WorldWideScience

Sample records for residue management wheel

  1. Residual stress distribution of wheel tread for freight car due to aging effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Seok-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Seo, Jung-Won; Kwon, Sung-Tae

    2010-03-01

    Recently, several wheels for freight car in running had experienced the wheel failure due to fatigue crack, overheat braking and other factors. Severe heating of the wheel during tread braking was believed to be a contributing factor of derailment. It is necessary to evaluate the residual stress in wheel tread in order to manage the safety of wheel. In the present paper, the residual stress of wheel regarding to running distance using x-ray diffraction system is investigated. The result shows that the residual stress of wheel is depend on the running distance, wear rate of wheel and thermal gradient during brake application.

  2. Residual Stress in Wheels: Comparison of Neutron Diffraction and Ultrasonic Methods, with Trends in RCF

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneux-Berry, Paul; Bevan, Adam; Zhang, S. Y; Kabra, S

    2014-01-01

    The critical damage mechanism on many GB passenger train wheels is Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) cracking in the rim. Evidence from field observations suggests that RCF damage occurs much more quickly as the wheelsets near the end of their life. Wheel manufacturing processes induce a compressive hoop stress in the wheel rim; variations in residual stress through the life of a wheel may influence the observed RCF damage rates.\\ud This paper describes experiments to measure residual stresses in...

  3. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  4. Using of abrasive water jet for measurement of residual stress in railway wheels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Petr; Brumek, J.; Horsák, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 19 (2012), s. 387-390 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive water jet * railway wheel * residual stress Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.601, year: 2012 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=124848

  5. Care for the case manager: balancing your wheel of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, D M

    1998-01-01

    The case manager's role in our complex health care system is demanding and draining without some self-reflective attention. The Wheel of Life is a key tool for individuals to assess how well they are leading a fully balanced life. The eight aspects of a balanced life--values, self-care, work, relationships, leisure, relaxation, exercise, and centering--are explained and discussed. A self-reflective activity is presented that encourages readers to assess their current life balance. This focused clarification of personal and professional life will facilitate a more fully balanced life with rewards for case managers as individuals, and for their family, clients, and the health care organization.

  6. Procedures for interface residual stress determination using neutron diffraction: Mo-coated steel gear wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Fanara, Carlo; Hughes, Darren J.; Ratel, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses were determined in steel gear wheels coated with molybdenum using neutron diffraction. A systematic procedure was developed to assess them in both the molybdenum coating and in the steel substrate. A detailed description of the problems associated with measurements of this type is given, together with a procedure aimed at rationalising their solution. Precise sample positioning was developed using a new experimental method and advanced metrology equipment allowing off-line sample alignment and mounting. This reliably replaces the inefficient use of entrance scans, usually adopted in residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction. Corrections were applied to overcome the presence of pseudo-strains and data reduction was performed to coherently interpret the results, including the determination of the centre-of-mass of the diffracting volume. The full three-dimensional stress profile was determined in the coating and the substrate. The data analysis methodology is fully described and recommendations are given for this kind of measurement

  7. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  8. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  9. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  10. Preventing Disruptive Behavior via Classroom Management: Validating the Color Wheel System in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tiffany L; Skinner, Christopher H; Skinner, Amy L; Cazzell, Samantha; Aspiranti, Kathleen B; Moore, Tara; Coleman, MariBeth

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that installing a classroom management system known as the Color Wheel reduced inappropriate behaviors and increased on-task behavior in second- and fourth-grade classrooms; however, no systematic studies of the Color Wheel had been disseminated targeting pre-school or kindergarten participants. To enhance our understanding of the Color Wheel System (CWS) as a prevention system, a multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel on inappropriate vocalizations (IVs) in three general education kindergarten classrooms. Partial-interval time-sampling was used to record classwide IVs, which were operationally defined as any comment or vocal noise that was not solicited by the teacher. Time series graphs and effect size calculations suggest that the CWS caused immediate, large, and sustained decreases in IVs across the three classrooms. Teacher acceptability and interview data also supported the CWS. Implications related to prevention are discussed and directions for future research are provided. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  12. 40 CFR 279.47 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.47 Section... Management of residues. Transporters who generate residues from the storage or transport of used oil must manage the residues as specified in § 279.10(e). ...

  13. 40 CFR 279.67 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.67 Section... for Energy Recovery § 279.67 Management of residues. Burners who generate residues from the storage or burning of used oil must manage the residues as specified in § 279.10(e). ...

  14. 40 CFR 279.59 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.59 Section... Management of residues. Owners and operators who generate residues from the storage, processing, or re-refining of used oil must manage the residues as specified in § 279.10(e). ...

  15. Management of industrial solid residues; Gerenciamento de residuos solidos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the management of industrial solid wastes, approaching the following subjects: classification of industrial solid residues; directives and methodologies for the management of industrial solid residues; instruments for the management of industrial solid residues; handling, packing, storage and transportation; treatment of industrial solid residues; final disposal - landfill for industrial residues; the problem of treatment and final disposer of domestic garbage in Brazil; recycling of the lubricant oils used in brazil; legislation.

  16. The Coastal Hazard Wheel system for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    screening and management. The system is developed to assess the main coastal hazards in a single process and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The system was initially presented in 2012 and based on a range of test......This paper presents the complete Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) system, developed for multi-hazard-assessment and multi-hazard-management of coastal areas worldwide under a changing climate. The system is designed as a low-tech tool that can be used in areas with limited data availability......-applications and feedback from coastal experts, the system has been further refined and developed into a complete hazard management tool. This paper therefore covers the coastal classification system used by the CHW, a standardized assessment procedure for implementation of multi-hazard-assessments, technical guidance...

  17. Life cycle assessment of shredder residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Damgaard, Anders; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    This report provides a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the treatment of shredder residue (SR) in Denmark. The LCA was conducted for the Environmental Protection Agency by DTU Environment in the period March-July 2014, as part of a service agreement between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency...... wood waste, wood waste for recycling and district heating pipes. The LCA was conducted using the EASETECH LCA model developed by DTU Environment for the environmental assessment of waste management systems and environmental technologies. The LCA was conducted in accordance with the LCA principles...

  18. Cover crop residue management for optimizing weed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Bastiaans, L.; Kropff, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Although residue management seems a key factor in residue-mediated weed suppression, very few studies have systematically compared the influence of different residue management strategies on the establishment of crop and weed species. We evaluated the effect of several methods of pre-treatment and

  19. High-resolution diffraction for residual stress determination in the NiCrMoV wheel of an axial compressor for a heavy-duty gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogante, M.; Török, G.; Ceschini, G. F.; Tognarelli, L.; Füzesy, I.; Rosta, L.

    2004-07-01

    The wheel of an axial compressor for a heavy-duty gas turbine has been investigated for residual stresses (RS) evaluation of the teeth-section where SANS measurements have previously been performed. Such a component can contain internal RS, either due to the manufacturing process, or to the operating cycles fatigue. The constitutive material is a NiCrMoV steel to ASTM A 471 (type 2) norms (equivalent to B50A420B10); this material is usually adopted in the manufacturing of forged components for gas turbines. Internal radial and hoop RS have been determined, whose values are under the limit of 200kPa. Hoop RS, in general, resulted in higher value than the radial ones. The present experiment represents a particularly important step in the RS determination for gas turbine components, since the measurements reveal that the fatigue of the wheel is also a lifetime limiting factor although, in the same technological field, the available data in the actual neutron techniques literature mainly concern turbine buckets.

  20. High-resolution diffraction for residual stress determination in the NiCrMoV wheel of an axial compressor for a heavy-duty gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogante, M.; Toeroek, G.; Ceschini, G.F.; Tognarelli, L.; Fuezesy, I.; Rosta, L.

    2004-01-01

    The wheel of an axial compressor for a heavy-duty gas turbine has been investigated for residual stresses (RS) evaluation of the teeth-section where SANS measurements have previously been performed. Such a component can contain internal RS, either due to the manufacturing process, or to the operating cycles fatigue. The constitutive material is a NiCrMoV steel to ASTM A 471 (type 2) norms (equivalent to B50A420B10); this material is usually adopted in the manufacturing of forged components for gas turbines. Internal radial and hoop RS have been determined, whose values are under the limit of 200 kPa. Hoop RS, in general, resulted in higher value than the radial ones. The present experiment represents a particularly important step in the RS determination for gas turbine components, since the measurements reveal that the fatigue of the wheel is also a lifetime limiting factor although, in the same technological field, the available data in the actual neutron techniques literature mainly concern turbine buckets

  1. Eviromental Economic and Technological Residues Management Demands: An Optimization Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Soares Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial residues management is a very demanding task since many different goals must be achieved. The combination of different approaches used by people from different stuff is very challenging activity that can misuse the residues potential value and applicability. An interactive WEB base tool, to integrate different sectors and overcome residues management difficulties will be presented. The system must be loaded with all data concerning the residue life cycle, and through data integration and modeling routine will give the best alternative as output. As wider and complete the system data becomes, by information loading from differen t segment, more efficient the residues management becomes. The user friendly tool will encourage the participation of industries, labs and research institutions to obtain qualified information about industrial residues inventory, raw materials recovery, characteristics, treatment and alternative uses, to achieve residues management sustainability.

  2. A case study in experiential learning: pharmaceutical cold chain management on wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, James; Kartoglu, Ümit; Bishara, Rafik; Reeves, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    People who handle and regulate temperature-sensitive pharmaceutical products require the knowledge and skills to ensure those products maintain quality, integrity, safety, and efficacy throughout their shelf life. People best acquire such knowledge and skills through "experiential learning" that involves working with other learners and experts. The World Health Organization developed a weeklong experiential learning event for participants so they could gain experience in how temperature-sensitive products are handled, stored, and distributed throughout the length of the distribution supply chain system. This experiential learning method enabled participants to visit, critically observe, discuss and report on the various components of the cold chain process. An emphasis was placed on team members working together to learn from one another and on several global expert mentors who were available to guide the learning, share their experiences, and respond to questions. The learning event, Pharmaceutical Cold Chain Management on Wheels, has been conducted once each year since 2008 in Turkey with participants from the global pharmaceutical industry, health care providers, national regulatory authorities, and suppliers/vendors. Observations made during the course showed that it was consistent with the principles of experiential and social learning theories. Questionnaires and focus groups provided evidence of the value of the learning event and ways to improve it. Reflecting the critical elements derived from experiential and social learning theories, five factors contributed to the success of this unique experiential learning event. These factors may also have relevance in other experiential learning courses and, potentially, for experiential e-learning events.

  3. Residue Management: A Computer Program About Conservation Tillage Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Steve J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, Residue Management, which is designed to supplement discussions on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and the impact of tillage on soil properties for introductory soil courses. The program advances the user through three stages of residue management. Information on obtaining the program is also included. (ML)

  4. Omnidirectional wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, J. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The apparatus consists of a wheel having a hub with radially disposed spokes which are provided with a plurality of circumferential rim segments. These rim segments carry, between the spokes, rim elements which are rigid relative to their outer support surfaces, and defined in their outer contour to form a part of the circle forming the wheel diameter. The rim segments have provided for each of the rim elements an independent drive means selectively operable when the element is in ground contact to rotatably drive the rim element in a direction of movement perpendicularly lateral to the normal plane of rotation and movement of the wheel. This affords the wheel omnidirectional movement.

  5. RESIDUAL LIMB VOLUME CHANGE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MEASUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, JE; Fatone, S

    2014-01-01

    Management of residual limb volume affects decisions regarding timing of fit of the first prosthesis, when a new prosthetic socket is needed, design of a prosthetic socket, and prescription of accommodation strategies for daily volume fluctuations. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess what is known about measurement and management of residual limb volume change in persons with lower-limb amputation. Publications that met inclusion criteria were grouped into three categories: (I) descriptions of residual limb volume measurement techniques; (II) studies on people with lower-limb amputation investigating the effect of residual limb volume change on clinical care; and (III) studies of residual limb volume management techniques or descriptions of techniques for accommodating or controlling residual limb volume. The review showed that many techniques for the measurement of residual limb volume have been described but clinical use is limited largely because current techniques lack adequate resolution and in-socket measurement capability. Overall, there is limited evidence regarding the management of residual limb volume, and the evidence available focuses primarily on adults with trans-tibial amputation in the early post-operative phase. While we can draw some insights from the available research about residual limb volume measurement and management, further research is required. PMID:22068373

  6. Effect of crop residue management and cropping system on pearl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retaining crop residues in the field and using legume-based crop rotations have been suggested as ways to simultaneously increase yields per unit area and replenish soil nutrients. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of two cropping systems and three crop residue management practices on grain ...

  7. RESIDU management in spruiten 2009 : eindrapportage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijaart, A.; Oers, van C.; Vlaswinkel, M.E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Een aantal afzetkanalen, supermarkten stelt sinds een aantal jaren bovenwettelijke eisen mbt residu in spruiten. Om te onderzoeken of door een betere keuze van middelen het mogelijk was om aan deze eis te voldoend is er in 2008 een blokkenproef aangelegd op PPO locatie Westmaas. De resultaten van

  8. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress Measurements in Railroad Wheels Via the Barkhausen Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    The feasibility of utilizing the Barkhausen Effect in ferromagnetic steels as a nondestructive means for ascertaining residual stresses in railroad wheels was investigated. Railroad wheels are generally manufactured with compressive stress distributi...

  10. Application of the Coastal Hazard Wheel methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in the state of Djibouti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrøm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    coastal classification system that incorporates the main static and dynamic parameters determining the characteristics of a coastal environment. The methodology provides information on the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding and can be used......This paper presents the application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment and management in a changing global climate on the state of Djibouti. The methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is developed for worldwide application and is based on a specially designed...... of especially northern and southern Djibouti have high hazard levels for gradual inundation. The hazard of salt water intrusion is moderate along most of Djibouti’s coastline, although groundwater availability is considered to be very sensitive to human ground water extraction. High or very high erosion hazards...

  11. Effects of plantation residue management on the community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of plantation residue management on the community structure of wattle regeneration invertebrate pests in South Africa. ... Members of the soil invertebrate pest complex included whitegrubs and cutworms that generally had a higher pest status than millipedes, nematodes, grasshoppers, ants, false wireworms, ...

  12. Management of parthenium weed by extracts and residue of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the prospects of using methanolic extracts and residue of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for the management of parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), one of the world's worst weeds. In a laboratory bioassay, the effect of methanol extracts of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (w/v) concentrations of ...

  13. Managing Residual Contaminants Reuse and Isolation Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke, Ph. D.

    2008-01-01

    Contaminants remaining on sites after regulatory-approved environmental remediation operations are complete represent continued risk to human health and the environment. Many sites require continued management efforts to: (1) protect the integrity of the engineered remedy/control, (2) limit the exposure of individuals to residual contamination by limiting reuse activities, (3) maintain ready access to accurate records/information, and (4) protect against vulnerabilities from intentional threats/actions. This paper presents performance information from selected case studies to provide insight into various management approaches employed for addressing the risks associated with residual contaminants. The case studies involve sites remediated within the U.S. CERCLA framework, and illustrate two prevailing management approaches for addressing the risks. Sacrifice Zones are sites that are purposefully isolated to prevent human access onto the property. Reuse Sites provide limited access for specific use

  14. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  15. Comparative management of offshore posidonia residues: composting vs. energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudio; Parente, Angelo; Zaccone, Claudio; Mininni, Carlo; Santamaria, Pietro; Miano, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Residues of the marine plant posidonia (Posidonia oceanica, PO) beached in tourist zones represent a great environmental, economical, social and hygienic problem in the Mediterranean Basin, in general, and in the Apulia Region in particular, because of the great disturb to the bathers and population, and the high costs that the administrations have to bear for their removal and disposal. In the present paper, Authors determined the heating values of leaves and fibres of PO, the main offshore residues found on beaches, and, meantime, composted those residues with mowing and olive pruning wood. The final composts were characterized for pH, electrical conductivity, elemental composition, dynamic respiration index, phytotoxicity, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopic fingerprints. The aim of the paper was to investigate the composting and energy recovery of PO leaves and fibres in order to suggest alternative solutions to the landfill when offshore residues have to be removed from recreational beaches. The fibrous portion of PO residues showed heating values close to those of other biofuels, thus suggesting a possible utilization as source of energy. At the same time, compost obtained from both PO wastes showed high quality features on condition that the electrical conductivity and Na content are lowered by a correct management of wetting during the composting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Friction in wheel - rail contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovici, R.I.

    2010-01-01

    In the autumn, railroad traffic is often interrupted due to the occurrence of slippery tracks. The Dutch main operator (NS) and the infrastructure manager (ProRail) struggle with repeated delays. The layer between wheel and rail causing this phenomenon has not yet been identified, but can be

  17. Wheel inspection system environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-18

    International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM) has developed and is now marketing a state-of-the-art Wheel Inspection System Environment (WISE). WISE provides wheel profile and dimensional measurements, i.e. rim thickness, flange height, flange ...

  18. Effect of post-harvest forestry residue management practices on the diversity of epigeal coleopterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ramírez Aliaga

    2017-01-01

    and summer, the treatment with residues left registered significantly greater abundance and species richness. In the residue management, the practices of intact leaving residue should be considered as the least impacting on diversity and abundance of epigeal coleopterans and is recommended for creating refugee areas to promote diversity of beetles in this area of study.

  19. Three-Wheel Brush-Wheel Sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Geoffrey A.; Liu, Jun; Brown, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    A new sampler is similar to a common snow blower, but is robust and effective in sample collection. The brush wheels are arranged in a triangle shape, each driven by a brushless DC motor and planetary gearhead embedded in the wheel shaft. Its speed can be varied from 800 - 2,000 rpm, depending on the surface regolith resistance. The sample-collecting flow path, and internal features, are designed based on flow dynamics, and the sample-collecting rates have consistently exceeded the requirement under various conditions that span the range of expected surface properties. The brush-wheel sampler (BWS) is designed so that the flow channel is the main body of the apparatus, and links the brush-wheel assembly to the sample canister. The combination of the three brush wheels, the sample flow path, and the canister location make sample collection, storage, and transfer an easier task.

  20. Improving medication management in multimorbidity: development of the MultimorbiditY COllaborative Medication Review And DEcision Making (MY COMRADE) intervention using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Carol; Mercer, Stewart W; Payne, Rupert A; Duerden, Martin; Bradley, Colin P; Byrne, Molly

    2015-09-24

    Multimorbidity, the presence of two or more chronic conditions, affects over 60 % of patients in primary care. Due to its association with polypharmacy, the development of interventions to optimise medication management in patients with multimorbidity is a priority. The Behaviour Change Wheel is a new approach for applying behavioural theory to intervention development. Here, we describe how we have used results from a review of previous research, original research of our own and the Behaviour Change Wheel to develop an intervention to improve medication management in multimorbidity by general practitioners (GPs), within the overarching UK Medical Research Council guidance on complex interventions. Following the steps of the Behaviour Change Wheel, we sought behaviours associated with medication management in multimorbidity by conducting a systematic review and qualitative study with GPs. From the modifiable GP behaviours identified, we selected one and conducted a focused behavioural analysis to explain why GPs were or were not engaging in this behaviour. We used the behavioural analysis to determine the intervention functions, behavioural change techniques and implementation plan most likely to effect behavioural change. We identified numerous modifiable GP behaviours in the systematic review and qualitative study, from which active medication review (rather than passive maintaining the status quo) was chosen as the target behaviour. Behavioural analysis revealed GPs' capabilities, opportunities and motivations relating to active medication review. We combined the three intervention functions deemed most likely to effect behavioural change (enablement, environmental restructuring and incentivisation) to form the MultimorbiditY COllaborative Medication Review And DEcision Making (MY COMRADE) intervention. MY COMRADE primarily involves the technique of social support: two GPs review the medications prescribed to a complex multimorbid patient together. Four other

  1. Life Assessment and Life Extension of an Aircraft Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aghaie-Khafri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment and shot peening on the fatigue life of an aluminum aircraft wheel was studied. The effect of residual stress and heat treatment on the fatigue of specimens was studied by means of fatigue testing, residual stress measurement, and fractography. Finite element simulation was used for life assessment and evaluation of the effect of surface treatments on the life extension of the aircraft wheel. The results obtained show that the operational life of the aircraft wheel extended by imposed compressive residual stress and aging treatment.

  2. Residue management in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Eduardo Lopes; Henrique, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cantarino, Anderson Americo Alves

    2000-01-01

    The construction of the gas pipeline is a process sequential of assembly phases, where each one of those phases generates residues of the most varied types and amounts, being necessary the forecast of your generation in agreement with the activity that is being executed. During the accomplishment of the works they are generated a lot of times situations where are observed the inadequate disposition of the residues. Those practices, besides the environmental impact that they cause, it can cart in the future, the need of additional investments be proceeded in the recovery of the areas and removal of the residues. This work presents the Program of administration of Residues instituted during the construction of the pipeline Bolivia - Brazil, seeking, on a side to reduce to the minimum the generation of residues and of the other, moths handling guidelines and disposition, in way to minimize the environmental impacts caused by the same ones. (author)

  3. Management of high sulfur coal combustion residues, issues and practices: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Beasley, G.A. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    Papers presented at the following sessions are included in this proceedings: (1) overview topic; (2) characterization of coal combustion residues; (3) environmental impacts of residues management; (4) materials handling and utilization, Part I; and (5) materials handling and utilization, Part II. Selected paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Weed management practice and cropping sequence impact on soil residual nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inefficient N uptake by crops from N fertilization and/or N mineralized from crop residue and soil organic matter results in the accumulation of soil residual N (NH4-N and NO3-N) which increases the potential for N leaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of weed management ...

  5. Diversity in crop residue management across an intensification gradient in southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, Leonard; Corbeels, Marc; Giller, Ken E.

    2016-01-01

    Crop residues are important for livestock feed and nutrient cycling among many other functions on smallholder farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess differences in resource endowment, crop productivity and crop residue management in selected sites in

  6. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  7. Reinventing the Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihyeon; Bland, Lori C.; Chandler, Kimberley

    2009-01-01

    "The Wheel of Scientific Investigation and Reasoning" (Kramer 1987; Paul and Binker 1992) is a graphic representation of the scientific investigative process. The scientific process is depicted in a wheel rather than in a list because "the process of scientific inquiry can begin from any stage, and that stage may be revisited as often as the…

  8. The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Daniel J; Spong, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, t

  9. The San Francisco Bay - Delta Wastewater and Residual Solids Management Study. Volume III. Technical Appendix. Wastewater Residual Solids Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-08-01

    field in industrial wastes for the recovery of proteins, starches , fertilizers and chemicals (Ref. 202). However, it can be utilized as a drying technique...composition is extracted from the literature and is based on chemical analysis of actual process residue. 3. Odor Production. The temperature...results with citrus, tobacco, cotton, corn, potatoes and cabbage crops and. with various grasses. Increases in yields up to 3.8 percent over

  10. Residue Management of Biodiesel Industry: A Study of Value Creation in the Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Lima Altoé

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Residues, whether solid or liquid, are inherent to many industrial processes, and require specialized treatments. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the process of creating value in the supply chain, from the sustainable management of residues in the biodiesel industry. The methodological approach was a multiple case study, with the use of bibliographic data, documents and discourse analysis. Data were collected through interviews with managers of the companies analyzed. The findings suggest that residue management enables the creation of value in the supply chain of biodiesel. It is also noted that from this management, environmental preservation occurs, the incidence of fines is reduced or even eliminated, and there are still economic cooperation between the companies that have different activities but are a part of the supply chain of biodiesel

  11. Wheeled hopping robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gary J [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  12. Carbon fractions and soil fertility affected by tillage and sugarcane residue management an Xanthic Udult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Maria Lopes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gradual change in management practices in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. production from burning straw to a green harvesting system, as well as the use of minimum soil tillage during field renovation, may affect soil fertility and soil organic matter (SOM contents. The objectives of this work were to investigate the influence of sugar cane production systems on: (1 soil fertility parameters; (2 on physical carbon fractions; (3 and on humic substance fractions, in a long-term experiment, comparing two soil tillage and two residue management systems an Xanthic Udult, in the coastal tableland region of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of plots (conventional tillage (CT or minimum tillage (MT and subplots (residue burned or unburned at harvesting, with five replicates The highest values of Ca2+ + Mg2+ and total organic carbon (TOC were observed in the MT system in all soil layers, while high values of K+ were observed in the 0.1-0.2 m layer. The CT associated with the burned residue management negatively influenced the TOC values, especially in the 0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m layers. The carbon in the humin fraction and organic matter associated with minerals were significantly different among the tillage systems; the MT showed higher values than the CT. However, there were no significant differences between the sugarcane residue management treatments. Overall, fractioning the SOM allowed for a better understanding of tillage and residue management systems effects on the soil properties.

  13. Low-residue and low-fiber diets in gastrointestinal disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauwaert, Erika; Matthys, Christophe; Verdonck, Lies; De Preter, Vicky

    2015-11-01

    Recently, low-residue diets were removed from the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Nutrition Care Manual due to the lack of a scientifically accepted quantitative definition and the unavailability of a method to estimate the amount of food residue produced. This narrative review focuses on defining the similarities and/or discrepancies between low-residue and low-fiber diets and on the diagnostic and therapeutic values of these diets in gastrointestinal disease management. Diagnostically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is used in bowel preparation. A bowel preparation is a cleansing of the intestines of fecal matter and secretions conducted before a diagnostic procedure. Therapeutically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is part of the treatment of acute relapses in different bowel diseases. The available evidence on low-residue and low-fiber diets is summarized. The main findings showed that within human disease research, the terms "low residue" and "low fiber" are used interchangeably, and information related to the quantity of residue in the diet usually refers to the amount of fiber. Low-fiber/low-residue diets are further explored in both diagnostic and therapeutic situations. On the basis of this literature review, the authors suggest redefining a low-residue diet as a low-fiber diet and to quantitatively define a low-fiber diet as a diet with a maximum of 10 g fiber/d. A low-fiber diet instead of a low-residue diet is recommended as a diagnostic value or as specific therapy for gastrointestinal conditions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Resobio. Management of forest residues: preserving soils and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantien, Caroline; Charasse, Laurent; Wlerick, Lise; Landmann, Guy; Nivet, Cecile; Jallais, Anais; Augusto, Laurent; Bigot, Maryse; Thivolle Cazat, Alain; Bouget, Christophe; Brethes, Alain; Boulanger, Vincent; Richter, Claudine; Cornu, Sophie; Rakotoarison, Hanitra; Ulrich, Erwin; Deleuze, Christine; Michaud, Daniel; Cacot, Emmanuel; Pousse, Noemie; Ranger, Jacques; Saint-Andre, Laurent; Zeller, Bernd; Achat, David; Cabral, Anne-Sophie; Akroume, Emila; Aubert, Michael; Bailly, Alain; Fraysse, Jean-Yves; Fraud, Benoit; Gardette, Yves-Marie; Gibaud, Gwenaelle; Helou, Tammouz-Enaut; Pitocchi, Sophie; Vivancos, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    The Resobio project (management of forest slash: preservation of soils and biodiversity) aimed at updating knowledge available at the international level (with a focus on temperate areas) on the potential consequences of forest slash sampling on fertility and on biodiversity, and at identifying orientations for recommendations for a revision of the ADEME guide of 2006 on wise collecting of forest slash. The first part of this report is a synthesis report which gives an overview of results about twenty issues dealing with the nature of wood used for energy production and the role of slash, about the consequences of this type of collecting for soil fertility and species productivity, and about impacts on biodiversity. Based on these elements, recommendations are made for slash management and for additional follow-up and research. The second part contains five scientific and technical reports which more deeply analyse the issue of fertility, and technical documents on slash management (guides) published in various countries

  15. Tillage as a tool to manage crop residue: impact on sugar beet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Chélin, Marie; Degrune, Florine; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and plant cover represent a pool of organic matter that can be used either to restore organic matter in soils, and therefore maintain soil fertility, or that can be valorized outside of the field (e.g. energy production). However, it is crucial that the exportation of residues is not done to the detriment of the system sustainability. Three long term experiments have been settled in the loamy region in Belgium. All of them are designed to study the effect of residues management by several tillage systems (conventional plowing versus reduced tillage) on the whole soil-water-plant system. SOLRESIDUS is a field experiment where we study the impact of crop residue management while in SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS, we study the impact of cover crop management. SOLRESIDUS was started in 2008. In this field, four contrasted crop residues managements are tested in order to contrast as much as possible the responses from the soil-water plant system. Two practices characterize the four modalities: soil tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth or reduce tillage at 10 cm max) and residue management (exportation or restitution). SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS were started in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In those fields cover crop management is also diverse: destruction of the cover crop by winter ploughing, spring ploughing, strip tillage (with a chemical destruction if needed) or shallow tillage (with a decompaction before cover crop sowing). Although although the overall project aims at studying the impact of management on the whole soil-water-plant system, here we will only present the results concerning crop production (sugar beet) in SOLCOUVERT experiments. The presented data will include germination rate, crop development (biomass quantification and BBCH stages) weeds population, disease occurrence, pest occurrences, nitrogen uptake by plants, quality and quantity of harvested products.

  16. Automated phased array ultrasonic inspection system for rail wheel sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosser, Paul; Weiland, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the design, system automation, calibration and validation of an automated ultrasonic system for the inspection of new and in service wheel set assemblies from diesel-electric locomotives and gondola cars. This system uses Phased Array (PA) transducers for flaw detection and Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) for the measurement of residual stress. The system collects, analyses, evaluates and categorizes the wheel sets automatically. This data is archived for future comparison and trending. It is also available for export to a portal lathe for increased efficiency and accuracy of machining, therefore allowing prolonged wheel life.

  17. Management of crop residues to improve quality traits of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Galieni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of cover crops provides mulching and/or topsoil incorporation of plant residues, which can enhance soil organic matter content as well as supply important nutrients. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects on tomato quality and yield performance of different managements of plant residues from three cover crops compared with plastic cover (polyvinyl chloride and bared soil (control. Management treatments consisted of: mulch with faba bean (MuF, rapeseed and barley and incorporated plants of faba bean (InF, rapeseed and barley. PVC and mulching with crop residues obtained higher yields; faba bean, due to its chemical composition, gave the highest fruit growth and yield, regardless of residues management. Residues improved tomato crop physiology as well as minerals concentration in fruits: the highest calcium values were observed for InF, while magnesium was significantly concentrated in fruits of MuF and InF treatments. Faba bean as previous crop seemed more effective in enhancing yield and quality tomato traits. Rapeseed did not confirm the expected results.

  18. Low-Residue and Low-Fiber Diets in Gastrointestinal Disease Management12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauwaert, Erika; Matthys, Christophe; Verdonck, Lies; De Preter, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Recently, low-residue diets were removed from the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics’ Nutrition Care Manual due to the lack of a scientifically accepted quantitative definition and the unavailability of a method to estimate the amount of food residue produced. This narrative review focuses on defining the similarities and/or discrepancies between low-residue and low-fiber diets and on the diagnostic and therapeutic values of these diets in gastrointestinal disease management. Diagnostically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is used in bowel preparation. A bowel preparation is a cleansing of the intestines of fecal matter and secretions conducted before a diagnostic procedure. Therapeutically, a low-fiber/low-residue diet is part of the treatment of acute relapses in different bowel diseases. The available evidence on low-residue and low-fiber diets is summarized. The main findings showed that within human disease research, the terms “low residue” and “low fiber” are used interchangeably, and information related to the quantity of residue in the diet usually refers to the amount of fiber. Low-fiber/low-residue diets are further explored in both diagnostic and therapeutic situations. On the basis of this literature review, the authors suggest redefining a low-residue diet as a low-fiber diet and to quantitatively define a low-fiber diet as a diet with a maximum of 10 g fiber/d. A low-fiber diet instead of a low-residue diet is recommended as a diagnostic value or as specific therapy for gastrointestinal conditions. PMID:26567203

  19. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software - RWDMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaurock, Carl

    2009-01-01

    densities); converting PSDs to order analysis data; extracting harmonics; initializing and simultaneously tuning a harmonic model and a wheel structural model; initializing and tuning a broadband model; and verifying the harmonic/broadband/structural model against the measurement data. Functional operation is through a MATLAB GUI that loads test data, performs the various analyses, plots evaluation data for assessment and refinement of analysis parameters, and exports the data to documentation or downstream analysis code. The harmonic models are defined as specified functions of frequency, typically speed-squared. The reaction wheel structural model is realized as mass, damping, and stiffness matrices (typically from a finite element analysis package) with the addition of a gyroscopic forcing matrix. The broadband noise model is realized as a set of speed-dependent filters. The tuning of the combined model is performed using nonlinear least squares techniques. RWDMES is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox comprising the Fit Manager for performing the model extraction, Data Manager for managing input data and output models, the Gyro Manager for modifying wheel structural models, and the Harmonic Editor for evaluating and tuning harmonic models. This software was validated using data from Goodrich E wheels, and from GSFC Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) wheels. The validation testing proved that RWDMES has the capability to extract accurate disturbance models from flight reaction wheels with minimal user effort.

  20. Residual and late complications of conservative management of condylar fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElAbdin, Hassan

    1989-01-01

    Due to the increased incidence of road traffic accidents, fractures of the facial skeleton are on the rise with condylar fracture being almost 50% in some societies. The latter is usually treated either surgically or conservatively. Advocates of the conservative approach believe that the only indication for surgical intervention is displacement of the fractured condyle with a magnitude and direction such that occlusion is impossible and function is deranged. This paper presents findings in eight patients with history of fractured condyle, who were managed conservatively but presented later with serious and late complications. (author)

  1. Three years monitoring survey of pesticide residues in Sardinia wines following integrated pest management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a pesticide monitoring survey on wine grapes from the 2008-2010 vintage from vineyards grown according to integrated pest management strategies. A multi-residue gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in electron ionization and chemical ionization mode has been used for the determination of 30 pesticides in wine samples. The analytical method showed good recoveries and allowed a good separation of the selected pesticides. Repeatability and intermediate precision showed good results with CV < 20 %. The instrumental method limits of determination (LOD) and of quantification (LOQ) were below the maximum residue levels set in wine. The analysis of the wines showed that pesticide residues were below the instrumental LOQ, and most of them were undetectable (residues.

  2. Evaluation of residue management practices effects on corn productivity, soil quality, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Jose German

    The removal of crop residues left after harvest is being considered as a potential feedstock source for bioethanol production which can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel use and net greenhouse gas (GHG). The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine how tillage, N fertilization rates, residue removal, and their interactions affect crop productivity, (ii) SOC and soil physical properties, and (iii) GHG emissions, and (iv) calculated a soil C budget to determine how much crop residue can be sustainably be removed in Central and Southwest Iowa. After three years of residue removal under different management practices, the findings of this study suggest that a portion of the corn residue that is left on the soil surface after harvest can be removed, with no negative impacts in the short term continuous corn yield in sites at Central and Southwest Iowa. However, significant decreases in SOC sequestration rates, microbial biomass-C, bulk density, soil penetration resistance, wet aggregate stability, and infiltration rates were observed, but varied with soil type and management practices. Additionally, soil surface CO2 and N2O emissions were responsive to management practices; primarily by altering soil temperature, soil water content, soil mineral N, and crop growth. Results from soil C budget show that in 2010 when corn growth was not water stressed (lack of moisture), approximately 35 and 30% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively. In 2011, drier soil conditions resulted in approximately 2 and 49% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively.

  3. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  4. Military wheeled vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Wheeled vehicles are used in militaries around the world every single day. Readers will learn that wheeled vehicles in the military are not just for getting from place-to-place, but can also act as necessary protection for soldiers travelling through dangerous areas. Big full-bleed photographs, new glossary terms, and a close up look at a vehicle will keep readers wanting more! Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Kids Jumbo is an imprint of Abdo Kids, a division of ABDO.

  5. Model validation through long-term promising sustainable maize/pigeon pea residue management in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwale, C.D.; Kabambe, V.H.; Sakale, W.D.; Giller, K.E.; Kauwa, A.A.; Ligowe, I.; Kamalongo, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2005/2006 season, the Model Validation Through Long-Term Promising Sustainable Maize/Pigeon Pea Residue Management experiment was in the 11th year at Chitedze and Chitala, and in the 8th year at Makoka and Zombwe. The experiment was a split-plot design with cropping system as the main plot

  6. Statistical modeling to management and treatment of scrap with low and very low residual activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Bermejo Fernandez, R.; Anaya Lazaro, M.

    2011-01-01

    The experience of recent years on the management of scrap metal containing residual activity have allowed the development of a simple statistical model for the management of these materials. This statistical model includes a breakdown of the various processing operations to which these materials undergo and the effects in the process of radiological controls associated to the control of declassification that defines disposal (recycled by smelting, reclamation, temporary storage the plant or sent to final storage of radioactive waste.

  7. Evolution of Multidirectional Wheels Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the insufficient space for the internal transport in industrial halls have generated new constructive solutions of wheels, able to facilitate the movement of vehicle in any direction without a rotation of chassis. The main types of multidirectional wheels are presented in this paper (Grabowiecki patent, Mecanum wheel, Kilough platform, Blumrich wheel. In the final part of the paper a graphical analyses of the economized space by omnidirectional vehicles is presented. The paper represents a bibliographical study.

  8. 49 CFR 570.63 - Wheel assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.63 Section 570.63... 10,000 Pounds § 570.63 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc or spider shall...) Inspection procedure. Examine visually for the conditions indicated. (b) Cast wheels. Cast wheels shall not...

  9. Broken rims in railroad wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Broken wheels are one of the most common types of equipment-caused train accidents. The failure of rail car wheel rims, which : are usually the result of shattered rims or vertical split rims (VSR), are the leading cause of wheel-related accidents, a...

  10. Wheel/rail interface optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevtsov, I.Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, wheel/rail interface optimisation, and particularly the problems of wheel and rail profile design are considered. The research task pursued by this thesis engenders investigation of a range of problems. First, geometric properties of contact between wheel and rail are investigated.

  11. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clifton

    2010-01-01

    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  12. Atomic Ferris wheel beams

    OpenAIRE

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.

    2017-01-01

    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where an atomic wave-packet, moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  13. Atomic Ferris wheel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembessis, Vasileios E.

    2017-07-01

    We study the generation of atom vortex beams in the case where a Bose-Einstein condensate, released from a trap and moving in free space, is diffracted from a properly tailored light mask with a spiral transverse profile. We show how such a diffraction scheme could lead to the production of an atomic Ferris wheel beam.

  14. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  15. Wheels With Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, Dwayne; Clauss, Douglas; Hewson, Fraser; Brown, Robert; Hisrich, Robert; Taylor, Cyrus

    2002-10-01

    We describe a student intrapreneurial project in the Physics Entrepreneurship Program at Case Western Reserve University. At the request of a major fortune 100 company, a study has been made of the technical and marketing issues for a new business of selling sensors on commercial vehicle wheels for monitoring pressure, temperature, rotations, and vibrations, as well as providing identification. The nature of the physics involved in the choice of the appropriate device such as capacitive or piezoresistive sensors is discussed, along with the possibility of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology and RFID (radiofrequency identification) readout on wheels. Five options (status quo, in-house development, external business acquisition, a large business national partnership, and a small-business Cleveland consortium partnership) were studied from both technological and business perspectives to commercialize the technology. The decision making process for making a choice is explained.

  16. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  17. Pesticide residues in grapes from vineyards included in integrated pest management in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnik, H Basa; Gregorcic, A; Cus, F

    2008-04-01

    Although the list of pesticides used in integrated pest management (IPM) in grape growing and their annual application rates are limited, we are still confronted with the problem of pesticide residues in grapes. This paper presents the results of pesticide monitoring of 47 samples of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) from the 2006 vintage from vineyards included in IPM. The grape samples were analysed for the presence of 67 pesticides. Among them 20 were allowed in IPM in 2006. Grapes were sampled at harvest. Two internal analytical methods were used for the determination of pesticides: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of dithiocarbamates and a multi-residue GC-MS method. One grape sample (2.1%) contained no residues or they were below the limit of detection, 28 samples (59.6%) contained residues lower or equal than maximum residue levels (MRLs), and 18 samples (38.3%) exceeded national MRLs for cyprodinil (the concentration range was 0.03-0.40 mg kg(-1) of cyprodinil) and fludioxonil (concentration was 0.03 mg kg(-1) of fludioxonil). Multiple residues were found in 41 samples (87.2%). The highest number of pesticides detected per sample was seven. No violation of pesticides allowed in IPM was observed. Folpet (97.9%), cyprodinil (51.1%), dithiocarbamates (44.7%), chlorothalonil (23.4%), chlorpyriphos (19.1%) and pyrimethanil (14.9%) were the most frequently found pesticides in grapes. Risk assessment showed that the exceeded concentrations of cyprodinil and fludioxonil did not represent any risk for consumer's health (the national estimate of short-term intake as a percentage of the acceptable daily intake was below 100%).

  18. Crop residue management and fertilization effects on soil organic matter and associated biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingzi; Zhang, Jiabao; Yu, Yueyue; Karlen, Douglas L; Hao, Xiying

    2016-09-01

    Returning crop residue may result in nutrient reduction in soil in the first few years. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether this negative effect is alleviated by improved crop residue management (CRM). Nine treatments (3 CRM and 3 N fertilizer rates) were used. The CRM treatments were (1) R0: 100 % of the N using mineral fertilizer with no crop residues return; (2) R: crop residue plus mineral fertilizer as for the R0; and (3) Rc: crop residue plus 83 % of the N using mineral and 17 % manure fertilizer. Each CRM received N fertilizer rates at 270, 360, and 450 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). At the end of the experiment, soil NO3-N was reduced by 33 % from the R relative to the R0 treatment, while the Rc treatment resulted in a 21 to 44 % increase in occluded particulate organic C and N, and 80 °C extracted dissolved organic N, 19 to 32 % increase in microbial biomass C and protease activity, and higher monounsaturated phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA):saturated PLFA ratio from stimulating growth of indigenous bacteria when compared with the R treatment. Principal component analysis showed that the Biolog and PLFA profiles in the three CRM treatments were different from each other. Overall, these properties were not influenced by the used N fertilizer rates. Our results indicated that application of 17 % of the total N using manure in a field with crop residues return was effective for improving potential plant N availability and labile soil organic matter, primarily due to a shift in the dominant microorganisms.

  19. Remote Sensing of Residue Management in Farms using Landsat 8 Sensor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Rostami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Preserving of crop residues in the field surface after harvesting crops, making difficult farm operations. The farmers for getting rid of crop residues always choose the easiest way, i.e. burning. Burning is one of the common disposal methods for wheat and corn straw in some region of the world. Present study was aimed to investigate the accurate methods for monitoring of residue management after wheat harvesting. With this vision, the potential of Landsat 8 sensor was evaluated for monitoring of residue burning, using satellite spectral indices and Linear Spectral Unmixing Analysis. For this purpose, correlation of ground data with satellite spectral indices and LSUA data were tested by linear regression. Materials and Methods In this study we considered 12 farms where remained plants were burned, 12 green farm, 12 bare farms and 12 farms with full crop residue cover were considered. Spatial coordinates of experimental fields recorded with a GPS and fields map were drawn using ArcGissoftware, version of 10.1. In this study,t wo methods were used to separate burned fields from other farms including Satellite Spectral Indices and Linear Spectral unmixing analysis. In this study, multispectral landsat 8 image was acquired over 2015 year. Landsat 8 products are delivered to the customer as radiometric, sensor, and geometric corrections. Image pixels are unique to Landsat 8 data, and should not be directly compared to imagery from other sensors. Therefore, DN value must be converted to radiance value in order to change the radiance to the reflectance, which is useful when performing spectral analysis techniques, such as transformations, band ratios and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, etc. In this study, a number of spectral indices and Linear Spectral Unmixing Analysis data were imported/extracted from Landsat 8 image. All satellite image data were analyzed by ENVI software package. The spectral indices used in this

  20. 49 CFR 570.10 - Wheel assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel assemblies. 570.10 Section 570.10... Pounds or Less § 570.10 Wheel assemblies. (a) Wheel integrity. A tire rim, wheel disc, or spider shall... bead through one full wheel revolution and note runout in excess of one-eighth of an inch. (c) Mounting...

  1. 49 CFR 230.114 - Wheel centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel centers. 230.114 Section 230.114... Tenders Wheels and Tires § 230.114 Wheel centers. (a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel... and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must extend...

  2. Robotic Two-Wheeled Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesnas, Issa A. D. (Inventor); Matthews, Jaret B. (Inventor); Edlund, Jeffrey E. (Inventor); Burdick, Joel (Inventor); Abad-Manterola, Pablo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic two-wheeled vehicle comprising a connection body interposed between the two wheels are described. A drum can be coaxially located in a central region of the connection body and can support a hollow arm projecting radially from the drum. A tether can be inserted in the arm and connected to a second drum. Instruments and sensors can be accommodated in a case housed inside each wheel.

  3. How the wheel changed history

    CERN Document Server

    Higgins, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    How the Wheel Changed History examines the ancient origins of the wheel and explores the many inventions-from the spinning wheel to the phonograph-made possible by the simple machine. Features include essential facts, a glossary, selected bibliography, websites, source notes, and an index, plus a timeline and maps, charts, and diagrams. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Essential Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  4. The Inlet Engine Valves Grinding Using Different Types of Cutting Fluids and Grinding Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Eraldo Jannone da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental research is presented in which different types of cutting fluids (a cutting oil and three different types of soluble oils and grinding wheels (alumina and vitrified CBN were tested in the inlet engine valves grinding. As evaluation parameters the workpiece residual stress and the grinding wheel wear were analyzed. The cutting fluid and the grinding wheel types adopted resulted in changes in all the parameters, due to the different lubricant abilities among the fluids and due to the differences in the mechanical and thermal properties among the abrasives tested. For grinding this steel, the CBN wheel is the best choice, mainly due to compressive residual stress results obtained for all cutting fluids tested. The cutting oil is the most adequate cutting fluid to be used, due to its higher lubricity and ability in keeping the wheel sharp for longer periods of time, reducing the overall grinding energy and the thermal damage.

  5. A mind map for managing minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Christopher B; Ravandi, Farhad

    2017-11-01

    Advances in detecting traces of leukemia that were previously unidentifiable have increasingly led to the incorporation of information about residual disease into clinical decision making for patients with leukemia in both the postinduction and consolidation settings. This review discusses current concepts related to minimal residual disease (MRD), which is defined as submicroscopic disease detected during morphologic complete remission. The focus is on acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Basic methods for detecting MRD include flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and mutation analysis. Several studies using these assays have demonstrated prognostic implications based on MRD-positive vs MRD-negative status. As our understanding of the biological factors responsible for MRD in AML evolves, residual disease should be evaluated in the context of other prognostic markers. Current therapeutic options for managing MRD in AML are limited, and the clinical implications of a positive MRD test result can be significant. Regarding individual patients, an evidence-based approach must be applied while the institution- and assay-specific differences that currently exist are considered. Challenges associated with MRD assessment, such as the limited standardization of available assays and the paucity of effective agents to eradicate MRD, will need to be overcome before physicians who treat leukemia can use MRD as a tool for clinical management.

  6. Pesticide residues in apples grown under a conventional and integrated pest management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, R; Shtereva, D

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes method validation for determination of more than 40 pesticides in apples using a GC technique. Target compounds belonged to the organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamates, pyrethroids, triazoles, dicarboximides and strobilurins groups, among others. Sample preparation consisted of acetone extraction and subsequent cleanup/concentration by SPE with a polymer-based sorbent. Single quadrupole GC-MS operating in SIM mode and electron impact ionization was used for identification and quantification of the pesticides. Average recoveries for analytes ranged between 70 and 110% at three fortification levels - 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2 mg kg(-1). Relative standard deviations were lower than 20% for all tested compounds. Calculated limits of detection and limits of quantification were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which were sufficiently low compared to the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by European legislation. The proposed method was applied for determination of pesticide residue in four selected apple varieties after harvesting. Whole and processed fruits (peel and peeled fruits) were analyzed from different treatment systems: two conventional, one based on integrated pest management (IPM) and two variants based on organic production (controls). Higher levels of pesticide residues were found in apple fruits under conventional conditions. Fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos residues were detected frequently in apple peel at concentrations up to 0.45 and 0.77 mg kg(-1), respectively. The levels found in the whole fruits of the same samples were much lower than in peel and below the respective MRLs (0.5 mg kg(-1) for both pesticides). Measurable residues of triadimenol only, up to 0.05 mg kg(-1), concentrated in the peel, were found in the apples from IPM.

  7. Plant Residual Management in different Crop Rotations System on Potato Tuber Yield Loss Affected by Wireworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarea Feizabadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selection a proper crop rotation based on environmental conservation rules is a key factor for increasing long term productivity. On the other hand, the major problem in reaching agricultural sustainability is lack of soil organic matter. Recently, a new viewpoint has emerged based on efficient use of inputs, environmental protection, ecological economy, food supply and security. Crop rotation cannot supply and restore plant needed nutrients, so gradually the productivity of rotation system tends to be decreased. Returning the plant residues to the soil helps to increase its organic matter and fertility in long-term period. Wireworms are multi host pests and we can see them in wheat and barley too. The logic way for their control is agronomic practices like as crop rotation. Wireworms’ population and damages are increased with using grasses and small seed gramineas in mild winters, variation in cropping pattern, reduced chemical control, and cover crops in winter. In return soil cultivation, crop rotation, planting date, fertilizing, irrigation and field health are the examples for the effective factors in reducing wireworms’ damage. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of crop rotations, residue management and yield damage because of wireworms’ population in soil, this experiment was conducted using four rotation systems for five years in Jolgeh- Rokh agricultural research station. Crop rotations were included, 1 Wheat monoculture for the whole period (WWWWW, 2 Wheat- wheat- wheat- canola- wheat (WWWCW, 3 Wheat- sugar beet- wheat- potato- wheat (WSWPW, 4 Wheat- maize- wheat- potato- wheat (WMWPW as main plots and three levels of returning crop residues to soil (returning 0, 50 and 100% produced crop residues to soil were allocated as sub plots. This experiment was designed as split plot based on RCBD design with three replications. After ending each rotation treatment, the field was sowed with potato cv. Agria

  8. 14 CFR 27.731 - Wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than the...

  9. 14 CFR 29.731 - Wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.731 Wheels. (a) Each landing gear wheel must be approved. (b) The maximum static load rating of each wheel may not be less than...

  10. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  11. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  12. Towars a chemical reagents and residues management at the teaching laboratories of the Chemistry School of the Universidad Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Benavides Benavides

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The academic activities carried out at the School of Chemistry make indispensable to develop actions oriented toward the consolidation of a reagent and residue management system, especially in the teaching laboratories. The project “Management of reagents and residues in the teaching laboratories of the School of Chemistry” works under the Green Chemistry values which designs products and chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and production of dangerous substances, to benefit the environment. With a preventive vision, a change from the  laboratory practices is looked to select those with less environmental impact. Additionally, residue quantification is made and its management protocols are developed for each practice. The project has several stages: diagnose, action implementation, student, teacher and administration personnel training and evaluation during the process and at the end of it. The article describes methodological aspects of the project operation emphasizing on reagent and residue quantification through flow diagrams.

  13. Threshold conditions for integrated pest management models with pesticides that have residual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Liang, Juhua; Tan, Yuanshun; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations (hybrid dynamical systems) can provide a natural description of pulse-like actions such as when a pesticide kills a pest instantly. However, pesticides may have long-term residual effects, with some remaining active against pests for several weeks, months or years. Therefore, a more realistic method for modelling chemical control in such cases is to use continuous or piecewise-continuous periodic functions which affect growth rates. How to evaluate the effects of the duration of the pesticide residual effectiveness on successful pest control is key to the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) in practice. To address these questions in detail, we have modelled IPM including residual effects of pesticides in terms of fixed pulse-type actions. The stability threshold conditions for pest eradication are given. Moreover, effects of the killing efficiency rate and the decay rate of the pesticide on the pest and on its natural enemies, the duration of residual effectiveness, the number of pesticide applications and the number of natural enemy releases on the threshold conditions are investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications and predator releases. Latin Hypercube Sampling/Partial Rank Correlation uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to investigate the key control parameters which are most significantly related to threshold values. The findings combined with Volterra's principle confirm that when the pesticide has a strong effect on the natural enemies, repeated use of the same pesticide can result in target pest resurgence. The results also indicate that there exists an optimal number of pesticide applications which can suppress the pest most effectively, and this may help in the design of an optimal control strategy.

  14. How do soil quality indicators (SOC and nutrients) change with long-term different crop residue management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Heide; Lehtinen, Taru; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Leaving the crop residues (cereal grain straw, maize stover, sugar beet leaves) on the field may enhance SOC and soil nutrient contents (e.g. P, K, Mg). In contrast, harvesting crop residues for livestock bedding or energy production are often connected with a loss of soil fertility (Lehtinen et al., 2014). We have evaluated the effects of different management of crop residues on selected soil parameters of the upper soil (0-25 cm) in two long-term field experiments in Austria focused on P-dynamics (Marchfeld, since 1982 and Alpenvorland, since 1986). In four P-fertilisation stages (0, 75, 150, 300 kg P2O5 ha-1y-1) all crop residues were incorporated in one treatment and all removed in the other one, respectively. The results show that the effects are different at the two investigated sites. At the site Marchfeld, a medium textured soil, on average SOC was significantly higher with the incorporation of crop residues (21.6 g kg-1) compared to the removal (19.9 g kg-1) after 32 years. In the long run, SOC levels could be maintained, if crop residues remained at the field, whereas the constant removal of crop residues resulted in a SOC decline. At the site Alpenvorland, SOC was only slightly higher with the incorporation of the crop residues after 28 years. In this case, in the long run, even with this management practice and, moreover, with the residue removal, SOC tended to decrease generally. At the Marchfeld, crop residue incorporation resulted in a significant increase of "plant available" phosphorus (P-CAL) only with very high P fertilization. However, "plant available" Mg (according to Schachtschabel) and potassium (K-CAL) were significantly higher in all P fertilisation stages compared to the residue removal treatments. At the site Alpenvorland, the soils are rich in silt and clay and with long-term incorporation of crop residues a significant increase only of „plant available" K of about 50% occurred. This indicates the necessity of taking into account the

  15. Pesticide residues in grapes from integrated production of the Slovene origin The CORRECTED TITLE is: Pesticide residues in grapes from vineyards included in integrated pest management in Slovenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Baša Česnik , Helena; Gregorčič , Ana; Čuš , Franc

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Although the list of pesticides used in integrated pest management (IPM) in grape growing and their annual application rates are limited, we are still confronted with the problem of pesticide residues in grapes. The paper presents the results of pesticide monitoring in 47 samples of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) of the 2006 vintage from the vineyards included in IPM. The grape samples were analysed for the presence of 67 pesticides. Among them, 20 were allowed in IPM in ...

  16. Wheel running in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

    2014-07-07

    The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

  17. MAIZE YIELD AND ITS STABILITY AS AFFECTED BY TILLAGE AND CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT IN THE EASTERN ROMANIAN DANUBE PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru COCIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed crop management systems need to be optimized to provide more resilient options in order to cope with projected climatic scenarios which are forecasting a decrease in mean precipitation and more frequent extreme drought periods in the Eastern Romanian Danube Plain. This research, carried out in the period of 2011-2014, had as main purpose the determination of influence of tillage practices and residue management on rainfall use efficiency, maize yield and its stability, in order to evaluate the advantages of conservation agriculture (CA in the time of stabilization of direct seeding effects, in comparison with traditional chisel tillage. The maize grain yields are presented for each crop management practices, as follows: (1 chisel tillage, retained crop residues being chopped and incorporated (ciz; (2 zero tillage, retained crop residue chopped and kept on the field in short flat condition (rvt; (3 zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in short root-anchored condition (1/2rva, and (4 zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in tall root-anchored condition (1/1rva. In 2012, a year with prolonged drought during vegetative growth, yield differences between zero tillage with short root-anchored residue retention (1/2rva and chisel tillage with residue incorporation (ciz were positive, up to 840 kg ha-1. In average over 2011-2014, conservation agriculture (CA practices had a yield advantage over traditional chisel tillage practice. Zero tillage with residue retention used rainfall more efficiently so suggesting that it is a more resilient agronomic system than traditional (conventional practices involving chisel tillage with residue incorporation.

  18. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Sisani, Luciano [TSA spa, Via Case Sparse 107, Magione (Italy); Damiano, Roberto [GESENU spa, Via della Molinella 7, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  19. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela; Sisani, Luciano; Damiano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes

  20. Wheels lining up for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 30 October, the mechanics test assembly of the central barrel of the ATLAS tile hadronic calorimeter was completed in building 185. It is the second wheel for the Tilecal completely assembled this year.

  1. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. The big wheels of ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS cavern is filling up at an impressive rate. The installation of the first of the big wheels of the muon spectrometer, a thin gap chamber (TGC) wheel, was completed in September. The muon spectrometer will include four big moving wheels at each end, each measuring 25 metres in diameter. Of the eight wheels in total, six will be composed of thin gap chambers for the muon trigger system and the other two will consist of monitored drift tubes (MDTs) to measure the position of the muons (see Bulletin No. 13/2006). The installation of the 688 muon chambers in the barrel is progressing well, with three-quarters of them already installed between the coils of the toroid magnet.

  3. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective wheel. 215.103 Section 215.103... § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange... tread of the wheel; (b) The height of a wheel flange on the car, from the tread to the top of the flange...

  4. The wheel of retail gravitation?

    OpenAIRE

    S Brown

    1992-01-01

    Reilly's Law of Retail Gravitation ranks among the classics of marketing geography. In this paper an examination of the evolution of Reilly's law is made, the contemporaneous wheel of retailing theory being used as an organisational framework. In line with the wheel, the gravity model commenced as a simple conceptualisation of consumer spatial behaviour, became increasingly sophisticated through time, and thereby created conditions conducive to the reemergence of the basic interaction model. ...

  5. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  6. Rural electrification for isolated consumers: Sustainable management model based on residue biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Giorgiana; Rendeiro, Goncalo; Pinho, Joao; Macedo, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the electrification of a riparian community in the State of Para, Brazil, within the scope of the Program for Electric Power Service Universalization in Brazil. The community is located in a remote area; approximately 100 km from the municipal district, there is no regular transport to access the community, and adequate communication service. The community is provided with electrification facilities through a small biomass-based power plant, directly firing residues produced by the local economic activity. The objective of the paper is to propose a sustainable management model that is suitable for community's isolation conditions, considering the high costs with operation and maintenance related to the supply of isolated consumers in small locations. A simulation is conducted for the operation of the small biomass-based power plant, the generation costs are determined, the legal aspects are analyzed, and a suggestion for the management model is presented. - Highlights: → Electrification of isolated consumers is a great challenge for utilities. → Using local labor and resources allows lower energy costs for electrification. → Creation of a specific legislation for utilities is required. → Should also be implemented social activities together with electrification.

  7. Drug residues in urban water: A database for ecotoxicological risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrieux, Doriane; Laurent, François; Budzinski, Hélène; Pedelucq, Julie; Vervier, Philippe; Gerino, Magali

    2017-12-31

    Human-use drug residues (DR) are only partially eliminated by waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), so that residual amounts can reach natural waters and cause environmental hazards. In order to properly manage these hazards in the aquatic environment, a database is made available that integrates the concentration ranges for DR, which cause adverse effects for aquatic organisms, and the temporal variations of the ecotoxicological risks. To implement this database for the ecotoxicological risk assessment (ERA database), the required information for each DR is the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), along with the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). The risk assessment is based on the ratio between the PNECs and the PECs. Adverse effect data or PNECs have been found in the publicly available literature for 45 substances. These ecotoxicity test data have been extracted from 125 different sources. This ERA database contains 1157 adverse effect data and 287 PNECs. The efficiency of this ERA database was tested with a data set coming from a simultaneous survey of WWTPs and the natural environment. In this data set, 26 DR were searched for in two WWTPs and in the river. On five sampling dates, concentrations measured in the river for 10 DR could pose environmental problems of which 7 were measured only downstream of WWTP outlets. From scientific literature and measurements, data implementation with unit homogenisation in a single database facilitates the actual ecotoxicological risk assessment, and may be useful for further risk coming from data arising from the future field survey. Moreover, the accumulation of a large ecotoxicity data set in a single database should not only improve knowledge of higher risk molecules but also supply an objective tool to help the rapid and efficient evaluation of the risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cover crop management influences residue biomass and subsequent weed suppression in a conservation agriculture corn and cotton rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of winter cover crops is an integral component of conservation systems in corn and cotton. However, data concerning cover management and subsequent residue and weed biomass is needed. Field experiments were conducted from autumn of 2003 through cash crop harvest in 2006 at the Alabama Agricultur...

  9. How does crop residue removal affect soil organic carbon and yield? A hierarchical analysis of management and environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren Raffa, D.; Bogdanski, A.; Tittonell, P.

    2015-01-01

    The current advancement of the bioenergy sector along with the need for sustainable agricultural systems call for context-specific crop residue management options - implying variable degrees of removal - across climatic regions, soil types and farming systems around the world. A large database

  10. Medium-term impact of tillage and residue management on soil aggregate stability, soil carbon and crop productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, B.K.; Vanlauwe, B.; Ayuke, F.; Gassner, A.; Hoogmoed, M.; Hurisso, T.T.; Koala, S.; Lelei, D.; Ndabamenye, T.; Six, J.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation agriculture is widely promoted for soil conservation and crop productivity increase, although rigorous empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa is still limited. This study aimed to quantify the medium-term impact of tillage (conventional and reduced) and crop residue management

  11. Two new wheels for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Juergen Zimmer (Max Planck Institute), Roy Langstaff (TRIUMF/Victoria) and Sergej Kakurin (JINR), in front of one of the completed wheels of the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. A decade of careful preparation and construction by groups in three continents is nearing completion with the assembly of two of the four 4 m diameter wheels required for the ATLAS Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter. The first two wheels have successfully passed all their mechanical and electrical tests, and have been rotated on schedule into the vertical position required in the experiment. 'This is an important milestone in the completion of the ATLAS End Cap Calorimetry' explains Chris Oram, who heads the Hadronic End Cap Calorimeter group. Like most experiments at particle colliders, ATLAS consists of several layers of detectors in the form of a 'barrel' and two 'end caps'. The Hadronic Calorimeter layer, which measures the energies of particles such as protons and pions, uses two techniques. The barrel part (Tile Calorimeter) cons...

  12. Analysis of power wheeling services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepel, R.C.; Jewell, W.; Johnson, R.; Maddigan, R.

    1986-11-01

    Purpose of this study is to examine existing wheeling arrangements to determine the terms of the agreements, to analyze the terms relative to regulatory goals, and finally, to suggest ways in which the arrangements can be modified to lead to outcomes more closely in line with the goals. The regulatory goals that are considered are: Does the arrangement meet the revenue requirement of the wheeling firm. Is efficient use promoted. Are the costs fairly apportioned. And, is the arrangement practical and feasible to implement.

  13. Optical wheel-rotation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeser, Lynn R.; Rodriguez, Patrick A.; Forman, Peter; Deeter, Merritt N.

    1994-09-01

    We describe a fiber-optic rotation sensor being developed for anti-lock braking systems. The basis of the sensor is the magneto-optic detection of the magnetic fields generated by a wheel of alternating magnetized magnets fixed to a wheel of the automobile. Highly sensitive iron garnet crystals serve as the magneto-optic sensing elements. For films with perpendicularly- magnetized domains, the domain structure produces diffraction which is magnetic-field dependent. Exploitation of this effect permits the construction of magneto-optic magnetic field sensors requiring no polarization elements or lenses.

  14. Propulsion Wheel Motor for an Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Farrell, Logan Christopher (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Winn, Ross Briant (Inventor); Eggleston, IV, Raymond Edward (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); hide

    2016-01-01

    A wheel assembly for an electric vehicle includes a wheel rim that is concentrically disposed about a central axis. A propulsion-braking module is disposed within an interior region of the wheel rim. The propulsion-braking module rotatably supports the wheel rim for rotation about the central axis. The propulsion-braking module includes a liquid cooled electric motor having a rotor rotatable about the central axis, and a stator disposed radially inside the rotor relative to the central axis. A motor-wheel interface hub is fixedly attached to the wheel rim, and is directly attached to the rotor for rotation with the rotor. The motor-wheel interface hub directly transmits torque from the electric motor to the wheel rim at a 1:1 ratio. The propulsion-braking module includes a drum brake system having an electric motor that rotates a cam device, which actuates the brake shoes.

  15. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheel disturbances are some of the largest sources of noise on sensitive telescopes. Such wheel-induced mechanical noises are not well characterized....

  16. Transmission access and retail wheeling. The key questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casazza, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The key questions involving transmission access and retail wheeling are discussed, distinguishing between opposing views regarding the effect on system costs and the environment, particularly on optimal planning involving matching capacity and demand, generation use, demand side management, and economic operations. Also discussed are contrasting views regarding the effect of cost control pressures, regulatory advantages and disadvantages, the impact on system reliability, and the stranding of investment. The author's key concern is the effect of retail wheeling upon optimal planning and operation i.e., will competitors be willing to provide one another with the cost and technical information required for coordination? In his worst scenario, retail wheeling may lead to substantial production cost increases, lessened reliability, and unfair cost-shifting between customer classes. More optimistically, production costs and reliability may be unaffected and the cost-shifting could be salubrious. 7 figs., 11 refs

  17. A conservative management of an extensive odontogenic residual cyst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindia, M L

    1991-02-01

    This article briefly reviews the clinical presentation and management of odontogenic cysts. A case is reported of an 18-year-old girl who, on 12-3-1986, presented for the first time at the Dental Department, University of Nairobi with a painful bony swelling in the chin area. The extensive swelling apparently arose long after the traditional removal of two mandibular incisors. After periodontal prophylaxis the cystic lesion was enucleated under a local anaesthetic and the cavity lining subjected to histopathological examination which revealed appearances consistent with those of an odontogenic residual cyst. Immediate wound care involved dressing the defect with zinc iodoform paste on ribbon gauze for 4 weeks when complete granulation and epithelialisation occurred. Subsequently the patient was instructed on homecare irrigation of the cavity without packing. Clinical and radiographic assessment showed progressively satisfactory healing of both the soft tissue and bone through a follow-up period of about two years. It is suggested that the cavity filling in process by periosteal and endosteal bone deposition may be faster where the defect is left without a pack or obturator following complete granulation and epithelialisation.

  18. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  19. The influence of clay-to-carbon ratio on soil physical properties in a humid sandy loam soil with contrasting tillage and residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Getahun, Gizachew Tarekegn; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Schjønning, Per

    2016-01-01

    Tillage and residue management influence soil organic carbon (SOC) and lead to changes in soil physical behav-iour and functioning. We examined the effect of the clay-to-carbon ratio on soil physical properties in a humid sandy loam soil with contrasting tillage and residue management. Soil was sa...

  20. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Residue retention and reduced tillage are both conservation agricultural management options that may enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in tropical soils. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term tillage and residue management on SOC dynamics in a Chromic Luvisol (red clay soil)

  1. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall be... operation. Wheel devices intended to operate in a fixed location shall be designed in such a manner that the...

  2. 49 CFR 229.73 - Wheel sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheel sets. 229.73 Section 229.73 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.73 Wheel sets. (a...) when applied or turned. (b) The maximum variation in the diameter between any two wheel sets in a three...

  3. The online Prescriptive Index platform for the assessment of managerial competencies and coaching needs: development and initial validation of the experience sampling Mood Wheel and the Manager-Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David, O.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prescriptive Index platform is dedicated to the appraisal and development of managerial competencies, and it is comprised of such measures as the multi-rater Freeman-Gavita Prescriptive Executive Coaching (PEC Assessment for assessing core managerial skills, and the multi-rater Managerial Coaching Assessment System (MCAS for the evaluation of coaching competencies in managers. The aim of this research was to present the development and psychometric properties of new tools, part of the Prescriptive Index platform, for the assessment of managerial emotional competencies: the web and mobile based Mood Wheel measure using experience sampling procedures, for the assessment of current/previous distress and positive emotions; and the self-report Manager Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale (M-RIBS for the assessment of managerial attitudes involved in emotion-regulation processes. Results obtained show that both instruments integrated in the Prescriptive Index platform have adequate initial psychometric support and predictive validity. Practical implications of our findings are discussed in the light of the importance of enabling organizations to accurately identify managerial competencies and coaching needs.

  4. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiel, MP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.

  5. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  6. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela; Sisani, Luciano; Damiano, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of wheel-rail contact conditions and adhesion using the multiple model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, I.; Mei, T. X.; Ritchings, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a multiple model estimation approach for the identification of the adhesion limit to overcome the problem of the wheel slip/slide at the rail wheel-rail contact. The contact characteristics at the rail wheel-rail interface are both highly nonlinear and subject to changes due to exposure to external contaminations. The detection of adhesion and its changes is therefore scientifically challenging, but would provide a critical information in the control of trains to avoid undesirable wear of the wheels/track but also the safety compromise of rail operations. This study exploits the variations in the dynamic behaviour of the railway wheelset caused by the contact condition changes and applies a bank of Kalman filters designed at selected operation points for the adhesion estimation. A fuzzy logic system is then developed to identify the contact conditions by examining the residuals from the Kalman filters.

  8. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  9. Sustainable waste management by production of activated carbon from agroforestry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ntuli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry waste presents a problem for disposal and negatively impacts on the environment if left to rot or burn. The aim of this study was to reduce environmental problems associated with agroforestry waste by promoting the innovative use of such waste in the production of activated carbons (ACs using a low-cost production technique, and ultimately delivering more affordable water and effluent treatment adsorbents. Four varieties of ACs from four different agroforestry materials – pine (Pinus contorta cones (PC, Abies (Abies cilicica seeds (AS, maple (Acer ginnala seeds (MS and peach (Prunus persica stones (PS – were prepared by single-step steam pyrolysis and characterised. The raw materials were evaluated for AC yield while the respective ACs were evaluated on the basis of iodine number, phenol specific area, ash content, pH, moisture content and removal of metal ions, nitrates and sulphates from aqueous solution. The AC yields for PS, PC, AS and MS were found to be 23.0%, 18.0%, 17.8% and 14.6%, respectively. The yield for PS (23% is within the specified commercial limits of 20% to 40%. The phenol specific areas of the ACs ranged between 381 m2/g and 415 m2/g higher than the commercial lower limit (300 m2/g generally specified. The ACs also showed the capacity to remove heavy metal ions from their aqueous solutions. Removal of both nitrates and sulphates in raw water was greater than 50%. Although no quantitative analysis has been performed to date, it is envisaged that the production of AC from agroforestry wastes can contribute to the sustainable management of environmental pollution by these residues and the concomitant delivery of cheaper adsorbents.

  10. A Regulator's Guide to Management of Radioactive Residuals from Drinking Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is intended for state regulators, technical assistance providers, and field staffto help states address radionuclide residual disposal by outlining options available to help systems address elevated radionuclide levels.

  11. Measurement of wheel rim wear on railway wheels using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kail, E.

    1979-01-01

    A radioisotopic measuring method developed for studying the wear process of wheel rims of railway vehicles is described. The wear process may be monitored by the measurement of activity of a thin galvanic layer deposited onto the rim and labelled by iron 59. The high sensitivity of the method allows the determination of the wear rate distribution even within a few days. The results of measurements on three different rim profiles are analysed. (R.J.)

  12. On fan-wheel and tree-wheel Ramsey numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Zhang, Yanbo; Broersma, Haitze J.; Chen, Yaojun

    2016-01-01

    For graphs G1 and G2, the Ramsey number R(G1,G2) is the smallest integer N such that, for any graph G of order N, G contains G1 as a subgraph or the complement of G contains G2 as a subgraph. Let Tn denote a tree of order n, Wn a wheel of order n+1 and Fn a fan of order 2n+1. We establish Ramsey

  13. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  14. Residual Limb Hyperhidrosis Managed by Botulinum Toxin Injections, Enhanced by the Iodine-Starch Test: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Colby R; Godfrey, Bradeigh

    2017-04-01

    Hyperhidrosis of the residual limb is a common condition affecting patients with amputations. The iodine-starch test is used by dermatologists to identify focal areas of hyperhidrosis before treatment with botulinum toxin. Here, we describe a case of a patient with a transtibial amputation with moderate-to-severe hyperhidrosis who received intradermal botulinum toxin injections to treat residual limb hyperhidrosis, with particular emphasis given to the utility of the iodine-starch test in managing this common condition. The iodine-starch test successfully identified hyperhidrotic areas before treatment as well as confirmed the physiologic anhidrotic effect of the botulinum toxin treatment. V. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of Biogas spent slurry for hastening the composting of agro residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Geeta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for energy and the fertilizers are ever increasing. Organic farming has many advantages looking to the environment pollution, unproductive soil, less yields etc. By installation of a biogas plant serves both the purposes of meeting the fuel as well as obtaining manures. The organic manures need to be added in bulk to meet the nutrient demands of the crop as it is not in concentrated form like chemical fertilizers. Hence, biogas spent slurry is the best alternate for hastening the compost preparation of abundantly available crop residues as well as obtaining enriched compost as conventional method takes long time. Moreover, slurry is composed of major nutrients besides enzymes and a rich microflora. Based on the preliminary results, the present study was conducted at farmer’s field to know whether slurry could be used for degradation of agro residues. One ton of crop residues that included banana waste, sunflower and maize waste, leaf litter of horticultural crops were inoculated individually with 60 L of spent slurry along with consortia of degrading fungi and P-solubilising bacteria. After a retention period of 60 days, nutrients were analysed. The cultures along with slurry indicated 1.5 - 1.96% N with reduction in C:N ratio between 1.6 - 1.82. The micronutrients also increased. Thus, it was concluded that efficient use of spent slurry can be made besides utilising the crop residues and the product for organic cultivation.

  16. Yield and water quality for different residue managements of sugarcane in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of the study was to provide information on implementation of a modified post-harvest crop residue sweeper on sugarcane yield and water quality. Field experiments were established at three different locations in south Louisiana: Paincourtville, Duson and Baton Rouge. In each location, lar...

  17. Aligning environmental and regulatory procedures with a holistic project management approach for residue deposits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, BJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available models for the development of a new residue deposit do not provide a holistic approach to integrate the requirements of the EIA legislation, mining regulations and others during the various project life cycle phases. The research subsequently set out...

  18. Omni rotational driving and steering wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    and steering wheel part (108), where the omni rotational part (106) is provided for infinite rotation relative to the flange part (104) by both a drive motor (110) and a steering motor (114) being positionable on the flange part (104), and the driving and steering wheel part (108) is suspended from the upper...... omni rotational part (105) with a suspension (116) such that wheel part (108) can move relatively to the upper omni rotational part (105) in a suspension direction (118), and a reduction gear (120) for gearing the drive torque is provided in the wheel part (108) in order e.g. to assure traction...

  19. Origami Wheel Transformer: A Variable-Diameter Wheel Drive Robot Using an Origami Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Sa-Reum; Kim, Ji-Suk; Park, Jae-Jun; Cho, Kyu-Jin

    2017-06-01

    A wheel drive mechanism is simple, stable, and efficient, but its mobility in unstructured terrain is seriously limited. Using a deformable wheel is one of the ways to increase the mobility of a wheel drive robot. By changing the radius of its wheels, the robot becomes able to pass over not only high steps but also narrow gaps. In this article, we propose a novel design for a variable-diameter wheel using an origami-based soft robotics design approach. By simply folding a patterned sheet into a wheel shape, a variable-diameter wheel was built without requiring lots of mechanical parts and a complex assembly process. The wheel's diameter can change from 30 to 68 mm, and it is light in weight at about 9.7 g. Although composed of soft materials (fabrics and films), the wheel can bear more than 400 times its weight. The robot was able to change the wheel's radius in response to terrain conditions, allowing it to pass over a 50-mm gap when the wheel is shrunk and a 50-mm step when the wheel is enlarged.

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions and controls as influenced by tillage and crop residue management strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutegi, James; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2010-01-01

      Mixed responses of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes to reduced tillage/no-till are widely reported across soil types and regions. In a field experiment on a Danish sandy loam soil we compared N2O emissions during winter barley growth following five years of direct drilling (DD), reduced tillage...... (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Each of these tillage treatments further varied in respect to whether the resulting plot crop residues were retained (+Res) or removed (-Res). Sampling took place from autumn 2007 to the end of spring 2008. Overall N2O emissions were 27 and 26% lower in DD and RT......, respectively, relative to N2O emissions from CT plots (P tillage treatments, but in residue retention scenarios N2O emissions were significantly higher in CT than in either DD or RT (P 

  1. Reaction Wheel with Embedded MEMS IMU, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is to embed a MEMS IMU Sensor Chip into a reaction wheel to measure its spin rate as well as wheel attitude rate. We propose to use a reaction wheel...

  2. Contribution to the sustainable management of resources by novel combination of industrial solid residues into red ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayannis, V; Spiliotis, X; Papastergiadis, E; Ntampegliotis, K; Papapolymerou, G; Samaras, P

    2015-03-01

    Limited amounts of industrial residues are recycled while the remaining huge quantities are stockpiled or disposed of, thus frequently leading to soil contamination. The utilization of industrial residues as valuable secondary resources into ceramics can contribute to efficient waste management and substitution for massive amounts of natural resources (clayey minerals) demanded for ceramic production. The low cost of these residues and even possible energy savings during mixture firing may also be beneficial. In the present study, the innovative combination of lignite fly ash with steel-making dust into clay-based red ceramics is undertaken, to contribute both to sustainable use of resources and prevention of soil contamination. Brick specimens were shaped by extrusion and fired, their microstructure was examined and the effect of the mixture composition and firing temperature on physico-mechanical properties was determined. Ceramic microstructures were successfully obtained by a suitable combination of fly ash with steel dust (5 + 5 wt%) into clays. Properties can be predicted and tailored to meet the needs for specific applications by appropriately adjusting the mixture composition and sintering temperature.

  3. Evaluation of Tillage, Residue Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on CO2 Emission in Maize (Zea Mays L. Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholla Moradi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs will continue to increase and cause climatic change (16. These conditions are also true for Iran. The three greenhouse gases associated with agriculture are carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. The three GHGs associated with agriculture CO2, CH4, and N2O differ in their effectiveness in trapping heat and in their turnover rates in the atmosphere. This environmental change will have serious impacts on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photoassimilates. Farmers are not able to change or manage the climatic conditions, but some factors such as soil, water, seed and agricultural practices can be managed to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change (32. Mitigation and adaptation are two known ways for reducing the negative impacts of climate change. Mitigation strategies are associated with decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions through management practices such as reducing chemical fertilizer application, mechanization, increasing carbon storage in agroecosystems, planting biofuel crops and moving towards organic farming (42, etc. Material and Methods: This study was carried out at the experimental field of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011 and was repeated in 2012. The Research Station (36°16´N, 59°36´E is located at about 985 m a.s.l. Average temperature and precipitation rate of the research station in two years are shown in Figure. 1. The three-factor experiment was set up in a strip-split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments were tillage systems (conventional and reduced tillage and residual management (remaining and leaving of maize residual assigned to main plots

  4. Adaptive nitrogen and integrated weed management in conservation agriculture: impacts on agronomic productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and herbicide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeogbe, Anthony Imoudu; Das, T K; Bhatia, Arti; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2017-04-01

    Increasing nitrogen (N) immobilization and weed interference in the early phase of implementation of conservation agriculture (CA) affects crop yields. Yet, higher fertilizer and herbicide use to improve productivity influences greenhouse gase emissions and herbicide residues. These tradeoffs precipitated a need for adaptive N and integrated weed management in CA-based maize (Zea mays L.)-wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend Fiori & Paol] cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) to optimize N availability and reduce weed proliferation. Adaptive N fertilization was based on soil test value and normalized difference vegetation index measurement (NDVM) by GreenSeeker™ technology, while integrated weed management included brown manuring (Sesbania aculeata L. co-culture, killed at 25 days after sowing), herbicide mixture, and weedy check (control, i.e., without weed management). Results indicated that the 'best-adaptive N rate' (i.e., 50% basal + 25% broadcast at 25 days after sowing + supplementary N guided by NDVM) increased maize and wheat grain yields by 20 and 14% (averaged for 2 years), respectively, compared with whole recommended N applied at sowing. Weed management by brown manuring (during maize) and herbicide mixture (during wheat) resulted in 10 and 21% higher grain yields (averaged for 2 years), respectively, over the weedy check. The NDVM in-season N fertilization and brown manuring affected N 2 O and CO 2 emissions, but resulted in improved carbon storage efficiency, while herbicide residuals in soil were significantly lower in the maize season than in wheat cropping. This study concludes that adaptive N and integrated weed management enhance synergy between agronomic productivity, fertilizer and herbicide efficiency, and greenhouse gas mitigation.

  5. A Gigantic Molecular Wheel of {Gd140}: A New Member of the Molecular Wheel Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiu-Ying; Jiang, You-Hong; Zhuang, Gui-Lin; Liu, Da-Peng; Liao, Hong-Gang; Kong, Xiang-Jian; Long, La-Sheng; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2017-12-20

    Nanoscale inorganic wheel-shaped structures are one of the most striking types of molecular aggregations. Here, we report the synthesis of a gigantic lanthanide wheel cluster containing 140 Gd 3+ atoms. As the largest lanthanide cluster reported thus far, {Gd 140 } features an attractive wheel-like structure with 10-fold symmetry. The nanoscopic molecular wheel possesses the largest diameter of 6.0 nm and displays high stability in solution, which allows direct visualization by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The newly discovered lanthanide {Gd 140 } cluster represents a new member of the molecular wheel family.

  6. Pest Prevalence and Evaluation of Community-Wide Integrated Pest Management for Reducing Cockroach Infestations and Indoor Insecticide Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Buckley, Brian; Yang, Ill; Wang, Desen; Eiden, Amanda L; Cooper, Richard

    2018-01-18

    Pest infestations in residential buildings are common, but community-wide pest survey data are lacking. Frequent insecticide applications for controlling indoor pests leave insecticide residues and pose potential health risks to residents. In this study, a community-wide pest survey was carried out in a housing complex consisting of 258 units in 40 buildings in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It was immediately followed by implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in all the cockroach-infested apartments and two bed bug apartments with the goal of eliminating pest infestations, reducing pyrethroid residues, and increasing resident satisfaction with pest control services. The IPM-treated apartments were revisited and treated biweekly or monthly for 7 mo. Initial inspection found the top three pests and their infestation rates to be as follows: German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L. [Blattodea: Blattellidae]), 28%; rodents, 11%; and bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. [Hemiptera: Cimicidae]), 8%. Floor wipe samples were collected in the kitchens and bedrooms of 20 apartments for pyrethroid residue analysis before the IPM implementation; 17 of the 20 apartments were resampled again at 7 mo. The IPM program reduced cockroach counts per apartment by 88% at 7 wk after initial treatment. At 7 mo, 85% of the cockroach infestations found in the initial survey were eliminated. The average number of pyrethroids detected decreased significantly from 6 ± 1 (mean ± SEM) and 5 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 in the kitchens and bedrooms, respectively. The average concentrations of targeted pyrethroids residue also decreased significantly in the kitchens and bedrooms. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Effect of the Quenching Method on the Deformations Size of Gear Wheels after Vacuum Carburizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybowski K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of the deformations and residual stresses in gear wheels after vacuum carburizing process with quenching in high-pressure nitrogen and oil. The comparison was made on a medium-sized gear wheels, made of AMS6265 (AISI 9310 steel. This steel is applied in the aerospace industry for gears. The study has provided grounds for an assessment of the effect of the method of quenching on the size of deformations. Compared to oil quenching, high-pressure gas quenching following vacuum carburizing resulted in more uniform and smaller deformations.

  8. REINVENTING THE WHEEL: Comparison of Two Wheel Cage Styles for Assessing Mouse Voluntary Running Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Tanya; Harfmann, Brianna D; Esser, Karyn A; Schroder, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-21

    Voluntary wheel cage assessment of mouse activity is commonly employed in exercise and behavioral research. Currently, no standardization for wheel cages exists resulting in an inability to compare results among data from different labs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the distance run or average speed data differs depending on the use of two commonly used commercially available wheel cage systems. Two different wheel cages with structurally similar but functionally different wheels (electromechanical switch vs magnetic switch) were compared side-by-side to measure wheel running data differences. Other variables, including enrichment and cage location, were also tested to assess potential impacts on the running wheel data. We found that cages with the electromechanical switch had greater inherent wheel resistance and consistently led to higher greater running distance/day and higher average running speed. Mice rapidly, within 1-2 days, adapted their running behavior to the type of experimental switch used suggesting these running differences are more behavioral than due to intrinsic musculoskeletal, cardiovascular or metabolic limits. The presence of enrichment or location of the cage had no detectable impact on voluntary wheel running. These results demonstrate that mice run differing amounts depending on the type of cage and switch mechanism used and thus, investigators need to report wheel cage type/ wheel resistance and use caution when interpreting distance/speed run across studies.

  9. Riding the Ferris Wheel: A Sinusoidal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, Kathleen Cage; Taylor, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    When thinking of models for sinusoidal waves, examples such as tides of the ocean, daily temperatures for one year in your town, light and sound waves, and certain types of motion are used. Many textbooks [1, p. 222] also present a "Ferris wheel description problem" for students to work. This activity takes the Ferris wheel problem out of the…

  10. Dynamic and Acoustic Characterisation of Automotive Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Curà

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the dynamic and acoustic characterisation of an automotive wheel. In particular, an experimental research activity previously performed by the authors about the dynamic behaviour of automotive wheels has been extended to the acoustic field.

  11. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meals About Meals on Wheels Get Started The Issue The Problem & Our Solution Meals on Wheels Health Facts & Resources Senior Facts Map State Fact Sheets Research More Than a Meal Pilot Research Study Medicare Claims Analyses Policy Myths Hunger in Older Adults Take Action Volunteer Advocate #SAVELUNCH ...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6910 - Wheeled stretcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheeled stretcher. 880.6910 Section 880.6910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... platform mounted on a wheeled frame that is designed to transport patients in a horizontal position. The...

  13. Automobile wheel clearance estimation using magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, A.; Lacoume, J.-L.; Blanpain, R.; Dauvé, S.; Serviere, C.

    2012-01-01

    With development and miniaturization of magnetic sensors for several years, it is now possible to imagine new applications using magnetic measures for monitoring and diagnostics. In this article this new way of research and development is presented with a concrete example concerning monitoring of wheels in an automobile. Our approach consists in using the low magnetic field created by the metallic elements of the wheel in order to localize them with low-cost high-sensitivity miniature magnetic sensors. The measures are made via a sensor network set up on a vehicle around the wheel. Then we use a physical model of the wheel in order to interpret the signals we get from the sensors. This method shows the interest of the magnetic measurement for monitoring in automobile. In this paper we present the magnetic signal created by a wheel, the mechanical model of the wheel and we present how we use them for an application: the real-time estimation of the distance between wheels and chassis (wheel clearance).

  14. 14 CFR 25.731 - Wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheels. 25.731 Section 25.731 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 25.731 Wheels. (a) Each main...

  15. The Management of Social Phobia Ýn Residual-Type Schizophrenia with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Þimþek Kaygusuz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Having negative symptoms is the basic feature of residual-type schizophrenia and there is a direct proportion between the neurocognitive impairments associated with negative symptoms. Among the approaches used for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, cognitive behaviour therapy is the one with the most evidence of efficacy. Cognitive behaviour therapy is considered to be beneficial for the residual symptoms after drug treatment. The social phobia leads among the anxiety disorders accompanying schizophrenia. According to the cognitive model, the impairment of social performance increases the severity of social phobia. The leading factor of this vicious circle is that the patients pay attention selectively to such cases in order to find evidence for their thoughts and beliefs that they are going to be evaluated negatively. In this paper, the cognitive behavioural therapy and formulation carried out with a patient, who has been followed for a long time with the diagnosis of residual-type schizophrenia and social phobia is reported. The purpose of the treatment is to interfere with the impaired functionality of the patient through cognitive and behavioural techniques by dealing with the medical treatment-resistant symptoms. To this end, firstly coping mechanisms are examined through the identification of avoidance and security providers, and then, the patient’s automatic thoughts and false beliefs are discussed depending on the cognitive perspective. The main part of the treatment has been completed by carrying out various investigations in order to increase the patients’ social performance via applying behavioural techniques. As a result, false beliefs are the indicators of the relationship between cognitive inability and negative symptoms and related to social functioning. By addressing these beliefs through cognitive behavioural therapy, the necessity of increasing the patient’s social activities and the relationship between social

  16. Development of the FASTER Wheeled Bevameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L.; Eder, V.; Hoheneder, W.; Imhof, B.; Lewinger, W.; Ransom, S.; Saaj, C.; Weclewski, P.; Waclavicek, R.,

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) within the FASTER project (Forward Acquisition of Soil and Terrain Data for Exploration Rovers), funded by the European Union's FP7 programme. In FASTER, novel and innovative concepts for in situ forward sensing of soil properties and terrain conditions in the planned path of a planetary rover are developed. Terrain strength measurements for assessment of the mobility of crosscountry vehicles have decades of heritage on Earth, but typically trafficability of terrains is only gauged by human operators ahead of vehicle operations rather than in-line by probes deployed from the vehicle itself, as is intended for FASTER. For FASTER, a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) has been selected as the terrain sensing instrument for the vehicle. Wheeled Bevameters are suitable for terrain measurements while driving but traditionally have mostly been employed on terrestrial vehicles to evaluate particular wheel designs. The WB as conceived in FASTER uses a dedicated, passive-rolling test wheel (‚test wheel') placed on the terrain as the loading device to enable to determine bearing strength, compressive strength and shear strength of the terrain immediately ahead of the vehicle, as well as rover-terrain interaction parameters used in semi-empirical vehicle-terrain traction models. The WB includes a placement mechanism for the test wheel. The test wheel would remain lowered onto the ground during nominal rover motion, including when climbing and descending slopes. During normal operations, the placement mechanism assumes the function of a passive suspension of the wheel, allowing it to follow the terrain contour. Quantities measured with the WB are: test wheel sinkage (through a laser sensor), test wheel vertical load, test wheel horizontal reaction force, and test wheel rotation rate. Measurements are performed while the rover is in motion. Measured test wheel rotation rate (with appropriate corrections for slight skid) can

  17. Statistical modeling to management and treatment of scrap with low and very low residual activity; Hacia la modelizacion estadistica de la gestion y tratamiento de chatarras con baja y muy bajo actividad residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Bermejo Fernandez, R.; Anaya Lazaro, M.

    2011-07-01

    The experience of recent years on the management of scrap metal containing residual activity have allowed the development of a simple statistical model for the management of these materials. This statistical model includes a breakdown of the various processing operations to which these materials undergo and the effects in the process of radiological controls associated to the control of declassification that defines disposal (recycled by smelting, reclamation, temporary storage the plant or sent to final storage of radioactive waste).

  18. Biaxial wheel/hub test facility. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Grubisic, V. [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The 4{sup th} meeting aims to exchange the experience and knowledge of engineers during several presentations and discussions about new developments required for a reliable, time and cost reducing validation of the wheel/hub assembly. Tremendous development of the wheel performance, described by the ratio of the rated load (kg) versus the wheel weight (kg) had taken place during the last 5000 years. Starting from the ratio of 3 for wooden 2-piece-disc-wheels in Mesopotamia it needed nearly 1000 years to increase the ratio to approx 5 at light-weight spoke wheels for fighting carriages, found in the grave of king Tutenchamon in Egypt. Modern light alloy wheels of commercial vehicles reach values up to 160 kg/kg. Additionally the comlex design of the modern systems for cars and commercial vehicles comprising wheel, brake, hub, bearing, spindle and hub carrier, including different materials and their treatment, fasteners, press-fits, require an appropriate testing procedure. The variable loading conditions, caused by operational wheel forces, brake and torque moments including heating, may result in changing tolerances and press-fits during operation and consequently in different damage mechanisms. This can be simulated in the Biaxial Wheel Test Machine, whereby corresponding load programs are necessary. An overview about all biaxial test machines in usage at the end of 1999 is shown in the introduction. The total number is 17 for cars, 7 for commercial vehicles and 1 for trains. The six presentations of this meeting were consequently concentrated on: (a) recommendations for a standardization of load programs of the German Wheel Committee, (b) the simulation of brake and torque events and (c) the possibility for a numerical stress analyses and fatigue life assessment. (orig./AKF)

  19. How to reduce injuries to residual trees during stand management activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Gregory M. Filip

    1983-01-01

    Losses of trees and tree volume that result from decay initiated by mechanical injuries during stand management activities in the western United States are substantial. They can be reduced through improved logging methods and careful planning of other forest management activities.

  20. Management of residual pleural space and air leaks after major pulmonary resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korasidis, Stylianos; Andreetti, Claudio; D'Andrilli, Antonio; Ibrahim, Mohsen; Ciccone, Annamaria; Poggi, Camilla; Siciliani, Alessandra; Rendina, Erino A

    2010-06-01

    Postoperative air leaks associated with residual pleural space is a well known complication contributing to prolong hospitalization. Many techniques have been proposed for the treatment of this complication. Between 1999 and 2009, 39 patients with air leaks associated with residual pleural space (>3 cm at chest X-ray) persisting over three days after major lung resection were enrolled in this study. All patients were treated with combined pneumoperitoneum and autologus blood patch. Pneumoperitoneum is obtained by the injection of 30 ml/kg of air under the diaphragm, using a Verres needle through the periumbilical area. The blood patch is obtained by instillating 100 ml of autologus blood through the chest tubes. No patients experienced complications related to the procedure. Obliteration of pleural space was obtained in all the patients at a maximum of 96 h postoperatively. Air leaks stopped in all the cases at a maximum of 144 h from surgery. Chest tube was removed 24 h after the air leakage disappearance. Our 10-year experience supports the early, combined use of pneumoperitoneum and blood patch whenever pleural space and air leaks present after major pulmonary resection. This approach may be recommended because of its easiness, safety, effectiveness, and the low costs.

  1. Beyond statin therapy: a review of the management of residual risk in diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2010-09-01

    Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol exhibit an independent, strong, continuous correlation with cardiovascular events. The effectiveness of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis is well-established. However, despite the lowering of LDL targets and the increased use of statins, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) continue to experience a higher proportion of adverse coronary artery disease events. This is as a result of an atherogenic dyslipidaemia, characterized by low levels of high-density lipoprotein and elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations, often with high levels of cholesterol-rich remnant particles. This article will review dyslipidaemia and its role in DM, and will discuss available treatment modalities that address residual cardiovascular risk in this disease.

  2. The response of a high-speed train wheel to a harmonic wheel-rail force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yuxia; Zhou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The maximum speed of China's high-speed trains currently is 300km/h and expected to increase to 350-400km/h. As a wheel travels along the rail at such a high speed, it is subject to a force rotating at the same speed along its periphery. This fast moving force contains not only the axle load component, but also many components of high frequencies generated from wheel-rail interactions. Rotation of the wheel also introduces centrifugal and gyroscopic effects. How the wheel responds is fundamental to many issues, including wheel-rail contact, traction, wear and noise. In this paper, by making use of its axial symmetry, a special finite element scheme is developed for responses of a train wheel subject to a vertical and harmonic wheel-rail force. This FE scheme only requires a 2D mesh over a cross-section containing the wheel axis but includes all the effects induced by wheel rotation. Nodal displacements, as a periodic function of the cross-section angle 6, can be decomposed, using Fourier series, into a number of components at different circumferential orders. The derived FE equation is solved for each circumferential order. The sum of responses at all circumferential orders gives the actual response of the wheel. (paper)

  3. Influence of polygonal wear of railway wheels on the wheel set axle stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingwen; Chi, Maoru; Wu, Pingbo

    2015-11-01

    The coupled vehicle/track dynamic model with the flexible wheel set was developed to investigate the effects of polygonal wear on the dynamic stresses of the wheel set axle. In the model, the railway vehicle was modelled by the rigid multibody dynamics. The wheel set was established by the finite element method to analyse the high-frequency oscillation and dynamic stress of wheel set axle induced by the polygonal wear based on the modal stress recovery method. The slab track model was taken into account in which the rail was described by the Timoshenko beam and the three-dimensional solid finite element was employed to establish the concrete slab. Furthermore, the modal superposition method was adopted to calculate the dynamic response of the track. The wheel/rail normal forces and the tangent forces were, respectively, determined by the Hertz nonlinear contact theory and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins model. Using the coupled vehicle/track dynamic model, the dynamic stresses of wheel set axle with consideration of the ideal polygonal wear and measured polygonal wear were investigated. The results show that the amplitude of wheel/rail normal forces and the dynamic stress of wheel set axle increase as the vehicle speeds rise. Moreover, the impact loads induced by the polygonal wear could excite the resonance of wheel set axle. In the resonance region, the amplitude of the dynamic stress for the wheel set axle would increase considerably comparing with the normal conditions.

  4. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  5. Residual stress measurement at Budapest Neutron Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyula, T.

    2005-01-01

    The use of residual stress measurements of different construction element and recent possibilities of Budapest Neutron Centre are presented. The details investigated already: gas turbine wheel, axial compressor blade, turbine blade and plastically deformed stainless steel. We demonstrated the use of a neutron scattering (SANS, residual stress, diffraction) for the materials behavior investigation in order to analyze the processes going on under the different mechanical loading. The direction of possible instrumental development is presented. (author)

  6. Management of spent fuel from research and prototype power reactors and residues from post-irradiation examination of fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The safe and economic management of spent fuel is important for all countries which have nuclear research or power reactors. It involves all aspects of the handling, transportation, storage, conditioning and reprocessing or final disposal of the spent fuel. In the case of spent fuel management from power reactors the shortage of available reprocessing capacity and the rising economic interest in the direct disposal of spent fuel have led to an increasing interest in the long term storage and management of spent fuel. The IAEA has played a major role in coordinating the national activities of the Member States in this area. It was against this background that the Technical Committee Meeting on ''Safe Management of Spent Fuel From Research Reactors, Prototype Power Reactors and Fuel From Commercial Power Reactors That Has Been Subjected to PIE (Post Irradiated Examination)'' (28th November - 1st December 1988) was organised. The aims of the current meeting have been to: 1. Review the state-of-the-art in the field of management of spent fuel from research and prototype power reactors, as well as the residues from post irradiation examination of commercial power reactor fuel. The emphasis was to be on the safe handling, conditioning, transportation, storage and/or disposal of the spent fuel during operation and final decommissioning of the reactors. Information was sought on design details, including shielding, criticality and radionuclide release prevention, heat removal, automation and remote control, planning and staff training; licensing and operational practices during each of the phases of spent fuel management. 2. Identify areas where additional research and development are needed. 3. Recommend areas for future international cooperation in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Waste management from reprocessing: a stringent regulatory requirements for high quality conditioned residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, J. C.; Greneche, D.; Devezeaux, J. G.; Dalcorso, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear waste production and management in France is governed by safety requirements imposed to all operators. French nuclear safety relies on two basic principles: · Responsibility of the nuclear operator, which expands to waste generated, · Safety basic objectives issued by national Safety Authority. For a long time the regulatory framework for waste production and management has been satisfactorily applied and has benefited to each actor of the process. LLW/MLW and HLW nuclear waste are currently conditioned in safe matrices or packages either likely to be disposed in surface repositories or designed with the intention to be disposed underground according to their radioactive content. France is looking into the case of VLLW and has already carried out a design for future disposal, the design being in the pipe. Other types of waste (i. e. radium bearing waste, graphite, and tritium content waste) are also considered in the whole framework of French waste management. (author)

  8. Anesthetic management during Cesarean section in a woman with residual Arnold–Chiari malformation Type I, cervical kyphosis, and syringomyelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Candido, Kenneth D.; Sauer, Ruben; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Type I Arnold–Chiari malformation (ACM) has an adult onset and consists of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and the medulla through the foramen magnum. There is paucity of literature on the anesthetic management during pregnancy of residual ACM Type I, with cervical xyphosis and persistent syringomyelia. Case Description: A 34-year-old woman with surgically corrected ACM Type I presented for Cesarean delivery. A recent MRI demonstrated worsening of cervical xyphosis after several laminectomies and residual syringomyelia besides syringopleural shunt. Awake fiberoptic intubation was performed under generous topical anesthesia to minimize head and neck movement during endotracheal intubation. We used a multimodal general anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. The neck was maintained in a neutral position. Following delivery, the patient completely recovered in post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), with no headache and no exacerbation or worsening of neurological function. Conclusions: The present case demonstrates that patients with partially corrected ACM, syringomyelia, cervical kyphosis, and difficult intubation undergoing Cesarean delivery require an interdisciplinary team approach, diligent preparation, and skilled physicians. PMID:22439117

  9. Anesthetic management during Cesarean section in a woman with residual Arnold-Chiari malformation Type I, cervical kyphosis, and syringomyelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Ramsis F; Candido, Kenneth D; Sauer, Ruben; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2012-01-01

    Type I Arnold-Chiari malformation (ACM) has an adult onset and consists of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and the medulla through the foramen magnum. There is paucity of literature on the anesthetic management during pregnancy of residual ACM Type I, with cervical xyphosis and persistent syringomyelia. A 34-year-old woman with surgically corrected ACM Type I presented for Cesarean delivery. A recent MRI demonstrated worsening of cervical xyphosis after several laminectomies and residual syringomyelia besides syringopleural shunt. Awake fiberoptic intubation was performed under generous topical anesthesia to minimize head and neck movement during endotracheal intubation. We used a multimodal general anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. The neck was maintained in a neutral position. Following delivery, the patient completely recovered in post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), with no headache and no exacerbation or worsening of neurological function. The present case demonstrates that patients with partially corrected ACM, syringomyelia, cervical kyphosis, and difficult intubation undergoing Cesarean delivery require an interdisciplinary team approach, diligent preparation, and skilled physicians.

  10. Long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The statement assesses and compares several alternatives for long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), Lewiston, New York. The alternatives include: (1) no action (continued interim storage at NFSS within a diked and capped containment area), (2) long-term management at NFSS (improved containment, with or without modified form of the residues), (3) long-term management at other DOE sites (Hanford, Washington, or Oak Ridge, Tennessee), and (4) offsite management of the residues at Hanford or Oak Ridge and either leaving the wastes at NFSS or removing them for disposal in the ocean. In addition to alternatives analyzed in depth, several options are also considered, including: other modifications of residue form, modification of the basic conceptual designs, other containment design options, transportation routes, and transportation modes. The radiological health effects (primarily increased risk of cancer) associated with long-term management of the wastes and residues are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. During the action period, the risk is highest for workers if all wastes and residues are moved to Hanford. The risk is highest for the general public if the residues are moved to Hanford and the wastes are moved to the ocean. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant impacts on the ocean environment or pose any significant radiological risk to humans. For all alternatives, if controls ceased, there would be eventual dispersion of the radioactive materials to the environment. If it is assumed that all controls cease, predicted time for loss of covers over the buried materials ranges from several hundred years to more than two million years, depending on the use of the land surface

  11. Photo series for quantifying forest residues in managed lands of the Medicine Bow National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Popp; John E. Lundquist

    2006-01-01

    This photo series presents a visual representation of a range of fuel loading conditions specifically found on the Medicine Bow National Forest. The photos are grouped by forest type and past management practices. This field guide describes the distribution of different types of woody fuels and includes some vegetation data.

  12. Risk management considerations for seismic upgrading of an older facility for short-term residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additon, S.L.; Peregoy, W.L.; Foppe, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Building 707 and its addition, Building 707A, were selected, after the production mission of Rocky Flats was terminated a few years ago, to stabilize many of the plutonium residues remaining at the site by 2002. The facility had undergone substantial safety improvements to its safety systems and conduct of operations for resumption of plutonium operations in the early 1990s and appeared ideally suited for this new mission to support accelerated Site closure. During development of a new authorization basis, a seismic evaluation was performed. This evaluation addressed an unanalyzed expansion joint and suspect connection details for the precast concrete tilt-up construction and concluded that the seismic capacity of the facility is less than half of that determined by previous analysis. Further, potential seismic interaction was identified between a collapsing Building 707 and the seismically upgraded Building 707A, possibly causing the partial collapse of the latter. Both the operating contractor and the Department of Energy sought a sound technical basis for deciding how to proceed. This paper addresses the risks of the as-is facility and possible benefits of upgrades to support a decision on whether to upgrade the seismic capacity of Building 707, accept the risk of the as-is facility for its short remaining mission, or relocate critical stabilization missions. The paper also addresses the Department of Energy's policy on natural phenomena

  13. The reverse logistics importance in the management of residues of plastic packaging of lubricants and the program jogue limpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Francisco da Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate the importance of the Reverse Logistics in the management of solid residues through the Jogue Limpo program, an initiative dedicated to the destination and recycling of lubricant packaging. In the current context, where natural resources are scarce, the environmental issue is a factor of differentiation in business, so the destination of the waste we produce along the production chain and the possibility of reuse and mitigation of possible environmental impacts are extremely important for the society. The article seeks to show how the Reverse Logistics is the means to interconnect stakeholders for the correct destination and reuse of resources, as well as the benefits of this initiative for the society.

  14. Impact and modal analysis for different alloy wheel compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shwetabh; Abhimanyu Abrol, J.; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    Wheels are an important component in the vehicle. The strength of the Alloy wheel rim is an important property of the Alloy wheel, which plays an important part in determining the overall performance of the vehicle, the structural integrity of the rim and the life of the Alloy wheel rim. With the advent of new Alloy wheel materials, new options are available to replace the conventional Aluminium Alloy wheels with new ones. The new Alloy wheel rim material and design need to be tested virtually for optimizing the appropriate design and material and the optimised wheel in virtual mode can be tested experimentally for the performance in real-time conditions before they can be used in the vehicles. The work in this project includes doing the impact and modal analysis for different alloy wheel compositions. From the results obtained, the optimum alloy wheel is suggested, which can be considered with further experimental validation.

  15. The influence of wheel/rail contact conditions on the microstructure and hardness of railway wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux-Berry, Paul; Davis, Claire; Bevan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an "in-service" wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing). The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets.

  16. The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Claire

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an “in-service” wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing). The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets. PMID:24526883

  17. The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Molyneux-Berry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an “in-service” wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing. The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets.

  18. Characterization of hazardous waste residuals from Environmental Restoration Program activities at DOE installations: Waste management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Esposito, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigators at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with support from associates at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), have assembled an inventory of the types and volumes of radioactive, toxic or hazardous, and mixed waste likely to be generated over the next 30 years as the US Department of Energy (DOE) implements its nationwide Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The inventory and related analyses are being considered for integration into DOE's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) covering the potential environmental impacts and risks associated with alternative management practices and programs for wastes generated from routine operations. If this happens, the ER-generated waste could be managed under a set of alternatives considered under the PEIS and selected at the end of the current National Environmental Policy Act process

  19. Assessment of alternatives for long-term management of uranium ore residues and contaminated soils located at DOE's Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    About 11,000 m 3 of uranium ore residues and 180,000 m 3 of slightly contaminated soils (wastes) are consolidated within a diked containment area at the Niagara Falls Storage Site located about 30 km north of Buffalo, New York. The residues account for less than 6% of the total volume of contaminated materials but almost 99% of the radioactivity. The average radium-226 concentration in the residues is 67,000 pCi/g. The US Department of Energy is considering several alternatives for long-term management of the wastes and residues, including: improvement of the containment at NFSS, modification of the form of the residues, management of the residues separately from the wastes, management of the wastes and residues at another humid site (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) or an arid site (Hanford, Washington), and dispersal of the wastes in the ocean. Potential radiological risks associated with implementation of any of the alternatives are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant radiological risk to humans. The residues and wastes will remain hazardous for thousands of years. After controls cease, the radioactive materials will eventually be dispersed in the environment. Loss of the earthen covers over the buried materials is predicted to occur from several hundred to more than two million years, depending primarily on the use of the land surface. Groundwater will eventually be contaminated in all alternatives; however, the groundwater pathway is relatively insignificant with respect to radiological risks to the general population. 2 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  20. Effects of tropical ecosystem engineers on soil quality and crop performance under different tillage and residue management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulleman, Mirjam; Paul, Birthe; Fredrick, Ayuke; Hoogmoed, Marianne; Hurisso, Tunsisa; Ndabamenye, Telesphore; Saidou, Koala; Terano, Yusuke; Six, Johan; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Feeding a future global population of 9 billion will require a 70-100% increase in food production, resulting in unprecedented challenges for agriculture and natural resources, especially in Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural practices that contribute to sustainable intensification build on beneficial biological interactions and ecosystem services. Termites are the dominant soil ecosystem engineers in arid to sub-humid tropical agro-ecosystems. Various studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of termites for rehabilitation of degraded and crusted soils and plant growth in semi-arid and arid natural ecosystems. However, the contribution of termites to agricultural productivity has hardly been experimentally investigated, and their role in Conservation Agriculture (CA) systems remains especially unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the effects of termites and ants on soil physical quality and crop productivity under different tillage and residue management systems in the medium term. A randomized block trial was set up in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003. Treatments included a factorial combination of residue retention and removal (+R/-R) and conventional and reduced tillage (+T/-T) under a maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glyxine max. L.) rotation. A macrofauna exclusion experiment was superimposed in 2005 as a split-plot factor (exclusion +ins; inclusion -ins) by regular applications of pesticides (Dursban and Endosulfan) in half of the plots. Macrofauna abundance and diversity, soil aggregate fractions, soil carbon contents and crop yields were measured between 2005 and 2012 at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Termites were the most important macrofauna species, constituting between 48-63% of all soil biota, while ants were 13-34%, whereas earthworms were present in very low numbers. Insecticide application was effective in reducing termites (85-56% exclusion efficacy) and earthworms (87%), and less so ants (49-81%) at 0-15 cm soil depth

  1. Electrostatic Spectrometer for Mars Rover Wheel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a simple electrostatic spectrometer that can be mounted on the wheels of a Mars rover to continuously and unobtrusively determine the mineral composition and...

  2. UT Biomedical Informatics Lab (BMIL) Probability Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Cheng; Lee, Sara; Wang, Allen; Cantor, Scott B; Sun, Clement; Fan, Kaili; Reece, Gregory P; Kim, Min Soon; Markey, Mia K

    2016-01-01

    A probability wheel app is intended to facilitate communication between two people, an "investigator" and a "participant," about uncertainties inherent in decision-making. Traditionally, a probability wheel is a mechanical prop with two colored slices. A user adjusts the sizes of the slices to indicate the relative value of the probabilities assigned to them. A probability wheel can improve the adjustment process and attenuate the effect of anchoring bias when it is used to estimate or communicate probabilities of outcomes. The goal of this work was to develop a mobile application of the probability wheel that is portable, easily available, and more versatile. We provide a motivating example from medical decision-making, but the tool is widely applicable for researchers in the decision sciences.

  3. Reaction Wheel with Embedded MEMS IMU Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheels are used to stabilize satellites and to slew their orientation from object to object with precision and accuracy by varying the rotational speed of...

  4. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheel mechanical noise is one of the largest sources of disturbance forcing on space-based observatories. Such noise arises from mass imbalance, bearing...

  5. A Nontoxic Barlow's Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Barlow's wheel has been a favorite demonstration since its invention by Peter Barlow (1776-1862) in 1822. In the form shown in Fig. 1, it represents the first electric motor. The interaction between the electric current passing from the axle of the wheel to the rim and the magnetic field produced by the U-magnet produces a torque that turns…

  6. Wheeled and Tracked Vehicle Endurance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    Wheeled Heavy 30 50 10 10 Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) / Route Clearance Vehicle (RCV) 10 40 30 20 Wheeled Truck-Tractor and...fall under this category. d. Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) / Route Clearance Vehicle (RCV). Special purpose armored trucks used for...2 October 2014 11 Vehicles such as the Skid Steer Loader (SSL) would fall under the rubber tracked engineering vehicle category. o

  7. An environmental assessment of electricity production from slaughterhouse residues. Linking urban, industrial and waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santagata, R.; Ripa, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal by-products use for electricity generation is investigated as a case-study. • Different methodological approaches to deal with by-products are explored in LCA. • Adopting a holistic perspective is crucial to achieve a circular economy framework. - Abstract: The food processing industry continues to grow, generating large amount of organically rich waste flows per year: these processors face significant economic and environmental pressures for appropriate conversion and disposal of these waste flows. Solid waste disposal problems, mostly in highly urbanized environments, energy shortages (primarily oil) and/or high petroleum prices, as well as environmental issues such as the shrinking landfill capacity, can all be addressed by converting waste material into useful and saleable products. This paper brings to the attention a possible strategy in order to meet the general EU directives concerning the residues utilization and percentage contribution for the total energy consumption by 2020, by evaluating the use of animal by-products (category 3, as defined in the directive 2002/1774/EC) for energy purposes. Slaughterhouse waste represents an important potential source of renewable energy: on average, 40–50% of a live animal is waste, with a potential energy content close to diesel fuel. Treatment of animal waste from slaughterhouse and the subsequent conversion to electricity is investigated as a case study in the Campania Region (Italy): the animal waste undergoes a rendering process, to separate a protein-rich fraction useful for animal meal production and a fat-rich fraction, to be combusted in a diesel engine for power and heat generation (CHP). An environmental assessment of the entire process is performed by means of LCA, providing a quantitative understanding of the plant processing. The study aims to understand to what extent electricity production from animal fat is environmentally sound and if there are steps and/or components

  8. Water pressure head and temperature impact on isoxaflutole degradation in crop residues and loamy surface soil under conventional and conservation tillage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alletto, Lionel; Coquet, Yves; Bergheaud, Valérie; Benoit, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory incubations were performed in order to evaluate the dissipation of the proherbicide isoxaflutole in seedbed layer soil samples from conventional and conservation tillage systems and in maize and oat residues left at the soil surface under conservation tillage. The effects of temperature and water pressure head on radiolabelled isoxaflutole degradation were studied for each sample for 21d. Mineralisation of isoxaflutole was low for all samples and ranged from 0.0% to 0.9% of applied (14)C in soil samples and from 0.0% to 2.4% of applied (14)C in residue samples. In soil samples, degradation half-life of isoxaflutole ranged from 9 to 26h, with significantly higher values under conservation tillage. In residue samples, degradation half-life ranged from 3 to 31h, with significantly higher values in maize residues, despite a higher mineralisation and bound residue formation than in oat residues. Whatever the sample, most of the applied (14)C remained extractable during the experiment and, after 21d, less than 15% of applied (14)C were unextractable. This extractable fraction was composed of diketonitrile, benzoic acid derivative and several unidentified metabolites, with one of them accounting for more than 17% of applied (14)C. This study showed that tillage system design, including crop residues management, could help reducing the environmental impacts of isoxaflutole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental design to monitor the influence of crop residue management on the dynamics of soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chélin, Marie; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard; Degré, Aurore; Nguyen, Frédéric; Garré, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    Choices related to crop residue management affecting soil structure determine spatio-temporal dynamics of water content and eventually crop yields. In this contribution, we will discuss the experimental design we adopted to study the influence of agricultural management strategies (tillage and residue management) on the soil water dynamics under maize in a Cutanic Siltic Luvisol in Gembloux, Belgium. Three different treatments will be studied: a conventional ploughing realized either in December 2014 or just before sowing in April 2015, and a strip tillage in April 2015. A bare soil under conventional ploughing will also be monitored in order to better understand the influence of the plant over the growing season. In order to limit soil disturbance, we opted for the use of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and we use the bulk electrical conductivity as a proxy for soil moisture content. ERT will be collected every week on a surface of two square meters corresponding to three rows of seven maize plants through surface stainless steel electrodes. Five additional sticks with stainless steel electrodes will be vertically inserted into the soil up to 1.50 m to get more detailed information near to the central maize row. In each of the monitoring plots, two time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes will be installed for data validation. In order to calibrate the relationship between electrical resistivity and soil water content under highly variable field conditions (changes in soil structure, variable weather conditions, plant growth, fertilization), a trench will be dug, in which a set of four electrodes, one TDR probe and one temperature sensor will be placed at four different depths. In addition, two suction cups will be installed in each of the plots to quantify changes in ion composition and electrical conductivity of the soil solution at two different depths. Within the framework of the multidisciplinary research platform AgricultureIsLife, regular assessment

  10. Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than

  11. Simulated effects of crop rotations and residue management on wind erosion in Wuchuan, west-central Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Erda; Harman, Wyatte L; Williams, Jimmy R; Xu, Cheng

    2002-01-01

    For decades, wind erosion has triggered dust and sand storms, buffeting Beijing and areas of northwestern China to the point of being hazardous to human health while rapidly eroding crop and livestock productivity. The EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) field-scale simulation model was used to assess long-term effects of improved crop rotations and crop residue management practices on wind erosion in Wuchuan County in Inner Mongolia. Simulation results indicate that preserving crop stalks until land is prepared by zone tillage for the next year's crop in lieu of using them as a source of heating fuel or livestock fodder significantly reduces wind erosion by 60%. At the same time, grain and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yields were maintained or improved. Significant reductions in erosion, 35 to 46%, also resulted from delaying stalk removal until late January through late April. Yearly wind erosion was concentrated in April and May, the windiest months. Additionally, the use of alternative crop rotations resulted in differences in wind erosion, largely due to a difference in residue stature and quality and differences in biomass produced. As a result, altering current crop rotation systems by expanding corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and millet [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and reducing potato and pea (Pisum sativum L.) production significantly reduced simulated wind erosion, thus diminishing the severity of dust and sand storms in northwestern China. Saving and protecting topsoil over time will sustain land productivity and have long-term implications for improving conditions of rural poverty in the region.

  12. Structural characteristics and forage mass of Tifton 85 pastures managed under three post-grazing residual leaf areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Ladeira da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out on Cynodon spp cv. Tifton 85 pastures grazed by sheep under rotational stocking, with the objective of evaluating the structural characteristics as well as the forage mass of the pastures subjected to three grazing intensities in successive cycles. Treatments were composed of three residual leaf area indices (rLAI; 2.4; 1.6 and 0.8, allocated in completely randomized blocks with seven replications, totaling 21 experimental units. Tiller population density, pasture height, leaf area index, forage morphological composition and pasture forage mass were evaluated. The rLAI modified the tiller population density, which increased linearly with decrease in the rLAI of the pastures. Dry masses of leaf blade, stem and dead material were inferior when the rLAI imposed were lower, which resulted in differentiated forage production among the treatments. Tifton 85 pastures grazed by sheep in rotational stocking under tropical conditions with different rLAI show a modified sward structure over successive grazing cycles, mainly by alteration in the height and LAI of the plants at pre-grazing and by light interception post-grazing, which change the tiller population density. The residual leaf area index of 1.6 is the most suitable for pasture management for being equivalent to the heights of entrance and exit of animals on and from paddocks of 33 and 19 cm, respectively, which avoid great accumulation of dead material and excessive stem elongation, in addition to ensuring tillering in the sward.

  13. The Goal Wheel: Adapting Navajo Philosophy and the Medicine Wheel to Work with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Holly; Bruce, Mary Alice; Stellern, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a group counseling model that is based on the indigenous medicine wheel as well as Navajo philosophy by which to help troubled adolescents restore harmony and balance in their lives, through establishing goals and sequential steps to accomplish these goals. The authors call this model the Goal Wheel. A…

  14. Project considerations and design of systems for wheeling cogenerated power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Boyle, J.R.; Fish, J.H. III; Martin, W.A.

    1994-08-01

    Wheeling electric power, the transmission of electricity not owned by an electric utility over its transmission lines, is a term not generally recognized outside the electric utility industry. Investigation of the term`s origin is intriguing. For centuries, wheel has been used to describe an entire machine, not just individual wheels within a machine. Thus we have waterwheel, spinning wheel, potter`s wheel and, for an automobile, wheels. Wheel as a verb connotes transmission or modification of forces and motion in machinery. With the advent of an understanding of electricity, use of the word wheel was extended to be transmission of electric power as well as mechanical power. Today, use of the term wheeling electric power is restricted to utility transmission of power that it doesn`t own. Cogeneration refers to simultaneous production of electric and thermal power from an energy source. This is more efficient than separate production of electricity and thermal power and, in many instances, less expensive.

  15. Design of Wheeled Mobile Robot with Tri-Star Wheel as Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design, and analyze a mobilerobot that can handle some of the obstacles, they are unevensurfaces, slopes, can also climb stairs. WMR in this study is Tristarwheel that is containing three wheels for each set. Onaverage surface only two wheels in contact with the surface, ifthere is an uneven surface or obstacle then the third wheel willrotate with the rotation center of the wheel in contact with theleading obstacle then only one wheel in contact with the surface.This study uses the C language program. Furthermore, theminimum thrust to be generated torque of the motor andtransmission is 9.56 kg. The results obtained by calculation andanalysis of DC motors used must have a torque greater than14.67 kg.cm. Minimum thrust to be generated motor torque andthe transmission is 9.56 kg. The experimental results give goodresults for robot to moving forward, backward, turn left, turnright and climbing the stairs

  16. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  17. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard management of stubble and crop residues in the maintenance of adequate contents of soil organic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies carried out on the effects of stubble and crop residue incorporation have shown positive effects on chemical-physical soil characteristics. However, not all studies agree on the extent of soil organic matter increase which derives from this process, as this effect is strongly affected by other factors: the pedo-climatic features of the area in which the study is carried out, the type of crop residue incorporation and the agronomical management adopted to improve the decomposition of the incorporated fresh organic material. The burning of stubble and straw is common in the areas where cereals are traditionally grown. The adoption of this method is based on different technical and work-related factors, which become less important when taking into account the impact on the local environment and soil. A research is currently carried out at the CRA-SCA experimental farm in Foggia (Southern Italy on the effects of either residues incorporation or burning on the chemical-physical characteristics of the soil and on the wheat yield performance since 1977. This experiment allows for a comparison among the effects of burning, the simple incorporation of stubble and crop residues and incorporation carried out with some agronomical techniques (such as the distribution of increasing amounts of nitrogen on crop residue before incorporation and the simulation of rain (50 mm on the decomposition of organic material. The objective of the study was to understand the effect of the different residues management practices on soil chemical properties after 32 years of experimentation. The simple incorporation of straw and stubble showed a slight increase in organic soil matter of 0.7% with respect to burning. The best results for soil organic carbon and soil quality were obtained when residual incorporation included a treatment with additional mineral nitrogen.

  18. Assessing the influence of wheel defects of a rolling stockon railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of the load from the wheels on the rail occurs at a very small area compared with the size of the wheels and rails. The materials near this site have a very large voltage. Determination of contact stresses is complicated by the fact that the magnitude of these stresses in the rails under actually revolving wheel load exceeds the yield and compressive strength of modern rail steel. We should note that the metal of the rail head, experiencing contact stresses, especially when the location of the pads is closer to the middle of the rail head, works in the conditions close to the compression conditions, and therefore can withstand higher voltage without plastic deformation than the standard compressible sample. But, as a rule, the observed hardening of the metal in the zone of contact stresses and lapping at the edges of the rail head indicates the presence of plastic deformation and, consequently, higher stresses in the wheel-rail contact zone than the yield strength of the metal rail even in the conditions of its operation in the rail head.The use of the design equations derived on the basis of the Hertz theory for metal behavior in elastic stage, is valid. The reason is that each individual dynamic application of wheel loads on the rail is very short, and the residual plastic deformation from the individual loads of the pair of wheels on the rail is actually small. This elastic-plastic deformation of the rail becomes visible as a result of gradual gaining of a missed tonnage of rails and wheels respectively. Irregularities on the running surface of the wheels are of two types. The most common are the so-called continuous bumps on the wheel, when due to the uneven wear of rail the original shape of the wheel across the tread surface distorts. But nowadays, more and more often there occur isolated smooth irregularities of the wheel pairs, due to the increased wear of the wheel because of the stopping and blocking of wheels of the vehicles

  19. Tradeoffs in Crop Residue Utilization in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems and Implications for Conservation Agriculture and Sustainable Land Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jaleta, Moti; Kassie, Menale; Shiferaw, Bekele A.

    2012-01-01

    Crop residue use for soil mulch and animal feed are the two major competing purposes and the basic source of fundamental challenge in conservation agriculture (CA) where residue retention on farm plots is one of the three CA principles. Using survey data from Kenya and applying bivariate ordered Probit and bivariate Tobit models, this paper analyzes the tradeoffs in maize residue use as soil mulch and livestock feed in mixed farming systems. Results show that both the proportion and quantity ...

  20. Combined Geometric and Neural Network Approach to Generic Fault Diagnosis in Satellite Reaction Wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, P.; Blanke, Mogens; Castaldi, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a novel diagnosis scheme for detection, isolation and estimation of faults affecting satellite reaction wheels. Both spin rate measurements and actuation torque defects are dealt with. The proposed system consists of a fault detection and isolation module composed by a bank...... of residual filters organized in a generalized scheme, followed by a fault estimation module consisting of a bank of adaptive estimation filters. The residuals are decoupled from aerodynamic disturbances thanks to the Nonlinear Geometric Approach. The use of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks is shown...

  1. Slow Progress in Dune (Right Rear Wheel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The right rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The wheel is largely hidden by a cable bundle. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  2. THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF RAILWAY WHEEL DAMAGES AND TIRES IN OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Grischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The dependence analysis of structural changes in the metal of railway wheels and tires from indicated influences in operation, for the further development of strategy of service reliability growth. Methodology. Test materials are the details selected from railway wheels which were taken out of operation beforehand because of various damages. Micro-structural researches were made with the use of light microscope Epiquant and electron microscope. The sizing of structural elements was done by using the methods of quantitative metallography. Findings. Over the past few decades the rapid development of industry was supported by the steady growth of intensity of using railway transport. In this case simultaneous increase of load at wheel set axle, with the increase of speed was accompanied by natural increase of the amount of cases of premature wheels and tires’ withdrawing out of operation. Railway wheel, except the formation of metal layer at rolling surface with the high defects concentration of crystal structure and first of all dislocations, falls under thermal influence from interaction with break blocks. The nature of joint influence (cold deformation and heating on the metal rim of a wheel is conditioned by the appearance of sufficiently high gradients of structural changes that can be considered as the influence on the level of internal residual stresses. In case of the rise of volume part of carbide phase at a constant ferrite grain size, it is achieved only by the increasing of dislocation nucleation sources without changing the number of annihilation positions. In this case the accumulation of dislocations at the initial stages of plastic deformation (in metal volume in front of delta arm crack will lead to the formation of cementite globes around certain interlocked dislocation density. In contrast the sharp increase of deformation hardening carbon steel parameters is observed. Originality. During the braking of locomotive the

  3. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheel disturbances are some of the largest sources of noise on sensitive telescopes. Such wheel-induced mechanical noises are not well characterized....

  4. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... end, nut, and flange projections. The safety guard shall be mounted so as to maintain proper alignment... diameter of wheel fits in the depressed side of wheel to prevent interference in side grinding and serves...

  5. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Reynolds, Reid G.; Liu, Frank X.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum that the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical strategies for distributing a prescribed torque or momentum among the n wheels are presented, with special emphasis on configurations of four, five, and six wheels.

  6. Tensegrital Wheel for Enhanced Surface Mobility, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations introduces the "tensegrital wheel" an inventive concept for wheeled locomotion that exploits the geometric and mechanical attributes of a tensegrity...

  7. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be... gear. Floats and Hulls ...

  8. Shock-absorbing caster wheel is simple and compact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindley, R. J.

    1968-01-01

    Compact shock-absorbing caster wheel mitigates or absorbs shock by a compressible tire which deforms into a cavity between its inner edge and the wheel hub. A tee-shaped annular ring embedded in the tire distributes loads more uniformly throughout both wheel and tire.

  9. Disturbances in reaction wheels; from measurement to modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, M.P.; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria; Seiler, R; van Put, P.; Cottaar, E.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances in reaction wheels have been long a crucial aspect for many scientific observation missions. An accurate and reliable disturbance model to understand and evaluate the influence of reaction wheel disturbances to the spacecraft is critically needed. Several reaction wheel disturbance

  10. 14 CFR 25.497 - Tail-wheel yawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail-wheel yawing. 25.497 Section 25.497... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 25.497 Tail-wheel yawing. (a) A vertical ground reaction equal to the static load on the tail wheel, in combination with a side component of equal...

  11. All-wheel drive and winter-weather safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    It is frequently stated that people living in northern states, the so called Snowbelt of the United : States, benefit with respect to safety from driving all-wheel or four-wheel drive vehicles as : opposed to front or rear-wheel drive only. This stud...

  12. 77 FR 27249 - Certain Steel Wheels From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Wheels From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... of imports of certain steel wheels from China, provided for in subheading 8708.70 of the Harmonized... notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of certain steel wheels from China were...

  13. Examination of a failed fifth wheel coupling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available to prevent inadvertent opening of the coupling locking mechanism. No alternative safety device was employed to ensure the safety of the modified design. Furthermore, the rubbing plate on the pup-trailer was significantly smaller than that on the fifth wheel...

  14. Experiments on a Tail-wheel Shimmy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, R; Dietz, O

    1954-01-01

    Model tests on the "running belt" and tests with a full-scale tail wheel were made on a rotating drum as well as on a runway in order to investigate the causes of the undesirable shimmy phenomena frequently occurring on airplane tail wheels, and the means of avoiding them. The small model (scale 1:10) permitted simulation of the mass, moments of inertia, and fuselage stiffness of the airplane and determination of their influence on the shimmy, whereas by means of the larger model with pneumatic tires (scale 1:2) more accurate investigations were made on the tail wheel itself. The results of drum and road tests show good agreement with one another and with model values. Detailed investigations were made regarding the dependence of the shimmy tendency on trail, rolling speed, load, size of tires, ground friction,and inclination of the swivel axis; furthermore, regarding the influence of devices with restoring effect on the tail wheel, and the friction damping required for prevention of shimmy. Finally observations from slow-motion pictures are reported and conclusions drawn concerning the influence of tire deformation.

  15. Investigating Functions with a Ferris Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather Lynn; Hornbein, Peter; Azeem, Sumbal

    2016-01-01

    The authors provide a dynamic Ferris wheel computer activity that teachers can use as an instructional tool to help students investigate functions. They use a student's work to illustrate how students can use relationships between quantities to further their thinking about functions.

  16. The Physics of Wheel-Rail Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses, at a simple level, the dynamics of the wheel-rail interface, which is fundamental to the stability of rail vehicles. The physics underlying this topic deserves to be better known by physicists and physics students, as it underpins such an important part of our technological infrastructure

  17. Vegetation response to wagon wheel camp layouts.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wagon wheel camp layouts have been favoured, in some quarters, for rotational grazing due to the economy and convenience of having the camps radially arranged around central facilities. A possible disadvantage of such layouts is the tendency for over-grazing near the hub and under-grazing at the extremities.

  18. Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasetti, Sean M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…

  19. The time has come for retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, D.O.; Achinger, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Retail wheeling, the transmission and distribution of electric power for end users, fosters competition and promotes the efficient use of resources. Access to electric-utility transmission and distribution systems would establish competitive electric markets by permitting retail customers to obtain the lowest cost for energy which would meet their specific needs. Among electric utilities and their customers, the idea of allowing market forces to attract supply and set prices is a current controversy. To counter the anticompetitive effects of recent mergers in the wholesale market, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has mandated open transmission access for wholesale customers. However, the FERC denied access to retail customers and qualifying facilities (QF) in both its Northeast Utilities (FERC case No. EC-90-1 90) and PacifiCorp (U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for D.C., 89-1333) decisions. Retail wheeling will benefit both consumers and producers. The ability of large customers to purchase power from the lowest cost sources and have it transmitted to their facilities, will save American industrial and commercial customers at least $15 billion annually. The Increased efficiency resulting from competition would also reduce residential electric bills. Through retail wheeling, independent power producers can market their capacity to a greater customer base, and traditional utilities will benefit from access to other utilities markets with the more efficient utilities prospering. Retail wheeling will, therefore, reward efficient utilities and encourage inefficient utilities to improve

  20. Steady state modeling of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2014-01-01

    systems. A steady state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces the physical behavior of desiccant wheels. Mass diffusion in the desiccant should...

  1. The physics of wheel-rail stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. T. G.

    2018-05-01

    This article discusses, at a simple level, the dynamics of the wheel-rail interface, which is fundamental to the stability of rail vehicles. The physics underlying this topic deserves to be better known by physicists and physics students, as it underpins such an important part of our technological infrastructure.

  2. Omnidirectional Wheel-Legged Hybrid Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Vilikó

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of developing hybrid locomotion systems is to merge the advantages and to eliminate the disadvantages of different type of locomotion. The proposed solution combines wheeled and legged locomotion methods. This paper presents the mechatronic design approach and the development stages of the prototype.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Abrasive Grinding Wheel Formulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a study on the formulation and manufacture of abrasive grinding wheel using locally formulated silicon carbide abrasive grains. Six local raw material substitutes were identified through pilot study and with the initial mix of the identified materials, a systematic search for an optimal formulation of silicon ...

  4. 14 CFR 23.731 - Wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheels. 23.731 Section 23.731 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear...

  5. A dynamic wheel-rail impact analysis of railway track under wheel flat by finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Jian; Gu, Yuantong; Murray, Martin Howard

    2013-06-01

    Wheel-rail interaction is one of the most important research topics in railway engineering. It involves track impact response, track vibration and track safety. Track structure failures caused by wheel-rail impact forces can lead to significant economic loss for track owners through damage to rails and to the sleepers beneath. Wheel-rail impact forces occur because of imperfections in the wheels or rails such as wheel flats, irregular wheel profiles, rail corrugations and differences in the heights of rails connected at a welded joint. A wheel flat can cause a large dynamic impact force as well as a forced vibration with a high frequency, which can cause damage to the track structure. In the present work, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the impact analysis induced by the wheel flat is developed by the use of the FE analysis (FEA) software package ANSYS and validated by another validated simulation. The effect of wheel flats on impact forces is thoroughly investigated. It is found that the presence of a wheel flat will significantly increase the dynamic impact force on both rail and sleeper. The impact force will monotonically increase with the size of wheel flats. The relationships between the impact force and the wheel flat size are explored from this FEA and they are important for track engineers to improve their understanding of the design and maintenance of the track system.

  6. Estimation of the friction coefficient between wheel and rail surface using traction motor behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y; Liang, B; Iwnicki, S

    2012-01-01

    The friction coefficient between a railway wheel and rail surface is a crucial factor in maintaining high acceleration and braking performance of railway vehicles thus monitoring this friction coefficient is important. Restricted by the difficulty in directly measuring the friction coefficient, the creep force or creepage, indirect methods using state observers are used more frequently. This paper presents an approach using a Kalman filter to estimate the creep force and creepage between the wheel and rail and then to identify the friction coefficient using the estimated creep force-creepage relationship. A mathematic model including an AC motor, wheel and roller is built to simulate the driving system. The parameters are based on a test rig at Manchester Metropolitan University. The Kalman filter is designed to estimate the friction coefficient based on the measurements of the simulation model. Series of residuals are calculated through the comparison between the estimated creep force and theoretical values of different friction coefficient. Root mean square values of the residuals are used in the friction coefficient identification.

  7. ON-BOARD MONITORING OF TECHNICAL STATE FOR POWER UNITS OF WHEELED AND TRACKED VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Karpievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers new methodologies pertaining to on-board diagnosis of wear-out rate for friction linings of a clutch driven disk and friction discs of a hydraulic press clutch of transmission gear boxes which are based on physical process that uses friction work as an integrated indicator. A new methodology in determination of life-span rate for engine oil has been developed in the paper. The paper presents block schematic diagrams for on-board monitoring of technical state for power units of wheeled and tracked vehicles. Usage of friction work as an integrated indicator for determination of wear-out rate for friction linings of clutch driven disk and friction discs of a haydraulic press clutch makes it possible timely at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine their residual operation life and forecast their replacement.While taking volume of the used fuel for determination of engine oil life-span rate it permits quickly and effectively at any operational period of wheeled and tracked vehicles to determine residual useful life of the engine oil and also forecast its replacement.

  8. Design of Wheeled Mobile Robot with Tri-Star Wheel as Rescue Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiuddin Syam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design, and analyze a mobile robot that can handle some of the obstacles, they are uneven surfaces, slopes, can also climb stairs. WMR in this study is Tristar wheel that is containing three wheels for each set. On average surface only two wheels in contact with the surface, if there is an uneven surface or obstacle then the third wheel will rotate with the rotation center of the wheel in contact with the leading obstacle then only one wheel in contact with the surface. This study uses the C language program. Furthermore, the minimum thrust to be generated torque of the motor and transmission is 9.56 kg. The results obtained by calculation and analysis of DC motors used must have a torque greater than 14.67 kg.cm. Minimum thrust to be generated motor torque and the transmission is 9.56 kg. The experimental results give good results for robot to moving forward, backward, turn left, turn right and climbing the stairs.

  9. Umbrella Wheel - a stair-climbing and obstacle-handling wheel design concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Simon; Jouffroy, Jerome

    This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change of configurat......This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change...... of configuration, staircases with a wide range of dimensions can be covered efficiently and safely. The design, named Umbrella Wheel, can consist of as many wheel segments as desired, and as few as two. A smaller or higher number of wheel segments has advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific...... situation. Modeling the trajectory of the wheel when as it ascends or descends stairs is given and the results are analyzed....

  10. Umbrella Wheel - a stair-climbing and obstacle-handling wheel design concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Simon; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change of configurat......This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change...... of configuration, staircases with a wide range of dimensions can be covered efficiently and safely. The design, named Umbrella Wheel, can consist of as many wheel segments as desired, and as few as two. A smaller or higher number of wheel segments has advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific...... situation. Modeling the trajectory of the wheel when as it ascends or descends stairs is given and the results are analyzed....

  11. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration for amaranth control in conservation agriculture cotton and implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation agriculture practices are threatened by glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Integrated practices including PRE herbicides and high-residue conservation agriculture systems may decrease Amaranth emergence. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2006 through cash crop harvest in...

  12. Latent effectiveness of desiccant wheel: A silica gels- water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, A. A.; Mohamed, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    A latent heat effectiveness model in term of dimensionless groups? =f (NTU, m * ,Crm * ) for energy wheel has been analytically derived. The energy wheel is divided into humidification and dehumidification sections. For each section macroscopic mass differential equations for gas and the matrix were applied. In this process local latent effectiveness (? c ,? h ) for the humidification and dehumidification section of the wheel were obtained. The Latent effectiveness of the wheel is then derived form local effectiveness [? =f (? c ,? h)]. The model is compared with the existing experimental investigation and manufacturer data for energy wheel. More than 90% of the experimental data within a confidence limit of 95%. (Author)

  13. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  14. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato.

  15. Advanced Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Fan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Control of Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Systems is an orderly presentation of recent ideas for overcoming the complications inherent in the control of wheeled inverted pendulum (WIP) systems, in the presence of uncertain dynamics, nonholonomic kinematic constraints as well as underactuated configurations. The text leads the reader in a theoretical exploration of problems in kinematics,dynamics modeling, advanced control design techniques,and trajectory generation for WIPs. An important concern is how to deal with various uncertainties associated with the nominal model, WIPs being characterized by unstable balance and unmodelled dynamics and being subject to time-varying external disturbances for which accurate models are hard to come by.   The book is self-contained, supplying the reader with everything from mathematical preliminaries and the basic Lagrange-Euler-based derivation of dynamics equations to various advanced motion control and force control approaches as well as trajectory generation met...

  16. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Front Wheel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The left front wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's front hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  17. Slow Progress in Dune (Left Rear Wheel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The left rear wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's rear hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  18. Slow Progress in Dune (Right Front Wheel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The right front wheel of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity makes slow but steady progress through soft dune material in this movie clip of frames taken by the rover's front hazard identification camera over a period of several days. The sequence starts on Opportunity's 460th martian day, or sol (May 10, 2005) and ends 11 days later. In eight drives during that period, Opportunity advanced a total of 26 centimeters (10 inches) while spinning its wheels enough to have driven 46 meters (151 feet) if there were no slippage. The motion appears to speed up near the end of the clip, but that is an artifact of individual frames being taken less frequently.

  19. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  1. Peculiarities of Clutch Forming Rails and Wheel Block Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiler, V. V.; Galiev, I. I.; Shiler, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The clutch of the wheel and rail is significantly influenced by the design features of the standard wheel pair, which are manifested in the presence of "parasitic" slipping of the wheels along the rails during its movement. The purpose of the presented work is to evaluate new design solutions for wheel sets. The research was carried out using methods of comparative simulation modelling and physical prototyping. A new design of the wheel pair (block wheel pair) is proposed, which features an independent rotation of all surfaces of the wheels in contact with the rails. The block construction of the wheel pair forms open mechanical contours with the track gauge, which completely eliminates the "parasitic" slippage. As a result, in the process of implementing traction or braking forces, the coupling coefficient of the block construction of the wheel pair is significantly higher than that of existing structures. In addition, in the run-out mode, the resistance to movement of the block wheel pair is half as much. All this will allow one to significantly reduce the energy consumption for traction of trains, wear of track elements and crew, and to increase the speed and safety of train traffic.

  2. Herbicide and cover crop residue integration for amaranthus control in conservation agriculture cotton and implications for resistance management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) practices are threatened by glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Integrated control practices including PRE herbicides and high-residue CA systems can decrease Amaranthus emergence. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2006 through crop harvest in 2009 at two s...

  3. Using vacuum-assisted suspension to manage residual limb wounds in persons with transtibial amputation: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Robert D; Sutton, Erin E; Kinor, Deborah; Schaeffer, Julia M; Fatone, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Persons with amputation and residual limb wounds would benefit from the ability to continue wearing a prosthesis while healing. Sockets with vacuum-assisted suspension may reduce intra-socket motion and be less disruptive to wound healing. The purpose of this case series was to measure residual limb wound size over time in persons with transtibial amputation while using prostheses with vacuum-assisted suspension. Six subjects with residual limb wounds were fit with vacuum-assisted suspension sockets. Wound surface area was calculated using ImageJ software at the time of fit and each subsequent visit until closure. FINDINGS AND OUTCOME: Average wound surface area at initial measurement was 2.17 ± 0.65 cm(2). All subjects were instructed to continue their normal activity level while wounds healed, with a mean of 177.6 ± 113 days to wound closure. Results suggest that well-fitting sockets with vacuum-assisted suspension in compliant individuals did not preclude wound healing. Further research is required to substantiate these case-based observations. Residual limb wounds are typically treated by suspension of prosthetic use until healing occurs, increasing the risk of long-term prosthesis nonuse. Our results suggest that vacuum-assisted suspension sockets may be used while healing occurs.

  4. ORGANIC MATTER AND CARBON MANAGEMENT INDEX OF SOIL TREATED WITH COMPOSTED AND NON-COMPOSTED LAYERED RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA AUGUSTA MOURA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic residues and compost is a common practice to improve soil quality and content of organic matter. In this study, the labile and stable fractions of soil organic matter were evaluated after application of layers of fresh (non-composted or composted organic residues in a 6-year-old citrus orchard. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design, with 6 treatments: control without NPK, control with NPK, non-composted organic residue (NCOR, with and without NPK, and composted organic residue (humus, with and without NPK, with three replicates. The treatments were applied under the plant canopy. Soil samples were collected from the 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.15 m layers. There were increases of 10.3, 22.4, 16.3, and 37.1 % in the organic carbon contents of the surface soil for the treatments using NCOR without NPK, NCOR with NPK, humus with NPK, and humus without NPK, respectively. The organic carbon contents of the labile fraction varied from 1.0 to 12.8 g kg-1, representing between 8 and 62 % of the total carbon. The carbon concentrations in the stable fraction varied from 3.1 to 9.7 g kg-1, representing between 38 and 92 % of the total carbon, and this was the dominant fraction for most of the treatments.

  5. Effect of Harvest Residue Management on Tree Productivity and Carbon Pools during Early Stand Development in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; Kurt H. Johnsen; Phillip Dougherty; Daniel McInnis; Pete Anderson; Steve Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Soil incorporation of postharvest forest floor or logging residues during site preparation increased mineral soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentration and had a differential effect on early stand growth in a clonal loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Incorporating 25 Mg ha

  6. Pesticide residue concentration in soil following conventional and Low-Input Crop Management in a Mediterranean agro-ecosystem, in Central Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasali, Helen, E-mail: e.karassali@bpi.gr [Laboratory of Chemical Control of Pesticides, Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta Street, Kifissia, 14561 Athens (Greece); Marousopoulou, Anna [Laboratory of Chemical Control of Pesticides, Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta Street, Kifissia, 14561 Athens (Greece); Machera, Kyriaki, E-mail: k.machera@bpi.gr [Laboratory of Pesticides Toxicology, Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta Street, Kifissia, 14561 Athens (Greece)

    2016-01-15

    The present study was focused on the comparative evaluation of pesticide residues, determined in soil samples from Kopaida region, Greece before and after the implementation of Low-Input Crop Management (LCM) protocols. LCM has been suggested as an environmental friendly plant protection approach to be applied on crops growing in vulnerable to pollution ecosystems, with special focus on the site specific problems. In the case of the specific pilot area, the vulnerability was mainly related to the pollution of water bodies from agrochemicals attributed to diffuse pollution primarily from herbicides and secondarily from insecticides. A total of sixty-six soil samples, were collected and analyzed during a three-year monitoring study and the results of the determined pesticide residues were considered for the impact evaluation of applied plant protection methodology. The LCM was developed and applied in the main crops growing in the pilot area i.e. cotton, maize and industrial tomato. Herbicides active ingredients such as ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, S-metolachlor and fluometuron were detected in most samples at various concentrations. Ethalfluralin, which was the active ingredient present in the majority of the samples ranged from 0.01 μg g{sup −1} to 0.26 μg g{sup −1} soil dry weight. However, the amount of herbicides measured after the implementation of LCM for two cropping periods, was reduced by more than 75% in all cases. The method of analysis was based on the simultaneous extraction of the target compounds by mechanical shaking, followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometric and gas chromatography electron capture (LC–MS/MS and GC–ECD) analysis. - Highlights: • Effect of Low Input Crop Management (LCM) in a vulnerable to pollution ecosystem. • LCM resulted in herbicide residues reduction in the range of 75 and 100% in all cases. • Conventional practices resulted in increased herbicide residues up to 18%. • Anthropogenic

  7. Outcome of residual mediastinal masses of thoracic lymphomas in children: impact on management and radiological follow-up strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, H.; Pacquement, H.; Burdairon, E.; Plancher, C.; Neuenschwander, S.

    1998-01-01

    Background. Following treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, patients with thoracic lymphomas may demonstrate benign residual mediastinal masses, composed of inflammatory, fibrous or necrotic tissue. Because of the potential risk of viable tumour cells within the mass, histological verification of the nature of these masses may be requested. Objective. To study the outcome of thoracic lymphomas in children in order to optimise the radiological follow-up strategy of residual mediastinal masses (RMM). Materials and methods. A retrospective study of 39 children [24 with Hodgkin's disease (HD), 10 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and 5 with anaplastic lymphoma (AL)]. The results of chest X-rays (CXR) and thoracic CT performed at the time of re-assessment were compared with the histology of the residual masses (n = 11) or the clinical course (n = 28). Results. At the time of re-evaluation, 16/39 patients had residual mediastinal enlargement (RME) on CXR, and 18/39 patients had RMM on CT. Good concordance was observed between the two imaging modalities (K = 0.69). Two children with a RMM died from extra-mediastinal progression. Two children with NHL had active residual mediastinal lesions but neither had RMM. Sixteen cases of RMM were observed in the remaining 35 children and 9 of these masses were histologically verified as benign. A favourable course was observed in these 35 cases. Conclusions. RMM are frequent and generally benign. They are well shown on CXR and have a non-specific appearance on CT. Except when required by a treatment protocol, they could be submitted to further radiological follow-up before contemplating surgical verification. (orig.)

  8. Problems of locomotive wheel wear in fleet replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lingaytis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct a research and find out the causes of defects appearing on the wheel thread of freight locomotives 2М62 and SIEMENS ER20CF. Methodology. To find the ways to solve this problem comparing the locomotive designs and their operating conditions. Findings. After examining the nature of the wheel wear the main difference was found: in locomotives of the 2M62 line wears the wheel flange, and in the locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF – the tread surface. After installation on the 2M62 locomotive the lubrication system of flanges their wear rate significantly decreased. On the new freight locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF the flange lubrication systems of the wheel set have been already installed at the factory, however the wheel thread is wearing. As for locomotives 2M62, and on locomotives SIEMENS ER20CF most wear profile skating wheels of the first wheel set. On both locomotive lines the 2М62 and the SIEMENS ER20CF the tread profile of the first wheel set most of all is subject to the wear. After reaching the 170 000 km run, the tread surface of some wheels begins to crumble. There was a suspicion that the reason for crumb formation of the wheel surface may be insufficient or excessive wheel hardness or its chemical composition. In order to confirm or deny this suspicion the following studies were conducted: the examination of the rim surface, the study of the wheel metal hardness and the document analysis of the wheel production and their comparison with the results of wheel hardness measurement. Practical value. The technical condition of locomotives is one of the bases of safety and reliability of the rolling stock. The reduction of the wheel wear significantly reduces the operating costs of railway transport. After study completion it was found that there was no evidence to suggest that the ratio of the wheel-rail hardness could be the cause of the wheel surface crumbling.

  9. Miscanthus establishment and overwintering in the Midwest USA: a regional modeling study of crop residue management on critical minimum soil temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Kucharik

    Full Text Available Miscanthus is an intriguing cellulosic bioenergy feedstock because its aboveground productivity is high for low amounts of agrochemical inputs, but soil temperatures below -3.5 °C could threaten successful cultivation in temperate regions. We used a combination of observed soil temperatures and the Agro-IBIS model to investigate how strategic residue management could reduce the risk of rhizome threatening soil temperatures. This objective was addressed using a historical (1978-2007 reconstruction of extreme minimum 10 cm soil temperatures experienced across the Midwest US and model sensitivity studies that quantified the impact of crop residue on soil temperatures. At observation sites and for simulations that had bare soil, two critical soil temperature thresholds (50% rhizome winterkill at -3.5 °C and -6.0 °C for different Miscanthus genotypes were reached at rhizome planting depth (10 cm over large geographic areas. The coldest average annual extreme 10 cm soil temperatures were between -8 °C to -11 °C across North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Large portions of the region experienced 10 cm soil temperatures below -3.5 °C in 75% or greater for all years, and portions of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin experienced soil temperatures below -6.0 °C in 50-60% of all years. For simulated management options that established varied thicknesses (1-5 cm of miscanthus straw following harvest, extreme minimum soil temperatures increased by 2.5 °C to 6 °C compared to bare soil, with the greatest warming associated with thicker residue layers. While the likelihood of 10 cm soil temperatures reaching -3.5 °C was greatly reduced with 2-5 cm of surface residue, portions of the Dakotas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Wisconsin still experienced temperatures colder than -3.5 °C in 50-80% of all years. Nonetheless, strategic residue management could help increase the likelihood of overwintering of miscanthus rhizomes in the first few

  10. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF HEATING OF GEAR WHEEL USING NUMERICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Benešová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Successful heat treating and carburizing of gear wheels for wind turbine gear boxes requires that plastic deformation in the wheel is minimized. Numerical modeling using the DEFORM software was aimed at exploring the effects of the base, on which the gear wheel rests during heating, on the heating process. Homogeneous heating was assumed. It was found that the base heats up more quickly than the workpiece. It is the consequence of the base's shape and volume. As a result, the base expands and slides against the wheel, predominantly at the first heating stage. Later on, it prevents the gear wheel from expanding, causing plastic deformation in the wheel. The findings were used for designing new heating schedules to minimize these undesirable interactions and to reduce the plastic deformation to a negligible magnitude. In addition, this paper presents an example of a practical use of numerical modeling in the DEFORM software.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF HEATING OF GEAR WHEEL USING NUMERICAL MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Benesova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful heat treating and carburizing of gear wheels for wind turbine gear boxes requires that plastic deformation in the wheel is minimized. Numerical modeling using the DEFORM software was aimed at exploring the effects of the base, on which the gear wheel rests during heating, on the heating process. Homogeneous heating was assumed. It was found that the base heats up more quickly than the workpiece. It is the consequence of the base's shape and volume. As a result, the base expands and slides against the wheel, predominantly at the first heating stage. Later on, it prevents the gear wheel from expanding, causing plastic deformation in the wheel. The findings were used for designing new heating schedules to minimize these undesirable interactions and to reduce the plastic deformation to a negligible magnitude. In addition, this paper presents an example of a practical use of numerical modeling in the DEFORM software.

  13. One method for life time estimation of a bucket wheel machine for coal moving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vîlceanu, Fl; Iancu, C.

    2016-08-01

    Rehabilitation of outdated equipment with lifetime expired, or in the ultimate life period, together with high cost investments for their replacement, makes rational the efforts made to extend their life. Rehabilitation involves checking operational safety based on relevant expertise of metal structures supporting effective resistance and assessing the residual lifetime. The bucket wheel machine for coal constitute basic machine within deposits of coal of power plants. The estimate of remaining life can be done by checking the loading on the most stressed subassembly by Finite Element Analysis on a welding detail. The paper presents step-by-step the method of calculus applied in order to establishing the residual lifetime of a bucket wheel machine for coal moving using non-destructive methods of study (fatigue cracking analysis + FEA). In order to establish the actual state of machine and areas subject to study, was done FEA of this mining equipment, performed on the geometric model of mechanical analyzed structures, with powerful CAD/FEA programs. By applying the method it can be calculated residual lifetime, by extending the results from the most stressed area of the equipment to the entire machine, and thus saving time and money from expensive replacements.

  14. Perspectives on energy storage wheels for space station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Several of the issues of the workshop are addressed from the perspective of a potential Space Station developer and energy wheel user. Systems' considerations are emphasized rather than component technology. The potential of energy storage wheel (ESW) concept is discussed. The current status of the technology base is described. Justification for advanced technology development is also discussed. The study concludes that energy storage in wheels is an attractive concept for immediate technology development and future Space Station application.

  15. Analysis of traversable pits model to make intelligent wheeled vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abbasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of passing wheeled vehicles from pits is discussed. The issue is modeled by defining the limits of passing wheeled vehicles. The proposed model has been studied based on changes in the effective parameters. Finally, in order to describe the problem, the proposed model has been solved for wheeled vehicles based on the effective parameters by using one of the numerical methods.

  16. Torsional Moment Measurement on Bucket Wheel Shaft of Giant Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří FRIES

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bucket wheel loading at the present time (torsional moment on wheel shaft, peripheral cutting force is determined from electromotor incoming power or reaction force measured on gearbox hinge. Both methods together are weighted by steel construction absorption of driving units and by inertial forces of motor rotating parts. In the article is described direct method of the torsional moment measurement, which eliminates mentioned unfavourable impacts except absorption of steel construction of bucket wheel itself.

  17. INTERVENTIONS TO MANAGE RESIDUAL LIMB ULCERATION DUE TO PROSTHETIC USE IN INDIVIDUALS WITH LOWER EXTREMITY AMPUTATION:A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, M Jason; Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Andrews, Casey R; Lewis, Katherine L; Bradley, Rachel C; Ward, Jessica M; Orriola, John J; Highsmith, James T

    2016-09-01

    Patients with lower extremity amputation (LEA) experience 65% more dermatologic issues than non-amputees, and skin problems are experienced by ≈75% of LEA patients who use prostheses. Continuously referring LEA patients to a dermatologist for every stump related skin condition may be impractical. Thus, physical rehabilitation professionals should be prepared to recognize and manage common non-emergent skin conditions in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine the quantity, quality, and strength of available evidence supporting treatment methods for prosthesis-related residual limb (RL) ulcers. Systematic literature review with evidence grading and synthesis of empirical evidence statements (EES) was employed. Three EESs were formulated describing ulcer etiology, conditions in which prosthetic continuance is practical, circumstances likely requiring prosthetic discontinuance, and the consideration of additional medical or surgical interventions. Continued prosthetic use is a viable option to manage minor or early-stage ulcerated residual limbs in compliant patients lacking multiple comorbidities. Prosthetic discontinuance is also a viable method of residual limb ulcer healing and may be favored in the presence of severe acute ulcerations, chronic heavy smoking, intractable pain, rapid volume and weight change, history of chronic ulceration, systemic infections, or advanced dysvascular etiology. Surgery or other interventions may also be necessary in such cases to achieve restored prosthetic ambulation. A short bout of prosthetic discontinuance with a staged re-introduction plan is another viable option that may be warranted in patients with ulceration due to poor RL volume management. High-quality prospective research with larger samples is needed to determine the most appropriate course of treatment when a person with LEA develops an RL ulcer that is associated with prosthetic use.

  18. Carbon balance and crop residue management in dynamic equilibrium under a no-till system in Campos Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir de Oliveira Ferreira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of no-tillage systems (NT and the maintenance of crop residues on the soil surface result in the long-term increase of carbon (C in the system, promoting C sequestration and reducing C-CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the C sequestration rate and the minimum amount of crop residues required to maintain the dynamic C equilibrium (dC/dt = 0 of two soils (Typic Hapludox with different textural classes. The experiment was arranged in a 2 x 2 x 2 randomized block factorial design. The following factors were analyzed: (a two soil types: Typic Hapludox (Oxisol with medium texture (LVTM and Oxisol with clay texture (LVTA, (b two sampling layers (0-5 and 5-20 cm, and (c two sampling periods (P1 - October 2007; P2 - September 2008. Samples were collected from fields under a long-term (20 years NT system with the following crop rotations: wheat/soybean/black oat + vetch/maize (LVTM and wheat/maize/black oat + vetch/soybean (LVTA. The annual C sequestration rates were 0.83 and 0.76 Mg ha-1 for LVTM and LVTA, respectively. The estimates of the minimum amount of crop residues required to maintain a dynamic equilibrium (dC/dt = 0 were 7.13 and 6.53 Mg ha-1 year-1 for LVTM and LVTA, respectively. The C conversion rate in both studied soils was lower than that reported in other studies in the region, resulting in a greater amount of crop residues left on the soil surface.

  19. Module-based structure design of wheeled mobile robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an innovative and systematic approach for synthesizing mechanical structures of wheeled mobile robots. The principle and terminologies used for the proposed synthesis method are presented by adopting the concept of modular design, isomorphic and non-isomorphic, and set theory with its associated combinatorial mathematics. The modular-based innovative synthesis and design of wheeled robots were conducted at two levels. Firstly at the module level, by creative design and analysing the structures of classic wheeled robots, a wheel module set containing four types of wheel mechanisms, a suspension module set consisting of five types of suspension frames and a chassis module set composed of five types of rigid or articulated chassis were designed and generalized. Secondly at the synthesis level, two kinds of structure synthesis modes, namely the isomorphic-combination mode and the non-isomorphic combination mode were proposed to synthesize mechanical structures of wheeled robots; which led to 241 structures for wheeled mobile robots including 236 novel ones. Further, mathematical models and a software platform were developed to provide appropriate and intuitive tools for simulating and evaluating performance of the wheeled robots that were proposed in this paper. Eventually, physical prototypes of sample wheeled robots/rovers were developed and tested so as to prove and validate the principle and methodology presented in this paper.

  20. Wheel traffic effect on air-filled porosity and air permeability in a soil catena across the wheel rut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu

    The impact of wheel traffic on soil physical properties is usually quantified by randomly collecting soil cores at specific depths below the wheeled surface. However, modeling studies as well as few measurements indicated a non-uniform stress distribution in a catena across the wheel rut, which...... might induce different effects on soil physical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of vehicle traffic on soil physical properties and air permeability by systematic collection of samples in a transect running from the center to the outside of the wheel rut. A field...... experiment was conducted on a clay loam soil at Suberg, Switzerland, in 2010. Four repeated wheeling were performed by driving a forage harvester (wheel load of 6100 kg and a tyre width of 0.8 m) forward and rearward in the same track. We sampled 100 cm3 intact cores at 10, 30 and 50 cm depth in a soil...

  1. Delta FosB regulates wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werme, Martin; Messer, Chad; Olson, Lars; Gilden, Lauren; Thorén, Peter; Nestler, Eric J; Brené, Stefan

    2002-09-15

    DeltaFosB is a transcription factor that accumulates in a region-specific manner in the brain after chronic perturbations. For example, repeated administration of drugs of abuse increases levels of DeltaFosB in the striatum. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of spontaneous wheel running, as a model for a natural rewarding behavior, on levels of DeltaFosB in striatal regions. Moreover, mice that inducibly overexpress DeltaFosB in specific subpopulations of striatal neurons were used to study the possible role of DeltaFosB on running behavior. Lewis rats given ad libitum access to running wheels for 30 d covered what would correspond to approximately 10 km/d and showed increased levels of DeltaFosB in the nucleus accumbens compared with rats exposed to locked running wheels. Mice that overexpress DeltaFosB selectively in striatal dynorphin-containing neurons increased their daily running compared with control littermates, whereas mice that overexpress DeltaFosB predominantly in striatal enkephalin-containing neurons ran considerably less than controls. Data from the present study demonstrate that like drugs of abuse, voluntary running increases levels of DeltaFosB in brain reward pathways. Furthermore, overexpression of DeltaFosB in a distinct striatal output neuronal population increases running behavior. Because previous work has shown that DeltaFosB overexpression within this same neuronal population increases the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, results of the present study suggest that DeltaFosB may play a key role in controlling both natural and drug-induced reward.

  2. Influence of wheel configuration on wheelchair basketball performance : Wheel stiffness, tyre type and tyre orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B. S.; Lemstra, M.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Vegter, R.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    The aim of the current investigation was to explore the lateral stiffness of different sports wheelchair wheels available to athletes in 'new' and 'used' conditions and to determine the effect of (a) stiffness, (b) tyre type (clincher vs. tubular) and (c) tyre orientation on the physiological and

  3. Wheel Torque Distribution of Four-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicles Based on Multi-Objective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The wheel driving torque on four-wheel-drive electric vehicles (4WDEVs can be modulated precisely and continuously, therefore maneuverability and energy-saving control can be carried out at the same time. In this paper, a wheel torque distribution strategy is developed based on multi-objective optimization to improve vehicle maneuverability and reduce energy consumption. In the high-layer of the presented method, sliding mode control is used to calculate the desired yaw moment due to the model inaccuracy and parameter error. In the low-layer, mathematical programming with the penalty function consisting of the yaw moment control offset, the drive system energy loss and the slip ratio constraint is used for wheel torque control allocation. The programming is solved with the combination of off-line and on-line optimization to reduce the calculation cost, and the optimization results are sent to motor controllers as torque commands. Co-simulation based on MATLAB® and Carsim® proves that the developed strategy can both improve the vehicle maneuverability and reduce energy consumption.

  4. Drowsy Driver Detection via Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina ABDUL RAHIM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to produce a safety system especially for fatigue car driver so as to prevent from accidents. The statistic on road fatality shows that human error constitute of 64.84 % road accidents fatality and 17.4 % due to technical factors. These systems encompassed the approach of hand pressure applied on the steering wheel. The steering will be installed with pressure sensors. At the same time these sensors can be used to measure gripping force while driving.

  5. MULTIAXIAL FATIGUE OF A RAILWAY WHEEL STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIN-SUNG CHUNG

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxial and biaxial torsional fatigue specimens were extracted from a railway wheel steel. The fatigue tests were performed with the stress ratio of R= -1 by using uniaxial and biaxial torsional fatigue test specimens at room temperature in air. The ultimate and yield strengths of the steel were evaluated. The uniaxial fatigue limit was 422.5 MPa, which corresponds to 67% of the ultimate tensile strength. The ratio of e  e  / was 0.63. Appropriate parameters to predict the fatigue life of the steel under multiaxial stress states were reviewed.

  6. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  7. Assisting People with Disabilities Improves Their Collaborative Pointing Efficiency through the Use of the Mouse Scroll Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    This study provided that people with multiple disabilities can have a collaborative working chance in computer operations through an Enhanced Multiple Cursor Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (EMCDPAP, a new kind of software that replaces the standard mouse driver, changes a mouse wheel into a thumb/finger poke detector, and manages mouse…

  8. Longitudinal wheel slip during ABS braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartikainen, Lassi; Petry, Frank; Westermann, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Anti-lock braking system (ABS) braking tests with two subcompact passenger cars were performed on dry and wet asphalt, as well as on snow and ice surfaces. The operating conditions of the tyres in terms of wheel slip were evaluated using histograms of the wheel slip data. The results showed different average slip levels for different road surfaces. It was also found that changes in the tyre tread stiffness affected the slip operating range through a modification of the slip value at which the maximum longitudinal force is achieved. Variation of the tyre footprint length through modifications in the inflation pressure affected the slip operating range as well. Differences in the slip distribution between vehicles with different brake controllers were also observed. The changes in slip operating range in turn modified the relative local sliding speeds between the tyre and the road. The results highlight the importance of the ABS controller's ability to adapt to changing slip-force characteristics of tyres and provide estimates of the magnitude of the effects of different tyre and road operating conditions.

  9. New Small Wheel Technical Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2071368; Pontecorvo, L; Dubbert, J; Mikenberg, G; Iengo, P; Dallapiccola, C; Amelung, C; Levinson, L; Richter, R; Lellouch, D; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2013-01-01

    In order to benefit from the expected high luminosity performance that will be provided by the Phase-I upgraded LHC, the first station of the ATLAS muon end-cap system (Small Wheel,SW) will need to be replaced. The New Small Wheel (NSW) will have to operate in a high background radiation region (up to 15 kHz=cm2) while reconstructing muon tracks with high precision, as well as furnishing information for the Level-1 trigger. These performance criteria are demanding. In particular, the precision reconstruction of tracks for offline analysis requires a spatial resolution of about 100microns, and the Level-1 trigger track segments have to be reconstructed online with an angular resolution of approximately 1mrad. The NSW will have two chamber technologies, one primarily devoted to the Level-1 trigger function (small-strip Thin Gap Chambers, sTGC) and one dedicated to precision tracking (Micromegas detectors, MM). The sTGC are primarily deployed for triggering given their single bunch crossing identification capabi...

  10. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jieh-Shian; Hsu, Hong-Yi; Chuang, Chih-Yuan

    2017-02-03

    This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU)-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x -axis or z -axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ± 0.015 ∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

  11. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieh-Shian Young

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x-axis or z-axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ± 0.015 ∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

  12. Dynamics of Railway Vehicles and Rail/Wheel Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In these notes the fundamentals of the mechanics of rail/wheel contact and deterministic vehicle dynamics is explained. Chapter 1 describes the kinematics and dynamics of rail/wheel contact. Chapter 2 explains why vehicle dynamics must be treated as a nonlinear dynamic problem and how the model p...

  13. Sleeping At The Wheel And Psychoactive Substance Use Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To prevent sleeping at the wheel psychoactive substance used included marijuana, caffeine, and alcohol. Factors associated with high prevalence of sleeping at the wheel included long hours of driving =40 hours per week, types of substance use to prevent sleep, and previous use of alcohol. Conclusion: There would be ...

  14. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory tracking...

  15. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter

    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory tracking...

  16. Research on Walking Wheel Slippage Control of Live Inspection Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; Liu, Xiaqing; Guo, Hao; Li, Jinliang; Liu, Lanlan

    2017-07-01

    To solve the problem of walking wheel slippage of a live inspection robot during walking or climbing, this paper analyzes the climbing capacity of the robot with a statics method, designs a pressing wheel mechanism, and presents a method of indirectly identifying walking wheel slippage by reading speed of the pressing wheel due to the fact that the linear speed of the pressing wheel and the walking wheel at the contract point is the same; and finds that the slippage state can not be controlled through accurate mathematical models after identifying the slippage state, whereas slippage can be controlled with fuzzy control. The experiment results indicate that due to design of the pressing wheel mechanism, friction force of the walking wheel is increased, and the climbing capability of the robot is improved. Within the range of climbing capability of the robot, gradient is the key factor that has influence on slippage of robot, and slippage can be effectively eliminated through the fuzzy control method proposed in this paper.

  17. 16 CFR 1512.12 - Requirements for wheel hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for wheel hubs. 1512.12 Section... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Regulations § 1512.12 Requirements for wheel hubs. All bicycles (other... the frame or fork when locked. (c) Front hubs. Front hubs not equipped with lever-operated quick...

  18. Anthropometry and Standards for Wheeled Mobility: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeld, Edward; Maisel, Jordana; Feathers, David; D'Souza, Clive

    2010-01-01

    Space requirements for accommodating wheeled mobility devices and their users in the built environment are key components of standards for accessible design. These requirements typically include dimensions for clear floor areas, maneuvering clearances, seat and knee clearance heights, as well as some reference dimensions on wheeled mobility device…

  19. Load-bearing processes in agricultural wheel-soil systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijink, F.G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In soil dynamics we distinguish between loosening and loadbearing processes. Load-bearing processes which can occur under agricultural rollers, wheels, and tyres are dealt with In this dissertation.

    We classify rollers, wheels, and tyres and treat some general aspects of these

  20. Prediction of aspects of soil-wheel systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, A.J.; Lerink, P.; Kurstjens, D.A.G.; Akker, van den J.J.H.; Arts, W.B.M.

    1992-01-01

    A simple formula is given which predicts maximum stress-depth relationships under wheels from vertical wheel load and the tyre inflation pressure. Predictions were compared with stress measurements at a depth of 30 cm under a wide range of vehicles. Stress measurements at a depth of 15 cm showed

  1. Low Adhesion in the Wheel-Rail Contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Cuevas, O.

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion, or adhesion coefficient, is given by the ratio of the longitudinal tangential (i.e., braking or traction) force over the normal force at the wheel-rail contact. The tangential force that a braking or tractive railway wheel can exert on a rail is limited by the friction coefficient

  2. First Wheel of the Hadronic EndCap Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    Oram, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    With the LAr calorimeters well advanced in module production, the attention is turning to Batiment 180 where the calorimeter modules are formed into complete detectors and inserted into their respective cryostats. For the Hadronic End Cap (HEC) Group the task in B180 is to assemble the wheels, rotate them into their final orientation, and put them onto the cradle in front of the End Cap Cryostat. These tasks have been completed for the first HEC wheel in the B180 End Cap Clean Room. Given that this wheel weighs 70 tons the group is very relieved to have established that these gymnastics with the wheel proceed in a routine fashion. To assemble a wheel we take modules that have already been cold tested, do the final electrical testing and locate them onto the HEC wheel assembly table. Four wheels are required in total, each consisting of 32 modules. Wheel assembly is done in the horizontal position, creating a doughnut-like object sitting on the HEC table. The first picture shows the last module being added ...

  3. Considering the Influence of Prerequisite Performance on Wheel Spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Beck, Joseph Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of wheel spinning refers to students attempting to solve problems on a particular skill, but becoming stuck due to an inability to learn the skill. Past research has found that students who do not master a skill quickly tend not to master it at all. One question is why do students wheel spin? A plausible hypothesis is that students…

  4. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  5. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    the effect of parameters such as friction coefficient, wheel/rail contact position, axle load, etc. on unstable vibration was examined. 2. Squeal Noise Tests. Figure 1 shows ..... static and dynamic behaviour of the wheel/rail depends on the boundary conditions and the constraints by springs. So the analysis was performed for ...

  6. 76 FR 29265 - Certain Steel Wheels From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Wheels From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... threatened with material injury by reason of imports from China of certain steel wheels, provided for in... United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Government of China.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record...

  7. 76 FR 18781 - Certain Steel Wheels From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Wheels From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of certain steel wheels... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to sections...

  8. Control of wheeled mobile robot in restricted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed A. H.; En, Chang Yong

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a simulation and practical control system for wheeled mobile robot in restricted environment. A wheeled mobile robot with 3 wheels is fabricated and controlled by proportional derivative active force control (PD-AFC) to move in a pre-planned restricted environment to maintain the tracking errors at zero level. A control system with two loops, outer by PD controller and inner loop by Active Force Control, are designed to control the wheeled mobile robot. Fuzzy logic controller is implemented in the Active force Control to estimate the inertia matrix that will be used to calculate the actual torque applied on the wheeled mobile robot. The mobile robot is tested in two different trajectories, namely are circular and straight path. The actual path and desired path are compared.

  9. Gestão integrada de resíduos químicos em instituições de ensino superior Integrated management for chemical residues in academic institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carla Giloni-Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since chemical residues management must be seriously considered at institutions of higher education and due to the relevance of this subject for students, this work proposes the involvement of the scientific community in the establishment of a program for management of chemical residues at universities, starting with a committee, to coordinate the process. The program should integrate the entire scientific community in an organized effort. The program involves legislative, educational and environmental management aspects, with environmental education as an important tool to integrate all the administrative areas of a chemistry department.

  10. UN-ECE task force. Management on by-products/residues containing heavy metals and/or persistent organic pollutants. Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, A.E.; Sammer, G.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    At its sixth session in July 1998, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) working group on abatement techniques recommended the establishment of a task force on the management of by-products and residues containing heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The aim of the task force was to support the parties, via the working group on abatement techniques, to comply with the requirements of the Aarhus protocols on heavy metals and POPs, and particularly those concerning the use and management of wastes containing these pollutants from different industrial sectors, including waste incineration. The task force built an earlier work conducted by the first task force an by-products utilization and waste management from fuel treatment and combustion (1986-91) and the second task force on by-product utilization from stationary installations (1991-96), and their respective status reports. Austria agreed to chair the task force, which held four meetings (Salzburg, Brussels, Ottawa and Zagreb) and one editorial conference (Frascati/Rome). Beside the lead country Belgium, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Italy, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia and the UN/ECE secretary were members of the task force. The work of the task force was also supported by EURELECTRIC, who hosted the meeting in Brussels and EUROCHLOR, who supported the writing of the Chlor-Alkali Chapter. The task force addressed the management of by-products and residues from the following industrial sectors: waste incineration; co-incineration; thermal electric power production; small-scale firing energy production; iron and steel production; aluminum production; copper, lead and zinc production; pulp and paper production; oil refineries; and chlor-alkali electrolysis. Information on these sectors was collected and reviewed. A questionnaire for most of the sectors was prepared and distributed to member states, requesting information an the management of the by

  11. Radiation safety management of residual long-lived radioactivity distributed in an inner concrete wall of a medical cyclotron room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, I.; Kimura, K.; Fujibuchi, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Saito, K.; Otake, H.

    2011-01-01

    The depth distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete wall of a medical cyclotron room was measured by assaying concrete cores. Seven long-lived radioactive nuclides ( 46 Sc, 60 Co, 65 Zn, 134 Cs, 152 Eu, 22 Na and 5 4 M n) were identified by gamma-ray spectrometry of the concrete samples. It was confirmed that the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides induced by thermal neutrons through the (n, γ) reaction are dominant, and that the activity induced by thermal neutrons is greater at a depth of 10-30 cm, rather than at the surface of the concrete, and decreased exponentially beyond a depth of ∼40 cm. Although the specific activity at the surface was greater than the clearance level for radioactive waste indicated in IAEA RS-G-1.7, the mean specific activities in the walls and floor were less than the clearance level. (authors)

  12. Radiation safety management of residual long-lived radioactivity distributed in an inner concrete wall of a medical cyclotron room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Kimura, Ken-ichi; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Saito, Kyoko; Otake, Hidenori

    2011-07-01

    The depth distribution of residual long-lived radioactivity in the inner concrete wall of a medical cyclotron room was measured by assaying concrete cores. Seven long-lived radioactive nuclides ((46)Sc, (60)Co, (65)Zn, (134)Cs, (152)Eu, (22)Na and (54)Mn) were identified by gamma-ray spectrometry of the concrete samples. It was confirmed that the gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides induced by thermal neutrons through the (n, γ) reaction are dominant, and that the activity induced by thermal neutrons is greater at a depth of 10-30 cm, rather than at the surface of the concrete, and decreased exponentially beyond a depth of ~40 cm. Although the specific activity at the surface was greater than the clearance level for radioactive waste indicated in IAEA RS-G-1.7, the mean specific activities in the walls and floor were less than the clearance level.

  13. The influence of friction coefficient and wheel/rail profiles on energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idarraga Alarcon, G.A.; Burgelman, N.D.M.; Meza Meza, J.; Toro, A.; Li, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the energy dissipation in a wheel/rail system through friction work modeling. In order to identify the effect of the friction coefficient on the energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact, several simulations were performed using a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle

  14. Installation of the first of the big wheels of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, a thin gap chamber (TGC) wheel

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    The muon spectrometer will include four big moving wheels at each end, each measuring 25 metres in diameter. Of the eight wheels in total, six will be composed of thin gap chambers for the muon trigger system and the other two will consist of monitored drift tubes (MDTs) to measure the position of the muons

  15. 77 FR 70478 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, Wheeling Office, A Division Of RG Steel, LLC, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives LLC, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Through Severstal..., Wheeling Office, a division of RG Steel, LLC, including on-site leased workers from Pro Unlimited and Green Energy Initiatives, LLC, Wheeling, West Virginia (TA-W-81,880) and Mountain State Carbon, LLC, including...

  16. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed. PMID:27973431

  17. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namju Jeon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  18. Fault estimation of satellite reaction wheels using covariance based adaptive unscented Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Afshin; Kumar, Krishna Dev; Alighanbari, Hekmat

    2017-05-01

    Reaction wheels, as one of the most commonly used actuators in satellite attitude control systems, are prone to malfunction which could lead to catastrophic failures. Such malfunctions can be detected and addressed in time if proper analytical redundancy algorithms such as parameter estimation and control reconfiguration are employed. Major challenges in parameter estimation include speed and accuracy of the employed algorithm. This paper presents a new approach for improving parameter estimation with adaptive unscented Kalman filter. The enhancement in tracking speed of unscented Kalman filter is achieved by systematically adapting the covariance matrix to the faulty estimates using innovation and residual sequences combined with an adaptive fault annunciation scheme. The proposed approach provides the filter with the advantage of tracking sudden changes in the system non-measurable parameters accurately. Results showed successful detection of reaction wheel malfunctions without requiring a priori knowledge about system performance in the presence of abrupt, transient, intermittent, and incipient faults. Furthermore, the proposed approach resulted in superior filter performance with less mean squared errors for residuals compared to generic and adaptive unscented Kalman filters, and thus, it can be a promising method for the development of fail-safe satellites.

  19. Integrated Fault Diagnosis Algorithm for Motor Sensors of In-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Namju; Lee, Hyeongcheol

    2016-12-12

    An integrated fault-diagnosis algorithm for a motor sensor of in-wheel independent drive electric vehicles is presented. This paper proposes a method that integrates the high- and low-level fault diagnoses to improve the robustness and performance of the system. For the high-level fault diagnosis of vehicle dynamics, a planar two-track non-linear model is first selected, and the longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated. To ensure redundancy of the system, correlation between the sensor and residual in the vehicle dynamics is analyzed to detect and separate the fault of the drive motor system of each wheel. To diagnose the motor system for low-level faults, the state equation of an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed, and a parity equation is used to diagnose the fault of the electric current and position sensors. The validity of the high-level fault-diagnosis algorithm is verified using Carsim and Matlab/Simulink co-simulation. The low-level fault diagnosis is verified through Matlab/Simulink simulation and experiments. Finally, according to the residuals of the high- and low-level fault diagnoses, fault-detection flags are defined. On the basis of this information, an integrated fault-diagnosis strategy is proposed.

  20. Vibration effect and control of In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor for electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Yinong; Huang, Jingying; Zhang, Nong

    2015-03-01

    The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) processes favorable driving capacity and great application potential in In-Wheel Motor (IWM) Electric Vehicle (EV). However vibration and noise problems are always the disadvantages of SRM. This paper investigates the vibration and noise issues and corresponding control methodology for the IWM application of SRM. By utilizing the analytical Fourier fitting method, a convenience method for modeling In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor (IW SRM) is proposed and the characteristics of the unbalanced residual lateral force related to vibration excitation are analyzed. Then the dynamic negative effect of IW SRM on vehicle is analyzed with a quarter driving and vibration vehicle model. It is found that the vertical shock occurs under the vehicle starting condition and high frequency force excitation exists under the constant speed condition. To address these issues, corresponding control methods are proposed, modified and compared. The proposed combined vibration feedback control of current chopping with PWM can effectively reduce the SRM residual force and ensure the required vehicle speed, though some slight low frequency forces are induced.

  1. Investigations passed on within the frame of the National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes: assessment of the issue on the impact of uranium mining residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses several documents addressing different aspects related to the impact of long-term storage of uranium mining residues in France: the long-term toughness of retention barriers or dams for residue storages, techniques of water processing, the assessment of the dosimetric impact of residue storages, and the assessment of the dosimetric impact associated with sterile residues

  2. Photos taken during the assembly of the first 4-plane wheel prototype, built in 1998.

    CERN Multimedia

    Dixon, N.

    1998-01-01

    Photo 1 - End Cap. 4 -plane wheel prototype - One plane complete. Photo 2 - End Cap. 4 -plane wheel prototype - Radiator Foil. Photo 3 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing technique. Photo 4 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing ring. Photo 5 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing ring. Photo 6 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Completed straw plane. Photo 7 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Webs on assembly table. Photo 8 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Operations on inner ring. Photo 9 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing operations. Photo 10 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing equipment. Photo 11 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Assembly of 4-plane wheel. Photo 12 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Positioning tool. Photo 13 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Testing. Photo 14 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glued to web ring 2. Photo 15 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Positioning tool. Photo 16 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Detail o...

  3. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  4. Biomass Production and Soil Carbon Level Changes in Various Tillage, Residue Management, and Cropping Systems in Moderately High Organic Matter Soils in Eastern South Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, H. J.; Bly, A.

    2003-12-01

    A four-year replicated field study was conducted in eastern South Dakota to assess the impact of maize (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop residue accumulation and soil carbon when various tillage, crop residue management, and crop rotation scenarios were applied. Before planting, half the plots were chisel plowed and harrowed (tilled vs. no-till treatments). Corn-soybean, soybean-wheat, or corn-wheat-soybean rotations were established (rotation treatments). After grain harvest, crop residues were removed on half of the plots (residue-removed vs. residue-retained treatments). The range of initial soil carbon levels (loss by ignition method) for the 0-15cm depth was 1.7-3.0%. Post-harvest crop residue accumulation was greatest for the residue-retained treatment compared to the residue-removed treatment and for the no-till treatment compared to the tilled treatment. In addition, surface biomass accumulation was greatest when maize was part of a crop rotation. Maize can produce greater levels of biomass compared to either spring wheat or soybean. The least surface biomass accumulation was measured in the soybean-wheat rotation.

  5. Management for Patients with De Novo or Recurrent Tumors in the Residual Kidney after Surgery for Nonfamilial Bilateral Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Hara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor de novo in the residual kidney after surgery for nonfamilial bilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC is problematic. We reviewed 5 patients who experienced such a situation. Three patients had had metachronous bilateral RCC, treated with radical nephrectomy in one kidney and nephron-sparing surgery (NSS in the other. Two patients had had synchronous disease; one patient had received radical nephrectomy and NSS, and the other bilateral NSS. The 5 patients had another solid mass/de novo tumor in the residual kidney 16–88 (mean 46.8 months after surgery. For the tumor de novo in earlier years (1992–1999, one patient underwent surgery and hemodialysis, and the other selected a conservative observation. In recent years (2000–2007, one patient was conservatively observed; the remaining 2 received computerized-tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation, and the local tumors were well controlled postoperatively for 20 and 12 months with their renal function unimpaired. Ablative techniques can potentially strike a balance between oncological and nephrological outcomes in patients with sporadic multiple RCC, successful management of which was difficult previously.

  6. Design of two wheel self balancing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-hong; Ren, Bin

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a design scheme of the two-wheel self-balancing dolly, the integration of the gyroscope and accelerometer MPU6050 constitutes the car position detection device.System selects 32-bit MCU stmicroelectronics company as the control core, completed the processing of sensor signals, the realization of the filtering algorithm, motion control and human-computer interaction. Produced and debugging in the whole system is completed, the car can realize the independent balance under the condition of no intervention. The introduction of a suitable amount of interference, the car can adjust quickly to recover and steady state. Through remote control car bluetooth module complete forward, backward, turn left and other basic action..

  7. Infinity properads and infinity wheeled properads

    CERN Document Server

    Hackney, Philip; Yau, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this book sits at the interface of the theory of higher categories (in the guise of (∞,1)-categories) and the theory of properads. Properads are devices more general than operads, and enable one to encode bialgebraic, rather than just (co)algebraic, structures.   The text extends both the Joyal-Lurie approach to higher categories and the Cisinski-Moerdijk-Weiss approach to higher operads, and provides a foundation for a broad study of the homotopy theory of properads. This work also serves as a complete guide to the generalised graphs which are pervasive in the study of operads and properads. A preliminary list of potential applications and extensions comprises the final chapter.   Infinity Properads and Infinity Wheeled Properads is written for mathematicians in the fields of topology, algebra, category theory, and related areas. It is written roughly at the second year graduate level, and assumes a basic knowledge of category theory.

  8. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. Spirit acquired this mosaic with the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. The view presented here is an approximately true-color rendering.

  9. The Manchester Colour Wheel: enhancing its utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Whorwell, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    The Manchester Colour Wheel was developed to investigate the role of colour in the perception of illness in gastroenterology. During validation it was found that positive, neutral, or negative connotations of the shade of a colour were more important than the colour itself. However, when asked to relate mood to a colour, the response rate was greater in individuals with mood disorders than healthy controls. This study assessed whether response rate could be made more uniform by changing the wording of the question. Mood/colour choice was compared, using two slightly different questions, in 105 and 203 healthy volunteers, resulting in response rates of 39% and 95% respectively, with the latter not associated with increased false positive responses. These results show that adjustment of the wording of a mood-related question may allow equal response rates irrespective of the mood status of participants.

  10. Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Zhang, H.; dikgwatlhe, S.B.; Xue, J.; Qiu, K.; Tang, H.; Chen, F.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientific community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different tillage systems and

  11. Tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management effects on soil organic carbon sequestration in rice-based cropping systems: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the major agricultural strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, enhance food security, and improve agricultural sustainability. This paper synthesizes the much-needed state-of-knowledge on the effects of management practices, such as tilla...

  12. Innovative market-based policy instruments for waste management: A case study on shredder residues in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten; Hoogmartens, Rob; Van Passel, Steven; Van Acker, Karel; Vanderreydt, Ive

    2015-10-01

    In an increasingly complex waste market, market-based policy instruments, such as disposal taxes, can give incentives for sustainable progress while leaving flexibility for innovation. However, implementation of disposal taxes is often criticised by domestic waste handlers that fear to be outcompeted by competitors in other countries. The article discusses three innovative market-based instruments that limit the impact on international competitiveness: Tradable recycling credits, refunded disposal taxes and differentiated disposal taxes. All three instruments have already been implemented for distinct environmental policies in Europe. In order to illustrate how these instruments can be used for waste policy, the literature review is complemented with a case study on shredder residues from metal-containing waste streams in Belgium. The analysis shows that a conventional disposal tax remains the most efficient, simple and transparent instrument. However, if international competition is a significant issue or if political support is weak, refunded and differentiated disposal taxes can have an added value as second-best instruments. Tradable recycling credits are not an appropriate instrument for use in small waste markets with market power. In addition, refunded taxes create similar incentives, but induce lower transactions costs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  14. Modeling and Control of Wheeled Mobile Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Patrick Fred

    The accurate model-based servo-control of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) relies upon the formulation of realistic kinematic and dynamic models. We identify six special WMR characteristics (closed-chains, higher-pair joints, unactuated and unsensed joints, friction, and pulse-width modulation) that require methodologies for modeling and control beyond those conventionally applied to stationary manipulators. Then, we develop methodologies for the kinematic and dynamic modeling of robotic mechanisms incorporating these special characteristics. We introduce instantaneously coincident coordinate systems and the wheel Jacobian to resolve WMR kinematic modeling. We introduce the concepts of force/torque propagation and frictional coupling at a joint to formulate a powerful unifying dynamic modeling framework. We compute the inverse and forward kinematic and dynamic solutions for model-based WMR servo-control and simulation. We demonstrate the applicability of (kinematics -based) resolved motion rate and (dynamics-based) resolved acceleration servo-control methodologies to WMRs through computer simulation evaluation studies. We exemplify our modeling and servo-control methodologies through Uranus, a three degree-of-freedom (DOF) WMR, and Bicsun-Bicas, a two DOF WMR. Our results show that resolved motion rate servo-control is adequate for general-purpose applications of Uranus. In contrast, the mechanically simpler Bicsun -Bicas requires the computationaly complex resolved acceleration servo-control to compensate for the significant coupling and nonlinear components in its dynamic model. We recommend Bicsun-Bicas with resolved acceleration servo-control for general-purpose indoor applications because it is mechanically simple, capable of tracking any spatial x-y path, and if a turret is added, provides onboard manipulators, sensors, or docking instruments with three DOFs.

  15. Wheel liner design for improved sound and structural performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Alexandru; Diaconescu, Claudiu; Tabacu, Ştefan

    2017-10-01

    Vehicle noise is composed mainly of wheel-road noise and noise from the power unit. At low speeds power unit noise dominates while at high speeds wheel-road noise dominates as wheel-road noise level increases approximately logarithmically with speed. The wheel liner is designed as a component of the vehicle that has a multiple role. It has to prevent the dirt or water from the road surface that are engaged by the wheel to access the engine/front bay. Same time it has the important role to reduce perceived noised in the passenger’s compartment that comes from the wheel-road interaction. Progress in plastic injection moulding technology allowed for new structures to be developed - nonwoven materials in combination with a PP based carrier structure which benefits from a cell structure caused by MuCell injection moulding. The results are light parts with increased sound absorption performances. An adapted combination of materials and production processes can provide the solution for stiff yet soundproofing structures valued for modern vehicles. Sound absorption characteristics of materials used for wheel liners applications were reported in this study. Different polypropylene and polyester fibre-based thermally bonded nonwovens varying in weight and thickness were investigated. Having as a background the performances of the nonwoven material the microcellular structure was part of the analysis. Acoustical absorptive behaviour was explained by analysing the results obtained using the impedance tube and correlating with the knowledge of materials structure.

  16. Diagnostics of the wheel thread of railway rolling stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Buryak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. At present, the devastating impact of faulty wheels on rails on the move is a major problem of railway transport. This factor is one of the most important, which causes the shift from traditional manual methods of verification and external examination to the automated diagnostic system of rolling stock in operation. Methodology. To achieve this goal the main types of wheel damages and the way they appear are analyzed. The methods for defects and abnormalities of the wheel thread determining as well as their advantages and disadvantages were presented. Nowadays these methods are under usage in both the international practice and in the one of the CIS countries. Findings. The faulty wheel sound on the move was researched and analyzed. The necessity of using the automated system, enabling one to reduce significantly the human factor is substantiated. Originality. The method to determine the wheel thread damage on the basis of a sound diagnostic is proposed. Practical value. Automatic tracking system of the wheels condition allows performing their more qualitative diagnostics, detecting a fault at the early stage and forecasting the rate of its extension. Besides detecting the location of the faulty wheel in the rolling stock, it is also possible to trace the dynamics of the fault extension and to give the recommendations on how to eliminate it.

  17. Periodontal regenerative management of residual tunnel osseous defect results from the enucleation of lateral periodontal cyst in anterior maxilla: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Salaria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lateral periodontal cyst (LPC is a nonkeratinized, noninflammatory developmental cyst occurring adjacent or lateral to tooth root. It is a relatively uncommon lesion found in the maxillary incisors and found mostly in adults during 5th to 7th decades. In this case, 45-year-old male patient reported with occasional mild discomfort between left maxillary central and lateral incisor region since 1 year. Interproximally, a well-defined round radiolucent area with corticated borders was determined radiographically between vital tooth #21 and #22. Preliminary diagnosis of LPC was established based on clinical and radiographical findings. Following enucleation of the lesion, an anticipated residual tunnel osseous defect was observed, which was managed successfully utilizing bone graft and guided tissue regeneration-assisted technique. Cystic tissue removed was examined histologically; hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections showed features suggestive of LPC. Complete healing of tunnel defect was achieved at 1 year follow-up.

  18. Periodontal regenerative management of residual tunnel osseous defect results from the enucleation of lateral periodontal cyst in anterior maxilla: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Gulati, Minkle; Ahuja, Samir; Goyal, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    The lateral periodontal cyst (LPC) is a nonkeratinized, noninflammatory developmental cyst occurring adjacent or lateral to tooth root. It is a relatively uncommon lesion found in the maxillary incisors and found mostly in adults during 5 th to 7 th decades. In this case, 45-year-old male patient reported with occasional mild discomfort between left maxillary central and lateral incisor region since 1 year. Interproximally, a well-defined round radiolucent area with corticated borders was determined radiographically between vital tooth #21 and #22. Preliminary diagnosis of LPC was established based on clinical and radiographical findings. Following enucleation of the lesion, an anticipated residual tunnel osseous defect was observed, which was managed successfully utilizing bone graft and guided tissue regeneration-assisted technique. Cystic tissue removed was examined histologically; hematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections showed features suggestive of LPC. Complete healing of tunnel defect was achieved at 1 year follow-up.

  19. TO SUBSTANTIATION OF COMBINE WHEELED CHASSIS FOR BEET HARVESTING EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Tajanowskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a current scientific and technical problem pertaining to creation of multi-bridge wheeled chassis for highly efficient modular sugar beet harvesters of large cargo capacity and, in particular, to selection of main parameters of chassis and wheeled drive. Such machines are designed for operation under complicated soil and climatic conditions during sugar beet harvesting. Methodological rules and regulations have been developed for solution of problems pertaining to scientifically sunstantiated selection of a manufactured or developed wheeled chassis model, building-block parameters of a working device and a chassis, rational control algorithm of the unit running system while using a specified (domestic or foreign semi-mounted equipment for beet harvesting. While solving the problem theoretical provisions for wheeled vehicles regarding specific features of a wheeled chassis for modular sugar beet harvesters with extensive mechanical or hydrostatic wheel drive of a multi-bridge propulsion system have been developed in the paper. Calculated and theoretical expressions for determination of main parameters for a wheeled chassis have been obtained and they include physical quantities of operational conditions that explicitly determine its working process. Such approach has made it possible to realize the obtained expressions as a software application which is suitable for analysis of main parameters in respect of the investigated harvester chassis and rational parameters of a branch wheel drive and also for a complete set of tires in the case when a sugar beet harvester is designed on the basis of wheeled chassis according to the selected scheme. Investigations have theoretical significance and represent practical interest for development spesialists of new modular multi-bridge sugar beet harvesters.

  20. Sistemas de colheita e manejo da palhada de cana-de-açúcar Harvest systems and residue management of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigomar Menezes de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A colheita com cana crua está cada vez mais presente no sistema de produção da cana-de-açúcar no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de colheita e manejo da cana crua com e sem incorporação da palhada e cana queimada nos atributos físicos do solo e na produção de colmos em cana-de-açúcar cultivada em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. Os tratamentos foram cana-de-açúcar com queima e corte manual; cana-de-açúcar sem queima e corte mecanizado, com incorporação da palha triturada até 0,30 m; e cana-de-açúcar sem queima e corte mecanizado, sem incorporação da palha triturada. Foram determinadas a composição granulométrica, matéria orgânica, estabilidade de agregados, densidade e porosidade do solo nas profundidades de 0,0-0,1, 0,1-0,2 e 0,2-0,3 m e resistência do solo à penetração e teor de água no solo nas profundidades de 0,0-0,1, 0,1-0,2, 0,2-0,3 e 0,3-0,4 m. No sistema de cana crua com incorporação da palhada, a maior produção de colmos foi alcançada, além de maiores valores de matéria orgânica, estabilidade de agregados, macroporosidade e teor de água no solo e menores valores de resistência do solo à penetração e densidade do solo, comparado ao sistema cana crua sem incorporação da palhada e cana queimada.The use of sugarcane harvesting without residue burning is a common harvesting management in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of harvest systems and management of sugarcane with and without trash incorporation and of burned sugarcane on soil physical attributes as on production of stems in a Red Yellow Latosol (Typic Hapludox. The treatments can be described as sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum with burning and manual cutting; sugarcane without burning and automated cutting, with incorporation of chopped residue down to 0.30 m; sugarcane without burning and automated cutting, without incorporation of chopped residue. The particle

  1. Model-based analysis and simulation of regenerative heat wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Melnik, Roderick V. N.; Borup, F.

    2006-01-01

    of mathematical models for the thermal analysis of the fluid and wheel matrix. The effect of heat conduction in the direction of the fluid flow is taken into account and the influence of variations in rotating speed of the wheel as well as other characteristics (ambient temperature, airflow and geometric size......The rotary regenerator (also called the heat wheel) is an important component of energy intensive sectors, which is used in many heat recovery systems. In this paper, a model-based analysis of a rotary regenerator is carried out with a major emphasis given to the development and implementation...

  2. Dynamics of omnidirectional unmanned rescue vehicle with mecanum wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Typiak, Andrzej; Łopatka, Marian Janusz; Rykała, Łukasz; Kijek, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The work presents the dynamic equations of motion of a unmanned six-wheeled vehicle with mecanum wheels for rescue applications derived with the of Lagrange equations of the second kind with multipliers. Analysed vehicle through using mecanum wheels has three degrees of freedom and can move on a flat ground in any direction with any configuration of platform's frame. In order to derive dynamic equations of motion of mentioned object, kinetic potential of the system and generalized forces affecting the system are determined. The results of a solution of inverse dynamics problem are also published.

  3. 14 CFR 23.511 - Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 23.511 Section 23.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Ground Loads § 23.511 Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units... distribution, to the dual wheels and tires in each dual wheel landing gear unit. (c) Deflated tire loads. For...

  4. 14 CFR 29.511 - Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... multiple-wheel units. 29.511 Section 29.511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Requirements Ground Loads § 29.511 Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units. (a) In dual-wheel gear units, 60 percent of the total ground reaction for the gear unit must be applied to one wheel and...

  5. 76 FR 55012 - Certain Steel Wheels From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... based on use that could present customs classification problems as well as enable steel wheels of the... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-974] Certain Steel Wheels From... provided to producers and exporters of certain steel wheels (steel wheels) from the People's Republic of...

  6. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  7. Determining Wheel-Soil Interaction Loads Using a Meshfree Finite Element Approach Assisting Future Missions with Rover Wheel Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Peng, Chia-Yen; Wang, Dongdong; Chen, Jiun-Shyan

    2012-01-01

    A wheel experiencing sinkage and slippage events poses a high risk to rover missions as evidenced by recent mobility challenges on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project. Because several factors contribute to wheel sinkage and slippage conditions such as soil composition, large deformation soil behavior, wheel geometry, nonlinear contact forces, terrain irregularity, etc., there are significant benefits to modeling these events to a sufficient degree of complexity. For the purposes of modeling wheel sinkage and slippage at an engineering scale, meshfree finite element approaches enable simulations that capture sufficient detail of wheel-soil interaction while remaining computationally feasible. This study demonstrates some of the large deformation modeling capability of meshfree methods and the realistic solutions obtained by accounting for the soil material properties. A benchmark wheel-soil interaction problem is developed and analyzed using a specific class of meshfree methods called Reproducing Kernel Particle Method (RKPM). The benchmark problem is also analyzed using a commercially available finite element approach with Lagrangian meshing for comparison. RKPM results are comparable to classical pressure-sinkage terramechanics relationships proposed by Bekker-Wong. Pending experimental calibration by future work, the meshfree modeling technique will be a viable simulation tool for trade studies assisting rover wheel design.

  8. Cassini Attitude Control Operations - Guidelines Levied on Science to Extend Reaction Wheel Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Carson O.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. Cassini deployed the European-built Huygens probe, which descended through the Titan atmosphere (Saturn's largest moon) and landed on its surface on January 14, 2005. The Cassini mission has recently been approved by NASA to continue through September of 2017. This 7-year extension is called the Solstice mission and it presents challenges to the spacecraft operations team and its ability to maintain the health of the spacecraft. To keep the spacecraft healthy for 7 more years, the spacecraft team must carefully manage hydrazine use (about 48% of the 132 kg launch load remains as of January 2011). A vital part of conserving hydrazine is to use the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) control system for precise pointing and slews wherever possible. In any given week, the Cassini spacecraft is commanded to use RWA control about 99% of the time, with about 1% of the time requiring reaction control system (RCS) thruster control (to perform Delta V course corrections or to bias the RWA momentum). Such extensive use of the RWA hardware throughout the mission requires that the RWAs be operated in a way that minimizes degradation in the RWA electronics, DC motor, and spin bearing for each reaction wheel. Three consumables in particular have been identified for the RWAs: (1) Total number of revolutions for each RWA. (2) Time spent at very low wheel speeds. At these low speeds, good elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) film lubrication may be compromised. (3) Total number of on/off power cycles. The second of these consumables, minimizing the time spent at very low wheel speeds, is especially important to keep the spin bearing healthy and well-lubricated. These consumables are actively managed by the attitude control operations team throughout the mission. One vital management

  9. System design and energetic characterization of a four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid electric powertrain for heavy-duty applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Enhua; Guo, Di; Yang, Fuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid powertrain is proposed. • A system model and a rule-based control strategy are designed. • Energetic performance is compared to a rear-wheel-driven hybrid powertrain. • Less torsional oscillation and more robust regenerative braking are achieved. - Abstract: Powertrain topology design is vital for system performance of a hybrid electric vehicle. In this paper, a novel four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid electric powertrain is proposed. A motor is connected to the differential of the rear axle. An auxiliary power unit is linked to the differential of the front axle via a clutch. First, a mathematical model was established to evaluate the fuel-saving potential. A rule-based energy management algorithm was subsequently designed, and its working parameters were optimized. The hybrid powertrain system was applied to a transit bus, and the system characteristics were analyzed. Compared to an existing coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain, the fuel economy of the four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid powertrain can be at the same level under normal road conditions. However, the proposed four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid powertrain can recover braking energy more efficiently under road conditions with a low adhesive coefficient and can alleviate the torsional oscillation occurring at the existing coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain. Therefore, the four-wheel-driven series–parallel hybrid powertrain is a good solution for transit buses toward more robust performance.

  10. Modeling of Railway Wheels Made of Austempered Ductile Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giętka T.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A person is forced to travel constantly throughout its entire life. The more modern the society, the greater the pace of life, and the greater the need to be present in many places that are distant from each other. Rail transport occupies second place in this regard, after air transport. This means of transportation has many advantages, however the time of travel requires continuous improvement, in particular, to match the competition. One factor limiting the speed of travel is inter-operation between the wheels – rail kinematic pair. When rolling on a rail, a wheel is subject to wear, which unavoidably leads to its degradation. Frequent damage to both the wheel and the rail necessitates consideration of this problem. Because any changes to the rail are very expensive and time-consuming, this paper focuses on possible changes to the wheel.

  11. Characterization of grinding wheels: An annotated Bibliography. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClung, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    The characteristics of grinding wheels, after both fabrication and periods of operation, have a significant effect on the processed surface and the mechanical properties of advanced ceramics. An extensive literature survey and review has been conducted to determine and catalogue the various characterization methods that have been investigated and reported. Although many of the references have addressed the grinding of metals, the historical and technical merit justify their inclusion in this bibliography. For convenience, the references have been subdivided into nine subheadings: Nondestructive examination; elasticity and stiffness; wheel hardness; topography and profilometry; observation of texture of wheel surfaces wheel wear; in process monitoring of grinding, acoustic emission, other; characteristics of ground surfaces; and miscellaneous.

  12. Stereotypic wheel running decreases cortical activity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Simon P.; Cui, Nanyi; McKillop, Laura E.; Gemignani, Jessica; Bannerman, David M.; Oliver, Peter L.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness is thought to gradually increase ‘sleep need' and influence subsequent sleep duration and intensity, but the role of specific waking behaviours remains unclear. Here we report the effect of voluntary wheel running during wakefulness on neuronal activity in the motor and somatosensory cortex in mice. We find that stereotypic wheel running is associated with a substantial reduction in firing rates among a large subpopulation of cortical neurons, especially at high speeds. Wheel running also has longer-term effects on spiking activity across periods of wakefulness. Specifically, cortical firing rates are significantly higher towards the end of a spontaneous prolonged waking period. However, this increase is abolished when wakefulness is dominated by running wheel activity. These findings indicate that wake-related changes in firing rates are determined not only by wake duration, but also by specific waking behaviours. PMID:27748455

  13. GPM Ground Validation Doppler on Wheels (DOW) OLYMPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Doppler on Wheels (DOW) OLYMPEX dataset was obtained by a dual-polarization and dual-frequency X-band mobile radar operated by the Center...

  14. Evaluation of bias in the Hamburg wheel tracking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    As the list of states adopting the Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device (HWTD) continues to grow, there is a need to evaluate how results are utilized. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials T 324 does not standardize the analysi...

  15. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  16. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao

    2017-09-01

    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  17. Numerical and experimental analysis of a solid desiccant wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koronaki Irene P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotary desiccant dehumidifier is an important component which can be used in air conditioning systems in order to reduce the electrical energy consumption and introduce renewable energy sources. In this study a one dimensional gas side resistance model is presented for predicting the performance of the desiccant wheel. Measurements from two real sorption wheels are used in order to validate the model. One wheel uses silica gel as desiccant material and the other lithium chloride. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The model is used to compare the counter flow with the co-current wheel arrangements and to explain why the counter flow one is more efficient for air dehumidification.

  18. Reaction Wheel Disturbance Model Extraction Software, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reaction wheel mechanical noise is one of the largest sources of disturbance forcing on space-based observatories. Such noise arises from mass imbalance, bearing...

  19. Miniature Reaction Wheel for Small Satellite Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to design, develop, demonstrate, and deliver a miniature, high torque, low-vibration reaction wheel for use on small satellites....

  20. Synthesis and crystal structure of a wheel-shaped supramolecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 5. Synthesis and crystal structure of a wheel-shaped supramolecular coordination complex. Deepak Gupta Palanisamy Rajakannu Bhaskaran Shankar Firasat Hussain Malaichamy Sathiyendiran. Special issue on Chemical Crystallography Volume 126 ...

  1. Characteristics of The Magnet Wheel As A Magnetic Levitation Device of Induction Type

    OpenAIRE

    藤井, 信男; 小川, 幸吉; 松本, 敏雄; Nobuo, FUJII; Kokichi, OGAWA; Toshio, MATSUMOTO; 九州大学; 大分大学; 安川電機; Kyushu University; Oita University; Yaskawa Electric Co., Ltd.

    1996-01-01

    A new type of magnetic wheel called the "magnet wheel" has been proposed. The magnet wheel has both magnetic levitation and linear drive functions combined into one. In the magnet wheel, the permanent magnets are rotated over the conducting plate so that an induction type of repulsive lift force is obtained. To produce thrust from the drag torque which is simultaneously induced with the lift force, the "tilt type" and "partial overlap type" magnet wheels have been proposed. Poor power factor ...

  2. Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuech, Andrea; Nelles, Michael; Tscherpel, Burckhard; El Behery, Ahmed; Menanz, Rania; Bahl, Hubert; Scheel, Michael; Nipkow, Mareen

    2015-01-01

    The project Climate protection, natural resources management and soil improvement by combined Energetic and Material Utilization of lignocellulosic agricultural WAstes and residues (CEMUWA) was implemented with long-term partners from Egypt and Germany leaded by the Department Waste Management and Material Flow from September 2011 until October 2013. Aim of the project was the development of technologies for the utilization of agricultural wastes and residues at the example of rice straw, with the focus on the energetic and material use. In the long term a contribution to climate protection and natural resource management could be reached. The focus was on investigations in the field of biogas, ethanol and butanol production including pretreatment as well as the material use in horticulture. The results show that the biogas and ethanol production with adapted pretreatments of rice straws is possible. The technical adaptation of a biogas plant (eo-digestion) would be associated with about 20% higher investment costs and higher operating costs with an approximately 15% higher energy demand. In Germany, however, this may still economically by the substitution of expensive or difficult available energy crops (reduction of substrate costs by 30 to 35% for a 600 kWel-BGP using maize silage). The investigated solutions for material use in Egypt showed good results, which in some cases exceeded the expectations. By the use of rice straw imported peat substrates could be substitute or irrigation water saved, what is ecologically and economically useful. The production of ethanol from rice straw was implemented on laboratory scale and preconditions for investigations in semi-industrial and partly pilot scale were created. The bilateral project'' was funded in the framework of the German-Egypt-Research-Fond (GERF) by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Egyptian Science and Technology Development Fund in Egypt (STDF). The total budget

  3. Wheel rolling constraints and slip in mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, S.

    1997-03-01

    It is widely accepted that dead reckoning based on the rolling with no slip condition on wheels is not a reliable method to ascertain the position and orientation of a mobile robot for any reasonable distance. The author establishes that wheel slip is inevitable under the dynamic model of motion using classical results on the accessibility and controllability in nonlinear control theory and an analytical model of rolling of two linearly elastic bodies.

  4. FUNCTIONAL PEARL : lazy wheel sieves and spirals of primes

    OpenAIRE

    Runciman, C.

    1997-01-01

    The popular method of enumerating the primes is the Sieve of Eratosthenes. It can be programmed very neatly in a lazy functional language, but runs rather slowly. A little-known alternative method is the Wheel Sieve, originally formulated as a fast imperative algorithm for obtaining all primes up to a given limit, assuming destructive access to a bit-array. This article describes functional variants of the wheel sieve that enumerate all primes as a lazy list.

  5. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  6. In-wheel hub SRM simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Milton W., III

    Is it feasible to replace the conventional gasoline engine and subsequent drive system in a motorcycle with an electric switched reluctance motor (SRM) by placing the SRM inside the rear wheel, thereby removing the need for things such as a clutch, chain, transmission, gears and sprockets? The goal of this thesis is to study the theoretical aspect of prototyping and analyzing an in-wheel electric hub motor to replace the standard gasoline engine traditionally found on motorcycles. With the recent push for clean energy, electric vehicles are becoming more common. All currently produced electric motorcycles use conventional, prefabricated electric motors connected to the traditional sprocket and chain design. This greatly restricts the efficiency and range of these motorcycles. My design stands apart by turning the rear wheel into a SRM which uses electromagnets around a non-magnetic core to convert electrical energy into mechanical force driving the rear wheel. To my knowledge, there is currently no motorcycle designed with an in-wheel hub SRM. A three-phase SRM and a five-phase SRM will be simulated and analyzed using MATLAB with Simulink. Factors such as friction, weight, power, etc. will be taken into account in order to create a realistic simulation as if it were inside the rear wheel of a motorcycle. Since time and finances will not allow for a full scale build, a scaled model three-phase SRM will be attempted for demonstration purposes.

  7. Milestone reached for the Big Wheels of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Sandro Palestini

    The assembly and integration of the Big Wheels sectors of the Muon Spectrometer is reaching its conclusion, with only a few sectors of Wheel TGC-A-3 remaining on the assembly stations in building 180. The six trigger chambers (TGCs) wheels and two precision chambers wheels (MDTs) contain in total 104 sectors, which were assembled, equipped with detectors and fully tested over a period of two years. The few remaining Big Wheel sectors still stored in building 180 Most of the sectors left building 180 over the last twelve months, and form the six Wheels currently installed in the ATLAS detector. The remaining two will be installed before the end of the summer. The commitment of the personnel from the many teams who contributed to different parts of the project was essential to its success. In particular, teams coming from countries of different traditions and languages, such as China, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, Russia and USA contributed and collaborated very effectively to the timely completion of the p...

  8. Practical recommendations for the management of cardiovascular risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia, with special attention to residual risk. Spanish adaptation of a European Consensus of Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document has discussed clinical approaches to managing cardiovascular risk in clinical practice, with special focus on residual cardiovascular risk associated with lipid abnormalities, especially atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD). A simplified definition of AD was proposed to enhance understanding of this condition, its prevalence and its impact on cardiovascular risk. AD can be defined by high fasting triglyceride levels (≥2.3mmol/L / ≥200mg/dL) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels (≤1,0 / 40 and ≤1,3mmol/L / 50mg/dL in men and women, respectively) in statin-treated patients at high cardiovascular risk. The use of a single marker for the diagnosis and treatment of AD, such as non-HDL-c, was advocated. Interventions including lifestyle optimization and low density lipoprotein (LDL) lowering therapy with statins (±ezetimibe) are recommended by experts. Treatment of residual AD can be performed with the addition of fenofibrate, since it can improve the complete lipoprotein profile and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with AD. Others clinical condictions in which fenofibrate may be prescribed include patients with very high TGs (≥5.6mmol/L / 500mg/dL), patients who are intolerant or resistant to statins, and patients with AD and at high cardiovascular risk. The fenofibrate-statin combination was considered by the experts to benefit from a favorable benefit-risk profile. In conclusion, cardiovascular experts adopt a multifaceted approach to the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, with lifestyle optimization, LDL-lowering therapy and treatment of AD with fenofibrate routinely used to help reduce a patient's overall cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. Pesticide residue concentration in soil following conventional and Low-Input Crop Management in a Mediterranean agro-ecosystem, in Central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasali, Helen; Marousopoulou, Anna; Machera, Kyriaki

    2016-01-15

    The present study was focused on the comparative evaluation of pesticide residues, determined in soil samples from Kopaida region, Greece before and after the implementation of Low-Input Crop Management (LCM) protocols. LCM has been suggested as an environmental friendly plant protection approach to be applied on crops growing in vulnerable to pollution ecosystems, with special focus on the site specific problems. In the case of the specific pilot area, the vulnerability was mainly related to the pollution of water bodies from agrochemicals attributed to diffuse pollution primarily from herbicides and secondarily from insecticides. A total of sixty-six soil samples, were collected and analyzed during a three-year monitoring study and the results of the determined pesticide residues were considered for the impact evaluation of applied plant protection methodology. The LCM was developed and applied in the main crops growing in the pilot area i.e. cotton, maize and industrial tomato. Herbicides active ingredients such as ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, S-metolachlor and fluometuron were detected in most samples at various concentrations. Ethalfluralin, which was the active ingredient present in the majority of the samples ranged from 0.01 μg g(-1) to 0.26 μg g(-1) soil dry weight. However, the amount of herbicides measured after the implementation of LCM for two cropping periods, was reduced by more than 75% in all cases. The method of analysis was based on the simultaneous extraction of the target compounds by mechanical shaking, followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometric and gas chromatography electron capture (LC-MS/MS and GC-ECD) analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-06-01

    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Control of two Wheeled Welding Mobile Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ngo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-linked manipulator mounted on a two-wheeled mobile platform is used to weld a long curved welding path. A welding torch mounted at the end of a manipulator of the welding mobile manipulator (WMM must be controlled for tracking a welding path with constant velocity and constant welding angle of torch. In this paper, a decentralized control method is applied to control the WMM considered as two separate subsystems such as a mobile platform and a manipulator. Two decentralized motion controllers are designed to control two subsystems of WMM, respectively. Firstly, based on a tracking error vector of the manipulator and a feedback motion of the mobile platform, a kinematic controller is designed for manipulator. Secondly, based on an another tracking error vector of the mobile platform and a feedback angular velocities of revolution joints of three-link, a sliding mode controller is designed for the mobile platform. These controllers are obtained based on the Lyapunov's function and its stability condition to ensure for the tracking error vectors to be asymptotically stable. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC– time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, V.C.; Lehotay, S.J.; Geis-Asteggiantec, L.; Kwon, H.; Mol, J.G.J.; Kamp, van der H.J.; Mateus, N.; Domingues, V.F.; Delerue-Matos, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming to integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy,

  13. Integration Design and Optimization Control of a Dynamic Vibration Absorber for Electric Wheels with In-Wheel Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchun Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integration design scheme and an optimization control strategy for electric wheels to suppress the in-wheel vibration and improve vehicle ride comfort. The in-wheel motor is considered as a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA, which is isolated from the unsprung mass by using a spring and a damper. The proposed DVA system is applicable for both the inner-rotor motor and outer-rotor motor. Parameters of the DVA system are optimized for the typical conditions, by using the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, to achieve an acceptable vibration performance. Further, the DVA actuator force is controlled by using the alterable-domain-based fuzzy control method, to adaptively suppress the wheel vibration and reduce the wallop acting on the in-wheel motor (IWM as well. In addition, a suspension actuator force is also controlled, by using the linear quadratic regulator (LQR method, to enhance the suspension performance and meanwhile improve vehicle ride comfort. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed DVA system effectively suppresses the wheel vibration and simultaneously reduces the wallop acting on the IWM. Also, the alterable-domain-based fuzzy control method performs better than the conventional ones, and the LQR-based suspension exhibits excellent performance in vehicle ride comfort.

  14. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  15. Torque blending and wheel slip control in EVs with in-wheel motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ricardo; Araújo, Rui E.; Tanelli, Mara; Savaresi, Sergio M.; Freitas, Diamantino

    2012-01-01

    Among the many opportunities offered by electric vehicles (EVs), the design of power trains based on in-wheel electric motors represents, from the vehicle dynamics point of view, a very attractive prospect, mainly due to the torque-vectoring capabilities. However, this distributed propulsion also poses some practical challenges, owing to the constraints arising from motor installation in a confined space, to the increased unsprung mass weight and to the integration of the electric motor with the friction brakes. This last issue is the main theme of this work, which, in particular, focuses on the design of the anti-lock braking system (ABS). The proposed structure for the ABS is composed of a tyre slip controller, a wheel torque allocator and a braking supervisor. To address the slip regulation problem, an adaptive controller is devised, offering robustness to uncertainties in the tyre-road friction and featuring a gain-scheduling mechanism based on the vehicle velocity. Further, an optimisation framework is employed in the torque allocator to determine the optimal split between electric and friction brake torque based on energy performance metrics, actuator constraints and different actuators bandwidth. Finally, based on the EV working condition, the priorities of this allocation scheme are adapted by the braking supervisor unit. Simulation results obtained with the CarSim vehicle model, demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  16. Modeling of traction-coupling properties of wheel propulsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    In conditions of operation of aggregates on soils with low bearing capacity, the main performance indicators of their operation are determined by the properties of retaining the functional qualities of the propulsor. Therefore, the parameters of the anti-skid device can not be calculated by only one criterion. The equipment of propellers with anti-skid devices, which allow to reduce the compaction effect of the propulsion device on the soil, seems to be a rational solution to the problem of increasing traction and coupling properties of the driving wheels. The mathematical model is based on the study of the interaction of the driving wheel with anti-skid devices and a deformable bearing surface, which takes into account the wheel diameter, skid coefficient, the parameters of the anti-skid device, the physical and mechanical properties of the soil. As a basic mathematical model that determines the dependence of the coupling properties on the wheel parameters, the model obtained as a result of integration and reflecting the process of soil deformation from the shear stress is adopted. The total value of the resistance forces will determine the force of the hitch pressure on the horizontal soil layers, and the value of its deformation is the degree of wheel slippage. When the anti-skid devices interact with the soil, the traction capacity of the wheel is composed of shear forces, soil shear and soil deformation forces with detachable hooks. As a result of the interaction of the hook with the soil, the latter presses against the walls of the hook with the force equal to the sum of the hook load and the resistance to movement. During operation, the linear dimensions of the hook will decrease, which is not taken into account by the safety factor. Abrasive wear of the thickness of the hook is approximately proportional to the work of friction caused by the movement of the hook when inserted into the soil and slipping the wheel.

  17. Finite element analysis of rail-wheel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, F.; Kharlamov, Y.A.; Islam, S.; Khan, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Damage mechanisms such as surface cracks, plastic deformation and wear can significantly reduce the service life of railway track and rolling stock. They also have a negative impact on the rolling noise as well as: on the riding comfort. A proper understanding of these mechanisms requires a detailed knowledge of physical interaction between wheel and rail. Furthermore, demands for higher train speeds and increased axle loads implies that the consequences of larger contact. forces between wheel and rail must be thoroughly investigated. Two methods have traditionally been used to investigate the rail-wheel contact, that is the Hertz analytical method and simplified numerical method based on the boundary element (BE) method. These methods rely on a half-space assumption and a linear material model. This paper presents that to overcome these limitations, a tool for FE-based quasistatic wheel-rail contact simulations has been developed. The tool is a library of ANSYS macro routines for configuring, meshing and loading of a parametric wheel-rail model. The meshing is based on measured wheel and rail profiles. The wheel and rail materials in the contact region are treated as elastic-plastic with kinematic hardening. By controlling the values of the configuration parameters, representations of various driving cases can be generated. The quasi-static loads are obtained from train motion. Interaction phenomena such as rolling, spinning and sidling can be included. The modeling tool and a methodology are described in the presented paper. Significant differences in the calculated state between the FE solution and the traditional approaches can be observed. These differences are most significant in situations with flange contact. (author)

  18. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  19. Electric pulse treatment of rim wheel metal after operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I.Vakulenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Load increase on the wheel pair ax requires the use of railway wheels with the advanced complex of properties. Except strength properties, the properties of metal resistance to defect nucleation on the wheel thread are of high importance. The above mentioned properties increase is possible by using different technological decisions: alloying and heat strengthening. Purpose. The purpose is an attempt to estimate the softening degree of the wheel thread metal using the electric pulse treatment. Methodology. Electric pulse treatment (ET was carried out on the special plant in the conditions of JSC DS (Nikolayev city. As the property of metal strength the Vickers hardness number is used. The microstructure research was carried out using the light microscope. The material for research is the carbon steel of the rim fragment of railway wheel №181732, withdrawn after operation, containing 0,55%С, 0,74%Mn, 0,33%Si, 0,009%P, 0,01%S, 0,06% Ni, 0,1%Cr, 0,08%Cu. Findings. Exposing the rim fragment to electric pulse treatment (ET, the qualitative changes of internal structure of the wheel rim metal corresponded to the experimentally observed geometrical dimensions change of the specimen, depending on the cycles number. As a result of the treatment the reduction of cold strained metal hardness is observed. It was found out 20 % softening on the wheel thread for the І rim area the, for the ІІ rim area the 8% softening and for the ІІІ 11% softening in relation to the initial state. Originality. As a result of electric pulse treatment, the change of the specimen geometrical dimensions is observed. Depending on the number of cycles it causes softening effect. It is proved that the observed softening value during ET is qualitatively connected with the cold strain level on the rail wheel thread. Practical value. As a result of metal cold work on the wheel thread its resistance to the defect nucleation is being reduced. The resulted data can

  20. Analysis of motion of the three wheeled mobile platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaskot Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the designing motion of the three wheeled mobile platform under the unsteady conditions. In this paper the results of the analysis based on the dynamics model of the three wheeled mobile robot, with two rear wheels and one front wheel has been included The prototype has been developed by the author's construction assumptions that is useful to realize the motion of the platform in a various configurations of wheel drives, including control of the active forces and the direction of their settings while driving. Friction forces, in longitudinal and in the transverse directions, are considered in the proposed model. Relation between friction and active forces are also included. The motion parameters of the mobile platform has been determined by adopting classical approach of mechanics. The formulated initial problem of platform motion has been solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth order. Results of motion analysis with motion parameters values are determined and sample results are presented.

  1. DESIGN OF BACKWARD SWEPT TURBINE WHEEL FOR CRYOGENIC TURBOEXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALAJI K. CHOUDHURY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With support from the Department of Atomic Energy, our institute has initiated a programme on development and study of a low capacity (20 liters/hr. turboexpander based Nitrogen liquefier. Hence a process design was carried out and a turboexpander was designed to meet the requirement of the liquefier. The turboexpander is used for lowering the temperature of the process gas (Nitrogen by the isenthalpic expansion. The efficiency of the turboexpander mainly depends on the specific speed and specific diameter of the turbine wheel. The paper explains a general methodology for the design of any type of turbine wheel (radial, backward swept and forward swept for any pressure ratio with different process gases. The design of turbine wheel includes the determination of dimensions, blade profile and velocity triangles at inlet and outlet of the turbine wheel. Generally radial turbine wheels are used but in this case to achieve the high efficiency at desired speed, backward curved blades are used to maintain the Mach number of the process gas at the nozzle exit, close to unity. If the velocity of fluid exceeds the speed of sound, the flow gets choked leading to the creation of shock waves and flow at the exit of the nozzle will be non-isentropic.

  2. Efficacy of Topical Application, Leaf Residue or Soil Drench of Blastospores of Isaria fumosorosea for Citrus Root Weevil Management: Laboratory and Greenhouse Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasco B. Avery

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of topical, leaf residue, and soil drench applications with Isaria fumosorosea blastospores (Ifr strain 3581 was assessed for the management of the citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.. Blastospores of Ifr were applied topically at a rate of 107 blastospores mL−1 on both the larvae and adults, and each insect stage was incubated in rearing cups with artificial diet at 25 °C, either in the dark or in a growth chamber under a 16 h photophase for 2 weeks, respectively. Percent larval and adult mortality due to the infection of Ifr was assessed after 14 days as compared to untreated controls. Leaf residue assays were assessed by feeding the adults detached citrus leaves previously sprayed with Ifr (107 blastospores mL−1 in Petri dish chambers and then incubating them at 25 °C for 2–3 weeks. Efficacy of the soil drench applications was assessed on five larvae feeding on the roots of a Carrizo hybrid citrus seedling ~8.5–10.5 cm below the sterile sand surface in a single 16 cm × 15.5 cm pot inside a second pot lined with plastic mesh to prevent escapees. Drench treatments per pot consisted of 100 mL of Ifr suspension (107 blastospores mL−1, flushed with 400, 900, or 1400 mL of water compared to 500, 1000, and 1500 mL of water only for controls. The mean concentration of Ifr propagules as colony forming units per gram (CFUs g−1 that leached to different depths in the sand profile per treatment drench rate was also determined. Two weeks post-drenching of Ifr treatments, larvae were assessed for percent mortality, size differences, and effect of treatments in reducing feeding damage to the plant root biomass compared to the controls. Topical spray applications caused 13 and 19% mortality in larvae and adults after 7 days compared to none in the control after 14 days, respectively. Adults feeding on a single Ifr treated leaf for 24 h consumed less than the control, and resulted in 100% mortality 35 days post

  3. Research into the problem of wheel tread spalling caused by wheelset longitudinal vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Weihua; Luo, Shihui; Zhu, Shengyang; Wei, Chongfeng

    2015-04-01

    This study mainly focuses on the mechanism of wheel tread spalling through wheelset longitudinal vibration that has been often neglected. Analysis of two actual cases of the wheel tread spalling problem leads to the conclusion that the wheel tread spalling is closely related to the wheelset longitudinal vibration in some locomotives, and many of these problems can be reasonably explained if the wheelset longitudinal vibration is considered. For better understanding of some abnormal wheel spalling problems, the formations of the wheelset longitudinal vibration and the wheel/rail contact parameters were analysed in the initial wheel tread spalling. With the preliminary analytical results, the wheelset longitudinal dynamic behaviour, the characteristics of wheel/rail contact and the mechanics in the condition of the wheelset longitudinal vibration were further studied quantitatively. The results showed that the wheelset longitudinal vibration changed not only the limit of these parameters and the position of principal stress, but also the direction of the principal stress on the surface of wheel/rail contact patch. It is likely that the significant stress changes provoke too much stress on the surface of wheel/rail contact patch, cause fatigue in wheel/rail contact patch and eventually lead to wheel tread spalling. The results of these studies suggest that the suppression of the wheelset longitudinal vibration extends wheel/rail life and the addition of a vertical damper with an ahead angle provides a possible solution to the wheel spalling problem.

  4. Car Gestures - Advisory warning using additional steering wheel angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Christian; Schneider, Norbert; Lübbeke, Thomas; Weisswange, Thomas H; Goerick, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advisory warning systems (AWS) notify the driver about upcoming hazards. This is in contrast to the majority of currently deployed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) that manage emergency situations. The target of this study is to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and controllability of a specific kind of AWS that uses the haptic information channel for warning the driver. This could be beneficial, as alternatives for using the visual modality can help to reduce the risk of visual overload. The driving simulator study (N=24) compared an AWS based on additional steering wheel angle control (Car Gestures) with a visual warning presented in a simulated head-up display (HUD). Both types of warning were activated 3.5s before the hazard object was reached. An additional condition of unassisted driving completed the experimental design. The subjects encountered potential hazards in a variety of urban situations (e.g. a pedestrian standing on the curbs). For the investigated situations, subjective ratings show that a majority of drivers prefer visual warnings over haptic information via gestures. An analysis of driving behavior indicates that both warning approaches guide the vehicle away from the potential hazard. Whereas gestures lead to a faster lateral driving reaction (compared to HUD warnings), the visual warnings result in a greater safety benefit (measured by the minimum distance to the hazard object). A controllability study with gestures in the wrong direction (i.e. leading toward the hazard object) shows that drivers are able to cope with wrong haptic warnings and safety is not reduced compared to unassisted driving as well as compared to (correct) haptic gestures and visual warnings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Operational methods for minimising soil compaction and diffuse pollution risk from wheelings in winter cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    Recent UK government-funded research has shown that compacted, unvegetated tramlines wheelings can represent an important source and transport pathway, which can account for 80% of surface runoff, sediment and phosphorus losses to edge-of-field from cereals on moderate slopes. For example, recent research found 5.5-15.8% of rainfall lost as runoff, and losses of 0.8-2.9 kg TP/ha and 0.3-4.8 T/ha sediment from tramline wheelings. When compaction was released by shallow cultivation, runoff was reduced to 0.2-1.7% of rainfall with losses of 0.0-0.2 kg TP/ha and 0.003-0.3 T/ha sediment respectively i.e. close to reference losses from control areas without tramlines. Recent independent assessments using novel tracer techniques have also shown that tramline wheelings can represent important sediment sources at river catchment scale. In response to these latest findings, a new project is now underway investigating the most cost-effective and practical ways of operationalising methods for managing tramline wheelings in autumn-sown cereal systems to reduce the risk of soil compaction from the autumn spray operation and the associated risk of surface runoff and diffuse pollution loss of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen to edge of field. Research is focusing on the over-winter period when soils are close to field capacity and the physical protection of the soil surface granted by growing crop is limited. This paper outlines this new multi-disciplinary project and associated methodologies, which include hillslope-scale event-based evaluations of the effectiveness of novel mitigation methods on surface runoff and diffuse pollution losses to edge of field, assessments of the economic and practical viability of mitigation methods, and modelling the impact on water quality of implementation of the most promising techniques at both farm and catchment scale. The study involves a large consortium with 20 partners, including many industrial organisations representing tractor, crop

  6. Modeling and analysis of linearized wheel-rail contact dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of the railway vehicles are nonlinear and depend upon several factors including vehicle speed, normal load and adhesion level. The presence of contaminants on the railway track makes them unpredictable too. Therefore in order to develop an effective control strategy it is important to analyze the effect of each factor on dynamic response thoroughly. In this paper a linearized model of a railway wheel-set is developed and is later analyzed by varying the speed and adhesion level by keeping the normal load constant. A wheel-set is the wheel-axle assembly of a railroad car. Patch contact is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. (author)

  7. A Ferris Wheel Accident at a Movable Amusement Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Jin; Ji, Hong-Keun; Moon, Byung-Sun; Park, Ha-Sun; Goh, Jae-Mo; Park, Nam-Kyu; Choi, Don-Mook

    2017-05-01

    This study presented a Ferris wheel accident case. A Ferris wheel is composed of many parts, and the outmost ring of it is assembled using a lock pin. This accident occurred because the lock pin caught the door of a gondola and the gondola overturned. Five of the seven passengers in the gondola fell to the ground, along with the gondola's viewing window. The investigation revealed that the gondola became stuck when its door was caught by a lock pin at the Ferris wheel's three o'clock position. The contact between the door and the lock pin was due to a structural problem: There was not enough space allotted between the door and the lock pin. Therefore, if a passenger pushed on the gondola's door, the potential existed for contact between the door and the lock pin. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Railway Wheel Flat Detection Based on Improved Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the capacity of the improved empirical mode decomposition (EMD in railway wheel flat detection. Aiming at the mode mixing problem of EMD, an EMD energy conservation theory and an intrinsic mode function (IMF superposition theory are presented and derived, respectively. Based on the above two theories, an improved EMD method is further proposed. The advantage of the improved EMD is evaluated by a simulated vibration signal. Then this method is applied to study the axle box vibration response caused by wheel flats, considering the influence of both track irregularity and vehicle running speed on diagnosis results. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a test rig experiment. Research results demonstrate that the improved EMD can inhibit mode mixing phenomenon and extract the wheel fault characteristic effectively.

  9. Wheel slip control of ABS using ER valve pressure modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Cho, Myung-Soo; Kim, Yong-Il; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a wheel slip control via sliding mode controller for a new anti-lock brake system (ABS) of a passenger vehicle using electrorheological (ER) valve pressure modulator. The principal design parameters of the ER valves and hydraulic booster are appropriately determined by considering braking pressure variation during ABS operation. An electrically controllable pressure modulator using the ER valves is then constructed and its governing equations are derived. Subsequently, the pressure control performance of the new pressure modulator is experimentally evaluated. The governing equations of motion for a quarter car wheel model are derived and the sliding mode controller is formulated for wheel slip control. Hardware in the loop simulation (HILS) for braking performance evaluation is undertaken in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ABS associated with the ER valve pressure modulator.

  10. Fuzzy model for predicting the number of deformed wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ž. Đorđević

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deformation of the wheels damage cars and rails and affect on vehicle stability and safety. Repair and replacement cause high costs and lack of wagons. Planning of maintenance of wagons can not be done without estimates of the number of wheels that will be replaced due to wear and deformation in a given period of time. There are many influencing factors, the most important are: weather conditions, quality of materials, operating conditions, and distance between the two replacements. The fuzzy logic model uses the collected data as input variables to predict the output variable - number of deformed wheels for a certain type of vehicle in the defined period at a particular section of the railway.

  11. A web-based electronic patient record (ePR) system for data integration in movement analysis research on wheel-chair users to minimize shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ruchi R.; Requejo, Philip; Sutisna, Erry; Wang, Ximing; Liu, Margaret; McNitt-Gray, Sarah; Ruparel, Puja; Liu, Brent J.

    2012-02-01

    Patients confined to manual wheel-chairs are at an added risk of shoulder injury. There is a need for developing optimal bio-mechanical techniques for wheel-chair propulsion through movement analysis. Data collected is diverse and in need of normalization and integration. Current databases are ad-hoc and do not provide flexibility, extensibility and ease of access. The need for an efficient means to retrieve specific trial data, display it and compare data from multiple trials is unmet through lack of data association and synchronicity. We propose the development of a robust web-based ePR system that will enhance workflow and facilitate efficient data management.

  12. Stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Dongwei; Wang Hongli; Zhu Zhiwen; Feng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A four-wheel-steering system subjected to white noise excitations was reduced to a two-degree-of-freedom quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian system. Subsequently we obtained an one-dimensional Ito stochastic differential equation for the averaged Hamiltonian of the system by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian systems. Thus, the stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system was analyzed by analyzing the sample behaviors of the averaged Hamiltonian at the boundary H = 0 and calculating its Lyapunov exponent. An example given at the end demonstrated that the conclusion obtained is of considerable significance

  13. Hybrid Control Design for a Wheeled Mobile Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a hybrid systems solution to the problem of trajectory tracking for a four-wheel steered four-wheel driven mobile robot. The robot is modelled as a non-holonomic dynamic system subject to pure rolling, no-slip constraints. Under normal driving conditions, a nonlinear trajectory tracking...... feedback control law based on dynamic feedback linearization is sufficient to stabilize the system and ensure asymptotically stable tracking. Transitions to other modes are derived systematically from this model, whenever the configuration space of the controlled system has some fundamental singular points....... The stability of the hybrid control scheme is finally analyzed using Lyapunov-like arguments....

  14. Simulation of the ATLAS New Small Wheel Trigger Sysmtem

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the original design value to explore higher energy scale. In order to benefit from the expected high luminosity performance, the first station of the ATLAS muon end-cap Small Wheel system will be replaced by a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector. The NSW provide precise track segment information to the muon Level-1 trigger to reduce fake triggers. This contribution will summarize a detail of the NSW trigger decision system, track reconstruction algorithm implemented into the trigger processor and results of performance studies on the trigger system.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of the Braking System of Wheeled Mainline Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Shumilov

    2016-01-01

    The braking system of the landing gear wheels of a mainline aircraft has to meet mandatory requirements laid out in the Aviation Regulations AP-25 (Para 25.735. «Brakes and brake systems"). These requirements are essential when creating the landing gear wheel brake control system (WBCS) and are used as main initial data in its mathematical modeling. The WBCS is one of the most important systems to ensure the safe completion of the flight. It is a complex of devices, i.e. units (hydraulic, ele...

  16. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  17. Mono- and multilayers of molecular spoked carbazole wheels on graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan-S. Jester

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled monolayers of a molecular spoked wheel (a shape-persistent macrocycle with an intraannular spoke/hub system and its synthetic precursor are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM at the liquid/solid interface of 1-octanoic acid and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The submolecularly resolved STM images reveal that the molecules indeed behave as more or less rigid objects of certain sizes and shapes – depending on their chemical structures. In addition, the images provide insight into the multilayer growth of the molecular spoked wheels (MSWs, where the first adlayer acts as a template for the commensurate adsorption of molecules in the second layer.

  18. Wheel inspection system environment qualification and validation : final report for public distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-20

    International Electronic Machines Corporation (IEM) has developed and is now marketing a state-of-the-art Wheel Inspection System Environment (WISE). WISE provides wheel profile and dimensional measurements, i.e. rim thickness, flange height, flange ...

  19. Engineering report. Part 1: NASA wheel air seal development for space shuttle type environmental requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The sealing techniques are studied for existing aircraft wheel-tire designs to meet the hard vacuum .00001 torr and cold temperature -65 F requirements of space travel. The investigation covers the use of existing wheel seal designs.

  20. Using wheel temperature detector technology to monitor railcar brake system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Wheel temperature detector technology has been used extensively in the railroad industry for the past several decades. The : technology has traditionally been used to identify wheels with elevated temperatures. There is currently a movement in the : ...

  1. PARAMETER MATCHING OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE AND ELECTROMECHANICAL POWER TRAIN OF WHEEL TRACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kliuchnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers stepless electromechanical power train of a wheel tractor. Methodology for parameter matching of electromechanical transmission and internal combustion engine for their optimum performance as part of a power wheel tractor unit. 

  2. Development and application of resilient wheels in urban rail transit vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan WEN

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit vehicles have been more and more attractive to people as a kind of fast, comfortable, energy-saving, environmental protection and safe transportation. But because of the vehicle noise and vibration, urban rail vehicles also face severe challenges. The research of resilient wheels has been continuously developed and improved. Based on the review of development background and structure sorts of resilient wheels, the advantages of resilient wheels are described, and the research status of noise and vibration reducing, infinite element strength analysis, vehicle dynamic analysis and the wheel-rail wear of resilient wheels are discussed. Taking the low-floor LRVs (light rail vehicles in domestic and overseas as example, the development and application of the resilient wheels in city rail transit is described, and the application prospects of the resilient wheels in LRVs in domestic and the future research direction of elastic wheel are discussed.

  3. The Fatigue Life Prediction of Train Wheel Rims Containing Spherical Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Chen, Huanguo; Cai, Li; Chen, Pei; Qian, Jiacheng; Wu, Jianwei

    2018-03-01

    It is a common phenomenon that fatigue crack initiation occurs frequently in the inclusions of wheel rims. Research on the fatigue life of wheel rims with spherical inclusions is of great significance on the reliability of wheels. To find the danger point and working condition of a wheel, the stress state of the wheel rim with spherical inclusions was analyzed using the finite element method. Results revealed that curve conditions are dangerous. The critical plane method, based on the cumulative fatigue damage theory, was used to predict the fatigue life of the wheel rim and whether it contained spherical inclusions or not under curve conditions. It was found that the fatigue life of the wheel rim is significantly shorter when the wheel rim contains spherical inclusions. Analysis of the results can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for train operations and maintenance.

  4. Daily exposure to a running wheel entrains circadian rhythms in mice in parallel with development of an increase in spontaneous movement prior to running-wheel access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-12-01

    Entrainment of circadian behavior rhythms by daily exposure to a running wheel was examined in mice under constant darkness. Spontaneous movement was individually monitored for more than 6 mo by a thermal sensor. After establishment of steady-state free running, mice were placed in a different cage equipped with a running-wheel for 3 h once per day at 6 AM. The daily exchange was continued for 80 days. The number of wheel revolutions during exposure to the running wheel was also measured simultaneously with spontaneous movement. In 13 out of 17 mice, circadian behavior rhythm was entrained by daily wheel exposure, showing a period indistinguishable from 24 h. The entrainment occurred in parallel with an increase in spontaneous movement immediately prior to the daily wheel exposure. A similar preexposure increase was observed in only one of four nonentrained mice. The preexposure increase appeared in 19.5 days on average after the start of daily wheel exposure and persisted for 36 days on average after the termination of the exposure schedule. The preexposure increase was detected only when daily wheel exposure came into the activity phase of the circadian behavior rhythm, which was accompanied by an increase in the number of wheel revolutions. These findings indicate that a novel oscillation with a circadian period is induced in mice by daily exposure to a running wheel at a fixed time of day and suggest that the oscillation is involved in the nonphotic entrainment of circadian rhythms in spontaneous movement.

  5. Steered wheel for the support and/or steering of a vehicle, particularly hovercraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duell, H.J.; Kirchner, G.

    1977-04-07

    The invention concerns a steered wheel for the support or steering of a hovercraft, whose wheel suspension is provided with an eccentric journal for automatic setting in the direction of travel. So that the vehicle will not leave its track during changes of direction when the wheel is turned around the eccentric axis, according to the invention the wheel is supported on movable bearings at the journal in the direction of the driving axle.

  6. French-Canadian translation of the WheelCon-M (WheelCon-M-F) and evaluation of its validity evidence using telephone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Paula W; Routhier, François; Miller, William C; Auger, Claudine; Lavoie, Marie-Pier

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) translate the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Manual Wheelchair Users (WheelCon-M) into a French-Canadian version (WheelCon-M-F); and (2) evaluate the WheelCon-M-F validity evidence based on response processes, internal structure, and relations with other variables. The WheelCon-M was translated from English to French using the Translation and Cultural Adaptation of Patient Reported Outcomes Measures - Principles of Good Practice guidelines. We used a test-retest design to examine the validity of the WheelCon-M-F with 24 community dwelling, experienced manual wheelchair users who had a variety of musculoskeletal and neurological diagnoses. The mean ± SD WheelCon-M-F score was 63.8 ± 19.9. All WheelCon-M-F items were either identical or similar in meaning to the WheelCon-M items. Clarification issues were identified with 27/63 items. Cronbach's alpha was 0.98 and the retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87. The standard error of measurement and smallest real difference were 7.2 and 19.9, respectively. There were no floor or ceiling effects. WheelCon-M-F correlations with social support and participation were r = 0.54 and 0.78, respectively. The WheelCon-M-F is a valid outcome measure for assessing manual wheelchair confidence in the French-Canadian population. The WheelCon-M-F is a valid outcome measure available for assessing wheelchair confidence, a modifiable barrier to wheelchair use. Translation of the WheelCon-M into the WheelCon-M-F allows collection of both clinical and research wheelchair confidence data using the two official Canadian languages, English and French.

  7. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies Aceptabilidad y efectos secundarios percibidos del rociado residual intradomiciliario de insecticidas bajo diferentes esquemas de manejo de resistencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo David Rodríguez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptabilidad y los efectos secundarios del rociado intradomiciliar de insecticidas pyrethroides (PYR, carbamato y organophosphato rociados

  8. Rancang Bangun Pompa Sistem Wheel Spiral untuk Skala Kecil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feri Arlius

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Kebutuhan air semakin meningkat, maka air dari sisi ketersediaan perlu dikelola serta diatur sesuai dengan kebutuhan, sehingga air dapat dimanfaatkan dan didistribusikan jika diperlukan. Salah satu permasalahan yang mendasar di Indonesia pada sektor pertanian adalah ketersediaan air. Air terbatas dalam jumlah dan waktu juga ruang serta letak sumber air yang lebih rendah dari lahan pertanian. Terkait tingginya kebutuhan air tersebut, pemanfaatan teknologi yang mampu mengangkat dan mengalirkan air dari sumbernya ke lahan-lahan pertanian serta hunian penduduk sangat dibutuhkan, salah satu teknologinya adalah pompa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan rancang bangun pompa sistem wheel spiral sebagai inovasi untuk irigasi.Pengujian dilakukan 3 kali ulangan dengan lama waktu 1 jam dengan RPM 6,917 ± 7,83, kecepatan sudut 0,72 ± 0,77, daya poros 0,25 ± 0,27 Watt, debit air tertampung 0,0001533 ±0,0001732 m3/s, energi kinetik 0,36 ± 0,42 Watt, dan rata-rata efisiensi pompa 67,85 %. Tinggi maksimum pengeluaran yang dapat dicapai oleh pompa adalah 1,52 m. Pompa ini bisa menaikkan air lebih tinggi dari sudu-sudu tertinggi pada kincir serta efisiensi yang dihasilkan cukup besar sehingga dapat digunakan untuk mengairi lahan yang berada diatas sumber air.   Design Of Pump With Spiral Wheel System For Small Scale Abstract. The needs of water is always increase, the available water have to manage and control by human as a needed. Water can be used and distributed if it needs. One of the basic water’s problem in agriculture sector is the field capacity of water. Water is limited in quantity, naut and the water position is lower than the land. Thinking about the high need of water, it is important to use technology to rise and distribute the water from the reservoir to lands and also to living live. One of the technology is pump. This research was conducted to design a pump without machine as a new invention for irrigation. This research is

  9. 16 CFR 1420.4 - Restrictions on three-wheel ATVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on three-wheel ATVs. 1420.4... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL TERRAIN VEHICLES § 1420.4 Restrictions on three-wheel ATVs. Until a mandatory consumer product safety standard applicable to three-wheel ATVs promulgated pursuant to the Consumer...

  10. 16 CFR 1420.3 - Requirements for four-wheel ATVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for four-wheel ATVs. 1420.3... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL TERRAIN VEHICLES § 1420.3 Requirements for four-wheel ATVs. (a) Each ATV shall comply with all applicable provisions of the American National Standard for Four Wheel All-Terrain...

  11. 2009 Tactical Wheeled Vehicles Conference (TWV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-03

    Quality Management System (23 sites)  ISO 14001 :2000 Environmental Management System (9 sites)  ISO 9001:2000 + AS9100B Aviation...Technology Transition venue • RDECOM R&D Program of Record Chartered in 2006 • Provides a relevant environment to assess emerging technologies in a C4ISR...for validation of Technology Readiness Levels • Provides a Technology Transition venue PM C4ISR On-The-Move Collaboration Breeds Success • Apply System

  12. Short Communication: Vegetation response to wagon wheel camp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wagon wheel camp layouts have been favoured, in some quarters, for rotational grazing due to the economy and convenience of having the camps radially arranged around central facilities. A possible disadvantage of such layouts is the tendency for over-grazing near the hub and under-grazing at the extremities.

  13. Desiccant wheels for air humidification: An experimental and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Antonellis, Stefano; Intini, Manuel; Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Molinaroli, Luca; Romano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The use of desiccant wheel to humidify an air stream is investigated. • Air humidification is obtained by extracting water vapour from outdoor air. • Experimental tests in winter humidification conditions are performed. • The design of the proposed humidification system is numerically analyzed. • Effects of boundary conditions on humidification capacity are investigated. - Abstract: In this work the use of a desiccant wheel for air humidification is investigated through a numerical and experimental approach. In the proposed humidification system, water vapour is adsorbed from outdoor environment and it is released directly to the air stream supplied to the building. Such a system can be an interesting alternative to steam humidifiers in hospitals or, more generally, in applications where air contamination is a critical issue and therefore adiabatic humidifiers are not allowed. Performance of the proposed system is deeply investigated and optimal values of desiccant wheel configuration parameters are discussed. It is shown that in the investigated conditions, which are representative of Southern Europe winter climate, the system can properly match the latent load of the building. Finally, power consumption referred to the primary source of the proposed humidification system is compared to the one of steam humidifiers. The present analysis is carried out through experimental tests of a desiccant wheel in winter humidification conditions and through a phenomenological model of the device, based on heat and mass transfer equations.

  14. Soft Legged Wheel-Based Robot with Terrestrial Locomotion Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years robotics has been influenced by a new approach, soft-robotics, bringing the idea that safe interaction with user and more adaptation to the environment can be achieved by exploiting easily deformable materials and flexible components in the structure of robots. In 2016, the soft-robotics community has promoted a new robotics challenge, named RoboSoft Grand Challenge, with the aim of bringing together different opinions on the usefulness and applicability of softness and compliancy in robotics. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a terrestrial robot based on two soft legged wheels. The tasks predefined by the challenge were set as targets in the robot design, which finally succeeded to accomplish all the tasks. The wheels of the robot can passively climb over stairs and adapt to slippery grounds using two soft legs embedded in their structure. The soft legs, fabricated by integration of soft and rigid materials and mounted on the circumference of a conventional wheel, succeed to enhance its functionality and easily adapt to unknown grounds. The robot has a semi stiff tail that helps in the stabilization and climbing of stairs. An active wheel is embedded at the extremity of the tail in order to increase the robot maneuverability in narrow environments. Moreover two parallelogram linkages let the robot to reconfigure and shrink its size allowing entering inside gates smaller than its initial dimensions.

  15. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal | Goo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of parameters such as friction coefficient, wheel/rail contact position, axle load, etc. on the instable vibration was examined. The instability of the vibration system was sensitive to the stiffness of rail support. In lateral creepage when the adhesion coefficient was less than 0.1, instable vibration modes did not occur.

  16. Stochastic Wheel-Slip Compensation Based Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDHARTHAN, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wheel slip compensation is vital for building accurate and reliable dead reckoning based robot localization and mapping algorithms. This investigation presents stochastic slip compensation scheme for robot localization and mapping. Main idea of the slip compensation technique is to use wheel-slip data obtained from experiments to model the variations in slip velocity as Gaussian distributions. This leads to a family of models that are switched depending on the input command. To obtain the wheel-slip measurements, experiments are conducted on a wheeled mobile robot and the measurements thus obtained are used to build the Gaussian models. Then the localization and mapping algorithm is tested on an experimental terrain and a new metric called the map spread factor is used to evaluate the ability of the slip compensation technique. Our results clearly indicate that the proposed methodology improves the accuracy by 72.55% for rotation and 66.67% for translation motion as against an uncompensated mapping system. The proposed compensation technique eliminates the need for extro receptive sensors for slip compensation, complex feature extraction and association algorithms. As a result, we obtain a simple slip compensation scheme for localization and mapping.

  17. Rating Pregnancy Wheel Applications Using the APPLICATIONS Scoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyjek, Kathy; Farag, Sara; Chen, Katherine T

    2015-06-01

    To identify the top-rated pregnancy wheel applications (apps) using a newly developed APPLICATIONS scoring system. A list of pregnancy wheel apps was identified. Consumer-based and inaccurate apps were excluded. The APPLICATIONS scoring system was developed to rate the remaining apps. Application comprehensiveness was evaluated. Objective rating components included price, paid subscription, literature used, in-app purchases, connectivity to the Internet, advertisements, text search field, interdevice compatibility, and other components such as images or figures, videos, and special features. Subjective rating components were ease of navigation and subjective presentation. A complete list of 55 pregnancy wheel apps was created from three sources. Thirty-nine (71%) were consumer-based, inaccurate, or both, leaving 16 (29%) for analysis using the APPLICATIONS scoring system. More than two thirds of pregnancy wheel apps were excluded from our study secondary to being consumer-based, inaccurate, or both. This highlights the importance of identifying systematically, reviewing critically, and rating the thousands of available apps to health care providers to ensure accuracy and applicability. We propose that our APPLICATIONS scoring system be used to rate apps in all specialties with the goal of improving health care provider performance and thereby patient outcomes. III.

  18. Estimating Friction Parameters in Reaction Wheels for Attitude Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemir Carrara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing use of artificial satellites in both the study of terrestrial and space phenomena demands a search for increasingly accurate and reliable pointing systems. It is common nowadays to employ reaction wheels for attitude control that provide wide range of torque magnitude, high reliability, and little power consumption. However, the bearing friction causes the response of wheel to be nonlinear, which may compromise the stability and precision of the control system as a whole. This work presents a characterization of a typical reaction wheel of 0.65 Nms maximum angular momentum storage, in order to estimate their friction parameters. It used a friction model that takes into account the Coulomb friction, viscous friction, and static friction, according to the Stribeck formulation. The parameters were estimated by means of a nonlinear batch least squares procedure, from data raised experimentally. The results have shown wide agreement with the experimental data and were also close to a deterministic model, previously obtained for this wheel. This model was then employed in a Dynamic Model Compensator (DMC control, which successfully reduced the attitude steady state error of an instrumented one-axis air-bearing table.

  19. A new solution method for wheel/rail rolling contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Song, Hua; Fu, Lihua; Wang, Meng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of wheel/rail rolling contact of nonlinear steady-state curving, a three-dimensional transient finite element (FE) model is developed by the explicit software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. To improve the solving speed and efficiency, an explicit-explicit order solution method is put forward based on analysis of the features of implicit and explicit algorithm. The solution method was first applied to calculate the pre-loading of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm, and then the results became the initial conditions in solving the dynamic process of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm as well. Simultaneously, the common implicit-explicit order solution method is used to solve the FE model. Results show that the explicit-explicit order solution method has faster operation speed and higher efficiency than the implicit-explicit order solution method while the solution accuracy is almost the same. Hence, the explicit-explicit order solution method is more suitable for the wheel/rail rolling contact model with large scale and high nonlinearity.

  20. Stuart Cloete's construction of voortrekker religion in Turning Wheels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stuart Cloete's novel of 1937, Turning Wheels, was unquestionably the most controversial of many fictional reconstructions of the Great Trek, a book which fell foul of Afrikaner nationalism and whose further importation into the Union of South Africa was long consequently banned. Religious motifs reflecting the popularised ...

  1. Development of New Wheel-Chair for Sports Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Shionoya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop the new wheel-chair which had the function to drive straight by one-hand operation. To perform this purpose, the driving force transmission axis (DFTA which had transmitted the driving force from the one side of wheel to another side of that was developed. The wheel-chair could drive straight by one-hand operation by the DFTA. The large torque, however, was generated in the DFTA, because the DFTA transmitted the driving force from the one side of wheel to another side by the axis of small diameter. Furthermore, the shear stress in the DFTA generated by this torque would lead to the DFTA break. The shear stress in the DFTA was calculated to examine the axial strength and durability. On the DETA of the wheelchair, the maximum shear stress calculated from the torque in driving was 39.53 MP and this was defined as the standard of the demand specifications as a strength and durability of the DFTA.

  2. performance (assessment) of two- wheel tractors for small holder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHIKA

    countered by an increased food demand. Fossil fuelled agricultural machinery offers a technically feasible ... into Nigeria and the demand has particularly been increasing in a place like Niger State where its use for the ... The engine is one cylinder, water cooled and hand- cranking type. The driving wheels are of two types; ...

  3. Using the Pottery Wheel to Explore Topics in Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnell, Elin; Snipes, Marie A.

    2015-01-01

    Students sometimes struggle with visualizing the three-dimensional solids encountered in certain integral problems in a calculus class. We present a project in which students create solids of revolution with clay on a pottery wheel and estimate the volumes of these objects using Riemann sums. In addition to giving students an opportunity for…

  4. Wheel-rail interaction at short-wave irregularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Short-wave irregularities in the wheel-rail interface are at the basis of track and vehicle damage and deterioration. On the short term, they result into high dynamic train-track interaction forces and a high energy input into the system that must be dissipated in the different system components or

  5. Performance Assessment of Two- Wheel Tractor on a Loamy Sand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field performance evaluation of a 9kW two-wheel tractor has been carried out. Field operations carried out include: disc ploughing, mould board ploughing, cultivation, cultivation cum planting and harvesting; following the types of accompanying implements available. The parameters measured and determined for each ...

  6. The TASC Wheel Supports a Honey Bee Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The concept of TASC (Thinking Actively in a Social Context) was created by Belle Wallace (Wallace et al., 1993) as a model that can be used to nurture and develop thinking skills. As children work through the TASC wheel, the teacher has a very good opportunity to facilitate explicit conversations about thinking. This allows the children to grow in…

  7. Design of wheel-type walking-assist device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Jung, Kyung Min; Lee, Sung Uk

    2006-03-15

    In this research, a outdoor wheel-type walking-assist device is developed to help an elder having a poor muscular strength at legs for walking, sitting and standing up easily at outdoors, and also for going and downing stairs. In conceptually designing, the environments of an elder's activity, the size of an elder's body and a necessary function of helping an elder are considered. This device has 4 wheels for stability. When an elder walks in incline plane with the proposed device, a rear-wing is rotated to keep the supporting device horizontal, regardless of an angle of inclination. A height-controlling device, which can control the height of the supporting device for adjusting an elder's height, is varied vertically to help an elder to sit and stand-up easily. Moreover, a outdoor wheel-type walking-assist device is conceptually designed and is made. In order to design it, the preview research is investigated firstly. On the basis of the proposed walking-assist device, the outdoor walking-assist device is designed and made. The outdoor wheel-type walking-assist device can go and down stairs automatically. This device go up and down the stair of having maximum 20cm height and an angle of 25 degrees with maximum 4 sec/stairs speed, and move at flatland with 60cm/sec speed.

  8. Three-wheeled scooter taxi: A safety analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Programme, Indian Institute of. Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016. 2TVS Motors Ltd, Hosur, Bangalore 635 109 e-mail: sudipto@me.iitd.ernet.in. Abstract. The rollover propensity of a three-wheeled scooter taxi used extensively on SE Asian roads is analysed in this ...

  9. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...

  10. Development of a Large Scale, High Speed Wheel Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoleon, Anthony; Seltzer, Donald; Thornton, Richard; Thompson, Marc

    1996-01-01

    Draper Laboratory, with its internal research and development budget, has for the past two years been funding a joint effort with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for the development of a large scale, high speed wheel test facility. This facility was developed to perform experiments and carry out evaluations on levitation and propulsion designs for MagLev systems currently under consideration. The facility was developed to rotate a large (2 meter) wheel which could operate with peripheral speeds of greater than 100 meters/second. The rim of the wheel was constructed of a non-magnetic, non-conductive composite material to avoid the generation of errors from spurious forces. A sensor package containing a multi-axis force and torque sensor mounted to the base of the station, provides a signal of the lift and drag forces on the package being tested. Position tables mounted on the station allow for the introduction of errors in real time. A computer controlled data acquisition system was developed around a Macintosh IIfx to record the test data and control the speed of the wheel. This paper describes the development of this test facility. A detailed description of the major components is presented. Recently completed tests carried out on a novel Electrodynamic (EDS) suspension system, developed by MIT as part of this joint effort are described and presented. Adaptation of this facility for linear motor and other propulsion and levitation testing is described.

  11. Prosthetic Rasa: Dance on Wheels and Challenged Kinesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal C., Akhila

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses "Bharatanatyam on Wheels" by Ability Unlimited Foundation, Delhi. It interrogates the possibilities and challenges that disability performance presents to codifications in the form and grammar of "Bharatanatyam," a "classical" dance form of India. The Indian classical scriptures of performance…

  12. Three-wheeled scooter taxi: A safety analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -wheel diesel-powered taxis (the so-called 'baby-taxis') account for more than one-third of the total number of kilometers traveled by all vehicles. In Bangkok 7,400 three-wheelers (the so-called. 'tuk-tuks') powered by LPG were on the roads.

  13. Disturbance rejection in formation keeping control of nonholonomic wheeled robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafarian, Matin; Vos, Ewoud; De Persis, Claudio; Scherpen, Jacquelien; Schaft, van der Arjan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of formation keeping control of a group of nonholonomic wheeled robots within the port-Hamiltonian framework and in the presence of matched input disturbances. Two scenarios on the internal damping of the dynamics of the robots are considered: strictly output passive

  14. Possibilities of using welding-on technologies in crane wheel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    wearing where surface resistance was examined according to their weight loss. Influence of a particular ele- ment on the welds-on chemical composition was examined by EDX analyses. Keywords. Traverse crane wheel; weld-on; weld-on wire; wearing. 1. Introduction. The most common causes of machine component ...

  15. Cold Regions Test of Tracked and Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-11

    2-704 as a general guideline): (1) The CTIS will remain off until the vehicle wheels are exercised on the chassis by driving a distance of 10 km...long cold spell has chilled the ground. Other causes are automobile exhaust or the compressed remnants of a snowfall. c. Black ice (sometimes known

  16. The Botswana medical eligibility criteria wheel: adapting a tool to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objectives of this process were to present technical updates of the various contraceptive methods, to update the current medical conditions prevalent to Botswana and to adapt the MEC wheel to meet the needs of the Botswanian people. This commentary focuses on the adaptation process that occurred during the ...

  17. Analysis of Stress Distributions Under Lightweight Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-09

    aLaboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02141, USA. Abstract In recent years, the need for...are vectorial quantities, not to be confused with the tangential soil velocity which is only the component tangent to the wheel rim). The data clearly

  18. Development of Cad Software for Wheel Chair Design | Ayodeji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropometric data of Nigerian paraplegics was used to design wheel chair for the paraplegics. This was done by developing suitable software using Visual Basic, AutoCAD, Access and Corel- Draw programs. The software developed is capable of designing an ergonomically viable wheelchair for any category of ...

  19. Synthesis and crystal structure of a wheel-shaped supramolecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and crystal structure of a wheel-shaped supramolecular coordination complex. DEEPAK GUPTA, PALANISAMY RAJAKANNU, BHASKARAN SHANKAR,. FIRASAT HUSSAIN and MALAICHAMY SATHIYENDIRAN. ∗. Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India e-mail: mvdiran@yahoo.com; ...

  20. Information Technology Management

    OpenAIRE

    Patru Catalin; Petrache Alina

    2011-01-01

    Most of the Information technology management programs are designed to educate and develop managers who can effectively manage the planning, design, selection, implementation, use, and administration of emerging and converging information and communications technologies. The IT Manager and the Project Manager are not at odds. The Project Manager’s ability to focus knowledge, skills, tools and techniques on the temporary endeavor frees the IT Manager to focus on keeping the wheels of commerce ...

  1. Simulation modeling of wheeled vehicle dynamics on the stand "Roller"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Kotiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tests are an integral part of the wheeled vehicle design, manufacturing, and operation. The need for their conducting arises from the research and experimental activities to assess the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the vehicles in general, as well as the individual components and assemblies. It is obvious that a variety of design features of wheeled vehicles request a development of methods both for experimental studies and for creating the original bench equipment for these purposes.The main positive feature of bench tests of automotive engineering is a broad capability to control the combinations of traction loads, speed rates, and external input conditions. Here, the steady state conditions can be used for a long time, allowing all the necessary measurements to be made, including those with video and photo recording experiment.It is known that the benefits of test "M" type (using a roller dynamometer include a wide range of test modes, which do not depend on the climatic conditions, as well as a capability to use a computer-aided testing programs. At the same time, it is known that the main drawback of bench tests of full-size vehicle is that the tire rolling conditions on the drum mismatch to the real road pavements, which are difficult to simulate on the drum surface. This problem can be solved owing to wheeled vehicle tests at the benches "Roller" to be, in efficiency, the most preferable research method. The article gives a detailed presentation of developed at BMSTU approach to its solving.Problem of simulation mathematical modeling has been solved for the vehicle with the wheel formula 8 × 8, and individual wheel-drive.The simulation results have led to the conclusion that the proposed principle to simulate a vehicle rolling on a smooth non-deformable support base using a bench " Roller " by simulation modeling is efficient.

  2. Wheeled mobility (wheelchair) service delivery: scope of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Nancy; Brasure, Michelle; Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-01-17

    Identifying the appropriate wheelchair for a person who needs one has implications for both disabled persons and society. For someone with severe locomotive problems, the right wheelchair can affect mobility and quality of life. However, policymakers are concerned about the increasing demand for unnecessarily elaborate chairs. The Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, issued 4 reports between 2009 and 2011 detailing fraud and misapplication of Medicare funds for powered wheelchairs, more than a decade after similar concerns were first raised by 4 contractors who process claims for durable medical equipment. Subsequent concerns have arisen about whether some impaired persons who need wheeled mobility devices may now be inappropriately denied coverage. A transparent, evidence-based approach to wheeled mobility service delivery (the matching of mobility-impaired persons to appropriate devices and supporting services) might lessen these concerns. This review describes the process of wheeled mobility service delivery for long-term wheelchair users with complex rehabilitation needs and presents findings from a survey of the literature (published and gray) and interviews with key informants. Recommended steps in the delivery process were identified in textbooks, guidelines, and published literature. Delivery processes shared many commonalities; however, no research supports the recommended approaches. A search of bibliographic databases through March 2011 identified 24 studies that evaluated aspects of wheeled mobility service delivery. Most were observational, exploratory studies designed to determine consumer use of and satisfaction with the process. The evidence base for the effectiveness of approaches to wheeled mobility service delivery is insufficient, and additional research is needed to develop standards and guidelines.

  3. Innovative grinding wheel design for cost-effective machining of advanced ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, R.H.; Kuo, P.; Liu, S.; Murphy, D.; Picone, J.W.; Ramanath, S.

    2000-05-01

    This Final Report covers the Phase II Innovative Grinding Wheel (IGW) program in which Norton Company successfully developed a novel grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics. In 1995, Norton Company successfully completed the 16-month Phase I technical effort to define requirements, design, develop, and evaluate a next-generation grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics using small prototype wheels. The Phase II program was initiated to scale-up the new superabrasive wheel specification to larger diameters, 305-mm to 406-mm, required for most production grinding of cylindrical ceramic parts, and to perform in-house and independent validation grinding tests.

  4. Assessment of a design to monitor the influence of crop residue management on the dynamics of soil water content with ERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelin, Marie; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Hermans, Thomas; Binley, Andrew; Garre, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Choices related to crop residue management affect the soil structure. As a consequence, they may determine the spatio-temporal dynamics of water content and eventually the crop yields. In order to better understand the influence of these strategies on hydraulic processes occurring at the plot scale, we opted for the use electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). This approach presents the advantage to limit soil disturbance but is still faced to important challenges when applied in an agricultural field context. Especially changing soil-electrode contact has to be considered, as it can lead to bad quality data, especially for setups with small electrodes and small inter-electrode distance. The objective of this study was to test the efficiency of a high-resolution 3-D field measurement design to properly assess the dynamics of soil water content. ERT measurements were conducted in a Cutanic Siltic Luvisol in Gembloux, Belgium, on two plots of 2m2 ploughed in Oct 2014 at a depth of 25 cm and sown with maize in April 2015. The plants were removed on one of the plots in order to obtain a bare soil reference. A grid of 98 surface stainless steel electrodes was layed-out on each plot and four sticks supporting each eight stainless steel electrodes were vertically inserted into the soil up to 1.20 m to get more detailed information in depth. The experiments were performed between Jul and Oct 2015, in order to get measurements both in dry and wet periods. For surface and borehole monitoring, a dipole-dipole array configuration including in-line and cross-line measurements was adopted. Normal and reciprocal measurements were performed systematically to assess the data quality: only the datasets with a mean reciprocal error lower than 3% were considered for the data inversion. This contribution will show the first inverted results showing the complexity of experimental design and data analysis for high-resolution, timelapse ERT in field conditions. Based on these results, we

  5. [Effects of nitrogen management on maize nitrogen utilization and residual nitrate nitrogen in soil under maize/soybean and maize/sweet potato relay strip intercropping systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu; Deng, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Qun; Yong, Tai-Wen; Liu, Wei-Guo; Yang, Feng; Mao, Shu-Ming

    2014-10-01

    A large amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizers poured into the fields severely pollute the environment. Reasonable application of N fertilizer has always been the research hotpot. The effects of N management on maize N utilization and residual nitrate N in soil under maize/soybean and maize/ sweet potato relay strip intercropping systems were reported in a field experiment in southwest China. It was found that maize N accumulation, N harvest index, N absorption efficiency, N contribution proportion after the anthesis stage in maize/soybean relay strip intercropping were increased by 6.1%, 5.4%, 4.3%, and 15.1% than under maize/sweet potato with an increase of 22.6% for maize yield after sustainable growing of maize/soybean intercropping system. Nitrate N accumulation in the 0-60 cm soil layer was 12.9% higher under maize/soybean intercropping than under maize/sweet potato intercropping. However, nitrate N concentration in the 60-120 cm soil layer when intercropped with soybean decreased by 10.3% than when intercropped with sweet potato, indicating a decrease of N leaching loss. Increasing of N application rate enhanced N accumulation of maize and decreased N use efficiency and significantly increased nitrate concentration in the soil profile except in the 60-100 cm soil layer, where no significant difference was observed with nitrogen application rate at 0 to 270 kg · hm(-2). Further application of N fertilizer significantly enhanced nitrate leaching loss. Postponing N application increased nitrate accumulation in the 60-100 cm soil layer. The results suggested that N application rates and ratio of base to top dressing had different influences on maize N concentration and nitrate N between maize/soybean and maize/sweet potato intercropping. Maize N concentration in the late growing stage, N harvest index and N use efficiency under maize/soybean intercropping increased (with N application rate at 180-270 kg · hm(-2) and ratio of base to top dressing = 3:2:5) and

  6. Thermal load effects on fatigue life of a cracked railway wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Haidari

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this paper, fatigue life of a cracked railway wheel under thermo-mechanical loads is studied. For this purpose a FE model of a wheel, with two brake shoes and a portion of rail is created and suitable loads and boundary conditions are applied to the model. It is assumed that the wheel has contained an elliptical crack in the definite depth of the tread surface and thermalloads are determined by modeling the contact of the rail-wheel and two brake blocks. In order to investigate the thermalloads effect on the fatigue life of the cracked wheel, analyses areperformed in two cases: mechanical analysis and thermo-mechanical analysis; while difference between them, shows thermal load effects and its importance. In this work the wheel rotation on rail is modeled and a 3D FE model for determination of rail-wheel contact pressure is used while in many of the previous investigations, either rolling wasn't modeled or its effect was simplified as a translating pressure distribution along the rail-wheel contact region and also the Hertz contact theory had used for determination of contact pressure in wheel- rail interface. Finally, effects of angular velocity on fatigue life of a cracked wheel under -mechanical and mechanical loads are shown. The obtained results confirm the important influences of thermal loads on the wheel fatigue life in all mentioned cases that are studied in this article.

  7. The Wheels That Drove New York A History of the New York City Transit System

    CERN Document Server

    Roess, Roger P

    2013-01-01

    The Wheels That Drove New York tells the fascinating story of how a public transportation system helped transform a small trading community on the southern tip of Manhattan island to a world financial capital that is home to more than 8,000,000 people.  From the earliest days of horse-drawn conveyances to the wonders of one of the world's largest and most efficient subways, the story links the developing history of the City itself to the growth and development of its public transit system.  Along the way, the key role played by the inventors, builders, financiers, and managers of the system are highlighted. The Wheels That Drove New York takes us through the present day, and discusses the many challenges that the transit system has had to face over the years.  It also traces the conversion of the system from fully private operations (through the elevated railways) to the fully public system that exists today, and the problems that this transformation has created along the way.

  8. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Compressed Natural Gas and Ethanol from Municipal Solid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2016-10-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in the United States was estimated at 254 million wet tons in 2013, and around half of that generated waste was landfilled. There is a huge potential in recovering energy from that waste, since around 60% of landfilled material is biomass-derived waste that has high energy content. In addition, diverting waste for fuel production avoids huge fugitive emissions from landfills, especially uncontrolled CH4 emissions, which are the third largest anthropogenic CH4 source in the United States. Lifecycle analysis (LCA) is typically used to evaluate the environmental impact of alternative fuel production pathways. LCA of transportation fuels is called well-to-wheels (WTW) and covers all stages of the fuel production pathways, from feedstock recovery (well) to vehicle operation (wheels). In this study, the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed by Argonne National Laboratory is used to evaluate WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil fuel consumption of waste-derived fuels. Two waste-to-energy (WTE) pathways have been evaluated – one for compressed natural gas (CNG) production using food waste via anaerobic digestion, and the other for ethanol production from yard trimmings via fermentation processes. Because the fuel production pathways displace current waste management practices (i.e., landfilling waste), we use a marginal approach that considers only the differences in emissions between the counterfactual case and the alternative fuel production case.

  9. Experimental analysis of wheel noise emission as a function of the contact point location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracciali, A.; Piccioli, F.

    2003-10-01

    Recent analyses show that the wheel noise emission depends on the lateral position of the contact patch area on the wheel tyre. This displacement from the nominal position is such that different wheel modes are excited, resulting in a different frequency and amplitude composition of the wheel related noise component. In this paper the results of a test programme held on the ETR500 Italian high-speed train are shown. Thanks to a special device mounted under the axle box comprising a microphone and a windshield, it has been possible to measure the wheel noise continuously up to 300 km/h in tangent track and in curves. The behaviour of wheels in different condition of line curvature is shown, together with the results from a new type of constrained layer damped wheel.

  10. 77 FR 68116 - Water Wheel Ranch; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Water Wheel Ranch; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and... filed: December 12, 2011, and supplemented on October 8, 2012. d. Applicant: Water Wheel Ranch. e. Name of Project: Water Wheel Ranch Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The Water Wheel Ranch Hydroelectric...

  11. Innovative grinding wheel design for cost-effective machining of advanced ceramics. Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, R.H.; Ramanath, S.; Simpson, M.; Lilley, E.

    1996-02-01

    Norton Company successfully completed the 16-month Phase I technical effort to define requirements, design, develop, and evaluate a next-generation grinding wheel for cost-effective cylindrical grinding of advanced ceramics. This program was a cooperative effort involving three Norton groups representing a superabrasive grinding wheel manufacturer, a diamond film manufacturing division and a ceramic research center. The program was divided into two technical tasks, Task 1, Analysis of Required Grinding Wheel Characteristics, and Task 2, Design and Prototype Development. In Task 1 we performed a parallel path approach with Superabrasive metal-bond development and the higher technical risk, CVD diamond wheel development. For the Superabrasive approach, Task 1 included bond wear and strength tests to engineer bond-wear characteristics. This task culminated in a small-wheel screening test plunge grinding sialon disks. In Task 2, an improved Superabrasive metal-bond specification for low-cost machining of ceramics in external cylindrical grinding mode was identified. The experimental wheel successfully ground three types of advanced ceramics without the need for wheel dressing. The spindle power consumed by this wheel during test grinding of NC-520 sialon is as much as to 30% lower compared to a standard resin bonded wheel with 100 diamond concentration. The wheel wear with this improved metal bond was an order of magnitude lower than the resin-bonded wheel, which would significantly reduce ceramic grinding costs through fewer wheel changes for retruing and replacements. Evaluation of ceramic specimens from both Tasks 1 and 2 tests for all three ceramic materials did not show evidence of unusual grinding damage. The novel CVD-diamond-wheel approach was incorporated in this program as part of Task 1. The important factors affecting the grinding performance of diamond wheels made by CVD coating preforms were determined.

  12. To the question of modeling of wheels and rails wear processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myamlin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need of wear process modeling in the wheel-rail system. This is related to the fact that the wear processes in this system are absolutely different in the initial and final stages. The profile change of rail and, especially, of the wheels caused by the wear significantly affects the rolling stock dynamics, traffic safety and the resource of the wheels and rails. Wear modeling and the traffic safety evaluation requires the accounting of the low frequency component forces (including the modeling of transitional areas affecting the wheel on the side of the rail and carriage in motion of rolling stock, so the statistical analysis is not possible. Methodology. The method of mathematical modeling of the wheel set and the rail interaction was used during the research conducting. Findings. As a result of the modeling of the wheel set motion on the rail track, the mathematic model with 19 freedom degrees was obtained. This model takes into account the axle torque and studies wheels constructions as the components of the mechanical systems, consisting of a hub and tire. Originality. The mathematic model allows evaluating the wear degree of the wheels and rails when using on the rolling stock not only all-metal wheel sets, but also compound ones with the use of spring wheels and independent rotation of semi-axes with the wheels. Practical value. The development of the improved mathematical model of freight car wheel set motion with differential rotation of the wheels and compound axles allows studying the wear processes of wheels and rails.

  13. Determination of crop residues and the physical and mechanical properties of soil in different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring and management of soil quality is crucial for sustaining soil function in ecosystem. Tillage is one of the management operations that drastically affect soil physical quality. Conservation tillage methods are one of the efficient solutions in agriculture to reduce the soil erosion, air pollution, energy consumption, and the costs, if there is a proper management on the crop residues. One of the serious problems in agriculture is soil erosion which is rapidly increased in the recent decades as the intensity of tillage increases. This phenomenon occurs more in sloping lands or in the fields which are lacking from crop residues and organic materials. The conservation tillage has an important role in minimizing soil erosion and developing the quality of soil. Hence, it has attracted the attention of more researchers and farmers in the recent years. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of different tillage methods has been investigated on the crop residues, mechanical resistance of soil, and the stability of aggregates. This research was performed on the agricultural fields of Urmia University, located in Nazloo zone in 2012. Wheat and barley were planted in these fields, consecutively. The soil texture of these fields was loamy clay and the factorial experiments were done in a completely randomized block design. In this study, effect of three tillage systems including tillage with moldboard (conventional tillage, tillage with disk plow (reduced tillage, chisel plow (minimum tillage and control treatment on some soil physical properties was investigated. Depth is second factor that was investigated in three levels including 0-60, 60-140, and 140-200 mm. Moreover, the effect of different percentages of crop residues on the rolling resistance of non-driving wheels was studied in a soil bin. The contents of crop residues have been measured by using the linear transects and image processing methods. In the linear

  14. Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC-time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Lehotay, Steven J; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Kwon, Hyeyoung; Mol, Hans G J; van der Kamp, Henk; Mateus, Nuno; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming with integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. We applied three different methods for analysis: (1) 27 pesticides were targeted using LC-MS/MS; (2) 143 were targeted using low pressure GC-tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC-MS/MS); and (3) more than 600 pesticides were screened in a targeted and untargeted approach using comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS). Comparison was made of the analyses using the different methods for the shared samples. The results were similar, thereby providing satisfactory confirmation of both similarly positive and negative findings. No pesticides were found in the organic-farmed samples. In samples from integrated pest management practices, nine pesticides were determined and confirmed to be present, ranging from 2 µg kg(-1) for fluazifop-p-butyl to 50 µg kg(-1) for fenpropathrin. Concentrations of residues in strawberries were less than European maximum residue limits.

  15. Improving Collaborative Behaviour Planning in Adult Auditory Rehabilitation: Development of the I-PLAN Intervention Using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Fiona; de Lusignan, Simon; Cooke, Deborah

    2016-09-28

    The consequences of poorly managed hearing loss can be ameliorated with hearing aid use but rates of use are sub-optimal. The impact of audiologist behaviour on subsequent use, particularly over the long term, is unknown. This study aimed to describe the role of the behaviour change wheel in developing an intervention to introduce and embed particular clinical behaviours into adult hearing aid fitting consultations, within the framework of the Medical Research Council guidance on complex interventions. Following the steps of the behaviour change wheel, audiologist behaviours that might influence hearing aid use were identified based on a systematic review and qualitative work with audiologists. An analysis, using the COM-B model, identified potential drivers of the target behaviours. This was used to select intervention functions and behaviour change techniques likely to influence behaviour in this context. The target behaviours were as follows: giving information about the benefits of hearing aid use and the negative consequences of non-use, providing prompts for use and engaging in collaborative behavioural planning for use. The behavioural analysis suggested that psychological capability, opportunity and motivation were potential drivers of these behaviours. The intervention functions of education, coercion, training, environmental restructuring, modelling and enablement were selected and combined to develop a single complex intervention that seeks to address the target behaviours. This is the first study to use the behaviour change wheel to develop a complex intervention in the context of audiology. The theory-based development of the intervention will facilitate evaluation of its feasibility and effectiveness.

  16. Demographic profile of older adults using wheeled mobility devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmarkar, Amol M; Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rosemarie; Collins, Diane M; Matthews, Judith T; Koontz, Alicia; Teodorski, Emily E; Cooper, Rory A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized) and powered (scooter, standard, and customized) mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user.

  17. Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol M. Karmarkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized and powered (scooter, standard, and customized mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user.

  18. Utilization of wheel dop based on ergonomic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiasih, Wiwin; Murnawan, Hery; Setiawan, Danny

    2017-06-01

    Time is an important thing in life. People need a tool or equipment to measure time which is divided into two types, namely clock and watch. Everyone needs those kinds of tool. It becomes an opportunity for manufacturer to build a business. However, establishing a business by depending on the demand is not enough, it is necessary to take a consideration of making innovation. Innovation is a difficult thing to find out, but it is not impossible to do it. By creating an innovative product, it can be a strategy to win the competitive market. This study aimed to create an innovative product based on the ergonomic aspects, which was by utilizing wheel dop. This methodology consisted of pre-study, planning and product development, and product analysis. This product utilized wheel dop and was made based on the ergonomic aspects.

  19. Simulation of the ATLAS New Small Wheel trigger

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00399900; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the LHC will increase up to a factor of seven with respect to the original design value to explore physics at higher energy scale. The inner station of the ATLAS muon end-cap system (Small Wheel) will be replaced by the New Small Wheel (NSW) to benefit from the high luminosity. The NSW will provide precise track-segment information to the Level-1 trigger system in order to suppress the trigger rate from fake muon tracks. This article summarizes the NSW trigger decision system and track-segment finding algorithm implemented in the trigger processor, and discusses results of performance studies on the trigger system. The results demonstrate that the NSW trigger system is capable of working with good performance satisfying the requirements.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of the Braking System of Wheeled Mainline Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The braking system of the landing gear wheels of a mainline aircraft has to meet mandatory requirements laid out in the Aviation Regulations AP-25 (Para 25.735. «Brakes and brake systems". These requirements are essential when creating the landing gear wheel brake control system (WBCS and are used as main initial data in its mathematical modeling. The WBCS is one of the most important systems to ensure the safe completion of the flight. It is a complex of devices, i.e. units (hydraulic, electrical, and mechanical, connected through piping, wiring, mechanical constraints. This complex should allow optimizing the braking process when a large number of parameters change. The most important of them are the following: runway friction coefficient (RFC, lifting force, weight and of the aircraft, etc. The main structural elements involved in braking the aircraft are: aircraft wheels with pneumatics (air tires and brake discs, WBCS, and cooling system of gear wheels when braking.To consider the aircraft deceleration on the landing run is of essence at the stage of design, development, and improvement of brakes and braking systems. Based on analysis of equation of the aircraft motion and energy balance can be determined energy loading and its basic design parameters, braking distances and braking time.As practice and analysis of energy loading show, they (brake + wheel absorb the aircraftpossessed kinetic energy at the start of braking as much as 60-70%, 70-80%, and 80-90%, respectively, under normal increased, and emergency operating conditions. The paper presents a procedure for the rapid calculation of energy loading of the brake wheel.Currently, the mainline aircrafts use mainly electrohydraulic brake systems in which there are the main, backup, and emergency-parking brake systems. All channels are equipped with automatic anti-skid systems. Their presence in the emergency (the third reserve channel significantly improves the reliability and safety of

  1. Numerical Simulation Analysis of an Oversteer In-Wheel Small Electric Vehicle Integrated with Four-Wheel Drive and Independent Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Izhar Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to conventional vehicle, most in-wheel small EVs that exist today are designed with understeer (US characteristic. They are safer on the road but possess poor cornering performance. With recent in-wheel motor and steer-by wire technology, high cornering performance vehicle does not limit to sport or racing cars. We believe that oversteer (OS design approach for in-wheel small EV can increase the steering performance of the vehicle. However, one disadvantage is that OS vehicle has a stability limit velocity. In this paper, we proposed a Four-Wheel Drive and Independent Steering (4WDIS for in-wheel small EV with OS characteristic. The aim of implementing 4WDIS is to develop a high steer controllability and stability of the EV at any velocity. This paper analyses the performance of OS in-wheel small EV with 4WDIS by using numerical simulation. Two cornering conditions were simulated which are (1 steady-state cornering at below critical velocity and (2 steady-state cornering over critical velocity. The objective of the simulation is to understand the behavior of OS in-wheel small EV and the advantages of implementing the 4WDIS. The results show that an in-wheel small EV can achieve high cornering performance at low speed while maintaining stability at high speed.

  2. Teens Take the Wheel (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-10-22

    One of most noteworthy moments in a teenager’s life is earning a driver’s license. While it provides a newfound freedom, it also presents serious risks. In this podcast, Amy Jewett discusses ways to keep young drivers safe behind the wheel.  Created: 10/22/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/22/2015.

  3. Localization of Wheeled Mobile Robot Based on Extended Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guangxu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile robot localization method which combines relative positioning with absolute orientation is presented. The code salver and gyroscope are used for relative positioning, and the laser radar is used to detect absolute orientation. In this paper, we established environmental map, multi-sensor information fusion model, sensors and robot motion model. The Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF is adopted as multi-sensor data fusion technology to realize the precise localization of wheeled mobile robot.

  4. Wear estimation of the wheel tyre in different service conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk BĄKOWSKI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article presented the results of fatigue strength test aluminium alloys using in car industry. Demonstrated distributions and values of stresses the wheel tyre made of aluminium alloys by means of FEM. In fatigue test used special machine, which can allow to determine Wohler diagram. In this way to determine the allowable stresses values in which do not occurring the damages.

  5. Visualization of Process of Wheel Steel High Ingots Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V. I.; Bodryaga, V. V.; Nedopekin, F. V.; Belousov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    The mathematical model for computation of formation of wheel steel high ingots has been formulated based on the generalized system of equations consisting of the Navier-Stokes equation, the turbulent heat and mass transfer equation and the continuity equation. It is suggested to use a pattern when designing software for simulation of hydrodynamic and thermo-physical processes. A software complex with friendly input and output data flows is provided for technologists of metallurgical production.

  6. Sediment production from forest roads with wheel ruts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy B. Foltz; Edward R. Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Artificial rainfall was applied to two sets of paired plots 30.5 m long by 1.52 m wide, each set on a different soil type. One plot in each set contained a wheel rut while the other did not. Measurements of water and sediment yield on rutted plots showed sediment production declined with cumulative runoff while unrutted plots did not show a significant sediment...

  7. A Multiple Data Fusion Approach to Wheel Slip Control for Decentralized Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejun Yin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, active safety control methods for cars, i.e., the antilock braking system (ABS, the traction control system (TCS, and electronic stability control (ESC, govern the wheel slip control based on the wheel slip ratio, which relies on the information from non-driven wheels. However, these methods are not applicable in the cases without non-driven wheels, e.g., a four-wheel decentralized electric vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a new wheel slip control approach based on a novel data fusion method to ensure good traction performance in any driving condition. Firstly, with the proposed data fusion algorithm, the acceleration estimator makes use of the data measured by the sensor installed near the vehicle center of mass (CM to calculate the reference acceleration of each wheel center. Then, the wheel slip is constrained by controlling the acceleration deviation between the actual wheel and the reference wheel center. By comparison with non-control and model following control (MFC cases in double lane change tests, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control method has significant anti-slip effectiveness and stabilizing control performance.

  8. In-Flight Position Calibration of the Cassini Articulated Reaction Wheel Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's long-lived Cassini-Huygens spacecraft is currently in its 14th year of flight and in the midst of its second, and final, extended mission. Cassini is a massive interplanetary spacecraft that is three axis stabilized and can maintain attitude control using either its reaction control system thrusters or using reaction wheel control. Cassini has four identical reaction wheels, of which three are mutually orthogonal and have a fixed orientation. The fourth reaction wheel has an articulation motor that allows this reaction wheel to be aligned with the momentum direction of any of the other three fixed reaction wheels. The articulation motor allows this reaction wheel to be used as a replacement for any of the other three wheels without any performance degradation. However, due to limitations in the design of this backup system, there are few telemetric indications of the orientation of this reaction wheel following an articulation. This investigation serves to outline the procedures that have been developed by the Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem to calibrate the position of the articulated reaction wheel assembly in the event that the momentum direction of this reaction wheel must be reoriented.

  9. Influence on component behaviour by changing materials for a cast turbine-wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domes, Bernd

    The present paper shows the results of 20 cyclic cold spin tests with an integral cast turbine wheel, stage 1 of the auxiliary power unit T312. Three different types of wheels were tested: an old type wheel of conventionally cast material MAR-M-246 with a thick grain matrix and low ductility, a new shaped wheel resulting in a lower stress level having the more ductile and fine grain material MAR-M-247 LC FK HIP, and an old type wheel with the same material MAR-M-247 LC FK HIP. All wheels of the first and second version broke in a circumferential groove near the balancing ring where the highest principal stresses are located. The third wheel type, however, always cracked at the central bore where for both wheel types the maximum equivalent stress (von Mises) occurs. The reason is that the damage mechanism of the ductile material rather follows the von Mises stress criterion. But this was not the fact for the new wheel shape, because of a higher relation between the maximum principal stress and the highest von Mises stress compared with the old wheel shape.

  10. Effect of tillage and crop residues management on mungbean (vigna radiata (L.) wilczek) crop yield, nitrogen fixation and water use efficiency in rainfed areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, W.; Shehzadi, S.; Shah, S.M.; Shah, Z.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of crop residues and tillage practices on BNF, WUE and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) under semi arid rainfed conditions at the Livestock Research Station, Surezai, Peshawar in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The experiment comprised of two tillage i) conventional tillage (T1) and ii) no-tillage (T0) and two residues i) wheat crop residues retained (+) and ii) wheat crop residues removed (-) treatments. Basal doses of N at the rate of 20: P at the rate of 60 kg ha-1 were applied to mungbean at sowing time in the form of urea and single super phosphate respectively. Labelled urea having 5% 15N atom excess was applied at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 as aqueous solution in micro plots (1m2) in each treatment plot to assess BNF by mungbean. Similarly, maize and sorghum were grown as reference crops and were fertilized with 15N labelled urea as aqueous solution having 1% 15N atom excess at the rate of 90 kg N ha/sup -1/. The results obtained showed that mungbean yield (grain/straw) and WUE were improved in notillage treatment as compared to tillage treatment. Maximum mungbean grain yield (1224 kg ha/sup -1/) and WUE (6.61kg ha/sup -1 mm/sup -1/) were obtained in no-tillage (+ residues) treatment. The N concentration in mungbean straw and grain was not significantly influenced by tillage or crop residue treatments. The amount of fertilizer-N taken up by straw and grain of mungbean was higher under no-tillage with residues-retained treatment but the differences were not significant. The major proportion of N (60.03 to 76.51%) was derived by mungbean crop from atmospheric N2 fixation, the remaining (19.6 to 35.91%) was taken up from the soil and a small proportion (3.89 to 5.89%) was derived from the applied fertilizer in different treatments. The maximum amount of N fixed by mungbean (82.59 kg ha/sup -1/) was derived in no-tillage with wheat residue-retained treatment. By using sorghum as

  11. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S; Branecky, Katrina L; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits.

  12. Stability Simulation of a Vehicle with Wheel Active Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of increasing the vehicle driving stability at a higher speed. One of the ways how to achieve higher stability is using the 4WS system. Mathematical description of vehicle general movement is a very complex task. For simulation, models which are aptly simplified are used. For the first approach, so-called single-truck vehicle model (often linear is usually used. For the simulation, we have chosen to extend the model into a two-truck one, which includes the possibility to input more vehicle parameters. Considering the 4WS system, it is possible to use a number of potential regulations. In our simulation model, the regulation system with compound coupling was used. This type of regulation turns the rear wheels depending on the input parameters of the system (steering angle of the front wheels and depending on the output moving quantities of the vehicle, most frequently the yaw rate. Criterion for compensation of lateral deflection centre of gravity angle is its zero value, or more precisely the zero value of its first-order derivative. Parameters and set-up of the simulation model were done in conjunction with the dSAPACE software. Reference performances of the vehicle simulation model were made through the defined manoeuvres. But the simulation results indicate that the rear-wheels steering can have a positive effect on the vehicle movement stability, especially when changing the driving direction at high speed.

  13. The Read Out Controller for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)781403; The ATLAS collaboration; Popa, Stefan; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Ivanovici, Mihail; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Levinson, Lorne; Vermeulen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In the upgrade process of the ATLAS detector, the innermost stations of the endcaps (Small Wheels, SW) will be replaced. The New Small Wheel (NSW) will have two chamber technologies, one for the Level-1 trigger function (small-strip Thin Gap Chambers, sTGC) and one primarily dedicated to precision tracking (Micromegas detectors, MM). Custom front-end Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) will be used to read and filter information from both the sTGC and MM detectors. In the context of the New Small Wheel data path, we designed the Read Out Controller (ROC) ASIC for handling, preprocessing and formatting the data generated by the NSW VMM upstream chips. The ROC will concentrate the data streams from 8 VMMs, filter data based on the BCID and transmit the data to FELIX via the L1DDC. ROC is composed of 8 VMM Capture modules, a cross-bar and 4 SubROC modules. The output data is sent via 4 high-speed e-links.

  14. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  15. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. The Read Out Controller for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coliban, R.-M.; Popa, S.; Tulbure, T.; Nicula, D.; Ivanovici, M.; Martoiu, S.; Levinson, L.; Vermeulen, J.

    2016-02-01

    In the upgrade process of the ATLAS detector, the innermost stations of the endcaps (Small Wheels) will be replaced. The New Small Wheel will have two chamber technologies, small-strip Thin Gap Chambers and Micromegas, each providing triggering and precision track measurement. Custom front-end Application Specific Integrated Circuits will be used to read and filter information from both types of detectors. In the context of the New Small Wheel data path, the Read Out Controller ASIC is used for handling, preprocessing and formatting the data generated by the VMM upstream chips. The Read Out Controller will concentrate the data streams from 8 VMMs, filter data based on the ATLAS Level-1 trigger which identifies bunch crossings of interest and transmit the data to FELIX via the L1DDC. The Read Out Controller is composed of 8 VMM Capture modules, a cross-bar and 4 sROC modules. The output data is sent via up to 4 serial links with a configurable speed of 80, 160 or 320 Mbps per link.

  17. Wheel arch aerodynamics of a modern road vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsley, S.; Aroussi, A.

    2003-01-01

    A geometrically faithful model of the Aston Martin V12 Vanquish was formed in 3D CAD and used to perform an extensive CFD study into the airflow in and around the wheel arch of the vehicle. Parameters such as spin ratio, ground clearance, vertical and horizontal insertion into the wheel arch and the yaw angles experienced during cornering, were all under investigation. The additional aim of the research was to validate or refute the use of CFD as a tool in this complex area of fluid flow. This research serves to highlight a number of problems and potential solutions in the use of CFD. Meshing problems can be eliminated with increased computational power and suggestions have been made to improve the modeling of rotating boundaries that include radial features such as wheel spokes. Much of the CFD data ties well with previously conducted experimental work, if not numerically then in trend. Without additional physical validation however, it is difficult to ascertain the overall accuracy and usefulness of the remaining results, which have not yet been conducted in physical reality. Despite its limitations, the use of CFD permitted an extensive analysis in a comparatively short length of time and served to highlight potential areas for increased scrutiny. As an example, results from the final yaw angle case drew attention to a potential concern for aerodynamic destabilisation of the vehicle during cornering, generating lift on the front arch of the car that is already lifted due to cornering forces and body roll. (author)

  18. Multispectral Imager With Improved Filter Wheel and Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Figure 1 schematically depicts an improved multispectral imaging system of the type that utilizes a filter wheel that contains multiple discrete narrow-band-pass filters and that is rotated at a constant high speed to acquire images in rapid succession in the corresponding spectral bands. The improvement, relative to prior systems of this type, consists of the measures taken to prevent the exposure of a focal-plane array (FPA) of photodetectors to light in more than one spectral band at any given time and to prevent exposure of the array to any light during readout. In prior systems, these measures have included, variously the use of mechanical shutters or the incorporation of wide opaque sectors (equivalent to mechanical shutters) into filter wheels. These measures introduce substantial dead times into each operating cycle intervals during which image information cannot be collected and thus incoming light is wasted. In contrast, the present improved design does not involve shutters or wide opaque sectors, and it reduces dead times substantially. The improved multispectral imaging system is preceded by an afocal telescope and includes a filter wheel positioned so that its rotation brings each filter, in its turn, into the exit pupil of the telescope. The filter wheel contains an even number of narrow-band-pass filters separated by narrow, spoke-like opaque sectors. The geometric width of each filter exceeds the cross-sectional width of the light beam coming out of the telescope. The light transmitted by the sequence of narrow-band filters is incident on a dichroic beam splitter that reflects in a broad shorter-wavelength spectral band that contains half of the narrow bands and transmits in a broad longer-wavelength spectral band that contains the other half of the narrow spectral bands. The filters are arranged on the wheel so that if the pass band of a given filter is in the reflection band of the dichroic beam splitter, then the pass band of the adjacent filter

  19. Theory of turn bodies of mountain tandem wheeled self-propelled chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Makharoblidze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of turning of the adaptive bodies of mountain tandem-wheeled motor vehicle chassis intended as power units in small farms, is offered. A calculating formula for radius of turning is deduced for two variants: drive of all the six driving and steered wheels and without drive of front steered wheels. By the calculating formula are considered: lateral leading away of front steered wheels; re-distribution of the load on the wheels; hook resistance; coefficient of the differential gear black system; distance between centers of jointed in pairs tandem wheels constituting a counter-balanced suspension and other geometric, kinematic and dynamic parameters. The research results can be used in determining of exploitation indices of perspective mobile power units in the stage of their design.

  20. A versatile 50 ft-lb-sec reaction wheel for TRMM and XTE missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialke, Bill

    A 50 ft-lb-sec Reaction Wheel is being manufactured by ITHACO, Inc. for NASA's X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) missions, using the same mechanical assemblies as a similar Reaction Wheel developed by ITHACO for the Air Force's Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) (P91-1) mission. The versatile design allows variation in motor torque and speed capability with no mechanical modifications. State of the art ball bearing technology is combined with flight proven materials and conventional fabrication techniques to produce a relaible and manufacturable wheel assembly. An ironless armature brushless DC motor is incorporated for high efficiency and minimum weight. Comprehensive tradeoff analyses from the Reaction Wheel development are discussed for each component, and performance characteristics are presented for design variations from a high torque Reaction Wheel used in a three axis stabilized spacecraft to a low torque Momentum Wheel used in a momentum biased attitude Control System.

  1. Effect of Control Measures on Wheel/Rail Noise When the Vehicle Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Han

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed a time domain simplified model to study the effect of control measures on wheel/rail noise when the vehicle curves. The time domain model consists of two parts, one being a vehicle-track coupling dynamic model for wheel/rail interaction, the other being a transient finite element and boundary element domain model for vibration and sound radiation. Wheel/rail noise under wheel/rail lateral creep force is predicted for a narrowly curved section of a conventional underground railway, and compared with measurement. Based on the developed model, the effect of wheel/rail friction modification on squeal noise is investigated. In addition, effectiveness of resilient wheel and embedded track to control curve squeal noise are also assessed.

  2. Assessment of a rail vehicle running with the damaged wheel on a ride comfort for passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dižo Ján

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain conditions rail vehicles wheels can be during operation damaged. Then, the profile of wheels is no longer circular, but it is changed depending on the type and severity of defects. When such rail vehicle with the damaged wheel operates, the quality of a ride comfort for passenger is degraded. This article is focused on the assessment of ride comfort for passenger based on results obtained from dynamic analyses. Simulations and calculations were carried out in commercial multibody software. In our research we considered one type of the railway wheel untrueness – wheel-flat. This type of wheel damaging is relatively common and has such influence on the ride comfort for passenger worsening, which needs to be detected and investigated.

  3. Thermal modal analysis of novel non-pneumatic mechanical elastic wheel based on FEM and EMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youqun; Zhu, Mingmin; Lin, Fen; Xiao, Zhen; Li, Haiqing; Deng, Yaoji

    2018-01-01

    A combination of Finite Element Method (FEM) and Experiment Modal Analysis (EMA) have been employed here to characterize the structural dynamic response of mechanical elastic wheel (ME-Wheel) operating under a specific thermal environment. The influence of high thermal condition on the structural dynamic response of ME-Wheel is investigated. The obtained results indicate that the EMA results are in accordance with those obtained using the proposed Finite Element (FE) model, indicting the high reliability of this FE model applied in analyzing the modal of ME-Wheel working under practical thermal environment. It demonstrates that the structural dynamic response of ME-Wheel operating under a specific thermal condition can be predicted and evaluated using the proposed analysis method, which is beneficial for the dynamic optimization design of the wheel structure to avoid tire temperature related vibration failure and improve safety of tire.

  4. Ceramic residue for producing cements, method for the production thereof, and cements containing same

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez de Rojas, María Isabel; Frías, Moisés; Asensio, Eloy; Medina Martínez, César

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a ceramic residue produced from construction and demolition residues, as a puzzolanic component of cements. The invention also relates to a method for producing said ceramic residues and to another method of producing cements using said residues. This type of residue is collected in recycling plants, where it is managed. This invention facilitates a potential commercial launch.

  5. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...... period. Mink with access to a running wheel did not perform stereotypic behaviour and mink selected for a high level of stereotypies had more turns in the running wheel than mink selected for low levels of stereotypies. Mink with access to a running wheel used the running wheel for the same amount...

  6. ANALYSIS OF LATERAL VIBRATION OF THE WHEEL RELATIVE TO THE RAIL WITH VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Melnychuk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the videotape recordings of wheel motion on rail track, done during the dynamic tests of carriages, are analyzed. The treatment includes fixing of wheel rim positions in relation to a rail, construction of the spline function of displacement and its frequency description. The purpose of analysis is to determine the presence of harmonic components in the transversal wheel displacements.

  7. 49 CFR 238.119 - Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels. 238.119 Section... Requirements § 238.119 Rim-stamped straight-plate wheels. (a)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this... than a private car, that is equipped with a rim-stamped straight-plate wheel if a brake shoe acts on...

  8. Reciprocal inhibitory effects of intravenous d-methamphetamine self-administration and wheel activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M L; Vaillancourt, B D; Wright, M J; Aarde, S M; Vandewater, S A; Creehan, K M; Taffe, M A

    2012-02-01

    Some epidemiological and cessation studies suggest physical exercise attenuates or prevents recreational drug use in humans. Preclinical studies indicate that wheel activity reduces cocaine self-administration in rats; this may, however, require the establishment of compulsive wheel activity. Effects of concurrent wheel activity on intravenous d-methamphetamine (METH) self-administration were examined in male Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats with negligible prior wheel experience. Wistar rats self-administered METH (0.05 mg/kg/inf) under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR1) schedule with concurrent access to an activity wheel during sessions 1-14, 8-21 or 15-21. Control rats which did not self-administer METH had access to an activity wheel during sessions 1-14, 8-21 or 15-28. Sprague Dawley rats self-administered METH (0.1 mg/kg/inf) under FR1 for 14 sessions with either concurrent access to a locked or an unlocked activity wheel. METH self-administration was lower when the wheel was available concurrently from the start of self-administration training in both strains, even though Sprague Dawley rats self-administered twice as many METH infusions and ran one-sixth as much on the wheel compared to Wistar rats. Wheel access initiated after 7 or 14 days had no effect on METH self-administration in Wistar rats. Wheel activity was significantly reduced in these groups compared with the group with concurrent wheel and METH access for the first 14 sessions. These data show that METH self-administration is reduced by exercise if initiated from the start of self-administration and that prior METH self-administration experience interferes with the value of exercise as a reinforcer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Necessity and effects of dynamic systems for railway wheel defect detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vesković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available State of railway vehicles highly influences transport safety due to vehicle derailments and in the same time worsens the quality of freight and passenger transportation. One of important elements that influence the state of railway vehicles is the wheel state. Wheel defects are common in railway transport. Therefore, timely defect detection is very important. This paper presents ways and effects of timely detection of wheel defects.

  10. APPLIED PROBLEMS OF CURVILINEAR MOTION DYNAMICS OF ALL-WHEEL DRIVE TRACTION MEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Gorin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental principles for hybrid theory on turning of an all-wheel drive system are given in the paper. The paper shows expediency of accounting longitudinal additional tangential reactions (parasitic forces in contacts of central and lateral wheels with foundation. Algorithms for calculating additional tangential reactions have been proposed in the paper. The paper presents calculation kinematics model for turning of steered and rigid bogie with inter-wheel differential at various axial drive.

  11. A Magnetic Wheel Structure for an Omni-Directional Microrobot to Limit Slip Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Yiliang Jin; Jiapin Chen; Zhenbo Li

    2009-01-01

    To fulfill the microassembly work successfully, an omnidirectional mobile microrobot is presented. To finish the micron size task, the positioning precision of the robot is highly important. But some unpredictable factors, especially the slip effect in wheel, would affect the precision of the robot and cause unwanted deviation. To limit the deviation and optimize the positioning performance of the robot, a new wheel structure is designed. The design of the new wheel is based on magnetic princ...

  12. Utilization of teflon and aluminum oxide for wheel cleaning in Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Barros,Bianca Gomes; Silva,Tiago da; Canarim,Rubens Chinali; Aguiar,Paulo Roberto de; Bianchi,Eduardo Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Researches concerning cooling-lubrication optimization in grinding have been conducted to contribute to a more sustainable process. An alternative to flood coolant is minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), which spray oil droplets in a compressed air jet. However, problems related to wheel cleaning were reported, due to wheel loading by a mixture of chips and oil, resulting in worsening of surface quality. This work aims to evaluate the viability of Teflon and aluminum oxide for wheel cleaning, ...

  13. Reasons for service failure of an EKG-20 power shovel bogie wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, S.P.; Milokhin, S.E.

    1986-03-01

    In tests of experimental models of the EKG-20 power shovel in Neryungri Open Pit Coal Mine, regardless of the temperature of the atmosphere, cases of failure of the bogie wheels were observed. Metallographic and fractographic investigations of one such fragment with the use of methods of light and electron microscopy were conducted to reveal the reasons for the insufficient strength reserve of the wheels. The investigated wheel was produced from 60KhN steel. The authors found that failure of the bogie wheel occurs as a result of spalling.

  14. Wheel-rail profile matching based on finite element method for Beijing metro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-huan; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Xiao-dong; Zhu, Huang-shi; Zhang, Lin; Shang, Weipeng

    2017-09-01

    An instrument that measures wheel-rail appearance is used to measure the size of the wheel and rail in the section of the Baishiqiao South Station of Beijing Metro Line 6 to develop a finite element entity. Different working conditions such as axle load and traction are considered. The results show that: Under axle load, the matching performance of wheel I/rail II is improved, its contact area is the largest, and its equivalent stress and contact force are minimal; Under traction force, the matching performance of wheel I/rail II is improved, and the shear stress and equivalent stress are minimal, and thus is ideal.

  15. Sensor set-up for wireless measurement of automotive rim and wheel parameters in laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Prus, P.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Rychlik, A.; Kozubel, W.

    2017-08-01

    Modern rims and wheels are tested at the design and production stages. Tests can be performed in laboratory conditions and on the ride. In the laboratory, complex and costly equipment is used, as for example wheel balancers and impact testers. Modern wheel balancers are equipped with electronic and electro-mechanical units that enable touch-less measurement of dimensions, including precision measurement of radial and lateral wheel run-out, automatic positioning and application of the counterweights, and vehicle wheel set monitoring - tread wear, drift angles and run-out unbalance. Those tests are performed by on-wheel axis measurements with laser distance meters. The impact tester enables dropping of weights from a defined height onto a wheel. Test criteria are the loss of pressure of the tire and generation of cracks in the wheel without direct impact of the falling weights. In the present paper, a set up composed of three accelerometers, a temperature sensor and a pressure sensor is examined as the base of a wheel tester. The sensor set-up configuration, on-line diagnostic and signal transmission are discussed.

  16. Influence of the contact roughness upon railway monobloc wheel acoustic behaviour on virtual prototyping approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, George; Kamberov, Konstantin; Kralov, Ivan; Ignatov, Ignat

    2017-12-01

    In this study the virtual prototyping is used for evaluation the influence of the contact roughness upon the acoustic behaviour evaluation of railway monobloc wheel. The proposed procedure covers requirements of the European Standard EN 13979-1 "Wheels and bogies - Monobloc wheels". The main advantage of the acoustic assessment based on the virtual engineering technics - absence of the expensive and time consuming physical tests, is sown. The real industrial-project example is presented and comparison of the numerical and experimental results is used for acoustic behaviour assessment and approval of railway monobloc wheel design.

  17. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.

  18. Position and force control of a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    When a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels is traveling in a circle, the motion of the wheels is constrained. The wheel translational velocity divided by the radius to the center of rotation must be the same for all wheels. When the drive wheels are controlled independently using position control, the motion of the wheels may violate the constraints and the wheels may slip. Consequently, substantial errors can occur in the orientation of the vehicle. A vehicle with N drive wheels has (N - 1) constraints and one degree of freedom. We have developed a new approach to the control of a vehicle with N steerable drive wheels. The novel aspect of our approach is the use of force control. To control the vehicle, we have one degree of freedom for the position on the circle and (N - 1) forces that can be used to reduce errors. Recently, Kankaanranta and Koivo developed a control architecture that allows the force and position degrees of freedom to be decoupled. In the work of Kankaanranta and Koivo the force is an exogenous input. We have made the force endogenous by defining the force in terms of the errors in satisfying the rigid body kinematic constraints. We have applied the control architecture to the HERMIES-III robot and have measured a dramatic reduction in error (more than a factor of 20) compared to motions without force control.

  19. 40 CFR 266.112 - Regulation of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.112 Regulation of residues. A residue derived from the burning or processing of hazardous waste in a boiler or industrial... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulation of residues. 266.112...

  20. Improved crop residue cover estimates by coupling spectral indices for residue and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing assessment of soil residue cover (fR) and tillage intensity will improve our predictions of the impact of agricultural practices and promote sustainable management. Spectral indices for estimating fR are sensitive to soil and residue water content, therefore, the uncertainty of estima...

  1. An investigation into the mechanism of the polygonal wear of metro train wheels and its effect on the dynamic behaviour of a wheel/rail system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuesong; Wu, Lei; Fang, Jianying; Zhong, Shuoqiao; Ling, Liang

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed investigation conducted into the mechanism of the polygonal wear of metro train wheels through extensive experiments conducted at the sites. The purpose of the experimental investigation is to determine from where the resonant frequency that causes the polygonal wear of the metro train wheels originates. The experiments include the model tests of a vehicle and its parts and the tracks, the dynamic behaviour test of the vehicle in operation and the observation test of the polygonal wear development of the wheels. The tracks tested include the viaducts and the tunnel tracks. The structure model tests show that the average passing frequency of a polygonal wheel is approximately close to the first bending resonant frequency of the wheelset that is found by the wheelset model test and verified by the finite element analysis of the wheelset. Also, the dynamic behaviour test of the vehicle in operation indicates the main frequencies of the vertical acceleration vibration of the axle boxes, which are dominant in the vertical acceleration vibration of the axle boxes and close to the passing frequency of a polygonal wheel, which shows that the first bending resonant frequency of the wheelset is very exciting in the wheelset operation. The observation test of the polygonal wear development of the wheels indicates an increase in the rate of the polygonal wear of the wheels after their re-profiling. This paper also describes the dynamic models used for the metro vehicle coupled with the ballasted track and the slab track to analyse the effect of the polygonal wear of the wheels on the wheel/rail normal forces.

  2. Numerical Simulation Analysis of an Oversteer In-Wheel Small Electric Vehicle Integrated with Four-Wheel Drive and Independent Steering

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Muhammad Izhar; Ogino, Hirohiko; Yamamoto, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Similar to conventional vehicle, most in-wheel small EVs that exist today are designed with understeer (US) characteristic. They are safer on the road but possess poor cornering performance. With recent in-wheel motor and steer-by wire technology, high cornering performance vehicle does not limit to sport or racing cars. We believe that oversteer (OS) design approach for in-wheel small EV can increase the steering performance of the vehicle. However, one disadvantage is that OS vehicle has a ...

  3. System Analysis of Flat Grinding Process with Wheel Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Ivanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conducted system analysis of the flat grinding wheel face, considers the state parameters, input and output variables of subsystems, namely: machine tool, workpiece, grinding wheel, cutting fluids, and the contact area. It reveals the factors influencing the temperature and power conditions for the grinding process.Aim: conducting the system analysis of the flat grinding process with wheel face expects to enable a development of the system of grinding process parameters as a technical system, which will make it possible to evaluate each parameter individually and implement optimization of the entire system.One of the most important criteria in defining the optimal process conditions is the grinding temperature, which, to avoid defects appearance of on the surface of component, should not exceed the critical temperature values to be experimentally determined. The temperature criterion can be useful for choosing the conditions for the maximum defect-free performance of the mechanical face grinding. To define the maximum performance of defect-free grinding can also use other criteria such as a critical power density, indirectly reflecting the allowable thermal stress grinding process; the structure of the ground surface, which reflects the presence or absence of a defect layer, which is determined after the large number of experiments; flow range of the diamond layer.Optimal conditions should not exceed those of defect-free grinding. It is found that a maximum performance depends on the characteristics of circles and grade of processed material, as well as on the contact area and grinding conditions. Optimal performance depends on the diamond value (cost and specific consumption of diamonds in a circle.Above criteria require formalization as a function of the variable parameters of the grinding process. There is an option for the compromise of inter-criteria optimality, thereby providing a set of acceptable solutions, from

  4. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. The Ramsey Numbers for Star Versus Wheel of Even Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmawati; Nur Rohmah Oktaviani, P.; Haryanto, Loeky

    2018-03-01

    The Ramsey Numbers of R(G,H) is the smallest integer k such that for any graph F of order k, either F contains G or the complement of F (or \\bar{F}) contains H. Let Sn denoted star of order n and Wm a wheel of order m + 1. In this paper, we show that R(S 20, W 10) = 43, and if k is even, R(S 2k+1, W 2k ) = 5k – 1 for k ≥ 6.

  6. The Read Out Controller for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    CERN Document Server

    Coliban, Radu Mihai; The ATLAS collaboration; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Levinson, Lorne; Vermeulen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the New Small Wheel data path, we designed the Read Out Controller (ROC) ASIC for handling, preprocessing and formatting the data generated by the NSW VMM upstream chips. The ROC will concentrate the data streams from 8VMMs, filter data based on the BCID and transmit the data to FELIX via the L1DDC. ROC is composed of 8 VMM Capture modules, a cross-bar and 4 SubROC modules. The output data is sent via 4 high-speed e-links.

  7. Remarks on the classification of wheeled mobile robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gruber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is modeling and classification of single-bodied wheeled mobile robots (WMRs. In the past, it was shown that the kinematics of each such robot can be modeled by one out of only five different generic models. However, the precise conditions under which a model is the proper description of the kinematic capabilities of a robot were not clear. These shortcomings are eliminated in this work, leading to a simple procedure for model selection. Additionally, a thorough analysis of the kinematic models and a classification of their singularities are presented.

  8. Feasible study on desiccant wheel with CO2 heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yefeng; Meng, Deren; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    A kind of desiccant wheel with CO2 heat pump is proposed. The main features of this proposed system include: (1) there are two optional ways of desiccant dehumidification and cooling dehumidification; (2) for the subsystem of desiccant dehumidification process, the air regeneration process occurs inside a closed loop, and a CO2 heat pump is utilized inside this loop for air regeneration, which has the potential to significantly reduce energy consumption compared to a traditional regeneration process. The operating performance of the system is simulated and analysed. Compared to the traditional vapor compression air conditioning system, the hybrid system can save approximately 50% to 90% of energy.

  9. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  10. Generic trajectory representation and trajectory following for wheeled robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the work towards a purely generic navigation solution for wheeled mobile robots motivated by the following goals: Generic: Works for different types of robots. Configurable: Parameters maps to geometric properties of the robot. Predictable: Well defined where the robot...... will drive. Safe: Avoid fatal collisions. Based on a survey of existing methods and algorithms the article presents a generic way to represent constraints for different types of robots, a generic way to represent trajectories using Bëzier curves, a method to convert the trajectory so it can be driven...... in a smooth motion, a method to create a safe velocity profile for the robot, and a path following controller....

  11. Electron Beam Welding of Gear Wheels by Splitted Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dřímal Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the issue of electron beam welding of high-accurate gear wheels composed of a spur gearing and fluted shaft joined with a face weld for automotive industry. Both parts made of the high-strength low-alloy steel are welded in the condition after final machining and heat treatment, performed by case hardening, whereas it is required that the run-out in the critical point of weldment after welding, i. e. after the final operation, would be 0.04 mm max..

  12. A five-wheel wheelchair with an active-caster drive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Yu; Tanaka, Aki; Wada, Masayoshi

    2013-06-01

    A novel wheelchair system with an active-caster drive mechanism is presented in this paper. A manual (hand propelled) wheelchair with an external single-wheel drive system forms a five-wheel configuration. The active-caster mechanism is applied to a drive system to motorize a manual wheelchair. Two electric motors which drive a wheel axis and a steering axis of a drive wheel independently are equipped on the active-caster. A coordinated control of the two motors enables the velocity vector on the steering shaft to direct in an arbitrary direction with an arbitrary magnitude. The generated velocity vector allows a wheelchair to go straight and/or rotate completely in a same way as a standard electric wheelchair. Namely 2DOF of the wheelchair can be controlled independently by a single drive wheel without any constraint, such as the orientation of the drive wheel which is well known as a non-holonomic constraint. In addition to the 2DOF mobility, the proposed system enables wheelchair users to change drive modes, a rear drive and a front drive. The drive wheel on the back side of the wheelchair is vertically actuated by a linear motor to change the height of the drive wheel that can vary load distribution and the number of wheels contacting to the ground. The five-wheel-contact makes the wheelchair to move as the normal mode in which the center of rotation is located at the midpoint of the main wheels. Depressing the drive wheel results in lost contacts of the main wheels from the ground in which the center of rotation is jumped at the midpoint of the front wheels, namely it performs as a front drive wheelchair. In this paper, kinematic models of the wheelchair and that with an active-caster drive system are analyzed and a control method by using a 2DOF joystick is derived. Based on the kinematic model, a prototype mechanism of the active-caster is designed and mounted on a manual wheelchair to realize the five-wheel wheelchair. In the experiments, the independent 2

  13. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: Implications for livestock disease management and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38 were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline and 0.017% (penicillin-G of the acceptable daily intake (ADI. Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  14. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: Implications for livestock disease management and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38 were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline and 0.017% (penicillin-G of the acceptable daily intake (ADI. Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  15. Transportation of vitrified residues towards Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the swiss policy concerning the spent fuel management and the participation of COGEMA to the spent fuel processing. In this framework the swiss spent fuel processing at COGEMA La Hague, the transports safety and management, the regulatory framework applied to the transports, the quality and safety control and the ultimate residues storage are presented. (A.L.B.)

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF GRINDING CONDITIONS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF RESIDUAL STRESS IN THE SURFACE LAYER OF 17crni6-6 STEEL AFTER CARBURIZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sawicki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study aimed at determining the residual stress which results from developing the surface layer by low-pressure and conventional carburizing and grinding of 17CrNi6-6 steel. A synergistic effect of thermochemical and abrasive treatment was examined on ring samples used to study residual stress by Davidenkov’s method. Samples were subjected to vacuum carburizing and conventional carburizing, which was followed by grinding with a 38A60K8V aloxite grinding wheel and a CBN grinding wheel - RNB80/63B75V. The following cutting fluids were used during the grinding process: oil emulsion 5%, supply rate ca. 20 l/min, Micro5000 oil supplied at the minimum quantity lubrication (MQL of ca. 25 ml/h, dry machining. The study determined the effect of the type of grinding wheel and the cooling and lubricating agent on the distribution of residual stress in the sur-face layer. The best effects of grinding with respect to the residual stress were achieved with flood cooling with oil emulsion and grinding with a CBN grinding wheel.

  17. Integration of the management of urban solid residues and muds: a symbiotic solution; Integracion de la gestion de residuos solidos urbanos y lodos: una solucion simbiotica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, T.; Mulder, M.; Van Berlo, M.

    2008-07-01

    Linking a sewage treatment plant and a waste-to-energy plant brings energy efficiency benefits to both. The combined plant minimizes environmental impact and maximizes energy production, putting Amsterdam at the forefront of urban waste management. (Author)

  18. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  19. Simulation of the ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) System

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be increased up to a factor of five with respect to the present design value by undergoing an extensive upgrade program over the coming decade. In order to benefit from the expected high luminosity performance that will be provided by the Phase-1 upgraded LHC, the first station of the ATLAS muon end-cap Small Wheel system will need to be replaced by a New Small Wheel (NSW) detector. The NSW is going to be installed in the ATLAS detector in the forward region of 1.3 < |η| < 2.7 during the second long LHC shutdown. The NSW will have to operate in a high background radiation region, while reconstructing muon tracks with high precision as well as furnishing information for the Level-1 trigger. A detailed study of the final design and validation of the readout electronics for a set of precision tracking (Micromegas) and trigger chambers (small-strip Thin Gap Chambers or sTGC) that are able to work at high rates with excellent real-...

  20. Mechatronic modeling of real-time wheel-rail contact

    CERN Document Server

    Bosso, Nicola; Gugliotta, Antonio; Somà, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Real-time simulations of the behaviour of a rail vehicle require realistic solutions of the wheel-rail contact problem which can work in a real-time mode. Examples of such solutions for the online mode have been well known and are implemented within standard and commercial tools for the simulation codes for rail vehicle dynamics. This book is the result of the research activities carried out by the Railway Technology Lab of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Politecnico di Torino. This book presents work on the project for the development of a real-time wheel-rail contact model and provides the simulation results obtained with dSpace real-time hardware. Besides this, the implementation of the contact model for the development of a real-time model for the complex mechatronic system of a scaled test rig is presented in this book and may be useful for the further validation of the real-time contact model with experiments on a full scale test rig.