WorldWideScience

Sample records for residue management effects

  1. Effects of plantation residue management on the community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of plantation residue management on the community structure of wattle regeneration invertebrate pests in South Africa. ... Members of the soil invertebrate pest complex included whitegrubs and cutworms that generally had a higher pest status than millipedes, nematodes, grasshoppers, ants, false wireworms, ...

  2. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  3. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  4. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1994-12-01

    Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P cover crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management.

  5. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and residue management practices on ammonia emissions from subtropical sugarcane production

    Science.gov (United States)

    mudi, Sanku Datta; Wang, Jim J.; Dodla, Syam Kumar; Arceneaux, Allen; Viator, H. P.

    2016-08-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from soil is a loss of nitrogen (N) nutrient for plant production as well as an issue of air quality, due to the fact that it is an active precursor of airborne particulate matters. Ammonia also acts as a secondary source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission when present in the soil. In this study, the impacts of different sources of N fertilizers and harvest residue management schemes on NH3 emissions from sugarcane production were evaluated based on an active chamber method. The field experiment plots consisting of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN)) and two common residue management practices, namely residue retained (RR) and residue burned (RB), were established on a Commerce silt loam. The NH3 volatilized following N fertilizer application was collected in an impinger containing diluted citric acid and was subsequently analyzed using ion chromatography. The NH3 loss was primarily found within 3-4 weeks after N application. Average seasonal soil NH3 flux was significantly greater in urea plots with NH3-N emission factor (EF) twice or more than in UAN plots (2.4-5.6% vs. 1.2-1.7%). The RR residue management scheme had much higher NH3 volatilization than the RB treatment regardless of N fertilizer sources, corresponding to generally higher soil moisture levels in the former. Ammonia-N emissions in N fertilizer-treated sugarcane fields increased with increasing soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) up to 45-55% observed in the field. Both N fertilizer sources and residue management approaches significantly affected NH3 emissions.

  6. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  7. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  8. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  9. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  10. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schmidt

    Full Text Available Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices.

  11. Effects of Residue Management on Decomposition in Irrigated Rice Fields Are Not Related to Changes in the Decomposer Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; John, Katharina; Arida, Gertrudo; Auge, Harald; Brandl, Roland; Horgan, Finbarr G; Hotes, Stefan; Marquez, Leonardo; Radermacher, Nico; Settele, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Schädler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Decomposers provide an essential ecosystem service that contributes to sustainable production in rice ecosystems by driving the release of nutrients from organic crop residues. During a single rice crop cycle we examined the effects of four different crop residue management practices (rice straw or ash of burned straw scattered on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil) on rice straw decomposition and on the abundance of aquatic and soil-dwelling invertebrates. Mass loss of rice straw in litterbags of two different mesh sizes that either prevented or allowed access of meso- and macro-invertebrates was used as a proxy for decomposition rates. Invertebrates significantly increased total loss of litter mass by up to 30%. Initially, the contribution of invertebrates to decomposition was significantly smaller in plots with rice straw scattered on the soil surface; however, this effect disappeared later in the season. We found no significant responses in microbial decomposition rates to management practices. The abundance of aquatic fauna was higher in fields with rice straw amendment, whereas the abundance of soil fauna fluctuated considerably. There was a clear separation between the overall invertebrate community structure in response to the ash and straw treatments. However, we found no correlation between litter mass loss and abundances of various lineages of invertebrates. Our results indicate that invertebrates can contribute to soil fertility in irrigated paddy fields by decomposing rice straw, and that their abundance as well as efficiency in decomposition may be promoted by crop residue management practices.

  12. Cover crop residue management for optimizing weed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Bastiaans, L.; Kropff, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Although residue management seems a key factor in residue-mediated weed suppression, very few studies have systematically compared the influence of different residue management strategies on the establishment of crop and weed species. We evaluated the effect of several methods of pre-treatment and

  13. Evaluation of Tillage, Residue Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on CO2 Emission in Maize (Zea Mays L. Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholla Moradi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC states that future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs will continue to increase and cause climatic change (16. These conditions are also true for Iran. The three greenhouse gases associated with agriculture are carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. The three GHGs associated with agriculture CO2, CH4, and N2O differ in their effectiveness in trapping heat and in their turnover rates in the atmosphere. This environmental change will have serious impacts on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photoassimilates. Farmers are not able to change or manage the climatic conditions, but some factors such as soil, water, seed and agricultural practices can be managed to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change (32. Mitigation and adaptation are two known ways for reducing the negative impacts of climate change. Mitigation strategies are associated with decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions through management practices such as reducing chemical fertilizer application, mechanization, increasing carbon storage in agroecosystems, planting biofuel crops and moving towards organic farming (42, etc. Material and Methods: This study was carried out at the experimental field of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011 and was repeated in 2012. The Research Station (36°16´N, 59°36´E is located at about 985 m a.s.l. Average temperature and precipitation rate of the research station in two years are shown in Figure. 1. The three-factor experiment was set up in a strip-split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments were tillage systems (conventional and reduced tillage and residual management (remaining and leaving of maize residual assigned to main plots

  14. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  15. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  16. Phosphorus management and its utilization by berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) and residual effect on forage crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, M.N.; Rai, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Placement of phosphorus even to a broadcast sown crop like berseem helped in boosting up 10 per cent higher forage production over the conventional practice of broadcast application of phosphatic fertilizer without altering the normal practice of sowing broadcast. Likewise, P from fertilizer source and its utilization by the crop increased substantially and were higher in favour of placement of P. Closer the rows of phosphorus placement, greater was the recovery of applied P. The yield of forage increased with the increase in the level of P ranging from 75 to 225 kg P 2 O 5 /ha and the optimum dose was 173 kg P 2 O 5 /ha while the utilization of P decreased with increase in levels. There was enormous response to residual P after berseem and the residual forage yield increased with increase in P levels. A fertilized cereal crop after berseem was in no way better than unfertilized crop after berseem from productivity point of view. (author). 11 refs., 5 tabs

  17. Effects of tropical ecosystem engineers on soil quality and crop performance under different tillage and residue management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulleman, Mirjam; Paul, Birthe; Fredrick, Ayuke; Hoogmoed, Marianne; Hurisso, Tunsisa; Ndabamenye, Telesphore; Saidou, Koala; Terano, Yusuke; Six, Johan; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Feeding a future global population of 9 billion will require a 70-100% increase in food production, resulting in unprecedented challenges for agriculture and natural resources, especially in Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural practices that contribute to sustainable intensification build on beneficial biological interactions and ecosystem services. Termites are the dominant soil ecosystem engineers in arid to sub-humid tropical agro-ecosystems. Various studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of termites for rehabilitation of degraded and crusted soils and plant growth in semi-arid and arid natural ecosystems. However, the contribution of termites to agricultural productivity has hardly been experimentally investigated, and their role in Conservation Agriculture (CA) systems remains especially unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the effects of termites and ants on soil physical quality and crop productivity under different tillage and residue management systems in the medium term. A randomized block trial was set up in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003. Treatments included a factorial combination of residue retention and removal (+R/-R) and conventional and reduced tillage (+T/-T) under a maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glyxine max. L.) rotation. A macrofauna exclusion experiment was superimposed in 2005 as a split-plot factor (exclusion +ins; inclusion -ins) by regular applications of pesticides (Dursban and Endosulfan) in half of the plots. Macrofauna abundance and diversity, soil aggregate fractions, soil carbon contents and crop yields were measured between 2005 and 2012 at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Termites were the most important macrofauna species, constituting between 48-63% of all soil biota, while ants were 13-34%, whereas earthworms were present in very low numbers. Insecticide application was effective in reducing termites (85-56% exclusion efficacy) and earthworms (87%), and less so ants (49-81%) at 0-15 cm soil depth

  18. Environmental dredging residual generation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patmont, Clay; LaRosa, Paul; Narayanan, Raghav; Forrest, Casey

    2018-05-01

    The presence and magnitude of sediment contamination remaining in a completed dredge area can often dictate the success of an environmental dredging project. The need to better understand and manage this remaining contamination, referred to as "postdredging residuals," has increasingly been recognized by practitioners and investigators. Based on recent dredging projects with robust characterization programs, it is now understood that the residual contamination layer in the postdredging sediment comprises a mixture of contaminated sediments that originate from throughout the dredge cut. This mixture of contaminated sediments initially exhibits fluid mud properties that can contribute to sediment transport and contamination risk outside of the dredge area. This article reviews robust dredging residual evaluations recently performed in the United States and Canada, including the Hudson River, Lower Fox River, Ashtabula River, and Esquimalt Harbour, along with other projects. These data better inform the understanding of residuals generation, leading to improved models of dredging residual formation to inform remedy evaluation, selection, design, and implementation. Data from these projects confirm that the magnitude of dredging residuals is largely determined by site conditions, primarily in situ sediment fluidity or liquidity as measured by dry bulk density. While the generation of dredging residuals cannot be avoided, residuals can be successfully and efficiently managed through careful development and implementation of site-specific management plans. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:335-343. © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  19. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard management of stubble and crop residues in the maintenance of adequate contents of soil organic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies carried out on the effects of stubble and crop residue incorporation have shown positive effects on chemical-physical soil characteristics. However, not all studies agree on the extent of soil organic matter increase which derives from this process, as this effect is strongly affected by other factors: the pedo-climatic features of the area in which the study is carried out, the type of crop residue incorporation and the agronomical management adopted to improve the decomposition of the incorporated fresh organic material. The burning of stubble and straw is common in the areas where cereals are traditionally grown. The adoption of this method is based on different technical and work-related factors, which become less important when taking into account the impact on the local environment and soil. A research is currently carried out at the CRA-SCA experimental farm in Foggia (Southern Italy on the effects of either residues incorporation or burning on the chemical-physical characteristics of the soil and on the wheat yield performance since 1977. This experiment allows for a comparison among the effects of burning, the simple incorporation of stubble and crop residues and incorporation carried out with some agronomical techniques (such as the distribution of increasing amounts of nitrogen on crop residue before incorporation and the simulation of rain (50 mm on the decomposition of organic material. The objective of the study was to understand the effect of the different residues management practices on soil chemical properties after 32 years of experimentation. The simple incorporation of straw and stubble showed a slight increase in organic soil matter of 0.7% with respect to burning. The best results for soil organic carbon and soil quality were obtained when residual incorporation included a treatment with additional mineral nitrogen.

  20. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  1. Management of municipal solid waste incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbas, T.; Polettini, A.; Pomi, R.; Astrup, T.; Hjelmar, O.; Mostbauer, P.; Cappai, G.; Magel, G.; Salhofer, S.; Speiser, C.; Heuss-Assbichler, S.; Klein, R.; Lechner, P.

    2003-01-01

    The management of residues from thermal waste treatment is an integral part of waste management systems. The primary goal of managing incineration residues is to prevent any impact on our health or environment caused by unacceptable particulate, gaseous and/or solute emissions. This paper provides insight into the most important measures for putting this requirement into practice. It also offers an overview of the factors and processes affecting these mitigating measures as well as the short- and long-term behavior of residues from thermal waste treatment under different scenarios. General conditions affecting the emission rate of salts and metals are shown as well as factors relevant to mitigating measures or sources of gaseous emissions

  2. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  3. Management of industrial solid residues; Gerenciamento de residuos solidos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the management of industrial solid wastes, approaching the following subjects: classification of industrial solid residues; directives and methodologies for the management of industrial solid residues; instruments for the management of industrial solid residues; handling, packing, storage and transportation; treatment of industrial solid residues; final disposal - landfill for industrial residues; the problem of treatment and final disposer of domestic garbage in Brazil; recycling of the lubricant oils used in brazil; legislation.

  4. Management of parthenium weed by extracts and residue of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the prospects of using methanolic extracts and residue of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for the management of parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), one of the world's worst weeds. In a laboratory bioassay, the effect of methanol extracts of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (w/v) concentrations of ...

  5. Tillage, crop residue, and nutrient management effects on soil organic carbon sequestration in rice-based cropping systems: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the major agricultural strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, enhance food security, and improve agricultural sustainability. This paper synthesizes the much-needed state-of-knowledge on the effects of management practices, such as tilla...

  6. Effects of logging residue management on the growth and nutriend distribution of a pinus taeda plantation in central Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Tiarks; M. Elliot-Smith; R. Stagg

    2004-01-01

    A 37-year-old pine plantation was harvested. An experiment was established at the site with three levels of logging residue retention and two levels of weed control. By age 10 years retaining harvest residue increased pine volumes by 10 m3 ha-land weed control increased production by another 20 m3 ha

  7. Cost-effectiveness of adding indoor residual spraying to case management in Afghan refugee settlements in Northwest Pakistan during a prolonged malaria epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Natasha; Guinness, Lorna; Rowland, Mark

    2017-01-01

    ’ or cost-effective using WHO and comparison thresholds. Conclusions: Adding IRS was cost-effective in this moderate endemicity, low mortality setting. It was more cost-effective when transmission was highest, becoming less so as transmission reduced. Because vivax was three times more common than......Introduction: Financing of malaria control for displaced populations is limited in scope and duration, making cost-effectiveness analyses relevant but difficult. This study analyses cost-effectiveness of adding prevention through targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) to case management in Afghan.......g. cases and DALYs averted) were derived and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for cases prevented and DALYs averted calculated. Population, treatment cost, women’s time, days of productivity lost, case fatality rate, cases prevented, and DALY assumptions were tested in sensitivity analysis...

  8. 40 CFR 279.67 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.67 Section 279.67 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... for Energy Recovery § 279.67 Management of residues. Burners who generate residues from the storage or...

  9. 40 CFR 279.47 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.47 Section 279.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Management of residues. Transporters who generate residues from the storage or transport of used oil must...

  10. 40 CFR 279.59 - Management of residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of residues. 279.59 Section 279.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... Management of residues. Owners and operators who generate residues from the storage, processing, or re...

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  12. Forest residues management guidelines for the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pierovich; Edward H. Clarke; Stewart G. Pickford; Franklin R. Ward

    1975-01-01

    Forest residues often require treatment to meet land management objectives. Guideline statements for managing forest residues are presented to provide direction for achieving these objectives. The latest research information and the best knowledge of experts in various land management disciplines were used to formulate these statements. A unique keying system is...

  13. Eviromental Economic and Technological Residues Management Demands: An Optimization Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Soares Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial residues management is a very demanding task since many different goals must be achieved. The combination of different approaches used by people from different stuff is very challenging activity that can misuse the residues potential value and applicability. An interactive WEB base tool, to integrate different sectors and overcome residues management difficulties will be presented. The system must be loaded with all data concerning the residue life cycle, and through data integration and modeling routine will give the best alternative as output. As wider and complete the system data becomes, by information loading from differen t segment, more efficient the residues management becomes. The user friendly tool will encourage the participation of industries, labs and research institutions to obtain qualified information about industrial residues inventory, raw materials recovery, characteristics, treatment and alternative uses, to achieve residues management sustainability.

  14. Management of stormwater facility maintenance residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Current research on stormwater maintenance residuals has revealed that the source and nature of these materials is extremely variable, that regulation can be ambiguous, and handling can be costly and difficult. From a regulatory perspective, data ind...

  15. Cost-effectiveness of adding indoor residual spraying to case management in Afghan refugee settlements in Northwest Pakistan during a prolonged malaria epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Natasha; Guinness, Lorna; Rowland, Mark; Durrani, Naeem; Hansen, Kristian S

    2017-10-01

    Financing of malaria control for displaced populations is limited in scope and duration, making cost-effectiveness analyses relevant but difficult. This study analyses cost-effectiveness of adding prevention through targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) to case management in Afghan refugee settlements in Pakistan during a prolonged malaria epidemic. An intervention study design was selected, taking a societal perspective. Provider and household costs of vector control and case management were collected from provider records and community survey. Health outcomes (e.g. cases and DALYs averted) were derived and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for cases prevented and DALYs averted calculated. Population, treatment cost, women's time, days of productivity lost, case fatality rate, cases prevented, and DALY assumptions were tested in sensitivity analysis. Malaria incidence peaked at 44/1,000 population in year 2, declining to 14/1,000 in year 5. In total, 370,000 malaria cases, 80% vivax, were diagnosed and treated and an estimated 67,988 vivax cases and 18,578 falciparum and mixed cases prevented. Mean annual programme cost per capita was US$0.56. The additional cost of including IRS over five years per case prevented was US$39; US$50 for vivax (US$43 in years 1-3, US$80 in years 4-5) and US$182 for falciparum (US$139 in years 1-3 and US$680 in years 4-5). Per DALY averted this was US$266 (US$220 in years 1-3 and US$486 in years 4-5) and thus 'highly cost-effective' or cost-effective using WHO and comparison thresholds. Adding IRS was cost-effective in this moderate endemicity, low mortality setting. It was more cost-effective when transmission was highest, becoming less so as transmission reduced. Because vivax was three times more common than falciparum and the case fatality rate was low, cost-effectiveness estimations for cases prevented appear reliable and more definitive for vivax malaria.

  16. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Weed management practice and cropping sequence impact on soil residual nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inefficient N uptake by crops from N fertilization and/or N mineralized from crop residue and soil organic matter results in the accumulation of soil residual N (NH4-N and NO3-N) which increases the potential for N leaching. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of weed management ...

  18. Life cycle assessment of shredder residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Damgaard, Anders; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    wood waste, wood waste for recycling and district heating pipes. The LCA was conducted using the EASETECH LCA model developed by DTU Environment for the environmental assessment of waste management systems and environmental technologies. The LCA was conducted in accordance with the LCA principles...

  19. Effect of tillage and crop residues management on mungbean (vigna radiata (L.) wilczek) crop yield, nitrogen fixation and water use efficiency in rainfed areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, W.; Shehzadi, S.; Shah, S.M.; Shah, Z.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of crop residues and tillage practices on BNF, WUE and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) under semi arid rainfed conditions at the Livestock Research Station, Surezai, Peshawar in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The experiment comprised of two tillage i) conventional tillage (T1) and ii) no-tillage (T0) and two residues i) wheat crop residues retained (+) and ii) wheat crop residues removed (-) treatments. Basal doses of N at the rate of 20: P at the rate of 60 kg ha-1 were applied to mungbean at sowing time in the form of urea and single super phosphate respectively. Labelled urea having 5% 15N atom excess was applied at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 as aqueous solution in micro plots (1m2) in each treatment plot to assess BNF by mungbean. Similarly, maize and sorghum were grown as reference crops and were fertilized with 15N labelled urea as aqueous solution having 1% 15N atom excess at the rate of 90 kg N ha/sup -1/. The results obtained showed that mungbean yield (grain/straw) and WUE were improved in notillage treatment as compared to tillage treatment. Maximum mungbean grain yield (1224 kg ha/sup -1/) and WUE (6.61kg ha/sup -1 mm/sup -1/) were obtained in no-tillage (+ residues) treatment. The N concentration in mungbean straw and grain was not significantly influenced by tillage or crop residue treatments. The amount of fertilizer-N taken up by straw and grain of mungbean was higher under no-tillage with residues-retained treatment but the differences were not significant. The major proportion of N (60.03 to 76.51%) was derived by mungbean crop from atmospheric N2 fixation, the remaining (19.6 to 35.91%) was taken up from the soil and a small proportion (3.89 to 5.89%) was derived from the applied fertilizer in different treatments. The maximum amount of N fixed by mungbean (82.59 kg ha/sup -1/) was derived in no-tillage with wheat residue-retained treatment. By using sorghum as

  20. Regulatory and management approaches to NORM residues in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Teng, I.L.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) processing industries in Malaysia include oil and gas production and mineral processing plants. These industries are controlled by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board of Malaysia (AELB) through the enforcement of the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304). Related regulations have been developed in order to ensure the safety of workers and members of the public. However, more regulations are necessary for the safe handling of NORM. NORM processing generates various types of NORM residues that require proper management. As for low-level NORM residues, landfill disposal can be exempted from regulatory control if the Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) shows that the additional dose to the members of the public is below the limit set by the authority. This paper outlines the regulatory and management approaches to NORM residues in Malaysia. (author)

  1. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies Aceptabilidad y efectos secundarios percibidos del rociado residual intradomiciliario de insecticidas bajo diferentes esquemas de manejo de resistencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo David Rodríguez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptabilidad y los efectos secundarios del rociado intradomiciliar de insecticidas pyrethroides (PYR, carbamato y organophosphato rociados

  2. Residual effects of hypnotics: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, I

    1991-07-01

    The sedative/hypnotic benzodiazepines introduced worldwide in the early 1960s were acclaimed for their low chemical toxicity and safety in clinical use. A decade later, some researchers and clinicians found that while all the drugs had undoubted potency and efficacy as sleep inducers and maintainers, the trade-off in residual effects (e.g., excessive daytime tiredness, poor concentration, impaired psychomotor performance, lowered mental abilities) was cause for concern. These sequelae not only affected patients' safety and ability to perform daytime tasks, but were also counter-therapeutic; the daytime sleep that was produced interfered with the natural nocturnal sleep. In a recent study, the degree to which patient abilities were impaired was measured by a number of psychomotor tests. Benzodiazepines with a duration of clinical effect of less than 8 to 10 hours produced fewer, less frequent residual effects than those with a measurable activity in excess of the normal nocturnal sleep period.

  3. Report of the Task Force on Sawmill Wood Residue Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Sawmill Wood Residue Task Force was established in 1993 to seek solutions to managing wood residue at sawmills, shingle mills, and log sort yards in British Columbia without burning or landfilling. In particular, the Task Force was formed to address the phaseout of beehive-type wood waste burners by January 1, 1996. The Task Force was formed at the forest product industry's request and included representatives from industry associations and government. It reviewed existing information on the quantities of mill residues and the options available for reducing, reusing, and recycling the residues. Nearly half of all the province's residues of 5 million bone dry tonnes/y is disposed of by burning with no energy recovery, or by landfilling. It was recognized that the total volume of wood residue cannot be handled by any one method suitable for all sources but that in the near term, electricity generation could deal with a significant percentage of wood currently being burned. The most immediate technically viable opportnity by industry in this area may be in cogeneration of electricity for load displacement at pulp mills. Other opportunities exist such as conversion of wood residue to liquid fuels but these require greater commitments to research and development. The need to handle bark and sawdust was identified as a critical requirement for alternate uses. Small niche uses for wood residue must be examined on a case by case basis for each company or group of companies in a region. The provincial government can also promote better use of wood wastes through policies such as social costing of power generation options and sales tax exemption for ethanol fuel. 1 tab

  4. Carbon fractions and soil fertility affected by tillage and sugarcane residue management an Xanthic Udult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Maria Lopes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gradual change in management practices in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. production from burning straw to a green harvesting system, as well as the use of minimum soil tillage during field renovation, may affect soil fertility and soil organic matter (SOM contents. The objectives of this work were to investigate the influence of sugar cane production systems on: (1 soil fertility parameters; (2 on physical carbon fractions; (3 and on humic substance fractions, in a long-term experiment, comparing two soil tillage and two residue management systems an Xanthic Udult, in the coastal tableland region of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of plots (conventional tillage (CT or minimum tillage (MT and subplots (residue burned or unburned at harvesting, with five replicates The highest values of Ca2+ + Mg2+ and total organic carbon (TOC were observed in the MT system in all soil layers, while high values of K+ were observed in the 0.1-0.2 m layer. The CT associated with the burned residue management negatively influenced the TOC values, especially in the 0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m layers. The carbon in the humin fraction and organic matter associated with minerals were significantly different among the tillage systems; the MT showed higher values than the CT. However, there were no significant differences between the sugarcane residue management treatments. Overall, fractioning the SOM allowed for a better understanding of tillage and residue management systems effects on the soil properties.

  5. Embrittling effects of residual elements on steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, J.M.; King, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    In a review of work related to reheat cracking in nuclear pressure vessel steels, Dhooge et al referred to work of the authors on the relative embrittling parameter for SA533B steels. The poor agreement when these parameters were applied to creep ductility data for SA508 class 2 lead the reviewers to conclude that the relative importance of impurity elements is a function of base alloy composition. The authors briefly describe some of their more recent work which demonstrates that when various mechanical, and other, effects are taken into consideration, the relative effects of the principal residual elements are similar, despite differing base compositions, and that the embrittling parameters derived correlate well with the data for SA Class 2 steel. (U.K.)

  6. Statistical modeling to management and treatment of scrap with low and very low residual activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Bermejo Fernandez, R.; Anaya Lazaro, M.

    2011-01-01

    The experience of recent years on the management of scrap metal containing residual activity have allowed the development of a simple statistical model for the management of these materials. This statistical model includes a breakdown of the various processing operations to which these materials undergo and the effects in the process of radiological controls associated to the control of declassification that defines disposal (recycled by smelting, reclamation, temporary storage the plant or sent to final storage of radioactive waste.

  7. Tillage and crop residue management methods had minor effects on the stock and stabilization of topsoil carbon in a 30-year field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja; Heikkinen, Jaakko; Ketoja, Elise; Nuutinen, Visa; Palojärvi, Ansa; Sheehy, Jatta; Esala, Martti; Mitra, Sudip; Alakukku, Laura; Regina, Kristiina

    2015-06-15

    We studied the effects of tillage and straw management on soil aggregation and soil carbon sequestration in a 30-year split-plot experiment on clay soil in southern Finland. The experimental plots were under conventional or reduced tillage with straw retained, removed or burnt. Wet sieving was done to study organic carbon and soil composition divided in four fractions: 1) large macroaggregates, 2) small macroaggregates, 3) microaggregates and 4) silt and clay. To further estimate the stability of carbon in the soil, coarse particulate organic matter, microaggregates and silt and clay were isolated from the macroaggregates. Total carbon stock in the topsoil (equivalent to 200 kg m(-2)) was slightly lower under reduced tillage (5.0 kg m(-2)) than under conventional tillage (5.2 kg m(-2)). Reduced tillage changed the soil composition by increasing the percentage of macroaggregates and decreasing the percentage of microaggregates. There was no evidence of differences in the composition of the macroaggregates or carbon content in the macroaggregate-occluded fractions. However, due to the higher total amount of macroaggregates in the soil, more carbon was bound to the macroaggregate-occluded microaggregates in reduced tillage. Compared with plowed soil, the density of deep burrowing earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) was considerably higher under reduced tillage and positively associated with the percentage of large macroaggregates. The total amount of microbial biomass carbon did not differ between the treatments. Straw management did not have discernible effects either on soil aggregation or soil carbon stock. We conclude that although reduced tillage can improve clay soil structure, generally the chances to increase topsoil carbon sequestration by reduced tillage or straw management practices appear limited in cereal monoculture systems of the boreal region. This may be related to the already high C content of soils, the precipitation level favoring decomposition and

  8. Municipal solid waste options : integrating organics management and residual disposal treatment : executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cant, M. (comp.) [Totten Sims Hubicki Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Van der Werf, P. [2cg Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kelleher, M. [Kelleher Environmental, Toronto, ON (Canada); Merriman, D. [MacViro Consultants, Markham, ON (Canada); Fitcher, K. [Gartner Lee Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); MacDonald, N. [CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Options Report explored different MSW management options for 3 community sizes: 20,000, 80,000 and 200,0000 people. It was released at a time when many communities were developing waste management plans to cost-effectively reduce environmental impacts and conserve landfill capacity. The purpose of this report was to provide a greater understanding on the environmental, social, economic, energy recovery/utilization and greenhouse gas (GHG) considerations of MSW management. The report also demonstrated the interrelationships between the management of organics and residuals. It was based on information from existing waste diversion and organics management options and emerging residual treatment technology options. The following organics management and residual treatment disposal options were evaluated: composting; anaerobic digestion; sanitary landfills; bioreactor landfills; and thermal treatment. Composting was examined with reference to both source separated organics (SSO) and mixed waste composting. SSO refers to the separation of materials suitable for composting solid waste from households, while mixed waste composting refers to the manual or mechanical removal of recyclable material from the waste, including compost. The composting process was reviewed along with available technologies such as non-reactor windrow; aerated static pile; reactor enclosed channel; and, container tunnel. An evaluation of SSO and mixed waste composting was then presented in terms of environmental, social, financial and GHG impacts. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  10. Aligning environmental and regulatory procedures with a holistic project management approach for residue deposits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, BJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ). 1.1 Legislative responses in South Africa The advent of a democratic South Africa has brought about the promulgation of new environmental legislation. This was necessary to give legal effect to the principles of sustainability as laid down.... Often project delays can be ascribed to non-conformance to the legal and regulatory processes, because: • The South African EIA legislative process that is applicable to mine residue deposition does not focus on project management procedures, project...

  11. EFFECTS OF MUCUNA ( MUCUNA UTILIS L.) RESIDUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at two locations: University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB) and Olowo-Papa (OP) in Ogun state both in Forest-savannah transition zone of Nigeria to investigate the response of three upland rice cultivars (O.sativa) to mucuna residue incorporation and Nitrogen (N) fertilizer and the ...

  12. Can conservation agriculture improve phosphorus (P) availability in weathered soils? Effects of tillage and residue management on soil P status after 9 years in a Kenyan Oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margenot, Andrew; Paul, B.K.; Pulleman, M.M.; Parikh, Sanjai; Fonte, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    The widespread promotion of conservation agriculture (CA) in regions with weathered soils prone to phosphorus (P) deficiency merits explicit consideration of its effect on P availability. A long-term CA field trial located on an acid, weathered soil in western Kenya was evaluated for effects of

  13. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Residue retention and reduced tillage are both conservation agricultural management options that may enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in tropical soils. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term tillage and residue management on SOC dynamics in a Chromic Luvisol (red clay soil)

  14. Residue management in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Eduardo Lopes; Henrique, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Cantarino, Anderson Americo Alves

    2000-01-01

    The construction of the gas pipeline is a process sequential of assembly phases, where each one of those phases generates residues of the most varied types and amounts, being necessary the forecast of your generation in agreement with the activity that is being executed. During the accomplishment of the works they are generated a lot of times situations where are observed the inadequate disposition of the residues. Those practices, besides the environmental impact that they cause, it can cart in the future, the need of additional investments be proceeded in the recovery of the areas and removal of the residues. This work presents the Program of administration of Residues instituted during the construction of the pipeline Bolivia - Brazil, seeking, on a side to reduce to the minimum the generation of residues and of the other, moths handling guidelines and disposition, in way to minimize the environmental impacts caused by the same ones. (author)

  15. Reliability assessment of underground pipelines under the combined effect of active corrosion and residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirat, A.; Mohamed-Chateauneuf, A.; Chaoui, K.

    2006-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. Reliability analysis is recognized as a powerful decision-making tool for risk-based design and maintenance. Both the residual stresses generated during the manufacturing process and in-service corrosion reduce the ability to resist internal and external loading. In this study, the residual stress distribution in large diameter pipes has been characterized experimentally in order to be coupled with the corrosion model. During the pipe lifetime, residual stress relaxation occurs due to the loss of pipe thickness as material layers are consumed by corrosion. The reliability-based assessment of residual stress effects is applied to underground pipelines under a roadway, with and without active corrosion. It has been found that the residual stress greatly increases the failure probability, especially in the early stage of the pipe lifetime

  16. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of residual stresses on hydrogen permeation in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouanga, M.; Bercot, P.; Takadoum, J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on electrochemical permeation in iron membrane was investigated. Four thermal and mechanical treatments were chosen to obtain different surface states in relation to the residual stresses. Residual stresses were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Macherauch and Mueller method. The results were completed by the microhardness measurements. For all iron membranes, compressive residual stresses were obtained. Electrochemical permeation experiments using a Devanathan and Stachurski cell were employed to determine the hydrogen permeation behaviour of the various iron membranes. The latter was charged with hydrogen by galvanostatic cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH at 25 deg. C. The experimental results revealed that hydrogen permeation rate increases with increasing residual stresses introduced in iron membranes.

  18. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  19. Effects of water management practices on residue decomposition and degradation of Cry1Ac protein from crop-wild Bt rice hybrids and parental lines during winter fallow season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Manqiu; Dong, Shanshan; Li, Zhaolei; Tang, Xu; Chen, Yi; Yang, Shengmao; Wu, Chunyan; Ouyang, Dongxin; Fang, Changming; Song, Zhiping

    2015-12-01

    Rice is the staple diet of over half of the world's population and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice expressing insecticidal Cry proteins is ready for deployment. An assessment of the potential impact of Bt rice on the soil ecosystem under varied field management practices is urgently required. We used litter bags to assess the residue (leaves, stems and roots) decomposition dynamics of two transgenic rice lines (Kefeng6 and Kefeng8) containing stacked genes from Bt and sck (a modified CpTI gene encoding a cowpea trypsin inhibitor) (Bt/CpTI), a non-transgenic rice near-isoline (Minghui86), wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) and crop-wild Bt rice hybrid under contrasting conditions (drainage or continuous flooding) in the field. No significant difference was detected in the remaining mass, total C and total N among cultivars under aerobic conditions, whereas significant differences in the remaining mass and total C were detected between Kefeng6 and Kefeng8 and Minghui86 under the flooded condition. A higher decomposition rate constant (km) was measured under the flooded condition compared with the aerobic condition for leaf residues, whereas the reverse was observed for root residues. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which was used to monitor the changes in the Cry1Ac protein in Bt rice residues, indicated that (1) the degradation of the Cry1Ac protein under both conditions best fit first-order kinetics, and the predicted DT50 (50% degradation time) of the Cry1Ac protein ranged from 3.6 to 32.5 days; (2) the Cry1Ac protein in the residue degraded relatively faster under aerobic conditions; and (3) by the end of the study (~154 days), the protein was present at a low concentration in the remaining residues under both conditions. The degradation rate constant was negatively correlated with the initial carbon content and positively correlated with the initial Cry1Ac protein concentration, but it was only correlated with the mass decomposition rate constants under

  20. A mind map for managing minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Christopher B; Ravandi, Farhad

    2017-11-01

    Advances in detecting traces of leukemia that were previously unidentifiable have increasingly led to the incorporation of information about residual disease into clinical decision making for patients with leukemia in both the postinduction and consolidation settings. This review discusses current concepts related to minimal residual disease (MRD), which is defined as submicroscopic disease detected during morphologic complete remission. The focus is on acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Basic methods for detecting MRD include flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and mutation analysis. Several studies using these assays have demonstrated prognostic implications based on MRD-positive vs MRD-negative status. As our understanding of the biological factors responsible for MRD in AML evolves, residual disease should be evaluated in the context of other prognostic markers. Current therapeutic options for managing MRD in AML are limited, and the clinical implications of a positive MRD test result can be significant. Regarding individual patients, an evidence-based approach must be applied while the institution- and assay-specific differences that currently exist are considered. Challenges associated with MRD assessment, such as the limited standardization of available assays and the paucity of effective agents to eradicate MRD, will need to be overcome before physicians who treat leukemia can use MRD as a tool for clinical management.

  1. MAIZE YIELD AND ITS STABILITY AS AFFECTED BY TILLAGE AND CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT IN THE EASTERN ROMANIAN DANUBE PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru COCIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfed crop management systems need to be optimized to provide more resilient options in order to cope with projected climatic scenarios which are forecasting a decrease in mean precipitation and more frequent extreme drought periods in the Eastern Romanian Danube Plain. This research, carried out in the period of 2011-2014, had as main purpose the determination of influence of tillage practices and residue management on rainfall use efficiency, maize yield and its stability, in order to evaluate the advantages of conservation agriculture (CA in the time of stabilization of direct seeding effects, in comparison with traditional chisel tillage. The maize grain yields are presented for each crop management practices, as follows: (1 chisel tillage, retained crop residues being chopped and incorporated (ciz; (2 zero tillage, retained crop residue chopped and kept on the field in short flat condition (rvt; (3 zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in short root-anchored condition (1/2rva, and (4 zero tillage, crop residues kept on the field in tall root-anchored condition (1/1rva. In 2012, a year with prolonged drought during vegetative growth, yield differences between zero tillage with short root-anchored residue retention (1/2rva and chisel tillage with residue incorporation (ciz were positive, up to 840 kg ha-1. In average over 2011-2014, conservation agriculture (CA practices had a yield advantage over traditional chisel tillage practice. Zero tillage with residue retention used rainfall more efficiently so suggesting that it is a more resilient agronomic system than traditional (conventional practices involving chisel tillage with residue incorporation.

  2. Plant Residual Management in different Crop Rotations System on Potato Tuber Yield Loss Affected by Wireworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarea Feizabadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selection a proper crop rotation based on environmental conservation rules is a key factor for increasing long term productivity. On the other hand, the major problem in reaching agricultural sustainability is lack of soil organic matter. Recently, a new viewpoint has emerged based on efficient use of inputs, environmental protection, ecological economy, food supply and security. Crop rotation cannot supply and restore plant needed nutrients, so gradually the productivity of rotation system tends to be decreased. Returning the plant residues to the soil helps to increase its organic matter and fertility in long-term period. Wireworms are multi host pests and we can see them in wheat and barley too. The logic way for their control is agronomic practices like as crop rotation. Wireworms’ population and damages are increased with using grasses and small seed gramineas in mild winters, variation in cropping pattern, reduced chemical control, and cover crops in winter. In return soil cultivation, crop rotation, planting date, fertilizing, irrigation and field health are the examples for the effective factors in reducing wireworms’ damage. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of crop rotations, residue management and yield damage because of wireworms’ population in soil, this experiment was conducted using four rotation systems for five years in Jolgeh- Rokh agricultural research station. Crop rotations were included, 1 Wheat monoculture for the whole period (WWWWW, 2 Wheat- wheat- wheat- canola- wheat (WWWCW, 3 Wheat- sugar beet- wheat- potato- wheat (WSWPW, 4 Wheat- maize- wheat- potato- wheat (WMWPW as main plots and three levels of returning crop residues to soil (returning 0, 50 and 100% produced crop residues to soil were allocated as sub plots. This experiment was designed as split plot based on RCBD design with three replications. After ending each rotation treatment, the field was sowed with potato cv. Agria

  3. Radiation effects on residual voltage of polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyokane, Jun; Park, Dae-Hee; Yoshino, Katsumi.

    1986-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that diagnosis of deterioration in insulating materials for electric cables used in nuclear power plants and outer space (communications satellite in particular) can be effectively performed based on measurements of residual voltage. In the present study, polyethylene films are irradiated with γ-rays or electron beam to examine the changes in residual voltage characteristics. Irradiation of electron beam and γ-rays are carried out to a dose of 0 - 90 Mrad and 0 - 100 Mrad, respectively. Measurements are made of the dependence of residual voltage on applied voltage, electron beam and γ-ray irradiation, annealing temperature and annealing time. Results show that carriers, which are once trapped after being released from the electrode, move within the material after the opening of the circuit to produce resiual voltage. The residual voltage increases with increasing dose of electron beam or γ-ray and levels off at high dose. Residual voltage is increased about several times by either electron beam or γ-rays, but electron beam tends to cause greater residual voltage than γ-ray. Polyethylene films irradiated with electron beam can recover upon annealing. It is concluded from observations made that residual voltage has close relations with defects in molecular structures caused by radiations, particularly the breaking of backbone chains and alteration in superstructures. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Crop residue management in arable cropping systems under a temperate climate. Part 2: Soil physical properties and crop production. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiel, MP.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Residues of previous crops provide a valuable amount of organic matter that can be used either to restore soil fertility or for external use. A better understanding of the impact of crop residue management on the soil-water-plant system is needed in order to manage agricultural land sustainably. This review focuses on soil physical aspects related to crop residue management, and specifically on the link between soil structure and hydraulic properties and its impact on crop production. Literature. Conservation practices, including crop residue retention and non-conventional tillage, can enhance soil health by improving aggregate stability. In this case, water infiltration is facilitated, resulting in an increase in plant water availability. Conservation practices, however, do not systematically lead to higher water availability for the plant. The influence of crop residue management on crop production is still unclear; in some cases, crop production is enhanced by residue retention, but in others crop residues can reduce crop yield. Conclusions. In this review we discuss the diverse and contrasting effects of crop residue management on soil physical properties and crop production under a temperate climate. The review highlights the importance of environmental factors such as soil type and local climatic conditions, highlighting the need to perform field studies on crop residue management and relate them to specific pedo-climatic contexts.

  5. The role of phosphites in scab management and residues in pecan kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphite fungicides are used to manage pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum), the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. The EU has imposed a minimum residue limit (MRL) on these fungicides in pecan kernels. Data shows that the phosphite residue exceeds the 2 ppm M...

  6. Management of high sulfur coal combustion residues, issues and practices: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Beasley, G.A. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    Papers presented at the following sessions are included in this proceedings: (1) overview topic; (2) characterization of coal combustion residues; (3) environmental impacts of residues management; (4) materials handling and utilization, Part I; and (5) materials handling and utilization, Part II. Selected paper have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Diversity in crop residue management across an intensification gradient in southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, Leonard; Corbeels, Marc; Giller, Ken E.

    2016-01-01

    Crop residues are important for livestock feed and nutrient cycling among many other functions on smallholder farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to assess differences in resource endowment, crop productivity and crop residue management in selected sites in

  8. Relocation of radioactive residuals store: environment effects statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This Environment Effects Statement describes and assesses the likely environmental effects of the proposal to relocate the Health Commission's existing radioactive residuals store to a site within the established Dutson Downs waste disposal area, located 20 km south-east of Sale and 225 km east of Melbourne. The information presented demonstrates that the siting and construction of the proposed radioactive residuals store and the procedures to be adopted for the handling and storage of materials will not present an unacceptable risk to public health and safety, nor will it involve any significant adverse environmental effects

  9. Technical note: Equivalent genomic models with a residual polygenic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R

    2016-03-01

    Routine genomic evaluations in animal breeding are usually based on either a BLUP with genomic relationship matrix (GBLUP) or single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BLUP model. For a multi-step genomic evaluation, these 2 alternative genomic models were proven to give equivalent predictions for genomic reference animals. The model equivalence was verified also for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Due to incomplete linkage disequilibrium of SNP markers to genes or causal mutations responsible for genetic inheritance of quantitative traits, SNP markers cannot explain all the genetic variance. A residual polygenic effect is normally fitted in the genomic model to account for the incomplete linkage disequilibrium. In this study, we start by showing the proof that the multi-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models are equivalent for the reference animals, when they have a residual polygenic effect included. Second, the equivalence of both multi-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect was also verified for young genotyped animals without phenotypes. Additionally, we derived formulas to convert genomic estimated breeding values of the GBLUP model to its components, direct genomic values and residual polygenic effect. Third, we made a proof that the equivalence of these 2 genomic models with a residual polygenic effect holds also for single-step genomic evaluation. Both the single-step GBLUP and SNP BLUP models lead to equal prediction for genotyped animals with phenotypes (e.g., reference animals), as well as for (young) genotyped animals without phenotypes. Finally, these 2 single-step genomic models with a residual polygenic effect were proven to be equivalent for estimation of SNP effects, too. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Residue Nitrogen Concentration and Time Duration on Carbon Mineralization Rate of Alfalfa Residues in Regions with Different Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid shafiei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Various factors like climatic conditions, vegetation, soil properties, topography, time, plant residue quality and crop management strategies affect the decomposition rate of organic carbon (OC and its residence time in soil. Plant residue management concerns nutrients recycling, carbon recycling in ecosystems and the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Plant residue decomposition is a fundamental process in recycling of organic matter and elements in most ecosystems. Soil management, particularly plant residue management, changes soil organic matter both qualitatively and quantitatively. Soil respiration and carbon loss are affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation. In natural agro-ecosystems, residue contains different concentrations of nitrogen. It is important to understand the rate and processes involved in plant residue decomposition, as these residues continue to be added to the soil under different weather conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. Material and methods Organic carbon mineralization of alfalfa residue with different nitrogen concentrations was assessed in different climatic conditions using split-plot experiments over time and the effects of climate was determined using composite analysis. The climatic conditions were classified as warm-arid (Jiroft, temperate arid (Narab and cold semi-arid (Sardouiyeh using cluster analysis and the nitrogen (N concentrations of alfalfa residue were low, medium and high. The alfalfa residue incubated for four different time periods (2, 4, 6 and 8 months. The dynamics of organic carbon in different regions measured using litter bags (20×10 cm containing 20 g alfalfa residue of 2-10 mm length which were placed on the soil surface. Results and discussion The results of this study showed that in a warm-arid (Jiroft, carbon loss and the carbon decomposition rate constant were low in a cold semi

  11. Effect of texture and grain size on the residual stress of nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Sengupta, Arkaprabha; Pantuso, Daniel; Koslowski, Marisol

    2017-10-01

    Residual stresses develop in thin film interconnects mainly as a result of deposition conditions and multiple thermal loading cycles during the manufacturing flow. Understanding the relation between the distribution of residual stress and the interconnect microstructure is of key importance to manage the nucleation and growth of defects that can lead to failure under reliability testing and use conditions. Dislocation dynamics simulations are performed in nanocrystalline copper subjected to cyclic loading to quantify the distribution of residual stresses as a function of grain misorientation and grain size distribution. The outcomes of this work help to evaluate the effect of microstructure in thin films failure by identifying potential voiding sites. Furthermore, the simulations show how dislocation structures are influenced by texture and grain size distribution that affect the residual stress. For example, when dislocation loops reach the opposite grain boundary during loading, these dislocations remain locked during unloading.

  12. Management of crop residues for sustainable crop production. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1996-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    Since ancient times, farmers have recognized the importance of organic matter inputs to enhance crop yields. Organic matter contributes to plant growth through beneficial effects on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil, including (i) provision of a carbon and energy source for soil microbes, (ii) improvement of soil aggregation, thus reducing the hazard of erosion, (iii) retaining of nutrients and water, (iv) provision of nutrients through decomposition, and (v) reduction of soil compaction. The amount of soil organic matter is controlled by the balance between additions of plant and animal materials and losses by decomposition. Both additions and losses are directly affected by management practices. This CRP supported national efforts in eleven Member States to identify options managing crop residues for sustainable agricultural production and environmental preservation in a wide range of soils and cropping systems. Various options for the recycling of crop residues that are sustainable and economically attractive to farmers were examined using isotopic techniques. The specific options of this CRP were: to increase the quantity of nutrients available to crops from organic sources and for more effective recycling of those nutrients; to enhance the efficiency of use of nutrients by crops, and minimize losses through improved synchrony between process-level understanding of carbon and nutrient flow through the use of isotopic techniques so that management recommendations can be extrapolated to a wide range of environments using models. A simple mathematical model, descriptive in nature, was developed to synthesize information collected from all experimental sites, allowing comparisons between treatments and sites. Most of the fertilizer N was lost during the first cropping season and only insignificant losses occurred in the following seasons. The losses of N from applied fertilizer ranged from 45 to 85% irrespective of crop-residue

  13. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  14. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...

  15. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leili, Mostafa; Pirmoghani, Amin; Samadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokoohi, Reza; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption.

  16. Effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening in stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, N.; Kondo, K.; Kaji, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Miwa, Y. [Nuclear Energy and Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Structural materials in fusion reactor with water cooling system will undergo corrosion in aqueous environment and heavier irradiation than that in LWR. Irradiation assisted stress corrosion (IASCC) may be induced in stainless steels exposed in these environment for a long term of reactor operation. The IASCC is considered to be caused in a welding zone. It is difficult to predict and estimate the IASCC, because several irradiation effects (irradiation hardening, swelling, irradiation induced stress relaxation, etc) work intricately. Firstly, effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening were investigated in stainless steels. Specimens used in this study were SUS316 and SUS316L. By bending deformation, the specimens with several % plastic strain, which corresponds to weld residual stress, were prepared. Ion irradiations of 12 MeV Ni{sup 3+} were performed at 330, 400 and 550 deg. C to 45 dpa in TIARA facility at JAEA. No bent specimen was simultaneously irradiated with the bent specimen. The residual stress was estimated by X-ray residual stress measurements before and after the irradiation. The micro-hardness was measured by using nano-indenter. The irradiation hardening and the stress relaxation were changed by irradiation under bending deformation. The residual stress did not relax even for the case of the higher temperature aging at 500 deg. C for the same time of irradiation. The residual stress after ion irradiation, however, relaxed at these experimental temperatures in SUS316L. The hardness was obviously suppressed in bent SUS316L irradiated at 300 deg. C to 6 or 12 dpa. It was evident that irradiation induced stress relaxation occasionally suppressed the irradiation hardening in SUS316L. (authors)

  17. The effects of logging residue extraction for energy on ecosystem services and biodiversity: A synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranius, Thomas; Hämäläinen, Aino; Egnell, Gustaf; Olsson, Bengt; Eklöf, Karin; Stendahl, Johan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sténs, Anna; Felton, Adam

    2018-03-01

    We review the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of logging residues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can replace fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. The additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. To evaluate potential impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity we reviewed 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America. The weight of available evidence indicates that logging residue extraction can have significant negative effects on biodiversity, especially for species naturally adapted to sun-exposed conditions and the large amounts of dead wood that are created by large-scaled forest disturbances. Slash extraction may also pose risks for future biomass production itself, due to the associated loss of nutrients. For water quality, reindeer herding, mammalian game species, berries, and natural heritage the results were complicated by primarily negative but some positive effects, while for recreation and pest control positive effects were more consistent. Further, there are initial negative effects on carbon storage, but these effects are transient and carbon stocks are mostly restored over decadal time perspectives. We summarize ways of decreasing some of the negative effects of logging residue extraction on specific ecosystem services, by changing the categories of residue extracted, and site or forest type targeted for extraction. However, we found that suggested pathways for minimizing adverse outcomes were often in conflict among the ecosystem services assessed. Compensatory measures for logging residue extraction may also be used (e.g. ash recycling, liming, fertilization

  18. Residue Management of Biodiesel Industry: A Study of Value Creation in the Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Lima Altoé

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Residues, whether solid or liquid, are inherent to many industrial processes, and require specialized treatments. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the process of creating value in the supply chain, from the sustainable management of residues in the biodiesel industry. The methodological approach was a multiple case study, with the use of bibliographic data, documents and discourse analysis. Data were collected through interviews with managers of the companies analyzed. The findings suggest that residue management enables the creation of value in the supply chain of biodiesel. It is also noted that from this management, environmental preservation occurs, the incidence of fines is reduced or even eliminated, and there are still economic cooperation between the companies that have different activities but are a part of the supply chain of biodiesel

  19. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soils

    OpenAIRE

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record The long-term effects of tillage system and residue management on soil organic carbon stabilization are studied in two tropical soils in Zimbabwe, a red clay and a sandy soil. The four tillage systems evaluated were conventional tillage (CT), mulch ripping (MR), clean ripping (CR) and tied ridging (TR). Soil organic carbon (SOC) content was measured for each size fraction as well as total SOC. Based on the findings, the authors conclude that residue management - mainta...

  20. Cesium residue leachate migration in the tailings management area of a mine site : predicted vs. actual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solylo, P.; Ramsey, D. [Wardrop Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Mining and Minerals Section

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study at a cesium products facility (CPF) that manufactures a non-toxic cesium-formate drilling fluid. The facility operates adjacent to a pollucite/tantalum/spodumene mine. The CPF was developed as a closed system, with the residue tailings slurry from the CPF process discharged to doublelined containment cells. Groundwater monitoring has shown that leachate has affected near-surface porewater quality within the tailings management area (TMA). Elevated concentrations of calcium, sulphate, strontium, cesium, and rubidium were used to identify the leachate. Porewater at the base of the tailings and in the overburden beneath the tailings has not been affected. A geochemical investigation was initiated to determine how the leachate behaves in the groundwater/tailings porewater system. Over the past 7 years of residue placement in the TMA, the footprint of the residue placement area has changed, making the comparison of predicted versus actual rate of leachate migration very subjective and difficult to quantify. Based solely on the analytical data, the source of the leachate is unknown, either from the original residue pile or the 2007 residue placement area. For purposes of long term residue management, an investigation of the geochemical behaviour of residue leachate in the groundwater/tailings system of the TMA is currently underway. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  1. Resobio. Management of forest residues: preserving soils and biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantien, Caroline; Charasse, Laurent; Wlerick, Lise; Landmann, Guy; Nivet, Cecile; Jallais, Anais; Augusto, Laurent; Bigot, Maryse; Thivolle Cazat, Alain; Bouget, Christophe; Brethes, Alain; Boulanger, Vincent; Richter, Claudine; Cornu, Sophie; Rakotoarison, Hanitra; Ulrich, Erwin; Deleuze, Christine; Michaud, Daniel; Cacot, Emmanuel; Pousse, Noemie; Ranger, Jacques; Saint-Andre, Laurent; Zeller, Bernd; Achat, David; Cabral, Anne-Sophie; Akroume, Emila; Aubert, Michael; Bailly, Alain; Fraysse, Jean-Yves; Fraud, Benoit; Gardette, Yves-Marie; Gibaud, Gwenaelle; Helou, Tammouz-Enaut; Pitocchi, Sophie; Vivancos, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    The Resobio project (management of forest slash: preservation of soils and biodiversity) aimed at updating knowledge available at the international level (with a focus on temperate areas) on the potential consequences of forest slash sampling on fertility and on biodiversity, and at identifying orientations for recommendations for a revision of the ADEME guide of 2006 on wise collecting of forest slash. The first part of this report is a synthesis report which gives an overview of results about twenty issues dealing with the nature of wood used for energy production and the role of slash, about the consequences of this type of collecting for soil fertility and species productivity, and about impacts on biodiversity. Based on these elements, recommendations are made for slash management and for additional follow-up and research. The second part contains five scientific and technical reports which more deeply analyse the issue of fertility, and technical documents on slash management (guides) published in various countries

  2. EFFECT OF LIGNIN CONTENT ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF FURFURAL RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic saccharification of pretreated furfural residues with different lignin content was studied to verify the effect of lignin removal in the hydrolysis process. The results showed that the glucose yield was improved by increasing the lignin removal. A maximum glucose yield of 96.8% was obtained when the residue with a lignin removal of 51.4% was hydrolyzed for 108 h at an enzyme loading of 25 FPU/g cellulose. However, further lignin removal did not increase the hydrolysis. The effect of enzyme loading on the enzymatic hydrolysis was also explored in this work. It was concluded that a high glucose yield of 90% was achieved when the enzyme dosage was reduced from 25 to 15 FPU/g cellulose, which was cost-effective for the sugar and ethanol production. The structures of raw material and delignified samples were further characterized by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  3. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  4. Managing hazards in place: The risks of residual risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2017-10-01

    Managing hazards in place (MHP) is a policy instrument in environmental health that allows less than complete removal, abatement, or remediation of environmental hazards. The practice of minimizing exposure to hazards rather than removing them is widely recognized as part of the toolbox of environmental protection for human and ecosystem health. The concept of managing hazards in place is embedded in several environmental statutes and regulations in the US notably the waste management regulations, as well as in the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Clean Water Act. While this commentary focuses largely on applications of MHP in the US, this policy is also utilized by agencies in many other countries for managing hazardous waste sites, lead in housing and drinking water systems, and environmental contamination of rivers and estuaries. The rationale for this concept is not difficult to understand: MHP policies can reduce the costs of meeting environmental goals; it can provide opportunities for access to resources that have been contaminated by past actions such as waste disposal, and it can enhance land and property values as well as tax revenues all of which are important to home owners and communities. The concerns related to this concept are also not difficult to understand: an incompletely abated or contained hazard may present future exposure risks to humans and environmental biota. Further, the compromise implicit in MHP is the assurance of indefinite oversight and monitoring to detect any releases. To that extent, MHP involves both sociology as well as toxicology and the exposure sciences. Because of the prevalence of managing hazards in place, this commentary suggests that evaluation of its performance is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Residual stress effects in LMFBR fracture assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two post-yield fracture mechanics methods, which have been developed into fully detailed failure assessment procedures for ferritic structures, have been reviewed from the point of view of the manner in which as-welded residual stress effects are incorporated, and comparisons then made with finite element and theoretical models of centre-cracked plates containing residual/thermal stresses in the form of crack-driving force curves. Applying the procedures to austenitic structures, comparisons are made in terms of failure assessment curves and it is recommended that the preferred method for the prediction of critical crack sizes in LMFBR austenitic structures containing as-welded residual stresses is the CEGB-R6 procedure based on a flow stress defined at 3% strain in the parent plate. When the prediction of failure loads in such structures is required, it is suggested that the CEGB-R6 procedure be used with residual/thermal stresses factored to give a maximum total stress of flow stress magnitude

  6. Effect of cooking on enrofloxacin residues in chicken tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolo, M; Pedreira, S; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A; Fente, C

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different cooking processes (microwaving, roasting, boiling, grilling and frying) on naturally incurred enrofloxacin residues in chicken muscle. Enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were analysed using a validated LC-MS method with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), respectively, of 2 and 5 ng g-1 quinolones in muscle samples. The method was shown to be linear over the range 5-500 ng g-1. Mean intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) at a concentration of 50 ng g-1 (n = 6) was 6%; inter-day RSD was 12%. A recovery study demonstrated that 65-101%, of the drug and metabolite could be recovered from the tissue. The RSD with naturally incurred roasted chicken breast was 9.18% at a concentration of 11 +/- 1.01 ng g-1 (n = 6). In water, enrofloxacin remained stable for 3 h when heated at 100 degrees C. It was concluded that residue data from raw tissue are valid for estimation of consumer exposure to this drug, as well as the ADI calculations because cooking procedures did not affect enrofloxacin residues, which remained stable during heating. However, there was an apparent decrease in quinolone concentration in tissue because some was lost by exudation into the liquid used for cooking. Conversely, for a cooking procedure with water loss, there was an apparent increase in residue concentration.

  7. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.

  8. Organochlorine pesticide residues in strawberries from integrated pest management and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virginia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2011-07-27

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and a cleanup using dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4), PSA, and C18 sorbents has been developed for the routine analysis of 14 pesticides in strawberries. The analyses were performed by three different analytical methodologies: gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The recoveries for all the pesticides studied were from 46 to 128%, with relative standard deviation of residue limits (MRL) accepted in Portugal for organochlorine pesticides (OCP). A survey study of strawberries produced in Portugal in the years 2009-2010 obtained from organic farming (OF) and integrated pest management (IPM) was developed. Lindane and β-endosulfan were detected above the MRL in OF and IPM. Other OCP (aldrin, o,p'-DDT and their metabolites, and methoxychlor) were found below the MRL. The OCP residues detected decreased from 2009 to 2010. The QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of strawberry samples.

  9. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  10. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  11. Universal relationship connecting various two-body effective residual interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuepfer, W.; Huber, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    Starting from a momentum space analysis of the two-body matrix elements, a relation has been established between the size of the model space actually used in a specific calculation and the relevant properties of the effective residual interaction. It turns out that the two-body transition density acts like a filter function on the Fourier transform of the force; it exhibits a distinct structure which clearly reflects the size and the detailed properties of the configuration space actually used. From an investigation of this filter function an equivalence criterion for different effective residual two-body interactions has been established both for closed and open shell nuclei. This result can be used to construct simple although realistic effective forces. As an example, a model for a separable residual interaction is proposed in which the corresponding parameters are being clearly related to the nuclear radius (i.e., the mass number), to the quantum numbers (i.e., the angular momentum) of the state under consideration and to the size of the configuration space used. For a number of examples this force has been applied successfully for the description of low energy properties of both closed and open shell nuclei

  12. Drug residues in urban water: A database for ecotoxicological risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrieux, Doriane; Laurent, François; Budzinski, Hélène; Pedelucq, Julie; Vervier, Philippe; Gerino, Magali

    2017-12-31

    Human-use drug residues (DR) are only partially eliminated by waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), so that residual amounts can reach natural waters and cause environmental hazards. In order to properly manage these hazards in the aquatic environment, a database is made available that integrates the concentration ranges for DR, which cause adverse effects for aquatic organisms, and the temporal variations of the ecotoxicological risks. To implement this database for the ecotoxicological risk assessment (ERA database), the required information for each DR is the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), along with the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). The risk assessment is based on the ratio between the PNECs and the PECs. Adverse effect data or PNECs have been found in the publicly available literature for 45 substances. These ecotoxicity test data have been extracted from 125 different sources. This ERA database contains 1157 adverse effect data and 287 PNECs. The efficiency of this ERA database was tested with a data set coming from a simultaneous survey of WWTPs and the natural environment. In this data set, 26 DR were searched for in two WWTPs and in the river. On five sampling dates, concentrations measured in the river for 10 DR could pose environmental problems of which 7 were measured only downstream of WWTP outlets. From scientific literature and measurements, data implementation with unit homogenisation in a single database facilitates the actual ecotoxicological risk assessment, and may be useful for further risk coming from data arising from the future field survey. Moreover, the accumulation of a large ecotoxicity data set in a single database should not only improve knowledge of higher risk molecules but also supply an objective tool to help the rapid and efficient evaluation of the risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia-Rubio, M; Ayora-Cañada, M J; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2007-03-01

    The present work aims at contributing to the knowledge of the fate of 5 pesticides in olives in order to evaluate how washing may affect the presence of these residues in this fruit (and consequently in olive oil). For this purpose, olives were sprayed with commercial formulations containing the active ingredients and a series of analyses were performed for 64 d by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Selected pesticides, ranked by their importance, were diuron, terbuthylazine, simazine, alpha-endosulfan, and beta-endosulfan. The pesticide fraction, which was not removable from olives by washing, increased with time after treatment until their degradation started at week 6. Washing performed 1 d after treatment was the most effective in reducing residues, especially for simazine. Consequently, the washing step performed in olive mills could be effective in removing those herbicide residues present in olives as a consequence of contact with contaminated soil for a short time. This happens when olives are dropped and harvested off the ground by means of brushes or suction equipment.

  14. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  15. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  16. Impact of crop residue management on crop production and soil chemistry after seven years of crop rotation in temperate climate, loamy soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Hiel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Society is increasingly demanding a more sustainable management of agro-ecosystems in a context of climate change and an ever growing global population. The fate of crop residues is one of the important management aspects under debate, since it represents an unneglectable quantity of organic matter which can be kept in or removed from the agro-ecosystem. The topic of residue management is not new, but the need for global conclusion on the impact of crop residue management on the agro-ecosystem linked to local pedo-climatic conditions has become apparent with an increasing amount of studies showing a diversity of conclusions. This study specifically focusses on temperate climate and loamy soil using a seven-year data set. Between 2008 and 2016, we compared four contrasting residue management strategies differing in the amount of crop residues returned to the soil (incorporation vs. exportation of residues and in the type of tillage (reduced tillage (10 cm depth vs. conventional tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth in a field experiment. We assessed the impact of the crop residue management on crop production (three crops—winter wheat, faba bean and maize—cultivated over six cropping seasons, soil organic carbon content, nitrate ( ${\\mathrm{NO}}_{3}^{-}$ NO 3 − , phosphorus (P and potassium (K soil content and uptake by the crops. The main differences came primarily from the tillage practice and less from the restitution or removal of residues. All years and crops combined, conventional tillage resulted in a yield advantage of 3.4% as compared to reduced tillage, which can be partly explained by a lower germination rate observed under reduced tillage, especially during drier years. On average, only small differences were observed for total organic carbon (TOC content of the soil, but reduced tillage resulted in a very clear stratification of TOC and also of P and K content as compared to conventional tillage. We observed no effect of residue

  17. Impact of crop residue management on crop production and soil chemistry after seven years of crop rotation in temperate climate, loamy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Barbieux, Sophie; Pierreux, Jérôme; Olivier, Claire; Lobet, Guillaume; Roisin, Christian; Garré, Sarah; Colinet, Gilles; Bodson, Bernard; Dumont, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Society is increasingly demanding a more sustainable management of agro-ecosystems in a context of climate change and an ever growing global population. The fate of crop residues is one of the important management aspects under debate, since it represents an unneglectable quantity of organic matter which can be kept in or removed from the agro-ecosystem. The topic of residue management is not new, but the need for global conclusion on the impact of crop residue management on the agro-ecosystem linked to local pedo-climatic conditions has become apparent with an increasing amount of studies showing a diversity of conclusions. This study specifically focusses on temperate climate and loamy soil using a seven-year data set. Between 2008 and 2016, we compared four contrasting residue management strategies differing in the amount of crop residues returned to the soil (incorporation vs. exportation of residues) and in the type of tillage (reduced tillage (10 cm depth) vs. conventional tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth)) in a field experiment. We assessed the impact of the crop residue management on crop production (three crops-winter wheat, faba bean and maize-cultivated over six cropping seasons), soil organic carbon content, nitrate ([Formula: see text]), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) soil content and uptake by the crops. The main differences came primarily from the tillage practice and less from the restitution or removal of residues. All years and crops combined, conventional tillage resulted in a yield advantage of 3.4% as compared to reduced tillage, which can be partly explained by a lower germination rate observed under reduced tillage, especially during drier years. On average, only small differences were observed for total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil, but reduced tillage resulted in a very clear stratification of TOC and also of P and K content as compared to conventional tillage. We observed no effect of residue management on the [Formula: see

  18. Residue management increases fallow water conservation and yield deficit irrigated crops grown in rotation with wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    No-tillage (NT) residue management provides cover to increase precipitation capture compared with disk tillage (DT) or in the absence of a cover crop. Therefore, NT has the potential to reduce irrigation withdrawals from the declining Ogallala Aquifer. In a 4-year study, we quantified DT and NT effe...

  19. Comparative study of plans for integrated residue management of construction: an analysis documental

    OpenAIRE

    Júnior, Jorge Henrique e Silva; Vieira, Elizângela de Jesus Oliveira de Sousa; Monte, Maria José Soares; Carvalho, Moisés Lopes; Oliveira, Francílio de Carvalho; Carvalho, Jancineide Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is a comparative study of integrated plans in four cities, highlighting the points that are in accordance with Resolution 307/2002 of CONAMA. Methods: This is a bibliographic and documentary research as having scientific articles sources Plans and Integrated Solid Waste Management Construction of five Brazilian cities: Curitiba, Cuiaba, Florianopolis, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Results: The resolution foresees the Integrated Management of Residues Plan for Cons...

  20. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement; Gestion de vida remanente. Mejora del mantenimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainero Garcia, J; Hevia Ruperez, F

    1996-12-31

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme`s subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  1. Proposal for management and alkalinity transformation of bauxite residue in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shengguo; Kong, Xiangfeng; Zhu, Feng; Hartley, William; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2016-07-01

    Bauxite residue is a hazardous solid waste produced during the production of alumina. Its high alkalinity is a potential threat to the environment which may disrupt the surrounding ecological balance of its disposal areas. China is one of the major global producers of alumina and bauxite residue, but differences in alkalinity and associated chemistry exist between residues from China and those from other countries. A detailed understanding of the chemistry of bauxite residue remains the key to improving its management, both in terms of minimizing environmental impacts and reducing its alkaline properties. The nature of bauxite residue and the chemistry required for its transformation are still poorly understood. This review focuses on various transformation processes generated from the Bayer process, sintering process, and combined Bayer-sintering process in China. Problems associated with transformation mechanisms, technical methods, and relative merits of these technologies are reviewed, while current knowledge gaps and research priorities are recommended. Future research should focus on transformation chemistry and its associated mechanisms and for the development of a clear and economic process to reduce alkalinity and soda in bauxite residue.

  2. Residue management practices and planter attachments for corn production in a conservation agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nejadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed placement and failure to establish a uniform plant stand are critical problems associated with production of corn (Zea mays following wheat (Triticum aestivum in a conservation agriculture system in Iran. Our objectives were to evaluate the performance of a corn row- crop planter equipped with two planter attachments (smooth/toothed coulters at six wheat residue management systems (three tillage systems and two levels of surface residue at two forward speeds of 5 and 7 km h-1. Residue retained after planting, seeding depth, emergence rate index (ERI and seed spacing indices were determined. The baled residue plots tilled by chisel plow followed by disc harrow (BRCD resulted in minimum residue after planting as compared to other residue treatments. Furthermore, the maximum values of the ERI and uniformity of plant spacing pertained to this treatment. Other results showed that the ERI increased up to 18% for the toothed coulter as compared to the smooth coulter. The toothed coulter also established a deeper seed placement as compared to the smooth coulter. Planting at forward speed of 5 km h-1 resulted in deeper seeding depth as compared to a forward speed of 7 km h-1. However, lower values of miss and precision indices were obtained at forward speed of 7 km h-1, indicating a more uniformity of plant spacing. Results of this study showed that equipping the conventional planter with toothed coulter and planting in soil prepared under the BRCD residue management system can result in a satisfactory conservation crop production system.

  3. Effect of crop sequence and crop residues on soil C, soil N and yield of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, M.; Bakht, J.; Attaullah; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in low N soils is critical for increased soil productivity and crop sustainability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of residues incorporation, residues retention on soil surface as mulch, fertilizer N and legumes in crop rotation on soil fertility and yield of maize (Zea may L.). Fertilizer N was applied to maize at the rate of 160 kg ha/sup -1/, and to wheat at the rate of 120 kg ha/sup -1/ or no fertilizer N application. Crop rotation with the sequence of maize after wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize after lentil (Lens culinaris Medic) or wheat after mash bean (Vigna mungo L.) arranged in a split plot design was followed. Post-harvest incorporation of crop residues and residues retention on soil surface as mulch had significantly (p=0.05) affected grain and stover yield during 2004 and 2005. Two years average data revealed that grain yield was increased by 3.31 and 6.72% due to mulch and residues incorporation. Similarly, stover yield was also enhanced by 5.39 and 10.27% due to the same treatment respectively. Mulch and residues incorporation also improved stover N uptake by 2.23 and 6.58%, respectively. Total soil N and organic matter was non significantly (p=0.05) increased by 5.63 and 2.38% due to mulch and 4.13, 7.75% because of crop residues incorporation in the soil. Maize grain and stover yield responded significantly (p=0.05) to the previous legume (lentil) crop when compared with the previous cereal crop (wheat). The treatment of lentil - maize(+N), on the average, increased grain yield of maize by 15.35%, stover yield by 16.84%, total soil N by 10.31% and organic matter by 10.17%. Similarly, fertilizer N applied to the previous wheat showed carry over effect on grain yield (6.82%) and stover yield (11.37%) of the following maize crop. The present study suggested that retention of residues on soil surface as mulch, incorporation of residues in soil and legume (lentil - maize) rotation

  4. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  5. Statistical modeling to management and treatment of scrap with low and very low residual activity; Hacia la modelizacion estadistica de la gestion y tratamiento de chatarras con baja y muy bajo actividad residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Bermejo Fernandez, R.; Anaya Lazaro, M.

    2011-07-01

    The experience of recent years on the management of scrap metal containing residual activity have allowed the development of a simple statistical model for the management of these materials. This statistical model includes a breakdown of the various processing operations to which these materials undergo and the effects in the process of radiological controls associated to the control of declassification that defines disposal (recycled by smelting, reclamation, temporary storage the plant or sent to final storage of radioactive waste).

  6. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... Key words: Fasting, myomectomy, pH, residual gastric volume. Date of Acceptance: ... gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. Niger J Clin ..... of gastric residual volume: A simulated, controlled study.

  7. The effect of pesticide residue on caged mosquito bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J A S; Greer, Mike; Coughlin, Jamie

    2006-09-01

    Wind tunnel experiments showed that secondary pickup of insecticide residue by mosquitoes in cage bioassays had a significant effect on mortality. Cage bioassays using adult Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) investigated the effect of exposure time to a contaminated surface. Cages were dosed in a wind tunnel using the LC50 for naled (0.124 mg a.i./ml) and an LC25 (0.0772 mg a.i./ml) for naled. Half of the bioassay mosquitoes were moved directly into clean cages with the other half remaining in the sprayed, hence contaminated, cage. Treatment mortality was assessed at 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 1,440 min postapplication. Cage contamination had a significant effect on mosquito mortality for both the LC25 and LC50 between 15 and 30 min postapplication.

  8. Gender effects in gaming research: a case for regression residuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland

    2011-10-01

    Numerous recent studies have examined the impact of video gaming on various dependent variables, including the players' affective reactions, positive as well as detrimental cognitive effects, and real-world aggression. These target variables are typically analyzed as a function of game characteristics and player attributes-especially gender. However, findings on the uneven distribution of gaming experience between males and females, on the one hand, and the effect of gaming experience on several target variables, on the other hand, point at a possible confound when gaming experiments are analyzed with a standard analysis of variance. This study uses simulated data to exemplify analysis of regression residuals as a potentially beneficial data analysis strategy for such datasets. As the actual impact of gaming experience on each of the various dependent variables differs, the ultimate benefits of analysis of regression residuals entirely depend on the research question, but it offers a powerful statistical approach to video game research whenever gaming experience is a confounding factor.

  9. The Effect of Processing on 14C- Chlofenvinphos Residues in Maize Oil and Bioavailability of its Cake Residues on Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; El-Maghraby, S.

    2008-01-01

    Maize seed obtained from 14 C-chlofenvinphos treated plants contained 0.12 % of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, methanol and coke amounted to 10 %, 6 % and 69 %, respectively of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C activity in the crude oil could be a gradual reduced by the refining processes. The alkali treatment and bleaching steps are more effective steps in the refining processes remove about (63 %). The refined oil contained only about 17 % of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residues in processed oil contain parent compound, in addition to five metabolites of the insecticide. When rats fed the extracted seeds (cake), the bound residues were found to be considerably bioavailable. After feeding rats for 5 days with the cake, a substantial amount of 14 C-residues was eliminated in the urine (59.5 %), while about 20 % was excreted in the feces. About 15 % of the radioactivity was distribution among various organs

  10. Biogas from landfills embankments: the Brazilian contribution for the management of urban solid residues and the greenhouse effect mitigation through the mechanisms for clean development; Biogas de aterros: a contribuicao do Brasil na gestao de residuos solidos urbanos e na mitigacao do efeito estufa atraves dos mecanismos de desenvolvimento limpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Gleide B.M.; Guimaraes, Hoji Y' a Henda da R.; Andrade, Euridice S. Mamede de; Teixeira, Gisele Pereira; Freitas, Marcos A.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    This paper studies the clean development mechanism (CDM) for sanitary sewage in Brazil, as instruments for flexibilization and mitigation of the effects of climate changes coming from the global heating. This research presents the assessments of the CDM projects for sanitary sewage in Brazil, considering the Project Conception Documents (PCD) approved until November 2007. The paper presents some methodologies for studying of energy generation potential from the biogas originated in sanitary sewage. The paper also contributes to projects of carbon credit commercialization, and relevance of the CDM instrument for the adequate management expansion of the residence solid residues as well, and advances in the implantation of sanitary embankments in Brazil.

  11. Accumulative effect of food residues on intestinal gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mego, M; Accarino, A; Malagelada, J-R; Guarner, F; Azpiroz, F

    2015-11-01

    As mean transit time in the colon is longer than the interval between meals, several consecutive meal loads accumulate, and contribute to colonic biomass. Our aim was to determine the summation effect of fermentable food residues on intestinal gas production. In eight healthy subjects, the volume of endogenous intestinal gas produced in the intestine over a 4-h period was measured by means of a wash-out technique, using an exogenous gas infusion into the jejunum (24 mL/min) and collection of the effluent via a rectal Foley catheter. The exogenous gas infused was labeled (5% SF6 ) to calculate the proportion of endogenous intestinal gas evacuated. In each subject, four experiments were performed ≥1 week apart combining a 1-day high- or low-flatulogenic diet with a test meal or fast. Basal conditions: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production during fasting over the 4-h study period was 609 ± 63 mL. Effect of diet: during fasting, intestinal gas production on the high-flatulogenic diet was 370 ± 146 mL greater than on the low-flatulogenic diet (p = 0.040). Effect of test meal: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production after the test meal was 681 ± 114 mL greater than during fasting (p = 0.001); a similar effect was observed on the high-flatulogenic diet (599 ± 174 mL more intestinal gas production after the test meal than during fasting; p = 0.021). Our data demonstrate temporal summation effects of food residues on intestinal gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production depends on pre-existing and on recent colonic loads of fermentable foodstuffs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Experiences and own management regarding residual symptoms among people with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Lisa Ring; Milberg, Anna; Hjelm, Katarina; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Between 7% and 30% of people with treated coeliac disease suffer from residual symptoms, and there is a knowledge gap about their own management of these symptoms. To explore experiences and management concerning residual symptoms despite a gluten-free diet in people with coeliac disease. A qualitative explorative design with semi-structured interviews with 22 adults with coeliac disease in Sweden. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The informants had, at diagnosis, thought that their symptoms would disappear if they followed a gluten-free diet, but the disease was continuing to have a substantial impact on their lives, despite several years of treatment. They experienced cognitive, somatic as well as mental symptoms, including impact on personality (e.g. having a "shorter fuse", being more miserable or tired). However, only a few informants had sought medical care for persistent symptoms. Instead they tried to manage these by themselves, e.g. abstaining from food during periods of more intense symptom, or using distraction. The management of persistent symptoms resembled thorough detective work. To prevent problems related to residual symptoms the informants used withdrawal of social contact as well as acceptance of their situation. People with treated coeliac disease may experience residual symptoms of both a physical and psychological nature, causing major negative impacts on their lives in different ways. In the light of this, healthcare staff should change their practices regarding the follow-up of these people, and in addition to medical care should provide guidance on management strategies to facilitate the daily life. Furthermore, information to newly diagnosed persons should make them aware of the possibility to experience continued symptoms, despite treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, P [Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author).

  15. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author)

  16. Radioprotection and management of radioactive residues study in the radiopharmaceuticals laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, Priscila M.; Silva, Maria Isabel B. da

    2002-01-01

    The 123 I, used in the thyroid cancer diagnoses, is being used at several clinics of nuclear medicine, instead of 131 I. This last one, for presenting half-life 15 times bigger than the first one, causes larger doses to the patient and slower exams. Another subject is the management of the residues generated by radiopharmaceutical laboratories, which requests lager physical space, in the case of 131 I. In the present work, six radiopharmaceutical laboratories of the state of Rio de Janeiro were visited. All of them use the 131 I produced by the Nuclear Engineering Institute. In these visits radioprotection procedures and the management of residues of those laboratories were evaluated, as well as the available infrastructure

  17. Life-cycle assessment of selected management options for air pollution control residues from waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-09-15

    Based on available technology and emission data seven selected management options for air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration were evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE model. Scenarios were evaluated with respect to both non-toxicity impact categories (e.g. global warming) and toxicity related impact categories (e.g. ecotoxicity and human toxicity). The assessment addressed treatment and final placement of 1 tonne of APC residue in seven scenarios: 1) direct landfilling without treatment (baseline), 2) backfilling in salt mines, 3) neutralization of waste acid, 4) filler material in asphalt, 5) Ferrox stabilization, 6) vitrification, and 7) melting with automobile shredder residues (ASR). The management scenarios were selected as examples of the wide range of different technologies available worldwide while at the same time using realistic technology data. Results from the LCA were discussed with respect to importance of: energy consumption/substitution, material substitution, leaching, air emissions, time horizon aspects for the assessment, and transportation distances. The LCA modeling showed that thermal processes were associated with the highest loads in the non-toxicity categories (energy consumption), while differences between the remaining alternatives were small and generally considered insignificant. In the toxicity categories, all treatment/utilization options were significantly better than direct landfilling without treatment (lower leaching), although the thermal processes had somewhat higher impacts than the others options (air emissions). Transportation distances did not affect the overall ranking of the management alternatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tillage and residue effects on rainfed wheat and corn production in the Semi-Arid Regions of Northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Perdok, U.D.; Cai, D.X.

    2003-01-01

    Field studies on tillage and residue management for spring corn were conducted at two sites, in Tunliu (1987-1990), and Shouyang (1992-1995) counties of Shanxi province in the semihumid arid regions of northern China. This paper discusses the effects of different fall tillage (winter fallow tillage)

  19. Anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case of previously operated with residual pituitary tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana N Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a case with previous pituitary tumour resection, with residual tumour, is reported. The pituitary gland undergoes global hyperplasia during pregnancy. Functional pituitary tumours may exhibit symptomatic enlargement during pregnancy. Growth hormone secreting tumour is associated with acromegaly which has associated anaesthetic implications of difficult airway, systemic hypertension, and diabetes and electrolyte imbalance. Intracranial space occupying lesions can increase intra cranial pressure and compromise cerebral perfusion or cause herniation. We report management of this case.

  20. Remote Sensing of Residue Management in Farms using Landsat 8 Sensor Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Rostami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Preserving of crop residues in the field surface after harvesting crops, making difficult farm operations. The farmers for getting rid of crop residues always choose the easiest way, i.e. burning. Burning is one of the common disposal methods for wheat and corn straw in some region of the world. Present study was aimed to investigate the accurate methods for monitoring of residue management after wheat harvesting. With this vision, the potential of Landsat 8 sensor was evaluated for monitoring of residue burning, using satellite spectral indices and Linear Spectral Unmixing Analysis. For this purpose, correlation of ground data with satellite spectral indices and LSUA data were tested by linear regression. Materials and Methods In this study we considered 12 farms where remained plants were burned, 12 green farm, 12 bare farms and 12 farms with full crop residue cover were considered. Spatial coordinates of experimental fields recorded with a GPS and fields map were drawn using ArcGissoftware, version of 10.1. In this study,t wo methods were used to separate burned fields from other farms including Satellite Spectral Indices and Linear Spectral unmixing analysis. In this study, multispectral landsat 8 image was acquired over 2015 year. Landsat 8 products are delivered to the customer as radiometric, sensor, and geometric corrections. Image pixels are unique to Landsat 8 data, and should not be directly compared to imagery from other sensors. Therefore, DN value must be converted to radiance value in order to change the radiance to the reflectance, which is useful when performing spectral analysis techniques, such as transformations, band ratios and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, etc. In this study, a number of spectral indices and Linear Spectral Unmixing Analysis data were imported/extracted from Landsat 8 image. All satellite image data were analyzed by ENVI software package. The spectral indices used in this

  1. Management of solid residues in waste-to-energy and biomass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehlow, J.; Bergfeldt, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Wilen, C.; Ranta, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Schwaiger, H. [Forschungsgesellschaft Joanneum mbH, Graz (Austria); Visser, H.J.M. [ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Gu, S.; Gyftopoulou, E.; Brammer, J. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    A literature review has been performed for getting in-depth information about quality of residues from thermal processes for waste and biomass as well as their disposal or utilisation options and current practices. Residues from waste incineration have been subject to intense research programs for many years and it can be concluded that the quality of bottom ashes has meanwhile a high standard. The question whether an utilisation as secondary building material is accepted or not depends on the definition of acceptable economic impac. For filter ashes and gas cleaning residues the situation is more complex. Their quality is known: due to their high inventory of heavy metals and organic micro-pollutants they are classified as hazardous waste which means they require specific measures for their safe long-term disposal. A number of stabilisation and treatment processes for filter ashes and gas cleaning residues including the recovery of species out of these materials have been developed but none has been implemented in full scale due to economic constraints. There is reason to speculate that even recovery processes which are not profitable for private companies might point out economically useful if future and long-term costs which have to be covered of the society, e.g. for rehabilitation of contaminated sites, are taken into account. Their quality as well as that of residues from combustion of contaminated biomass is mainly depending on the quality of the fuel. The inventory of critical ingredients in fuel produced from waste or waste fractions, especially of halogens and heavy metals, is often rather high and shows typically a wide range of variation. A reliable quality control for such fuels is very difficult. Other residues can - like gas cleaning residues from waste incineration - be inertised in order to meet the criteria for the access to cheaper landfills than those for hazardous waste. A similar conclusion can be drawn for the quality and management of

  2. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  3. Long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The statement assesses and compares several alternatives for long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), Lewiston, New York. The alternatives include: (1) no action (continued interim storage at NFSS within a diked and capped containment area), (2) long-term management at NFSS (improved containment, with or without modified form of the residues), (3) long-term management at other DOE sites (Hanford, Washington, or Oak Ridge, Tennessee), and (4) offsite management of the residues at Hanford or Oak Ridge and either leaving the wastes at NFSS or removing them for disposal in the ocean. In addition to alternatives analyzed in depth, several options are also considered, including: other modifications of residue form, modification of the basic conceptual designs, other containment design options, transportation routes, and transportation modes. The radiological health effects (primarily increased risk of cancer) associated with long-term management of the wastes and residues are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. During the action period, the risk is highest for workers if all wastes and residues are moved to Hanford. The risk is highest for the general public if the residues are moved to Hanford and the wastes are moved to the ocean. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant impacts on the ocean environment or pose any significant radiological risk to humans. For all alternatives, if controls ceased, there would be eventual dispersion of the radioactive materials to the environment. If it is assumed that all controls cease, predicted time for loss of covers over the buried materials ranges from several hundred years to more than two million years, depending on the use of the land surface

  4. The Effect of Crop Residue Application to Soil Fauna Community and Mungbean Growth (Vigna radata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Litterbag experiment was carried out to determine the effect of crop residue application to soil fauna community and mungbean growth. The experiment arranged in randomized complete design with triplicate. The four treatment application of crotalarian, rice straw and banana’s aerial stem residues as well as without residue application as control. Soil fauna community and mungbean growth measured at 8 weeks after mungbean sown. Soil fauna extracted by modified Barless-Tullgren extractor apparatus. Height and dry weight of mungbean measured as crop growth parameters. The results indicated that the soil fauna densities and diversities as well as the growth of mungbean tended to increase by the application of crop residues. The effect of the treatment decreasing in the following order: banana’s aerial stem residue > crotalarian residue > rice straw > without residue application. There were high correlation between mungbean growth and soil fauna diversities.© 2001 Jurusan Biologi FMIPA UNS SurakartaKey words:

  5. Towars a chemical reagents and residues management at the teaching laboratories of the Chemistry School of the Universidad Nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cristina Benavides Benavides; Xinia Vargas González; Gustavo Chaves Barboza; José Ángel Rodríguez Corrales

    2016-01-01

    The academic activities carried out at the School of Chemistry make indispensable to develop actions oriented toward the consolidation of a reagent and residue management system, especially in the teaching laboratories. The project “Management of reagents and residues in the teaching laboratories of the School of Chemistry” works under the Green Chemistry values which designs products and chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and production of dangerous substances, to benefit th...

  6. Management of organic residues from the industrial restaurant of Mina Cauê, Mining Complex of Itabira/MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francy Nara Fonseca Barcelos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial restaurants generate, when preparing and serving meals, a number of wastes that are administered in different ways. However, increasing waste generation leads to the need of establishing measures capable of permanently control the environmental effects of the entire production process. In this sense, this work aimed at verifying the generation of organic residues from the industrial restaurant of Cauê Mine, located in the Itabira/MG Mining Complex, as well as to evaluate if the technologies currently used for the management of these wastes are environmentally sustainable and economically viable. Thus, it was sought to identify the foods responsible for their higher generation, resulting in the alteration of the menu and, consequently, a reduction of 81.85% of organic residues. Another important factor was the reuse of fruit peels in desserts, providing healthier foods and reducing the amount of waste sent to the final treatment. Regarding the final disposal of organic waste in the landfill, it was observed that during the analyzed period there was a reduction of 64.67% of the values initially paid. In the aspect related to waste, it was found that the campaigns developed aiming at the "zero waste" of both restaurant staff and customers, also had a positive influence on the reduction of residual "ingestion" waste.

  7. Effect of Solder Flux Residues on Corrosion of Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Stentoft; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Flux from ‘No Clean’ solder processes can cause reliability problems in the field due to aggressive residues, which may be electrical conducting or corrosive in humid environments. The solder temperature during a wave solder process is of great importance to the amount of residues left on a PCBA...... testing and use in the field, consequences and recommendations are given. Failures, caused by harsh[1] customer environments, are not covered in this paper....

  8. Effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on microbial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Iqbal, Z.; Asi, M.R.; Tahira, R.; Chudhary, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of soil-bound residues of malathion on CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity and some nitrogen transformations in a loam soil was investigated under laboratory conditions. The soil samples containing bound residues arising from 10 mg g-1 of the applied malathion were mixed in equal quantity with fresh soil and compared with solvent extracted control soil without bound residues (extracted in the same way as soil containing bound residues). Another control comprising un extracted fresh soil without bound residues was also kept to study the effect of solvent extraction on the biological activity. Rate of Carbon mineralization (CO/sub 2/ evolution) was decreased in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. Bound residues also affected dehydrogenase activity of soil. Over 40% inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was observed after 4 days and the inhibition persisted at least for 12 days. Nitrogen mineralization was stimulated in soil containing bound residues of malathion and this stimulatory effect increased with time of incubation. Nitrification was partially inhibited in the presence of soil-bound residues of malathion. The inhibitory effect of the soil-bound residues on nitrification did not show much variation with time. The soil-bound residues did not affect denitrification rate (N/sub 2/O evolution). Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) was partially inhibited in soil amended with bound residues of malathion and the inhibitory effect persisted for at least one week. In general, soil bound residues of malathion inhibited CO/sub 2/ evolution, dehydrogenase activity, nitrification and nitrogen fixation while mineralization of nitrogen was stimulated. Denitrification was not affected by the applied insecticide. (author)

  9. Effect of applied stress on the compressive residual stress introduced by laser peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Rie; Tazawa, Toshiyuki; Narazaki, Chihiro; Saito, Toshiyuki; Kishimoto, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Peening is the process which is able to be generated compressive residual stress and is known to be effective for preventing SCC initiation and improvement of fatigue strength. Laser peening is used for the nuclear power plant components in order to prevent SCC initiation. Although it is reported that the compressive residual stress decreases due to applied stresses under general operating condition, the change of residual stress might be large under excessive loading such as an earthquake. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the relaxation behavior of the compressive residual stress due to laser peening and to confirm the surface residual stress after loading. Therefore laser peened round bar test specimens of SUS316L which is used for the reactor internals of nuclear power plant were loaded at room temperature and elevated temperature and then surface residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction method. In the results of this test, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stress remained after applying uniform stress larger than 0.2% proof stress, and the effect of cyclic loading on the residual stress was small. The effect of applying compressive stress on the residual stress relaxation was confirmed to be less than that of applying tensile stress. Plastic deformation through a whole cross section causes the change in the residual stress distribution. As a result, the surface compressive residual stress is released. It was shown that the effect of specimen size on residual stress relaxation and the residual stress relaxation behavior in the stress concentration region can be explained by assumed stress relaxation mechanism. (author)

  10. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed...... by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Timing of reversal agent administration was based on the providers' clinical judgement. Primary endpoint was the presence of residual...... measured at PACU entry. Zero out of 74 sugammadex patients and 33 out of 76 (43.4%) usual care patients had TOF-Watch® SX-assessed residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission (odds ratio 0.0, 95% CI [0-0.06], P

  11. Using cereal rye (catch crop) and dehydrogenase activity as indicators of the residual fertility effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management practices following field tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) and other biological soil management practices employing carbon-rich and/or biologically-active ingredients help contribute to overall soil suppressiveness in crop disease management. However, their roles in soil fertility tended to be overshadowed by disease cont...

  12. Initial contents of residue quality parameters predict effects of larger soil fauna on decomposition of contrasting quality residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratikorn Sanghaw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A 52-week decomposition study employing the soil larger fauna exclusion technique through litter bags of two mesh sizes (20 and 0.135 mm was conducted in a long-term (18 yr field experiment. Organic residues of contrasting quality of N, lignin (L, polyphenols (PP and cellulose (CL all in grams per kilogram: rice straw (RS: 4.5N, 22.2L, 3.9PP, 449CL, groundnut stover (GN: 21.2N, 71.4L, 8.1PP, 361CL, dipterocarp leaf litter (DP: 5.1N, 303L, 68.9PP, 271CL and tamarind leaf litter (TM: 11.6N, 190L, 27.7PP, 212CL were applied to soil annually to assess and predict soil larger fauna effects (LFE on decomposition based on the initial contents of the residue chemical constituents. Mass losses in all residues were not different under soil fauna inclusion and exclusion treatments during the early stage (up to week 4 after residue incorporation but became significantly higher under the inclusion than the exclusion treatments during the later stage (week 8 onwards. LFE were highest (2–51% under the resistant DP at most decomposition stages. During the early stage (weeks 1–4, both the initial contents of labile (N and CL and recalcitrant C, and recalcitrant C interaction with labile constituents of residues showed significant correlations (r = 0.64–0.90 with LFE. In the middle stage (week 16, LFE under resistant DP and TM had significant positive correlations with L, L + PP and L/CL. They were also affected by these quality parameters as shown by the multiple regression analysis. In the later stages (weeks 26–52, the L/CL ratio was the most prominent quality parameter affecting LFE. Keywords: Mesofauna and macrofauna, Microorganisms, Recalcitrant and labile compounds, Residue chemical composition, Tropical sandy soil

  13. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  14. Ensuring effective project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    A brief description is given of the organisation methods employed by the Bechtel Power Corporation, in their contract with Mississippi Power and Light Company for the design, construction and procurement activities for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. The aim is to ensure effective management, and good communications at all stages of construction, between the project team and the client. (U.K.)

  15. Effective Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Eng, Wong Kim; Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Hamzah, Mohd Izham Mohd; Hamid, Aida Hanim A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore and identify the characteristics of an effective teacher who teaches English as a second language to 10 year old students from different ethnics, various social economic background and multi-level language ability, at a private primary school in Malaysia. The study focused on classroom management using a case study…

  16. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Wen-xue; MA Zhong-ming; WEI Tao

    2017-01-01

    Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014) long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded) on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored....

  17. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  18. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-03-30

    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  19. Effect of mungbean residue and nitrogen levels on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, A.; Muhammad, Z.; Daur, I.; Khan, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate response of barley to mungbean residue (0, 10, 20 and 30 Mg ha/sup -1/), nitrogen levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg ha/sup -1/) and their interaction. Emergence m/sup -2/ (50), plant height (109 cm), leaf area tiller-1 (106 cm/sup 2/), lodging score (5.55), termites attack (3.4%), grains spike-1 (67), biological yield (12.80 Mg ha/sup -1/) and grain yield (2.32 Mg ha/sup -1/) were significantly (p=0.05) higher for 30 Mg ha/sup -1/ mungbean residue compared to other levels. Similarly plant height (110 cm), lodging score (5.29) and biological yield (13.75 Mg ha/sup -1/) were higher at 75 kg ha/sup -1/ N compared to other levels of N. Productive tillers m/sup -2/, grains spike/sup -1/, 1000 grain weight, grain yield and harvest index were optimum at 50 kg ha-1 N as compared to 75 kg ha/sup -1/ N that encouraged lodging. Interaction between residue and nitrogen indicated that 10 Mg residue and 50 kg N ha/sup -1/ is recommended to achieve maximum net return under comparable conditions. (author)

  20. The allelopathic effects of three crop residues on the germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... maize inflorescences showed significant differences when compared to the control. No growth was recorded in the radicle until 96 hrs of the experiment in all the extract – treated seeds from the three crop residues while the control germinated at 72 hours. Keywords: Allelopathy, allelochemical, biomolecules, Sphenostylis ...

  1. Hastelloy X fuel element creep relaxation and residual effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, R.A.

    1971-01-01

    A worst case, seven element, asymmetric fuel, thermal environment was assumed and a creep relaxation analysis generated. The fuel element clad is .020 inch Hastelloy X. The contact load decreased from 11.6 pounds to 5.87 pounds in 100,000 hours. The residual stresses were then computed for various shutdown times. (U.S.)

  2. Effect of process parameters on the residual stresses in AA5083-H321 friction stir welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, H. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Hattingh, D.G. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Steuwer, A. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); FaME38 at the ILL-ESRF, 6 rue J Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: steuwer@ill.fr; James, M.N. [NMMU, Gardham Avenue, PO Box 77000, 6031 Port Elizabeth (South Africa); University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    This paper investigates the effect of varying welding parameters on the residual stress profiles in friction stir welds of aluminium alloy AA5083-H321, which were created on a fully instrumented friction welding machine. The residual stresses were determined non-destructively using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The width and maximum of the residual stress profile show clear correlation with the heat input, and in particular feed rate, which was found to be the dominant parameter.

  3. Anesthetic management for laparoscopy surgery in a patient with residual coarctation of aorta and mild aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative management of patients with congenital heart disease is a challenge for the anesthesiologist. We present successful anesthetic management for diagnostic laparoscopy and cystectomy for tubo-ovarian mass in a case of residual coarctation of the aorta along with bicuspid aortic valve and mild aortic stenosis.

  4. Evolution of a residue laboratory network and the management tools for monitoring its performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, E S; Conceição, E S; Mauricio, A De Q

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 the National Residue & Contaminants Control Plan (NRCCP) in Brazil has been considerably enhanced, increasing the number of samples, substances and species monitored, and also the analytical detection capability. The Brazilian laboratory network was forced to improve its quality standards in order to comply with the NRCP's own evolution. Many aspects such as the limits of quantification (LOQs), the quality management systems within the laboratories and appropriate method validation are in continuous improvement, generating new scenarios and demands. Thus, efficient management mechanisms for monitoring network performance and its adherence to the established goals and guidelines are required. Performance indicators associated to computerised information systems arise as a powerful tool to monitor the laboratories' activity, making use of different parameters to describe this activity on a day-to-day basis. One of these parameters is related to turnaround times, and this factor is highly affected by the way each laboratory organises its management system, as well as the regulatory requirements. In this paper a global view is presented of the turnaround times related to the type of analysis, laboratory, number of samples per year, type of matrix, country region and period of the year, all these data being collected from a computerised system called SISRES. This information gives a solid background to management measures aiming at the improvement of the service offered by the laboratory network.

  5. The earthworm gastrointestinal effect on the release of organic bound residues in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    Earthworm activities promote the release of bound residues and the digestive activities of earthworms contribute to the process. Earthworm digestive effects on bound residues can be divided into physical and chemical effects. Physical effects include gastrointestinal abrasion and mixing. The abrasion of soil and litter residues in earthworm gizzards and intestine can grind the food into fine particles, which increase the contact surface with microbial and promote the desorption of bound residues. Chemical effects are attributed to the secreted surfactant substances and digestive enzymes. The surfactants, especially at levels that lead to micellization, can enhance the desorption process of the organic contaminants that sored in the soil. The enzymes in earthworm digestive tracts can decompose the humus in soil, which may promote the release of organic residues that bind with humus.

  6. THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND STORAGE ON FLORFENICOL AND FLORFENICOL AMINE RESIDUES IN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Filazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage conditions (room temperature, refrigerator and cooking methods (frying, boiling on florfenicol (FF and florfenicol amine (FFA residue levels in eggs. Without any significant difference between storage conditions at 20˚C and +4˚C, residue levels decreased within days, but were still present on day 28. Frying and boiling for 1 and 5 min yielded similar results to the storage conditions just described; there was a significant decrease in residue levels, but still not enough for decomposing. These findings indicate that FF and FFA residues are heat-labile.

  7. Cover crop residue effects on machine-induced soil compaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ess, Daniel R.

    1994-01-01

    Crop production systems which utilize the biomass produced by rye (Secale cereale ) to suppress weed growth and conserve soil moisture have been developed at Virginia Tech. The success of alternative, reduced-input crop production systems has encouraged research into the potential for breaking the traffic-tillage cycle associated with conventional tillage crop production systems. The fragile residues encountered in agricultural crop production, whether incorporated into the ...

  8. Management of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato with endophytic bacteria and fresh residue of Wasabia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G J; Dong, Q E; Ma, L; Huang, Y; Zhu, M L; Ji, Y P; Wang, Q H; Mo, M H; Zhang, K Q

    2014-10-01

    To characterize the nematicidal endophytic bacteria (NEB) of Wasabia japonica (wasabi) and evaluated the control efficacies of promising NEB as well as fresh wasabi residue (FWR) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. By in vitro bioassay, 53 NEB strains showing nematicidal efficacies of >50% against J2 of M. incognita were isolated from wasabi. Basing on 16S rRNA gene sequences, these NEB were identified into 18 species of 11 genera. In greenhouse, incorporation of selected NEB culture or FWR into potted soil significantly reduced infection of M. incognita on tomato. Treating tomatoes with either FWR or NEB of Raoultella terrigena RN16 and Pseudomonas reinekei SN21 in the field yielded excellent control efficacies against M. incognita, especially the combinations of FWR with either R. terrigena RN16 or Ps. reinekei SN21 at doses of 50 g plus 100 ml per plant or more. The results established that R. terrigena RN16 and Ps. reinekei SN21 applied separately or combined with FWR have the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita. This study provides novel way for disease management using combination of endophyte and host residue. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Review of Alternative Management Options of Vegetable Crop Residues to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in Intensive Vegetable Rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Agneessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable crop residues take a particular position relative to arable crops due to often large amounts of biomass with a N content up to 200 kg N ha−1 left behind on the field. An important amount of vegetable crops are harvested during late autumn and despite decreasing soil temperatures during autumn, high rates of N mineralization and nitrification still occur. Vegetable crop residues may lead to considerable N losses through leaching during winter and pose a threat to meeting water quality objectives. However, at the same time vegetable crop residues are a vital link in closing the nutrient and organic matter cycle of soils. Appropriate and sustainable management is needed to harness the full potential of vegetable crop residues. Two fundamentally different crop residue management strategies to reduce N losses during winter in intensive vegetable rotations are reviewed, namely (i on-field management options and modifications to crop rotations and (ii removal of crop residues, followed by a useful and profitable application.

  10. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Sisani, Luciano [TSA spa, Via Case Sparse 107, Magione (Italy); Damiano, Roberto [GESENU spa, Via della Molinella 7, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  11. Effect of residual stress induced by cold expansion on fatigue crack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate are controlled by stress ratio, stress level, orientation of crack, temper-ature, residual stress, corrosion, etc. The effects of residual stress on fatigue crack growth in aluminium (Al) alloy 2024-T351 by Mode I crack were investigated by applying constant amplitude cycles based on ...

  12. Residual stress measurement of large scaled welded pipe using neutron diffraction method. Effect of SCC crack propagation and repair weld on residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Tobita, Tohru; Morii, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The RESA-1 neutron engineering diffractometer in the JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which is used for stress measurements, was upgraded to realize residual stress measurements of large scaled mechanical components. A series of residual stress measurements was made to obtain through-thickness residual stress distributions in a Type 304 stainless steel butt-welded pipe of 500A-sch.80 using the upgraded RESA-1 diffractometer. We evaluated effects of crack propagation such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and a part-circumference repair weld on the residual stress distributions induced by girth welding. Measured residual stress distributions near original girth weld revealed good agreement with typical results shown in some previous works using finite element method, deep hole drilling as well as neutron diffraction. After introducing a mock crack with 10 mm depth in the heat affected zone on the inside wall of the pipe by electro discharge machining, the axial residual stresses were found to be released in the part of the mock crack. However, changes in the through-wall bending stress component and the self-equilibrated stress component were negligible and hence the axial residual stress distribution in the ligament was remained in the original residual stresses near girth weld without the mock crack. Furthermore, changes in hoop and radial residual stress were also small. The residual stress distributions after a part repair welding on the outer circumference of the girth weld were significantly different from residual stress distributions near the original girth weld. The through-thickness average axial residual stress was increased due to increase of the tensile membrane stress and mitigation of the bending stress after repair welding. Throughout above studies, we evidenced that the neutron diffraction technique is useful and powerful tool for measuring residual stress distributions in large as well as thick mechanical

  13. The role and effect of residual stress on pore generation during anodization of aluminium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, M.W.; Chung, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Al films of varying residual stress were prepared by sputtering. •Variation of the residual stress in the Al films influences pore growth during anodization. •The change in average pore size with residual stress is fairly small. •Interaction of residual stress with oxide growth stress leads to change in structure. •Residual tensile stress increases the pore density of porous alumina. -- Abstract: The role and effect of residual stress on pore generation of anodized aluminium oxide (AAO) have been investigated into anodizing the various-residual-stresses aluminium films. The plane stresses were characterised by X-ray diffraction with sin 2 ψ method. The pore density roughly linearly increased with residual stress from 64.6 (−132.5 MPa) to 90.5 pores/μm 2 (135.9 MPa). However, the average pore size around 40 nm was not changed significantly except for the rougher film. The tensile residual stress lessened the compressive oxide growth stress to reduce AAO plastic deformation for higher pore density. The findings provide new foundations for realizing AAO films on silicon

  14. Residual stresses due to weld repairs, cladding and electron beam welds and effect of residual stresses on fracture behavior. Annual report, September 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, E.F.

    1978-11-01

    The study is divided into three tasks. Task I is concerned with predicting and understanding the effects of residual stresses due to weld repairs of pressure vessels. Task II examines residual stresses due to an electron beam weld. Task III addresses the problem of residual stresses produced by weld cladding at a nozzle vessel intersection. The objective of Task I is to develop a computational model for predicting residual stress states due to a weld repair of pressure vessel and thereby gain an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the creation of the residual stresses. Experimental data from the Heavy Section Steel Technology (HSST) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) is used to validate the computational model. In Task II, the residual stress model is applied to the case of an electron beam weld of a compact tension freacture specimen. The results in the form of residual stresses near the weld are then used to explain unexpected fracture behavior which is observed in the testing of the specimen. For Task III, the residual stress model is applied to the cladding process used in nozzle regions of nuclear pressure vessels. The residual stresses obtained from this analysis are evaluated to determine their effect on the phenomena of under-clad cracking

  15. How effective are common household preparations on removing pesticide residues from fruit and vegetables? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen Wc

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, the use of pesticides is inevitable for pest control in crops, especially for fruit and vegetables. After the harvest from raw agricultural commodities, the amount of pesticide residues in food is mainly influenced by the storage, handling and processing that follow. If good agricultural and good manufacturing practices are enforced effectively, the amount of pesticide residues would be brought below the corresponding maximum residue level. Thus, the consumption of raw and/or prepared fruit and vegetables would be safe. Nonetheless, reports regarding pesticide residues in fruit or vegetables on mass media have been worrying consumers, who are concerned about the adverse effects of pesticide residues. As a result, consumers perform household processing before consumption to reduce any related risks. However, can these preparations effectively remove pesticide residues? Reviewing the extensive literature, it showed that, in most cases, washing and soaking can only lead to a certain degree of reduction in residue level, while other processing such as peeling, soaking in chemical baths and blanching can reduce pesticide residues more effectively. In general, the behaviour of residues during processing can be rationalised in terms of the physico-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In contrast, the reported studies are diversified and some areas still lack sufficient studies to draw any remarks. Recommendations are provided with respect to the available information that aims to formulate an environmental friendly, cost-effective and efficient household processing of fruit and vegetables to reduce pesticide residues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses.

  17. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses

  18. The effect of residual stress on polymer pipe lifetime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Frank, A.; Náhlík, Luboš; Kučera, J.; Pinter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, SI (2013), s. 98-108 ISSN 0013-7944. [Crack paths 2012. Gaeta, 19.09.2012-21.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1560; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Residual stress * Linear elastic fracture mechanics * Lifetime estimation * Polyethylene pipes * Slow crack growth Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2013

  19. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on residual nitrite, ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin, and color in sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kee-Hyuk; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2003-02-26

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on emulsion-type cooked pork sausage during storage for 4 weeks. CO(2) (100%), N(2) (100%), or 25% CO(2)/75% N(2) packaged sausage were irradiated at 0, 5, and 10 kGy, and residual nitrite, residual ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb), color values, and their correlation were observed. Irradiation significantly reduced the residual nitrite content and caused partial reduction of NO-Mb during storage. No difference was observed in ascorbic acid content by irradiation. Irradiation decreased the Hunter color a value of sausage. CO(2) or CO(2)/N(2) packaging were more effective for reducing residual nitrite and inhibiting the loss of the red color of sausage compared to N(2) packaging. Results indicated that the proper combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the residual nitrite in sausage with minimization of color change.

  20. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of N derived from rhizodeposition of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and the effects of the rhizodeposition on the subsequent C and N turnover of its crop residues were investigated in an incubation experiment (168 days, 15 degrees....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...... amount of 15-17% was present as microbial biomass and between 30 and 55% of mineralised rhizodeposition N was present as microbial residue pool, which consists of microbial exoenzymes, mucous substances and dead microbial biomass. The effect of rhizodeposition on the C and N turnover of crop residues...

  1. Evaluation of machining effect for the residual stress of SA508 by hole drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kun; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Song, Ki O; Kim, Young Shin

    2009-01-01

    Residual stresses on a surface of the material are welcome or undesirable since it's direction, compression or tensile. But especially for the fatigue, it is not negligible effect on the material strength. These residual stresses developed during the manufacturing processes involving material deformation, heat treatment, machining. The object of this paper is verifying the effect of machining what is mostly used for SA508. For verifying the effect of machining, three different kind of machining have been achieved, milling, grinding, wire cutting. Also to measure the residual stress, hole drill method and indentation method are used.

  2. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  3. Effect of industrial residue combinations on availability of elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brännvall, Evelina, E-mail: evelina.brannvall@ltu.se [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Zamora, Carles Belmonte [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Sjöblom, Rolf [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden); Tekedo AB, Spinnarvägen 10, 611 37 Nyköping (Sweden); Kumpiene, Jurate [Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Beneficial combination of fly ash and biosolids. • Nutrient availability increase. • Potentially toxic element availability decrease. • Measured element availability was differed from the calculated leaching potential. - Abstract: Industrial residues, such as fly ashes and biosolids, contain elements (e.g., N, P, K, S, Ca and Zn) that make them a viable alternative for synthetic fertilizers in forestry and agriculture. However, the use of these materials is often limited due to the presence of potentially toxic substances. It is therefore necessary to assess and, when warranted, modify the chemical and physical form of these and similar waste materials before any advantages are taken of their beneficial properties. Biofuel fly ash, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, biosolids, peat, peat residues and gypsum board waste were combined in various proportions, and this resulted in increased leaching of N, P, S, Cu and Mn, but decreased leaching of Ca, K, Mg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Al, As and Pb. Chemical fractionation revealed that elements Ca, K, Mg, S and Mn were predominantly exchangeable, while the rest of the elements were less mobile. Cadmium was mostly exchangeable in MSWI fly ash, but less mobile in biofuel fly ash mixtures. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in the mixtures with fertilizers is considerably less attractive, due to the high levels of salts and exchangeable Cd.

  4. Rural electrification for isolated consumers: Sustainable management model based on residue biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Giorgiana; Rendeiro, Goncalo; Pinho, Joao; Macedo, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the electrification of a riparian community in the State of Para, Brazil, within the scope of the Program for Electric Power Service Universalization in Brazil. The community is located in a remote area; approximately 100 km from the municipal district, there is no regular transport to access the community, and adequate communication service. The community is provided with electrification facilities through a small biomass-based power plant, directly firing residues produced by the local economic activity. The objective of the paper is to propose a sustainable management model that is suitable for community's isolation conditions, considering the high costs with operation and maintenance related to the supply of isolated consumers in small locations. A simulation is conducted for the operation of the small biomass-based power plant, the generation costs are determined, the legal aspects are analyzed, and a suggestion for the management model is presented. - Highlights: → Electrification of isolated consumers is a great challenge for utilities. → Using local labor and resources allows lower energy costs for electrification. → Creation of a specific legislation for utilities is required. → Should also be implemented social activities together with electrification.

  5. Effects of Bio-char on Soil Microbes in Herbicide Residual Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Gen-lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on soil microbial community were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment, which clarifed the improvement of biochar and its structural properties on soil microenvironment. The results showed that fungi and actinomycetes had the same effect tendency within 0~0.72 mg·kg-1 in clomazone residue which increased the role of stimulation with crop growth process prolonged, especially in high residue treatment, but strong inhibitory effect on bacteria community was occured early which returned to normal until sugar beet growth to fiftieth day. Soil fungi community decreased with bio-char adding, but had no significant difference with the control. When clomazone residue in soil was below 0.24 mg·kg-1, soil actinomycetes community was higher than control without bio-char, bacteria increased first and then reduced after adding carbon as below 0.12 mg·kg-1. Biochar was ‘deep hole’ structure containing C, O, S and other elements. The results showed that a certain concentration clomazone residue in soil would stimulate soil fungi and actinomycetes to grow. After adding the biochar, the inhibition effect of high herbicides residual on bacterial would be alleviated.

  6. The Effect of Creep on the Residual Stresses Generated During Silicon Sheet Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, J. W.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The modeling of stresses generated during the growth of thin silicon sheets at high speeds is an important part of the EFG technique since the experimental measurement of the stresses is difficult and prohibitive. The residual stresses which arise in such a growth process lead to serious problems which make thin Si ribbons unsuitable for fabrication. The constitutive behavior is unrealistic because at high temperature (close to the melting point) Si exhibits considerable creep which significantly relaxes the residual stresses. The effect of creep on the residual stresses generated during the growth of Si sheets at high speeds was addressed and the basic qualitative effect of creep are reported.

  7. The effect of processing on veterinary residues in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, W A

    1999-01-01

    Heat stability of antibiotics in foods to cooking has been determined by a variety of methods. These include heating in such liquid media as milk, water, buffers and meat extracts, and in solids such as buffered meat homogenates and various sausages. Inactivation of incurred residues in tissues and eggs was also studied. Time and temperature of heating were more easily controlled in liquid media, but results in actual meat products are more indicative of actual cooking processes. Ordinary cooking procedures for meat, even to "well-done", cannot be relied on to inactivate even the more heat sensitive compounds such as penicillins and tetracyclines. More severe heating as for canning or prolonged cooking with moist heat can inactivate the more heat sensitive compounds. The relevance to food safety is uncertain since the nature of the degradation products is unknown in most cases.

  8. Residual stress effects on the impact resistance and strength of fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Equations have been derived to predict degradation effects of microresidual stresses on impact resistance of unidirectional fiber composites. Equations also predict lamination residual stresses in multilayered angle ply composites.

  9. Acute effects of high-dose furosemide on residual renal function in CAPD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Olden, Rudolf W.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.; Arisz, Lambertus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High doses of furosemide can increase urine volume in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. However, no information is available about effects on urinary solute excretion in relation to residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR), urinary furosemide excretion, and peritoneal solute

  10. Characterization of Residual Stress Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth of a Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Seshadri, Banavara R.; James, Mark A.; Brazill, Richard L.; Schultz, Robert W.; Donald, J. Keith; Blair, Amy

    2015-01-01

    An on-line compliance-based method to account for residual stress effects in stress-intensity factor and fatigue crack growth property determinations has been evaluated. Residual stress intensity factor results determined from specimens containing friction stir weld induced residual stresses are presented, and the on-line method results were found to be in excellent agreement with residual stress-intensity factor data obtained using the cut compliance method. Variable stress-intensity factor tests were designed to demonstrate that a simple superposition model, summing the applied stress-intensity factor with the residual stress-intensity factor, can be used to determine the total crack-tip stress-intensity factor. Finite element, VCCT (virtual crack closure technique), and J-integral analysis methods have been used to characterize weld-induced residual stress using thermal expansion/contraction in the form of an equivalent delta T (change in local temperature during welding) to simulate the welding process. This equivalent delta T was established and applied to analyze different specimen configurations to predict residual stress distributions and associated residual stress-intensity factor values. The predictions were found to agree well with experimental results obtained using the crack- and cut-compliance methods.

  11. Effects of magnetic core geometry on false detection in residual current sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Bruno; Chillet, Christian; Kedous-Lebouc, Afef; Mas, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Under high-supply current, residual circuit breakers are subject to abnormal tripping, caused by false residual currents. Geometric or magnetic anomalies in the circuit breaker ring core seem to be responsible for these abnormal currents. This paper studies a few anomalies (spiral shape effect, conductor eccentricity, lamination effect) and calculates different contributions using the finite element simulations. The results show that the ring core, made of thin wound magnetic tape, is particularly sensitive to primary conductor eccentricity

  12. Effects of advanced laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of H13 tool steel

    OpenAIRE

    Trojan, Karel; Ocelík, Václav; Ganev, Nikolaj; Němeček, Stanislav; Čapek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the effects of laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of laser cladded H13 tool steel on the classical construct steel S355 substrate. This research paper concludes that in this case of laser cladding, phase transformation and not shrinkage is likely to be a dominant effect on the formation of compressive residual stresses along the clad. Furthermore, martensitic structure and unequal concentration of alloying elements was observed on...

  13. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Integrated nutrient management involving crop residue/green manures and chemical fertilizer is potential alternative to provide a balanced supply of nutrients, enhance soil quality and thereby sustain higher productivity. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different crop residue management practices and NPK levels on yield components and yield of wheat. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 at department of agronomy, Chamran University. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block designs in split plot arrangement. With three replications. Crop residues were assigned to main plot consistent CR1: wheat residue; CR2: rape residue; CR3: barley residue; CR4: barley residue + vetch; CR5: wheat straw + mungbean; CR6: vetch residue; CR7: mungbean residue; CR8: No residue incorporation as main plot and three NPK fertilizer rates: F1: (180N-120P-100K kg.ha-1; F2: (140N-90P-80K kg.ha-1; F3: (90N-60P-40K kg.ha-1 as sub plots. Twelve hills were collected at physiological maturity for measuring yield components from surrounding area of grain yield harvest area. Yield components, viz. number of spike per m2, seed per spike, 1000- grain weight, plant height were measured. Grain and straw yields were recorded from the central 5 m2 grain yield harvest area of each treatment and harvest index was calculated. Data were subjected to analysis by SAS and mean companions were performed using the Duncan multiple range test producer. Also, graphs were drawn in Excel software. Results and discussion The result of analysis variance showed significant difference between crop residues for evaluated traits. The result indicated that the highest biological and grain yield was obtained when wheat treated with CR5: wheat straw + mungbean (green manure and CR4: barley straw + vetch (green manure. Biological and grain yield increased 31 and 26% respectively by CR5 comparing with control. The highest

  14. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  15. Interactive effects of rice residue and water stress on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Amist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study effects of rice residue with and without water stress were studied on Triticum aestivum L. cv. Shatabadi. The mixture of residue and garden soil in 1:1 ratio was considered as 50% (R1 and only decomposed residue as 100% (R2. Garden soil was taken as control. Twenty five seeds were sown in each experimental trays filled with soil mixture according to the treatments. Trays were arranged in two groups. After 15 days one set was subjected to water stress (WS by withholding water supply for 3 days. Morphological and biochemical parameters of 18 days old seedlings were recorded. Seedling height decreased in all treatments. A gradual decrease in relative water content, pigment and protein contents of wheat seedlings were observed. Sugar and proline contents increased in treatments. An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA content and antioxidative enzyme activities was recorded. Elevation in catalase activity was observed in all treatments except in plants with water deficit. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX activities increased when residue mixed with soil but decreased in seedlings under the combined influence of the residue and water stress. Higher amount of MDA and lower activities of APX and GPX reflected the oxidative damage in seedlings under combined treatments. Rice residue inhibited growth of wheat seedlings. Water stress intensified the effects of residue.

  16. Effect of residual stresses on fatigue strength of plasma nitrided 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghazadeh, J.; Amidi, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Almost every method that has been presented to determine residual stress has some limitation and complexities. The aim of this work is to present a new, yet simple method so called strain indentation for measuring the residual stresses particularly in thin layers. In this method in addition to the precision measurements, components of residual stress at different directions may be determined. AISI 4140 steel specimens nitrided at 350 d ig C , 450 d ig C and 550 d ig C for 5 hours in the mixture of 75% nitrogen- 25% hydrogen gas. The, components of residual stress in the radials axial and hoop directions in the nitrided layer were determined considering the elastic strain recovery after removal of residual stress inducer(i.e. the nitrided layer). Fatigue strength of the nitrided specimens was obtained by plotting the S-N curves and fractographic studies carried out on the fracture surface of the specimens. The effect of residual stress on the stress pattern was simulated. The calculated residual stress components were in the range of 40-210 Mpa and the radial components of residual stress were more than the other two directions. Maximum fatigue strength improvement of up to 110% was observed in the plasma nitrided specimens at 550 d ig C and also 40% improvement in fatigue strength was detected by increasing the nitriding temperature from 350 d ig C to 550 d ig C . This was due to 100% increase in residual stress. Fatigue crack growth velocity in the hoop direction was more than that of radial direction. This seems to be due to higher radial residual stress component compared with the hoop stress component in the sub layer

  17. Protein microarray: sensitive and effective immunodetection for drug residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zer Cindy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Veterinary drugs such as clenbuterol (CL and sulfamethazine (SM2 are low molecular weight ( Results The artificial antigens were spotted on microarray slides. Standard concentrations of the compounds were added to compete with the spotted antigens for binding to the antisera to determine the IC50. Our microarray assay showed the IC50 were 39.6 ng/ml for CL and 48.8 ng/ml for SM2, while the traditional competitive indirect-ELISA (ci-ELISA showed the IC50 were 190.7 ng/ml for CL and 156.7 ng/ml for SM2. We further validated the two methods with CL fortified chicken muscle tissues, and the protein microarray assay showed 90% recovery while the ci-ELISA had 76% recovery rate. When tested with CL-fed chicken muscle tissues, the protein microarray assay had higher sensitivity (0.9 ng/g than the ci-ELISA (0.1 ng/g for detection of CL residues. Conclusions The protein microarrays showed 4.5 and 3.5 times lower IC50 than the ci-ELISA detection for CL and SM2, respectively, suggesting that immunodetection of small molecules with protein microarray is a better approach than the traditional ELISA technique.

  18. Using management of aging in German nuclear power plants - aspects of KTA 1403 pertaining to residual power operation, post-shutdown operation and residual operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, Pablo; Bever, Thomas; Brast, Gerhard; Elsche, Bjoern; Reese, Sven H.; Grossmann, Patrick; Widera, Martin; Huettner, Frank; Linnemann, Thomas; Smit, Swen-Olaf; Zander, Ralf-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Management of aging in nuclear power plants originated in the United States of America and became a topic of debate in Germany from the late 1990s onward. On the basis of the existing plant-specific measures practiced comprehensively, KTA 1403, ''Management of Aging in Nuclear Power Plants'', was drafted and finalized in 2010. This publication first presents the context of AM with regard to German nuclear power plants, including references to national and international historical developments. Against this backdrop, the difference between management of aging and lifetime management is discussed next. This is followed by a description of the status of the AM process in nuclear power plants currently in operation, especially organizational plant-specific implementation. As a consequence of the decision by the German federal government to discontinue the peaceful use of nuclear power in Germany and the associated 13th amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of July 31, 2011, a considerable part of the German nuclear power plant park already lost its right of power operation. In this situation, aspects of AM are discussed for plants in the no-power, post-operation and residual operation phases. Finally, experience accumulated in plant-specific execution of the AM process on the basis of KTA 1403 is considered and summarized.

  19. Effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenak, I; Hormazabal, V; Yndestad, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish was investigated. Salmon containing residues of oxolinic acid and flumequine was boiled or baked in the oven. Samples of raw and cooked muscle, skin, and bone, as well as of the water in which the fish was boiled and juice from the baked fish, were analysed. Oxolinic acid and flumequine did not degrade at the temperatures reached when cooking the fish. However, fish muscle free from drug residues may be contaminated during boiling and baking due to leakage of the drug from reservoirs in the fish.

  20. Effect of Cooking on 14C-Chloropyrifos Residues in Stored Faba Beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of cooking on the amount and nature of 14 C-chloropyrifos residues in stored vicia faba beans was studied. faba beans treated with (ethyl-1- 14 C) chloropyrifos insecticide at a dose 15 and 45 mg insecticide/kg seeds and stored for 30 weeks had 50-54% of the actual applied doses inside the grains in the form of extractable and bound 14 C- chloropyrifos residues. Extractable residues in cooked beans included, in addition to the parent insecticide O-analogue, desethyl chloropyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro pyridinol, as main degradation products of 14 C-chloropyrifos

  1. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress of repaired weldment in surge nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang Young; Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    In the welding process, weldments usually include repair weld during the manufacturing process. Repair welds is supposed to cause strong tensile residual stress. Moreover weldments, usually made by Alloy 82/182, is susceptible to PWSCC. Therefore, mitigation of welding residual stress in weldments is important for reliable operating. PWOL is one of the methods for mitigation and verified for over twenty years. In this paper, residual stress distribution of repaired weldments and the effect of PWOL on mitigation is examined for surge nozzle.

  2. Beyond statin therapy: a review of the management of residual risk in diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2010-09-01

    Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol exhibit an independent, strong, continuous correlation with cardiovascular events. The effectiveness of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis is well-established. However, despite the lowering of LDL targets and the increased use of statins, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) continue to experience a higher proportion of adverse coronary artery disease events. This is as a result of an atherogenic dyslipidaemia, characterized by low levels of high-density lipoprotein and elevated plasma triglyceride concentrations, often with high levels of cholesterol-rich remnant particles. This article will review dyslipidaemia and its role in DM, and will discuss available treatment modalities that address residual cardiovascular risk in this disease.

  3. Management of Residual Neuromuscular Blockade Recovery: Age-Old Problem with a New Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Green

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neostigmine has been traditionally used as the agent of choice to reverse Neuromuscular Blockade (NMB after muscle paralysis during general anesthesia. However, the use of neostigmine has not been without untoward events. Sugammadex is a novel drug that selectively binds to aminosteroid nondepolarizing muscle relaxants and reverses even a deep level of NMB. Controversy exists regarding the optimal dose of sugammadex that is effective in reversing the NMB after the incomplete reversal with neostigmine and glycopyrrolate. We discuss a case where sugammadex reduced the time of the recovery from NMB in a patient who had incomplete antagonisms following adequate treatment with neostigmine, aiding timely extubation without persistent residual NMB, and hence prevented the requirement of postoperative ventilation and the improvement in patient care. More randomized control studies are needed in order to conclude the appropriate dose of sugammadex in cases of incomplete reversal.

  4. The effect of delignification process with alkaline peroxide on lactic acid production from furfural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Furfural residues produced from the furfural industry were investigated as a substrate for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. Alkaline peroxide was used for delignification of furfural residues to improve the final lactic acid concentration. The residue was treated with 1.3% to 1.7% hydrogen peroxide at 80 °C for 1 h with a substrate concentration of 3.33%. SSF of furfural residues with different delignification degrees were carried out to evaluate the effect of delignification degree on lactic acid production. Using corn hydrolysates/ furfural residues as substrates, SSF with different media were carried out to investigate the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria had a negative effect on cellulase, thus resulting in the reduction of enzyme activity. Lignin and nutrients slowed down the decreasing trend of enzyme activity. A higher delignification resulted in a slower fermentation rate and lower yield due to degradation products of lignin and the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. For the purpose of lactic acid production, a moderate delignification (furfural residues with the lignin content of 14.8% was optimum.

  5. The effect of Residual Stress on the Stress Intensity Factor of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Taek Ho

    2008-01-01

    As NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) gets aged, the importance of the pressure boundary integrity increases very much to those who are trying to operate their plant beyond its design life. Not long ago, Boric acid crystal was found at the RPV outlet nozzle of V.C. Summer plant during the visual examination in 2000. After this finding, non-destructive examination was taken to find out what's taken place. As a result of this examination, circumferential and axial cracks were found. With Metallurgical structure examination, it was shown that crack had been developed at the mid-point between Inco-alloy buttering and weld metal. It was turned out that high welding residual stress was the main cause of the cracking. Because of the through wall crack, nozzle and welding parts were replaced. Many other nuclear power plants experienced similar pressure boundary stress corrosion cracks (SCCs). KEPRI (Korea Electric Power Research Institute) has carried out research projects for managing and preventing these kinds of cracks in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The titles of these research projects are 'Development of Stress Corrosion Cracking Management Technology and Aging Monitor for NPP Main Components' and 'Development of Analysis Technology for Crack Management of Dissimilar Metal Weld'. Through these projects, residual stress measurement techniques have been exercised at various points in mock-up test specimens to simulate nuclear power plant dissimilar base metal and weldment residual stress. X-ray test and hole drilling method have been reviewed to measure residual stresses of the dissimilar metal welds. This paper shows some point of view in residual stress measurement. Fracture mechanics analysis has been performed to explain the importance of residual stress measurement in association with nuclear power plant safety

  6. Effective Public Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    Argues that public management differs from private management not just in degree but in quality, so that American business is an inappropriate analogy for evaluating public management. In particular, "purpose,""organization," and "people" have different meaning and significance in public agencies and private businesses. (JG)

  7. Electroacoustic isoelectric point determinations of bauxite refinery residues: different neutralization techniques and minor mineral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Tiago S S; Clark, Malcolm W; Comarmond, M Josick; Payne, Timothy E; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thorogood, Gordon J

    2012-08-14

    Bauxite refinery residue (BRR) is a highly caustic, iron hydroxide-rich byproduct from alumina production. Some chemical treatments of BRR reduce soluble alkalinity and lower residue pH (to values work shows that minor mineral components in complex mineral systems may have a disproportionate effect on the observable bulk IEP. Furthermore, this work shows the appropriateness of electroacoustic techniques in investigating samples with significant soluble mineral components (e.g., ANC).

  8. Effects of processing treatment on pesticide residues in fruits and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xuefei; Jiao Bining; Fu Chenmei; Qian Yongzhong; Wang Jing

    2008-01-01

    The influence of processing treatments on pesticide residues in fruits and their products was reviewed. The effects on pesticide residues and relative control treatments for each processing step, including peeling, washing, sterilization, juicing, clarification, filtration, drying and fermentation, were discussed, respectively. Meanwhile we analyzed the future development prospectin of this field, in order to provide some suggestions for commercial fruit industry and consumers' health. (authors)

  9. Effect of processing on residues of chlorpyrifos in stored corn and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, A.W.; Calumpang, S.M.F.; Gambalan, N.B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of processing on residues of chlorpyrifos in rice and corn was determined. Chlorpyrifos solution (0.1%) sprayed on jute sacks containing corn resulted in absorption of residues in kernel and cob up to six months. A similar trend was observed in rice. Radiotracer studies revealed very low levels of bound residues (0.2 - 0.8 mg/kg) present in rice only. The usual practice of washing rice and corn before cooking reduced chlorpyrifos residues as much as 57% to 100%. Residues in wash water declined with each washing. Cooking further reduced the residues of chlorpyrifos only when volatilization was possible. Chlorpyrifos appeared to be persistent. Cooking rice in plot with the lid on did not produce any substantial reduction in the chlorpyrifos content. The practice of storing rice and corn in the Philippines does not give rice to chlorpyrifos residues which may exceed the recommended daily intake of 0.01 mg/kg-bw. (Auth.) 13 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation response of (100) copper single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Li-na; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Wang, Cheng-biao

    2012-01-01

    Experimental measurements were used to investigate the effect of residual stress on the nanoindentation of (100) copper single crystal. Equi-biaxial tensile and compressive stresses were applied to the copper single crystal using a special designed apparatus. It was found that residual stresses greatly affected peak load, curvature of the loading curve, elastically recovered depth, residual depth, indentation work, pile-up amount and contact area. The Suresh and Giannakopoulos and Lee and Kwon methods were used to calculate the residual stresses from load-depth data and morphology observation of nanoindents using atomic force microscopy. Comparison of the obtained results with stress values from strain gage showed that the residual stresses analyzed from the Suresh and Giannakopoulos model agreed well with the applied stresses. -- Highlights: ► Residual stresses greatly affected various nanoindentation parameters. ► The contact area can be accurately measured from AFM observation. ► The residual stresses analyzed from the S and G model agreed well with applied stresses.

  11. Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianxi; Doherty, Jeffery; Zhao, Bin; Kinchla, Amanda J; Clark, John M; He, Lili

    2017-11-08

    Removal of pesticide residues from fresh produce is important to reduce pesticide exposure to humans. This study investigated the effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from apples. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were used to determine the effectiveness of different washing agents in removing pesticide residues. Surface pesticide residues were most effectively removed by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO 3 ) solution when compared to either tap water or Clorox bleach. Using a 10 mg/mL NaHCO 3 washing solution, it took 12 and 15 min to completely remove thiabendazole or phosmet surface residues, respectively, following a 24 h exposure to these pesticides, which were applied at a concentration of 125 ng/cm 2 . LC-MS/MS results showed, however, that 20% of applied thiabendazole and 4.4% of applied phosmet had penetrated into the apples following the 24 h exposure. Thiabendazole, a systemic pesticide, penetrated 4-fold deeper into the apple peel than did phosmet, a non-systemic pesticide, which led to more thiabendazole residues inside the apples, which could not be washed away using the NaHCO 3 washing solution. This study gives us the information that the standard postharvest washing method using Clorox bleach solution for 2 min is not an effective means to completely remove pesticide residues on the surface of apples. The NaHCO 3 method is more effective in removing surface pesticide residues on apples. In the presence of NaHCO 3 , thiabendazole and phosmet can degrade, which assists the physical removal force of washing. However, the NaHCO 3 method was not completely effective in removing residues that have penetrated into the apple peel. The overall effectiveness of the method to remove all pesticide residues diminished as pesticides penetrated deeper into the fruit. In practical application

  12. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added to feed mixture ... The interaction effects of RRO and ZnO did not result to a significant change in ... Therefore, the effects of RRO deteriorated the quality of meat by raising the ...

  13. The effect of tensioning and sectioning on residual stresses in aluminium AA7749 friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenkirch, J.; Steuwer, A.; Peel, M.; Richards, D.G.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction the residual stress distribution has been measured in a series of AA7449-W51 aluminium friction stir welds that had been tensioned to different loads during welding. By modifying the stress accumulation path, the application of a tensioning stress has reduced the tensile magnitude of the final residual weld stresses. In the present case the residual stresses were minimised when the applied load is ∼35% of the room temperature yield stress of the parent material. Subsequent sectioning of the weld into shorter test lengths, as might be necessary for weld testing, resulted in a progressive and significant relaxation of the residual stress field. The effect of tensioning on the weld component distortion also has been investigated

  14. Effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hiroko; Tawara, Mari; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy. Twenty-six patients who underwent excisional biopsy of a tumor or calcified lesion of the breast underwent gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI by the fat-saturated 2D fast spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequence (group 1), 24 patients by the spectral IR enhanced 3D fast gradient echo (Efgre3d) sequence (group 2). Pericicatricial residual cancer was confirmed histologically in 29 of the 50 patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI for residual cancer diagnosis was 66, 81, 72, 83 and 63%. A nodular, thick and discontinuous enhanced rim around the scar is indicative of a residual tumor. However, false-positive findings due to granulation or proliferative fibrocystic change remain limitations

  15. Effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Hiroko E-mail: hirokok@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Tawara, Mari; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing pericicatricial minimal residual breast cancer following excisional biopsy. Twenty-six patients who underwent excisional biopsy of a tumor or calcified lesion of the breast underwent gadolinium-enhanced dynamic MRI by the fat-saturated 2D fast spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) sequence (group 1), 24 patients by the spectral IR enhanced 3D fast gradient echo (Efgre3d) sequence (group 2). Pericicatricial residual cancer was confirmed histologically in 29 of the 50 patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI for residual cancer diagnosis was 66, 81, 72, 83 and 63%. A nodular, thick and discontinuous enhanced rim around the scar is indicative of a residual tumor. However, false-positive findings due to granulation or proliferative fibrocystic change remain limitations.

  16. The effects of lithographic residues and humidity on graphene field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    humidity at graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). While the exact means of humidity interacting with hydropho- bic graphene remains unknown, this work examines pristine and lithographic-process-applied graphene surfaces with surface ... temperature quantum Hall effect, linear electron dispersion at the vicinity of the ...

  17. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  18. A Thermodamage Strength Theoretical Model of Ceramic Materials Taking into Account the Effect of Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodamage strength theoretical model taking into account the effect of residual stress was established and applied to each temperature phase based on the study of effects of various physical mechanisms on the fracture strength of ultrahigh-temperature ceramics. The effects of SiC particle size, crack size, and SiC particle volume fraction on strength corresponding to different temperatures were studied in detail. This study showed that when flaw size is not large, the bigger SiC particle size results in the greater effect of tensile residual stress in the matrix grains on strength reduction, and this prediction coincides with experimental results; and the residual stress and the combined effort of particle size and crack size play important roles in controlling material strength.

  19. Sustainable waste management by production of activated carbon from agroforestry residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ntuli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry waste presents a problem for disposal and negatively impacts on the environment if left to rot or burn. The aim of this study was to reduce environmental problems associated with agroforestry waste by promoting the innovative use of such waste in the production of activated carbons (ACs using a low-cost production technique, and ultimately delivering more affordable water and effluent treatment adsorbents. Four varieties of ACs from four different agroforestry materials – pine (Pinus contorta cones (PC, Abies (Abies cilicica seeds (AS, maple (Acer ginnala seeds (MS and peach (Prunus persica stones (PS – were prepared by single-step steam pyrolysis and characterised. The raw materials were evaluated for AC yield while the respective ACs were evaluated on the basis of iodine number, phenol specific area, ash content, pH, moisture content and removal of metal ions, nitrates and sulphates from aqueous solution. The AC yields for PS, PC, AS and MS were found to be 23.0%, 18.0%, 17.8% and 14.6%, respectively. The yield for PS (23% is within the specified commercial limits of 20% to 40%. The phenol specific areas of the ACs ranged between 381 m2/g and 415 m2/g higher than the commercial lower limit (300 m2/g generally specified. The ACs also showed the capacity to remove heavy metal ions from their aqueous solutions. Removal of both nitrates and sulphates in raw water was greater than 50%. Although no quantitative analysis has been performed to date, it is envisaged that the production of AC from agroforestry wastes can contribute to the sustainable management of environmental pollution by these residues and the concomitant delivery of cheaper adsorbents.

  20. Proceedings of the 3. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids management conference[Manure, biosolids, and organic industrial/commercial residuals in land applications programs : improving beneficial reuse and protection of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The management of organic residuals in Canada is becoming more challenging and complex, both socially and politically. This conference provided a forum to exchange the latest information on technical legislative and public awareness issues associated with organic residuals and biosolids management in Canada. It was attended by producers, managers, practitioners and regulators from across Canada who discussed various initiatives regarding the production, management use and disposal of organic residuals including municipal wastewater treatment biosolids, animal manures and pulp and paper sludges. The sessions of the conference were entitled: biosolids management; quality issues; public perception and health issues; composting; treatment technologies; waste to energy; technology; and, land application. The conference featured 50 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  2. Residual effects of animal manures on physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of animal manures on chemical composition of silage produced from Panicum maximum (Ntchisi) two - years post application. The plots were established in June 2010 during this period, animal manures from cattle dung, swine waste, poultry droppings and small ...

  3. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified...

  4. Nonoperative options for management of residual stones after cholecystostomy in high-risk patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, David M.; Daye, S. S.; Lincer, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    Cholecystostomy is frequently performed to obtain control of sepsis in high risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Retained stones in the gallbladder may cause future clinical problems. We present two patients with cholecystostomy tubes managed non-operatively. A review of other reported methods for stone extraction or destruction is also presented. Knowledge of safe and effective techniques for removal of these stones, using minimally invasive techniques is useful to the general surgeon.

  5. Recognition and Survey the Productive Residues of the Curing Centers and Presenting the Management Methods. (The case study: the 7th zone of Karaj municipality)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Gohari Mokammel; sh. Sajedi; M. Mobasherie; N. Samkhaniany

    2016-01-01

    The high risk of residues of curing centre and extensive use of them endangered all over the world. According to the reports of the world health organization (WHO) 75-90% of productive residue of curing centre is usual kind and is out of danger and management of them is like the urban waste material. On the basis of this reports 10 to 25% (percent) of the mentioned residues are placed in the group of dangerous residues, and it needs a precise and wise management program. The aim o...

  6. Effects of fluoride residue on thermal stability in Cu/porous low-k interconnects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Ozaki, S.; Nakamura, T. [FUJITSU LABORATORIES Ltd., 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0197 (Japan)

    2014-06-19

    We have investigated the effects of fluoride residue on the thermal stability of a Cu/barrier metal (BM)/porous low-k film (k < 2.3) structure. We confirmed that the Cu agglomerated more on a BM/inter layer dielectric (ILD) with a fluoride residue. To consider the effect of fluoride residue on Cu agglomeration, the structural state at the Cu/BM interface was evaluated with a cross-section transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, the chemical bonding state at the Cu/BM interface was evaluated with the interface peeling-off method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, we confirmed the ionization of fluoride residue and oxidation of Cu with fluoride and moisture to clarify the effect of fluoride residue on Cu. Our experimental results indicated that the thermal stability in Cu/porous low-k interconnects was degraded by enhancement of Cu oxidation with fluoride ions diffusion as an oxidizing catalyst.

  7. Total effects of contact and residual exposure of bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin on the predatory mite Galendromus occidentalis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, Kelly A; Alifano, Jesse A; Zalom, Frank G

    2013-10-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are generally regarded as acutely toxic to predatory phytoseiid mites; however, persistence of hull split spray pyrethroid residues on almond trees and their effects on phytoseiids have not been quantified over time. Hull split, the separation of the almond hull along the suture, exposes the new crop nuts to infestation by Amyelois transitella (Walker) larvae, and is the preferred timing for insecticides applied for their control. Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is the most important phytoseiid biocontrol agent for web-spinning spider mites in California (USA) almond orchards, and the impact of bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin pyrethroid residue on their survival, fertility, and fecundity was determined. The total effects of direct contact with esfenvalerate, permethrin, bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin were also evaluated for comparison. The total effects (E) of direct contact treatments of the four pyrethroids ranged from 77.8 % for esfenvalerate to 98.8 % for bifenthrin. Both bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin twig residue would be considered harmful (IOBC class 4) following field application at hull split timing. Bifenthrin twig residue would be considered slightly harmful (IOBC class 2) for up to 3.5 months and harmless (IOBC class 1) after 6 months. λ-cyhalothrin residue would be considered moderately harmful (IOBC class 3) for up to 3.5 months following application and harmless (IOBC class 1) after 6 months. Bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin twig residue on treated trees significantly reduced G. occidentalis female survival for up to 6 months post-treatment, however total effects (E) classify these residues as harmless (IOBC class 1) after 6 months. Harmful effects of direct and residual exposure following application have implications for the use of these pyrethroids in an integrated mite management program for perennial crops.

  8. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for treating alkaline bauxite residue leachate: a 1-year field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Derek; Curtin, Teresa; Courtney, Ronan

    2017-03-01

    Increasing volumes of bauxite residues and their associated leachates represent a significant environmental challenge to the alumina industry. Constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential approach for leachate treatment, but there is limited data on field-scale applications. The research presented here provides preliminary evaluation of a purpose-built constructed wetland to buffer leachate from a bauxite residue disposal site in Ireland. Data collected over a 1-year period demonstrated that the pH of bauxite residue leachates could be effectively reduced from ca. pH 10.3 to 8.1 but was influenced by influent variability and temporal changes. The wetland was also effective in decreasing elemental loading, and sequential extractions suggested that the bulk of the sediment-bound metal inventory was in hard-to-leach phases. Elemental analysis of Phragmites australis showed that although vegetation displayed seasonal variation, no trace elements were at concentrations of concern.

  9. Fatigue life estimation of welded components considering welding residual stress relaxation and its mean stress effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Ho; Han, Jeong Woo; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue life of welded joints is sensitive to welding residual stress and complexity of their geometric shapes. To predict the fatigue life more reasonably, the effects of welding residual stress and its relaxation on their fatigue strengths should be considered quantitatively, which are often regarded to be equivalent to the effects of mean stresses by external loads. The hot-spot stress concept should be also adopted which can reduce the dependence of fatigue strengths for various welding details. Considering the factors mentioned above, a fatigue life prediction model using the modified Goodman's diagram was proposed. In this model, an equivalent stress was introduced which is composed of the mean stress based on the hot-spot stress concept and the relaxed welding residual stress. From the verification of the proposed model to real welding details, it is proved that this model can be applied to predict reasonably their fatigue lives

  10. Accounting for the residual stress effects on the creep deformation of channel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, Yu.N.; Platonov, P.A.; Ul'yanov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the first kind residual stresses arising in the walls of the zirconium base alloy fules in the process of fabrication on the RBMK type reactor channel tube creep is investigated. Models for calculation of the reactor component creep with account for the relaxation of residual stresses distributed by the wall thickness as well as the radiation and temperature fields are developed. On the basis of the analysis of the data obtained it is concluded that the effect of the residual stresses on the RBMK channel tube deformation for a long-term operation is negligible. But for the short-term fests the results can be noticeably distorted by this factor. The role of internal stresses can also manifest when determining the deformation of radiation elongation of the zirconium base alloy samples

  11. Intermolecular Modes between LH2 Bacteriochlorophylls and Protein Residues: The Effect on the Excitation Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, André; De Vico, Luca; Hansen, Thorsten

    2017-06-08

    Light-harvesting system 2 (LH2) executes the primary processes of photosynthesis in purple bacteria; photon absorption, and energy transportation to the reaction center. A detailed mechanistic insight into these operations is obscured by the complexity of the light-harvesting systems, particularly by the chromophore-environment interaction. In this work, we focus on the effects of the protein residues that are ligated to the bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) and construct potential energy surfaces of the ground and first optically excited state for the various BChl-residue systems where we in each case consider two degrees of freedom in the intermolecular region. We find that the excitation energies are only slightly affected by the considered modes. In addition, we see that axial ligands and hydrogen-bonded residues have opposite effects on both excitation energies and oscillator strengths by comparing to the isolated BChls. Our results indicate that only a small part of the chromophore-environment interaction can be associated with the intermolecular region between a BChl and an adjacent residue, but that it may be possible to selectively raise or lower the excitation energy at the axial and planar residue positions, respectively.

  12. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  13. The effect of residual ventricular septal defects on early clinical outcome: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, H.; Cheema, M.A.; Jalal, A.

    2000-01-01

    Residual ventricular septal defect (VSD)after repair of isolated VSD or Fallot's tetralogy is one of the main causes of morbidity and re-operations. In this paper we have presented the results of out initial experience regarding the management of this problem. The data consists of 71 patients (22 isolated VSD and 29 fallout's tetralogy) operate during January 1991 to July, 1993. The incidence of residual VSD as shown by color doppler study at the time of discharge from hospital and at three month's follow-up was 3 out of 60 patients(73%) and 12 out of to (20%) respectively. Six out of these 12 patients were NYHA class III-IV who underwent cardiac catheterization which revealed patch dehiscence in two patients and residual right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in four patients. The two patients, with patch dehiscence were reported successfully with very good outcome. Simple color doppler mapping tends to over-diagnose residual VSDs since it can pick up small haemodynamically insignificant leaks around stitches and needle holes which seal off in due course. The findings of color doppler should, therefore, be correlated with actual clinical outcome in order to proceed with further investigation and re-operation. (author)

  14. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  15. Effect of processing conditions on residual stress distributions by bead-on-plate welding after surface machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    Residual stress is important factor for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) that has been observed near the welded zone in nuclear power plants. Especially, surface residual stress is significant for SCC initiation. In the joining processes of pipes, butt welding is conducted after surface machining. Residual stress is generated by both processes, and residual stress distribution due to surface machining is varied by the subsequent butt welding. In previous paper, authors reported that residual stress distribution generated by bead on plate welding after surface machining has a local maximum residual stress near the weld metal. The local maximum residual stress shows approximately 900 MPa that exceeds the stress threshold for SCC initiation. Therefore, for the safety improvement of nuclear power plants, a study on the local maximum residual stress is important. In this study, the effect of surface machining and welding conditions on residual stress distribution generated by welding after surface machining was investigated. Surface machining using lathe machine and bead on plate welding with tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc under various conditions were conducted for plate specimens made of SUS316L. Then, residual stress distributions were measured by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). As a result, residual stress distributions have the local maximum residual stress near the weld metal in all specimens. The values of the local maximum residual stresses are almost the same. The location of the local maximum residual stress is varied by welding condition. It could be consider that the local maximum residual stress is generated by same generation mechanism as welding residual stress in surface machined layer that has high yield stress. (author)

  16. Effect of cooking on14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of cooking on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos in stored vicia faba beans was studied. The results indicated that over 50% of the dose originally present inside the grains (37 ppm), could be recovered in the aqueous extract of the cooked grains. Considerable portion of radioactivity (About 22%) was associated with the grains in a non-extractable from. Residues in cooked beans included, in addition to a small amount of the parent insecticide, desmethyl tetrachlorvinphos, mono methyl phosphate and dimethyl phosphate. The results obtained indicate that tetrachlorvinphos residues are not appreciably affected by cooking. 1 tab

  17. Effects of coffee processing residues on anaerobic microorganisms and corresponding digestion performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sossa, Juan Pablo; Murillo-Roos, Mariana; Uribe, Lidieth; Uribe-Lorio, Lorena; Marsh, Terence; Larsen, Niels; Chen, Rui; Miranda, Alberto; Solís, Kattia; Rodriguez, Werner; Kirk, Dana; Liao, Wei

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of different coffee processing residues on the anaerobic microbes and corresponding digestion performance. The results elucidated that mucilage-rich feed enhanced the accumulation of methanogens, which consequently led to better digestion performance of biogas production. Fifty percent more methane and up to 3 times more net energy (heat and electricity) output were achieved by the digestion of the mucilage-rich feed (M3). The microbial community and statistical analyses further elucidated that different residues in the feed had significant impact on microbial distribution and correspondingly influenced the digestion performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of oil refining processes on 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos residues in soya bean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, M.; Zayed, S.M.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Crude soya bean oil extracted from grains treated with 14 C-tetrachlorvinphos and stored for 30 weeks was subjected to different refining processes. The effect of commercial refining processes, namely: alkali treatment, bleaching, winterization and deodorization on the nature and magnitude of the originally present residues was investigated. A high percentage (52%) of the residues was eliminated during alkali neutralization. No potentially toxic materials were detected among the identified degradation products. The obtained data showed that the ultimate degradation products were dimethyl phosphate and mono methyl phosphate.2 tab.,2 scheme

  19. Effect of residual ascorbate on determination of nitrite in commercial cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J B; Doerr, R C; Gates, R

    1984-01-01

    Residual ascorbate in cured meat slurries results in different amounts of pigment being produced from different Griess reagent combinations. The phenomenon was used to study residual ascorbate in commercial cured meat products which had a variety of textures, acidities, moisture and meat content, fat, homogeneity, initial nitrite, and processing conditions. Diluting and heating the samples according to the AOAC procedure did not completely eliminate the ascorbate interference, but making the sample alkaline did. Determining nitrite separately in supernate and precipitate from the first dilution showed the effect of heating to be the elimination of interferences and solubilization or extraction of nitrite from the precipitate.

  20. The effect of residual stresses induced by prestraining on fatigue life of notched specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeler, R.; Ozel, A.; Kaymaz, I.; Totik, Y.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of tensile prestraining-induced residual stress on the fatigue life of notched steel parts was investigated. The study was performed on AISI 4140 steel. Rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out on semicircular notched specimens with different notch radii in the as-quenched and tempered conditions. Metallography of the specimens was performed by means of light optical microscopy. The finite-element method was used to evaluate the residual stress distribution near the notch region. Fatigue tests revealed fatigue life improvement for notched specimens, which changes depending on the notch radii and applied stress. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the fracture surfaces of the specimens.

  1. Reclamation of Herb Residues Using Probiotics and Their Therapeutic Effect on Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanjing Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residues from herbal medicine processing in pharmaceutical plants create a large amount of waste (herb residues, which consists mainly of environmental pollution and medicinal waste. In order to resolve this problem, probiotics of Bacillus (B. subtilis, Aspergillus (A. oryzae, and Lactobacillus (L. plantarum M3 are selected to reuse herb residue of Jianweixiaoshi tablets (JT, and an antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD mouse model was established to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the herb residue fermentation supernatant. Our results indicated that the fermentation supernatant had scavenged 77.8% of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 78% of O2•−, 36.7% of •OH, 39% of Fe2+ chelation, and 716 mg/L reducing power. The inhibition zones for Salmonella (S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, Shigella (Sh. flexneri, Escherichia (E. coli, Listeria (L. monocytogenes, Sh. dysenteriae 301, and Staphylococcus (S. aureus were 17, 14, 19, 18, 20, 19, and 20 mm, respectively. The in vivo results indicated that the fermentation supernatant resulted in a high diarrhea inhibition rate (56%, p<0.05, greatly enhanced the disruption of bacterial diversity caused by antibiotics, and restored the dominant position of L. johnsonii in the treatment and recovery stages. Therefore, the combination of the herb residue and probiotics suggests a potential to explore conversion of these materials for the possible development of therapies for AAD.

  2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive cake residue as an expansive soil stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Zalihe; Tawfiq, Salma

    2006-08-01

    The quantity of the by-product olive cake residue generated in most parts of the Mediterranean countries continues to increase and expected to double in amount within 10 15 years. This increase intensifies the problems associated with the disposal of this by-product. Olive cake residue has a potential for use as a soil stabilizer and large volumes can be beneficially used. This study is directed toward determining if olive cake residue can be utilized to increase the strength and stability of expansive soils which constitute a costly natural hazard to lightweight structures on shallow foundations. A series of laboratory tests using engineering properties, such as Atterberg limits, moisture-density relationship (compaction), swell, unconfined compressive strength were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the olive cake residue as a soil stabilizer. Test results indicate that an addition of only 3% burned olive waste into the soil causes a reduction in plasticity, volume change and an increase in the unconfined compressive strength. However, it was observed that the presence of burned olive waste in the soil greater than 3% caused an increase in the compressibility and a decrease in the unconfined compressive strength. Test results indicate that the use of olive waste in soil stabilization gives greater benefits to the environment than simply disposing of the by-product, olive cake residue.

  3. Effects of the magnesium oxide thin films' microstructures on the residual stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Li-jun, E-mail: helijun4@126.com [The School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Li-yan [Electronic Information and Networking Research Institute, Collaborative Innovation Center for Information Communication Technology, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Chen, Wei-Zhong [The School of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Liu, Xing-zhao [The State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Microelectronics and Solid-State Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The MgO thin films are deposited at various inclined angles. The morphology investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows the MgO thin films deposited at high inclined angles have columnar grain. The relationships between full width high maximum (FWHM) of ω-scan, residual stresses and the inclined angles are studied. The results show the smallest FWHM of MgO (002) is 4.968°, the residual stress of MgO thin films is compressive stress, and the residual stress of MgO thin films deposited at the inclined angle of 55° is the smallest. So the microstructures of MgO thin films fabricated by the oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique effectively control the residual stresses. - Highlights: • MgO thin films are deposited by oblique angle deposition technique. • The FWHMs of MgO is the smallest at the inclined angle of 55°. • Residual stress of MgO is the smallest at the inclined angle of 55°.

  4. Toxic effects of ethylene oxide residues on bovine embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, G R; Wang, S; Liu, Y; Bunch, T D

    1996-04-15

    The potential of ethylene oxide (EtO) residues in exposed plastic tissue culture dishes to adversely affect bovine oocyte maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development was monitored. In experiment 1, the effects of aeration time and aeration combined with washing of EtO-gassed culture dishes on the extent of residual toxicity were investigated. There was no cleavage in any treatment in which oocytes were matured and fertilized in dishes exposed to EtO. EtO residues caused functional degeneration of oocytes even when culture dishes were aerated for more than 12 days post EtO-exposure and repeatedly washed. In experiment 2, the residual toxicity of EtO gas on in vitro maturation (IVM), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) were evaluated. Cleavage rate significantly decreased and post-cleavage development was retarded in ova maintained in dishes treated with EtO either during IVM or IVF. EtO residues may be more detrimental to spermatozoa than to oocytes which may have been the primary cause of fertilization failure during IVF.

  5. Effect of cryogenic treatment on distribution of residual stress in case carburized En 353 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensely, A.; Venkatesh, S.; Mohan Lal, D.; Nagarajan, G.; Rajadurai, A.; Junik, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The effect of cryogenic treatment on the distribution of residual stress in the case carburized steel (En 353) was studied using X-ray diffraction technique. Two types of cryogenic treatment: shallow cryogenic treatment (193 K) and deep cryogenic treatment (77 K) were adopted, as a supplement to conventional heat treatment. The amount of retained austenite in conventionally heat-treated, shallow cryogenically treated and deep cryogenically treated samples was found to be 28%, 22% and 14%, respectively. The conventionally heat-treated, shallow cryogenically treated and deep cryogenically treated samples in untempered condition had a surface residual stress of -125 MPa, -115 MPa and -235 MPa, respectively. After tempering the conventionally heat-treated, shallow cryogenically treated and deep cryogenically treated samples had a surface residual stress of -150 MPa, -80 MPa and -80 MPa, respectively. A comparative study of the three treatments revealed that there was an increase in the compressive residual stress in steel that was subjected to cryogenic treatment prior to tempering. The experimental investigation revealed that deep cryogenically treated steel when subjected to tempering has undergone a reduction in compressive residual stress. Such stress relieving behaviour was mainly due to the increased precipitation of fine carbides in specimens subjected to DCT with tempering

  6. CO2 storage in depleted gas reservoirs: A study on the effect of residual gas saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are recognized as the most promising candidate for carbon dioxide storage. Primary gas production followed by injection of carbon dioxide after depletion is the strategy adopted for secondary gas recovery and storage practices. This strategy, however, depends on the injection strategy, reservoir characteristics and operational parameters. There have been many studies to-date discussing critical factors influencing the storage performance in depleted gas reservoirs while little attention was given to the effect of residual gas. In this paper, an attempt was made to highlight the importance of residual gas on the capacity, injectivity, reservoir pressurization, and trapping mechanisms of storage sites through the use of numerical simulation. The results obtained indicated that the storage performance is proportionally linked to the amount of residual gas in the medium and reservoirs with low residual fluids are a better choice for storage purposes. Therefore, it would be wise to perform the secondary recovery before storage in order to have the least amount of residual gas in the medium. Although the results of this study are useful to screen depleted gas reservoirs for the storage purpose, more studies are required to confirm the finding presented in this paper.

  7. Effects of organic additives on preferred plane and residual stress of copper electroplated on polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Heesan

    2010-01-01

    Effects of the preferred plane and the residual stress of an electroplated copper on polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 3-N,N-dimethylaminodithiocarbamoyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (DPS) were studied. Polyimide film coated with sputtered copper was used as a substrate. Preferred plane, residual stress, and impurity level in the electroplated copper were measured by an X-ray diffractometry (XRD), calculated by Stoney's equation, and analyzed with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SMS), respectively. With increasing the concentration of PEG, the preferred plane changed in the order (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) while with increasing the concentration of DPS, the preferred plane changed in the order (1 1 0), (1 0 0), and (1 1 1). Based on the modified preferred growth model, where the amount of additive adsorbed on a plane is newly assumed to be proportional to its surface energy in vacuum, the predicted preferred planes correspond to the experimental results. The residual stress of the electroplated copper depended on the type of additive as well as its concentration but was independent of the preferred plane. For example, PEG and DPS induced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the electroplated copper, respectively, and their magnitudes increased with their concentrations. The dependency of residual stress on the additives was explained by the incorporated additives into the electroplated copper.

  8. The Effect of Kaffir Lime Leaves Distillation Residue Oleoresin Concentration on Active Paper Packaging Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawiji; Utami, R.; Ulum, S.; Khasanah, L. U.; Manuhara, G. J.; Atmaka, W.

    2018-03-01

    Oleoresin of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue still contains some active compounds such as Citronellal, β-Citronellol, and Linalool which potential to incorporated on the active paper packaging. The purposes of this study were to determine the effect of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin concentration on the physical characteristics, sensory characteristics, and antimicrobial activity of the active paper packaging incorporated with kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin and to determine the functional groups of active paper packaging. The concentration of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin were varied at 0%, 2%, 4% and 6%. The result showed that the addition of kaffir lime leaves distillation residue oleoresin increased the thickness and moisture content of the paper and decreased the tensile strengths and folding endurances of active paper packaging. The microbial inhibition tends to increase along with the higher oleoresin concentration addition. Aromatic CH group were found at a wavelength of 897.90 cm-1 of on paper packaging with 2% oleoresin indicated as functional aromatic functional group allegedly obtained from the kaffir lime leaves oleoresin.

  9. Thermodynamic effects of replacements of Pro residues in helix interiors of maltose-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, R S; Lingaraju, G M; Bacchawat, Kiran; Surolia, Avadhesha; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2003-12-01

    Introduction of Pro residues into helix interiors results in protein destabilization. It is currently unclear if the converse substitution (i.e., replacement of Pro residues that naturally occur in helix interiors would be stabilizing). Maltose-binding protein is a large 370-amino acid protein that contains 21 Pro residues. Of these, three nonconserved residues (P48, P133, and P159) occur at helix interiors. Each of the residues was replaced with Ala and Ser. Stabilities were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a function of pH and by isothermal urea denaturation studies as a function of temperature. The P48S and P48A mutants were found to be marginally more stable than the wild-type protein. In the pH range of 5-9, there is an average increase in T(m) values of P48A and P48S of 0.4 degrees C and 0.2 degrees C, respectively, relative to the wild-type protein. The other mutants are less stable than the wild type. Analysis of the effects of such Pro substitutions in MBP and in three other proteins studied to date suggests that substitutions are more likely to be stabilizing if the carbonyl group i-3 or i-4 to the mutation site is not hydrogen bonded in the wild-type protein. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White clover grows naturally all over the Himalayan regions including the hilly areas of the state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of white clover residues alone or in combination with phosphorus (P) fertilizer on maize (Zea mays L.) yield, nutrient uptake and ...

  11. Cumulative effects of white clover residues on the changes in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... The residual effects of white clover on soil properties indicated a significant increase in saturation percentage (17–23%) and .... determined by leaching the soil with KCl followed by extraction of ...... accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. ... of the Final Workshop of the Farming System Integrated Pest.

  12. A new method for weakening the combined effect of residual errors on multibeam bathymetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhu; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Aixue

    2014-12-01

    Multibeam bathymetric system (MBS) has been widely applied in the marine surveying for providing high-resolution seabed topography. However, some factors degrade the precision of bathymetry, including the sound velocity, the vessel attitude, the misalignment angle of the transducer and so on. Although these factors have been corrected strictly in bathymetric data processing, the final bathymetric result is still affected by their residual errors. In deep water, the result usually cannot meet the requirements of high-precision seabed topography. The combined effect of these residual errors is systematic, and it's difficult to separate and weaken the effect using traditional single-error correction methods. Therefore, the paper puts forward a new method for weakening the effect of residual errors based on the frequency-spectrum characteristics of seabed topography and multibeam bathymetric data. Four steps, namely the separation of the low-frequency and the high-frequency part of bathymetric data, the reconstruction of the trend of actual seabed topography, the merging of the actual trend and the extracted microtopography, and the accuracy evaluation, are involved in the method. Experiment results prove that the proposed method could weaken the combined effect of residual errors on multibeam bathymetric data and efficiently improve the accuracy of the final post-processing results. We suggest that the method should be widely applied to MBS data processing in deep water.

  13. Effects of advanced laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of H13 tool steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojan, Karel; Ocelík, Václav; Ganev, Nikolaj; Němeček, Stanislav; Čapek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the effects of laser processing on the microstructure and residual stresses of laser cladded H13 tool steel on the classical construct steel S355 substrate. This research paper concludes that in this case of laser cladding, phase transformation and not shrinkage

  14. Effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to evaluate the effect of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. residues on mungbean (Vigna mungo L.Hepper) local cultivar. An experiment [using randomized complete block design (RCBD) design] with three replications was conducted in 2010. The trial comprised of four treatments such as mulching, incorporation into ...

  15. Effects of material non-linearity on the residual stresses in a dendritic silicon crystal ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sujit K.; Utku, Senol

    1990-01-01

    Thermal stresses developed in a dendritic silicon crystal ribbon have been shown to cause plastic deformation and residual stresses in the ribbon. This paper presents an implementation of a numerical model proposed for thermoelastoplastic behavior of a material. The model has been used to study the effects of plasticity of silicon on the residual stresses. The material properties required to implement this model are all assumed, and the response of the material to the variations in these assumed parameters of the constitutive law and in the finite element mesh is investigated. The steady state growth process is observed to be periodic with nonzero residual stresses. Numerical difficulties are also encountered in the computer solution process, resulting in sharp jumps and large oscillations in the stress responses.

  16. Hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ graft procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Jesper; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Pedersen, Erik Morre

    2011-01-01

    lower limb ischemia were obtained. Direct measurements of proximal and distal blood pressures in the graft were taken and simultaneous determinations of volume blood flow proximally and distally in the graft with ultrasound transit time technique before and after closure of residual fistulae were made......The objective was to study the intraoperative hemodynamic effects of closure of residual arteriovenous fistulae during in situ saphenous vein graft procedures. Data on 60 residual arteriovenous fistulae in nine patients (five men) with a median age of 74 years (range 64-83 years) with critical....... Closure of a fistula with blood flow around or below 100 mL/min did not increase distal outflow, whereas closure of fistulae with higher blood flow resulted in unpredictable changes in distal outflow. Only fistulae with a blood flow above approximately 100 mL/min may be of hemodynamic significance....

  17. Pesticide residue concentration in soil following conventional and Low-Input Crop Management in a Mediterranean agro-ecosystem, in Central Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasali, Helen, E-mail: e.karassali@bpi.gr [Laboratory of Chemical Control of Pesticides, Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta Street, Kifissia, 14561 Athens (Greece); Marousopoulou, Anna [Laboratory of Chemical Control of Pesticides, Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta Street, Kifissia, 14561 Athens (Greece); Machera, Kyriaki, E-mail: k.machera@bpi.gr [Laboratory of Pesticides Toxicology, Department of Pesticides Control and Phytopharmacy, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 St. Delta Street, Kifissia, 14561 Athens (Greece)

    2016-01-15

    The present study was focused on the comparative evaluation of pesticide residues, determined in soil samples from Kopaida region, Greece before and after the implementation of Low-Input Crop Management (LCM) protocols. LCM has been suggested as an environmental friendly plant protection approach to be applied on crops growing in vulnerable to pollution ecosystems, with special focus on the site specific problems. In the case of the specific pilot area, the vulnerability was mainly related to the pollution of water bodies from agrochemicals attributed to diffuse pollution primarily from herbicides and secondarily from insecticides. A total of sixty-six soil samples, were collected and analyzed during a three-year monitoring study and the results of the determined pesticide residues were considered for the impact evaluation of applied plant protection methodology. The LCM was developed and applied in the main crops growing in the pilot area i.e. cotton, maize and industrial tomato. Herbicides active ingredients such as ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, S-metolachlor and fluometuron were detected in most samples at various concentrations. Ethalfluralin, which was the active ingredient present in the majority of the samples ranged from 0.01 μg g{sup −1} to 0.26 μg g{sup −1} soil dry weight. However, the amount of herbicides measured after the implementation of LCM for two cropping periods, was reduced by more than 75% in all cases. The method of analysis was based on the simultaneous extraction of the target compounds by mechanical shaking, followed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometric and gas chromatography electron capture (LC–MS/MS and GC–ECD) analysis. - Highlights: • Effect of Low Input Crop Management (LCM) in a vulnerable to pollution ecosystem. • LCM resulted in herbicide residues reduction in the range of 75 and 100% in all cases. • Conventional practices resulted in increased herbicide residues up to 18%. • Anthropogenic

  18. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of

  19. Thermal Aging Effects on Residual Stress and Residual Strain Distribution on Heat Affected Zone of Alloy 600 in Dissimilar Metal Weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Junhyuk; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Dissimilar metal weld (DMW), consisting of Alloy 600, Alloy 182, and A508 Gr.3, has been widely used as a joining material of the reactor pressure vessel penetration nozzle and the steam generator tubing for pressurized water reactors (PWR) because of its good mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Residual tensile stress is mainly nominated as a cause of SCC in light water reactors by IAEA report. So, to relax the residual stress, post-weld heat treatment is required after manufacturing process such as welding. However, thermal treatment has a great effect on the microstructure and the chromium depletion profile on Alloy 600, so called sensitization. By this reason, HAZ on Alloy 600 is critical to crack. According to G.A. Young et al., Crack growth rates (CGR) in the Alloy 600 HAZ were about 30 times faster than those in the Alloy 600 base metal tested under the same conditions. And according to Z.P. Lu et al., CGR in the Alloy 600 HAZ can be more than 20 times higher than that in its base metal. There are some methods to measure the exact value of residual stress on the material surface. The most common way is X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The principle of XRD is based on lattice strains and depends on the changes in the spacing of the atomic planes in material. And there is a computer simulation method to estimate residual stress distribution which is called ANSYS. This study was conducted to investigate how thermal aging affects residual stress and residual strain distribution of Alloy 600 HAZ. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. According to preceding researches and this study, both the relaxation of residual stress and the change of residual strain follow as similar way, spreading out from concentrated region. The result of Vickers micro-hardness tester shows that tensile residual stresses are distributed broadly on the material aged by 15 years. Therefore, HT400{sub Y}15 material is weakest state for PWSCC. The

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions and controls as influenced by tillage and crop residue management strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutegi, James; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2010-01-01

    (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Each of these tillage treatments further varied in respect to whether the resulting plot crop residues were retained (+Res) or removed (-Res). Sampling took place from autumn 2007 to the end of spring 2008. Overall N2O emissions were 27 and 26% lower in DD and RT...

  1. Management of Biogas spent slurry for hastening the composting of agro residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Geeta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for energy and the fertilizers are ever increasing. Organic farming has many advantages looking to the environment pollution, unproductive soil, less yields etc. By installation of a biogas plant serves both the purposes of meeting the fuel as well as obtaining manures. The organic manures need to be added in bulk to meet the nutrient demands of the crop as it is not in concentrated form like chemical fertilizers. Hence, biogas spent slurry is the best alternate for hastening the compost preparation of abundantly available crop residues as well as obtaining enriched compost as conventional method takes long time. Moreover, slurry is composed of major nutrients besides enzymes and a rich microflora. Based on the preliminary results, the present study was conducted at farmer’s field to know whether slurry could be used for degradation of agro residues. One ton of crop residues that included banana waste, sunflower and maize waste, leaf litter of horticultural crops were inoculated individually with 60 L of spent slurry along with consortia of degrading fungi and P-solubilising bacteria. After a retention period of 60 days, nutrients were analysed. The cultures along with slurry indicated 1.5 - 1.96% N with reduction in C:N ratio between 1.6 - 1.82. The micronutrients also increased. Thus, it was concluded that efficient use of spent slurry can be made besides utilising the crop residues and the product for organic cultivation.

  2. Norepinephrine transporter function and desipramine: residual drug effects versus short-term regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Gregory A; Jia, Weihong; Li, Jing; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Mandela, Prashant; Pan, Jun

    2005-04-30

    Previous research has shown that exposure of norepinephrine transporter (NET)-expressing cells to desipramine (DMI) downregulates the norepinephrine transporter, although changes in the several transporter parameters do not demonstrate the same time course. Exposures to desipramine for effects of residual desipramine on norepinephrine transporter binding and uptake were re-evaluated following exposures of PC12 cells to desipramine using different methods to remove residual drug. Using a method that minimizes residual drug, exposure of intact PC12 cells to desipramine for 4h had no effect on uptake capacity or [(3)H]nisoxetine binding to the norepinephrine transporter, while exposures for > or =16 h reduced uptake capacity. Desipramine-induced reductions in binding to the transporter required >24 h or greater periods of desipramine exposure. This study confirms that uptake capacity of the norepinephrine transporter is reduced earlier than changes in radioligand binding, but with a different time course than originally shown. Special pre-incubation procedures are required to abolish effects of residual transporter inhibitor when studying inhibitor-induced transporter regulation.

  3. Effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber packing on deformation of metal-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Suresh, S.

    1993-01-01

    The combined effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber spatial distribution on the deformation of a 6061 aluminum alloy containing a fixed concentration unidirectional boron fibers have been analyzed using detailed finite element models. The geometrical structure includes perfectly periodic, uniformly space fiber arrangements in square and hexagonal cells, as well as different cells in which either 30 or 60 fibers are randomly placed in the ductile matrix. The model involves an elastic-plastic matrix, elastic fibers, and mechanically bonded interfaces. The results indicate that both fiber packing and thermal residual stresses can have a significant effect on the stress-strain characteristics of the composite. The thermal residual stresses cause pronounced matrix yielding which also influences the apparent overall stiffness of the composite during the initial stages of subsequent far-field loading along the axial and transverse direction. Furthermore, the thermal residual stresses apparently elevate the flow stress of the composite during transverse tension. Such effects can be traced back to the level of constraint imposed on the matrix by local fiber spacing. The implications of the present results to the processing of the composites are also briefly addressed

  4. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  5. Effect of pretreatment on biomass residue structure and the application of pyrolysed and composted biomass residues in soilless culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Suo

    Full Text Available The changes in the structural characteristics of biomass residues during pyrolysis and composting were investigated. The biomass residues particles were prepared by pyrolysing at temperatures ranging from 350 to 400. For soilless production of the ornamental plant Anthurium andraeanum, pure sphagnum peat moss (P has traditionally been used as the growing medium. This use of P must be reduced, however, because P is an expensive and nonrenewable resource. The current study investigated the use of biomass residues as substitutes for P in A. andraeanum production. Plants were grown for 15 months in 10 soilless media that contained different proportions of pyrolysed corn cobs (PC, composted corn cobs (C, pyrolysed garden wastes (PG, and P. Although the media altered the plant nutrient content, A. andraeanum growth, development, and yield were similar with media consisting of 50% P+50% PC, 50% P+35% PC+15% PG, and 100% P. This finding indicates that, when pyrolysed, organic wastes, which are otherwise an environmental problem, can be used to reduce the requirement for peat in the soilless culture of A. andraeanum.

  6. Effect of constraint condition and internal medium on residual stress under overlay welding for dissimilar metal welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jin Weon

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, residual stress of dissimilar metal weld propagates cracks in the weld metal which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Overlay welding is a process widely used to mitigate residual stress replacing inside tensile stress by compression stress. However, according to the result of this study the effect of overlay welding on residual stress depends on both internal medium and constraint condition. The purpose of this study is to maximize the positive effect of overlay welding by finite element analyses

  7. Effectiveness of stress release geometries on reducing residual stress in electroforming metal microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang; Du, Liqun; Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Heqing; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Weitai

    2018-04-01

    Micro electroforming, as a mature micromachining technology, is widely used to fabricate metal microdevices in micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). However, large residual stress in the local positions of the micro electroforming layer often leads to non-uniform residual stress distributions, dimension accuracy defects and reliability issues during fabrication of the metal microdevice. To solve this problem, a novel design method of presetting stress release geometries in the topological structure of the metal microstructure is proposed in this paper. First, the effect of stress release geometries (circular shape, annular groove shape and rivet shape) on the residual stress in the metal microstructure was investigated by finite element modeling (FEM) analysis. Two evaluation parameters, stress concentration factor K T and stress non-uniformity factor δ were calculated. The simulation results show that presetting stress release geometries can effectively reduce and homogenize the residual stress in the metal microstructures were measured metal microstructure. By combined use with stress release geometries of annular groove shape and rivet shape, the stress concentration factor K T and the stress non-uniformity factor δ both decreased at a maximum of 49% and 53%, respectively. Meanwhile, the average residual stress σ avg decreased at a maximum of 20% from  -292.4 MPa to  -232.6 MPa. Then, micro electroforming experiments were carried out corresponding to the simulation models. The residual stresses in the metal microstructures were measured by micro Raman spectroscopy (MRS) method. The results of the experiment proved that the stress non-uniformity factor δ and the average residual stress σ avg also decreased at a maximum with the combination use of annular groove shape and rivet shape stress release geometries, which is in agreement with the results of FEM analysis. The stress non-uniformity factor δ has a maximum decrease of 49% and the

  8. Effects of food processing on pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikotlhaile, B M; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in food production to increase food security despite the fact that they can have negative health effects on consumers. Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables; both raw and processed. One of the most common routes of pesticide exposure in consumers is via food consumption. Most foods are consumed after passing through various culinary and processing treatments. A few literature reviews have indicated the general trend of reduction or concentration of pesticide residues by certain methods of food processing for a particular active ingredient. However, no review has focused on combining the obtained results from different studies on different active ingredients with differences in experimental designs, analysts and analysis equipment. In this paper, we present a meta-analysis of response ratios as a possible method of combining and quantifying effects of food processing on pesticide residue levels. Reduction of residue levels was indicated by blanching, boiling, canning, frying, juicing, peeling and washing of fruits and vegetables with an average response ratio ranging from 0.10 to 0.82. Baking, boiling, canning and juicing indicated both reduction and increases for the 95% and 99.5% confidence intervals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effective sorption of atrazine by biochar colloids and residues derived from different pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Gao, Yan; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Li, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Ying

    2018-04-26

    Biochar has attracted much attention, which owns many environmental and agronomic benefits, including carbon sequestration, improvement of soil quality, and immobilization of environmental contaminants. Biochar has been also investigated as an effective sorbent in recent publications. Generally, biochar particles can be divided into colloids and residues according to particle sizes, while understanding of adsorption capacities towards organic pollutants in each section is largely unknown, representing a critical knowledge gap in evaluations on the effectiveness of biochar for water treatment application. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method are used to examine the structures and surface properties of biochar colloids and residues derived from corn straws prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures. Also, their roles in atrazine (a typical organic pollutant) removal are investigated by batch adsorption experiments and fitted by different kinetic and thermodynamic models, respectively. The adsorption capacities of biochar colloids are much more than those of residues, resulting from the colloids containing abundant oxygen functional groups and mineral substances, and the adsorption capacities of biochar colloids and residues increase with the increase of pyrolysis temperatures. The highest adsorption performance of 139.33 mg g -1 can be obtained in biochar colloids prepared at 700 °C, suggesting the important functions of biochar colloids in the application of atrazine removal by biochar.

  10. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  11. Effects of residual stress on fatigue strength of small diameter welded pipe joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Hattori, Takahiro; Nomoto, Toshiharu; Iida, Kunihiro; Sato, Masanobu

    1996-01-01

    A power plant consists of many welded components, therefore, it is essential in establishing the reliability of the power plant to maintain the reliability of all welded components. The fatigue failure caused by mechanical vibrations of small diameter welded joints, which is represented by socket welded joints, is one of the major causes of trouble for the welded parts of the power plant. Here, bending fatigue tests were conducted to investigate the fatigue strength of small diameter socket welded pipe joints. In the most cases of large diameter socket joints, a fatigue crack started from the root of the fillet weld though the stress amplitude at the root was smaller than that at the toe of fillet weld. Additionally, the fatigue strength was affected by the weld bead sequence. The residual stress was considered to be one of the important parameters governing fatigue strength, therefore, its effects were investigated. In several types of pipe joints, the local stress and residual stress distributions were calculated by finite element analysis. The residual stresses were compressive at the toe and tensile at the root of the socket welded joints. Based on these results, the effects of residual stresses on the fatigue strength are discussed for small diameter welded pipe joints in the present work

  12. Mid-term and scaling effects of forest residue mulching on post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W; Martins, Martinho António Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2016-12-15

    Mulching is an effective post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatment. Experiments with forest residue mulch have demonstrated that it increased ground cover to 70% and reduced runoff and soil loss at small spatial scales and for short post-fire periods. However, no studies have systematically assessed the joint effects of scale, time since burning, and mulching on runoff, soil loss, and organic matter loss. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of scale and forest residue mulch using 0.25m 2 micro-plots and 100m 2 slope-scale plots in a burnt eucalypt plantation in central Portugal. We assessed the underlying processes involved in the post-fire hydrologic and erosive responses, particularly the effects of soil moisture and soil water repellency. Runoff amount in the micro-plots was more than ten-fold the runoff in the larger slope-scale plots in the first year and decreased to eight-fold in the third post-fire year. Soil losses in the micro-plots were initially about twice the values in the slope-scale plots and this ratio increased over time. The mulch greatly reduced the cumulative soil loss measured in the untreated slope-scale plots (616gm -2 ) by 91% during the five post-fire years. The implications are that applying forest residue mulch immediately after a wildfire can reduce soil losses at spatial scales of interest to land managers throughout the expected post-fire window of disturbance, and that mulching resulted in a substantial relative gain in soil organic matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of radiation on the function of the residual pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Irie, Goro

    1987-01-01

    For patients with carcinomas of the bile duct and the pancreas, a pancreatoduodenectomy is generally the first choise of treatment. In our institute, the residual pancreas after surgery is transplanted into the abdominal wall in order to prevent diabetes mellites. We irradiated the residual pancreas postoperatively with a dosage of 15 to 43 Gy in order to inhibit the exocrine function. We then removed the drainage catheter from the residual pancreas. In the treatment, the endocrine function can be preserved. With respect to the radiation effect on the exocrine function, the amount of pancreatic secretion showed a transient increase in the first few days after the start of the irradiation, followed by a mild decrease. The serum amylase decreased immediatelly after the start of irradiation and increased sequentially during long-term observations. The amylase in the pancreatic juice showed a remarkable decrease immediatelly after the start of irradiation, and this decrease was maintained during long-term observations (The minimum level was observed from the dosage of 20 to 30 Gy). In order to analyse the radiation effect on the endocrine function, 50 g OGTTs were performed before and after irradiation in thirteen patients. In two of the thirteen patients, the results of the tests showed a new diabetic pattern after irradiation, which required insulin in one patient. It was concluded from our study that irradiation to the residual pancreas with in the dosage of 15 to 43 Gy the catheters in the residual pancreas could be removed in fourteen of fifteen patients without any unfavorable effect. (author)

  14. Effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened waterglass-containing moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a preliminary research of the effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened moulding sands, containing sodium waterglass. Strength was determined at ambient temperature, on cylindrical specimens baked in an oven. Moulding sands for examinations were based on high-silica sand with addition of 2.5 % of non-modified, domestic-made waterglass grade 145. The prepared standard cylindrical specimens were hardened using the innovative microwave heating process and next baked for 30 minutes at temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C. Strength parameters of the specimens were determined on the specimens cooled- down to ambient temperature. The obtained results were compared with literature data to evaluate the effect of the applied hardening method and of the special additive on residual strength as a function of baking temperature. A favourable effect was found of both the innovative heating process and the applied bentonite addition.

  15. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  16. Effect of Elevated Temperature on the Residual Properties of Quartzite, Granite and Basalt Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, A.; Shariq, M.; Alam, M. Masroor; Ahmad, T.; Beg, A.

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, experimental investigations have been carried out to determine the effect of elevated temperature on the residual properties of quartzite, granite and basalt aggregate concrete mixes. Ultrasonic pulse velocity and unstressed residual compressive strength tests on cube specimens have been conducted at ambient and after single heating-cooling cycle of elevated temperature ranging from 200 to 600 °C. The relationship between ultrasonic pulse velocity and residual compressive strength of all concrete mixes have been developed. Scanning electron microscopy was also carried out to study micro structure of quartzite, granite and basalt aggregate concrete subjected to single heating-cooling cycle of elevated temperature. The results show that the residual compressive strength of quartzite aggregate concrete has been found higher than granite and basalt aggregate concrete at ambient and at all temperatures. It has also been found that the loss of strength in concrete is due to the development of micro-cracks result in failure of cement matrix and coarse aggregate bond. Further, the basalt aggregate concrete has been observed lower strength due to low affinity with Portland cements ascribed to its ferro-magnesium rich mineral composition.

  17. Effects of hydrated lime on radionuclides stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J; Snyder, Michelle M V; Bowden, Mark E; Triplett, Mark B; Buck, Edgar C

    2017-10-01

    Chemical stabilization of tank residual waste is part of a Hanford Site tank closure strategy to reduce overall risk levels to human health and the environment. In this study, a set of column leaching experiments using tank C-104 residual waste were conducted to evaluate the leachability of uranium (U) and technetium (Tc) where grout and hydrated lime were applied as chemical stabilizing agents. The experiments were designed to simulate future scenarios where meteoric water infiltrates through the vadose zones into the interior of the tank filled with layers of grout or hydrated lime, and then contacts the residual waste. Effluent concentrations of U and Tc were monitored and compared among three different packing columns (waste only, waste + grout, and waste + grout + hydrated lime). Geochemical modeling of the effluent compositions was conducted to determine saturation indices of uranium solid phases that could control the solubility of uranium. The results indicate that addition of hydrated lime strongly stabilized the uranium through transforming uranium to a highly insoluble calcium uranate (CaUO 4 ) or similar phase, whereas no significant stabilization effect of grout or hydrated lime was observed on Tc leachability. The result implies that hydrated lime could be a great candidate for stabilizing Hanford tank residual wastes where uranium is one of the main concerns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The effect of gamma irradiation on in vitro digestible energy of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the effect of gamma irradiation on total energy, dry organic matter digestibility and on digestible energy of organic matter for some agricultural residues (maize straw, lentils straw, cottonwood, residues of apple-tree pruning, olive-cake first and second treatment). Sample were irradiated at 0, 50 and 100 KGy. Total energy was estimated by calorimeter. Digestibility was estimated in vitro by the method of Tilly and Terry (1963). Two sheep with rumen fistula were used as rumen liquor donating animals. Irradiation resulted in increasing the digestion of organic and dry matter and also the digestible energy of organic matter in all residues used except lentils straw and olive-cake first treatment. The increase in digestible energy values of organic matter (kJ) at dose of 100 KGy were: 155, 105, 71 and 25 for residue of apple-tree pruning, maize straw, cottonwood and olive-cake second treatment, respectively. (author).28 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Effects of microstructure and residual stress on fatigue crack growth of stainless steel narrow gap welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Changheui; Cho, Pyung-Yeon; Kim, Minu; Oh, Seung-Jin; Yang, Jun-Seog

    2010-01-01

    The effects of weld microstructure and residual stress distribution on the fatigue crack growth rate of stainless steel narrow gap welds were investigated. Stainless steel pipes were joined by the automated narrow gap welding process typical to nuclear piping systems. The weld fusion zone showed cellular-dendritic structures with ferrite islands in an austenitic matrix. Residual stress analysis showed large tensile stress in the inner-weld region and compressive stress in the middle of the weld. Tensile properties and the fatigue crack growth rate were measured along and across the weld thickness direction. Tensile tests showed higher strength in the weld fusion zone and the heat affected zone compared to the base metal. Within the weld fusion zone, strength was greater in the inner weld than outer weld region. Fatigue crack growth rates were several times greater in the inner weld than the outer weld region. The spatial variation of the mechanical properties is discussed in view of weld microstructure, especially dendrite orientation, and in view of the residual stress variation within the weld fusion zone. It is thought that the higher crack growth rate in the inner-weld region could be related to the large tensile residual stress despite the tortuous fatigue crack growth path.

  20. Impact of Intrafraction and Residual Interfraction Effect on Prostate Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Shikui; Deville, Curtiland; Tochner, Zelig; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; McDonough, James; Vapiwala, Neha; Both, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the impact of interplay effect and plan robustness associated with intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion for pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with weekly verification CTs underwent pencil beam scanning with the bilateral single-field uniform dose (SFUD) modality. A typical field had 10-15 energy layers and 500-1000 spots. According to their treatment logs, each layer delivery time was <1 s, with average time to change layers of approximately 8 s. Real-time intrafraction prostate motion was determined from our previously reported prospective study using Calypso beacon transponders. Prostate motion and beam delivering sequence of the worst-case scenario patient were synchronized to calculate the “true” dose received by the prostate. The intrafraction effect was examined by applying the worst-case scenario prostate motion on the planning CT, and the residual interfraction effect was examined on the basis of weekly CT scans. The resultant dose variation of target and critical structures was examined to evaluate the interplay effect. Results: The clinical target volume (CTV) coverage was degraded because of both effects. The CTV D 99 (percentage dose to 99% of the CTV) varied up to 10% relative to the initial plan in individual fractions. However, over the entire course of treatment the total dose degradation of D 99 was 2%-3%, with a standard deviation of <2%. Absolute differences between SFUD, intensity modulate proton therapy, and one-field-per-day SFUD plans were small. The intrafraction effect dominated over the residual interfraction effect for CTV coverage. Mean dose to the anterior rectal wall increased approximately 10% because of combined residual interfraction and intrafraction effects, the interfraction effect being dominant. Conclusions: Both intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion degrade CTV coverage within a clinically

  1. Impact of Intrafraction and Residual Interfraction Effect on Prostate Proton Pencil Beam Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Shikui, E-mail: shktang@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey (United States); Deville, Curtiland; Tochner, Zelig [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); McDonough, James; Vapiwala, Neha; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate the impact of interplay effect and plan robustness associated with intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion for pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients with weekly verification CTs underwent pencil beam scanning with the bilateral single-field uniform dose (SFUD) modality. A typical field had 10-15 energy layers and 500-1000 spots. According to their treatment logs, each layer delivery time was <1 s, with average time to change layers of approximately 8 s. Real-time intrafraction prostate motion was determined from our previously reported prospective study using Calypso beacon transponders. Prostate motion and beam delivering sequence of the worst-case scenario patient were synchronized to calculate the “true” dose received by the prostate. The intrafraction effect was examined by applying the worst-case scenario prostate motion on the planning CT, and the residual interfraction effect was examined on the basis of weekly CT scans. The resultant dose variation of target and critical structures was examined to evaluate the interplay effect. Results: The clinical target volume (CTV) coverage was degraded because of both effects. The CTV D{sub 99} (percentage dose to 99% of the CTV) varied up to 10% relative to the initial plan in individual fractions. However, over the entire course of treatment the total dose degradation of D{sub 99} was 2%-3%, with a standard deviation of <2%. Absolute differences between SFUD, intensity modulate proton therapy, and one-field-per-day SFUD plans were small. The intrafraction effect dominated over the residual interfraction effect for CTV coverage. Mean dose to the anterior rectal wall increased approximately 10% because of combined residual interfraction and intrafraction effects, the interfraction effect being dominant. Conclusions: Both intrafraction and residual interfraction prostate motion degrade CTV coverage within a

  2. Effect of substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on residual stress in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Dapei

    2015-01-01

    A thermal-mechanical coupling model was developed based on thermal-elastic- plastic theory according the special process of plasma spraying Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating upon Ti-6Al-4V substrate. On the one hand, the classical Fourier transient heat conduction equation was modified by introducing the effect item of deformation on temperature, on the other hand, the Johnson-Cook model, suitable for high temperature and high strain rate conditions, was used as constitutive equation after considering temperature softening effect, strain hardening effect and strain rate reinforcement effect. Based on the above coupling model, the residual stress field within the HA coating was simulated by using finite element method (FEM). Meanwhile, the substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on the influence of residual stress components were calculated, respectively. The failure modes of coating were also preliminary analyzed. In addition, in order to verify the reliability of calculation, the material removal measurement technique was applied to determine the residual stress of HA coating near the interface. Some important conclusions are obtained. (paper)

  3. Pest Prevalence and Evaluation of Community-Wide Integrated Pest Management for Reducing Cockroach Infestations and Indoor Insecticide Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Buckley, Brian; Yang, Ill; Wang, Desen; Eiden, Amanda L; Cooper, Richard

    2018-04-02

    Pest infestations in residential buildings are common, but community-wide pest survey data are lacking. Frequent insecticide applications for controlling indoor pests leave insecticide residues and pose potential health risks to residents. In this study, a community-wide pest survey was carried out in a housing complex consisting of 258 units in 40 buildings in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It was immediately followed by implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in all the cockroach-infested apartments and two bed bug apartments with the goal of eliminating pest infestations, reducing pyrethroid residues, and increasing resident satisfaction with pest control services. The IPM-treated apartments were revisited and treated biweekly or monthly for 7 mo. Initial inspection found the top three pests and their infestation rates to be as follows: German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L. [Blattodea: Blattellidae]), 28%; rodents, 11%; and bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. [Hemiptera: Cimicidae]), 8%. Floor wipe samples were collected in the kitchens and bedrooms of 20 apartments for pyrethroid residue analysis before the IPM implementation; 17 of the 20 apartments were resampled again at 7 mo. The IPM program reduced cockroach counts per apartment by 88% at 7 wk after initial treatment. At 7 mo, 85% of the cockroach infestations found in the initial survey were eliminated. The average number of pyrethroids detected decreased significantly from 6 ± 1 (mean ± SEM) and 5 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 and 3 ± 1 in the kitchens and bedrooms, respectively. The average concentrations of targeted pyrethroids residue also decreased significantly in the kitchens and bedrooms.

  4. Estimation of average causal effect using the restricted mean residual lifetime as effect measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    with respect to their survival times. In observational studies where the factor of interest is not randomized, covariate adjustment is needed to take into account imbalances in confounding factors. In this article, we develop an estimator for the average causal treatment difference using the restricted mean...... residual lifetime as target parameter. We account for confounding factors using the Aalen additive hazards model. Large sample property of the proposed estimator is established and simulation studies are conducted in order to assess small sample performance of the resulting estimator. The method is also......Although mean residual lifetime is often of interest in biomedical studies, restricted mean residual lifetime must be considered in order to accommodate censoring. Differences in the restricted mean residual lifetime can be used as an appropriate quantity for comparing different treatment groups...

  5. Numerical analysis of drilling hole work-hardening effects in hole-drilling residual stress measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2008-11-01

    The hole-drilling strain gage method is an effective semi-destructive technique for determining residual stresses in the component. As a mechanical technique, a work-hardening layer will be formed on the surface of the hole after drilling, and affect the strain relaxation. By increasing Young's modulus of the material near the hole, the work-hardening layer is simplified as a heterogeneous annulus. As an example, two finite rectangular plates submitted to different initial stresses are treated, and the relieved strains are measured by finite element simulation. The accuracy of the measurement is estimated by comparing the simulated residual stresses with the given initial ones. The results are shown for various hardness of work-hardening layer. The influence of the relative position of the gages compared with the thickness of the work-hardening layer, and the effect of the ratio of hole diameter to work-hardening layer thickness are analyzed as well.

  6. Modeling the residual effects and threshold saturation of training: a case study of Olympic swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellard, Philippe; Avalos, Marta; Millet, Gregoire; Lacoste, Lucien; Barale, Frederic; Chatard, Jean-Claude

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to model the residual effects of training on the swimming performance and to compare a model that includes threshold saturation (MM) with the Banister model (BM). Seven Olympic swimmers were studied over a period of 4 +/- 2 years. For 3 training loads (low-intensity w(LIT), high-intensity w(HIT), and strength training w(ST)), 3 residual training effects were determined: short-term (STE) during the taper phase (i.e., 3 weeks before the performance [weeks 0, 1, and 2]), intermediate-term (ITE) during the intensity phase (weeks 3, 4, and 5), and long-term (LTE) during the volume phase (weeks 6, 7, and 8). ITE and LTE were positive for w(HIT) and w(LIT), respectively (p measures indicated that MM compares favorably with BM. Identifying individual training thresholds may help individualize the distribution of training loads.

  7. The Management of Social Phobia Ýn Residual-Type Schizophrenia with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Þimþek Kaygusuz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Having negative symptoms is the basic feature of residual-type schizophrenia and there is a direct proportion between the neurocognitive impairments associated with negative symptoms. Among the approaches used for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, cognitive behaviour therapy is the one with the most evidence of efficacy. Cognitive behaviour therapy is considered to be beneficial for the residual symptoms after drug treatment. The social phobia leads among the anxiety disorders accompanying schizophrenia. According to the cognitive model, the impairment of social performance increases the severity of social phobia. The leading factor of this vicious circle is that the patients pay attention selectively to such cases in order to find evidence for their thoughts and beliefs that they are going to be evaluated negatively. In this paper, the cognitive behavioural therapy and formulation carried out with a patient, who has been followed for a long time with the diagnosis of residual-type schizophrenia and social phobia is reported. The purpose of the treatment is to interfere with the impaired functionality of the patient through cognitive and behavioural techniques by dealing with the medical treatment-resistant symptoms. To this end, firstly coping mechanisms are examined through the identification of avoidance and security providers, and then, the patient’s automatic thoughts and false beliefs are discussed depending on the cognitive perspective. The main part of the treatment has been completed by carrying out various investigations in order to increase the patients’ social performance via applying behavioural techniques. As a result, false beliefs are the indicators of the relationship between cognitive inability and negative symptoms and related to social functioning. By addressing these beliefs through cognitive behavioural therapy, the necessity of increasing the patient’s social activities and the relationship between social

  8. EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Panachuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  9. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Lara Cabezas, W.A.R.; Coleti, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15 N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. The Effect of Residual Stress on the Electromechanical Behavior of Electrostatic Microactuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Hsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work simulates the nonlinear electromechanical behavior of different electrostatic microactuators. It applies the differential quadrature method, Hamilton's principle, and Wilson-θ integration method to derive the equations of motion of electrostatic microactuators and find a solution to these equations. Nonlinear equation difficulties are overcome by using the differential quadrature method. The stresses of electrostatic actuators are determined, and the residual stress effects of electrostatic microactuators are simulated.

  11. Assessing the Effect of Prometryn Soil Residue on Soil Microbial Biomass and Different Crops using Bioassay Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi alebrahim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbicides are the most widely used of chemical pesticides for agricultural production and landscape management. The environmental risk of herbicides should be evaluated near sites of application, even though basic ecotoxicological tests have been conducted before they can be registered for marketing. For example, triazine herbicides, which are photosynthetic PSII herbicide that considered only slightly or moderately toxic to many susceptible plants, soil microorganisms, mammals and humans, however, concerns have arisen because this herbicide are members of a class claimed to be carcinogenic, or may affect the development as reproductive toxins. For this reason, most reliable evidence is needed to test these claims and investigate their ecological effects. Prometryn is a herbicide belongs to triazine family that may leave residual activity in the soil for extended periods, causing injury and yield reduction of susceptible soil microorganisms and crops in rotation. Compared with other methods, the rapidity of response, sensitivity, high level of precision, simple process and easy operation are the advantages of bioassay methods for the routine monitoring of biologically available photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides present in agricultural soils. Materials and Methods: A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in order to study the sensitivity of 4 different crops to prometryn soil residue at the College of Agricultural Sciences, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran in 2014. Experimental type was completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Treatments included 4 different crops (lettuce, barley, rapeseed and beet and prometryn simulated concentrations residues in soil (0.0033, 0.0166, 0.033, 0.066, 0.1 and 0.166 mg. kg-1soil. 15 cm diameter pots were filled with a modified soil and 10 of seeds of crops were planted in 5 regular positions. The plants were thinned to five plants per pot

  12. The Effect of Stochastically Varying Creep Parameters on Residual Stresses in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Constituent properties, along with volume fraction, have a first order effect on the microscale fields within a composite material and influence the macroscopic response. Therefore, there is a need to assess the significance of stochastic variation in the constituent properties of composites at the higher scales. The effect of variability in the parameters controlling the time-dependent behavior, in a unidirectional SCS-6 SiC fiber-reinforced RBSN matrix composite lamina, on the residual stresses induced during processing is investigated numerically. The generalized method of cells micromechanics theory is utilized to model the ceramic matrix composite lamina using a repeating unit cell. The primary creep phases of the constituents are approximated using a Norton-Bailey, steady state, power law creep model. The effect of residual stresses on the proportional limit stress and strain to failure of the composite is demonstrated. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using a normal distribution for the power law parameters and the resulting residual stress distributions were predicted.

  13. Effect of corn residue harvest method with ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on performance of growing calves and fiber digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T M; Bondurant, R G; Jolly-Breithaupt, M L; Gramkow, J L; Klopfenstein, T J; MacDonald, J C

    2017-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of corn residue harvest method on animal performance and diet digestibility. Experiment 1 was designed as a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments using 60 individually fed crossbred steers (280 kg [SD 32] initial BW; = 12). Factors were the corn residue harvest method (high-stem and conventional) and supplemental RUP at 2 concentrations (0 and 3.3% diet DM). A third harvest method (low-stem) was also evaluated, but only in diets containing supplemental RUP at 3.3% diet DM because of limitations in the amount of available low-stem residue. Therefore, the 3 harvest methods were compared only in diets containing supplemental RUP. In Exp. 2, 9 crossbred wethers were blocked by BW (42.4 kg [SD 7] initial BW) and randomly assigned to diets containing corn residue harvested 1 of 3 ways (low-stem, high-stem, and conventional). In Exp. 1, steers fed the low-stem residue diet had greater ADG compared with the steers fed conventionally harvested corn residue ( = 0.03; 0.78 vs. 0.63 kg), whereas steers fed high-stem residue were intermediate ( > 0.17; 0.69 kg), not differing from either conventional or low-stem residues. Results from in vitro OM digestibility suggest that low-stem residue had the greatest ( RUP content (40% of CP) and RUP digestibility (60%) among the 3 residues ( ≥ 0.35). No interactions were observed between harvest method and the addition of RUP ( ≥ 0.12). The addition of RUP tended to result in improved ADG (0.66 ± 0.07 vs. 0.58 ± 0.07 for supplemental RUP and no RUP, respectively; = 0.08) and G:F (0.116 ± 0.006 vs. 0.095 ± 0.020 for supplemental RUP and no RUP, respectively; = 0.02) compared with similar diets without the additional RUP. In Exp. 2, low-stem residue had greater DM and OM digestibility and DE ( < 0.01) than high-stem and conventional residues, which did not differ ( ≥ 0.63). Low-stem residue also had the greatest NDF digestibility (NDFD; < 0.01), whereas high-stem residue had greater

  14. Characterization of biomass residues and their amendment effects on water sorption and nutrient leaching in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Letian; Tong, Zhaohui; Liu, Guodong; Li, Yuncong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of two types of biomass residues (fermentation residues from a bioethanol process, FB; brown mill residues from a papermaking process, BM) as amendments for a sandy soil. The characteristics of these residues including specific surface areas, morphologies and nutrient sorption capacity were measured. The effects of biorefinery residues on water and nutrient retention were investigated in terms of different particle sizes and loadings. The results indicated that bio-based wastes FB and BM were able to significantly improve water and nutrient retention of sandy soil. The residues with larger surface areas had better water and nutrient retention capability. Specifically, in the addition of 10% loading, FB and BM was able to improve water retention by approximately 150% and 300%, while reduce 99% of ammonium and phosphate concentration in the leachate compare to the soil control, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of preemptive weld overlay sequence on residual stress distribution for dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hong Yeol; Song, Tae Kwang; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation method which arrest crack. An overlay weld sued in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). PWOL was good for distribution of residual stress of Dissimilar Metal Weld(DMW) by previous research. Because range of overlay welding is wide relatively, residual stress distribution on PWR is affected by welding sequence. In order to examine the effect of welding sequence, PWOL was applied to a specific DMW of KORI nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, the welding direction that from nozzle to pipe is better good for residual stress distribution on PWR.

  16. Effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation at 200 C in a welded joint austenitic stainless steel - ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahouane, A.I.; Gauthier, J.P.; Petrequin, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue resistance of heterogeneous welded joints between austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels is evaluated for reactor components and more particularly effect of residual stress on fatigue crack propagation in a heterogeneous welded joint. Residual stress is measured by the hole method in which a hole is drilled through the center of a strain gage glued the surface of the materials. In the non uniform stress field a transmissibility function is used for residual stress calculation. High compression residual stress in the ferritic metal near the interface ferritic steel/weld slow down fatigue crack propagation. 5 tabs., 15 figs., 19 refs [fr

  17. Effect of preemptive weld overlay sequence on residual stress distribution for dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hong Yeol; Song, Tae Kwang; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2008-01-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation method which arrest crack. An overlay weld sued in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). PWOL was good for distribution of residual stress of Dissimilar Metal Weld(DMW) by previous research. Because range of overlay welding is wide relatively, residual stress distribution on PWR is affected by welding sequence. In order to examine the effect of welding sequence, PWOL was applied to a specific DMW of KORI nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, the welding direction that from nozzle to pipe is better good for residual stress distribution on PWR

  18. Effective management development and the middle manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielder, J A; Woodman, P G.T.

    1985-03-01

    The authors discuss the middle manager in this theory of management development. In the authors' view, most of the attempts to develop managers in the past have concentrated on education and training activities. In their opinion, learning through experience should be emphasized. People making the transition to a new managerial role should be able to change three aspects of the way they view themselves: skills, attitudes, and behavior. The authors then examine the 'tools' available in the learning process and discuss the common forms of 'structural support': appraisal and counselling schemes, succession programs, record systems, etc. In conclusion of the theory side, the authors note that management development is the responsibility of the managers, and managerial talent is best developed by actually managing.

  19. The effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Genyuan; Wang Huaguo; Qi Mengwen; Wang Fujun; Zhou Changjiu

    1994-01-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with 14 C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with 14 C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit

  20. The effect of commercial processing procedures on {sup 14}C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genyuan, Peng; Huaguo, Wang; Mengwen, Qi; Fujun, Wang; Changjiu, Zhou [Laboratory for the Application of Nuclear Techniques, Beijing Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    1994-06-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with {sup 14}C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with {sup 14}C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit.

  1. Responses of Pea (Pisum sativum Growth and Yield to Residual Effects of Organic and Urea Fertilizers from Previous Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manure in organic farming and long-term mineralization may lead to residual effects on the succeeding crop. So, residual effects of combined cattle manure and urea fertilizer of previous crop (black cumin on growth and yield of pea were examined in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included of  cattle manure (CM, urea (U, three ratios of CM+U full dose application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and three ratios of CM+U split application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2, and unfertilized control to previous crop (black cumin in 2012. Pea planted without any fertilizer in 2013. There was no significant difference between control and residual of urea treatment for some parameters including dry matter in flowering stage, plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, plant height, yield components, grain yield and biological yield of pea. Biological and grain yields were greater under both residual of cattle manure treatment and integrated treatments compared to residual of urea treatment. The highest grain yield (4000 kg ha-1 was observed in residual of CM:U full dosed application treatment, to the extent that grain yield in this treatment indicated a 1.5-fold increase in comparison with residual of urea treatment. The highest biological yield (8325 kg ha-1 was obtained in residual of CM treatment, though it was not significant different from that of residual of CM:U (1:2 treatments. In general, although residual of urea fertilizer did not leave a notable effect on pea production, but production of this crop relying on residual of cattle manure deems effective to lowering of fertilization cost and ameliorating environmental contaminations.

  2. Improving productivity through more effective time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edwin; Pulich, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Effective time management has become increasingly important for managers as they seek to accomplish objectives in today's organizations, which have been restructured for efficiency while employing fewer people. Managers can improve their ability to manage time effectively by examining their attitudes toward time, analyzing time-wasting behaviors, and developing better time management skills. Managers can improve their performance and promotion potential with more effective time utilization. Strategies for improving time management skills are presented.

  3. Effects of thinning, residue mastication, and prescribed fire on soil and nutrient budgets in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of thinning followed by residue mastication (THIN), prescribed fire (BURN), and thinning plus residue mastication plus burning (T+B) on nutrient budgets and resin-based (plant root simulator [PRS] probe) measurements of soil nutrient availability in a mixed-conifer forest were measured. ...

  4. The effects of forest residual debris disposal on perennial grass emergence, growth, and survival in a ponderosa pine ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin J. Law; Peter F. Kolb

    2007-01-01

    Soil surface conditions can have profound effects on plant seedling emergence and subsequent seedling survival. To test the hypothesis that different soil-surface treatments with logging residue affect range grass seedling emergence and survival, 6 alternative forest-residual treatments were established in the summer of 1998 following thinning of mature trees from...

  5. The effect of heat treatment on the magnitude and composition of residual gas in sealed silica glass ampoules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, W.; Szofran, F. R.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    The residual gas pressure and composition in sealed silica glass ampoules as a function of different treatment procedures has been investigated. The dependence of the residual gas on the outgassing and annealing parameters has been determined. The effects of the fused silica brand, of the ampoule fabrication, and of post-outgassing procedures have been evaluated.

  6. Release time of residual oxygen after dental bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide: effect of a catalase-based neutralizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasso, Bárbara; Salomone, Paloma; Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Pozzobon, Roselaine Terezinha

    2016-01-01

    This article assessed the effect of a catalase-based agent on residual oxygen (O2) release from teeth exposed to 35% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The use of the catalase-based neutralizer agent for 2-3 minutes was able to release residual O2 5 days after exposure to a 35% H2O2-based bleaching gel.

  7. Effect of torrefaction conditions on greenhouse crop residue: Optimization of conditions to upgrade solid characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iáñez-Rodríguez, Irene; Martín-Lara, María Ángeles; Blázquez, Gabriel; Pérez, Antonio; Calero, Mónica

    2017-11-01

    This work investigated the possibility of using a greenhouse crop waste as a fuel, since it is an abundant residue in the Mediterranean area of Spain. The residue is mainly composed by biomass with a little quantity of plastic. The physical and chemical characteristics of the biomass were determined by elemental analysis, proximate analysis, FT-IR, FE-SEM and thermogravimetry. Additionally, a torrefaction process was carried out as a pre-treatment to improve the energy properties of the biomass material. The optimal conditions (time and temperature) of torrefaction were found to be 263°C and 15min using the gain and loss method. Further studies were carried out with the sample prepared with the nearest conditions to the optimal in order to determine the effect of the plastic fraction in the characteristics and torrefaction process of the waste studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabpai, S.; Charerntanyarak, L.; Siri, B.; Moore, M.R.; Noller, Barry N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

  9. Petroleum residue upgrading with dispersed catalysts: Part 2. Effect of operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panariti, N.; Del Bianco, A.; Del Piero, G. [ENITECNOLOGIE S.p.A, Via Maritano 26, 20097 San Donato Mil (Italy); Marchionna, M. [SNAMPROGETTI S.p.A, Via Maritano 26, 20097 San Donato Mil (Italy); Carniti, P. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dip. Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica, Via Celoria 20, Milan (Italy)

    2000-12-04

    The hydrotreatment of a petroleum residue in the presence of dispersed molybdenite was carried out within a wide range of operating conditions and catalyst loading. The effect of reaction severity as well as of molybdenum concentration on product distribution and quality was studied. Based on the experimental results, a simplified reaction scheme was proposed. The hydroprocessing of the residue was described in terms of the competition between two reactions: the direct conversion of the feedstock to distillate and coke, and the catalytic hydrogenation. Compared to thermal conditions, the presence of dispersed molybdenite controls very well coke formation; however, a trend of increasing formation of solids was observed at high catalyst concentrations. The overall upgrading of the feedstock requires significant amounts of molybdenum as well as relatively high hydrogen pressure.

  10. Effect of annealing induced residual stress on the resonance frequency of SiO2 microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, effect of residual stress, induced due to annealing of SiO2 microcantilevers (MCs) on their resonance frequency is studied. SiO2MCs of various dimensions were fabricated using direct laser writer & wet chemical etching method and were annealed at 800 °C in oxygen environment, post release. The residual stress was estimated from the deflection profile of the MCs measured using 3D optical microscope, before and after annealing. Resonance frequency of the MCs was measured using nano-vibration analyzer and was found to change after annealing. Further the frequency shift was found to depend on the MC dimensions. This is attributed to the large stress gradients induced by annealing and associated stiffness changes.

  11. Effects on residual stresses of aluminum alloy LC4 by laser shock processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-kang; Lu, Jin-zhong; Kong, De-jun; Yao, Hui-xue; Yang, Chao-jun

    2007-12-01

    The influences of processing parameters on laser-induced shock waves in metal components are discussed and analyzed. The effects of different parameters of laser shock processing (LSP) on residual stress of aerospace aluminum alloy LC4 were investigated. LSP was performed by using an Nd: glass phosphate laser with 23 ns pulse width and up to ~45 J pulse energy at power densities above GW/mm -2. Special attention is paid to the residual stresses from laser shock processing. Modification of microstructure, surface morphology by laser shock processing is also discussed. Results to date indicate that laser shock processing has great potential as a means of improving the mechanical performance of components.

  12. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-01-01

    Waste incineration can be considered a robust technology for energy recovery from mixed waste. Modern incinerators are generally able to maintain relatively stable performance, but changes in waste input and furnace operation may affect emissions. This study investigated how inorganic air emissions...... including ‘as-large-as-possible’ changes in furnace operation (oxygen levels, air supply and burnout level) only using normal MSW as input. The experiments showed that effects from the added waste materials were significant in relation to: air emissions (in particular As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb), element transfer...... coefficients, and residue composition (As, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Zn). Changes in furnace operation could not be directly linked to changes in emissions and residues. The results outlined important elements in waste which should be addressed in relation to waste incinerator performance. Likely...

  13. Effects of location, thermal stress and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, J.L.; Cohen, L.M.; Besuner, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (K 1 ) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions both with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis, is employed to compute K 1 values from the uncracked stress distribution. For each type of loading K 1 values are given for cracks at 15 nozzle locations and for 6 crack depths. Reasonable agreement is noted between calculated and previously published pressure-induced K 1 values. Comparisons are made to determine the effect on K 1 of crack location, thermal stress and residual stress, as compared with pressure stress. For the thermal transient it is shown that K 1 for small crack depths is maximised early in the transient, while K 1 for large cracks is maximised later under steady state conditions. Computation should, therefore, be made for several transient time points and the maximum K 1 for a given crack depth should be used for design analysis. It is concluded that the effects on K 1 of location, thermal stresses and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evaluate without advanced numerical procedures. The utilised combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated and endorsed. (author)

  14. The effects of location, thermal stress, and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.; Cohen, L.M.; McLean, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (Ksub(I)) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure, and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis, is employed to compute Ksub(I) values from the uncracked structure's stress distribution. For each type of loading Ksub(I) values are given for cracks at 15 nozzle locations and for six crack depths. Reasonable agreement is noted between calculated and previously published pressure-induced Ksub(I) values. Comparisons are made to determine the effect on Ksub(I) of crack location, thermal stress, and residual stress as compared to pressure stress. For the thermal transient it is shown that Ksub(I) for small crack depths is maximized early in the transient while Ksub(I) for large cracks is maximized later, under steady state conditions. Ksub(I) computations should, therefore, be made for several transient time points and the maximum Ksub(I) for a given crack depth should be used for design analysis. It is concluded that the effects on Ksub(I) of location, thermal stresses, and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evalute without advanced numerical procedures. The utilized combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated

  15. MANAGEMENT OF RESIDUAL REFRACTIVE ERROR AFTER CATARACT PHACOEMULSIFICATION. PART 2. INTRAOCULAR APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Pershin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents an  analysis  of the  literature  data  on  the  methods of surgical  correction of residual  refractive  error after cataract phacoemulsification. Keratorefractive and intraocular approaches are  considered in details.  A comparison of the  efficacy and  safet y  of different groups   of methods on  the  example  of comparative studies is given.  Historically earlier  keratorefractive methods (laser  vision correction with LASIK and  PRK techniques on intact  eyes,  LASIK after  implantation  of multifocal  IOLs and arcuate keratotomy  after  phaco  are  indicated  for  the  correction of astigmatic refractive  error and  a small  spherical refractive error. Intraocular methods, including the  replacement of the  IOL  and  «piggyback» IOLs implantation  are  used  to  correct a large spherical refractive error. The introduction  of new  technology, the  implantation  of light-adjustable  IOLs, will  expand  the  existing evidence  and provide greater predictabilit y and efficiency of the  method  of correction of residual  refractive error.

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds Turn this ...

  17. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of the Residual Heat Removal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleston, F.T.

    1976-01-01

    The Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) transfer heat from the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) to the reactor plant Component Cooling System (CCS) to reduce the temperature of the RCS at a controlled rate during the second part of normal plant cooldown and maintains the desired temperature until the plant is restarted. By the use of an analytic tool, the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, it is shown that the RHRS, because of its redundant two train design, is able to accommodate any credible component single failure with the only effect being an extension in the required cooldown time, thus demonstrating the reliability of the RHRS to perform its intended function

  18. Effect of the weld groove shape and pass number on residual stresses in butt-welded pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattari-Far, I.; Farahani, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This study used finite element techniques to analyze the thermo-mechanical behaviour and residual stresses in butt-welded pipes. The residual stresses were also measured in some welds by using the Hole-Drilling method. The results of the finite element analysis were compared with experimentally measured data to evaluate the accuracy of the finite element modelling. Based on this study, a finite element modelling procedure with reasonable accuracy was developed. The developed FE modelling was used to study the effects of weld groove shape and weld pass number on welding residual stresses in butt-welded pipes. The hoop and axial residual stresses in pipe joints of 6 and 10 mm thickness of different groove shapes and pass number were studied. It is shown that these two parameters may have significant effects on magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in welded pipes.

  19. A Simplified Model for the Effect of Weld-Induced Residual Stresses on the Axial Ultimate Strength of Stiffened Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bai-Qiao; Guedes Soares, C.

    2018-03-01

    The present work investigates the compressive axial ultimate strength of fillet-welded steel-plated ship structures subjected to uniaxial compression, in which the residual stresses in the welded plates are calculated by a thermo-elasto-plastic finite element analysis that is used to fit an idealized model of residual stress distribution. The numerical results of ultimate strength based on the simplified model of residual stress show good agreement with those of various methods including the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) Common Structural Rules (CSR), leading to the conclusion that the simplified model can be effectively used to represent the distribution of residual stresses in steel-plated structures in a wide range of engineering applications. It is concluded that the widths of the tension zones in the welded plates have a quasi-linear behavior with respect to the plate slenderness. The effect of residual stress on the axial strength of the stiffened plate is analyzed and discussed.

  20. Effective deleting of residual photoconductivity in high-resistance layers GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaev, B.S.; Kadirova, I.T.; Sharipov, E.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The phenomenon of residual photoconductivity as the storage of optical memory (OM) represents practical interest in micro and optoelectronics. The finding - out of the nature OM represents undoubtedly and scientific interest. Now residual photoconductivity (RPC) is explained by potential barriers arising because of non-monocharacteristical of distribution components of the semiconductor or carriers of a current in volume. Depending on a nature non-monocharacteristical the time relaxation RPC changes in a wide limit. The special interest represents RPC created by impurity. In the given work the results of research of a nature RPC created photos by ionization of the filled centres of chrome in compensated epitaxilogic layers arsenide galls are resulted. Epitaxilogic layers were brought up by a vertical method ZFE. Highness was reached (achieved) by special indemnification of the residual donors deep acceptors of chrome. Substrates served n-GoAs. Lassitude of i-layers has made 70-80 microns. Specific resistance of layers has made (1/3) 108 om·sm. (T= 300 K). The structures were photosensitive as at low (T = 77 K) and at room temperatures. The photosensitivity of structures in impurity to a strip of absorption chrome (= 1,4 microns) was comparable (compared) with own. The researches show, that the structures have RPC. Size RPC the greatest ambassador impurity of illumination is carrying out photoionization Cr2 + - of the centres. That is established, RPC impurity of a photocurrent is effectively erased only at certain length of a wave of external illumination

  1. The effects of location, thermal stress, and residual stress on corner cracks in nozzles with cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuner, P.M.; Cohen, L.M.; McLean, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The stress intensity factors (Ksub(I)) for corner cracks in a boiling water reactor feedwater nozzle with stainless steel cladding are obtained for loading by internal pressure, and a fluid quench in the nozzle. Conditions with and without residual stress in the component are considered. The residual stress is simulated by means of a reference temperature change. The stress distribution for the uncracked structure is obtained from a three-dimensional finite element model. A three-dimensional influence function (IF) method, in conjunction with the boundary-integral equation method for structural analysis is employed to compute Ksub(I) values from the uncracked structure's stress distribution. It is concluded that the effects on Ksub(I) of location, thermal stresses, and residual stresses are significant and generally too complex to evaluate without advanced numerical procedures. The ulilized combination of finite element analysis of the uncracked structure and three-dimensional influence function analysis of the cracked structure is demonstrated and endorsed. (Auth.)

  2. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  3. The effects of machine parameters on residual stress determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of machine parameters on residual stresses in single point diamond turned silicon and germanium have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Residual stresses were sampled across ductile feed cuts in < 100 > silicon and germanium which were single point diamond turned using a variety of feed rates, rake angles and clearance angles. High spatial resolution micro-Raman spectra (1{mu}m spot) were obtained in regions of ductile cutting where no visible surface damage was present. The use of both 514-5nm and 488.0nm excitation wavelengths, by virtue of their differing characteristic penetration depths in the materials, allowed determinations of stress profiles as a function of depth into the sample. Previous discussions have demonstrated that such Raman spectra will exhibit asymmetrically broadened peaks which are characteristic of the superposition of a continuum of Raman scatterers from the various depths probed. Depth profiles of residual stress were obtained using computer deconvolution of the resulting asymmetrically broadened raman spectra.

  4. Effectiveness of control strategies against Botrytis cinerea in vineyard and evaluation of the residual fungicide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriolotto, Chiara; Monchiero, Matteo; Negre, Michele; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2009-05-01

    This investigation was undertaken to test different control strategies against Botrytis cinerea vineyards. Two commercial vineyards, "Barbera" and "Moscato," located in Piedmont (Northern Italy) were divided into seven plots and treated with different combinations of fungicides including fenhexamid, pyrimethanil, fludioxonil + cyprodinil, iprodione, and boscalid, a new carboxamide compound. An integrated strategy including a chemical (pyrimethanil) and a biocontrol agent (Trichoderma spp. t2/4ph1) was also included. At harvest, the percentage of bunches and berries attacked by B. cinerea and the concentration of the chemical fungicides were determined. All the pesticide residues at harvest were below the maximum residue level (MRL), except when two applications of pyrimethanil per season were applied. Boscalid was the most effective active ingredient against B. cinerea among the tested chemicals. When boscalid application was followed by a treatment with pyrimethanil, its efficacy was similar to that shown by two treatments of pyrimethanil. However, this second strategy was not feasible due to the risks of resistance development in the pathogen and to the residue accumulation as indicated by the analysis.

  5. Thermodynamic Effects of Replacements of Pro Residues in Helix Interiors of Maltose-Binding Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, RS; Lingaraju, GM; Bacchawat, Kiran; Surolia, Avadhesha; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2003-01-01

    Introduction of Pro residues into helix interiors results in protein destabilization. It is currently unclear if the converse substitution (i.e., replacement of Pro residues that naturally occur in helix interiors would be stabilizing). Maltose-binding protein is a large 370-amino acid protein that contains 21 Pro residues. Of these, three nonconserved residues (P48, P133, and P159) occur at helix interiors. Each of the residues was replaced with Ala and Ser. Stabilities were characterized by...

  6. Efeito residual de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência em diferentes solos Residual effect of herbicides applied in pre-emergence in different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Inoue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar o efeito residual dos herbicidas ametryne, clomazone e diuron, aplicados em pré-emergência, utilizando amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico e de um Latossolo Vermelho, com texturas e composições contrastantes. Para isso, foram conduzidos seis bioensaios em casa de vegetação, com amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico (textura arenosa e de um Latossolo Vermelho (textura argilosa. Foi avaliado o efeito residual de ametryne (0, 1,60 e 2,40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0,90 e 1,10 kg ha-1 e diuron (0, 1,60 e 3,20 kg ha-1, por meio de semeadura de bioindicador previamente selecionado (Cucumis sativus ou Brachiaria decumbens aos 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 dias após a aplicação (DAA. Verificou-se que ametryne proporcionou 80% de controle até os 40 DAA, independentemente do solo e da dose. O clomazone apresentou efeito residual satisfatório quando aplicado na dose recomendada em solo argiloso, mantendo o controle acima de 80% até os 71 DAA. Em solo arenoso, o controle não foi satisfatório já aos 25 DAA, mesmo na dose recomendada para solo argiloso. Diuron apresentou alta estabilidade em solo argiloso, observando-se controle superior a 91% até os 100 DAA na dose recomendada e controle acima de 80% até os 54 DAA na dose recomendada para solo arenoso. No entanto, em solo arenoso não houve aumento do efeito residual, mesmo com a aplicação da dose recomendada para solo argiloso.The objective of this work was to monitor the residual effect of the herbicides ametryne, clomazone and diuron, applied in pre-emergence, using Psament and Red Latosol with contrasting texture and composition. Thus, six experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions with samples of Psament (sandy texture and Red Latosol (clay texture. The residual effect of ametryne (0, 1.60 and 2.40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0.90 and 1.10 kg ha-1 and diuron (0, 1.60 and 3.20 kg ha 1 was evaluated by sowing the test plant (Cucumis sativus or

  7. TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aspects that determine conditions of transportation industry effective management and decrease of transportation expenses are discussed. Theoretical concepts making it possible to solve the problem of scientific management of the whole country’s goods transportation costs are provided for. Main approaches are presented to the solution of motor transport operation ecological optimization problem as well as to the rise of motor transport workers’ labor productivity, to the increase of transportation vehicles use efficiency and to determine functional capacity of the motor transport complex.

  8. Management of spent fuel from research and prototype power reactors and residues from post-irradiation examination of fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The safe and economic management of spent fuel is important for all countries which have nuclear research or power reactors. It involves all aspects of the handling, transportation, storage, conditioning and reprocessing or final disposal of the spent fuel. In the case of spent fuel management from power reactors the shortage of available reprocessing capacity and the rising economic interest in the direct disposal of spent fuel have led to an increasing interest in the long term storage and management of spent fuel. The IAEA has played a major role in coordinating the national activities of the Member States in this area. It was against this background that the Technical Committee Meeting on ''Safe Management of Spent Fuel From Research Reactors, Prototype Power Reactors and Fuel From Commercial Power Reactors That Has Been Subjected to PIE (Post Irradiated Examination)'' (28th November - 1st December 1988) was organised. The aims of the current meeting have been to: 1. Review the state-of-the-art in the field of management of spent fuel from research and prototype power reactors, as well as the residues from post irradiation examination of commercial power reactor fuel. The emphasis was to be on the safe handling, conditioning, transportation, storage and/or disposal of the spent fuel during operation and final decommissioning of the reactors. Information was sought on design details, including shielding, criticality and radionuclide release prevention, heat removal, automation and remote control, planning and staff training; licensing and operational practices during each of the phases of spent fuel management. 2. Identify areas where additional research and development are needed. 3. Recommend areas for future international cooperation in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Waste management from reprocessing: a stringent regulatory requirements for high quality conditioned residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordier, J. C.; Greneche, D.; Devezeaux, J. G.; Dalcorso, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear waste production and management in France is governed by safety requirements imposed to all operators. French nuclear safety relies on two basic principles: · Responsibility of the nuclear operator, which expands to waste generated, · Safety basic objectives issued by national Safety Authority. For a long time the regulatory framework for waste production and management has been satisfactorily applied and has benefited to each actor of the process. LLW/MLW and HLW nuclear waste are currently conditioned in safe matrices or packages either likely to be disposed in surface repositories or designed with the intention to be disposed underground according to their radioactive content. France is looking into the case of VLLW and has already carried out a design for future disposal, the design being in the pipe. Other types of waste (i. e. radium bearing waste, graphite, and tritium content waste) are also considered in the whole framework of French waste management. (author)

  10. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  11. Efeito residual do lodo de esgoto na produtividade do milho safrinha Residual effect of sewage sludge on off-season corn yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Moraes de Cesare Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Das opções de disposição final do lodo de esgoto, a reciclagem agrícola tem sido uma das mais utilizadas em diversos países desenvolvidos, sendo considerada a forma mais adequada em termos técnicos, econômicos e ambientais. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito residual do lodo de esgoto na produtividade do milho safrinha, após dois anos de aplicação consecutiva desse resíduo em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. O experimento foi realizado em campo, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições, e os tratamentos foram os seguintes: testemunha e adubações com lodo de esgoto nas doses de 6, 12, 24 e 36 t ha-1 (peso de matéria seca. Houve efeito residual do uso do lodo de esgoto caleado na produtividade de milho safrinha; a dose de 36 t ha-1 foi estatisticamente superior às doses de 6 e 12 t ha-1.Among the possibilities of final disposal of sewage sludge, agricultural recycling has become one of the most widely used in several developed countries, and is considered the most appropriate in technical, economical and environmental terms. This study aimed at evaluating the sewage sludge residual effect on off-season corn yield on an Eutroferric Red Latossol (Oxisol. The field experiment was in a randomized block design with three replications, with treatments consisting of increasing doses of sewage sludge (0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 t ha-1, on a dry weight basis, applied in the two previous cropping seasons.. The residual effect of the application of lime-stabilized sewage sludge increased the yield of off-season corn; the grain yield under a rate of 36 t ha-1 was statistically higher than those under 6 and 12 t ha-1.

  12. Soluble carbon in oxisol under the effect of organic residue rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lúcia Pinheiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of organic residues to the soil can increase soluble organic carbon (SOC and affect the pH and electrolytic conductivity (EC of the soil. However, the magnitude of these changes depends on the type of residue and the applied dose. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of increasing C rates contained in organic residue on the pH, EC, water-extractable total carbon (WETC, water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC, and water-extractable inorganic carbon (WEIC in soil treated with manure (chicken, swine, and quail, sawdust, coffee husk, and sewage sludge. The levels of total C (TC- KH2PO4, organic carbon (OC- KH2PO4, and inorganic C (IC- KH2PO4 extractable by a 0.1 mol L-1 KH2PO4 solution were also quantified in soil under the effect of increasing rates of chicken and quail manures. The following rates of organic residue C were applied to a dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol sample: 0, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 mg kg-1. The addition of organic residues to the soil increased pH, except in the case of sewage sludge, which acidified the soil. The acidity correction potential of chicken and quail manure was highest, dependent on the manure rate applied; regardless of the dose used, sawdust barely alters the soil pH. At all tested rates, the EC of the soil treated with swine manure, coffee husk, and sawdust remained below 2.0 dS m-1, which is a critical level for salinity-sensitive crops. However, the application of chicken or quail manure and sewage sludge at certain rates increased the EC to values above this threshold level. Highest levels of WETC, WEOC, and WEIC were obtained when chicken and quail manure and coffee husk were applied to the Oxisol. The quantities of SOC extracted by KH2PO4 were higher than the quantities extracted by water, demonstrating the ability of soil to adsorb C into its colloids.

  13. Efeito residual de sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole e oxyfluorfen em três solos Residual effect of sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen in three soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.D Melo

    2010-12-01

    oxyfluorfen, que apresentou controle praticamente constante em todas as épocas avaliadas, e do sulfentrazone, que mostrou elevado efeito residual ao longo do período avaliado. As características inerentes a cada herbicida, bem como as diferenças nos teores de matéria orgânica e de textura entre os solos, influenciam na persistência do sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole e oxyfluorfen no solo. Maior efeito residual de oxyfluorfen foi observado no solo franco-arenoso e de isoxaflutole no solo argiloso com alto teor de matéria orgânica. Já o sulfentrazone apresentou elevado efeito residual nos três solos estudados.The physical and chemical properties of soils, as well as climatic conditions, influence the behavior of herbicides applied in pre-emergence. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen in three soils. The trial was conducted in a protected environment in a randomized block experimental design, with four replications. The treatments for each soil were arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial, being three herbicides and five sowing periods after herbicide application. Sulfentrazone, isoxaflutole and oxyfluorfen were applied at 0.5 kg ha-1, 0.72 kg ha-1 and 0.113 kg ha-1, respectively, on plastic pots with 250 mL volume, previously filled with the two clay texture soils and the sandy loam texture soil. Subsequently, the bioindicator species Sorghum bicolor was sown at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after application (DAA. A control with no herbicide treatment was sown at different times for each soil and used as a comparison in the evaluations. At 21 days after sowing in each season, intoxication and plant growth were evaluated by means of shoot dry mass. Sorghum plants in the clay soil with 9.0 dag kg-1 of organic matter (O.M., submitted to the application of isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone and oxyfluorfen, produced shoot dry mass over the control to 34, 20 and 40%, respectively, at 60 DAA. In the sandy loam soil, it was observed a high

  14. Risk management considerations for seismic upgrading of an older facility for short-term residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additon, S.L.; Peregoy, W.L.; Foppe, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Building 707 and its addition, Building 707A, were selected, after the production mission of Rocky Flats was terminated a few years ago, to stabilize many of the plutonium residues remaining at the site by 2002. The facility had undergone substantial safety improvements to its safety systems and conduct of operations for resumption of plutonium operations in the early 1990s and appeared ideally suited for this new mission to support accelerated Site closure. During development of a new authorization basis, a seismic evaluation was performed. This evaluation addressed an unanalyzed expansion joint and suspect connection details for the precast concrete tilt-up construction and concluded that the seismic capacity of the facility is less than half of that determined by previous analysis. Further, potential seismic interaction was identified between a collapsing Building 707 and the seismically upgraded Building 707A, possibly causing the partial collapse of the latter. Both the operating contractor and the Department of Energy sought a sound technical basis for deciding how to proceed. This paper addresses the risks of the as-is facility and possible benefits of upgrades to support a decision on whether to upgrade the seismic capacity of Building 707, accept the risk of the as-is facility for its short remaining mission, or relocate critical stabilization missions. The paper also addresses the Department of Energy's policy on natural phenomena

  15. Photo series for quantifying forest residues in managed lands of the Medicine Bow National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Popp; John E. Lundquist

    2006-01-01

    This photo series presents a visual representation of a range of fuel loading conditions specifically found on the Medicine Bow National Forest. The photos are grouped by forest type and past management practices. This field guide describes the distribution of different types of woody fuels and includes some vegetation data.

  16. High-residue cultivation timing impact on organic no-till soybean weed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cereal rye cover crop mulch can suppress summer annual weeds early in the soybean growing season. However, a multi-tactic weed management approach is required when annual weed seedbanks are large or perennial weeds are present. In such situations, the weed suppression from a cereal rye mulch can b...

  17. Nonlinear Model of Pseudoelastic Shape Memory Alloy Damper Considering Residual Martensite Strain Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Parulekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increasing interest in using superelastic shape memory alloys for applications in seismic resistant-design. Shape memory alloys (SMAs have a unique property by which they can recover their original shape after experiencing large strains up to 8% either by heating (shape memory effect or removing stress (pseudoelastic effect. Many simplified shape memory alloy models are suggested in the past literature for capturing the pseudoelastic response of SMAs in passive vibration control of structures. Most of these models do not consider the cyclic effects of SMA's and resulting residual martensite deformation. Therefore, a suitable constitutive model of shape memory alloy damper which represents the nonlinear hysterical dynamic system appropriately is essential. In this paper a multilinear hysteretic model incorporating residual martensite strain effect of pseudoelastic shape memory alloy damper is developed and experimentally validated using SMA wire, based damper device. A sensitivity analysis is done using the proposed model along with three other simplified SMA models. The models are implemented on a steel frame representing an SDOF system and the comparison of seismic response of structure with all the models is made in the numerical study.

  18. The reverse logistics importance in the management of residues of plastic packaging of lubricants and the program jogue limpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Francisco da Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to demonstrate the importance of the Reverse Logistics in the management of solid residues through the Jogue Limpo program, an initiative dedicated to the destination and recycling of lubricant packaging. In the current context, where natural resources are scarce, the environmental issue is a factor of differentiation in business, so the destination of the waste we produce along the production chain and the possibility of reuse and mitigation of possible environmental impacts are extremely important for the society. The article seeks to show how the Reverse Logistics is the means to interconnect stakeholders for the correct destination and reuse of resources, as well as the benefits of this initiative for the society.

  19. Effect of residual stresses on the reliability of components under fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruestenberg, I.

    1995-01-01

    The assurance of the reliability of mechanical components relative to a variety of failure mechanisms is of decisive technical, industrial, and economic importance. In this dissertation, the reliability, i.e. the probability that the lifetime does not fall below a given value, is examined with respect to the particularly important failure mechanisms of fracture and fatigue. The general problem of uniaxial fatigue is studied on the basis of both continuum damage mechanics and crack mechanics. In particular, the mechanisms of crack initiation, as characterized by the Coffin-Manson-Neuber local strain-life equations for notched components as well as the mechanism of crack growth, as governed by the Paris-Erdogang relation, are taken into account. The nonlinear fatigue damage accumulation process for components subjected to general, cyclic loading histories is modeled by a multilinear damage law which allows, in principle, to characterize the subsequent activation of different fatigue mechanisms. Explicit equations are developed for quintuple-, quadruple-, and triple-linear damage accumulation. Particularly promising appears the triple-linear damage approach which allows, in principle, the identification of a nucleation, an initiation, and a final growth stage up to rupture of fatigue cracks. The beneficial effect of intentionally induced compressive residual stresses on the lifetime of the component is investigated. To this end, an elasto-plastic contact problem, based on Prandtl-Reuss' constitutive equations, is numerically solved, and the residual stress field, as it is typically produced by the mechanical process of cold rolling, is established. Assessments of the effect of adaptation, i.e. the subsequent reduction of the residual stresses due to cyclic in-service loading as well as of the effect of unavoidable surface roughness, introduced by manufacturing processes like forging, are carried out. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  20. Effects of fatigue and environment on residual strengths of center-cracked graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Catherine A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of fatigue, moisture conditioning, and heating on the residual tension strengths of center-cracked graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels were evaluated using specimens made with T300/5208 graphite epoxy in a 16-ply quasi-isotropic layup, with two different buffer strip materials, Kevlar-49 or S-glass. It was found that, for panels subjected to fatigue loading, the residual strengths were not significantly affected by the fatigue loading, the number of repetitions of the loading spectrum, or the maximum strain level. The moisture conditioning reduced the residual strengths of the S-glass buffer strip panels by 10 to 15 percent below the ambient results, but increased the residual strengths of the Kevlar-49 buffer strip panels slightly. For both buffer strip materials, the heat increased the residual strengths of the buffer strip panels slightly over the ambient results.

  1. Coding for effective denial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jackie; Lineberry, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Nearly everyone will agree that accurate and consistent coding of diagnoses and procedures is the cornerstone for operating a compliant practice. The CPT or HCPCS procedure code tells the payor what service was performed and also (in most cases) determines the amount of payment. The ICD-9-CM diagnosis code, on the other hand, tells the payor why the service was performed. If the diagnosis code does not meet the payor's criteria for medical necessity, all payment for the service will be denied. Implementation of an effective denial management program can help "stop the bleeding." Denial management is a comprehensive process that works in two ways. First, it evaluates the cause of denials and takes steps to prevent them. Second, denial management creates specific procedures for refiling or appealing claims that are initially denied. Accurate, consistent and compliant coding is key to both of these functions. The process of proactively managing claim denials also reveals a practice's administrative strengths and weaknesses, enabling radiology business managers to streamline processes, eliminate duplicated efforts and shift a larger proportion of the staff's focus from paperwork to servicing patients--all of which are sure to enhance operations and improve practice management and office morale. Accurate coding requires a program of ongoing training and education in both CPT and ICD-9-CM coding. Radiology business managers must make education a top priority for their coding staff. Front office staff, technologists and radiologists should also be familiar with the types of information needed for accurate coding. A good staff training program will also cover the proper use of Advance Beneficiary Notices (ABNs). Registration and coding staff should understand how to determine whether the patient's clinical history meets criteria for Medicare coverage, and how to administer an ABN if the exam is likely to be denied. Staff should also understand the restrictions on use of

  2. The effect of crack branching on the residual lifetime of machine components containing stress corrosion cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdowski, R.M.; Uggowitzer, P.J.; Speidel, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is presented of theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations concerning the effect of crack branching on the reduction of stress intensity at the tip of single cracks. The results indicate that the division of a single crack into n branches reduces the stress intensity at the branch tips by a factor of about 1/√n. This permits branched cracks to grow to larger depths before becoming critical. The implication is that longer residual lifetimes and longer operating times between inspections can be calculated for machine components with growing branched stress corrosion cracks. (author)

  3. Effect of Cover Crop Residues on Some Physicochemical Properties of Soil and Emergence Rate of Potato

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghaffari; G. Ahmadvand; M.R. Ardakani; M.R. Mosaddeghi; F. Yeganehehpoor; M. Gaffari; M. Mirakhori

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study, was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crop residues on speed of seed  potato emergence and percentage of organic carbon, soil specific weight and soil temperature. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu-AliSinaUniversity, in 2008-2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Winter cover crops consisted of rye, barley and oilseed rape, each one with common plant density (rye and barley at...

  4. Characterization of hazardous waste residuals from Environmental Restoration Program activities at DOE installations: Waste management implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Esposito, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Investigators at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), with support from associates at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), have assembled an inventory of the types and volumes of radioactive, toxic or hazardous, and mixed waste likely to be generated over the next 30 years as the US Department of Energy (DOE) implements its nationwide Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The inventory and related analyses are being considered for integration into DOE's Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) covering the potential environmental impacts and risks associated with alternative management practices and programs for wastes generated from routine operations. If this happens, the ER-generated waste could be managed under a set of alternatives considered under the PEIS and selected at the end of the current National Environmental Policy Act process

  5. Effect of Applied Stress and Temperature on Residual Stresses Induced by Peening Surface Treatments in Alloy 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, A.; Gnäupel-Herold, T.; Gill, A.; Vasudevan, V. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of applied tensile stress and temperature on laser shock peening (LSP) and cavitation shotless peening (CSP)-induced compressive residual stresses were investigated using neutron and x-ray diffraction. Residual stresses on the surface, measured in situ, were lower than the applied stress in LSP- and CSP-treated Alloy 600 samples (2 mm thick). The residual stress averaged over the volume was similar to the applied stress. Compressive residual stresses on the surface and balancing tensile stresses in the interior relax differently due to hardening induced by LSP. Ex situ residual stress measurements, using XRD, show that residual stresses relaxed as the applied stress exceeded the yield strength of the LSP- and CSP-treated Alloy 600. Compressive residual stresses induced by CSP and LSP decreased by 15-25% in magnitude, respectively, on exposure to 250-450 °C for more than 500 h with 10-11% of relaxation occurring in the first few hours. Further, 80% of the compressive residual stresses induced by LSP and CSP treatments in Alloy 600 were retained even after long-term aging at 350 °C for 2400 h.

  6. Assessment of alternatives for long-term management of uranium ore residues and contaminated soils located at DOE's Niagara Falls Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    About 11,000 m 3 of uranium ore residues and 180,000 m 3 of slightly contaminated soils (wastes) are consolidated within a diked containment area at the Niagara Falls Storage Site located about 30 km north of Buffalo, New York. The residues account for less than 6% of the total volume of contaminated materials but almost 99% of the radioactivity. The average radium-226 concentration in the residues is 67,000 pCi/g. The US Department of Energy is considering several alternatives for long-term management of the wastes and residues, including: improvement of the containment at NFSS, modification of the form of the residues, management of the residues separately from the wastes, management of the wastes and residues at another humid site (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) or an arid site (Hanford, Washington), and dispersal of the wastes in the ocean. Potential radiological risks associated with implementation of any of the alternatives are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant radiological risk to humans. The residues and wastes will remain hazardous for thousands of years. After controls cease, the radioactive materials will eventually be dispersed in the environment. Loss of the earthen covers over the buried materials is predicted to occur from several hundred to more than two million years, depending primarily on the use of the land surface. Groundwater will eventually be contaminated in all alternatives; however, the groundwater pathway is relatively insignificant with respect to radiological risks to the general population. 2 references, 2 figures, 6 tables

  7. Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification on the Residual Stress, Microstructure, and Corrosion Resistance of 304 Stainless Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang; Telang, Abhishek; Gill, Amrinder; Wen, Xingshuo; Mannava, Seetha R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) of 304 stainless steel welds was carried out. UNSM effectively eliminates the tensile stress generated during welding and imparts beneficial compressive residual stresses. In addition, UNSM can effectively refine the grains and increase hardness in the near-surface region. Corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 solution demonstrate that UNSM can significantly improve the corrosion resistance due to the compressive residual stresses and changes in the near-surface microstructure.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation and sodium hydroxide on cell wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almasri, M R [Department of Radiation Agriculture, Atomic Energy Commision, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    The effect of various doses gamma irradiation and different concentrations of NaOH on cell-wall constituents of wheat straw (W.S), cotton seed shell (C.S.S), peanut shell (P.S), soybean shell (S B.S), extracted olive cake (O.C.E) and extracted sunflower of unpeel seeds (S.U.E) were investigated. Results indicated that Na OH in the concentrations at (2,4 and 6%) had significant effects in the crude fiber (C F) content of W.S, P.S and E.U.E, S B.S, C.S.S, O.C.E,respectively. Treating S.U.E, W.S and all other residues with NaOH (2,4 and 6%) respectively, decreased the neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) level. Irradiation dose of 200 kGy decreased C F for all residues, and it reduced the NDF for S.U.E and S B.S. however, lower irradiation dose (150 KGy) was good enough to reduce the NDF for W.S, C.S.S., P.S. and O.C.E. Combined treatment resulted in better effects in reducing the concentrations of the cell-wall constituents. 3 tabs.

  10. Activity and Residual Effect of Two Formulations of Lambdacyhalothrin Sprayed on Palm Leaves to Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazariego-Arana Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activity and residual effect of two formulations of lambdacyhalothrin were evaluated with Rhodnius prolixus;laboratory and field tests were conducted in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. The results indicate that the lethal concentrations of the active ingredient of SC (LC50 = 2.37 and LC90 = 8.5 mg, a.i./m² were 4-8 times than those with the insecticide WP applied on R. prolixus bugs in palm leaves, a common building material for thatched roofs. Other investigators in South America recommended applying 30 mg a.i./m² in porous materials; we obtained that the products WP and SC were 3.5 and 16 times more effective on palm leaves. Regarding the evaluation of the residual effects in field spraying, there was up to 15 months persistence after the application of WP in two doses (8.6 mg a.i./m² and 3.752 mg a.i./m² with SC. We consider R. prolixus highly susceptible to the employed pyrethroids; they could be used to control this vector in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.

  11. Effect of turning frequency on co-composting pig manure and fungus residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang-Ming, Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but also can recycle agricultural wastes and transform them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for agricultural applications. However, the composting process and final product are easily affected by the limited oxygen supply that results from insufficient aeration, especially in the center of a large-scale windrow. Hence, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the turning frequency on the composting efficiency and compost quality of used pig manure and fungus residue. Physical and chemical characteristics were measured over the course of 63 days of composting. The data indicate that higher temperatures and more rapid moisture removal generally result from a turning treatment of once every 2-4 days than in fewer, or no, turning treatments. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium contents increased in all windrows as the organic matter content decreased, but both the increases and decrease were greater in windrows that were turned more frequently. The reduction of the organic matter mass by 53.7-66.0% for a turning of once every 2-8 days is significantly higher than that for the static windrow (39.1%). Although there is an increase in nitrogen mass loss with an increased turning frequency, lower nitrogen mass losses (12.7-25.7%) in all treatments were noted compared with previous studies. A final compost product with less moisture, less weight, higher nutrient content (N, P, and K), and greater stability was obtained in windrows with turning frequencies of once every 2-4 days, which is recommended when composting pig manure and fungus residue. Composting of agricultural wastes not only can reduce environmental pollution caused by improper disposal, but recycling of agricultural wastes transforms them into highly valuable products, such as fertilizers or soil conditioners, for

  12. Differential Effects of Visual-Acoustic Biofeedback Intervention for Residual Speech Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara; Campbell, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the incorporation of visual biofeedback technologies may enhance response to treatment in individuals with residual speech errors. However, there is a need for controlled research systematically comparing biofeedback versus non-biofeedback intervention approaches. This study implemented a single-subject experimental design with a crossover component to investigate the relative efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback and traditional articulatory treatment for residual rhotic errors. Eleven child/adolescent participants received ten sessions of visual-acoustic biofeedback and 10 sessions of traditional treatment, with the order of biofeedback and traditional phases counterbalanced across participants. Probe measures eliciting untreated rhotic words were administered in at least three sessions prior to the start of treatment (baseline), between the two treatment phases (midpoint), and after treatment ended (maintenance), as well as before and after each treatment session. Perceptual accuracy of rhotic production was assessed by outside listeners in a blinded, randomized fashion. Results were analyzed using a combination of visual inspection of treatment trajectories, individual effect sizes, and logistic mixed-effects regression. Effect sizes and visual inspection revealed that participants could be divided into categories of strong responders (n = 4), mixed/moderate responders (n = 3), and non-responders (n = 4). Individual results did not reveal a reliable pattern of stronger performance in biofeedback versus traditional blocks, or vice versa. Moreover, biofeedback versus traditional treatment was not a significant predictor of accuracy in the logistic mixed-effects model examining all within-treatment word probes. However, the interaction between treatment condition and treatment order was significant: biofeedback was more effective than traditional treatment in the first phase of treatment, and traditional treatment was more effective

  13. An environmental assessment of electricity production from slaughterhouse residues. Linking urban, industrial and waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santagata, R.; Ripa, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal by-products use for electricity generation is investigated as a case-study. • Different methodological approaches to deal with by-products are explored in LCA. • Adopting a holistic perspective is crucial to achieve a circular economy framework. - Abstract: The food processing industry continues to grow, generating large amount of organically rich waste flows per year: these processors face significant economic and environmental pressures for appropriate conversion and disposal of these waste flows. Solid waste disposal problems, mostly in highly urbanized environments, energy shortages (primarily oil) and/or high petroleum prices, as well as environmental issues such as the shrinking landfill capacity, can all be addressed by converting waste material into useful and saleable products. This paper brings to the attention a possible strategy in order to meet the general EU directives concerning the residues utilization and percentage contribution for the total energy consumption by 2020, by evaluating the use of animal by-products (category 3, as defined in the directive 2002/1774/EC) for energy purposes. Slaughterhouse waste represents an important potential source of renewable energy: on average, 40–50% of a live animal is waste, with a potential energy content close to diesel fuel. Treatment of animal waste from slaughterhouse and the subsequent conversion to electricity is investigated as a case study in the Campania Region (Italy): the animal waste undergoes a rendering process, to separate a protein-rich fraction useful for animal meal production and a fat-rich fraction, to be combusted in a diesel engine for power and heat generation (CHP). An environmental assessment of the entire process is performed by means of LCA, providing a quantitative understanding of the plant processing. The study aims to understand to what extent electricity production from animal fat is environmentally sound and if there are steps and/or components

  14. Effect of cellulase producing fungi on plant residues degradation used as organic fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.M

    2009-01-01

    Series of laboratory and field experiments were conducted at Soil microbiology Unit and Farm of soil and Water research department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Laboratory experiments revealed that between nine fungal strain, A. niger was the most potent cellulolytic fungus able to degrade many cellulosic sources (CP, CMC, and FP). Study the effect of cellulolytic fungi on degradation of plant residues used as organic fertilizer in addition to nitrogen fixing bacteria (symbiotically) on lupine growth, yield and nutrients uptake (Field experiment) had been carried out. This objective aims to recycling different plant residues in soil which is consistent with (sustainable development) and utilization of these organic residues as a single carbon source for cellulolytic fungi.Application of 15 N- tracer technique gave us the chance and opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to lupine plant under the effect of cellulolytic fungi on different plant residues.The obtained results could be summarized as following:I.Laboratory Technique Selection of the most potent cellulolytic fungi 1-Nine fungal strains of Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus flavus; Alterrnaria sp.; Trichderma harzianum ; Rhizopus sp. and Syncephalastrum sp. obtained from different sources and tested for their cellulolytic activity. 2-Aspergillus niger and Pencillium oxalicum exhibited the highest cellulase productivity followed by Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus.3- fungal mixtures of the most potent four genera Aspergillus niger; Penicillium oxalicum; Trichoderma longibranchiatum and Aspergillus terreus found to have a lower cellulolytic activities for all substrates compared with single inoculation with A. niger.4-Highest FPase activities were exhibited by A. niger when filter paper (FP) used as a carbon source.5-A. niger is

  15. Effects of lysine residues on structural characteristics and stability of tau proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongsang; Baek, Inchul; Choi, Hyunsung; Kim, Jae In; Na, Sungsoo, E-mail: nass@korea.ac.kr

    2015-10-23

    Pathological amyloid proteins have been implicated in neuro-degenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Lewy-body diseases and prion related diseases. In prion related diseases, functional tau proteins can be transformed into pathological agents by environmental factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, Aβ-mediated toxicity and covalent modification. These pathological agents are stable under physiological conditions and are not easily degraded. This un-degradable characteristic of tau proteins enables their utilization as functional materials to capturing the carbon dioxides. For the proper utilization of amyloid proteins as functional materials efficiently, a basic study regarding their structural characteristic is necessary. Here, we investigated the basic tau protein structure of wild-type (WT) and tau proteins with lysine residues mutation at glutamic residue (Q2K) on tau protein at atomistic scale. We also reported the size effect of both the WT and Q2K structures, which allowed us to identify the stability of those amyloid structures. - Highlights: • Lysine mutation effect alters the structure conformation and characteristic of tau. • Over the 15 layers both WT and Q2K models, both tau proteins undergo fractions. • Lysine mutation causes the increment of non-bonded energy and solvent accessible surface area. • Structural instability of Q2K model was proved by the number of hydrogen bonds analysis.

  16. Effects of lysine residues on structural characteristics and stability of tau proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myeongsang; Baek, Inchul; Choi, Hyunsung; Kim, Jae In; Na, Sungsoo

    2015-01-01

    Pathological amyloid proteins have been implicated in neuro-degenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Lewy-body diseases and prion related diseases. In prion related diseases, functional tau proteins can be transformed into pathological agents by environmental factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, Aβ-mediated toxicity and covalent modification. These pathological agents are stable under physiological conditions and are not easily degraded. This un-degradable characteristic of tau proteins enables their utilization as functional materials to capturing the carbon dioxides. For the proper utilization of amyloid proteins as functional materials efficiently, a basic study regarding their structural characteristic is necessary. Here, we investigated the basic tau protein structure of wild-type (WT) and tau proteins with lysine residues mutation at glutamic residue (Q2K) on tau protein at atomistic scale. We also reported the size effect of both the WT and Q2K structures, which allowed us to identify the stability of those amyloid structures. - Highlights: • Lysine mutation effect alters the structure conformation and characteristic of tau. • Over the 15 layers both WT and Q2K models, both tau proteins undergo fractions. • Lysine mutation causes the increment of non-bonded energy and solvent accessible surface area. • Structural instability of Q2K model was proved by the number of hydrogen bonds analysis.

  17. Modeling the residual effects and threshold saturation of training: a case study of Olympic swimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellard, Philippe; Avalos, Marta; Millet, Grégoire; Lacoste, Lucien; Barale, Frédéric; Chatard, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to model the residual effects of training on the swimming performance and to compare a model including threshold saturation (MM) to the Banister model (BM). Seven Olympic swimmers were studied over a period of 4 ± 2 years. For three training loads (low-intensity wLIT, high-intensity wHIT and strength training wST), three residual training effects were determined: short-term (STE) during the taper phase, i.e. three weeks before the performance (weeks 0, −1, −2), intermediate-term (ITE) during the intensity phase (weeks −3, −4 and −5) and long-term (LTE) during the volume phase (weeks −6, −7, −8). ITE and LTE were positive for wHIT and wLIT, respectively (P < 0.05). wLIT during taper was related to performances by a parabolic relationship (P < 0.05). Different quality measures indicated that MM compares favorably with BM. Identifying individual training thresholds may help individualizing the distribution of training loads. PMID:15705048

  18. Effects of organic and conventional rice on protein efficiency ratio and pesticide residue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Mesomya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The comparative effects of organic rice and conventional rice on the protein efficiency ratio (PER in rats were investigated by feeding 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats for four weeks with three experimental diets containing polished conventional rice (PCR, unpolished conventional rice (UCR, unpolished organic rice (UOR and a control protein diet (casein under standardised conditions. All diets were prepared according to AOAC guidelines. The results showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 among the values of PER (2.75 ± 0.14 - 2.80 ± 0.09 in rats fed with diets containing PCR, UCR or UOR. Similar growth was also observed among the three groups fed with different experimental diets. Additionally, residues of pesticides, viz. carbofuran, methyl parathion, p-nitrophenol and -cyfluthrin, in rat blood and rice samples were determined using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Pesticide residues were not detected in all serum samples of experimental rats and only p-nitrophenol was found (8.23 ± 0.65 - 12.84 ± 2.58 mg/kg in all samples of the cooked rice diets, indicating that organic rice produced similar effect as conventional rice on PER and growth in rats.

  19. Effects of residual aberrations explored on single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biskupek, Johannes; Hartel, Peter; Haider, Maximilian; Kaiser, Ute

    2012-01-01

    The effects of geometric residual aberrations such as coma B 2 and two-fold astigmatism A 1 on the contrast in aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images are investigated on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). The individual aberrations are adjusted and set up manually using an imaging C S -corrector. We demonstrate how coma B 2 can be recognized by an experienced user directly in the image and how it blurs the contrast. Even with uncorrected (resolution limiting) spherical aberration C S the coma B 2 has to be considered and must be minimized. Limits for a tolerable coma are given. The experiments are confirmed by image simulations. -- Highlights: ► Individual effects of residual aberrations such as B 2 , A 1 , and C S are demonstrated. ► Experimental HRTEM and simulated images of carbon nanotubes are compared. ► A detection limit of 50 nm B 2 in a single HRTEM image is determined.

  20. Characteristics of effective health care managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherryl W

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of traditional and contemporary management theories. Concerns, characteristics, and skills of effective managers are also presented. Further, a self-assessment (survey) of 7 highly effective health care managers in a South Georgia community was conducted to determine their ratings on 6 management indices. The assessment or Scale of Transformational Leadership uses a Likert-type scale to allow for the evaluation of managers. The scale contains 6 management elements for assessment: attention, meaning, trust, self, vision, and feeling. Individual ratings and group summary skills rating are presented. Findings revealed the order of managerial importance of the elements as follows (from highest to lowest): Management of Trust, Management of Attention, Management of Self, Management of Feeling, Management of Meaning, and Management of Risk. As a second tier, the final ratings are corroborated by health care management interns.

  1. Measurement of software project management effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Kadir Alpaslan

    2008-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Evaluating, monitoring, and improving the effectiveness of project management can contribute to successful acquisition of software systems. In this dissertation, we introduce a quantitative metric for gauging the effectiveness of managing a software-development project. The metric may be used to evaluate and monitor project management effectiveness in software projects by project managers, technical managers, executive man...

  2. Sport Management Graduate Programs: Characteristics of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the characteristics that enable graduate sport management programs to achieve their objectives. Surveys of sport management educators found they agreed on 11 characteristics that indicated a sport management program's effectiveness. Respondents believed an effective program should produce sport managers, not…

  3. Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than

  4. [Effectiveness of managing styles of nursing management staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stychno, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    There are many possibilities of the division of the managing styles. In theory one can distinguish two basic styles: directive and integrative. Generalisations describing both styles result in the fact that they do not reflect reality taking place at work. Because of it they cannot be applied in such a form. Therefore, it is necessary to build up the theoretical concept of the managing styles through decreasing their generality and adjusting them to the reality requirements at the same time. For the reality of management Reddin concept seems to be useful. It describes the organizational behaviour of managers. He noticed that the managing style is effective when it fits into the manager's situation whereas it is ineffective in such a situation, when the manager cannot select and adjust the managing techniques to the circumstances of the concrete decision-taking situation. Putting together 3 handling ways: orientation on assignments, orientation on staff, effectiveness, 8 managing can be differentiated. The aim of the paper was an attempt to check what managing styles are used by the nursing management staff working in hospitals. To determine the managing style a questionnaire consisting of 64 statements divided into 8 groups was applied. The examined persons were assigned to distribute 10 points among the statements belonging to each group of tasks which are supposed to specify their solution in the best way. The nursing management staff prefer the styles belonging to the more effective one in which there is a high orientation on staff.

  5. Effects of shot peening on the residual stress of welded SS400 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Man; Kim, Tae Hyung; Cheong, Seong Kyun; Lee, Seung Ho

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue life of structures is usually determined by welding zone. The tensile residual stress, which is induced by welding, reduces the fatigue life and fatigue strength of welded structures. If we remove the tensile residual stress or induce the compressive residual stress, the fatigue life of welded structures will be improved. The change of hardness and compressive residual stress of welded zone after shot peening was investigated in this paper. The results show that the hardness was increased by shot peening. The residual stress was reduced by shot peening

  6. Negative Effects of Learning Spreadsheet Management on Learning Database Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágner, Anikó; Zsakó, László

    2015-01-01

    A lot of students learn spreadsheet management before database management. Their similarities can cause a lot of negative effects when learning database management. In this article, we consider these similarities and explain what can cause problems. First, we analyse the basic concepts such as table, database, row, cell, reference, etc. Then, we…

  7. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on phenolic compounds and pesticides residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fkih, Sana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the effects of this process of conservation on the polyphenol rate and the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols of quince, of the cocoa and those of sage, then to study its effects on the pesticides residues in the sage sheets. The irradiation of quince polyphenols, increased the polyphenols rate as well as the antioxidant capacity. In the case of cocoa polyphenols, we don't have ace observed many differences between the irradiated and not irradiated samples, and in the case of sage polyphenols, the polyphenol rate as well as the antioxidant capacity decreased. Finally, irradiation of parathion caused degradation of this molecule, and the polyphenol rate as well as the antioxidant capacity pf polyphenols of the sheets of sage soaked with parathion was a less decreased than polyphenols of the sheets not soaked with parathion. (Author). 37 refs

  8. Radiation protection and management of NORM residues in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haridasan, P.P.; )

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclides in oil and gas streams belong to the decay chains of 238 U and 232 Th originate from the reservoir rock that contains oil, gas and formation water. Formation water contains significant concentrations of isotopes of radium dissolved from the reservoir rock. The parent isotopes of uranium and thorium are not mobilized from the rock and hence the radium isotopes appear in the water co-produced with the oil and gas. When the ions of Group II elements are present in the produced water, drops in pressure and temperature can lead to precipitation of sulphate and carbonate scales on the inner walls of production tubulars, well heads, valves, pumps, separators, water treatment vessels, gas treatment and oil storage tanks. The mixed stream of oil, gas and water carries the radon gas generated in the reservoir rock and in the production stream it preferentially follows the dry export gases. Consequently the equipment from gas treatment and transport facilities may accumulate a thin film of 210 Pb in the inner surfaces of gas lines. The radionuclide concentrations in produced water, hard scale and sludge will be presented. Indication on typical quantities of wastes generated and best practices followed in the industry in managing such wastes will be outlined. Information on external gamma exposure and potential internal exposure as well as global emerging issues will be discussed

  9. Experimental study on effect of roasting, boiling and microwave cooking methods on enrofloxacin antibiotic residues in edible poultry tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Javadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different cooking processes such as boiling, roasting and microwaving on enrofloxacin residues in muscle, liver and gizzard tissues of broiler chickens. Each of chicks was fed by routine diet and water with %0.05 of enrofloxacine for consecutive 5 days .Then; three locations including breast muscle, liver and gizzard were sampled aseptically from each carcass. Enrofloxacin residue was analyzed using microbial method by plates seeded with Escherichia coli. After doing different phases of the test on raw samples, the positive raw samples cooked by various cooking procedures and we surveyed cooked samples with similar method again for present of residue. The results were show reduction in concentration of enrofloxacin residue after different cooking processes. The most reduction of the residue in cooked meat and gizzard samples related to boiling process and roasting process for cooked liver samples and the highest detectable amount of residue belonged to microwaving process in all cooked samples. Regarding to the results of this study, we can conclude that cooking processes can’t annihilate total amounts of these drug and it can only decrease their amounts and the most of residue in boiling process excreted from tissue to cooking fluid.

  10. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: enzo.lombi@unisa.edu.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  11. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombi, E.; Stevens, D.P.; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  12. Effect of residual nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen on sugar beet production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veikko Brummer

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary determinations for NO3- and NH4-N in topsoil from nitrogen field experiments are discussed. The amounts of residual nitrogen as well as the dates and depth for sampling are considerd in order to investigate the need of fertilizer-N for continuous sugar beet. Tops ploughed down as manure increased the available soil nitrogen by about 50 kg/ha. In practice nitrogen from fertilizer and farmyard manure given to previous beet crops seems to accumulate in the beet soils of Finland. The concentrations of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in topsoil were low in the spring of 1972 and 1973. NO3-N increased in topsoil during the early summer, and the highest concentrations were found at the beginning of July. Starting from the middle of July the amount of NH4-N began to increase both in topsoil and in subsoil. With increasing amounts of nitrogen in the topsoil the sugar content decreases continuously. Also the α-amio N content of beets correlates with the soil nitrogen. There is experimental evidence that 150 180 kg/ha nitrate nitrogen in topsoil (residual + fertilizer N in early July gives the best economic result. The effects of fertilizer and accumulated soil nitrogen on the sugar beet quality together with som other experimental data have been statistically analysed. Regression coefficients indicated that both forms of nitrogen affected the suger content, the α-amino N concentration and clear juice purity, in a similar way.

  13. Effect of heteroscedasticity treatment in residual error models on model calibration and prediction uncertainty estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruochen; Yuan, Huiling; Liu, Xiaoli

    2017-11-01

    The heteroscedasticity treatment in residual error models directly impacts the model calibration and prediction uncertainty estimation. This study compares three methods to deal with the heteroscedasticity, including the explicit linear modeling (LM) method and nonlinear modeling (NL) method using hyperbolic tangent function, as well as the implicit Box-Cox transformation (BC). Then a combined approach (CA) combining the advantages of both LM and BC methods has been proposed. In conjunction with the first order autoregressive model and the skew exponential power (SEP) distribution, four residual error models are generated, namely LM-SEP, NL-SEP, BC-SEP and CA-SEP, and their corresponding likelihood functions are applied to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model over the Huaihe River basin, China. Results show that the LM-SEP yields the poorest streamflow predictions with the widest uncertainty band and unrealistic negative flows. The NL and BC methods can better deal with the heteroscedasticity and hence their corresponding predictive performances are improved, yet the negative flows cannot be avoided. The CA-SEP produces the most accurate predictions with the highest reliability and effectively avoids the negative flows, because the CA approach is capable of addressing the complicated heteroscedasticity over the study basin.

  14. Effect of residual stress in layered ceramic microcomposites on crack propagation during fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaszewski, H.; Strzeszewski, J.; Gebicki, W.

    1998-01-01

    Laminar composites, containing layers of Y-ZrO 2 and either Al 2 O 3 or a mixture of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 have been fabricated using a sequential centrifuging technique of water solutions containing of suspended particles. Controlled crack growth experiments with notched beams of composites were done and showed the significant effect of barrier layer thickness and composition of the crack propagation path during fracture. Distinct crack deflection in alumina layers was observed. The increase of crack deflection angle with the alumina layer thickness was also found. In the case of the barrier layer made of mixture, crack deflection did not occur independently on layer thickness. The observed changes have been correlated with the radial distribution of residual stresses in barrier layers created during cooling of sintered composites from fabrication temperature. The stress found were the result of the differences in the thermal expansion and sintering shrinkage of alumina and zirconia and the crystallographically anisotropic thermal expansion of the alumina. The residual stress distribution has been measured by piezo-spectroscopy based on the optical fluorescence of Cr + dopants in alumina. (author)

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the nutritive value of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, Moutaz

    1992-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effects of doses of gamma irradiation on the nutritive value of cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw, and maize cobs, as an attempt to improve the nutritive value of these residues in order to utilize theme in animal diets. Ground samples of six residues were irradiated by 137 Cs gamma source (Gammator) at doses of 0, 1, 10, 40, 50, and 100 kilo gray (KGy) under identical conditions of temperature and humidity, and analysed for dry matter, crude ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre, Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF), and Acid detergent Lignin (ADL). The results indicate that gamma irradiation has no effect on crude protein whereas decreased crude fat content. Gamma irradiation has a pronounced effect on decreasing crude fibre contents especially at the highest dose (100 KGy) reaching (%): 30, 21, 15, 17, 21 and 16 for cottonwood, wheat straw, barley straw, lentils straw, maize straw, and maize cobs respectively with increases in NFE values. NDF decreased by 19.7%, 13%, and 11.5% for wheat straw and maize straw respectively, by 9.3% for maize cobs and barley straw and by 6.6% for cottonwood. The reductions in ADF values were: 8% for cottonwood, 7.3% for maize straw and maize cobs, and 5.7% for wheat straw and barley straw. Gamma irradiation lowered ADL content by 29% for maize cobs, 17.2% for barley straw and by 20.8% and 7.4 for wheat straw and cottonwood respectively. Gamma irradiation (100 KGy) has no effect on ADF, ADL, and cellulose for lentils straw and on hemicellulose for cottonwood. (author). 24 refs., 20 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Soil water retention as affected by tillage and residue management in semiarid Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bescansa, P.; Imaz, M.J.; Virto, I.; Enrique, A.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation tillage preserves soil water and this has been the main reason for its rapid dissemination in rainfed agriculture in semiarid climates. We determined the effects of conservation versus conventional tillage on available soil water capacity (AWC) and related properties at the end of 5

  17. Improved performance and stability of field-effect transistors with polymeric residue-free graphene channel transferred by gold layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi; Trung, Tran Quang; Jung, Jin-Heak; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2014-03-07

    One of the most significant issues that occurs when applying chemical-vapor deposited (CVD) graphene (Gr) to various high-performance device applications is the result of polymeric residues. Polymeric residues remain on the Gr surface during Gr polymer support transfer to an arbitrary substrate, and these residues degrade CVD Gr electrical properties. In this paper, we propose that a thin layer of gold be used as a CVD Gr transfer layer, instead of a polymer support layer, to enable a polymer residue-free transfer. Comparative investigation of the surface morphological and qualitative analysis of residues on Gr surfaces and Gr field-effect transistors (GFETs) using two transfer methods demonstrates that gold-transferred Gr, with uniform, smooth, and clean surfaces, enable GFETs to perform better than Gr transferred by the polymer, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). In GFETs fabricated by the gold transfer method, field-effect carrier mobility was greatly enhanced and the position of the Dirac point was significantly reduced compared to GFETs fabricated by the PMMA transfer method. In addition, compared to the PMMA-transferred GFETs, the gold-transferred GFETs showed greatly increased stability with smaller hysteresis and higher resistance to gate bias stress effects. These results suggest that the gold transfer method for Gr provides significant improvements in GFET performance and reliability by minimizing the polymeric residues and defects on Gr.

  18. Radiation Protection and NORM Residue Management in the Titanium Dioxide and Related Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The Fundamental Safety Principles (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1), together with Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3 (Interim)), set out the principles and basic requirements for radiation protection and safety applicable to all activities involving radiation exposure, including exposure to natural sources of radiation. The Safety Guides on Occupational Radiation Protection in the Mining and Processing of Raw Materials (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. RS-G-1.6) and Management of Radioactive Waste from the Mining and Milling of Ores (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. WS-G-1.2) provide guidance on the control of exposure of workers and members of the public to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in industrial activities involving the exploitation of minerals. This guidance applies irrespective of whether the minerals are exploited for their radioactivity content. The titanium dioxide and related industries constitute one of several industry sectors for which the radioactivity content of the minerals and raw materials involved is too small to be of commercial value but is large enough to warrant consideration by the regulatory body concerning the possible need to control exposures of workers and members of the public. This Safety Report has been developed as part of the IAEA's programme to provide for the application of its safety standards in the field of radiation, transport and waste safety. It is a compilation of detailed information on the processes and materials involved in the titanium dioxide and related industries and on the radiological considerations that need to be taken into account by the regulatory body when determining the nature and extent of radiation protection measures to be taken. This is consistent with the graded approach to regulation, in terms of which the application of the requirements of the safety standards is

  19. Quantification of heavy metals from residual waste and ashes from the treatment plant of residual water Reciclagua and,effects for the health of those workers which manipulate those residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero D, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    concentrations greater than 0.5% in weight, as long as the analysis of plasma emission spectroscopy very low concentrations are identified already that this method causes the destruction of the sample achieving the identification of all the present elements. With the obtained results we are able to compare the concentrations of the metals before and after the leaching and we calculate by this way the percentage of efficiency for each one of the variables that were managed in the development of the study, obtaining the extraction of those toxic, and valuable metals, present in the muds until of 100%. Based on the results we can mention that the workers are exposed to aerosols and powders of these toxic residuals which contain heavy metals. (Author)

  20. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, Sami F.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Ferrer-Villada, Tania; López-Izquierdo, Angelica; Pandit, Sandeep; Calvo, Conrado J.; Grzeda, Krzysztof R.; Berenfeld, Omer; Sánchez Chapula, José A.; Jalife, José

    2010-01-01

    Atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias can be perpetuated by up-regulation of inward rectifier potassium channels. Thus, it may be beneficial to block inward rectifier channels under conditions in which their function becomes arrhythmogenic (e.g., inherited gain-of-function mutation channelopathies, ischemia, and chronic and vagally mediated atrial fibrillation). We hypothesize that the antimalarial quinoline chloroquine exerts potent antiarrhythmic effects by interacting with the cytoplasmic domains of Kir2.1 (IK1), Kir3.1 (IKACh), or Kir6.2 (IKATP) and reducing inward rectifier potassium currents. In isolated hearts of three different mammalian species, intracoronary chloroquine perfusion reduced fibrillatory frequency (atrial or ventricular), and effectively terminated the arrhythmia with resumption of sinus rhythm. In patch-clamp experiments chloroquine blocked IK1, IKACh, and IKATP. Comparative molecular modeling and ligand docking of chloroquine in the intracellular domains of Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kir6.2 suggested that chloroquine blocks or reduces potassium flow by interacting with negatively charged amino acids facing the ion permeation vestibule of the channel in question. These results open a novel path toward discovering antiarrhythmic pharmacophores that target specific residues of the cytoplasmic domain of inward rectifier potassium channels.—Noujaim, S. F., Stuckey, J. A., Ponce-Balbuena, D., Ferrer-Villada, T., López-Izquierdo, A., Pandit, S., Calvo, C. J., Grzeda, K. R., Berenfeld, O., Sánchez Chapula, J. A., Jalife, J. Specific residues of the cytoplasmic domains of cardiac inward rectifier potassium channels are effective antifibrillatory targets. PMID:20585026

  1. Antibiotic residues in liquid manure from swine feedlot and their effects on nearby groundwater in regions of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Liu, Chong; Chen, Yongxing; Huang, Hongkun; Ren, Tianzhi

    2018-04-01

    A survey was conducted in regions of North China to better understand the effect of antibiotic residue pollution from swine feedlots to nearby groundwater environment. A total of nine experimental sites located in the regions of Beijing, Hebei, and Tianjin were selected to analyze the presence of residues of 11 most commonly used antibiotics, including tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQNs), sulfonamides (SAs), macrolides, and fenicols, by using liquid chromatography spectrometry. The three most common antibiotics were TCs, FQNs, and SAs, with mean concentrations of 416.4, 228.8, and 442.4 μg L -1 in wastewater samples; 19.9, 11.8, and 0.3 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from swine feedlots; and 29.7, 14.0, and 0 μg L -1 in groundwater samples from villages. Ordination analysis revealed that the composition and distribution of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (AGRs) were similar in groundwater samples from swine feedlots and villages. FQNs and TCs occurred along the path from wastewater to groundwater at high concentrations and showed correlations with ARGs, with a strong correlation between FQN resistance gene (qnrA) copy number. FQN concentration was also found (P swine feedlots through wastewater could disseminate into surrounding groundwater environments together with ARG occurrence (i.e., qnrA, sulI, sulII, tetG, tetM, and tetO). Overall, this study suggests that the spread of veterinary antibiotics from swine feedlots to groundwater environments should be highly attended and controlled by restricting excess antibiotic usage or improving the technology of manure management.

  2. Effect of residual stress on the integrity of a branch connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.; Kirstein, O.; Luzin, V.

    2012-01-01

    A new connection to an existing gas pipeline was made by hot-tapping, welding directly onto a pressurised pipeline. The welds were not post-weld heat treated, causing significant residual stresses. The critical weld had residual stresses determined by neutron diffraction using ANSTO's residual stress diffractometer, Kowari. The maximum measured residual stress (290 MPa) was 60% of the yield strength. The magnitudes of errors from a number of sources were estimated. An integrity assessment of the welded branch connection was performed with the measured residual stress values and with residual stress distributions from the BS 7910 and API 579 analysis codes. Analysis using estimates of residual stress from API 579 overestimated the critical crack size. Highlights: ► Residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction in a thick section, non post-weld heat treated ferritic weld. ► There is little published data on these welds. ► The work compares the measured residual stresses with code-based residual stress distributions.

  3. Effect of processing conditions and methods on residual stress in CeO2 buffer layers and YBCO superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jie; Qin Wenfeng; Cui Xumei; Tao Bowan; Tang Jinlong; Li Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    CeO 2 layers have been fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on (1 1 0 2) sapphire substrate. Microstructure of CeO 2 layers is characterized by X-ray diffraction as functions of substrate temperature. The effects of the substrate temperature on the residual stress have been studied. The results show that residual stress in CeO 2 film decreased with increasing substrate temperature, not the same development tendency as that of thermal stress. This means that the thermal stress is only a fraction of the residual stress. Moreover, YBCO superconducting films were prepared by direct current (DC) sputtering and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The residual stress and thermal stress of both YBCO films were measured. PLD processing apparently generated higher intrinsic compressive stresses in comparison to DC sputtering

  4. Effect of cooldown and residual magnetic field on the performance of niobium–copper clad superconducting radio-frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present the results of rf measurements on a niobium–copper clad superconducting radio-frequency cavity with different cooldown conditions and residual magnetic field in a vertical test Dewar in order to explore the effect of thermal current induced magnetic field and its trapping on the performance of the cavity. The residual resistance, extracted from the Q 0 (T) curves in the temperature range 4.3–1.5 K, showed no dependence on a temperature gradient along the cavity during the cooldown across the critical temperature up to ~50 K m –1 . The rf losses due to the trapping of residual magnetic field during the cavity cooldown were found to be ~4.3 nΩ μT –1 , comparable to the values measured in bulk niobium cavities. An increase of residual resistance following multiple cavity quenches was observed along with evidence of trapping of magnetic flux generated by thermoelectric currents.

  5. Effect of rolling on the residual stresses and magnetic properties of a 0.5% Si electrical steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.F. de; Sablik, M.J.; Landgraf, F.J.G.; Hirsch, T.K.; Machado, R.; Magnabosco, R.; Gutierrez, C.J.; Bandyopadhyay, A.

    2008-01-01

    Cold-rolled (0-19% of reduction) 0.5% Si electrical steel sheets were studied in detail, including macro and micro residual stress measurements, crystallographic texture, dc-hysteresis curves and iron losses. Even for the smallest deformation, losses increase significantly, with large increase of the hysteresis losses, whereas the anomalous losses reduce slightly. The residual microstresses are ∼150-350 MPa, whereas residual macrostresses are compressive, ∼50 MPa. The large increase of the hysteresis losses is attributed to the residual microstresses. The dislocation density estimated by X-ray diffraction is in reasonable agreement with that predicted from the Sablik et al. model for effect of plastic deformation on hysteresis. The intensity of the texture fibers {1 1 1} and //RD (RD=rolling direction) increases with the reduction

  6. Effect of laser shock peening on residual stress and fatigue life of clad 2024 aluminium sheet containing scribe defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, M.; Toparli, M.B.; Smyth, N.; Cini, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Irving, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of laser peen intensity on local residual stress fields in 2024 aluminium. ► Peening induces significant changes in surface topography and local hardness. ► Residual stress at peen spot centre in tension, spot overlap in compression. ► Notched fatigue lives increased; crack morphology correlated to residual stress field. ► Large peening power densities can cause fatigue life reduction in notched samples. - Abstract: Laser peening at a range of power densities has been applied to 2 mm-thick sheets of 2024 T351 aluminium. The induced residual stress field was measured using incremental hole drilling and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. Fatigue samples were subjected to identical laser peening treatments followed by scribing at the peen location to introduce stress concentrations, after which they were fatigue tested. The residual stresses were found to be non-biaxial: orthogonal to the peen line they were tensile at the surface, moving into the desired compression with increased depth. Regions of peen spot overlap were associated with large compression strains; the centre of the peen spot remaining tensile. Fatigue lives showed moderate improvement over the life of unpeened samples for 50 μm deep scribes, and slight improvement for samples with 150 μm scribes. Use of the residual stress intensity K resid approach to calculate fatigue life improvement arising from peening was unsuccessful at predicting the relative effects of the different peening treatments. Possible reasons for this are explored.

  7. Separation and effect of residual moisture in liquid phase adsorption of xylene on y zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lahot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The separation of p-xylene and m-xylene from C8 aromatic hydrocarbon feed using Y zeolites is investigated. Effect of residual moisture on p-xylene adsorption on BaY was measured in order to optimize the activation temperature of the adsorbent. The results show that with an increase in temperature the moisture on the adsorbent decreases. An optimum loading of moisture is required for adsorption of xylene on the adsorbents. The Everett equation is used to determine the adsorption capacity and selectivity. It has been found that the adsorbents best suited for the separation of p-xylene, m-xylene, o-xylene and ethyl benzene from the mixture of C8 aromatics are NaY, NaY, BaY and KY, respectively. The XRD results show that the crystallinity of the adsorbent decreases upon exchanging the zeolites to K+ and Ba2+ ions.

  8. Effect of paste processing on residue levels of imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin and fipronil in winter jujube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Zhao, Liuwei; Liu, Fengmao; Xue, Jiaying; Li, Huichen; Shi, Kaiwei

    2014-01-01

    The changes of imidacloprid, pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin and fipronil residues were studied to investigate the carryover of pesticide residues in winter jujube during paste processing. A multi-residue analytical method for winter jujube was developed based on the QuEChERS approach. The recoveries for the pesticides were between 87.5% and 116.2%. LODs ranged from 0.002 to 0.1 mg kg(-1). The processing factor (Pf) is defined as the ratio of pesticide residue concentration in the paste to that in winter jujube. Pf was higher than 1 for the removal of extra water, and other steps were generally less than 1, indicating that the whole process resulted in lower pesticide residue levels in paste. Peeling would be the critical step for pesticide removal. Processing factors varied among different pesticides studied. The results are useful to address optimisation of the processing techniques in a manner that leads to considerable pesticide residue reduction.

  9. Effects on Machining on Surface Residual Stress of SA 508 and Austenitic Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Seong Ho; Park, Chi Yong; Yang, Jun Seok; Lee, Jeong Geun; Park, Jai Hak

    2011-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking has occurred in dissimilar weld areas in nuclear power plants. Residual stress is a driving force in the crack. Residual stress may be generated by weld or surface machining. Residual stress due to surface machining depends on the machining method, e.g., milling, grinding, or EDM. The stress is usually distributed on or near the surface of the material. We present the measured residual stress for machining on SA 508 and austenitic stainless steels such as TP304 and F316. The residual stress can be tensile or compressive depending on the machining method. The depth and the magnitude of the residual stress depend on the material and the machining method

  10. Differential residual effects of zaleplon and zopiclone on actual driving: a comparison with a low dose of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Annemiek; Riedel, Wim J; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Darwish, Mona; Paty, Isabelle; Patat, Alain

    2002-03-15

    To compare residual effects of zaleplon 10 mg, zopiclone 7.5 mg, and placebo, and a social dose of alcohol on car driving, memory, and psychomotor performance. Two-part placebo controlled, crossover study. Part 1 was single blind, Part 2 double blind. University research institute. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 men and 15 women, mean age 32 +/- 7 years) In Part 1 alcohol and alcohol-placebo drinks were administered around noon. In Part 2 single oral doses of zaleplon 10 mg, zopiclone 7.5 mg and placebo were administered at bedtime. A highway driving test, laboratory tests of word learning, critical tracking and divided attention, and subjective assessments of sleep, mood, and effects of treatments on driving. Driving started 40 minutes after a second alcohol dose in Part 1, and 10 hours after drug intake in Part 2. The results demonstrated that alcohol, at average plasma concentrations of approximately 0.030 g/dl, significantly impaired performance in all tests. Zaleplon's residual effects did not differ significantly from those of placebo in any test. In contrast, zopiclone had significant residual effects on driving, divided attention, and memory. The magnitude of impairment in the driving test observed the morning after zopiclone 7.5 mg was twice that observed with alcohol. Zaleplon 10 mg has no residual effects on driving when taken at bedtime, 10 hours before driving. In contrast, zopiclone 7.5 mg can cause marked residual impairment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving the morning after zopiclone administration.

  11. Pesticide management and their residues in sediments and surface and drinking water in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, Pham Van; Sebesvari, Zita; Bläsing, Melanie; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Renaud, Fabrice G

    2013-05-01

    Public concern in Vietnam is increasing with respect to pesticide pollution of the environment and of drinking water resources. While established monitoring programs in the Mekong Delta (MD) focus on the analysis of organochlorines and some organophosphates, the environmental concentrations of more recently used pesticides such as carbamates, pyrethroides, and triazoles are not monitored. In the present study, household level pesticide use and management was therefore surveyed and combined with a one year environmental monitoring program of thirteen relevant pesticides (buprofezin, butachlor, cypermethrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan-sulfate, fenobucarb, fipronil, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, profenofos, propanil, and propiconazole) in surface water, soil, and sediment samples. The surveys showed that household level pesticide management remains suboptimal in the Mekong Delta. As a consequence, a wide range of pesticide residues were present in water, soil, and sediments throughout the monitoring period. Maximum concentrations recorded were up to 11.24 μg l(-1) in water for isoprothiolane and up to 521 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment for buprofezin. Annual average concentrations ranged up to 3.34 μg l(-1) in water and up to 135 μg kg(-1) dm in sediment, both for isoprothiolane. Occurrence of pesticides in the environment throughout the year and co-occurrence of several pesticides in the samples indicate a considerable chronic exposure of biota and humans to pesticides. This has a high relevance in the delta as water for drinking is often extracted from canals and rivers by rural households (GSO, 2005, and own surveys). The treatment used by the households for preparing surface water prior to consumption (flocculation followed by boiling) is insufficient for the removal of the studied pesticides and boiling can actually increase the concentration of non-volatile pollutants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on residual nitrate and nitrite in some meat and chicken products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, S.A.; Abdel-Daiem, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish the residual nitrate and nitrite and concentrations of six heavy metals in meat products samples that purchased from retail outlets in Sharkia governorate, Egypt. The possibility of using gamma irradiation at doses of 3, 5 and 7 KGy for reducing residual nitrate and nitrite was studied. The results showed that most of samples under investigation above the maximum permissible limit of nitrate in Egypt. Gamma irradiation at doses of 3, 5 and 7 KGy reduced the levels of nitrate and nitrite proportionally to applied doses. The irradiation dose of 7 KGy was more effective for reducing the level of residual nitrate and nitrite. Heavy metals concentrations were determined using the inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICPS) in non-irradiated samples. The results showed that the concentration of Pb in meat products was ranged between 0.643-0.828, 0.548, 0.598-0.844, 0.574-0.877, 0.324-0.568 and 0.156-0.432 mg/kg (wet weight basis) in pastirma, chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and minced beef meat, respectively, but the values of Hg ranged between 0.0965-0.839, 0.121, 0.147-0.218, 0.114-0.258, 0.087-0.143 and 0.057-0.124 mg/kg in pastirma, chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and beef meat, respectively. The content of iron ranged between 0.336, 0.362-4.284, 0.364-0.611, 0.264-0.336 and 0.276-0.314 mg/kg in chicken luncheon, fresh sausages, burger, minced chicken and beef meat, respectively. However, the results indicated that, the most of meat products under investigation had high concentrations from toxic metals of Pb and Hg than the permissible limits that recommended by FAO/WHO of person daily. Therefore, the consumption of high amount of these commodities dose not pose a health risk for the consumer

  13. Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Zhang, H.; dikgwatlhe, S.B.; Xue, J.; Qiu, K.; Tang, H.; Chen, F.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientific community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different tillage systems and

  14. Effect of Residence Time on Hydrothermal Carbonization of Corn Cob Residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal carbonization is a promising technique for conversion of industrial waste into valuable products. Producing hydrochar from corn cob residual (CCR in a cost-effective way is key, from an economic standpoint. For this purpose, the effect of residence time in the range of 0.5 to 6 h was studied under the optimal temperature of 250 °C. Results showed that the higher heating value (HHV of hydrochar increased approximately 40% in comparison to that of the raw material; however, prolonging the residence time beyond 0.5 h had a negligible effect on the HHV increase. Chemical compositions and H/C and O/C ratios of hydrochars revealed a minimal effect of longer residence time. Furthermore, thermogravimetric and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis of hydrochars also verified that the pyrolysis behavior and chemical structure of hydrochars with various residence times were similar.

  15. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: camilarezende.cr@gmail.com, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vladimirsoler@hotmail.com, E-mail: ahfv02@outlook.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  16. Effect of prior machining deformation on the development of tensile residual stresses in weld-fabricated nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevey, P.S.; Mason, P.W.; Hornbach, D.J.; Molkenthin, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Austenitic alloy weldments in nuclear systems may be subject to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure if the sum of residual and applied stresses exceeds a critical threshold. Residual stresses developed by prior machining and welding may either accelerate or retard SCC, depending on their magnitude and sign. A combined x-ray diffraction and mechanical procedure was used to determine the axial and hoop residual stress and yield strength distributions into the inside-diameter surface of a simulated Alloy 600 penetration J-welded into a reactor pressure vessel. The degree of cold working and the resulting yield strength increase caused by prior machining and weld shrinkage were calculated from the line-broadening distributions. Tensile residual stresses on the order of +700 MPa were observed in both the axial and the hoop directions at the inside-diameter surface in a narrow region adjacent to the weld heat-affected zone. Stresses exceeding the bulk yield strength were found to develop due to the combined effects of cold working of the surface layers during initial machining and subsequent weld shrinkage. The residual stress and cold work distributions produced by prior machining were found to influence strongly the final residual stress state developed after welding

  17. Effect of processing on the disappearance of pesticide residues in fresh-cut lettuce: Bioavailability and dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Miguel A; Barba, Alberto; Cermeño, Sandra; Martinez, Gracia; Oliva, Jose

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this research is to establish the processing factors of six pesticides durong the preparation of fresh-cut lettuce and to assess the risk of ingestion of pesticide residues associated with the consumption of the same. A field study was carried out on the dissipation of three insecticides (imidacloprid, tebufenozide, cypermethrin) and three fungicides (metalaxyl, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin) during treatment conditions simulating those used for commercial fresh-cut lettuce. A simultaneous residue analysis method is validated using QuEChERS extraction with acetonitrile and CG-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The residues detected after field application never exceed the established Maximum Residue Limits. The processing factors were generally less than 1 (between 0.34 for tebufenozide and 0.53 for imidacloprid), indicating that the process, as a whole, considerably reduces residue levels in processed lettuce compared to fresh lettuce. It is confirmed that cutting, followed by washing and drying, considerably reduces the residues. A matrix effect in the dialyzation of the pesticides is observed and the in vitro study of bioavailability establishes a low percentage of stomach absorption capacity (lettuce showed no concerns for consumer health.

  18. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  19. Effects of rapeseed residue on lead and cadmium availability and uptake by rice plants in heavy metal contaminated paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Yong Sik; Usman, Adel R A; Lee, Sang Soo; Abd El-Azeem, Samy A M; Choi, Bongsu; Hashimoto, Yohey; Yang, Jae E

    2011-10-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) has been cultivated for biodiesel production worldwide. Winter rapeseed is commonly grown in the southern part of Korea under a rice-rapeseed double cropping system. In this study, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of rapeseed residue applied as a green manure alone or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer on Cd and Pb speciation in the contaminated paddy soil and their availability to rice plant (Oryza sativa L.). The changes in soil chemical and biological properties in response to the addition of rapeseed residue were also evaluated. Specifically, the following four treatments were evaluated: 100% mineral N fertilizer (N100) as a control, 70% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N70+R), 30% mineral N fertilizer+rapeseed residue (N30+R) and rapeseed residue alone (R). The electrical conductivity and exchangeable cations of the rice paddy soil subjected to the R treatment or in combinations with mineral N fertilizer treatment, N70+R and N30+R, were higher than those in soils subjected to the N100 treatment. However, the soil pH value with the R treatment (pH 6.3) was lower than that with N100 treatment (pH 6.9). Use of rapeseed residue as a green manure led to an increase in soil organic matter (SOM) and enhanced the microbial populations in the soil. Sequential extraction also revealed that the addition of rapeseed residue decreased the easily accessible fraction of Cd by 5-14% and Pb by 30-39% through the transformation into less accessible fractions, thereby reducing metal availability to the rice plant. Overall, the incorporation of rapeseed residue into the metal contaminated rice paddy soils may sustain SOM, improve the soil chemical and biological properties, and decrease the heavy metal phytoavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A cost-effective screening method for pesticide residue analysis in fruits, vegetables, and cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, A; Füzesi, I; Susán, M; Dobi, D; Lantos, J; Zakar, F; Korsós, I; Oláh, J; Beke, B B; Katavics, L

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of studies performed to investigate the potential of applying thin layer chromatography (TLC) detection in combination with selected extraction and cleanup methods, for providing an alternative cost-effective analytical procedure for screening and confirmation of pesticide residues in plant commodities. The extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate and an on-line extraction method applying an acetone-dichloromethane mixture. The extracts were cleaned up with SX-3 gel, an adsorbent mixture of active carbon, magnesia, and diatomaceous earth, and on silica micro cartridges. The Rf values of 118 pesticides were tested in eleven elution systems with UV, and eight biotest methods and chemical detection reagents. Cabbage, green peas, orange, and tomatoes were selected as representative sample matrices for fruits and vegetables, while maize, rice, and wheat represented cereal grains. As an internal quality control measure, marker compounds were applied on each plate to verify the proper elution and detection conditions. The Rf values varied in the different elution systems. The best separation (widest Rf range) was achieved with silica gel (SG)--ethyl acetate (0.05-0.7), SG--benzene, (0.02-0.7) and reverse phase RP-18 F-254S layer with acetone: methanol: water/30:30:30 (v/v) (0.1-0.8). The relative standard deviation of Rf values (CV(Rf)) within laboratory reproducibility was generally less than 20%, except below 0.2 Rf, where the CVRf rapidly increased with decreasing Rf values. The fungi spore inhibition, chloroplast inhibition, and enzyme inhibition were found most suitable for detection of pesticides primarily for confirming their identity or screening for known substances. Their use for determination of pesticide residues in samples of unknown origin is not recommended.

  1. Effect of fermented biogas residue on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of fermented biogas residue (FBR of wheat on the performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs. Methods We selected 128 pigs (the mean initial body weight was 40.24±3.08 kg and randomly allocated them to 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups with 4 replicates per group and 8 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight and sex. The control group received a corn-soybean meal-based diet, the treatment group fed diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% FBR, respectively (abbreviated as FBR5, FBR10, and FBR15, respectively. Every group received equivalent-energy and nitrogen diets. The test lasted 60 days and was divided into early and late stages. Blood and carcass samples were obtained on 60 d. Meat quality was collected from two pigs per pen. Results During the late stage, the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the treatment groups was greater than that of the control group (p<0.05. During the entire experiment, the average daily gain of the treatment groups was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05. Fermented biomass residue did not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters or meat quality, but did affect amino acid profiles in pork. The contents of Asp, Arg, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Thr, Ser, Lys, Pro, Ala, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and total amino acids in pork of FBR5 and FBR10 were greater than those of the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion These combined results suggest that feeding FBR could increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake in pigs and the content of several flavor-promoting amino acids.

  2. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Effect of Cover Crop Residues on Some Physicochemical Properties of Soil and Emergence Rate of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaffari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crop residues on speed of seed  potato emergence and percentage of organic carbon, soil specific weight and soil temperature. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu-AliSinaUniversity, in 2008-2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. Winter cover crops consisted of rye, barley and oilseed rape, each one with common plant density (rye and barley at 190 kg.ha-1 and oilseed rape at 9 kg.ha-1 and triple plant densities(rye and barley 570 kg.ha-1 and oilseed rape, 27 kg.ha-1 and control (without cover crop. The results showed that rye and barley with triple plant densities produced higher biomass (1503.5 and 1392.2 g/m2, respectively than other treatments.Soil physicochemical properties were affected significantly by using cover crops. Rye, barley, and oilseed rape with triple rate and rye with common rape of plant densities produced, the highest organic carbon. Green manure of rye and barley with triple and rye with common rate plant densities, reduced soil specific weights by 17.3, 18 and 18 percent as compared with the control treatment (without cover crop planting. Rye and barley with triple plant densities increased average soil temperature by 12 and 11 percent respectively in comparison with control treatment. These treatments increased speed of seed potato emergence by 20 and 12 percent respectively as compared with that of control treatment, respectively. Other treatments showed no significant difference as compared to control. Cover crop residues increased plants speed of seed potato emergence through improving soil conditions.

  4. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  5. Effects of residual hearing on cochlear implant outcomes in children: A systematic-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiossi, Julia Santos Costa; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo

    2017-09-01

    to investigate if preoperative residual hearing in prelingually deafened children can interfere on cochlear implant indication and outcomes. a systematic-review was conducted in five international databases up to November-2016, to locate articles that evaluated cochlear implantation in children with some degree of preoperative residual hearing. Outcomes were auditory, language and cognition performances after cochlear implant. The quality of the studies was assessed and classified according to the Oxford Levels of Evidence table - 2011. Risk of biases were also described. From the 30 articles reviewed, two types of questions were identified: (a) what are the benefits of cochlear implantation in children with residual hearing? (b) is the preoperative residual hearing a predictor of cochlear implant outcome? Studies ranged from 04 to 188 subjects, evaluating populations between 1.8 and 10.3 years old. The definition of residual hearing varied between studies. The majority of articles (n = 22) evaluated speech perception as the outcome and 14 also assessed language and speech production. There is evidence that cochlear implant is beneficial to children with residual hearing. Preoperative residual hearing seems to be valuable to predict speech perception outcomes after cochlear implantation, even though the mechanism of how it happens is not clear. More extensive researches must be conducted in order to make recommendations and to set prognosis for cochlear implants based on children preoperative residual hearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incinerators are hazardous waste according to European legislation and must be treated prior to landfilling. Batch and column leaching data determine which type of landfill can receive the treated APC-residues. CEN standards are prescribed...

  7. Effects of Cutting Edge Microgeometry on Residual Stress in Orthogonal Cutting of Inconel 718 by FEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Zhanqiang; Hua, Yang; Zhao, Jinfu; Lv, Woyun; Mohsan, Aziz Ul Hassan

    2018-06-14

    Service performance of components such as fatigue life are dramatically influenced by the machined surface and subsurface residual stresses. This paper aims at achieving a better understanding of the influence of cutting edge microgeometry on machined surface residual stresses during orthogonal dry cutting of Inconel 718. Numerical and experimental investigations have been conducted in this research. The cutting edge microgeometry factors of average cutting edge radius S¯, form-factor K , and chamfer were investigated. An increasing trend for the magnitudes of both tensile and compressive residual stresses was observed by using larger S¯ or introducing a chamfer on the cutting edges. The ploughing depth has been predicted based on the stagnation zone. The increase of ploughing depth means that more material was ironed on the workpiece subsurface, which resulted in an increase in the compressive residual stress. The thermal loads were leading factors that affected the surface tensile residual stress. For the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 2, the friction between tool and workpiece and tensile residual stress tended to be high, while for the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 0.5, the high ploughing depth led to a higher compressive residual stress. This paper provides guidance for regulating machine-induced residual stress by edge preparation.

  8. Evaluation of dried vegetables residues for poultry: II. Effects of feeding cabbage leaf residues on broiler performance, ileal digestibility and total tract nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A F; Baurhoo, B

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacing corn and soybean meal with dried cabbage leaf residues (DCR) on broiler growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and apparent total tract nutrient utilization. Dietary treatments include 4 levels of DCR (0, 3, 6, and 9%). Two hundred and twenty-four day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (8 cage replicates; 7 birds/cage) and grown over a 35-d experimental period. Results showed that feeding DCR had no effects on daily body weigh gain (average 53.4 g/d), daily feed intake (average 94.9 g/d), and feed conversion ratio (average 1.78 g of feed/g of gain). Inclusion of DCR reduced apparent ileal DM (quadratic effect, P digestibility of younger birds (d 21) while incremental levels of DCR had no effect on apparent ileal nutrient digestibilities of older birds (d 35). Apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP increased (linear effect, P digestibility of older birds and improved apparent total tract nutrient digestibility. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Effect of increased exposure times on amount of residual monomer released from single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Botsali, Murat Selim; Tosun, Gonca; Yasar, Ahmet

    2015-10-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure times on the amount of residual Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA and UDMA released from single-step self-etch adhesive systems. Two adhesive systems were used. The adhesives were applied to bovine dentin surface according to the manufacturer's instructions and were polymerized using an LED curing unit for 10, 20 and 40 seconds (n = 5). After polymerization, the specimens were stored in 75% ethanol-water solution (6 mL). Residual monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA and HEMA) that were eluted from the adhesives (after 10 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days and 30 days) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. Among the time periods, the highest amount of released residual monomers from adhesives was observed in the 10th minute. There were statistically significant differences regarding released Bis-GMA, UDMA, HEMA and TEGDMA between the adhesive systems (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among the 10, 20 and 40 second polymerization times according to their effect on residual monomer release from adhesives (p>0.05). Increasing the polymerization time did not have an effect on residual monomer release from single-step self-etch adhesives.

  10. Effectiveness of the compound chlorpyrifos+ cypermethrin+citronellal against Alphitobius diaperinus: laboratory analysis and residue determination in carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness, biological security and the absence of residues in meat and/or eggs must be considered when recommending options for the control Alphitobius diaperinus in poultry production environments. This research study evaluated the effectiveness of cypermethrin+ chlorpyrifos+citronellal in the control of A. diaperinus, including analysis for the presence of residues of this compound in poultry carcasses (experimental farm. Two studies were carried out under laboratory conditions. One used paper filters a four dilutions of the compound, and the other used a container including with pulverized broiler litter and the compound. The analysis of carcasses for residues was conducted in broilers that raised in a broiler house treated (floor and/or litter with the compound at a dilution of 1:800. Birds were regularly sacrificed, submitted to necropsy, and liver, muscle and fat fragments were collected. Gas chromatography was used to identify the possible presence of any chemical residue in these samples. High effectiveness rates against A.diaperinus were observed in the two laboratory studies, as well as the absence of residues in the carcasses. This compound, used in the studied concentrations, can be recommended as a valuable alternative for the control and treatment of A. diaperinus.

  11. Institutions for Effective Water Demand Management

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... The paper also describes the state of South African WDM to highlight ... Download the PDF: Working Paper 4: Institutions for Effective Water Demand Management ​ ... Managing flood risk through collaborative governance.

  12. Effective strategies for comprehensive corridor management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Despite the increasing importance of comprehensive corridor management at the state and local government level, questions remain regarding effective methods for developing and implementing corridor management plans. Further insight is also needed int...

  13. Effect of Solution Properties on Arsenic Adsorption by Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2005-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element in the environment. Higher levels of As in soils may result from various anthropogenic sources such as use of arsenical pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes, and coal combustion. This is of great environmental and human health concern due to the high toxicity and proven carcinogenicity of several arsenical species. Thus there is a need for developing cost effective technologies capable of lowering bioavailable As concentrations in soils to environmentally acceptable levels. In-situ immobilization of metals using inexpensive amendments such as minerals (apatite, zeolite, or clay minerals) or waste by-products (steel shot, beringite, and iron-rich biosolids) to reduce bioavailability is an inexpensive alternative to the more expensive ex-situ remediation methods. One such emerging in-situ technique is the application of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs). WTRs can be classified as a byproduct of drinking water treatment plants and are generally composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. WTRs possess amorphous structure and generally have high positive charge. Because As is chemically similar to phosphorus, the oxyanions As (V) and As (III) may have the potential of being retained by the WTRs. Thus, it is hypothesized that WTRs retain As irreversibly, thereby reducing As biavailability. As mobility of arsenic is controlled by adsorption reactions, knowledge of adsorption of As by WTRs is of primary relevance. Although the overall rate of adsorption is dependent on numerous factors, review of the literature indicates that competing ions in solution play an important role in the overall retention of As; however, little work has been conducted to identify which ions provide the most competition. As arsenic adsorption appears to be influenced by the variable pH-dependent charges developed on the soil particle surfaces, the effect of pH is also of critical importance. Hence, the

  14. Enrofloxacin degradation in broiler chicken manure under field conditions and its residuals effects to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, M; Žigon, D; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2017-05-01

    The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterised. Its degradation was investigated in manure excreted by broiler chickens in an intensively reared chicken facility; further, the degradation also followed after transfer of the excreta into the natural environment occurred. The effect of enrofloxacin and its degradation products on cucumber and tomato was also investigated. Enrofloxacin degradation was shown to take place within the rearing facility and also continuing after the manure was transferred into the environment. The rates of enrofloxacin degradation and the degree of degradation product formation in the manure heap incubated in the environment were condition specific, both variables depending on the manure sampling depth. The degradation half-lives ranged from 12.7 to 38.1 days for enrofloxacin and from 1.2 to 8.2 days for the main metabolite ciprofloxacin. Only the cucumber showed signs of toxicity when incubated with the composted manure immediately after transfer into field occurred (t = 0). No toxic effects to plants were observed when manure from the last incubation day (60th) of the field study and manure from the last incubation day of the laboratory degradation study were applied. The degradation study under field conditions showed that enrofloxacin and its degradation products degrade fast in the environment. Additionally, the toxic effects to plants decrease with the incubation time of manure containing enrofloxacin residuals.

  15. Effect of the weld joint configuration on stressed components, residual stresses and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, Bekir; Oezer, Alpay; Oezcatalbas, Yusuf [Gazi Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-03-01

    The effect of the weld joint configuration on components has been studied, which are under service loads, under repair or construction and the residual stresses as well as the mechanical properties of the joint have been determined. For this purpose, a horizontal positioned tensile testing device and a semi-automatic MIG welding machine have been used and then the weld joints of the plates were subjected to different elastic stresses. When the temperature of the joined elements decreased to room temperature, applied elastic stresses were released. By this means, the effects of the existing tensile stresses in the joined parts and the tensile stresses created by the welding processes were investigated. The tensile stresses occurring in the joined elements were determined by using the photo-elasticity analysis method and the hole-drilling method. Also, tensile-shear tests were applied in order to determine the effect of permanent tensile loads on the mechanical properties of the joint. Experimental results showed that the application of corner welded lap joints for components under tensile loading significantly decrease the shear strength and yielding capacities of the joint. (orig.)

  16. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fertilizer nitrogen recovery efficiencies in crop production systems of China with and without consideration of the residual effect of nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xiaoyuan; Ti, Chaopu; Zhu, Zhaoliang; Vitousek, Peter; Chen, Deli; Leip, Adrian; Cai, Zucong

    2014-01-01

    China is the world’s largest consumer of synthetic nitrogen (N), where very low rates of fertilizer N recovery in crops have been reported, raising discussion around whether fertilizer N use can be significantly reduced without yield penalties. However, using recovery rates as indicator ignores a possible residual effect of fertilizer N—a factor often unknown at large scales. Such residual effect might store N in the soil increasing N availability for subsequent crops. The objectives of the present study were therefore to quantify the residual effect of fertilizer N in China and to obtain more realistic rates of the accumulative fertilizer N recovery efficiency (RE) in crop production systems of China. Long-term spatially-extensive data on crop production, fertilizer N and other N inputs to croplands in China were used to analyze the relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input (or total N input), and to estimate the amount of residual fertilizer N. Measurement results of cropland soil N content in two time periods were obtained to compare the change in the soil N pool. At the provincial scale, it was found that there is a linear relationship between crop N uptake and fertilizer N input or total N input. With the increase in fertilizer N input, annual direct fertilizer N RE decreased and was indeed low (below 30% in recent years), while its residual effect increased continuously, to the point that 40–68% of applied fertilizer was used for crop production sooner or later. The residual effect was evidenced by a buildup of soil N and a large difference between nitrogen use efficiencies of long-term and short-term experiments. (paper)

  18. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress mitigation for dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plant pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae; Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2008-01-01

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation methods which arrest crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore weld overlay can be applied to the region where cracking is likely to be. An overlay weld used in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). In Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) dissimilar metal weld is susceptible region for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking(PWSCC). In order to examine the effect of PWOL on residual stress mitigation, PWOL was applied to a specific dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, strong compressive residual stress was made in PWSCC susceptible region and PWOL was proved effective preemptive repair method for weldment

  19. Effect of preemptive weld overlay on residual stress mitigation for dissimilar metal weld of nuclear power plant pressurizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Bae, Hong Yeol; Chun, Yun Bae; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Soo; Park, Chi Yong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Weld overlay is one of the residual stress mitigation methods which arrest crack initiation and crack growth. Therefore weld overlay can be applied to the region where cracking is likely to be. An overlay weld used in this manner is termed a Preemptive Weld OverLay(PWOL). In Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR) dissimilar metal weld is susceptible region for Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking(PWSCC). In order to examine the effect of PWOL on residual stress mitigation, PWOL was applied to a specific dissimilar metal weld of Kori nuclear power plant by finite element analysis method. As a result, strong compressive residual stress was made in PWSCC susceptible region and PWOL was proved effective preemptive repair method for weldment.

  20. The fate of H2O2 during managed aquifer recharge: A residual from advanced oxidation processes for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; van Halem, D; van der Hoek, J P

    2016-04-01

    The fate of H2O2 residual from advanced oxidation process (AOP) preceding managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is of concern because H2O2 could lead to undesired effects on organisms in the MAR aquatic and soil ecosystem. The objective of this study was to distinguish between factors affecting H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems, simulated in batch reactors with synthetic MAR water and slow sand filter sand. The results showed that pure sand and soil organic matter had no considerable effect on H2O2 decomposition, whereas naturally occurring inorganic substances on the surface of sand grains and microbial biomass are the two main factors accelerating H2O2 decomposition in MAR systems. Additionally, the results showed that the H2O2 decompositions with different initial concentrations fitted first-order kinetics in 2-6 h in a mixture of slow sand filter sand (as a substitute for sand from a MAR system) and synthetic MAR water with high bacterial population. An estimation indicated that low concentrations of H2O2 (<3 mg/L) could decompose to the provisional standard of 0.25 mg/L in the first centimeters of MAR systems with the influent water containing high microbial biomass 38 ng ATP/mL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of effect of post weld heat treatment conditions on residual stress for ITER blanket shield blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hun-Chea, E-mail: hcjung@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sa-Woong [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Hee [Division of Convergence Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seung-Wook [Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Min-Su; Shim, Hee-Jin [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • PWHT for ITER blanket shield block should be performed for dimensional stability. • Investigation of the effect of PWHT conditions on properties was performed. • Instrumented indentation method for evaluation of properties was used. • Residual stress and hardness decreased with increasing PWHT temperature. • Optimization of PWHT conditions would be needed for satisfaction of requirement. - Abstract: The blanket shield block (SB) shall be required the tight tolerance because SB interfaces with many components, such as flexible support keypads, First Wall (FW) support contact surfaces, FW central bolt, electrical strap contact surfaces and attachment inserts for both FW and Vacuum Vessel (VV). In order to fulfil the tight tolerance requirement, stress relieving shall be performed for dimensional stability after cover welding operation. In this paper, effect of Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) conditions, temperature and holding time, was investigated on the residual stress and hardness. The 316L Stainless Steel (SS) was prepared and welded by manual TIG welding by using filler material with 2.4 mm of diameter. Welded 316L SS plate was machined to prepare the specimen for PWHT. PWHT was implemented at 250, 300, 400 °C for 2 and 3 h (400 °C only) and residual stress after relaxation were determined. The evaluation of residual stress and hardness for each specimen was carried out by instrumented indentation technique. The residual stress and hardness were decreased with increasing the heat treatment temperature and holding time.

  2. Effects of pulse-to-pulse residual species on discharges in repetitively pulsed discharges through packed bed reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszelnicki, Juliusz; Engeling, Kenneth W.; Foster, John E.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) sustained in packed bed reactors (PBRs) are being investigated for conversion of toxic and waste gases, and CO2 removal. These discharges are repetitively pulsed having varying flow rates and internal geometries, which results in species from the prior pulse still being in the discharge zone at the time the following discharge pulse occurs. A non-negligible residual plasma density remains, which effectively acts as preionization. This residual charge changes the discharge properties of subsequent pulses, and may impact important PBR properties such as chemical selectivity. Similarly, the residual neutral reactive species produced during earlier pulses will impact the reaction rates on subsequent pulses. We report on results of a computational investigation of a 2D PBR using the plasma hydrodynamics simulator nonPDPSIM. Results will be discussed for air flowing though an array of dielectric rods at atmospheric pressure. The effects of inter-pulse residual species on PBR discharges will be quantified. Means of controlling the presence of residual species in the reactor through gas flow rate, pulse repetition, pulse width and geometry will be described. Comparisons will be made to experiments. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  3. Residual effects of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) on low level visual processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; Bruno, Raimondo; Brown, John

    2012-03-01

    'Ecstasy' (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) induces impaired functioning in the serotonergic system, including the occipital lobe. This study employed the 'tilt aftereffect' paradigm to operationalise the function of orientation-selective neurons among ecstasy consumers and controls as a means of investigating the role of reduced serotonin on visual orientation processing. The magnitude of the tilt aftereffect reflects the extent of lateral inhibition between orientation-selective neurons and is elicited to both 'real' contours, processed in visual cortex area V1, and illusory contours, processed in V2. The magnitude of tilt aftereffect to both contour types was examined among 19 ecstasy users (6 ecstasy only; 13 ecstasy-plus-cannabis users) and 23 matched controls (9 cannabis-only users; 14 drug-naive). Ecstasy users had a significantly greater tilt magnitude than non-users for real contours (Hedge's g = 0.63) but not for illusory contours (g = 0.20). These findings provide support for literature suggesting that residual effects of ecstasy (and reduced serotonin) impairs lateral inhibition between orientation-selective neurons in V1, which however suggests that ecstasy may not substantially affect this process in V2. Multiple studies have now demonstrated ecstasy-related deficits on basic visual functions, including orientation and motion processing. Such low-level effects may contribute to the impact of ecstasy use on neuropsychological tests of visuospatial function. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effects of the residual proton-neutron interaction in the development of collectivity in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    The widespread effects of the residual T=0 proton-neutron (p-n) interaction in the evolution of nuclear structure are discussed. Although these effects in inducing single nucleon configuration mixing, and hence in the development of non-spherical nuclear shapes, collectivity, and the associated shape and phase transitions have been known for four decades, it is only in recent years that their deep ramifications have become more fully appreciated. This had led to a unified phenomenological understanding of the role of the p-n interaction in nuclear collectivity and to, for example, the proposal of the N p N n scheme and the associated concept of the P factor, which is a normalized value of N p N n reflecting the average number of p-n interactions per valence nucleon. Simultaneously, experimentally-determined p-n matrix elements for many nuclei have been extracted: they disclose striking anomalies for N=Z nuclei, and intriguing microstructure. These developments and empirical results will be discussed along with microscopic calculations that can be used to interpret them. 18 refs., 13 figs

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation on cell-wall constituents of some agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 150 kilogray (kGy) of γ irradiation on cell-wall constituents of cottonwood (CW), lentils straw (LS), apple pruning products (AP) and olive cake (OC) were investigated. Samples were irradiated by γ irradiation at a dose level of 150 kGy under identical conditions of temperature and humidity and analyzed for crude fibre (CF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL). The results indicate that γ irradiation decreased CF contents by about 29% for CW, LS and AP and by 17% for OC. NDF values were also decreased by about 4% for CW and OC, and by about 12% for LS and AP. γ irradiation treatment also decreased ADF values only for CW by 8%. ADL contents decreased by 8% for CW and 5% for OC with no effects for LS and AP. The percentage of cellulose (CL):CF ratio increased by 30, 34, 38 and 20% for CW, LS, AP and OC, respectively. Also, the percentage of hemicellulose (HCL):CF increased for 57% for CW and 16% for OC and decreased by 7% for LS and AP. The percentage of HCL:ADL increased by 22% for CW but decreased by 33% for LS and AP with no changes for OC. There were no changes in CL:ADL ratio for all residues. (Author)

  6. Dynamic effects of soil bulk density on denitrification and mineralisation by 15N labelled lettuce residue and paper wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Luo; Cheng Qing; Vinten, A.J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Two laboratory incubation experiments aimed to study the denitrification and mineralisation influenced by different additives ( 15 N labelled lettuce residue, paper wastes and mixture of both) and soil bulk densities were carried out by means of acetylene inhibition at the constant 15 degree C for 107 and 90 days, respectively. The results showed that the changes of N 2 O, CO 2 emission rates, inorganic nitrogen (NO 3 - and NH 4 + ), total N and 15 N abundance in the soils which were affected by adding lettuce residue, paper wastes and mixture of both were investigated. Soil denitrification rate increased after lettuce residue was added into soil for 8 days. The maximum rate of N 2 O emission was 15 times higher than that in soil without any additive. However, paper wastes did not increase N 2 O emission in the first 8 days compared with other treatments, mixed residue and paper wastes could promote soil microbial activity, but N 2 O emission was lower than that in the soil with lettuce residue added and higher than that with paper wastes, indicating that mixture of residue and paper wastes was benefit to soil nitrogen immobilisation. CO 2 emission in all the treatments were declined to the same level on the 107 th day. In the treatment added mixed residues and paper wastes, the released CO 2 quantities were higher than those in other treatments every day. Effect of different bulk density on N 2 O and CO 2 emission were response to the change of bulk density, it seems that N 2 O and CO 2 emission increased with bulk density. High bulk density could affect decomposition of paper wastes and NO 3 - , NH 4 + concentration. (30 ref., 10 tabs.)

  7. Laser quench hardening of steel: Effects of superimposed elastic pre-stress on the hardness and residual stress distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meserve, Justin

    Cold drawn AISI 4140 beams were LASER surface hardened with a 2 kW CO2 LASER. Specimens were treated in the free state and while restrained in a bending fixture inducing surface tensile stresses of 94 and 230 MPa. Knoop hardness indentation was used to evaluate the through thickness hardness distribution, and a layer removal methodology was used to evaluate the residual stress distribution. Results showed the maximum surface hardness attained was not affected by pre-stress during hardening, and ranged from 513 to 676 kg/mm2. The depth of effective hardening varied at different magnitudes of pre-stress, but did not vary proportionately to the pre-stress. The surface residual stress, coinciding with the maximum compressive residual stress, increased as pre-stress was increased, from 1040 MPa for the nominally treated specimens to 1270 MPa for specimens pre-stressed to 230 MPa. The maximum tensile residual stress observed in the specimens decreased from 1060 MPa in the nominally treated specimens to 760 MPa for specimens pre-stressed to 230 MPa. Similarly, thickness of the compressive residual stress region increased and the depth at which maximum tensile residual stress occurred increased as the pre-stress during treatment was increased Overall, application of tensile elastic pre-stress during LASER hardening is beneficial to the development of compressive residual stress in AISI 4140, with minimal impact to the hardness attained from the treatment. The newly developed approach for LASER hardening may support efforts to increase both the wear and fatigue resistance of parts made from hardenable steels.

  8. Allergy medication in Japanese volunteers: treatment effect of single doses on nocturnal sleep architecture and next day residual effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julia; Eriksson, Malin; Stanley, Neil; Fujita, Tomoe; Kumagi, Yuji

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the acute effects of two histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists on nocturnal sleep architecture and on next day cognitive function and psychomotor performance. This was a single-site, randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover study, comparing the effects of a single dose of chlorpheniramine (6 mg), fexofenadine (120 mg) and placebo in 18 healthy (male and female) Japanese volunteers aged 20-55 years. Volunteers were resident for 3 days and each period was separated by a minimum 5-day washout period. The three treatments were administered at 23.00 h. Overnight sleep was measured from 23.00 h to 07.00 h using polysomnography. Residual effects were studied at 07.00 h and 9.00 h the next morning, with the latency to sleep (sleep latency test) measured at 09.30 h. Compared with placebo, chlorpheniramine increased the latencies to sleep onset and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (p < or = 0.05 for both), and reduced the duration of REM sleep (p residual effects the next morning were concerned there were decrements in performance with chlorpheniramine, but not with fexofenadine. Chlorpheniramine 6 mg impaired divided attention (p < 0.001), vigilance (p < 0.05), working memory (p < 0.0001) and sensori-motor performance (p < 0.01), and the latency to daytime sleep was reduced (p < 0.0001). Six adverse events possibly related to study medication were reported during the study, three of which were related to placebo, two to fexofenadine and one to chlorpheniramine. These findings suggest that a single nocturnal dose of fexofenadine has advantages over the first-generation antihistamine chlorpheniramine, being free of disruption of night-time sleep and detrimental effects on cognitive performance the next day. It is likely that this advantage will remain with chronic ingestion, but this would need to be confirmed.

  9. Combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of indentation cracks in a PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.Y.; Chu, W.Y.; Su, Y.J.; Qiao, L.J.; Gao, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of unloaded indentation cracks in a PZT-5 ceramic has been studied. The results show that residual stress itself is too small to induce delayed propagation of the indentation cracks in silicon oil. If applied constant electric field is larger than 0.2 kV/cm, the combined effect of electric field and residual stress can cause delayed propagation of the indentation crack after passing an incubation time in silicon oil, but the crack will arrest after propagating for 10-30 μm because of decrease of the resultant stress intensity factor induced by the field and residual stress with increasing the crack length. The threshold electric field for delayed propagation of the indentation crack in silicon oil is E DP = 0.2 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 5.25 kV/cm, combined effect of the electric field and residual stress can cause instant propagation of the indentation crack, and under sustained electric field, the crack which has propagated instantly can propagate continuously, until arrest at last. The critical electric field for instant propagation of the indentation crack is E P = 5.25 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 12.6 kV/cm, the microcracks induced by the electric field initiate everywhere, grow and connect in a smooth specimen, resulting in delayed failure, even without residual stress. The threshold electric field for delayed failure of a smooth specimen in silicon oil is E DF = 12.6 kV/cm and the critical electric field for instant failure is E F = 19.1 kV/cm

  10. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Padmakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. Objectives : This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner. Materials and Methods : A total of 70 specimens (64 Χ 10 Χ 3.3 mm were polymerized according to the manufacturer′s instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10. Control group specimens were not subjectedto any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W and time (3, 4, and 5 min settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student′s t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results : For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Conclusion : Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  11. Understanding the Effectiveness of Performance Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    practitioners.” Priem and Rosenstein (2001) and Rynes, Bartunek, and Daft (2001) have documented the science- practice gap between OB and other...provided the foundation for effective leadership and project management. Informally the author sought ways to motivate and focus the efforts of...predominate part of his leadership and project management philosophy. This thesis further investigates leadership and management practices focused

  12. Creating Competitive Advantage through Effective Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Clinton O.; Ariss, Sonny S.

    2002-01-01

    Managers trained in executive education programs (n=203) identified ways in which management education can increase an organization's competitive advantage: exposure to new ideas and practices, skill development, and motivation. Characteristics of effective management education included experience-based learning orientation, credible instructors,…

  13. Managing for nuclear operational effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, P.A.; Kasperski, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry worldwide is changing, with significant implications for nuclear utility managers. While the UK and US nuclear industries have many differences, a number of the lessons learned in the US have direct applicability to the UK. Just as the physics behind nuclear power transcends political boundaries, so do many of the management techniques that are necessary to run an efficient and sound operation. The US nuclear industry is no longer a construction-based industry, as it has been for years. As nuclear construction slows or stops in many parts of the world and nuclear power comes under increased scrutiny everywhere, the industry is shifting away from a construction emphasis and towards an operations and maintenance emphasis. In North America more than one-half of nuclear executives believe that plant operating and maintenance costs, and not construction-related problems, are their number one concern. Furthermore, when asked what actions they would expect to take as a result of this concern, the majority indicated that the actions would be management-related for the most part, and included items such as: emphasize operating improvements, emphasize management improvements, upgrade outage management and maintenance management programs, increase senior management involvement and set management performance criteria. (author)

  14. Effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-LINDANE residues in corn oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    At blooming, maize plants were sprayed twice, 23 days apart, at a dose of 22 mg equivalent to 5 μCi/ plant. At post harvest, maize seeds had a radioactivity corresponding to 0.36% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, cake and methanolic extract were amounted to 8 % and 60 % 5 % , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be reduced by commercial processes locally used for refining. The refined oil had a residue level of about 0.7 ppm mainly in the form of unchanged lindane in addition to a number of chloro phenols as main metabolites. Refining of corn oil fortified with 14 C-lindane led to a high reduction of 14 C-lindane (88%). The refined oil contained a residue consisting lindane and its chloro phenols

  15. Modelling the Effects of Surface Residual Stresses on Fatigue Behavior of PM Disk Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A finite element based model will be developed and validated to capture the evolution of residual stresses and cold work at machined features of compressor and...

  16. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  17. Sulphate Removal from Water by Carbon Residue from Biomass Gasification: Effect of Chemical Modification Methods on Sulphate Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Runtti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate removal from mine water is a problem because traditional chemical precipitation does not remove all sulphates. In addition, it creates lime sediment as a secondary waste. Therefore, an inexpensive and environmental-friendly sulphate removal method is needed in addition to precipitation. In this study, carbon residues from a wood gasification process were repurposed as precursors to a suitable sorbent for SO42- ion removal. The raw material was modified using ZnCl2, BaCl2, CaCl2, FeCl3, or FeCl2. Carbon residues modified with FeCl3 were selected for further consideration because the removal efficiency toward sulphate was the highest. Batch sorption experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of the initial pH, initial SO42- ion concentration, and contact time on sulphate removal. The removal of SO42- ions using Fe-modified carbon residue was notably higher compared with unmodified carbon residue and commercially available activated carbon. The sorption data exhibited pseudo-second-order kinetics. The isotherm analysis indicated that the sorption data of Fe-modified carbon residues can be represented by the bi-Langmuir isotherm model.

  18. Effects of LSP on micro-structures and residual stresses in a 4 mm CLAM steel weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xizhang, E-mail: chenxizhang@wzu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University., Wenzhou 325035 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Fang, Yuanyuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Shuyan; Kelleher, Joe F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Zhou, Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-05-15

    The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the distribution of residual stress and micro-structure of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel weldment were investigated via neutron diffraction and optical microscope (OM). A pair of 4 mm CLAM steel plates joined by GTA welding. Special attention is paid to the generation of high level compressive residual stresses introduced by LSP. Residual stress in longitudinal, normal and transversal direction at weldment surface and longitudinal stress through thickness are evaluated via neutron diffraction. Compressive residual stress after LSP occurred at more than 90% areas within the weld joint, it is almost double the areas of compressive stress compare to weldment surface before LSP. The maximum compressive normal residual stress becomes to −183 MPa after LSP from −63 MPa before LSP. The Modification of surface micro-structures including weld zone (WZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) are also discussed. Results to date demonstrate that laser shock processing has been a great potential method for the improvement of mechanical performance of components.

  19. Dissimilar friction stir welds in AA5083-AA6082: The effect of process parameters on residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Peel, M.J.; Withers, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of tool traverse and rotation speeds on the residual stresses are quantified for welds between non-age-hardening AA5083 and age-hardening AA6082 and compared to single alloy joints made from each of the two constituents. The residual stresses have been characterised non-destructively by neutron diffraction and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The region around the weld line was characterised by significant tensile residual stress fields which are balanced by compressive stresses in the parent material. The rotation speed of the tool has been found to have a substantially greater influence than the transverse speed on the properties and residual stresses in the welds, particularly on the AA5083 side where the location of the peak stress moves from the stir zone to beyond the edge of the tool shoulder. The changes in residual stress are related to microstructural and hardness changes as determined in a previous study . In particular the larger stresses under the weld tool on the AA5083 side compared to the AA6082 side are related to a transient reduction in yield stress due to dissolution of the hardening precipitates during welding prior to natural aging after welding

  20. Residual Nitrite in Some Egyptian Meat Products and the Reduction Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia A. Zahran; Gehan M.A. Kassem

    2011-01-01

    Nitrite, a curing agent of meat products, is a precursor of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines during processing of meat products or under human stomach conditions, as well as having its own toxicity. To investigate the residual nitrite level in meat products marketed in Egyptian markets, 160 samples of cured cooked (luncheon and frankfurter) and cured raw (oriental sausages and pastirma) meat products (40 sample each) were analyzed for residual nitrite by a spectrophotometric method. Samples were s...

  1. Residual volume on land and when immersed in water: effect on percent body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shinichi; Yamaji, Shunsuke; Kitabayashi, Tamotsu

    2006-08-01

    There is a large residual volume (RV) error when assessing percent body fat by means of hydrostatic weighing. It has generally been measured before hydrostatic weighing. However, an individual's maximal exhalations on land and in the water may not be identical. The aims of this study were to compare residual volumes and vital capacities on land and when immersed to the neck in water, and to examine the influence of the measurement error on percent body fat. The participants were 20 healthy Japanese males and 20 healthy Japanese females. To assess the influence of the RV error on percent body fat in both conditions and to evaluate the cross-validity of the prediction equation, another 20 males and 20 females were measured using hydrostatic weighing. Residual volume was measured on land and in the water using a nitrogen wash-out technique based on an open-circuit approach. In water, residual volume was measured with the participant sitting on a chair while the whole body, except the head, was submerged . The trial-to-trial reliabilities of residual volume in both conditions were very good (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.98). Although residual volume measured under the two conditions did not agree completely, they showed a high correlation (males: 0.880; females: 0.853; P body fat computed using residual volume measured in both conditions was very good for both sexes (males: r = 0.902; females: r = 0.869, P body fat: -3.4 to 2.2% for males; -6.3 to 4.4% for females). We conclude that if these errors are of no importance, residual volume measured on land can be used when assessing body composition.

  2. Hard water and old food. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating of food residues on pottery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Philippsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of the freshwater reservoir effect in the radiocarbon dating of different sample materials, in particular food crusts on pottery. Charred food residue can be used to directly date of the use of the pottery. However, this material is highly complex, which can lead to various dating errors.  

  3. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pieters (Marlien); S.A. Barnard (Sunelle A.); D.T. Loots (Du Toit); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDue to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen

  4. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  5. Effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field induced by laser shock processing on aluminum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio-Gonzalez, C.; Gomez-Rosas, G.; Ocana, J.L.; Molpeceres, C.; Banderas, A.; Porro, J.; Morales, M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser shock processing (LSP) or laser shock peening is a new technique for strengthening metals. This process induces a compressive residual stress field, which increases fatigue crack initiation life and reduces fatigue crack growth rate. Specimens of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy are used in this investigation. A convergent lens is used to deliver 2.5 J, 8 ns laser pulses by a Q-switch Nd:YAG laser, operating at 10 Hz. The pulses are focused to a diameter of 1.5 mm onto aluminum samples. Density of 2500 pulses/cm 2 with infrared (1064 nm) radiation was used. The effect of an absorbent overlay on the residual stress field using this LSP setup and this energy level is evaluated. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth is assessed by the hole drilling method. It is observed that the overlay makes the compressive residual stress profile move to the surface. This effect is explained on the basis of the vaporization of the coat layer suppressing thermal effects on the metallic substrate. The effect of coating the specimen surface before LSP treatment may have advantages on improving wear and contact fatigue properties of this aluminum alloy

  6. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degrades soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.; Isitekhale, H.H.E.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1:1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  7. Effects of sawdust and organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effect on the yield of maize on degraded soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dania, S.O.; Fagbola, O.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional mineral fertilizer alone cannot sustain arable crop production in soil which top layer has been eroded hence it is necessary to employ the application of organic base fertilizer. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sawdust, organo mineral fertilizer and their residual effects on the growth and yield of maize. Organo mineral fertilizer is the combination of organic manure and mineral fertilizer. Simulated degraded soil was used and the experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial in a completely randomized design with three replicates. The factors investigated were: two levels of organo mineral fertilizer (with and without), two levels of soil amendment (with and without sawdust) and three levels of application methods. The methods of organo mineral fertilizer used were ring, subsurface and mixed methods. The amendment of soil to sawdust was ratio 1: 1 by volume. The growth and yield of maize was significantly (p = 0.05) higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust with or without OMF application. Ring method of application of OMF in non-amended soil significantly increased the growth and yield of maize compared to other methods of OMF application. The residual effect of OMF and sawdust on the growth and yield of maize was significantly higher in non-amended soil with OMF under different application methods compared to soil amended with sawdust. Addition of sawdust to soil does not improve the growth and yield of maize with or without OMF and under different application methods. Organo mineral fertilizer using ring and subsurface application methods has a beneficial effect in improving the growth and yield of maize in degraded soil where the top layer has been eroded. (author)

  8. Effect of projectile structure on evaporation residue yields in incomplete fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, K S; Sudarshan, K; Shrivastava, B D; Goswami, A; Tomar, B S

    2003-01-01

    The excitation functions of heavy residues, representing complete and incomplete fusion products, produced in the reaction of sup 1 sup 2 C and sup 1 sup 3 C on sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta have been measured over the projectile energy range of 5 to 6.5 MeV/nucleon by the recoil catcher method and off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the measured excitation functions with those calculated using the PACE2 code based on the statistical model revealed the occurrence of incomplete fusion reactions in the formation of alpha emission products. The fraction of incomplete fusion cross sections in the sup 1 sup 2 C + sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta reaction was found to be higher, by a factor of approx 2, than that in the sup 1 sup 3 C + sup 1 sup 8 sup 1 Ta reaction. The results have been discussed in terms of the effect of alpha cluster structure of the projectile on incomplete fusion reactions.

  9. Effects of feather wear and temperature on prediction of food intake and residual food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, M; Decuypere, E; Siau, O

    1989-03-01

    Heat production, which accounts for 0.6 of gross energy intake, is insufficiently represented in predictions of food intake. Especially when heat production is elevated (for example by lower temperature or poor feathering) the classical predictions based on body weight, body-weight change and egg mass are inadequate. Heat production was reliably estimated as [35.5-environmental temperature (degree C)] x [Defeathering (=%IBPW) + 21]. Including this term (PHP: predicted heat production) in equations predicting food intake significantly increased accuracy of prediction, especially under suboptimal conditions. Within the range of body weights tested (from 1.6 kg in brown layers to 2.8 kg in dwarf broiler breeders), body weight as an independent variable contributed little to the prediction of food intake; especially within strains its effect was better included in the intercept. Significantly reduced absolute values of residual food consumption were obtained over a wide range of conditions by using predictions of food intake based on body-weight change, egg mass, predicted heat production (PHP) and an intercept, instead of body weight, body-weight change, egg mass and an intercept.

  10. Protein Coexpression Using FMDV 2A: Effect of “Linker” Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Minskaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many biomedical applications absolutely require, or are substantially enhanced by, coexpression of multiple proteins from a single vector. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 2A (F2A and “2A-like” sequences (e.g., Thosea asigna virus 2A; T2A are used widely for this purpose since multiple proteins can be coexpressed by linking open reading frames (ORFs to form a single cistron. The activity of F2A “cleavage” may, however, be compromised by both the use of shorter versions of F2A and the sequences (derived from multiple-purpose cloning sites used to link F2A to the upstream protein. To characterise these effects, different lengths of F2A and T2A were inserted between green and cherry fluorescent proteins. Mutations were introduced in the linker region immediately upstream of both F2A- and T2A-based constructs and activities determined using both cell-free translation systems and transfected cells. In shorter versions of F2A, activity may be affected by both the C-terminal sequence of the protein upstream and, equally strikingly, the residues immediately upstream introduced during cloning. Mutations significantly improved activity for shorter versions of F2A but could decrease activity in the case of T2A. These data will aid the design of cloning strategies for the co-expression of multiple proteins in biomedical/biotechnological applications.

  11. Effects of stacking sequence on impact damage resistance and residual strength for quasi-isotropic laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, Ernest F.; Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Avery, William B.; Coxon, Brian R.

    1991-01-01

    Residual strength of an impacted composite laminate is dependent on details of the damage state. Stacking sequence was varied to judge its effect on damage caused by low-velocity impact. This was done for quasi-isotropic layups of a toughened composite material. Experimental observations on changes in the impact damage state and postimpact compressive performance were presented for seven different laminate stacking sequences. The applicability and limitations of analysis compared to experimental results were also discussed. Postimpact compressive behavior was found to be a strong function of the laminate stacking sequence. This relationship was found to depend on thickness, stacking sequence, size, and location of sublaminates that comprise the impact damage state. The postimpact strength for specimens with a relatively symmetric distribution of damage through the laminate thickness was accurately predicted by models that accounted for sublaminate stability and in-plane stress redistribution. An asymmetric distribution of damage in some laminate stacking sequences tended to alter specimen stability. Geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis was used to predict this behavior.

  12. Residual effects of biochar on improving growth, physiology and yield of wheat under salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, Saqib Saleem; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to global food security. Biochar amendment could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crop in the season. However, its long-term residual effect on reducing Na+ uptake in latter crops remains unknown. A pot experiment with wheat was conducted...... in a greenhouse. The soil used was from an earlier experiment on potato where the plants were irrigated with tap water (S0), 25 mM (S1) and 50 mM (S2) NaCl solutions and with 0 and 5% (w/w) biochar amendment. At onset of the experiment, three different EC levels at S0, S1 and S2 were established in the non...... by transient Na+ binding due to its high adsorption capacity, decreasing osmotic stress by enhancing soil moisture content, and by releasing mineral nutrients (particularly K+, Ca++, Mg++) into the soil solution. Growth, physiology and yield of wheat were affected positively with biochar amendment...

  13. Effect of Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue on the oxidative status and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Tai; Ciou, Jhih-Ying; Chiang, Ching-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Yu, Bi

    2012-11-07

    Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue (PESR) is a byproduct of the edible portion of the fruiting body. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of PESR on the oxidative status and meat quality of broilers. Two hundred fifty 1-d-old male broilers (Arbor Acre) were evenly divided by gender and randomly allocated into control (corn-soybean meal diet) or 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 g/kg dried PESR groups. The results revealed that at 35 d, the dried PESR groups displayed a significantly increased water-holding capacity and decreased storage loss of breast and thigh fillets when compared to the control group. Regarding fillets color, the L* (lightness) values were lower and the a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values were higher following dried PESR supplementation. In 5.0-20.0 g/kg PESR supplementation groups, the activities of antioxidative enzymes were significantly elevated in serum, liver, spleen, and fillet tissues when compared to control group. Additionally, malondialdehyde production was slightly decreased in the PESR supplementation groups. Lower crude fat contents were observed in fillet tissues of 5.0-20.0 g/kg PESR groups when compared with the control group. In conclusion, PESR may potentially be used as an antioxidant to decrease lipid peroxidation and improve meat quality in broilers.

  14. Effect of saponification on the anaerobic digestion of solid fatty residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouneimne, A H; Carrère, H; Bernet, N; Delgenès, J P

    2003-10-01

    In France, fatty residues considered as "non-ultimate" waste will not be accepted in landfill from 2002, in accordance with French legislation. Anaerobic digestion appears as an alternative process to mobilize and profitably use such fermentable waste. In this work, the effect of an alkaline pretreatment on the degradation of hexane extractible matter (HEM) and the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was compared in reactors working at pH 6.5 and 8.5. The results obtained showed that 40% (+/- 0.1) of HEM were degraded at pH 8.5 versus 10% (+/- 0.3) at pH 6.5, regardless of the alkali agent used to saponify the greasy wastes. The highest performances of VFA production (8.45% +/- 0.3) were obtained at pH 8.5 with greases saponified by potassium hydroxide, compared to results (4.25% +/- 0.1) with greasy waste saponified by sodium hydroxide. This difference in VFA production might be attributable to biotoxic molecules generated during the saponification of greases by soda, limiting consequently the VFA production process.

  15. Residues effects of isoproturon in mature earthworm (Aporrectodea caliginosa) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Yahia; Mosleh, Ismaili

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the residues of isoproturon and its metabolites, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl) urea, and 4-isopropylanilin in soil and mature earthworms under laboratory conditions. Mature earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) were exposed for various durations (7, 15, 30, and 60 days) to soils contaminated with isoproturon concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg.kg(-1) soil). The decrease in isoproturon concentration in the soil depended on initial concentration it was slower at higher concentrations. The isoproturon and its metabolites accumulated in earthworms it increased during the first 15 days and decreased thereafter. Acute toxicity of isoproturon was determined together with total soluble protein content and glycogen of worms. These parameters were related to isoproturon concentration in soil and earthworms. No lethal effect of isoproturon was observed even at the concentration 1000 mg.kg(-1) soil after 60 days of exposure. A reduction of total soluble protein was observed in all treated worms (maximum 59.54%). This study is suggesting the use of the total soluble protein content and glycogen of earthworms as biomarker of exposure to isoproturon.

  16. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  17. Effect of Young's modulus evolution on residual stress measurement of thermal barrier coatings by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Mao, W.G.; Zhou, Y.C.; Lu, C.

    2010-01-01

    Subjected to thermal cycling, the apparent Young's modulus of air plasma-sprayed (APS) 8 wt.% Y 2 O 3 -stabilized ZrO 2 (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was measured by nanoindentation. Owing to the effects of sintering and porous microstructure, the apparent Young's modulus follows a Weibull distribution and changes from 50 to 93 GPa with an increase of thermal cycling. The evolution of residual stresses in the top coating of an 8YSZ TBC system was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The residual stresses derived from the XRD data are well consistent with that obtained by the Vickers indention. It is shown that the evolution of Young's modulus plays an important role in improving the measurement precision of residual stresses in TBCs by XRD.

  18. Effect of thermal exposure on the residual stress relaxation in a hardened cylindrical sample under creep conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V. P.; Saushkin, M. N.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure (high-temperature exposure) ( T = 675°C) on the residual creep stress relaxation in a surface hardened solid cylindrical sample made of ZhS6UVI alloy. The analysis is carried out with the use of experimental data for residual stresses after micro-shot peening and exposures to temperatures equal to T = 675°C during 50, 150, and 300 h. The paper presents the technique for solving the boundary-value creep problem for the hardened cylindrical sample with the initial stress-strain state under the condition of thermal exposure. The uniaxial experimental creep curves obtained under constant stresses of 500, 530, 570, and 600 MPa are used to construct the models describing the primary and secondary stages of creep. The calculated and experimental data for the longitudinal (axial) tensor components of residual stresses are compared, and their satisfactory agreement is determined.

  19. The effect of initial stress induced during the steel manufacturing process on the welding residual stress in multi-pass butt welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-ung Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A residual stress generated in the steel structure is broadly categorized into initial residual stress during manufacturing steel material, welding residual stress caused by welding, and heat treatment residual stress by heat treatment. Initial residual stresses induced during the manufacturing process is combined with welding residual stress or heat treatment residual stress, and remained as a final residual stress. Because such final residual stress affects the safety and strength of the structure, it is of utmost importance to measure or predict the magnitude of residual stress, and to apply this point on the design of the structure. In this study, the initial residual stress of steel structures having thicknesses of 25 mm and 70 mm during manufacturing was measured in order to investigate initial residual stress (hereinafter, referred to as initial stress. In addition, thermal elastic plastic FEM analysis was performed with this initial condition, and the effect of initial stress on the welding residual stress was investigated. Further, the reliability of the FE analysis result, considering the initial stress and welding residual stress for the steel structures having two thicknesses, was validated by comparing it with the measured results. In the vicinity of the weld joint, the initial stress is released and finally controlled by the weld residual stress. On the other hand, the farther away from the weld joint, the greater the influence of the initial stress. The range in which the initial stress affects the weld residual stress was not changed by the initial stress. However, in the region where the initial stress occurs in the compressive stress, the magnitude of the weld residual compressive stress varies with the compression or tension of the initial stress. The effect of initial stress on the maximum compression residual stress was far larger when initial stress was considered in case of a thickness of 25 mm with a value of 180

  20. Effect of Tillage Systems with Corn Residue on Grain Yield of Rapeseed in Moghan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taghinazhad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study carried out to evaluate the effect of different tillage systems on rapeseed yield (hayola 401 planted in corn residues. This experiment was done in Moghan region with clay soils during 2009-2012. Different seedbed preparation methods include MT: moldboard + disk tillage (conventional tillage was included, SCT: Stem Crusher + chisel + disk tandem harrow, STT: Stem Crusher + double-disc, CT: chisel + disk tillage and DD: two heavy disks. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that soil bulk density in the 0-10 cm layer was not significant in different tillage treatments, but it was significantly higher than the conventional tillage in 10-20 cm depth. However, penetration resistance in 10-30 cm under DD was significantly higher than other treatments, but it was not significant in 0-10 cm layer among all tillage treatments. Thus, Comparison of the soil bulk density, penetration resistance, and plant establishment showed that the reduced tillage in canola seedbed preparation was effective. Besides, the surveys indicated that there was a significant different between MWD after primary and secondary tillage. The mean diameter weighted under SCT and DD, were 1.19 and 1.24 cm, respectively had the best status. The highest value and the worst status of this parameter observed for MT which was 1.92 cm. The highest rate of grain yield obtained by application of treatment SCT, and it was 2563.8 kg ha-1, The SCT treatment can be recommended as an effective canola bed preparation due to its significant saving in time and cost after corn harvesting.

  1. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  2. Residual stress effects on the K parameter of the fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Maria da Conceiccao B. Vieira; Andrade, Arnaldo H. Paes de

    1996-01-01

    Compressive residual stresses are beneficial and improve resistance to fracture and crack growth. Residual stresses can be introduced in fabricated components by a variety of means and a number of methods such as laser surface treatment, cold expanded hole, and shot peening. Neutrons diffraction measurements of residual stress were performed at a pulsed neutron source (ISIS, Didcot, UK), on shot peened plates of nickel base superalloy Udimet 720 and titanium alloy IMI 834. The stress intensity factor (K) of residual stress was evaluated by finite element modeling and weight function method. Finite element modeling of a 2D plate with a single edge-notch was applied and, due to symmetry only half of the plate was actually modeled. The stress intensity factor (K) was evaluated for both case of remote tension stress and residual stress. Crack surface overlapping, which is physically unacceptable, was noted for small cracks under residual and boundary lading. Overlap correction was proposed and applied in order to obtain reliable values for (K). (author)

  3. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  4. Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC-time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Lehotay, Steven J; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Kwon, Hyeyoung; Mol, Hans G J; van der Kamp, Henk; Mateus, Nuno; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming with integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. We applied three different methods for analysis: (1) 27 pesticides were targeted using LC-MS/MS; (2) 143 were targeted using low pressure GC-tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC-MS/MS); and (3) more than 600 pesticides were screened in a targeted and untargeted approach using comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS). Comparison was made of the analyses using the different methods for the shared samples. The results were similar, thereby providing satisfactory confirmation of both similarly positive and negative findings. No pesticides were found in the organic-farmed samples. In samples from integrated pest management practices, nine pesticides were determined and confirmed to be present, ranging from 2 µg kg(-1) for fluazifop-p-butyl to 50 µg kg(-1) for fenpropathrin. Concentrations of residues in strawberries were less than European maximum residue limits.

  5. Effects of distance from center of a weld to fixed end on residual stress and stress intensity factor of a piping weld. Evaluation of SCC growth under residual stress field. Report 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Katsumasa; Numata, Masanori; Saito, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2006-01-01

    The fixed conditions of butt welds between straight pipe and valve or pump in the actual piping system are different from those of straight pipes. However, the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor for evaluation of structural integrity of cracked piping was not clear. In this study, the finite element analyses were conducted by considering the differences in the distance from the center of weld to the fixed end L to clarify the effect of fixed condition on the residual stress and the stress intensity factor. For the 600 A piping, the axial residual stress distribution was not affected by the distance L. Furthermore, the stress intensity factor of circumferential crack under the residual stress field with fixed condition could be estimated by using the existing simplified solution for piping. (author)

  6. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouaricha Leyla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°, and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%.

  7. A Laboratory Investigation on Shear Strength Behavior of Sandy Soil: Effect of Glass Fiber and Clinker Residue Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaricha, Leyla; Henni, Ahmed Djafar; Lancelot, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the shear strength parameters of treated sands reinforced with randomly distributed glass fibers by carrying out direct shear test after seven days curing periods. Firstly, we studied the fiber content and fiber length effect on the peak shear strength on samples. The second part gives a parametric analysis on the effect of glass fiber and clinker residue content on the shear strength parameters for two types of uniform Algerian sands having different particle sizes (Chlef sand and Rass sand) with an average relative density Dr = 50%. Finally, the test results show that the combination of glass fiber and clinker residue content can effectively improve the shear strength parameters of soil in comparison with unreinforced soil. For instance, there is a significant gain for the cohesion and friction angle of reinforced sand of Chlef. Compared to unreinforced sand, the cohesion for sand reinforced with different ratios of clinker residue increased by 4.36 to 43.08 kPa for Chlef sand and by 3.1 to 28.64 kPa for Rass sand. The feature friction angles increased from 38.73° to 43.01° (+4.28°), and after the treatment, clinker residue content of soil evaluated to 5% (WRC = 5%).

  8. EFFECT OF POST-LOGGING SILVICULTURAL TREATMENT ON GROWTH RATES OF RESIDUAL STAND IN A TROPICAL FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruni Krisnawati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-logging silvicultural treatments are generally performed to improve yields of the remaining tree species by increasing their growth rate. In this study the effects of silvicultural treatment on the growth rates of commercial (dipterocarps and non-dipterocarps as well as non- commercial tree species in a tropical forest in West Kalimantan were examined and were compared to a control treatment. Silvicultural treatment applied was liberation of future crop trees from lianas and neighbouring competing trees. Treatments were applied to six plots of 80 m x 80 m each. The plots comprised 64 quadrats of 10 m x 10 m to allow better control of measurements. The treatment and control plots were established 6 years after logging. Effects were measured 2,4 and 7 years after treatment application. In all obser vation periods, the growth rates increased with silvicultural treatment. Overall, commercial dipterocarps, commercial non-dipterocarps and non-commercial tree species groups differed in response to silvicultural treatment. The growth rates of commercial tree species in plots that received silvicultural treatment were 62–97% higher than in the control plots. For non-commercial tree species, the increase of growth rates was 20–58%, compared to the control plots. These results indicate that the application of silvicultural treatments after logging could help improve the growth of the residual stands. These provide quantitative information that silvicultural treatments in logged-over forest should be considered as a viable management option and may guide the choice of cutting cycle.

  9. Efficient and Effective Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Pene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to investigate different authorities and responsibilities of a project manager and of a project leader. Considering the fact that nowadays the project management is becoming the important factor in performing and leading the investments which are modified by modern leadership theories, we can say that the key element is the sovereign leadership of a manager and a project leader. The current multi-project environments and modern techniques at the project management area need the interdisciplinary leadership approach and at the same time they enable the strengthening of company’s competitive features so they are consistently satisfying high project expectations of the project investor or a client.

  10. The effect of motorcycle helmet fit on estimating head impact kinematics from residual liner crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Stephanie J; Gardiner, John C; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Asfour, Shihab S; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2017-09-01

    Proper helmet fit is important for optimizing head protection during an impact, yet many motorcyclists wear helmets that do not properly fit their heads. The goals of this study are i) to quantify how a mismatch in headform size and motorcycle helmet size affects headform peak acceleration and head injury criteria (HIC), and ii) to determine if peak acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from the foam liner's maximum residual crush depth or residual crush volume. Shorty-style helmets (4 sizes of a single model) were tested on instrumented headforms (4 sizes) during linear impacts between 2.0 and 10.5m/s to the forehead region. Helmets were CT scanned to quantify residual crush depth and volume. Separate linear regression models were used to quantify how the response variables (peak acceleration (g), HIC, and impact speed (m/s)) were related to the predictor variables (maximum crush depth (mm), crush volume (cm 3 ), and the difference in circumference between the helmet and headform (cm)). Overall, we found that increasingly oversized helmets reduced peak headform acceleration and HIC for a given impact speed for maximum residual crush depths less than 7.9mm and residual crush volume less than 40cm 3 . Below these levels of residual crush, we found that peak headform acceleration, HIC, and impact speed can be estimated from a helmet's residual crush. Above these crush thresholds, large variations in headform kinematics are present, possibly related to densification of the foam liner during the impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. LEADERSHIP: HOW TO BE AN EFFECTIVE MANAGER

    OpenAIRE

    ABDELNASER OMRAN; ABDULLAH MAHMOOD; ABDUL AZIZ HUSSIN

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine effective managers Malaysian leadership. The objective was investigated on how mangers can have better understanding of leadership and to use it to their advantage. In addition, this paper also examined to what extant Malaysian leadership ‘managers reflect the level of their social interaction, preference for gathering data, preference for decision-making, and style of making decisions. Finally, it identified several ways on how effective managers cou...

  12. Teacher Plan Book. Management for Effective Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax County Public Schools, VA. Dept. of Instructional Services.

    Project MET (Management for Effective Teaching) is a pilot project that provides effective, practical ways of managing the Fairfax County (Virginia) Public School system's instructional Program of Studies (POS) for elementary school students. This planning booklet is a part of the support kit that is used by teachers as an aid to implementing…

  13. Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective Classroom Management Techniques for Secondary Schools. ... engagement of students in activities, use of innovative instructional strategies by teachers, ... and teachers in their perception regarding the effects of teachers classroom ...

  14. Status of persistent organic pesticide residues in water and food and their effects on environment and farmers: a comprehensive review in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norida Mazlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide helps to enhance agricultural production, however, it significantly affect both socio and environmental entities of a country. In Nigeria, pesticide is widely used, thus its traces have been detected in water, soil and air. Several studies have already indicated that most of the environmental ecology (air, water, and soil in Nigeria has been contaminated by persistent organic pesticides like organochlorine and organophosphate. Other reasons of high pesticide residues present in Nigeria environment is due to inappropriate dosage applied of pesticides that leaves behind excess. However, its residues are found above safety levels in the air, water, and soil across the nation. Based on previous analysis, it is indicated that 125,000-130,000 metric ton pesticides are being applied annually in Nigeria. Despite banned of some pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane- and -Hexachlorocyclohexane, they are still being used by farmers in their agricultural production. Many of the Class 1 (high extremely toxic pesticides are still being used in developing countries like Nigeria. Hence, there is need to sensitize and educate the general public especially the end-users (farmers particularly on management practices of pesticides. Considering these entire hazardous situations, in this article the history of pesticide used in Nigeria has been reviewed in detail. The article also discussed the effects of pesticide use in Nigerian waters, soil and on crops. The risk of residual pesticide on agricultural workers, pesticide residue risk preventive measures by the Federal Government of Nigeria, banned and restricted pesticides in Nigeria, Nigerian Government and its efforts to eliminate persistent organic pesticides in use are also reviewed in details.

  15. Efeito de restos da cultura do abacaxizeiro e de agrobio na fauna do solo Effect of residues of pineaplle plant and agrobio in the soil fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecsandra de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de restos culturais de abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus L. 'Smooth Cayenne' na fauna de artrópodes,em cultivos em campo. As mudas, do tipo filhote, foram plantadas no mês de junho, em um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo, que recebeu 0, 30 e 60t/ha de restos de abacaxizeiro, aplicados superficialmente e incorporados a 10cm de profundidade, com e sem a adição do biofertilizante-Agrobio10% (v/v. Foram coletadas amostras a 05 cm de profundidade aos 90, 210, 330 e 450 dias após a aplicação dos resíduos. Identificou-se, durante os 15 meses de avaliações, o predomínio de Acari e Collembola. A maior densidade de animais foi observada na primeira amostragem, aos 90 dias após a adição dos restos. No entanto, diferenças na abundância da fauna de solo só foram observadas, 330 dias após a adição dos resíduos.This study was conducted under field conditions, in order to determine the effect of pineapple crop (Ananas comosus L. residues on the edaphic arthropod fauna. Slips were planted in June, in Red-Yellow Latossol , with crop residues in amounts of 0, 30 and 60 t/ha, placed on the surface or tilled under 10cm, with and without 10% (v/v Agrobio biofertilizer applied along with the residues and sprayed monthly at 3% (v/v two months after planting. Soil samples were collected from the top 5.0 cm of soil at 90, 210, 330 and 450 days after the application of residues. Over 15 months, the predominance of Acari and Collembolan was observed. The highest density of animals was observed in the first sample, at 90 days after the addition of residues. Nevertheless, differences in soil fauna abundance between treatments were not detected until 330 days after soil management with crop residues.

  16. Management effects on European cropland respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Werner; Moffat, Antje M.; Ceschia, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Increases in respiration rates following management activities in croplands are considered a relevant anthropogenic source of CO2. In this paper, we quantify the impact of management events on cropland respiration fluxes of CO2 as they occur under current climate and management conditions. Our....... This allowed us to address the question of how management activities influence ecosystem respiration. This was done by comparing respiration fluxes during 7, 14, and 28 days after the management with those observed during the matching time period before management. Median increases in respiration ranged from...... than management alone are also important at a given site. Temperature is the climatic factor that showed best correlation with site-specific respiration fluxes. Therefore, the effect of temperature changes between the time periods before and after management were taken into account for a subset of 13...

  17. Effects of cooking and storage on residues of cyadox in chicken muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2005-12-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the depletion of residues of cyadox in chicken muscle over time. The heat stabilities of cyadox (CYX) and its two metabolites, 1,4-bisdesoxycyadox (BDCYX) and quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA), in water, cooking oil, and as incurred residues in chicken muscle were investigated. CYX was shown to be unstable with a half-life of about 37.7 min in 100 degrees C water. In hot cooking oil at 180 degrees C, all three compounds were unstable. CYX decreased quickly and was not able to be detected after heating for 2 min. Diode-array analysis of CYX standard solution in cooking oil indicated that a portion of BDCYX was formed. The residues of CYX and BDCYX deteriorated rapidly in frozen storage, while that of QCA changed slowly. Muscles containing CYX residues were boiled, microwaved, or fried for the specified times. During boiling, CYX and BDCYX were reduced 94% and 81% in 10 min, respectively. During microwave cooking, CYX and BDCYX were reduced 54% and 47% in 2.5 min, respectively. During frying, CYX and BDCYX were reduced 86% and 76%, respectively. No significant reduction of QCA was found for the three cooking methods. The half-lives of CYX residues in cooked chicken muscles were estimated as follows: 2.22 min for CYX and 4.44 min for BDCYX by boiling; 6.66 min for CYX and 9.36 min for BDCYX by microwaving.

  18. Effects of interface edge configuration on residual stress in the bonded structures for a divertor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, K.; Nagata, K.; Shibui, M.; Tachikawa, N.; Araki, M.

    1998-01-01

    Residual stresses in the interface region, that developed at the cool down during the brazing, were evaluated for several bonded structures to assess the mechanical strength of the bonded interface, using thermoelasto-plastic stress analysis. Normal stress components of the residual stresses around the interface edge of graphite-copper (C-Cu) bonded structures were compared for three types of bonded features such as flat-type, monoblock-type and saddle-type. The saddle-type structure was found to be favorable for its relatively low residual stress, easy fabrication accuracy on bonded interface and armor replacement. Residual stresses around the interface edge in three armor materials/copper bonded structures for a divertor plate were also examined for the C-Cu, tungsten-copper (W-Cu) and molybdenum alloy-copper (TZM-Cu), varying the interface wedge angle from 45 to 135 . An optimal bonded configuration for the least value of residual stress was found to have a wedge angle of 45 for the C-Cu, and 135 for both the W-Cu and TZM-Cu bonded ones. (orig.)

  19. Residual, direct and cumulative effect of zinc application on wheat and rice yield under rice-wheat syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is prevalent particularly on calcareous soils of arid and semiarid region. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the direct, residual and cumulative effect of zinc on the yield of wheat and rice in permanent layout for two consecutive years, 2004-05 and 2005-06 at Arid Zone Research Institute D.I. Khan. Soil under study was deficient in Zn (0.8 mg kg-1. Effect of Zn on yield, Zn concentrations in leaf and soils were assessed using wheat variety Naseer-2000 and rice variety IRRI-6. Three rates of Zn, ranging from 0 to 10 kg ha-1 in soil, were applied as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4. 7H2O along with basal dose fertilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Mature leaf and soil samples were collected at panicle initiation stage. The results showed that grain yield of wheat and rice was significantly increased by the direct application of 5 and 10 kg Zn ha-1. Highest grain yield of wheat (5467 kg ha-1 was recorded with the direct application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 while 4994 kg ha-1 was recorded with the cumulative application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 but the yield increase due to residual effect of Zn was statistically lower than the cumulative effect of Zn. Maximum paddy yield was recorded with the cumulative application ofZn followed by residual and direct applied 10 and 5 kg Zn kg ha-1, respectively. Zn concentration in soils ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 mg kg-1 in wheat and 0.24 to 2.40 mg kg-1 in rice, while in leaves it ranged from 18-48 mg kg-1 in wheat and 15-52 mg kg-1 in rice. The concentration of Zn in soil and leaves increased due to the treatments in the order; cumulative > residual > direct effect > control (without Zn. The yield attributes like 1000- grain weight, number of spikes, spike length and plant height were increased by the residual, direct and cumulative effect of Zn levels; however, the magnitude of increase was higher in cumulative effect than residual and direct effect of Zn, respectively. Under Zn-deficient soil

  20. Investigation on the effects of geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth in the RPV BMI penetration nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Ra, Myoung Soo; Lee, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of various geometric variables on the residual stresses and PWSCC growth of RPV BMI penetration nozzles. An FE residual stress analysis procedure was developed and validated from the viewpoint of FFS assessment. The validated FE residual stress analysis procedure and the PWSCC growth assessment procedure in the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI were applied to the BMI penetration nozzles with specified ranges of the geometric variables. The total stresses at steady state during normal operation including welding residual stresses increase with increasing inclination angle of the BMI nozzles, and with tilt angle, depth, and root width of the J-groove weld. The lifetime from the assumed initial crack to the acceptance criteria according to the ASME B and PV Code, Sec.XI also decreases under these conditions. The total stresses decrease and the lifetime increases with increasing nozzle thickness, but outer radius of the BMI nozzles has an insignificant effect on both of these factors.

  1. Chaperone-like activity of β-casein and its effect on residual in vitro activity of horseradish peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Olsen, Karsten; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    , as similar experiment with bovine serum albumin resulted in residual activity of horseradish peroxidase that was significantly lower than without any addition. The effect of β-casein on HRP disappears when pH is below the isoelectric point of β-casein. It was also proven by light scattering studies that β...... proteins. Incubating HRP (0.1 mg mL-1) for 10 min at 72 °C resulted in residual activity of 59 ± 5%, while addition of 1 mg mL-1 β-casein resulted in increase in residual activity up to 85 ± 1%. Increased residual activity is not merely attributed to an effect of higher total protein concentration......-casein interacts with horseradish peroxidase when the temperature was increased from 25 to 70 °C whereas interactions seem to cease when temperature was lowered back to 25 °C. This study highlights how specific proteins can influence enzyme activity, which is of potential importance for various industries...

  2. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato.

  3. Evaluation of the effects of mulch on optimum sowing date and irrigation management of zero till wheat in central Punjab, India using APSIM

    OpenAIRE

    Balwinder-Singh,; Humphreys, E.; Gaydon, D.S.; Eberbach, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of s...

  4. The effective manager perspectives and illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    An ideal introduction to management and organizational behaviour, this Reader brings together a range of contributions on the art and science of management. The focus of the book is on the ideas and theories which a manager can use to become more effective. Six sections explore important aspects of the manager's job: management, leadership and conflict; motivation and stress at work; organizational culture; decision-making and teams; staff development; and diversity in organizations. In each section, the reader will find articles which reflect major ideas or debates within the area, including those that challenge traditional views and ways of doing things. Does money motivate? Are teams useful?

  5. Effects of ion irradiation on the residual stresses in Cr thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.; Fayeulle, S.; Kung, H.; Mitchell, T.E.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Cr films sputtered onto {100}thinspSi substrates at room temperature were found to be under residual tension, as revealed by wafer curvature measurements. A 150 nm thick Cr film was bombarded with 300 keV Ar ions after deposition. The intrinsic residual tensile stress increased slightly and then decreased with further increase in the ion dose. For ion doses >1x10 15 thinspions/cm 2 , the stress in the film became compressive and increased with increasing dose. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the grain boundaries in as-deposited Cr have columnar porosity. A Cr film, ion irradiated to a dose of 5x10 15 thinspions/cm 2 , showed no grain boundary porosity. The changes in the residual stress during ion irradiation are explained by considering Ar incorporation in the film and the manner in which irradiation may change the interatomic distances and forces. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  6. Effects of the application of different particle sizes of mill scale (residue) in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R.; Meller, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of mill scale, residue, when added to a mass ceramic. This residue rich in iron oxide may be used as pigment in the ceramics industry. The use of pigments in ceramic products is related to the characteristics of non-toxicity, chemical stability and determination of tone. The tendency to solubilize the pigment depends on the specific surface area. The residue study was initially subjected to physical and chemical characterization and added in a proportion of 5% at a commercial ceramic white burning, with different particle sizes. Both formulations were sintered at a temperature of 950 ° C and evaluated for: loss on ignition, firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural strength and difference of tone. Samples with finer particles of mill scale 0.038 μ showed higher mechanical strength values in the order of 18 MPa. (author)

  7. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases emissions in soil under sewage sludge residual effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado Pitombo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The large volume of sewage sludge (SS generated with high carbon (C and nutrient content suggests that its agricultural use may represent an important alternative to soil carbon sequestration and provides a potential substitute for synthetic fertilizers. However, emissions of CH4 and N2O could neutralize benefits with increases in soil C or saving fertilizer production because these gases have a Global Warming Potential (GWP 25 and 298 times greater than CO2, respectively. Thus, this study aimed to determine C and N content as well as greenhouse gases (GHG fluxes from soils historically amended with SS. Sewage sludge was applied between 2001 and 2007, and maize (Zea mays L. was sowed in every year between 2001 and 2009. We evaluated three treatments: Control (mineral fertilizer, 1SS (recommended rate and 2SS (double rate. Carbon stocks (0-40 cm were 58.8, 72.5 and 83.1 Mg ha–1in the Control, 1SS and 2SS, respectively, whereas N stocks after two years without SS treatment were 4.8, 5.8, and 6.8 Mg ha–1, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was highly responsive to soil temperature in SS treatments, and soil water content greatly impacted gas flux in the Control. Soil N2O flux increased under the residual effects of SS, but in 1SS, the flux was similar to that found in moist tropical forests. Soil remained as a CH4sink. Large stores of carbon following historical SS application indicate that its use could be used as a method for carbon sequestration, even under tropical conditions.

  8. Efeito residual da silicatagem no solo e na produtividade do capim-marandu sob pastejo Residual effect of silicate application on soil and brachiaria grass yield under grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Abreu Faria

    2008-06-01

    calcium silicate and is an alternative for soil acidity correction. This study evaluated the residual effects of calcium silicate application on the chemical properties of a Rhodic Hapludox in a rotation system with Brachiaria grass under different grazing intensities. The experiment was a complete randomized block design, where the plots consisted of grazing intensities, determined by the forage supply of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg t-1 of MS/ PV, respectively, and the subplots of surface applications of calcium silicate in combination with dolomitic limestone ( 0 + 0; 2 + 0; 4 + 0; 6 + 0; 2 + 4; 4 + 2 and 0 + 6 t ha-1, with four replications. Evaluations were carried out in two seasons (summer and winter and at three soil depths (0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm. The results of residual calcium silicate and limestone effects 720 days after application were positive for soil pH in CaCl2, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K, concentration, H + Al values, and base saturation. A forage supply of 200 kg t-1 and the limestone treatment (0 + 6 t ha-1 increased pH in CaCl2 and base saturation values, mainly in the 0-10 cm layer. The soil silicon levels were influenced by the applied calcium silicate doses, but they resulted in no significant leaf Si concentration. The chemical-bromatological composition of the forage was affected only by forage supply and seasons. The forage supply, seasons and seasons x supply interaction influenced the pre-grazing dry matter production. The yield was highest at 200 kg t-1 and lowest at 50 kg t-1 forage supply in both seasons. Supply and seasons influenced the after-grazing forage residue. The highest rates of dry matter accumulation were obtained with forage supplies of 50 and 100 kg t-1 and application of 2 t ha-1 calcium silicate.

  9. Efficacy of Topical Application, Leaf Residue or Soil Drench of Blastospores of Isaria fumosorosea for Citrus Root Weevil Management: Laboratory and Greenhouse Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasco B. Avery

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of topical, leaf residue, and soil drench applications with Isaria fumosorosea blastospores (Ifr strain 3581 was assessed for the management of the citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.. Blastospores of Ifr were applied topically at a rate of 107 blastospores mL−1 on both the larvae and adults, and each insect stage was incubated in rearing cups with artificial diet at 25 °C, either in the dark or in a growth chamber under a 16 h photophase for 2 weeks, respectively. Percent larval and adult mortality due to the infection of Ifr was assessed after 14 days as compared to untreated controls. Leaf residue assays were assessed by feeding the adults detached citrus leaves previously sprayed with Ifr (107 blastospores mL−1 in Petri dish chambers and then incubating them at 25 °C for 2–3 weeks. Efficacy of the soil drench applications was assessed on five larvae feeding on the roots of a Carrizo hybrid citrus seedling ~8.5–10.5 cm below the sterile sand surface in a single 16 cm × 15.5 cm pot inside a second pot lined with plastic mesh to prevent escapees. Drench treatments per pot consisted of 100 mL of Ifr suspension (107 blastospores mL−1, flushed with 400, 900, or 1400 mL of water compared to 500, 1000, and 1500 mL of water only for controls. The mean concentration of Ifr propagules as colony forming units per gram (CFUs g−1 that leached to different depths in the sand profile per treatment drench rate was also determined. Two weeks post-drenching of Ifr treatments, larvae were assessed for percent mortality, size differences, and effect of treatments in reducing feeding damage to the plant root biomass compared to the controls. Topical spray applications caused 13 and 19% mortality in larvae and adults after 7 days compared to none in the control after 14 days, respectively. Adults feeding on a single Ifr treated leaf for 24 h consumed less than the control, and resulted in 100% mortality 35 days post

  10. Residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour at the 240-m level of the underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Two subhorizontal, orthogonal boreholes were monitored continuously during concentric overcoring at the 240-m level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The magnitude and orientation of principal residual strain components in the near-field stress regime were determined assuming linear elastic behaviour of the rock mass and isotropic conditions. In terms of magnitude, results compared favourably with those from previous tests at the 240-m level. However, orientation results were inconclusive. The effects of scale and borehole orientation relative to the principal stress direction on the results from a modified CSIR triaxial cell overcore test were also investigated; no scale effects were apparent in the experiment, but borehole orientation did affect results. Finally, time-dependent behaviour was detected in the Lac du Bonnet granite, and was monitored between successive overcore tests in one of the boreholes. Results on residual strain, scale effects, and time-dependent behaviour are presented, along with limitations and possible modifications to the testing procedure

  11. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum Mill. COGERMINATION, WATER EXTRACTS AND RESIDUES ON HOARY CRESS (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine allelopathic effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. on germination and growth parameters of weed species hoary cress (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.. Cogermination of hoary cress with parsley seeds, water extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass in concentrations of 5 and 10% (50 and 100 g per litre of distilled water were evaluated in Petri dishes. Effect of water extracts from fresh parsley biomass in aforementioned concentrations as well as effects of fresh and dry parsley residues in two rates (10 and 20 g/kg of soil were examined in pots with soil. Cogermination of seeds stimulated root length, but decreased shoot length and fresh weight of hoary cress seedlings. In the Petri dish assay, extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass reduced germination of hoary cress, but had both stimulatory as well as inhibitory effect on other parameters. The highest concentration of dry biomass extract completely reduced germination rate of hoary cress (by 100%. In the pot experiment, extracts from fresh parsley biomass had stimulatory effect on weed growth parameters except for root length which was inhibited with higher concentration by 4.2%. Fresh parsley residues reduced germination, root and shoot length of hoary cress, while dry parsley residues promoted measured parameters, with the exception of root length.

  13. [Effects of mushroom residue compost on growth and nutrient accumulation of Larix principis-rupprechtii containerized transplants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; Liu, Yong; Lou, Jun Shan; Sun, Qiao Yu; Wan, Fang Fang; Yang, Chen; Zhang, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Excessive use of peat may cause some environmental problems. To alleviate the negative effect, an experiment was conducted with the mushroom residue compost to replace peat in Larix principis-rupprechtii containerized transplant production, and the proportion of mushroom residue compost was 0% (T 0 , control), 15% (T 1 ), 18.75% (T 2 ), 25% (T 3 ), 37.50% (T 4 ), 50% (T 5 ), 56.25% (T 6 ) and 60% (T 7 ), respectively. The physical and chemical features of the substrates and its effect on the vegetative growth and nutrient accumulation of L. principis-rupprechtii containerized transplants were studied. The results showed when the proportion of mushroom residue compost in the substrate accounted for 50% or less, there was no significant difference in the transplant height, diameter, and biomass compared with the control, and the nutrient concentration in T 2 , T 4 , T 5 treatments was significantly higher than in T 0 . The pH value was sub-acidic to neutral which was suitable to the transplant growth. When the compost proportion accounted for more than 50%, the pH value was altered to alkali and was not suitable to the transplant growth. When the proportion of mushroom residue compost accounted for 15%, the plant grew best, and the height, diameter, and total biomass got the highest. Therefore, using mushroom residue compost to replace peat in L. principis-rupprechtii containerized transplants cultivation was feasible and the maximum replacement ratio could reach 50%. The high quality transplants could be obtained when the compost replacement ratio was 15%.

  14. Effects of stop–start features on residual stresses in a multipass austenitic stainless steel weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turski, M.; Francis, J.A.; Hurrell, P.R.; Bate, S.K.; Hiller, S.; Withers, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe experiments that characterise and quantify the localised perturbations in residual stress associated with both ramped and abrupt stop–start features in a multipass weld. Residual stress distributions in AISI Grade 304L/308L stainless steel groove-welded specimens, containing weld interruptions that were introduced in a controlled manner, have been characterised using both neutron diffraction and the incremental deep hole drilling method. The extent to which the localised stresses associated with the interruptions were annealed by overlayed passes was also assessed. The results suggest that, regardless of the type of interruption, there can be significant localised increases in residual stress if the stop–start feature is left exposed. If further weld passes are deposited, then the localised increases in stress are likely to persist if the interruption was abrupt, whereas for a ramped interruption they may be dissipated. - Highlights: ► In this study the residual stress-field surrounding weld interruptions was measured. ► Localised stresses were found to increase at weld interruptions. ► Both ramped and abrupt weld interruptions were investigated. ► After subsequent weld passes, localised stresses persisted for abrupt interruptions. ► After subsequent weld passes, localised stresses dissipated for ramped interruptions.

  15. Effect of washing and boiling on residues of pirimiphos-methyl in soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulistiawaty, M.; Anwar, E.

    1996-01-01

    The residues of pirimiphos-methyl (0-2-diethylamino-6-methyl-pyrimidine-4-il-o-dimethyl phos-phorothioate) in soybean grains were studied using 14 C-labelled-pirimiphos-methyl. Jute sock containing soybean grains were sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl and then stored at room temperature. The results indicated than residues of pirimiphos-methyl in soybeans before washing, after washing, and after washing + boiling at 0 week storage were: 1.0, 0.42, and 0.01%: then increased to 42.01, 30.75, and 10.02%, respectively, after 12 weeks, and finally decreased to 38.33, 27.01, and 6.10%, respectively, after 24 weeks storage. The residues of pirimiphos-methyl in washing water at 0 week storage was 0.41%, then increased to 8.01% after 24 weeks storage. The percentage was calculated based on the amount of residue found compared to the initial pirimiphos-methyl used. (author)

  16. The effect of reuse of unhairing-liming residual floats through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Key words: Unhairing-liming process, reusing, leather industry, environment, bacterial and fungal numbers. INTRODUCTION .... 4.0 x101. -: No growth. Chemical analysis of samples. Chemical analyses of sodium sulphide and lime were done for the regeneration of ULP residual liquors. While preparing ...

  17. Residual Effect of Lead on Early Growth of Fluted Pumpkin ( Telfairia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greenhouse and field trials were carried out at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City to find out the residual influence of Pb on some Telfairia occidentalis agronomic characters and soil chemical properties. The soils used were previously treated with 0, 50, 100, 200 mg per 5 kg soil in the greenhouse ...

  18. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P; Li, M K; Woo, T; de Bie, J; Maktabi, M; Lee, J; Kwo, J; Pino, R; Sabouri, A S; McGovern, F; Staehr-Rye, A K; Eikermann, M

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Timing of reversal agent administration was based on the providers' clinical judgement. Primary endpoint was the presence of residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission, defined as a train-of-four (TOF) ratio sugammadex patients and 33 out of 76 (43.4%) usual care patients had TOF-Watch SX-assessed residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission (odds ratio 0.0, 95% CI [0-0.06], Psugammadex vs usual care (14.7 vs. 18.6 min respectively; P=0.02). After abdominal surgery, sugammadex reversal eliminated residual neuromuscular blockade in the PACU, and shortened the time from start of study medication administration to the time the patient was ready for discharge from the operating room. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT01479764. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Suppression of surface effect by using bent-perfect-crystal monochromator in residual strain scanning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrána, Miroslav; Mikula, Pavol

    490/491, - (2005), s. 234-238 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0891; GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : neutron diffraction * residual strain scanning * bent monochromator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  20. Residual feed intake in young chickens : effects on energy partitioning and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: chicken, residual feed intake, resource allocation, immune response, Salmonella Enteritidis, energy partitioning.The continuous selection in farm animals for efficient production and high production levels may have led to animals that are "programmed" to put a lot of

  1. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... residual oil added to feed mixture on the biochemical traits of thigh muscles in .... The basal diet (Soybean + corn); T2 = basal diet + 0% RRO + 50 mg/kg ZnO; T3 = basal ... fatty acids, using gas chromatography (AOAC, 1999).

  2. Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Incidence of Malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the application of a chemical to the internal walls of the structure in order to kill an insect that sits on the wall treated with such a chemical, is one of the methods adopted by World Health Organisation in combating malaria by controlling the vector mosquito. In line with the Zambian ...

  3. Cytotoxic effects of oxytetracycline residues in the bones of broiler chickens following therapeutic oral administration of a water formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odore, R; De Marco, M; Gasco, L; Rotolo, L; Meucci, V; Palatucci, A T; Rubino, V; Ruggiero, G; Canello, S; Guidetti, G; Centenaro, S; Quarantelli, A; Terrazzano, G; Schiavone, A

    2015-08-01

    Tetracyclines, which represent one of the most commonly used antibiotics for poultry, are known to be deposited in bones, where they can remain, despite the observation of appropriate withdrawal times. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of oxytretracycline (OTC) residues in the bone and muscle of chickens, following the oral administration of a commercially available liquid formulation, and to test their cytotoxic effects on an in vitro cell culture model. Seventy-two 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted into 2 groups (control and treated animals). OTC (40 mg/kg BW) was administered via drinking water during the 1 to 5 and 20 to 25 days of life periods. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered and the OTC residues in the target tissues were measured by means of liquid chromatography (LC) - tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of the bone residues on the K562 erythroleukemic line and on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In all the animals, the OTC residues in the muscle were far below the established MRL of 100 μg/kg. The OTC levels in the bones of the treated animals were instead found in the parts per million (ppm) range. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of OTC bone residues on the haematopoietic cell system. This in vitro system has revealed a significant pro-apoptotic effect on both the K562 cell line and PBMC cultures. This result suggests potential human and animal health risks due to the entry of tetracycline residues contained in the bones of treated livestock into the food-chain. This could be of concern, particularly for canine and feline diets, as meat, bone meal, and poultry by-products represent some of the main ingredients of pet foods, especially in the case of dry pet food. Further studies are needed to define the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to evaluate the in vivo toxicological

  4. Effects of glass composition on the residual rate of alteration and modelling parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This PhD thesis deals with the long-term behavior of the French nuclear glasses R7T7. An experiment plan (based on 27 glass compositions) is developed for studying the effect of glass composition on the residual rate of alteration. The impact of Mg-phase precipitation on glass alteration is also studied and several modelling exercises are performed. There is one order of magnitude between the different measurements (rate or pH...) associated with the different glass compositions. The statistical treatment of these measurements results in predictive equations and several observable trends are valid for all materials with a composition complying with the experiment plan conditions. The effect of Si, Na, B and Al on alteration (.i.e, gel and secondary phase's formation, pH) is confirmed, the influence of Zn, Zr and Ni-Co is evidenced. The role of Cr has to be clarified. Experiments show that glass alteration rate in underground water, which contains high level of Ca and Mg, is one order of magnitude higher than in the case of pure water. The glass composition plays the same role for the alteration in the two types of solution. During alteration, the late addition of Mg introduces a time lag in the resumption response because silicon is first provided from partial dissolution of the previously-formed alteration gel. The nucleation process does not limit Mg-silicate precipitation whereas a pH above 8-8.5 is necessary for Mg-silicate precipitation. The glass alteration rate can be a limiting factor if the quantity of Mg supplied to the reaction is enough. The Mg silicate phase seems to have systematically a molar ratio Mg/Si between 0.2 and 0.4. It is also shown that the air tightness of the reactor influences the rate of dissolution of CO 2 in the solution leading to a decrease of pH. Finally, modelling exercises with GRAAL show promising results. Such modelling is required in order to extend the prediction of the long-term alteration behavior to different glass

  5. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub-surface soil, respectively, while R+ compared with fallow increased these properties by 33.7, 47.4, 21.4 and 32.2% at surface and 36.8, 51, 21.9 and 35.4% at sub-surface soil, respectively. Inclusion of mung bean with its residues incorporated and application of 20 t FYM ha-1 and reducing inorganic N fertilizer to 60 kg N ha-1 for wheat is recommended for improving microbiological properties of slightly eroded lands

  6. Investigation of the Effect of Residual Stress Gradient on the Wear Behavior of PVD Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, B.; Nouveau, C.; Guillemot, G.; Besnard, A.; Barkaoui, A.

    2018-02-01

    The control of residual stresses has been seldom investigated in multilayer coatings dedicated to improvement of wear behavior. Here, we report the preparation and characterization of superposed structures composed of Cr, CrN and CrAlN layers. Nano-multilayers CrN/CrAlN and Cr/CrN/CrAlN were deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) onto Si (100) and AISI4140 steel substrates. The Cr, CrN and CrAlN monolayers were developed with an innovative approach in PVD coatings technologies corresponding to deposition with different residual stresses levels. Composition and wear tracks morphologies of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and 3D-surface analyzer. The mechanical properties (hardness, residual stresses and wear) were investigated by nanoindentation, interferometry and micro-tribometry (fretting-wear tests). Observations suggest that multilayer coatings are composed mostly of nanocrystalline. The residual stresses level in the films has practically affected all the physicochemical and mechanical properties as well as the wear behavior. Consequently, it is demonstrated that the coating containing moderate stresses has a better wear behavior compared to the coating developed with higher residual stresses. The friction contact between coated samples and alumina balls shows also a large variety of wear mechanisms. In particular, the abrasive wear of the coatings was a combination of plastic deformation, fine microcracking and microspallation. The application of these multilayers will be wood machining of green wood.

  7. Effect of subseabed salt domes on Tidal Residual currents in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Backhaus, Jan; Dehghani, Ali; Huebner, Udo

    2016-05-01

    Geological studies in the Persian Gulf (PG) have revealed the existence of subseabed salt-domes. With suitable filtering of a high-resolution PG seabed topography, it is seen that the domes leave their signature in the seabed, i.e., numerous hills and valleys with amplitudes of several tens of meters and radii from a few up to tens of kilometers. It was suspected that the "shark skin" of the PG seabed may affect the tidal residual flow. The interaction of tidal dynamics and these obstacles was investigated in a nonlinear hydrodynamic numerical tidal model of the PG. The model was first used to characterize flow patterns of residual currents generated by a tidal wave passing over symmetric, elongated and tilted obstacles. Thereafter it was applied to the entire PG. The model was forced at its open boundary by the four dominant tidal constituents residing in the PG. Each tidal constituent was simulated separately. Results, i.e., tidal residual currents in the PG, as depicted by Lagrangian trajectories reveal a stationary flow that is very rich in eddies. Each eddy can be identified with a topographic obstacle. This confirms that the tidal residual flow field is strongly influenced by the nonlinear interaction of the tidal wave with the bottom relief which, in turn, is deformed by salt-domes beneath the seabed. Different areas of maximum residual current velocities are identified for major tidal constituents. The pattern of trajectories indicates the presence of two main cyclonic gyres and several adjacent gyres rotating in opposite directions and a strong coastal current in the northern PG.

  8. Residual learning rates in lead-acid batteries: Effects on emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, Schuyler; Williams, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The low price of lead-acid, the most popular battery, is often used in setting cost targets for emerging energy storage technologies. Future cost reductions in lead acid batteries could increase investment and time scales needed for emerging storage technologies to reach cost-parity. In this paper the first documented model of cost reductions for lead-acid batteries is developed. Regression to a standard experience curve using 1989–2012 data yield a poor fit, with R 2 values of 0.17 for small batteries and 0.05 for larger systems. To address this problem, battery costs are separated into material and residual costs, and experience curves developed for residual costs. Depending on the year, residual costs account for 41–86% of total battery cost. Using running-time averages to address volatility in material costs, a 4-year time average experience curve for residual costs yield much higher R 2 , 0.78 for small and 0.74 for large lead-acid batteries. The learning rate for residual costs in lead-acid batteries is 20%, a discovery with policy implications. Neglecting to consider cost reductions in lead-acid batteries could result in failure of energy storage start-ups and public policy programs. Generalizing this result, learning in incumbent technologies must be understood to assess the potential of emerging ones. -- Highlights: •We analyze potential cost reductions in lead-acid batteries. •Modified experience curve for non-material costs gives good empirical fit. •Historical learning rate for non-material costs from 1985–2012 is 19–24%. •Progress in incumbent technology raises barrier to new entrants

  9. Surgical treatment for residual or recurrent strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the surgical treatment is a relatively effective and predictable method for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus, such as posterior fixation sutures, medial rectus marginal myotomy, unilateral or bilateral rectus re-recession and resection, unilateral lateral rectus recession and adjustable suture, no standard protocol is established for the surgical style. Different surgical approaches have been recommended for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus. The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the former operation pattern and the surgical dosages applied on the patients, residual or recurrent angle of deviation and the operator''s preference and experience. This review attempts to outline recent publications and current opinion in the management of residual or recurrent esotropia and exotropia.

  10. The effect of gamma irradiation on crude fibre NDF, ADF, and ADL of some Syrian agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.

    1992-07-01

    The effects of 150 KGy of gamma irradiation on crude fibre and its main components (cellulose, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin) and on neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and acid detergent fibre (ADF) were investigated. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased Cf content by 30%, 28%, 29%, and 17% for cottonwood, lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake, respectively. NDF values also decreased by 5%, 23%, 13% and 3% for, cottonwood, lentils straw, olive-oil cake and apple-tree pruning products respectively. Gamma irradiation (150 KGy) had no effects on ADF and ADL for lentils straw, apple-tree pruning products and olive-oil cake whereas, ADF decreased by 8.5% and ADL by 8.3 for cottonwood. Hemicellulose content increased by 12% for cottonwood while decreased by 54% for lentils straw and by 33% for apple-tree pruning products with no effects for olive-oil cake. Cellulose content decreased by 8.6% for cottonwood whereas no effects for the remaining residues were seen. Gamma irradiation treatment improved the nutritive value of the agriculture residues examined. The reduction in crude fibre content varies with the residue. (author). 15 refs., 5 tabs

  11. Selective effects of charge on G protein activation by FSH-receptor residues 551-555 and 650-653.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, P; Deziel, M R; Reichert, L E

    1995-01-01

    Two cytosolic regions of the rat testicular FSH receptor (FSHR), residues 533-555 and 645-653, have been identified as G protein-coupling domains. We localized the activity in these domains to their C-terminal sequences, residues 551-555 (KIAKR, net charge +3) and 650-653 (RKSH, net charge +3), and examined the effects of charge on G protein activation by the C-terminal peptides, using synthetic analogs containing additions, through alanine (A) linkages, of arginine (R, +), histidine (H, +) or both. RA-KIAKR (net charge +4) mimicked the effect of FSHR-(551-555) on guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes, but reduced its ability to inhibit FSH-stimulated estradiol biosynthesis in cultured rat Sertoli cells. Further increasing net charge by the addition of H (HARA-KIAKR, net charge +5) increased guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) binding, but eliminated FSHR-(551-555) effects on FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. HA-RKSH (net charge +4) significantly inhibited guanine nucleotide exchange in rat testis membranes, but stimulated basal and potentiated FSH-induced estradiol biosynthesis in cultured rat Sertoli cells. Addition of two H residues (HAHA-RKSH, net charge +5) restored GTP binding and further potentiated basal and FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. These results suggest that positive charges in G protein-coupling domains of the FSHR play a role in modulating G protein activation and postbinding effects of FSH, such as steroidogenesis.

  12. Acute and Chronic Effects of Dietary Lactose in Adult Rats Are not Explained by Residual Intestinal Lactase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Heijning, Bert J M; Kegler, Diane; Schipper, Lidewij; Voogd, Eline; Oosting, Annemarie; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-07-08

    Neonatal rats have a high intestinal lactase activity, which declines around weaning. Yet, the effects of lactose-containing products are often studied in adult animals. This report is on the residual, post-weaning lactase activity and on the short- and long-term effects of lactose exposure in adult rats. Acutely, the postprandial plasma response to increasing doses of lactose was studied, and chronically, the effects of a 30% lactose diet fed from postnatal (PN) Day 15 onwards were evaluated. Intestinal lactase activity, as assessed both in vivo and in vitro, was compared between both test methods and diet groups (lactose vs. control). A 50%-75% decreased digestive capability towards lactose was observed from weaning into adulthood. Instillation of lactose in adult rats showed disproportionally low increases in plasma glucose levels and did not elicit an insulin response. However, gavages comprising maltodextrin gave rise to significant plasma glucose and insulin responses, indicative of a bias of the adult GI tract to digest glucose polymers. Despite the residual intestinal lactase activity shown, a 30% lactose diet was poorly digested by adult rats: the lactose diet rendered the animals less heavy and virtually devoid of body fat, whereas their cecum tripled in size, suggesting an increased bacterial fermentation. The observed acute and chronic effects of lactose exposure in adult rats cannot be explained by the residual intestinal lactase activity assessed.

  13. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  14. Determination of Effective Criteria for location Selection of WPC Plants from agricultural residues in Iran by AHP Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan alizadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the effective criteria for location selection of WPC Plants from agricultural residues in Iran. For this purpose, after review and studies papers and books, Six criteria" products and materials, regulations, technical and human, economic, infrastructure and environmental and also 30 sub-criteria were identified. The priority rates of these criteria and sub-criteria were evaluated by AHP technique. The results indicated that among 30 effective sub-criteria in location selection of the WPC plants from agricultural residues, amount of wastes supply (0.087, continuity of wastes supply, cost of wastes supply, amount of sales and export, granted facilities and less Hazards for the environment and forest had the highest priorities, which were rated as 0.071, 0.067, 0.065, 0.064 and 0.062 respectively.

  15. Effects of static strain aging on residual stress stability and alternating bending strength of shot peened AISI 4140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menig, R.; Schulze, V.; Voehringer, O. [Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde 1, Univ. Karlsruhe (TH), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Increases of residual stress stability and alternating bending strength of shot peened AISI 4140 are obtained by successive annealing treatments. This is caused by static strain aging effects, which lead to pinning of dislocations by carbon atoms and very small carbides. It will be shown that by well directed annealing of a quenched and tempered AISI 4140 it is possible to maximize the positive effects of static strain aging, without causing extended thermal residual stress relaxation. The amount of yield stress increases caused by static strain aging is quantified using tensile tests. Static strain aging is also found to be responsible for an increase of the quasi static and cyclic surface yield strength present after shot peening. (orig.)

  16. Effective support for community resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansink, E.; Bouma, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    A popular alternative to state-led resource management is community resource management. This decentralised approach is potentially more efficient, but is not necessarily stable. We study this issue using coalition theory, arguing that some of the conditions for effective community resource

  17. Effectiveness of brokering within account management organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, D.J.; Stokman, F.N.; Franses, P.H.B.F.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model that integrates the contradicting Burtian and Krackhardtian broker theories to explain effectiveness of brokering for individuals within account management organizations. Using data on a network of 55 individuals in a financial account management organization, we test how

  18. Managing school library services for effective academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... teachers and student s toward the roles of school library in achieving effective performance, school librarians are not recognized as a stakeholder in promoting students academic performance, school librarians are not part of the school management and curriculum planning team. Establishing and adequate management ...

  19. Effective emergency management: reconsidering the bureaucratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, D M; Phillips, B D

    1995-12-01

    The command and control approach is compared with the Emergent Human Resources Model (EHRM) approach to emergency management. Four decades of systematic research shows that a rigid, bureaucratic command and control approach to emergency management generally leads to an ineffective emergency response. Previous studies and our own research suggest that flexible, malleable, loosely coupled, organizational configurations can create a more effective disaster response.

  20. [Effect of reduced N application on soil N residue and N loss in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ming; Yong, Tai-Wen; Liu, Wen-Yu; Su, Ben-Ying; Song, Chun; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2012, including three planting pattern (maize-soybean relay strip intercropping, mono-cultured maize and soybean) and three nitrogen application level [0 kg N x hm(-2), 180 kg N x hm(-2) (reduced N) and 240 kg N x hm(-2) (normal N)]. Fields were assigned to different treatments in a randomized block design with three replicates. The objective of this work was to analyze the effects of planting patterns and nitrogen application rates on plant N uptake, soil N residue and N loss. After fertilization applications, NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N levels increased in the soil of intercropped maize but decreased in the soil of intercropped soybean. Compared with mono-crops, the soil N residue and loss of intercropped soybean were reduced, while those of intercropped maize were increased and decreased, respectively. With the reduced rate of N application, N residue rate, N loss rate and ammonia volatilization loss rate of the maize-soybean intercropping relay strip system were decreased by 17.7%, 21.5% and 0.4% compared to mono-cultured maize, but increased by 2.0%, 19.8% and 0.1% compared to mono-cultured soybean, respectively. Likewise, the reduced N application resulted in reductions in N residue, N loss, and the N loss via ammonia volatilization in the maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system compared with the conventional rate of N application adopted by local farmers, and the N residue rate, N loss rate and ammonia volatilization loss rate reduced by 12.0%, 15.4% and 1.2%, respectively.