.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2000-10-01

    We report simple measurements of the thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and microwave absorptivity of ammonia hydrate ices, which are likely to be abundant in the Saturnian system. Understanding the dielectric properties of ammonia ice could play an important role in interpreting data from the Cassini spacecraft, which will image Titan's surface by radar in 2004. Thermal conductivity measurements were made by freezing a thin copper wire in the center of ice samples. The wire acted as both heater and temperature sensor, calibrated by a thermocouple also frozen in the sample. Ices with concentrations of 5- 30% ammonia were compared to pure water ice and ices containing salts. Thermal conductivity was found to decrease with increasing concentration of ammonia - a factor of 3 or 4 less than pure water ice for the 30% peritectic composition. Microwave absorptivity was measured by placing insulated ice samples and calibration materials in a conventional microwave oven. The microwave absorptivity was found to increase with increasing concentration of ammonia, although the effect is strongly temperature dependent, and heat leak from the room made quantitative measurement difficult. Mechanical strength was estimated using a ball bearing/accelerometer indentation method. For temperatures 100-150K, ammonia-rich ice has a Young's modulus about 10x smaller than pure ice. These properties affect tidal dissipation and the likelihood and style of cryovolcanism on (and the radar appearance of) the icy satellites and Titan. This work was supported by the Cassini RADAR team and the Arizona Space Grant Consortium.

  16. Snowmobile impacts on snowpack physical and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassnacht, Steven R.; Heath, Jared T.; Venable, Niah B. H.; Elder, Kelly J.

    2018-03-01

    Snowmobile use is a popular form of winter recreation in Colorado, particularly on public lands. To examine the effects of differing levels of use on snowpack properties, experiments were performed at two different areas, Rabbit Ears Pass near Steamboat Springs and at Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, Colorado USA. Differences between no use and varying degrees of snowmobile use (low, medium and high) on shallow (the operational standard of 30 cm) and deeper snowpacks (120 cm) were quantified and statistically assessed using measurements of snow density, temperature, stratigraphy, hardness, and ram resistance from snow pit profiles. A simple model was explored that estimated snow density changes from snowmobile use based on experimental results. Snowpack property changes were more pronounced for thinner snow accumulations. When snowmobile use started in deeper snow conditions, there was less difference in density, hardness, and ram resistance compared to the control case of no snowmobile use. These results have implications for the management of snowmobile use in times and places of shallower snow conditions where underlying natural resources could be affected by denser and harder snowpacks.

  17. The sdA problem - I. Physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisoli, Ingrid; Kepler, S. O.; Koester, D.

    2018-04-01

    The so-called sdA stars are defined by having H-rich spectra and surface gravities similar to hot subdwarf stars, but effective temperature below the zero-age horizontal branch. Their evolutionary history is an enigma: their surface gravity is too high for main-sequence stars, but too low for single evolution white dwarfs. They are most likely byproducts of binary evolution, including blue-stragglers, extremely-low mass white dwarf stars (ELMs) and their precursors (pre-ELMs). A small number of ELMs with similar properties to sdAs is known. Other possibilities include metal-poor A/F dwarfs, second generation stars, or even stars accreted from dwarf galaxies. In this work, we analyse colours, proper motions, and spacial velocities of a sample of sdAs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess their nature and evolutionary origin. We define a probability of belonging to the main sequence and a probability of being a (pre-)ELM based on these properties. We find that 7 per cent of the sdAs are more likely to be (pre-)ELMs than main-sequence stars. However, the spacial velocity distribution suggests that over 35 per cent of them cannot be explained as single metal-poor A/F stars.

  18. Cu2+-modified physical properties of Cobalt-Nickel ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar Babu, K.; Rao, K. Rama; Rajesh Babu, B.

    2017-07-01

    The present study focused on structural, magnetic and electrical properties of Cu substituted Co-Ni ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), magnetization, magnetic permeability and resistivity measurements were carried out to study the structural, magnetic and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms single phase spinel formation. Crystallite size determined from Scherer's method increases with Cu concentration. Distribution of cations was estimated from X-ray line intensity calculations, suggest that the majority of Cu2+ ions occupy octahedral (B) site. Saturation magnetization exhibit increasing trend from 40 emu/g (x = 0.0) to 60 emu/g (x = 0.4) with Cu concentration, though higher magnetic moment Ni ions are replaced by lower magnetic moment Cu ions. Magnetic permeability increases with increasing Cu concentration and shows a flat profile in the frequency range 1-50 MHz. Significant modification in DC electrical resistivity and activation energy are explained on the basis of hopping mechanism.

  19. Neutron diffraction and the physical properties of the light actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, A.C.; Cort, B.; Roberts, J.A.; Bennett, B.I.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    For the past few years the authors have been applying the techniques of neutron powder diffraction to questions arising from the peculiar properties of the light actinide metals. The peculiar properties include complicated crystal structures, leading to complex phase diagrams; anomalous elastic and thermal expansion behavior; and surprisingly low melting points, especially for plutonium. The authors have made neutron diffraction studies of α-thorium, α-neptunium, α-uranium, and α- and δ-plutonium. A great deal has been learned from a study of the temperature dependence of the thermal vibrations of the light actinides. These can be determined using neutron diffraction to measure the Debye-Waller factors in powder diffraction experiments. The same neutron diffraction experiments also give information on the linear coefficient of thermal expansion α. This quantity is also strongly temperature dependent. Other neutron diffraction work is in progress, including attempts to solve some of the unknown alloy structures of Pu, and texture analysis via pole-figure measurements. The texture measurements are of particular interest, given the elastic anisotropy. High-quality data on Pu require the use of the nonabsorbing 242 Pu isotope, and this is a disadvantage. However, the high penetration of neutrons into most materials means that many safety problems can be solved by encapsulation of the radioactive material in V or other metal

  20. Changes in Physical Properties of Graphene Oxide with Thermal Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, Bhishma; Jo, Chang Hee; Joo, Kwan Seon; Cho, Jaehee [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has attracted significant attention as an easily fabricable two dimensional material. Depending on the oxygen-containing functional groups (OFGs) in an rGO specimen, the optical and electrical properties can vary significantly, directly affecting the performance of devices in which rGO is implemented. Here, we investigated the optical and electrical properties of GO treated with various annealing (reduction) temperatures from 350 to 950 ℃ in H2 ambient. Using diverse characteristic tools, we found that the transmittance, nanoscale domain size, OFGs in GO and rGO, and Schottky barrier height (SBH) measured on n-type GaN are significantly influenced by the annealing temperature. The relative intensity of the defect-induced band in Raman spectroscopy showed a minimum at the annealing temperature of approximately 350 ℃, before the OFGs in rGO showed vigorous changes in relative content. When the domain size of rGO reached a minimum at the annealing temperature of 650 ℃, the SBH of rGO/GaN showed the maximum value of 1.07 eV.