WorldWideScience

Sample records for residue land treatment

  1. Greenhouse and laboratory study for the land application of water treatment residual

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Jay B.

    1991-01-01

    The disposal of water treatment residual has received little attention due to a lack of regulation, funding, and concern about their environmental impacts. Many treatment plants discharge alum residual directly into nearby water courses or dewater them for landfilling. If suitable land is available, land application of residual is cost effective and has the potential for negligible effects on the environment and may prove to be a long-term solution to the disposal problem. This...

  2. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  3. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  4. Characterisation of some South African water treatment residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land application of water treatment residue (WTR) the by-product from the production of potable water, is becoming the preferred method of disposal, as there are environmental concerns and increasingly high costs associated with other disposal options. However, before WTR can be applied to land, consideration needs ...

  5. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  6. The effects of a polyacrylamide-derived water treatment residue on the hydraulic conductivity, water retention and evaporation of four contrasting South African soils and implications for land disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, M; Hughes, J C

    2006-01-01

    Water treatment residue (WTR), a by-product from the production of potable water, was traditionally disposed of to landfill but there is growing interest in applying this waste to land as an alternative disposal option. Because WTR consists mainly of flocculated fine silt and clay, there is concern that should the residue decompose back to its original constituents, there is an adverse risk for soil water storage and transmission properties of soil. In a laboratory study, four different soil types were amended with a polyacrylamide WTR at rates ranging from 0 to 1280 Mg ha(-1). The treatments were evaluated for changes in water retention, hydraulic conductivity and evaporation. The results showed that WTR decreased bulk density and evaporation and actually increased hydraulic conductivity and water retention, mainly because of the sustained performance of the polymer in binding the silt and clay into gravel-sized aggregates. Such changes were, however, only significant at the 1280 Mg ha(-1) application rate. Therefore, very large amounts of WTR would have to be applied in order to markedly change these inherent physical properties of the soils. In view of this finding, the land treatment of WTR appears possible.

  7. Biological treatment of polluted lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, S.

    2005-01-01

    Several techniques of lands cleansing exist; they include the thermal techniques, the biological treatment or the disposal. The Biogenie firm is specialized in the biological cleansing of soils on and outside site. (O.M.)

  8. Surgical treatment for residual or recurrent strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the surgical treatment is a relatively effective and predictable method for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus, such as posterior fixation sutures, medial rectus marginal myotomy, unilateral or bilateral rectus re-recession and resection, unilateral lateral rectus recession and adjustable suture, no standard protocol is established for the surgical style. Different surgical approaches have been recommended for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus. The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the former operation pattern and the surgical dosages applied on the patients, residual or recurrent angle of deviation and the operator''s preference and experience. This review attempts to outline recent publications and current opinion in the management of residual or recurrent esotropia and exotropia.

  9. Residual water treatment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of residual water by means of gamma radiation for its use in agricultural irrigation is evaluated. Measurements of physical, chemical, biological and microbiological contamination indicators were performed. For that, samples from the treatment center of residual water of San Juan de Miraflores were irradiated up to a 52.5 kGy dose. The study concludes that gamma radiation is effective to remove parasites and bacteria, but not for removal of the organic and inorganic matter. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  10. The effect of different treatment technologies on the fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons after the application of residual municipal wastewater solids to soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-application of residual wastewater solids is an important environmental source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Treatment technologies exist that can reduce ARG levels in residual solids prior to land-application, but the effect of these technologies on ARG levels in soil following land-a...

  11. Sources of manganese in the residue from a water treatment plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disposal of water treatment residue (WTR), the by-product from the production of potable water, has traditionally been to landfill. The shortage of suitable landfill sites has led to the proposal that WTR be applied to land. Such disposal is only possible if the WTR contains no toxic elements that may contaminate soil, water or ...

  12. The stability of drinking water treatment residue with ozone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Wu, Yu; He, Rui; Jiang, He-Long; Wang, Changhui

    2017-06-12

    The best management of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) in environmental remediation should be based on comprehensively understanding the effectiveness and risk of DWTR. In this study, the variation in physicochemical properties, metal lability, and adsorption capability of DWTR under oxidizing condition were investigated. The oxidizing condition was set up using ozone treatment, and the laboratory incubation test were performed within 50 d in association with thermogravimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, specific surface area and porosity analyzer, fractionation, and P adsorption test. The results showed that ozone treatment had limited effect on the properties of organic matter, the lability of Al, Cu, and Fe, the P adsorption capability, and the distributions of the adsorbed P in DWTR, but the treatment increased N 2 sorption/desorption, specific surface area, total pore volume of DWTR and led to the transformation of Mn from acid-soluble to reducible fractions. These findings demonstrated that DWTR generally kept stable under oxidizing environment; even oxidizing environment may induce a tendency of increasing the adsorption capability and decreasing the environmental risk of DWTR. Accordingly, the effectiveness and safety of DWTR can be maintained under natural aerobic environment, and DWTR is a reliable adsorbent that could be recycled in environmental remediation.

  13. Biological treatment of crop residues for ruminant feeding: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop residues are often referred to as 'lignocellulosics' as they are rich in cellulose which is bound with a biopolymer lignin. Rumen microbiota (bacteria, protozoa and fungi), even with their hydrolytic enzymes, are not very competent enough to break these bonds efficiently. Biological treatment of such crop residues using ...

  14. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The

  15. Naturally occuring radioactivity in residues of drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornehm, C.; Mallick, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the course of a research project about 500 residues of drinking water treatment from approx. 400 water supply companies in Bavaria were investigated on naturally occurring radioactivity. For each residue the effective dose for workers was evaluated for each residue. The results show that increased activities, particularly of Radium-226, can be found in the material. The dose due to the exposure to the residues, which mostly result from the backwashing of filters, is below the reference value of 1 mSv/a, which can be used according to paragraph 97 of the German radiation protection standard. During the project the quantity of residues in Bavaria and the ways of their disposal were evaluated. In addition the relation between the amount of natural radioisotopes in the residues and the geological and hydrochemical conditions of the water catchment area was pointed out. (orig.)

  16. Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2005-06-01

    Fermi barrels are 55-gallon drums that once contained bulk sodium metal from the shutdown Fermi 1 breeder reactor facility, and now contain residual sodium metal and other sodium/air reaction products. This report provides a residual sodium treatment method and proposed quality assurance steps that will ensure that all residual sodium is deactivated and removed from the Fermi barrels before disposal. The treatment method is the application of humidified carbon dioxide to the residual sodium followed by a water wash. The experimental application of the treatment method to six Fermi barrels is discussed, and recommendations are provided for further testing and evaluation of the method. Though more testing would allow for a greater refinement of the treatment technique, enough data has been gathered from the tests already performed to prove that 100% compliance with stated waste criteria can be achieved.

  17. Are pesticide residues in honey related to oilseed rape treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karise, Reet; Raimets, Risto; Bartkevics, Vadims; Pugajeva, Iveta; Pihlik, Priit; Keres, Indrek; Williams, Ingrid H; Viinalass, Haldja; Mänd, Marika

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide treatments before and during the flowering of honey bee forage crops may lead to residues in honey. In northern regions oilseed rape belongs to the main forage crops that is mostly cultivated by means of intensive agriculture, including several pesticide treatments. However, in addition to the focal forage crops, pesticides from non-forage crops can spread to wild flowers around fields, and thus the residues in honey would reflect the whole range of pesticides used in the agricultural landscape. The aim of our study was to clarify which currently used pesticides are present in honey gathered from heterogeneous agricultural landscapes after the end of flowering of oilseed crops. Honey samples (N = 33) were collected from beehives of Estonia during 2013 and 2014, and analysed for residues of 47 currently used agricultural pesticides using the multiresidue method with HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS and a single residue method for glyphosate, aminopyralid and clopyralid. Residues of eight different active ingredients with representatives from all three basic pesticide classes were determined. Although no correlation was detected between the cumulative amount of pesticide residues and percent of oilseed crops in the foraging territory, most of the residues are those allowed for oilseed rape treatments. Among all pesticides, herbicide residues prevailed in 2013 but not in 2014. Despite the relatively small agricultural impact of Estonia, the detected levels of pesticide residues sometimes exceeded maximum residue level; however, these concentrations do not pose a health risk to consumers, also acute toxicity to honey bees would be very unlikely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) swing abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy landing on a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Huang, He; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-03-01

    Whether for insects or for aircrafts, landing is one of the indispensable links in the verification of airworthiness safety. The mechanisms by which insects achieve a fast and stable landing remain unclear. An intriguing example is provided by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica), which use the swinging motion of their abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy and to achieve a smooth, stable, and quick landing. By using a high-speed camera, we observed that touchdown is initiated by honeybees extending their front legs or antennae and then landing softly on a wall. After touchdown, they swing the rest of their bodies until all flying energy is dissipated. We suggested a simplified model with mass-spring dampers for the body of the honeybee and revealed the mechanism of flying energy transfer and dissipation in detail. Results demonstrate that body translation and abdomen swinging help honeybees dissipate residual flying energy and orchestrate smooth landings. The initial kinetic energy of flying is transformed into the kinetic energy of the abdomen's rotary movement. Then, the kinetic energy of rotary movement is converted into thermal energy during the swinging cycle. This strategy provides more insight into the mechanism of insect flying, which further inspires better design on aerial vehicle with better landing performance.

  19. Soil and air temperature and biomass after residue treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.B. Fowler; J.D. Helvey

    1981-01-01

    Air temperature at 0.5 m and soil temperature at 0.01 m were measured during May and early June after forest harvest on four residue treatment sites and a control. Broadcast burning or burning in piles increased daily accumulation of heat in air while scattered chips and scarified and cleared treatments were equal to the control (broadcast, untreated slash). During mid...

  20. Anaerobia Treatments of the domestic residual waters. Limitations potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Gomez, Eugenio

    1993-01-01

    The quick growth of the Latin American cities has prevented that an appropriate covering of public services is achieved for the whole population, One of the undesirable consequences of this situation is the indiscriminate discharge from the domestic and industrial residual waters to the nearest bodies of water with its consequent deterioration and with disastrous consequences about the ecology and the public health. The developed countries have controlled this situation using systems of purification of the residual waters previously to their discharge in the receptor source. The same as the technology of the evacuation of the served waters, they have become numerous efforts for the application of the purification systems used in the countries developed to the socioeconomic, climatic and cultural conditions of our means. One of the results obtained in these efforts is the economic inability of the municipalities to pay the high investment costs and of operation of the traditional systems for the treatment of the residual waters. Contrary to another type of public services, the treatment of the residual waters needs of appropriate technological solutions for the Climatic and socioeconomic means of the developing countries, One of the technological alternatives for the purification of the residual waters that has had a great development in the last decades has been that of the biological treatments in t anaerobia ambient. The objective of this contribution is to present, to author's trial, the limitations and potentialities of this technology type with special emphasis in the case of the domestic residual waters

  1. Drinking water treatment residuals: a review of recent uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, J A; Barbarick, K A; Elliott, H A

    2011-01-01

    Coagulants such as alum [Al2(SO4)3 x 14H2O], FeCl3, or Fe2(SO4)3 are commonly used to remove particulate and dissolved constituents from water supplies in the production of drinking water. The resulting waste product, called water-treatment residuals (WTR), contains precipitated Al and Fe oxyhydroxides, resulting in a strong affinity for anionic species. Recent research has focused on using WTR as cost-effective materials to reduce soluble phosphorus (P) in soils, runoff, and land-applied organic wastes (manures and biosolids). Studies show P adsorption by WTR to be fast and nearly irreversible, suggesting long-term stable immobilization of WTR-bound P. Because excessive WTR application can induce P deficiency in crops, effective application rates and methods remain an area of intense research. Removal of other potential environmental contaminants [ClO4-, Se(+IV and +VI), As(+III and +V), and Hg] by WTR has been documented, suggesting potential use of WTR in environmental remediation. Although the creation of Al plant toxicity and enhanced Al leaching are concerns expressed by researchers, these effects are minimal at circumneutral soil pH conditions. Radioactivity, trace element levels, and enhanced Mn leaching have also been cited as potential problems in WTR usage as a soil supplement. However, these issues can be managed so as not to limit the beneficial use of WTR in controlling off-site P losses to sensitive water bodies or reducing soil-extractable P concentrations.

  2. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tomperi; M. Pelo; K. Leiviskä

    2013-01-01

    In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP) was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted usi...

  3. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tomperi; M. Pelo; K. Leiviskä

    2012-01-01

    In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP) was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted usin...

  4. Land Use Change from Biofuels Derived from Forest Residue: A Case of Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brent

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel policy in the United States is transitioning away from corn towards second-generation biofuels in part because of the debate over environmental damages from indirect land use change. We combine a spatially explicit parcel level model for land use change in Washington State with simulations for biofuel policy aimed at utilizing forest residue as feedstock. Using a spatially explicit model provides greater precision in measuring net returns to forestland and development and indicates which areas will be most impacted by biofuel policy. The effect of policy is simulated via scenarios of increasing net returns to forestry and of siting feedstock-processing plants. Our results suggest that forestland will increase from such a policy, leading to a net reduction in atmospheric carbon from indirect land use change. This is in contrast to the experience of corn ethanol where the change in carbon emissions is potentially positive and large in magnitude.

  5. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. ► The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. ► AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO 2 , biogenic CO 2 , CH 4, and avoided CO 2 as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO 2 -eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO 2 ), while the net CO 2 -eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO 2 ). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO 2 -eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO 2 -eq reduction.

  6. Some techniques used in the treatment of phenolic waters residual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzate S, Rafael A.; Botero, Carlos Andre

    2000-01-01

    The current state of the diverse processes of treatment of phenolic waters residual is presented, beginning with the methods traditionally employees, until finishing with those but recent innovations, which have been derived of the necessity of increasing the removal of these pollutants without increasing the costs of such processes in excessive form

  7. Residual stress analysis of an aircraft landing gear part using neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eunjoo; Seong, Baek Seok; Sim, Cheul Muu

    2013-07-01

    The residual stress of a landing gear part of a fighter jet that has a frequent practice of takeoff and landing was evaluated for the safety. The sample was a cylindrical steel bar with a 22.2 mm diameter and 55 mm length used to fix the main landing gear to the aircraft body. For a deep measurement up to 6 mm, we used a neutron beam. From the measurements, the tensile and compressive strain in the axial direction were observed around one side of the pin hole which was across the steel bar vertically with an 8 mm diameter. The strain distribution along the length of the bar presented a similar tendency through the thickness and a larger value on the surface. The maximum value of the residual stress around the pin hole was about 100 MPa. However, there was no strain on the opposite side of the pin hole. From the results, it may be surmised that the steel bar received a steady force in one direction around the pin hole, however the force was weak and affected a small limited area and thus not influence on the steel bar on the whole.

  8. Land application of organic residuals: Public health threat or environmental benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste residuals consist of manure and biosolids produced by concentrated animal feeding operations and municipal waste water treatment plants. All wastes need to be disposed of in a proper manner, protecting public and environmental health, but also in a sustainable fashion to ensure that no system...

  9. Treatment of Lignin and Waste residues by Flash Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    pyrolysis properties were compared with the pyrolysis properti es of wood and straw. The PCR treatment of sewage sludge provides an oil that can be used for energy pur poses and a solid residue rich in in organic nutrients that may be used as fertilizer product. By fast pyroly sis of lignin from the IBUS...... ethanol plant a bio-oil can be produced with oil yields of 36% (daf) and an oil en ergy recovery of 45%. This is a relatively low bio-oil yield compared to other feedstock’s, however, it may increase the value of the lignin residual product, such that the lignin char is used for combustion on the ethanol...... be operated at low rotational speed was constructed. The new rotor systems should make it easier to make an up-scaling of the process....

  10. Prediction of residual metabolic activity after treatment in NSCLC patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Velazquez, Emmanuel; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Oberije, Cary; Ruysscher, Dirk De; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Metabolic response assessment is often used as a surrogate of local failure and survival. Early identification of patients with residual metabolic activity is essential as this enables selection of patients who could potentially benefit from additional therapy. We report on the development of a pre-treatment prediction model for metabolic response using patient, tumor and treatment factors. Methods. One hundred and one patients with inoperable NSCLC (stage I-IV), treated with 3D conformal radical (chemo)-radiotherapy were retrospectively included in this study. All patients received a pre and post-radiotherapy fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography FDG-PET-CT scan. The electronic medical record system and the medical patient charts were reviewed to obtain demographic, clinical, tumor and treatment data. Primary outcome measure was examined using a metabolic response assessment on a post-radiotherapy FDG-PET-CT scan. Radiotherapy was delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy, twice a day, with a median prescribed dose of 60 Gy. Results. Overall survival was worse in patients with residual metabolic active areas compared with the patients with a complete metabolic response (p=0.0001). In univariate analysis, three variables were significantly associated with residual disease: larger primary gross tumor volume (GTVprimary, p=0.002), higher pre-treatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max , p=0.0005) in the primary tumor and shorter overall treatment time (OTT, p=0.046). A multivariate model including GTVprimary, SUV max , equivalent radiation dose at 2 Gy corrected for time (EQD2, T) and OTT yielded an area under the curve assessed by the leave-one-out cross validation of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76). Conclusion. Our results confirmed the validity of metabolic response assessment as a surrogate of survival. We developed a multivariate model that is able to identify patients at risk of residual disease. These patients may benefit from

  11. Closing the Global Energy and Nutrient Cycles through Application of Biogas Residue to Agricultural Land – Potential Benefits and Drawback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Arthurson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an optimal way to treat organic waste matter, resulting in biogas and residue. Utilization of the residue as a crop fertilizer should enhance crop yield and soil fertility, promoting closure of the global energy and nutrient cycles. Consequently, the requirement for production of inorganic fertilizers will decrease, in turn saving significant amounts of energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, and indirectly leading to global economic benefits. However, application of this residue to agricultural land requires careful monitoring to detect amendments in soil quality at the early stages.

  12. Report on residual radioactive materials on public or acquired lands of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    This report identifies sites located on public or acquired lands of the United States containing residual radioactive materials and other radioactive waste (excluding waste resulting from the production of electric energy) and was developed in accordance with the provisions of Section 114(b) of Public Law 95-604, "Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978," enacted on November 8, 1978. Additionally, the report specifies which Federal agency has jurisdiction over such sites and, where appropriate data were available, provides a description of the radiological status of each of the sites reported. For purpose of providing a timely report t o t h e Congress, a termination date of May 31, 1979 was established for the receipt, correlation, and analysis of the input data. As of this date, residual radioactive materials and other radioactive waste have been identified by six Federal agencies at 48 sites throughout the United States. Table 1 on page vi provides a summary listing of the number of sites under the jurisdiction of each of these reporting agencies. A cross listing in tabular form by affected state is presented in Table 2 on page viii. Of the 48 sites reported, 36 are located i n three western states - Colorado (27 sites), Wyoming (5 sites), and Utah (4 sites). Based upon t h e data submitted, the sites were categorized into three broad radiological status categories -- controlled, unstabilized, and risk to the public. At controlled sites, the residue is stabilized, access t o t h e site is controlled, the s i t e is well monitored, and does not currently constitute a risk to the public. At sites in the unstabilized category, a probability exists for the spread of contamination. Sites in the risk category contain residue which represents a long-term risk to the public under present conditions. Of the 48 reported sites,. 9 (approximately 19%) could be classified in the controlled category; 38 (approximately 79%) were in the unstabilized category and

  13. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 ± 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 ± 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 ± 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 ± 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 ± 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 ± 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Linking Energy- and Land-Use Systems: Energy Potentials and Environmental Risks of Using Agricultural Residues in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Terrapon-Pfaff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to assess whether renewable energy self-sufficiency can be achieved in the crop production and processing sector in Tanzania and if this could be accomplished in an environmentally sustainable manner. In order to answer these questions the theoretical energy potential of process residues from commercially produced agricultural crops in Tanzania is evaluated. Furthermore, a set of sustainability indicators with focus on environmental criteria is applied to identify risks and opportunities of using these residues for energy generation. In particular, the positive and negative effects on the land-use-system (soil fertility, water use and quality, biodiversity, etc. are evaluated. The results show that energy generation with certain agricultural process residues could not only improve and secure the energy supply but could also improve the sustainability of current land-use practices.

  15. Toxicity of solid residues resulting from wastewater treatment with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Verónica; Lopes, Isabel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are widely recommended for wastewater treatments due to their unique properties. Several studies report the different advantages of nanotechnology in the remediation of wastewaters, but limited research has been directed toward the fate and potential impacts of the solid residues (SRs) produced after the application of such technologies. The present work aimed at investigating the ecotoxicity of SRs resulting from the treatment of three effluents (OOMW, kraft pulp mill, and mining drainage) with two NMs (TiO2 and Fe2O3). The invertebrate Chironomus riparius was selected as test organism and exposed to the residues. The effect on percentage of survival and growth was assessed. Results showed that the SRs from the treatments nano-TiO2(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(0.5M) and nano-Fe2O3(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(1.0M) from OOMW and nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) from kraft pulp mill effluent exhibited lethal toxicity to C. riparius. Only the exposure to SRs resulting from the treatment with nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) applied to the kraft pulp mill effluent significantly affected the growth rate based on the head capsule width. In terms of growth rate, based on the body length, it decreased significantly after exposure to the SRs from the treatments nano-TiO2 (1.0gL(-1)) and nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) of kraft paper mill effluent and nano-Fe2O3(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(1.0M) of OOMW. According to our study the SRs can promote negative effects on C. riparius. However, the effects are dependent on the type of effluent treated as well as on the organic and inorganic compounds attached to the NMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Removal of {sup 230}Th from uranium process residues would significantly reduce the buildup of {sup 226}Ra (half-life of 1600 years), and since {sup 230}Th concentrations at most of the important sites greatly exceed the {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such removal would reduce the accumulation of additional radiation risks associated with {sup 226}Ra and its products; and, if treatment also removed {sup 226}Ra, these risks could be mitigated even further. Removal of {sup 232}Th from thorium process residues would remove the source material for {sup 228}Ra, and since {sup 228}Ra has a half-life of 5.76 years, its control at FUSRAP sites could be done with land use controls for the 30--50 years required for {sup 228}Ra and the risks associated with its decay products to decay away. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation.

  17. Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Removal of 230 Th from uranium process residues would significantly reduce the buildup of 226 Ra (half-life of 1600 years), and since 230 Th concentrations at most of the important sites greatly exceed the 226 Ra concentrations, such removal would reduce the accumulation of additional radiation risks associated with 226 Ra and its products; and, if treatment also removed 226 Ra, these risks could be mitigated even further. Removal of 232 Th from thorium process residues would remove the source material for 228 Ra, and since 228 Ra has a half-life of 5.76 years, its control at FUSRAP sites could be done with land use controls for the 30--50 years required for 228 Ra and the risks associated with its decay products to decay away. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation

  18. Effect of pre-treatments on methane production potential of energy crops and crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomaki, A.; Ronkainen; Rintala, J.A. [Jyvaskla Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences; Viinikainen, T.A. [Jyvaskla Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    Energy crops, that is, crops grown specifically for energy purposes are an alternative to food production in areas with sufficient agricultural land. Crop residues are also a potential source of energy. The anaerobic digestion of solid materials is limited by hydrolysis of complex polymeric substances such as lignocellulose. The methane producing potential of ligno cellulosic material is to pretreat the substrate in order to break up the polymer chains to more easily accessible soluble compounds. In this study, three different substrates were used: sugar beet tops, grass hay, and straw of oats. Biological pretreatments were the following: enzyme treatment, composting, white-rot fungi treatment. Also, pretreatment in water was tried. Chemical pretreatments included peracetic acid treatment, and treatment with two different alkalis. Alkaline pretreatments of hay and sugar beet tops have the potential to improve the methane yield. For instance, the yield of grass hay was increased 15 per cent by one particular alkaline treatment. Straw did not respond to any of the treatments tried. 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  19. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Residual Fragments following Endourological Treatments in Renal Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Acar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL, and flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS are the most widely used modalities for the management of renal stones. In earlier series, treatment success of renal calculi assessed with KUB radiography, ultrasound, or intravenous pyelography which are less sensitive than CT that leads to be diversity of study results in reporting outcome. Residual fragments (RFs after interventional therapies may cause pain, infection, or obstruction. The size and location of RFs following SWL and PCNL are the major predictors for clinical significant symptoms and stone events requiring intervention. There is no consensus regarding schedule for followup of SWL, PCNL, and flexible URS. Active monitoring can be recommended when the stones become symptomatic, increase in size, or need intervention. RFs <4 mm after SWL and <2 mm after PCNL and flexible URS could be actively monitored on an annual basis with CT. Early repeat SWL and second-look endoscopy are recommended after primary SWL and PCNL, respectively. There is insufficient data for flexible URS, but RFs can be easily treated with repeat URS. Finally, medical therapy should be tailored based on the stone analysis and metabolic workup that may be helpful to prevent regrowth of the RFs.

  1. Treatment of residual waters of slaughterhouses with filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz A, Jesus Mario

    1995-01-01

    For studying the anaerobic treatment of the residual waters coming from a slaughterhouse of bovine livestock, they were used a system of two filters in series and a third unique filter as witness. With values average of load organic volumetric and time of retention of 1.6 kg/(m 3 d) and 26 hours respectively, the efficiencies of removal of total DQO were similar in the unique filter and in the system in series, of the order of 64% on the average. Likewise, the retention and accumulation of biological solids in the channel were shown as the main road of removal of the DQO. The differentiation of the process achieved with the two filters in series allowed establishing that most of the accumulation happened in the primary filter, as long as the fundamental of the bioconversion in methane took place in the secondary filter of the system in series. The first relative level of methanegenization obtained could be explained by the limitations to the activity of the methanogenic biomass imposed by the low temperatures, although it could not discard a probable inhibition for the hydrolysis products of the accumulated fats

  2. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  3. Land Administration System structured Land rent residuals and China’s urban sprawl – A Case Study of Dashi, Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl has been at the centre of current debate on urban structure. Compared to the rich literature on urban sprawl in Western cities, relatively little is known about the physical consequence and the causes of urban sprawl in China. In China, for peasant collective-owned land (COL, land use right cannot be sold, transferred or leased for non-agricultural construction’. COL could be developed until it is acquired and leased out by the government. Through the process of land acquisition, the peasants could only get the compensation for 30 years' average of annual agricultural production value in addition to compensation for attachments, crops and vegetables which sometimes could hardly support the life of peasants who lost their land. To compensation for the peasants’ loss, the government would leave 10-15% of the acquired land to peasant collectives as Collectively Owned Economic Development Land (COEDL, allowing it used for industrial or commercial purpose. However, development of COEDL manifested to have low development density, quality and output. With a property rights approach, this research evaluates the development process of COEDL in Guangzhou. It has been revealed that high cost to obtain the permit of land use change (nongzhuanyong zhibiao, and to provide infrastructure and public facilities reduce the incentives of peasants to use COEDL legally and more efficiently. Furthermore, as COEDL is forbidden to transfer or mortgage, the financing ability of peasant collectives is thus impaired severely, allowing them only low investment on development. Use of COEDL thus contributes to urban sprawl in China.

  4. Combined Treatment of Residual, Recurrent and Unresectable Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hoon Sik [Maryknoll Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-06-15

    A series of 25 patients with residual, recurrent, and unresectable gastric cancer received various combination of surgery, radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy (CT), and hyperthermia (HT). They were placed INTO 7 categories; 1) CT and HT-14 patients; 2) RT and HT-15 patients; 3) surgery, RT and HT-2 patients; 4) surgery, RT, HT and CT-1 patient; 5) RT, HT and CT-1 patient; 6) RT and CT-1 patient; 7) RT alone-1 patient. Three patients had curative resection. 21 patients received irradiation with tightly contoured portals to spare as much small bowel, kidney and marrow as possible. Hyperthermia was applied regionally once or twice a week for 23 patients using 8 MHz radiofrequency capacitive heating device (Thermotron RF-8). HT was given approximately 30 min after RT. 7 patients were treated with CT: 4 patients received HT and concomitant Mitomycin-C; 3 patients received HT and sequential 5-FU+Adriamycin+Mitomycin-C. There was not any treatment related deaths. There was also no evidence of treatment related problems with liver, kidney, stomach, or spinal cord except only one case of transient diabetic ketoacidosis. The tumor response was evaluable in 22 patients. None achieved complete remission. 11(50%) achieved partial remission. The response rate was correlated with total radiation dose and achieved maximum temperature. 9 of 14 (64%) received more than 4000 cGy showed partial remission; especially, all 3 patients received more than 5500 cGy achieved partial response. 8 of the 12 patients (67%) who achieved maximal temperature more than 41 .deg. C showed partial response in comparing with 25% (2 of 8 patients, below 41 .deg. C). The numbers of HT, however, was not correlated with the response. 3 of the 25 patients (12%) remain alive. The one who was surgically unresectable and underwent irradiation alone is in progression of the disease with distant metastases. The remaining two patients with curative resection are alive with free of disease, 24 and 35 months

  5. Combined Treatment of Residual, Recurrent and Unresectable Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hoon Sik

    1990-01-01

    A series of 25 patients with residual, recurrent, and unresectable gastric cancer received various combination of surgery, radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy (CT), and hyperthermia (HT). They were placed INTO 7 categories; 1) CT and HT-14 patients; 2) RT and HT-15 patients; 3) surgery, RT and HT-2 patients; 4) surgery, RT, HT and CT-1 patient; 5) RT, HT and CT-1 patient; 6) RT and CT-1 patient; 7) RT alone-1 patient. Three patients had curative resection. 21 patients received irradiation with tightly contoured portals to spare as much small bowel, kidney and marrow as possible. Hyperthermia was applied regionally once or twice a week for 23 patients using 8 MHz radiofrequency capacitive heating device (Thermotron RF-8). HT was given approximately 30 min after RT. 7 patients were treated with CT: 4 patients received HT and concomitant Mitomycin-C; 3 patients received HT and sequential 5-FU+Adriamycin+Mitomycin-C. There was not any treatment related deaths. There was also no evidence of treatment related problems with liver, kidney, stomach, or spinal cord except only one case of transient diabetic ketoacidosis. The tumor response was evaluable in 22 patients. None achieved complete remission. 11(50%) achieved partial remission. The response rate was correlated with total radiation dose and achieved maximum temperature. 9 of 14 (64%) received more than 4000 cGy showed partial remission; especially, all 3 patients received more than 5500 cGy achieved partial response. 8 of the 12 patients (67%) who achieved maximal temperature more than 41 .deg. C showed partial response in comparing with 25% (2 of 8 patients, below 41 .deg. C). The numbers of HT, however, was not correlated with the response. 3 of the 25 patients (12%) remain alive. The one who was surgically unresectable and underwent irradiation alone is in progression of the disease with distant metastases. The remaining two patients with curative resection are alive with free of disease, 24 and 35 months

  6. Energy from agricultural residues and consequences for land requirements for food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine

    Using biomass as an energy source is often mentioned as an option to mitigate the enhancing greenhouse effect. Biomass for energy purposes can be obtained from dedicated energy crops and/or from agricultural residues. The available amount of residues is large and suggests a significant energy

  7. Residual stress development and relief in high strength aluminium alloys using standard and retrogression thermal treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, J.S; Tanner, D.A

    2003-01-01

    peer-reviewed Residual stresses develop in the aluminium alloy 7010 when the material is quenched from the solution heat treatment temperature. Residual stress measurements have been made using the X-ray diffraction technique and a longitudinal split sawcut method to determine the magnitude of residual stress that develops in specimens sectioned from large open die forgings as a result of (a) quenching these specimens into water at different temperatures, and (b) cold water quenching from ...

  8. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiao-yun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pesticide; different portions of the fruit, crop varieties and so on. The way of applying pesticide had great impact on pesticide residue, pesticide application after bagging could largely reduce the pesticide residue, and pesticide application before bagging could increase pesticide residues; The four factors including pesticide appliacation dosage, the type of pesticides and fruit portion and fruit varieties on the effects of pesticide residues, had interaction each other. The pesticide applying several times, bagging could significantly reduce pesticide residues and control within the security level. Different bagging materials could reduce pesticide residues, but the impact on pesticide residues had no significant difference. More bagging layers caused less pesticide residues.

  9. Forest treatment residues for thermal energy compared with disposal by onsite burning: Emissions and energy return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; David Calkin; Woodam Chung

    2010-01-01

    Mill residues from forest industries are the source for most of the current wood-based energy in the US, approximately 2.1% of the nation's energy use in 2007. Forest residues from silvicultural treatments, which include limbs, tops, and small non-commercial trees removed for various forest management objectives, represent an additional source of woody biomass for...

  10. Experimental analysis of a nitrogen removal process simulation of wastewater land treatment under three different wheat planting densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Qi; Chen, Jia-Jun; Tian, Kai-Ming; Lu, Yan

    2002-07-01

    Nitrogen contaminant transport, transformation and uptake simulation experiments were conducted in green house under three different planting density of winter wheat. They were Group A, planting density of 0.0208 plants/cm2, Group B, 0.1042 plants/cm2, and Group C, 0.1415 plants/cm2. The capacity and ratio of nitrogen removal were different on three kinds of conditions of wastewater land treatment. From analysis of wastewater treatment capacity, wastewater concentration and irrigation intensity for Group C were suitable and nitrogen quantity added was 2 times of that for Group B, 2.6 times for Group A while nitrogen residue was only 7.06%. Hence, wastewater irrigation and treatment design with purpose of waste water treatment should select the design with maximum capacity, optimal removal ratio and least residue in soil, which was closely related to crop planting density, crop growth status and also background nitrogen quantity in soil.

  11. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Xiao-yun; XIE De-fang

    2018-01-01

    At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pestici...

  12. Spatial relationships between intensive land cover and residual plant species diversity in temperate farmed landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smart, S.M.; Marrs, R.H.; Duc, Le M.G.; Thompson, K.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Firbank, L.G.; Rossall, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    1. In temperate farmed landscapes conservation policies increasingly emphasize large-scale reductions in land-use intensity. Yet despite a managed reversion to more favourable abiotic conditions, depleted regional species pools may prevent the re-assembly of target communities. 2. Using

  13. Efficiency of Livestock Residue Treatment in Geomembrane Digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Pérez González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of twelve 10 m3 geomembrane biodigesters to treat swine and cattle residuals was assessed. The study took place at the Cooperative of Credits and Services (CCS of the municipality of Cumanayagua, Cienfuegos, Cuba. Its goal was to evaluate feasibility of technology implementation in Cuba. The effluent physical and chemical indicators were determined at entry and exit from biodigesters. The biodigesters charged with pig manure were able to remove 75.88% COD, and up to 66-44% SS. Besides, 64.79% of the contaminating organic load was converted into volatile products during biofermentation. Meanwhile, the biodigesters charged with cattle manure removed 60.42% of COD, and up to 67.67% of SS; 61.51% of the organic contaminating load was converted in volatile products. It was concluded that the biodigesters had acceptable efficiency values, and that the technology can be applied in Cuba.

  14. [Treatment of residual obstetrical brachial plexus palsy with tendon transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Mehmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Uysal, Mustafa

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the results of the correction of adduction and internal rotation deformities of the shoulder associated with residual obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) by the transfer of latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles to the rotator cuff. In order to correct adduction and internal rotation deformities associated with residual OBPP, 10 patients (7 males, 3 females; mean age 8.1 years; range 4 to 19 years) underwent transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles to the rotator cuff and lengthening of the pectoralis major tendon with Z-plasty. The right and left extremities were affected in seven and three patients, respectively. Involvement of the C5-C6 nerve roots was detected in four, and C5-C6-C7 nerve roots in six patients. In two patients with a positive Putti sign, axillary roentgenograms showed posterior subluxation of the humeral head, and magnetic resonance and computed tomography scans revealed type III glenohumeral deformity. Functional evaluations were made using a 5-point scoring system proposed by Mallet. The mean follow-up was 23.6 months (range 5 to 42 months). Postoperatively, the mean abduction and external rotation were 134.5 degrees (range 95 degrees to 170 degrees ) and 70 degrees (range 45 degrees to 90 degrees ), respectively. The mean global abduction score was 4, external rotation score was 4.2, and the scores assigned to the ability to move hand to the neck and mouth were 3.5. Of two patients with type III glenohumeral deformity, whose ages were four and 19 years, abduction and external rotation were 150 degrees and 45 degrees in the former, 135 degrees and 70 degrees in the latter, respectively. The transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major tendons is a necessary procedure to restore external rotation and abduction functions of paralysed shoulders. Compared to other techniques employed, it offers obvious advantages in terms of ease and cost, as well.

  15. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, Daniel; Molin, Camilla; Hupa, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field

  16. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lindberg@abo.fi; Molin, Camilla, E-mail: camilla.molin@abo.fi; Hupa, Mikko, E-mail: mikko.hupa@abo.fi

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field.

  17. Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on Residual Stress and Tensile Properties for 6061 Al Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kijung; Cho, Young-Rae; Ko, Dea Hoon; Kim, Byung Min; Lim, Hak Jin; Lee, Jung Min

    2011-01-01

    To develop a 6061 aluminum alloy with low residual stress and high tensile strength, a cryogenic treatment process was investigated. Compared to the conventional heat treatment process for precipitation hardening with artificial aging, the cryogenic treatment process has two additional steps. The first step is cryogenic quenching of the sample into liquid nitrogen, the second step is up-hill quenching of the sample into boiling water. The residual stress for the sample was measured by the sin 2 ψ method with X-ray diffraction. The 6061 aluminum alloy sample showed 67% relief in stress at the cryogenic treatment process with artificial aging at 175°C. From this study, it was found that the optimum cryogenic treatment process for a sample with low residual stress and high tensile strength is relatively low cooling speed in the cryogenic quenching step and a very high heating speed in the up-hill quenching step.

  18. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.

    1999-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238 Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na 2 SO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 and NaAsO 2 or Na 3 AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238 Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  19. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  20. Environmental Accounting Evidence in Organic Solid Residue Treatment Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Batista Padilha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern with natural resources and the environment brings out the true dimension of these issues. The awareness of society causes companies to adopt environmentally correct policies and attitudes, so as to contribute with the preservation of the environment. Accounting, as a social science which studies the patrimony and its affectations, has adapted to the need of its users and has started to care about proper presentation and measurement of environmental items, for effective publication to society. With this premise, this study aims to identify and describe the contributions of Environmental Accounting to the process of environmental accounting disclosure of a company, which deals with organic solid residues from agriculture. Using a case study, it has been intended to analyze the production process and to list the environmental items and events that could benefit the company through their disclosure. It was intended, with this study, to highlight the contribution that the environmental accounting may add to the company, with proper measurement and presentation proposals. We have been able to verify that, indeed, there are events of an environmental nature resulting from the production process and also of the investment that it carries out periodically to preserve nature; however, there re faults in the accounting records from an environmental point of view. The application of environmental accounting in the organization allows for a broad view of environmental management and sustainable development adopted by the entity, registering all events that may generate economic and financial changes.

  1. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  2. Immobilization in ceramic waste forms of the residues from treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; van Konynenburg, R.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Curtis, P.G.

    1993-11-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Applied Technology Program at LLNL is developing a Mixed Waste Management Facility to demonstrate treatment technologies that provide an alternative to incineration. As part of that program, we are developing final waste forms using ceramic processing methods for the immobilization of the treatment process residues. The ceramic phase assemblages are based on using Synroc D as a starting point and varying the phase assemblage to accommodate the differences in chemistry between the treatment process residues and the defense waste for which Synroc D was developed. Two basic formulations are used, one for low ash residues resulting from treatment of organic materials contaminated with RCRA metals, and one for high ash residues generated from the treatment of plastics and paper products. Treatment process residues are mixed with ceramic precursor materials, dried, calcined, formed into pellets at room temperature, and sintered at 1150 to 1200 degrees C to produce the final waste form. This paper discusses the chemical composition of the waste streams and waste forms, the phase assemblages that serve as hosts for inorganic waste elements, and the changes in waste form characteristics as a function of variation in process parameters

  3. Gas composition of sludge residue profiles in a sludge treatment reed bed between loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Dam; Nielsen, Steen M; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of sludge in sludge treatment reed bed systems includes dewatering and mineralization. The mineralization process, which is driven by microorganisms, produces different gas species as by-products. The pore space composition of the gas species provides useful information on the biological...... processes occurring in the sludge residue. In this study, we measured the change in composition of gas species in the pore space at different depth levels in vertical sludge residue profiles during a resting period of 32 days. The gas composition of the pore space in the sludge residue changed during...... the resting period. As the resting period proceeded, atmospheric air re-entered the pore space at all depth levels. The methane (CH4) concentration was at its highest during the first part of the resting period, and then declined as the sludge residue became more dewatered and thereby aerated. In the pore...

  4. Characterisation of some South African water treatment residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-03

    Jul 3, 2005 ... (pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, calcium carbonate equivalence, exchangeable acidity, extractable bases and metal cations, total ... Types and dosages of treatment chemicals vary depending on the .... in order to stress that it has a different nature to biosolids, South. African regulations ...

  5. 7 CFR 632.15 - Eligible uses and treatment of reclaimed lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Qualifications § 632.15 Eligible uses and treatment of reclaimed lands. (a) Reclaimed lands and water may be used... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible uses and treatment of reclaimed lands. 632.15...

  6. Prevalence and spectrum of residual symptoms in Lyme neuroborreliosis after pharmacological treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, R; Sommer, H; Rauer, S; Meerpohl, J J

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists about residual symptoms after pharmacological treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Reports of disabling long-term sequels lead to concerns in patients and health care providers. We systematically reviewed the available evidence from studies reporting treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis to assess the prevalence and spectrum of residual symptoms after treatment. A literature search was performed in three databases and three clinical trial registers to find eligible studies reporting on residual symptoms in patients after pharmacological treatment of LNB. Diagnosis must have been performed according to consensus-derived case definitions. No restrictions regarding study design or language were set. Symptom prevalence was pooled using a random-effects model. Forty-four eligible clinical trials and studies were found: 8 RCTs, 17 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 case series. The follow-up period in the eligible studies ranged from 7 days to 20 years. The weighted mean proportion of residual symptoms was 28 % (95 % CI 23-34 %, n = 34 studies) for the latest reported time point. Prevalence of residual symptoms was statistically significantly higher in studies using the "possible" case definition (p = 0.0048). Cranial neuropathy, pain, paresis, cognitive disturbances, headache, and fatigue were statistically significantly lower in studies using the "probable/definite" case definition. LNB patients may experience residual symptoms after treatment with a prevalence of approximately 28 %. The prevalence and spectrum of residual symptoms differ according to the applied case definition. Symptoms like fatigue are not reported in studies using the "probable/definite" case definition. As the "possible" case definition is more unspecific, patients with other conditions may be included. Reports of debilitating fatigue and cognitive impairment after LNB, a "post-Lyme syndrome", could therefore be an artifact of unspecific case definitions in single

  7. Fungicide residues in pears and apples after post harvest treatments by drencher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnarumma, L; Pompi, V; Rossi, E; Carfì, F

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this trial was to verify the residues of two fungicides, already authorised for the use in field (the admitted maximum limit of residues have been fixed), after post harvest treatments on pears and apples for defence against main post harvest rots. The use of formulation in post harvest must consider also the technique of product application. In fact there are different systems to carry out the treatments for the protection of the commodities during cold storage. In this trial two formulations of pyrimethanil and imazalil were applied by drencher on pome fruit.

  8. Formation of the residual stress due to the thermal treatment in Alloy 690 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Joung Soo

    2004-01-01

    It is known that the steam generator tubes made of Alloy 600 have suffered primary coolant leakage accidents due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The one of main reasons for the susceptibility to SCC is understood to be chromium (Cr) depletion in the grain boundary. Therefore, the precipitation of carbide is controlled by heat treatment in the final manufacturing stage. In order to investigate the formation reason of residual stress in the steam generator tube systematically, the tube specimens were cooled both at inside and at outside tube after heat treatment and the residual stress formed during water quenching was measured by strain gage using sectioning method

  9. Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Hunsberger (Carol); Tom P. Evans

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPressure on land resources has increased during recent years despite international goals to improve their management. The fourth Global Environment Outlook (UNEP 2007) highlighted the unprecedented land-use changes created by a burgeoning population, economic development and

  10. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  11. Burning crop residues under no-till in semi-arid land, Northern Spain - effects on soil organic matter, aggregation, and earthwor populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virto, I.; Imaz, M.J.; Enrique, A.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Bescansa, P.

    2007-01-01

    Stubble burning has traditionally been used in semi-arid land for pest and weed control, and to remove the excess of crop residues before seeding in no-tillage systems. We compared differences in soil properties in a long-term (10 years) tillage trial on a carbonated soil in semi-arid north-east

  12. Mindful Mood Balance: A Case Report of Web-Based Treatment of Residual Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer; Dimidjian, Sona; Beck, Arne; Boggs, Jennifer M; Segal, Zindel

    2014-01-01

    Residual depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for relapse and impaired functioning. Although there is no definitive treatment for residual depressive symptoms, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective, but access is limited. Mindful Mood Balance (MMB), a Web-based adaptation of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, was designed to address this care gap. In this case study, we describe a composite case that is representative of the course of intervention with MMB and its implementation in a large integrated delivery system. Specifically, we describe the content of each of eight weekly sessions, and the self-management skills developed by participating in this program. MMB may be a cost-effective and scalable option in primary care for increasing access to treatments for patients with residual depressive symptoms. PMID:25141988

  13. Mindful mood balance: a case report of Web-based treatment of residual depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer; Dimidjian, Sona; Beck, Arne; Boggs, Jennifer M; Segal, Zindel

    2014-01-01

    Residual depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for relapse and impaired functioning. Although there is no definitive treatment for residual depressive symptoms, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective, but access is limited. Mindful Mood Balance (MMB), a Web-based adaptation of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, was designed to address this care gap. In this case study, we describe a composite case that is representative of the course of intervention with MMB and its implementation in a large integrated delivery system. Specifically, we describe the content of each of eight weekly sessions, and the self-management skills developed by participating in this program. MMB may be a cost-effective and scalable option in primary care for increasing access to treatments for patients with residual depressive symptoms.

  14. Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: Concept and product characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new concept for treatment of air- pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incineration and characterises the wastewater and stabilised residues generated by the process. The process involves mixing of APC-residues with a ferrous sulphate solution and subsequent oxidation...

  15. The effectiveness of sewage treatment processes to remove faecal pathogens and antibiotic residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Rahzia; Pool, Edmund John

    2012-01-01

    Pathogens and antibiotics enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents and may pose a health risk to wild life and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of faecal bacteria, and selected antibiotic residues in raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from three different sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Sewage treatment plant 1 and 2 use older technologies, while sewage treatment plant 3 has been upgraded and membrane technologies were incorporated in the treatment processes. Coliforms and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used as bioindicators for faecal bacteria. A chromogenic test was used to screen for coliforms and E. coli. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used antibiotics and were selected to monitor the efficiency of sewage treatment processes for antibiotic removal. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were used to quantitate antibiotic residues in raw and treated sewage. Raw intake water at all treatment plants contained total coliforms and E. coli. High removal of E. coli by treatment processes was evident for treatment plant 2 and 3 only. Fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole were detected in raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the fluoroquinolone concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced the fluoroquinolone concentration by 21% and 31%, respectively. Treatment processes at plant 1 did not reduce the sulfamethoxazole concentration in treated sewage effluents. Treatment processes at plant 2 and 3 reduced sulfamethoxazole by 34% and 56%, respectively. This study showed that bacteria and antibiotic residues are still discharged into the environment. Further research needs to be undertaken to improve sewage treatment technologies, thereby producing a better quality treated sewage effluent. PMID:22242882

  16. POST-OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF RESIDUAL NA COOLLANT IN EBR-2 USING CARBONATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; Knight, C.

    2011-03-08

    At the end of 2002, the Experimental Breeder Reactor Two (EBR-II) facility became a U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted site, and the RCRA permit1 compelled further treatment of the residual sodium in order to convert it into a less reactive chemical form and remove the by-products from the facility, so that a state of RCRA 'closure' for the facility may be achieved (42 U.S.C. 6901-6992k, 2002). In response to this regulatory driver, and in recognition of project budgetary and safety constraints, it was decided to treat the residual sodium in the EBR-II primary and secondary sodium systems using a process known as 'carbonation.' In early EBR-II post-operation documentation, this process is also called 'passivation.' In the carbonation process (Sherman and Henslee, 2005), the system containing residual sodium is flushed with humidified carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The water vapor in the flush gas reacts with residual sodium to form sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and the CO{sub 2} in the flush gas reacts with the newly formed NaOH to make sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}). Hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced as a by-product. The chemical reactions occur at the exposed surface of the residual sodium. The NaHCO{sub 3} layer that forms is porous, and humidified carbon dioxide can penetrate the NaHCO{sub 3} layer to continue reacting residual sodium underneath. The rate of reaction is controlled by the thickness of the NaHCO{sub 3} surface layer, the moisture input rate, and the residual sodium exposed surface area. At the end of carbonation, approximately 780 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II primary tank ({approx}70% of original inventory), and just under 190 liters of residual sodium in the EBR-II secondary sodium system ({approx}50% of original inventory), were converted into NaHCO{sub 3}. No bare surfaces of residual sodium remained after treatment, and all remaining residual sodium deposits are covered by a

  17. Analysis of residual stress relief mechanisms in post-weld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Pingsha; Song, Shaopin; Zhang, Jinmiao

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a recent study on weld residual stress relief mechanisms associated with furnace-based uniform post-weld heat treatment (PWHT). Both finite element and analytical methods are used to quantitatively examine how plastic deformation and creep relaxation contribute to residual stress relief process at different stages of PWHT process. The key contribution of this work to an improved understanding of furnace based uniform PWHT can be summarized as follows: (1)Plastic deformation induced stress relief during PWHT can be analytically expressed by the change in material elastic deformation capacity (or elastic deformation limit) measured in terms of material yield strength to Young's modulus ratio, which has a rather limited role in overall residual stress relief during furnace based uniform PWHT. (2)The most dominant stress relief mechanism is creep strain induced stress relaxation, as expected. However, a rapid creep strain development accompanied by a rapid residual stress reduction during heating stage before reaching PWHT temperature is shown to contribute to most of the stress relief seen in overall PWHT process, suggesting PWHT hold time can be significantly reduced as far as residual stress relief is concerned. (3)A simple engineering scheme for estimating residual stress reduction is proposed based on this study by relating material type, PWHT temperature, and component wall thickness. - Highlights: • The paper clarified effects of plastic deformation and creep relaxation on weld residual stress relief during uniform PWHT. • Creep strain development is far more important than plastic strain, mostly completed even before hold time starts. • Plastic strain development is insignificant and be analytically described by a material elastic deformation capacity parameter. • An engineering estimation scheme is proposed for determining residual stress reduction resulted from furnace based PWHT

  18. Two-Stage Fungal Pre-Treatment for Improved Biogas Production from Sisal Leaf Decortication Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthangya, Mutemi; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Kivaisi, Amelia Kajumulo

    2009-01-01

    Sisal leaf decortications residue (SLDR) is amongst the most abundant agro-industrial residues in Tanzania and is a good feedstock for biogas production. Pre-treatment of the residue prior to its anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated using a two-stage pre-treatment approach with two fungal strains, CCHT-1 and Trichoderma reesei in succession in anaerobic batch bioreactors. AD of the pre-treated residue with CCTH-1 at 10% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) inoculum concentration incubated for four days followed by incubation for eight days with 25% (wet weight inoculum/SLDR) of T. reesei gave a methane yield of 0.292 ± 0.04 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS)added. On reversing the pre-treatment succession of the fungal inocula using the same parameters followed by AD, methane yield decreased by about 55%. Generally, an increment in the range of 30–101% in methane yield in comparison to the un-treated SLDR was obtained. The results confirmed the potential of CCHT-1 followed by Trichoderma reesei fungi pre-treatment prior to AD to achieve significant improvement in biogas production from SLDR. PMID:20087466

  19. The History And Future Direction Of Wastewater Treatment Plant Residuals Disinfection And Energy Recovery Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation will review the history of disinfection practices for wastewater treatment plant residuals and discuss both the development and limitations of the U.S. regulations. Present U.S. regulations protect human health by minimizing the contact of humans with infectious mic...

  20. Residue age and tree attractiveness influence efficacy of insecticide treatments against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on treatments of insecticides to prevent beetles from boring into trees emitting stress-induced ethanol. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is warranted to gauge the duration that trees ...

  1. In situ neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress relaxation in a welded steel pipe during heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Skouras, A.; Wang, Y.Q.; Kelleher, J.F.; Zhang, S.Y.; Smith, D.J.; Flewitt, P.E.J.; Pavier, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Many previous studies have presented results on the relaxation of residual stress in a welded component as a result of postweld heat treatment. Techniques such as neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling have been used to measure the residual stress after the heat treatment and compare this with the residual stress for the component in the as-welded condition. The work described in this paper is novel: neutron diffraction is used to measure the relaxation of residual stress continuously as the heat treatment is being carried out. Residual stresses are measured in a butt-welded ferritic steel pipe as the pipe is heat treated to 650 °C and then cooled to room temperature. The results identify those parts of the heat treatment that lead to significant stress relaxation and the mechanisms responsible for this relaxation. The techniques developed during this work allow future heat treatments to be optimised to achieve the low levels of residual stress in welded components

  2. Distinguishing benign confounding treatment changes from residual prostate cancer on MRI following laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litjens, G.; Huisman, H.; Elliott, R.; Shih, N.; Feldman, M.; Viswanath, S.; Fütterer, J.; Bomers, J.; Madabhushi, A.

    2014-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) is a relatively new focal therapy technique for the ablation of localized prostate cancer. However, very little is known about the specific effects of LITT within the ablation zone and the surrounding normal tissue regions. For instance, it is important to be able to assess the extent of residual cancer within the prostate following LITT, which may be masked by thermally induced benign necrotic changes. Fortunately LITT is MRI compatible and hence this allows for quantitatively assessing LITT induced changes via multi-parametric MRI. Of course definite validation of any LITT induced changes on MRI requires confirmation via histopathology. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess and distinguish the imaging characteristics of prostate cancer and benign confounding treatment changes following LITTon 3 Tesla multi-parametric MRI by carefully mapping the treatment related changes from the ex vivo surgically resected histopathologic specimens onto the pre-operative in vivo imaging. A better understanding of the imaging characteristics of residual disease and successfully ablated tissue might lead to improved treatment monitoring and as such patient prognosis. A unique clinical trial at the Radboud University Medical Center, in which 3 patients underwent a prostatectomy after LITT treatment, yielded ex-vivo histopathologic specimens along with pre- and post-LITT MRI. Using this data we (1) identified the computer extracted MRI signatures associated with treatment effects including benign necrotic changes and residual disease and (2) subsequently evaluated the computer extracted MRI features previously identified in distinguishing LITT induced changes in the ablated area relative to the residual disease. Towards this end first a pathologist annotated the ablated area and the residual disease on the ex-vivo histology and then we transferred the annotations to the post-LITT MRI using semi-automatic elastic registration. The

  3. Treatment and use of air pollution control residues from MSW incineration: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2008-11-01

    This work reviews strategies for the management of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues, particularly solid particles collected from flue gases. These tiny particles may be retained by different equipment, with or without additives (lime, activated carbon, etc.), and depending on the different possible combinations, their properties may vary. In industrial plants, the most commonly used equipment for heat recovery and the cleaning of gas emissions are: heat recovery devices (boiler, superheater and economiser); dry, semidry or wet scrubbers; electrostatic precipitators; bag filters; fabric filters, and cyclones. In accordance with the stringent regulations in force in developed countries, these residues are considered hazardous, and therefore must be treated before being disposed of in landfills. Nowadays, research is being conducted into specific applications for these residues in order to prevent landfill practices. There are basically two possible ways of handling these residues: landfill after adequate treatment or recycling as a secondary material. The different types of treatment may be grouped into three categories: separation processes, solidification/stabilization, and thermal methods. These residues generally have limited applications, mainly due to the fact that they tend to contain large quantities of soluble salts (NaCl, KCl, calcium compounds), significant amounts of toxic heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Cd) in forms that may easily leach out, and trace quantities of very toxic organic compounds (dioxin, furans). The most promising materials for recycling this residue are ceramics and glass-ceramic materials. The main purpose of the present paper is to review the published literature in this field. A range of studies have been summarized in a series of tables focusing upon management strategies used in various countries, waste composition, treatment processes and possible applications.

  4. Aging effects on reactivity of an aluminum-based drinking-water treatment residual as a soil amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; O'Connor, G A

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) could be used to control mobility of excess phosphorus (P) and other oxyanions in poorly sorbing soils. Presently, only "aged" WTRs (those left, or manipulated, to dewater) are land applied. However, if demand for WTRs increase in the near future, freshly-generated WTRs could be considered for land application. To our knowledge, few studies have examined the reactivity and equilibration time of freshly-generated alum-based WTR (Al-WTR). A laboratory thermal incubation study was, therefore, conducted to determine various extractable Al forms in Al-WTR as a function of WTR "age", and the time required for freshly generated Al-WTR to stabilize. Freshly-generated Al-WTR samples were collected directly from the discharge pumps of a drinking-water treatment plant, and thermally incubated at 52 degrees C, either with or without moisture control, for or = 6 mo. Aluminum reactivity of the freshly-generated Al-WTR decreased with time. At least 6 wk of thermal incubation (corresponding to > or = 6 mo of field drying) was required to stabilize the most reactive Al form (5mM oxalate extractable Al concentration) of the Al-WTR. Although no adverse Al-WTR effects have been reported on plants and grazing animals (apparently because of low availability of free Al(3+) in Al-WTR), land application of freshly-generated Al-WTRs (at least, those with similar physicochemical characteristics as the one utilized for the study) should be avoided.

  5. Persistence of gentamicin residues in milk after the intramammary treatment of lactating cows for mastitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xun; Jiang, Ye-wen; Huang, Yi-jun; Hu, Song-hua

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate persistence of gentamicin residues in milk after the intramammary treatment of lactating cows for mastitis. Milk samples were collected at a 1-d interval after the last administration from 34 individual cows that had received intramammary infusions of gentamicin. The doses and treatment times evaluated in this study represented those that have been applied by veterinarians in practice. The tetrazolium chloride assay was used to determine whether there were significant residues of the antibiotic in the samples. Persistence of detectable drug residues in milk from 33 cows (28 cows, ≤6 infusions at ≤0.7 g gentamicin; and 5 cows, 2 infusions at 0.8 g gentamicin) did not exceed 5 d; but 1 cow (5 infusions at 0.8 g gentamicin) had detectable residues in its milk for 9 d. Our results suggest that a 5-d milk withdrawal period might be insufficient to secure the clearance of the contamination of gentamicin, because treatment times and dosages contribute to the antibiotic clearance. A larger scale of samples are needed for further investigations. PMID:19353746

  6. Environmental implications of the use of agro-industrial residues for biorefineries: application of a deterministic model for indirect land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    .1 t CO2-eq.ha-1demanded y-1 corresponding to 1.2-1.5 t CO2 t-1 dry biomass used for energy. Only bioenergy from straw and wild grass was shown to perform better than the alternative use, as no competition with the feed sector was involved. Biogas for heat-and-power production was the best performing......Biorefining agro-industrial biomass residues for bioenergy production represents an opportunity for both sustainable energy supply and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation. Yet, is bioenergy the most sustainable use for these residues? To assess the importance of the alternative use...... of these residues, a consequential life-cycle assessment (LCA) of 32 energy-focused biorefinery scenarios was performed based on eight selected agro-industrial residues and four conversion pathways (two involving bioethanol and two biogas). To specifically address indirect land-use changes (iLUC) induced...

  7. Environmental implications of the use of agro-industrial residues for biorefineries: application of a deterministic model for indirect land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    of these residues, a consequential life-cycle assessment (LCA) of 32 energy-focused biorefinery scenarios was performed based on eight selected agro-industrial residues and four conversion pathways (two involving bioethanol and two biogas). To specifically address indirect land-use changes (iLUC) induced.......1 t CO2-eq.ha-1demanded y-1 corresponding to 1.2-1.5 t CO2 t-1 dry biomass used for energy. Only bioenergy from straw and wild grass was shown to perform better than the alternative use, as no competition with the feed sector was involved. Biogas for heat-and-power production was the best performing...... pathway, in a short-term context. Focusing on transport fuels, bioethanol was generally preferable to biomethane considering conventional biogas upgrading technologies. Based on the results, agro-industrial residues cannot be considered burden-free simply because they are a residual biomass and careful...

  8. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  9. Optimization of Residual Stress of High Temperature Treatment Using Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Susmikanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a nuclear industry area, high temperature treatment of materials is a factor which requires special attention. Assessment needs to be conducted on the properties of the materials used, including the strength of the materials. The measurement of material properties under thermal processes may reflect residual stresses. The use of Genetic Algorithm (GA to determine the optimal residual stress is one way to determine the strength of a material. In residual stress modeling with several parameters, it is sometimes difficult to solve for the optimal value through analytical or numerical calculations. Here, GA is an efficient algorithm which can generate the optimal values, both minima and maxima. The purposes of this research are to obtain the optimization of variable in residual stress models using GA and to predict the center of residual stress distribution, using fuzzy neural network (FNN while the artificial neural network (ANN used for modeling. In this work a single-material 316/316L stainless steel bar is modeled. The minimal residual stresses of the material at high temperatures were obtained with GA and analytical calculations. At a temperature of 6500C, the GA optimal residual stress estimation converged at –711.3689 MPa at adistance of 0.002934 mm from center point, whereas the analytical calculation result at that temperature and position is -975.556 MPa . At a temperature of 8500C, the GA result was -969.868 MPa at 0.002757 mm from the center point, while with analytical result was -1061.13 MPa. The difference in residual stress between GA and analytical results at a temperatureof6500C is about 27 %, while at 8500C it is 8.67 %. The distribution of residual stress showed a grouping concentrated around a coordinate of (-76; 76 MPa. The residuals stress model is a degree-two polynomial with coefficients of 50.33, -76.54, and -55.2, respectively, with a standard deviation of 7.874.

  10. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium polluted soils using water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov

    or other sorbents. Iron water treatment residues mainly consist of ferrihydrite, an oxidized iron oxy-hydroxide with a high reactivity and a large specific surface area with a high capacity for adsorption. Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a by-product from treatment of groundwater to drinking...... in the leachate from an amended, slightly polluted soil (255 mg/kg As and 27 mg/kg Cr) did not at any time exceed 50 μg/L, which means that the soil can be reused for construction e.g. roads and baffle walls as described by the Danish Reuse Act. Ageing of ferrihydrite, the main constituent of Fe...

  11. Production of geopolymers using glass produced from DC plasma treatment of air pollution control (APC) residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourti, Ioanna; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D; Boccaccini, A R; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-04-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues are the hazardous waste produced from cleaning gaseous emissions at energy-from-waste (EfW) facilities processing municipal solid waste (MSW). APC residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium alumino-silicate glass. This research has investigated the optimisation and properties of geopolymers prepared from this glass. Work has shown that high strength geopolymers can be formed and that the NaOH concentration of the activating solution significantly affects the properties. The broad particle size distribution of the APC residue glass used in these experiments results in a microstructure that contains unreacted glass particles included within a geopolymer binder phase. The high calcium content of APC residues may cause the formation of some amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A mix prepared with S/L=3.4, Si/Al=2.6 and [NaOH]=6M in the activating solution, produced high strength geopolymers with compressive strengths of approximately 130 MPa. This material had high density (2070 kg/m(3)) and low porosity. The research demonstrates for the first time that glass derived from DC plasma treatment of APC residues can be used to form high strength geopolymer-glass composites that have potential for use in a range of applications. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Human health effects of residual carbon nanotubes and traditional water treatment chemicals in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simate, Geoffrey S; Iyuke, Sunny E; Ndlovu, Sehliselo; Heydenrych, Mike; Walubita, Lubinda F

    2012-02-01

    The volume of industrial and domestic wastewater is increasing significantly year by year with the change in the lifestyle based on mass consumption and mass disposal brought about by the dramatic development of economies and industries. Therefore, effective advanced wastewater treatment is required because wastewater contains a variety of constituents such as particles, organic materials, and emulsion depending on the resource. However, residual chemicals that remain during the treatment of wastewaters form a variety of known and unknown by-products through reactions between the chemicals and some pollutants. Chronic exposure to these by-products or residual chemicals through the ingestion of drinking water, inhalation and dermal contact during regular indoor activities (e.g., showering, bathing, cooking) may pose cancer and non-cancer risks to human health. For example, residual aluminium salts in treated water may cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). As for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), despite their potential impacts on human health and the environment having been receiving more and more attention in the recent past, existing information on the toxicity of CNTs in drinking water is limited with many open questions. Furthermore, though general topics on the human health impacts of traditional water treatment chemicals have been studied, no comparative analysis has been done. Therefore, a qualitative comparison of the human health effects of both residual CNTs and traditional water treatment chemicals is given in this paper. In addition, it is also important to cover and compare the human health effects of CNTs to those of traditional water treatment chemicals together in one review because they are both used for water treatment and purification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Ramakrishnan, V [Department of Biostatistics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Siebers, J V [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Chung, T D [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Keall, P J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2006-10-21

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value <0.05, while effect sizes of {>=}0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did

  14. Investigation of patient, tumour and treatment variables affecting residual motion for respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Siebers, J. V.; Chung, T. D.; Keall, P. J.

    2006-10-01

    Respiratory gating can reduce the apparent respiratory motion during imaging and treatment; however, residual motion within the gating window remains. Respiratory training can improve respiratory reproducibility and, therefore, the efficacy of respiratory-gated radiotherapy. This study was conducted to determine whether residual motion during respiratory gating is affected by patient, tumour or treatment characteristics. The specific aims of this study were to: (1) identify significant characteristics affecting residual motion, (2) investigate time trends of residual motion over a period of days (inter-session) and (3) investigate time trends of residual motion within the same day (intra-session). Twenty-four lung cancer patients were enrolled in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. For approximately five sessions, 331 four-minute, respiratory motion traces were acquired with free breathing, audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback for each patient. The residual motion was quantified by the standard deviation of the displacement within the gating window. The generalized linear model was used to obtain coefficients for each variable within the model and to evaluate the clinical and statistical significance. The statistical significance was determined by a p-value =0.1 cm (one standard deviation) were considered clinically significant. This data analysis was applied to patient, tumour and treatment variables. Inter- and intra-session variations were also investigated. The only variable that was significant for both inhale- and exhale-based gating was disease type. In addition, visual-training displacement, breathing type and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) values were significant for inhale-based gating, and dose-per-fraction was significant for exhale-based gating. Temporal respiratory variations within and between sessions were observed for individual patients. However inter- and intra-session analyses did not show significant time

  15. Accumulation of ractopamine residues in hair and ocular tissues of animals during and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Vulic, Ana; Persi, Nina; Terzic, Svjetlana; Andrisic, Miroslav; Zarkovic, Irena; Sandor, Ksenija; Perak, Eleonora; Mihaljevic, Zeljko

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine residues in the hair and ocular tissues of guinea pigs during repeated ractopamine administration and after treatment. The experiment was conducted in 38 guinea pigs (30 treated and eight controls). Treated animals were orally administered ractopamine hydrochloride in a dose of 3.5 mg/kg body mass per day using probes for seven consecutive days. Ractopamine concentration was determined in hair during the treatment (Days 1, 3 and 7) with ractopamine hydrochloride and in ocular tissues and hair on defined days after exposure (Days 1, 10, 20 and 30). Residues were present in hair in high concentrations as early as Day 3 (86.15 ± 87.71 ng/g) and Day 7 (85.25 ± 56.97 ng/g). After exposure, residues were found to persist, having depleted from 68.06 ± 30.54 ng/g on Day 1 to 8.01 ± 2.22 ng/g on Day 30, with a significantly higher concentration in hair in contrast to low residue levels in ocular tissues (1.20-0.34 ng/g). The results of the study pointed to high ractopamine accumulation, even in non-pigmented hair, suggesting hair to be used as a matrix in the control of ractopamine abuse in farm animals because of its many advantages over ocular tissues.

  16. Alternatives of Treatment and Final Disposition of the Solid Hospital residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza Monge, K.

    1998-01-01

    The current handling, treatment and final disposition of the hospital solid waste in Costa Rica are considered inadequate or at least insufficient. This situation represents a serious danger for the population's health and the environment, because they are exposed to infectious agents, toxic substances and even radioactive products that are generated among the residuals of the centers of health. This work, alternatives propose for the treatment and adequate final disposition of the solid waste produced in the hospitals of the country. They take into consideration the characteristics that present these residuals, the advantages and disadvantages of each one of the existent techniques and the technical and economic possibilities of the country. For this purpose, in first instance, a revision about the properties, the quality and the quantity of the solid waste produced by the national hospital centers was carried out. Also, a diagnostic of the current situation of the treatment and final disposition of these residuals in some of the most important hospitals of the country, as well as of the possibilities of physical space with that they count on was carried out. Then, the existent different treatment techniques and final disposition for the solid waste that comes from the centers of health are described, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and a comparative analysis of the same ones is carried out. The objective is completed, since alternatives of treatment and final disposition that are considered appropriate for this type of residuals are planned. Nevertheless, in the future, more detailed investigations and studies of feasibility, with the purpose of developing handling programs and elimination of the solid waste for each one of the hospital centers in Costa Rica should be carried out. (Author) [es

  17. Efficacy of drinking-water treatment residual in controlling off-site phosphorus losses: a field study in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyin-Birikorang, S; Oladeji, O O; O'Connor, G A; Obreza, T A; Capece, J C

    2009-01-01

    Land application of drinking-water treatment residuals (WTR) has been shown to control excess soil soluble P and can reduce off-site P losses to surface and ground water. To our knowledge, no field study has directly evaluated the impacts of land application of WTRs on ground water quality. We monitored the effects of three organic sources of P (poultry manure, Boca Raton biosolids, Pompano biosolids) or triple superphosphate co-applied with an aluminum-based WTR (Al-WTR) on soil and ground water P and Al concentrations under natural field conditions for 20 mo in a soil with limited P sorption capacity. The P sources were applied at two rates (based on P or nitrogen [N] requirement of bahiagrass) with or without Al-WTR amendment and replicated three times. Without WTR application, applied P sources increased surface soil soluble P concentrations regardless of the P source or application rate. Co-applying the P sources with Al-WTR prevented increases in surface soil soluble P concentrations and reduced P losses to shallow ground water. Total dissolved P and orthophosphate concentrations of shallow well ground water of the N-based treatments were greater (>0.9 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) in the absence than in the presence ( approximately 0.6 and 0.2 mg L(-1), respectively) of Al-WTR. The P-based application rate did not increase ground water P concentrations relative to background concentrations. Notwithstanding, Al-WTR amendment decreased ground water P concentrations from soil receiving treatments with P-based application rates. Ground water total dissolved Al concentrations were unaffected by soil Al-WTR application. We conclude that, at least for the study period, Al-WTR can be safely used to reduce P leaching into ground water without increasing the Al concentration of ground water.

  18. Treatment of mine water and solid residues (RS) in San Rafael mining and milling complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Armando R.; Perrino, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    San Rafael Mining and Milling Complex is located in Mendoza Province, in San Rafael Department, 38 km West from San Rafael city and 240 km south from Mendoza city, capital of the province. Activities related with yellow cake production were performed from 1979 to 1999. Nowadays the mine and the plant are in stand by. At the moment technical, economic and environmental studies are being done in order to restart the activities. Different kind of residues are accumulated in the site: a) Tailing; b) Sludges; c) Low grade ores; e) Waste rock; f) Mine water; g) Solid residues (RS). In this paper methodology to treat mine water and solid residues (RS) will be informed. a) Mine water: 800.000 m 3 of mine water are accumulated in different open pit. Uranium, radium and arsenic are the main ions to take into account to treat the water. Several laboratory and pilot test have been performed in order to define the treatment of the water, according with the regulatory requirement. A methodology using anion exchange resin to fix uranium and precipitation using barium chloride and iron sulfate to separate radium and arsenic has been developed. b) Solid residues (RS): these residues (precipitates) have been produced by neutralization of effluents in a nuclear purification process (TBP process). They are accumulated in drums. These residues come from Cordoba plant, a factory which produces UO 2 powder. The total content of uranium in the precipitate is 14.249 kg with an average uranium concentration of 1,33%. A methodology using sulfuric acid dissolution of the precipitates and anion exchange resin to recovery the uranium has been developed. (author) [es

  19. Accumulation of clenbuterol residues in the hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle during and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijun; Zhang, Junmin; Tang, Chaohua; Zhao, Qingyu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of clenbuterol residues in the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of clenbuterol for 21 days. This experiment was conducted in six male red pied Chinese Simmental beef cattle which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 3). Groups 1 and 2 were administered clenbuterol at a dose of 16 and 48 μg/kg body weight (BW)/day, respectively. Hair samples were collected on Days 7, 14 and 21 during treatment, and on Days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 70 after discontinuation of medication, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method. About 500 mg hair samples spiked with 50 pg/mg D9-clenbuterol internal standard were analyzed with which the method recovery was from 88.6 to 116.9%. The results showed that clenbuterol was significantly accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 0.98 ± 0.56 pg/mg in Group 1 and 6.34 ± 3.21 pg/mg in Group 2 on Day 7 of treatment, and the residue concentrations increased as treatment proceeded. During the early withdrawal period, the residues increased from 13.52 ± 8.69 to 17.96 ± 6.94 pg/mg in Group 1 and from 55.15 ± 4.04 to 147.79 ± 15.35 pg/mg in Group 2. No significant differences were found in the later withdrawal period in both treatment groups. The results of the present study indicated that the red hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle has high accumulation potential for clenbuterol residues. Hair, as a target matrix, even light-pigmented hair, can be used to monitor clenbuterol abuse over a long period.

  20. Residue Age and Attack Pressure Influence Efficacy of Insecticide Treatments Against Ambrosia Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M

    2018-02-09

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on insecticide treatments to prevent beetles from boring into trees. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is needed to gauge the duration that trees are protected during spring when peak beetle pressure occurs. Residual efficacy of bifenthrin and permethrin trunk sprays was examined in field trials which used trees injected with 10% ethanol to ensure host attack pressure. Permethrin consistently reduced attacks by Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and other ambrosia beetles for at least 4 wk, while efficacy of bifenthrin was inconsistent and lasted only about 10 d. Since previous studies demonstrated attacks are positively correlated with host ethanol emissions, we injected trees with 2.5, 5, and 10% ethanol to determine if residual efficacy was affected by attack pressure. Preventive treatments with bifenthrin reduced ambrosia beetle attacks at all concentrations of injected ethanol compared to non-sprayed controls. There was no interaction between attack pressure and insecticide treatment with respect to total attacks or attacks by X. germanus. However, increasing attack pressure did increase the probability of attacks on insecticide treated trees by X. germanus and other Scolytinae. Results from our current study will improve the ability of growers to make decisions on frequency of protective sprays, but residual efficacy of insecticide treatments may decline as attack pressure increases. Cultural practices should therefore maximize host vigor and minimize attack pressure associated with stress-induced ethanol emissions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. On the ASR and ASR thermal residues characterization of full scale treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, G; Viotti, P; Luciano, A; Fino, D

    2014-02-01

    In order to obtain 85% recycling, several procedures on Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) could be implemented, such as advanced metal and polymer recovery, mechanical recycling, pyrolysis, the direct use of ASR in the cement industry, and/or the direct use of ASR as a secondary raw material. However, many of these recovery options appear to be limited, due to the possible low acceptability of ASR based products on the market. The recovery of bottom ash and slag after an ASR thermal treatment is an option that is not usually considered in most countries (e.g. Italy) due to the excessive amount of contaminants, especially metals. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the characteristics of ASR and its full-scale incineration residues. Experiments have been carried out, in two different experimental campaigns, in a full-scale tyre incineration plant specifically modified to treat ASR waste. Detailed analysis of ASR samples and combustion residues were carried out and compared with literature data. On the basis of the analytical results, the slag and bottom ash from the combustion process have been classified as non-hazardous wastes, according to the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC), and therefore after further tests could be used in future in the construction industry. It has also been concluded that ASR bottom ash (EWC - European Waste Catalogue - code 19 01 12) could be landfilled in SNRHW (stabilized non-reactive hazardous waste) cells or used as raw material for road construction, with or without further treatment for the removal of heavy metals. In the case of fly ash from boiler or Air Pollution Control (APC) residues, it has been found that the Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded regulatory leaching test limits therefore their removal, or a stabilization process, would be essential prior to landfilling the use of these residues as construction material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fungicide residues in pears, apples and grapes after post harvest treatments by thermonebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompi, V; Donnarumma, L; Rossi, E; Rosati, S

    2005-01-01

    In the context of trials conducted in cold store, in order to investigate efficacy of fruit protection applying agrochemicals, the fate during the storage of two active ingredients (a.i.): pyrimethanil and imazalil, have been studied. The experimental trials were done on eight varieties of apples and pears and two of grapes. Only field use of named pesticides was already authorised on fruits and maximum residue limits (MRL) fixed. In the present biennial experimentation (apples and pears in the first year; grapes in the second one). Two fungicides formulations were applied and treatments have been executed by thermonebulization technique. The storage cell, had a volume of 110 m3 filled up with the fruits until 80% of its capacity. Each fruit variety constituted one thesis of 4 replicates. For each trial, only one treatment was performed at the beginning of conservation period (72 days for pears and apples, and 57 days for grapes). In order to estimate fungicides persistence, residues determinations have been carried out. From results obtained especially on grape, not homogenous residues distribution on treated commodities was observed. For all theses, residue level has not evidenced statistically significant decrement as function of time, behaviour not as observed in field tests. The following average values of residues have been determined: in apples and pears, 0.7 mg/kg of imazalil much lower than 5 mg/kg (RML fixed for field use), and 1.2 mg/kg of pyrimethanil little higher than 1 mg/kg (RML fixed for field use); in grapes 0.5 mg/kg pyrimethanil much lower than 3 mg/kg (RML fixed for field use).

  3. Control system of an anaerobia reactor used in the treatment of the Industrial residual waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, Mauricio; Giraldo, Eugenio; Bello Frank

    1995-01-01

    The technology of the anaerobia digestion, has had a wide acceptance in the Colombian means for the treatment of industrial residual waters, especially for the economic advantages that it present and the good purification results. The technology of the anaerobia digestion for the treatment of residual waters, is based in the conversion of the organic matter present in the polluted waters, in methane and carbon dioxide. These two gases are removed of the reactor by means of special structures of gathering. Microorganisms that are sensitive to the changes of the pH mediate the conversion of the organic matter to CH4 and CO2. Therefore, the control on the pH is necessary for a correct behavior of the reactor. At the moment many industries are implementing plans of contamination control, that involve treatment of residual waters for means anaerobia. The present investigation is part of a wide work program in the technology of the anaerobia digestion. It is looked for to develop a monitored system and automatic control of reactors discharge anaerobia appraises, in a combined effort among the departments of Civil and Electric Engineering of the Andes University

  4. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force.

  5. Characterization of aluminium-based water treatment residual for potential phosphorus removal in engineered wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babatunde, A.O.; Zhao, Y.Q.; Burke, A.M.; Morris, M.A.; Hanrahan, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium-based water treatment residual (Al-WTR) is the most widely generated residual from water treatment facilities worldwide. It is regarded as a by-product of no reuse potential and landfilled. This study assessed Al-WTR as potential phosphate-removing substrate in engineered wetlands. Results indicate specific surface area ranged from 28.0 m 2 g -1 to 41.4 m 2 g -1 . X-ray Diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopes all indicate Al-WTR is mainly composed of amorphous aluminium which influences its phosphorus (P) adsorption capacity. The pH and electrical conductivity ranged from 5.9 to 6.0 and 0.104 dS m -1 to 0.140 dS m -1 respectively, showing that it should support plant growth. Batch tests showed adsorption maxima of 31.9 mg P g -1 and significant P removal was achieved in column tests. Overall, results showed that Al-WTR can be used for P removal in engineered wetlands and it carries the benefits of reuse of a by-product that promotes sustainability. - Aluminium-based water treatment residual can be used for phosphorus removal in engineered wetlands!

  6. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force

  7. Techniques of material-flow-specific residual waste treatment; Techniken der stoffstromspezifischen Restabfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maak, D.; Collins, H.J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig, Leichtweiss - Inst. fuer Wasserbau (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The success achieved with large-scale plants for mechanical-biological residual waste treatment has led to a change of course in waste pretreatment. In view of the low emissions via the water and gas routes from landfilled wastes and the low costs of waste treatment some authorising authorities have meanwhile issued special licences pursuant to clause no. 2.4 of the Technical Code on Household Waste, thus enabling mechanical-biological residual waste treatment plants to continue operations beyond the year 2005. Beside offering a means of treatment and disposal, cost-effective mechanical-biological pretreatment also provides an opportunity for going over to material-flow-specific residual waste treatment. These process stages permit recirculating valuable materials and using other materials for energy production. They can be retrofitted on a modular basis in existing plants. If these advantages of the present innovative pretreatment methods are not used, then mechanical-biological pretreatment can still serve as a preparatory stage for thermal treatment. To date there has been no practical experience with this innovative method of residual waste treatment. However, industrial-scale trials have shown that each individual treatment stage is capable of being carried out successfully. [Deutsch] Die guten Erfolge im grosstechnischen Betrieb von Anlagen zur mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung haben zu einer Kursaenderung bei der Vorbehandlung von Abfaellen gefuehrt. Geringe Emissionen der deponierten Abfaelle auf dem Gas- und Wasserpfad sowie geringe Kosten fuer die Behandlung der Abfaelle haben dazu gefuehrt, dass inzwischen bereits einige Genehmigungsbehoerden eine Ausnahmegenehmigung nach Nr. 2.4 der TA Siedlungsabfall erteilt haben und damit der Betrieb von mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlungsanlagen auch nach 2005 ermoeglicht wird. Neben der alleinigen Behandlung und Deponierung bietet die kostenguenstige Vorbehandlung mit mechanisch

  8. Minimal residual disease after long-term interferon-alpha2 treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utke Rank, Cecilie; Weis Bjerrum, Ole; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer

    2016-01-01

    burden by a highly sensitive quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay appears to be a useful tool for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) and evaluating treatment efficacy. This report expands and substantiates existing data, showing that IFN-alpha2 is a highly potent immunomodulating agent capable...... of inducing MRD with low-burden JAK2 V617F, major molecular response (MMR), complete hematological remission (CHR) and complete histomorphological normalization of the bone marrow in a sub-set of patients with ET and PV after long-term treatment (≥ 3.5 years). Furthermore, long-lasting hematological...

  9. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckermann, Christoph; Carlson, Kent

    2011-07-22

    Heat treatment and associated processing, such as quenching, are critical during high strength steel casting production. These processes must be managed closely to prevent thermal and residual stresses that may result in distortion, cracking (particularly after machining), re-work, and weld repair. The risk of casting distortion limits aggressive quenching that can be beneficial to the process and yield an improved outcome. As a result of these distortions, adjustments must be made to the casting or pattern design, or tie bars must be added. Straightening castings after heat treatments can be both time-consuming and expensive. Residual stresses may reduce a casting's overall service performance, possibly resulting in catastrophic failure. Stress relieving may help, but expends additional energy in the process. Casting software is very limited in predicting distortions during heat treatment, so corrective measures most often involve a tedious trial-and-error procedure. An extensive review of existing heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling revealed that it is vital to predict the phase transformations and microstructure of the steel along with the thermal stress development during heat treatment. After reviewing the state-of-the-art in heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling, an existing commercial code was selected because of its advanced capabilities in predicting phase transformations, the evolving microstructure and related properties along with thermal stress development during heat treatment. However, this software was developed for small parts created from forgings or machined stock, and not for steel castings. Therefore, its predictive capabilities for heat treatment of steel castings were investigated. Available experimental steel casting heat treatment data was determined to be of insufficient detail and breadth, and so new heat treatment experiments were designed and performed, casting and heat treating modified versions

  10. Thermal treatment system of hazardous residuals in three heating zones based on a microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna H, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal treatment system consists of a high power electric oven of three heating zones where each zone works up to 1200 Centigrades; it has the capacity of rising the central zone temperature up to 1000 Centigrades in 58 minutes approximately. This configuration of three zones could be programmed to different temperatures and they will be digitally controlled by a control microprocessor, which has been controlled by its own assembler language, in function of the PID control. There are also other important controls based on this microprocessor, as a signal amplification, starting and shutdown of high power step relays, activation and deactivation of both analogic/digital and digital/analogic convertors, port activation and basic data storage of the system. Two main characteristics were looked for this oven design; the first was the possibility of controlling the three zone temperature and the second was to reduce the rising and stabilization operation time and its digitized control. The principal function of the three zone oven is to accelerate the degradation of hazardous residuals by an oxidation instead combustion, through relatively high temperatures (minimum 800 Centigrades and maximum 1200 Centigrades); this process reduces the ash and volatile particulate production. The hazardous residuals will be pumped into the degradation system and after atomized through a packaged column; this step will avoid the direct contact of the residuals with the oven cores. These features make this system as closed process, which means that the residuals can not leak to the working area, reducing the exposure risk to the personnel. This three step oven system is the first stage of the complete hazardous residuals degradation system; after this, the flow will go into a cold plasma region where the process is completed, making a closed system. (Author)

  11. Tradeoffs in Crop Residue Utilization in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems and Implications for Conservation Agriculture and Sustainable Land Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jaleta, Moti; Kassie, Menale; Shiferaw, Bekele A.

    2012-01-01

    Crop residue use for soil mulch and animal feed are the two major competing purposes and the basic source of fundamental challenge in conservation agriculture (CA) where residue retention on farm plots is one of the three CA principles. Using survey data from Kenya and applying bivariate ordered Probit and bivariate Tobit models, this paper analyzes the tradeoffs in maize residue use as soil mulch and livestock feed in mixed farming systems. Results show that both the proportion and quantity ...

  12. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  13. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombi, E.; Stevens, D.P.; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  14. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: enzo.lombi@unisa.edu.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  15. Coal Mines, Reclamation Sites - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  16. Case studies in residual use and energy conservation at wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Altos, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) funded a study to document energy conservation activities and their effects on operation costs, regulatory compliance, and process optimization at several wastewater treatment plants (WWTPS). The purpose of this report is to review the efforts of wastewater treatment Facilities that use residuals as fuels. Case histories are presented for facilities that have taken measures to reduce energy consumption during wastewater treatment. Most of the WWTPs discussed in this report have retrofitted existing facilities to achieve energy conservation. The case studies of energy conservation measures found no effects on the facilities` ability to comply with NPDES permits. Indeed, energy conservation activities enhance environmental compliance in several ways.

  17. Residual stress in repair welds measured with neutron diffraction with and without post weld heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.W.H.; Paradowska, A.M.; Finlayson, T.

    2010-01-01

    In welding, residual stresses (RS) are formed in the structure as the result of differential contractions which occur as the weld metal solidifies and cools to ambient temperature. The tensile stresses can have significant effects on the susceptibility of a material to degradation mechanisms such as fatigue, corrosion, fracture resistance, and creep. Welding repairs have increasingly become a structural integrity concern for aging pressure vessel and piping components. Both the repair procedure and the subsequent safety assessment, such as BS7910 and R6 require a better understanding of the welding effect on structural components. The use of a neutron beam as a non-destructive method of measuring residual stress due to repair welding has been explored. Two types of full penetration butt weld repairs on 25 mm ferritic steel were examined. From the findings of this research in terms of residual stress, temper bead welding repair may not be better than stringer bead welding. Post-weld heat treatment may be still advisable for temper bead weld repairs on ferritic steel.

  18. Temperature Field Prediction for Determining the Residual Stresses Under Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Livshits

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to non-stationary temperature field blanks from aluminum alloys during heat treatment. It consists of the introduction and two smaller paragraphs. In the introduction the author concerns the influence of residual stresses arising in the manufacturing process of details, on the strength of the whole aircraft construction and, consequently, on their technical and economic parameters, such as weight, reliability, efficiency, and cost. He also notes that the residual stresses appeared during the production of parts change their location, size and direction under the influence of the elastic deformations that occur during the exploitation of aircraft. Redistributed residual stresses may have a chaotic distribution that may cause overlap of these stresses on the stresses caused by the impact of workload of constructions and destruction or damage of aircraft components.The first paragraph is devoted to the existing methods and techniques for determining the residual stresses. The presented methods and techniques are analyzed to show the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The conclusion is drawn that the method to determine the residual stresses is necessary, its cost is less than those of existing ones, and an error does not exceed 10%.In the second section, the author divides the problem of determining the residual stresses into two parts, and describes the solution methods of the first one. The first problem is to define the temperature field of the work piece. The author uses a Fourier equation with the definition of initial and boundary conditions to describe a mathematical model of the heat cycle of work piece cooling. He draws special attention here to the fact that it is complicated to determine the heat transfer coefficient, which characterizes the process of cooling the work piece during hardening because of its dependence on a number of factors, such as changing temperature-dependent material properties of

  19. Effect of shot peening treatment in the behavior of residual stress in duplex stainless steel during medium cycle fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, Peter D.S.; Rebello, Joao Marcos A.; Fonseca, Maria P. Cindra

    2010-01-01

    The lifetime of duplex stainless steel parts experiencing cyclic fatigue is directly influenced by the residual stresses present in the ferrite and austenite phases. The motivation for this work was to analyze the behaviour of the residual stresses fields introduced by shot peening treatment in both phases, in the sample surface as in the subsurface layers, in low fatigue cycles, using the X-rays diffraction technique. The results shows that the compressive residual stresses introduced by the shot peening treatment in both phases improved fatigue life of the material. However, the cyclical loads produce partial or total relief in these residual stresses fields. It was verified that the shot peening process induced the formation of microcracks only in the ferrite phase. The largest variations in the total compressive residual stresses fields also occurred in this phase. The samples surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  20. Land disposal potential of tobacco processing residues Potencial de uso agrícola de dois resíduos de agroindústria fumageira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino José Tedesco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the leaders in the production and trading of tobacco leaves in the global market, which results in a large amount of residues that would be recycled and used as soil fertilizers in agriculture. This research aimed to study the land disposal potential and agricultural use of tobacco processing residues (TPRs, their mineralization and the nutrient supply to the plants. The study was carried out in an open area using pots with 32dm³ of a sandy soil (Paleudult, provided with water drainage collectors and tilled with three corn plants each. Eighteen treatments were tested with mineral fertilization, poultry manure (PM, earthworm compost (EC and increasing rates (0, 7.5, 15, 30 e 60t ha-1 of TPR D (dust and TPR S (stem fibers.Treatments with TPRs (15t ha-1 plus mineral supplementation two by two (NP, NK and PK were also tested, with four replications each. The experiment started in 01/15/2004 and conducted until 03/16/2004, when corn plants were harvested. The response curves showed that the residues application rates between 15 and 20t ha-1 are most adequate for the studied soil. The results indicated that both TPRs may be important sources of biomass and potash and have potential to be recycled in the soil, supplying part of the macronutrients required for proper plant growth.O Brasil é um dos maiores produtores e exportadores mundiais de tabaco em folha, resultando em grandes quantidaes de resíduos que poderiam ser utilizados como fertilizantes na agricultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de reciclagem agrícola de dois resíduos de agroindústria fumageira (RAF's, sua mineralização no solo e liberação de nutrientes às plantas. O experimento foi conduzido a céu aberto utilizando como unidades experimentais vasos com capacidade de 32 litros de solo, adaptados com tubo coletor de lixiviado e um argissolo (PVAd, cultivado com três plantas de milho. Foram feitos 18 tratamentos com adubo mineral, cama

  1. Insights into the mechanisms of mercury sorption onto aluminum based drinking water treatment residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliz Quiñones, Katherine; Hovsepyan, Anna; Oppong-Anane, Akua; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mercury sorption by Al-WTRs involves electrostatic forces and chemisorption. • Hg forms bonds with oxygen and sulfur atoms of Al-WTR’s organic ligands. • Mercury is incorporated into the residual fraction to form stable complexes. • Mercury binds mainly to SiO x species in the residual fraction. - Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated the ability of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) to efficiently sorb metal cations from aqueous solutions. Reported results have stimulated interest on the potential use of WTRs as sorbent for metal removal from contaminated aqueous effluents as well as in metal immobilization in contaminated soils. However, knowledge on mechanisms of metal sorption by WTRs remains very limited and data on the long-term stability of formed metal–WTR complexes as a function of changing key environmental parameters are lacking. In this study, chemical selective sequential extraction (SSE), scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to gain insight into the different mechanisms of mercury (Hg) binding to aluminum based WTR (Al-WTRs). Results from sorption studies show that a significant portion of Hg becomes incorporated in the operationally defined residual fraction of Al-WTRs, and therefore, not prone to dissolution and mobility. The results of solid phase analyses suggested that Hg immobilization by Al-WTR occurs largely through its binding to oxygen donor atoms of mineral ligands driven by a combination of electrostatic forces and covalent bonding.

  2. Thermal Treatment of Iron Oxide Stabilized APC Residues from Waste Incineration and the Effect on Heavy Metal Binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Stackpoole, M.; Bender-Koch, C.

    2000-01-01

    Iron oxide stabilized APC residues from MSWI were heat treated at 600°C and 900°C. The thermal treatments resulted in a change in product stability by forcing a transformation in the mineralogical structures of the products. The treatments, moreover, simulated somewhat the natural aging processes...... that would take place in a stabilized residue. Consequent changes in crystalline structure and heavy metal binding were examined....

  3. Forecasting land cover change impacts on drinking water treatment costs in Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicki, S. A.; Wickham, J.

    2017-12-01

    Source protection is a critical aspect of drinking water treatment. The benefits of protecting source water quality in reducing drinking water treatment costs are clear. However, forecasting the impacts of environmental change on source water quality and its potential to influence future treatment processes is lacking. The drinking water treatment plant in Minneapolis, MN has recognized that land cover change threatens water quality in their source watershed, the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). Over 1,000 km2 of forests, wetlands, and grasslands in the UMRB were lost to agriculture from 2008-2013. This trend, coupled with a projected population increase of one million people in Minnesota by 2030, concerns drinking water treatment plant operators in Minneapolis with respect to meeting future demand for clean water in the UMRB. The objective of this study is to relate land cover change (forest and wetland loss, agricultural expansion, urbanization) to changes in treatment costs for the Minneapolis, MN drinking water utility. To do this, we first developed a framework to determine the relationship between land cover change and water quality in the context of recent historical changes and projected future changes in land cover. Next we coupled a watershed model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to projections of land cover change from the FOREcasting SCEnarios of Land-use Change (FORE-SCE) model for the mid-21st century. Using historical Minneapolis drinking water treatment data (chemical usage and costs), source water quality in the UMRB was linked to changes in treatment requirements as a function of projected future land cover change. These analyses will quantify the value of natural landscapes in protecting drinking water quality and future treatment processes requirements. In addition, our study provides the Minneapolis drinking water utility with information critical to their planning and capital improvement process.

  4. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Valdovinos-Flores

    Full Text Available In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg.

  5. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras-Ramírez, María Elena; Lara-Álvarez, Carlos; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

  6. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras–Ramírez, María Elena; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg). PMID:27092938

  7. Performance of mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal waste in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Emilia; Jędrczak, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The number and capacity of mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants in Europe increased significantly in the past two decades as a response to the legal obligation to limit the landfilling of biodegradable waste in landfills and to increase recycling and energy recovery from waste. The aim of these plants is to prepare residual municipal waste for recovery and disposal operations, including especially separation and stabilization of the easily biodegradable fraction (the biofraction). The final products of MBP technology are recyclables, stabilate, high calorific fraction which is used for the production of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and the remaining residual fraction. The shares of the output fractions, especially of the recyclables and RDF determine the overall efficiency of MBT technology in diverting waste from landfills. In this paper results of an assessment of one exemplary MBT plant are provided. The analysis was performed within a comparative study in which 20 selected MBT plants in Poland were subject to a detailed analysis, focusing, both at the design parameters as well as operational ones. The selected plant showed relatively higher overall materials recovery efficiency. With the view to circular economy targets, increased automation of the mechanical waste treatment will be required to support achieving high level diversion from landfills. The study reviled that stabilisation of biofraction should be improved by a better control of process conditions, especially moisture content.

  8. Combining mechanical-biological residual waste treatment plants with grate firing; Kombination MBA mit Rostfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleck, E. [ABB Umwelttechnik GmbH, Butzbach (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The promulgation of the Technical Code on Household Waste obliges the local authorities responsible for waste disposal to review existing and prepare new waste management plans. Given the present state of the art the Code`s limit value for loss due to burning of 5% makes thermal treatment of the residual waste practically compulsory. In preparation of these developments and in order to lower costs in general and be able respond flexibly to customer demands ABB is currently undertaking great efforts to provide thermal residual waste treatment plants with a modular design. [Deutsch] Mit Veroeffentlichung der TASi wurden die entsorgungspflichtigen Gebietskoerperschaften gezwungen, bereits vorhandene Abfall-Wirtschaftsplaene zu ueberarbeiten bzw. neue zu erstellen. Technisch laeuft nach derzeitigem Wissensstand der in der TASi vorgegebene maximale Gluehverlust von 5% darauf hinaus, dass eine thermische Behandlung des Restabfalls zwingend vorgegeben ist. Um hierfuer geruestet zu sein, aber auch um generell Kosten zu senken unf flexibel auf Kundenwuensche eingehen zu koennen, unternimmt ABB grosse Abstrengungen, den Aufbau von Anlagen zur thermischen Restabfallbehandlung modular zu gestalten. (orig./SR)

  9. Competitive Adsorption of Cadmium (II from Aqueous Solutions onto Nanoparticles of Water Treatment Residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Elkhatib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in using water treatment residuals (WTRs for heavy metals removal from wastewater due to their low cost, availability, and high efficiency in removing various pollutants. In this study, novel water treatment residuals nanoparticles (nWTRs were prepared using high energy ball milling and used for efficient removal of Cd(II in single- and multi-ion systems. The WTR nanoparticles demonstrated high removal efficiency for Cd from aqueous solution as the adsorption capacities of nWTR were 17 and 10 times higher than those of bulk WTR in single- and multielement systems, respectively. Noticeably, Cd(II adsorption was clearly suppressed in the multi-ion system as Cu and Pb form the most stable monohydroxo complexes. Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR analyses suggested the participation of OH−, O-Al-O, FeOH, and FeOOH entities in the adsorption process. The stability of Cd-nWTR surface complexes is evident as less than 0. 2% of adsorbed Cd(ll was released at the highest Cd(II concentration load after 4 consecutive desorption cycles. Moreover, the real efficiency of nWTR for Cd(II removal from wastewater samples studied was calculated to be 98.35%. These results highlight the potential of nWTR for heavy metals removal from wastewater.

  10. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a free by-product of the treatment of drinking water with high concentration of iron oxides and potential for arsenic sorption. This paper aims at applying Fe-WTR to a contaminated site, measuring the reduction in contaminant leaching, and discussing...... amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...... by 95% in the upper samplers. Dosage and mixing of Fe-WTR in the soil proved to be difficult in the deeper part of the field, and pore water concentrations of arsenic was generally higher. Despite water logged conditions no increase in dissolved iron or arsenic was observed in the amended soil. Our...

  11. A process for treatment of residues from dry/semidry APC systems at municipal solid waste incinerators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelmar, O. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark)] Holland, D. [FLS miljoe a/s, Valby (Denmark)] Poulsen, B. [KARA, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The main objective of the project has been to establish and test a process for treatment of residues from the semidry (and dry) lime injection based APC processes at MSWIs, which will ensure that the residues can be managed in an environmentally safe manner. In pursuit of this goal, the following activities have been carried out: Performance of pilot scale extractions (approximately 50 kg of residue per batch) at the KARA MSWI in Roskilde of semidry APC system residues in order to establish and optimize process conditions. The optimization includes consideration of the possibilities for subsequent treatment/stabilization of the extracted solid phase as well as the possibility of treatment and safe discharge/utilization of the extract; Performance of chemical characterization, hydrogeochemical model calculations and experimental work in order to improve the understanding of the mechanisms and factors which for several contaminants control the equilibrium between the solid and liquid phases, both in the short and the long germ, and to use this information to obtain an environmentally acceptable method for stabilization/treatment of the extracted residues while at the same time minimizing the necessary amount of additives; production of treated residues and performance of leaching tests on these to assess and demonstrate the effectiveness of the entire process (extraction + stabilization/treatment); Evaluation of the technical, economical and environmental consequences of full scale implementation of the process. (EG) EFP-94. 19 refs.

  12. Design Seminar for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirjian, Y. A.

    This document reports the development and operation of a country-wide wastewater treatment program. The program was designed to treat liquid wastewater by biological treatment in aerated lagoons, store it, and then spray irrigate on crop farmland during the growing season. The text discusses the physical design of the system, agricultural aspects,…

  13. Examining heterogeneity in residual variance to detect differential response to treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinok; Seltzer, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Individual differences in response to treatments have been a long-standing interest in education, psychology, and related fields. This article presents a conceptual framework and hierarchical modeling strategies that may help identify the subgroups for whom, or the conditions under which, a particular treatment is associated with better outcomes. The framework discussed in this article shows how differences in residual dispersion between treatment and control group members can signal omitted individual characteristics that may interact with treatments (Bryk & Raudenbush, 1988) and sensitizes us to individual- and cluster-level confounders of inferences concerning dispersion in quasi-experimental studies in multilevel settings. Based on the framework, hierarchical modeling strategies are developed to uncover interactions between treatments and individual characteristics, which are readily applicable to various settings in multisite evaluation studies. These strategies entail jointly modeling the mean and dispersion structures in hierarchical models. We illustrate the implementation of this framework through fully Bayesian analyses of the data from a study of the effectiveness of a reform-minded mathematics curriculum. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  14. Influence of maize plant residue on the biodegradation of 14C-Atrazine in a Chilean agricultural land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Moreno, Marcela Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Atrazine herbicide it is widely used as a pesticide in agriculture. Due it's frequent use it has become important to know the final destiny of this pesticide, this way we can prevent and minimize the pollution in different environmental behaviors. The use of stubble applied in farming has been rising, this agricultural technique contributes to improve the soil conditions; besides being a source of micro and macro nutrients, it can influence the soil structure, oxygenation, moist, therefore, improve fertility. This work studied the influence of the corn stubble in the physicochemical properties of the soil and biodegradation of 14 C -Atrazine in a farming land in the Araucania region. It was considered the biodegradation of the pesticide in three different conditions, soil without presence of corn stubble (T1) and with two different sizes of stubble, 2mm (T2) y 1cm (T3). It was considered a concentration of Atrazine according AFIPA. In order to fulfill this standard and be able to get a determined activity in a solution of CaCl 2 0,01 M, a solution of unlabeled pesticide it was used, with a portion of Atrazine labeled with 14 C added to it. This solution was incorporated and homogenized through rotation in the soil. The concentration of pesticide biodegraded was determined by the concentration of 14 C-CO 2 retained in vials con NaOH 0,1 M. To do this the activity (dpm) of the samples were quantified in a liquid scintillation counter (CCL). Furthermore the fortified soil was burned in a Biological Oxidizer where the molecules of labeled pesticide are degraded to 14 C-CO 2 . This methodology is to determine the half life of the studied pesticide. Corn stubble does not affect the physicochemical characteristics of the soil analyzed (pH, organic matter, and total of nitrogen content), because there was no significant difference (p<0,05 in the three cases) when comparing the baseline values with the values at the end of the study. Biodegradation rates of 14 C

  15. Quality of diets with fluidized bed combustion residue treatment: I. Rat trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, N.J.; Reid, R.L.; Head, M.K.; Hern, J.L.; Bennett, O.L.

    Feeding trials were conducted with rats (Rattus rattus) to examine effects of soil application, or dietary inclusion, of fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) on the composition and quality of foods. Four diets (vegetable protein, egg protein, chicken, chicken + dietary FBCR) prepared with either FBCR or lime (control) treatments, were fed to weanling, female rats in three growth and reproduction trials. Intake, growth rate, and composition of body and organs of rats were measured. Rats in one trial were bred, their litters maintained on dietary treatments, and the offspring rebred. Treatment (FBCR vs. lime) x diet interactions on food composition and animal responses generally were not significant. Treatment had little effect on element composition of diets; mineral concentrations were in normal ranges. Diet treatment with FBCR depressed (P<0.01) food intake and growth of rats in one trial, but not in others, and had no effect (P<0.05) on body water, protein, ether extract, or gross energy composition. Some differences in element concentrations in the carcass and organs of rats and pups resulted from FBCR treatment, but effects were small and inconsistent. Litters from the first reproductive cycle appeared normal, except for animals fed the chicken + dietary FBCR treatment, on which pups showed poor growth and anemia. Offspring from certain diets were rebred and litters showed a high mortality, although this was not associated specifically with FBCR treatment. Results indicated no major detrimental effects on food composition, or growth, tissue element accumulation, and reproduction in the rat relating to use of FBCR as a soil amendment. 20 refs., 9 tabs.

  16. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  17. Effects of post weld heat treatment and weld overlay on the residual stress and mechanical properties in dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Wagner R.C.; Ribeiro, Vladimir S.; Vilela, Alisson H.F.; Almeida, Camila R.O.; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: wrcc@cdtn.br, E-mail: camilarezende.cr@gmail.com, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br, E-mail: vladimirsoler@hotmail.com, E-mail: ahfv02@outlook.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The object of this work is a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe joint between carbon steel (A-106 Gr B) and stainless steel (A-312 TP316L) pipes and filler metals of Nickel alloy (82/182), which find wide application in the field of chemical, oil, petroleum industries, fossil fuel and nuclear power plant. A lot of the failures that have occurred in dissimilar metal welded are affected greatly by residual stresses. Residual stress is often a cause of premature failure of critical components under normal operation of welded components. Several methods have been tested and developed for removing the tensile residual stresses. The aim of the methods is to reduce the tensile stress state or to create compressive stresses at a predefined area, such as the inner surface of a welded pipe joint. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) and weld overlay (WOL) are two of the residual stress mitigation methods which reduce the tensile residual stress, create compressive stresses and arrest crack initiation and crack growth. The technique used to substantially minimized or eliminated this failure development in the root weld is the post weld heat treatments (stress relief heat treatment) or the weld overlay. In this work was studied the effectiveness in reducing internal residual stress in dissimilar metal welded pipe joints subjected to post weld heat treatment and weld overlay, measurement by hole-drilling strain-gage method of stress relaxation. Also held was mechanical characterization of the welded pipe joint itself. (author)

  18. Replacement of 5% of OPC by fly ash and APC residues from MSWI with electrodialytic pre-treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magro, Cátia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Guedes, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and air pollution control (APC) residues are waste products from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI). They are classified as hazardous waste due to the content of leachable heavy metals (HM), salts and/or dioxins. An electrodialytic (ED) process was applied to FA and APC residues...... in the ash were not leached to the same extent as in the original ash. In mortar 5% of Ordinary Portland Cement was replaced by FA and APC residues (raw and ED upgraded). The studied parameters: compressive strength, HM leachability, and Cl content. The ED pre-treatment resulted in a decrease in both...... leaching of HM and the Cl content. The compressive tests presented comparable values to the reference mortars. This study suggests that the characteristics of FA and APC residues from MSWI after pre-treatment allows them to be reused in building materials, giving a new edge to waste management....

  19. Assays of residual antibiotics after treatment of γ-ray and UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hye; Nam, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Hun; Yu, Seung Ho; Lee, Myun Joo

    2010-01-01

    The pollution of antibiotics is a major cause of spreading antibiotics resistant bacteria in the environment. Applications of ozonation, UV, and γ-ray irradiations have been introduced to remove antibiotics in the effluents from wastewater treatment system. In this study, we compared the chemical (HPLC) and biological (antimicrobial susceptibility test, AMS) assays in measuring of the concentrations of residual antibiotics after γ-ray and UV irradiation. Most samples were degraded by γ-ray irradiation (1 ∼ 2 kGy). However, lincomycin and tetracycline were not degraded by UV irradiation. The concentration of residual antibiotics, that was treated with γ-ray and UV irradiation, measuring by bioassay was similar to HPLC. The concentrations of γ-ray irradiated cephradine measured by AMS test were 2 times higher than of HPLC assay, indicating AMS test is more sensitive than HPLC assay. These results indicate that γ-ray irradiation technique is more useful than UV irradiation, and biological assay is more useful to detect the antibiotics and toxic intermediates in antibiotics degradation

  20. Insights into the mechanisms of mercury sorption onto aluminum based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliz Quiñones, Katherine; Hovsepyan, Anna; Oppong-Anane, Akua; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2016-04-15

    Several studies have demonstrated the ability of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) to efficiently sorb metal cations from aqueous solutions. Reported results have stimulated interest on the potential use of WTRs as sorbent for metal removal from contaminated aqueous effluents as well as in metal immobilization in contaminated soils. However, knowledge on mechanisms of metal sorption by WTRs remains very limited and data on the long-term stability of formed metal-WTR complexes as a function of changing key environmental parameters are lacking. In this study, chemical selective sequential extraction (SSE), scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to gain insight into the different mechanisms of mercury (Hg) binding to aluminum based WTR (Al-WTRs). Results from sorption studies show that a significant portion of Hg becomes incorporated in the operationally defined residual fraction of Al-WTRs, and therefore, not prone to dissolution and mobility. The results of solid phase analyses suggested that Hg immobilization by Al-WTR occurs largely through its binding to oxygen donor atoms of mineral ligands driven by a combination of electrostatic forces and covalent bonding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrating biological treatment of crop residue into a hydroponic sweetpotato culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, A. A.; David, P. P.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, W. A.; Mortley, D. G.; Loretan, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    Residual biomass from hydroponic culture of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was degraded using natural bacterial soil isolates. Sweetpotato was grown for 120 days in hydroponic culture with a nutrient solution comprised of a ratio of 80% modified half Hoagland solution to 20% filtered effluent from an aerobic starch hydrolysis bioreactor. The phytotoxicity of the effluent was assayed with `Waldmann's Green' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and the ratio selected after a 60-day bioassay using sweetpotato plants propagated vegetatively from cuttings. Controlled environment chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of filtrate from biological treatment of crop residue on growth and storage root production with plants grown in a modified half Hoagland solution. Incorporation of bioreactor effluent, reduced storage root yield of `Georgia Jet' sweetpotato but the decrease was not statistically significant when compared with yield for plants cultured in a modified half Hoagland solution without filtrate. However, yield of `TU-82-155' sweetpotato was significantly reduced when grown in a modified half Hoagland solution into which filtered effluent had been incorporated. Total biomass was significantly reduced for both sweetpotato cultivars when grown in bioreactor effluent. The leaf area and dry matter accumulation were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced for both cultivars when grown in solution culture containing 20% filtered effluent.

  2. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse by Land Application, Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Charles E.; Crites, Ronald W.

    This report is included in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) environmental protection technology series which describes research performed to develop and demonstrate instrumentation, equipment and methodology. This work provides the new or improved technology required for the control and treatment of pollution sources to meet…

  3. Emergency watershed treatments on burned lands in southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed Gross; Ivars Steinblums; Curt Ralston; Howard Jubas

    1989-01-01

    Following extensive, natural wildfires on the Siskiyou National Forest in southwest Oregon during fall 1987, numerous rehabilitation measures were applied to severely burned public and private forest watersheds. Treatments were designed to prevent offsite degradation of water quality and fisheries, to minimize soil erosion and productivity losses, and to prevent...

  4. Amendment of arsenic and chromium polluted soil from wood preservation by iron residues from water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Petersen, L. R.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , mostly in the deepest samplers. This is likely due to the formation of a pseudo-gley because of precipitation surplus. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium contaminated soil using WTR is a promising method but the transformation of ferrihydrite in soil proves a concern in case of waterlogged soils......An iron-rich water treatment residue (WTR) consisting mainly of ferrihydrite was used for immobilization of arsenic and chromium in a soil contaminated by wood preservatives. A leaching batch experiment was conducted using two soils, a highly contaminated soil (1033mgkg−1 As and 371mgkg−1 Cr......) and slightly contaminated soil (225mgkg−1 As and 27mgkg−1 Cr). Compared to an untreated reference soil, amendment with 5% WTR reduced leaching in the highly contaminated soil by 91% for Cr and 98% for As. No aging effect was observed after 103d. In a small field experiment, soil was mixed with 2.5% WTR in situ...

  5. Research of pathogenic bacteria and bacteriophages in the residuals of wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathlouthi, Soumaya

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find the pathogenic bacteria Listeria and Salmonella and to detect of bacterial (fecal coliforms) and viral indicators (bacteriophage) of fecal contamination in the residues of three sewage treatment plants in Greater Tunis: Charguia, Jdaida and Wardia. Three types of samples were analyzed: raw sewage, treated wastewater and sludge. The study showed the presence of pathogenic bacteria in some samples with a frequency of 7 pour cent for Listeria and 21 pour cent for Salmonella. However, none of these organisms has been detected in treated water of Jdaida and Chargia reflecting the efficiency of the purification process in these stations. Furthermore, all samples were positive for the presence of fecal coliforms and bacteriophages with important titles: up to 8.23 log10 (CFU/L) for coliforms and 8.36 log10 (pfu/L) for bacteriophages.

  6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy as a tool investigating arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) sorption by an aluminum-based drinking-water treatment residual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Parsons, Jason G; Datta, Rupali; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2009-11-15

    Historic applications of arsenical pesticides to agricultural land have resulted in accumulation of residual arsenic (As) in such soils. In situ immobilization represents a cost-effective and least ecological disrupting treatment technology for soil As. Earlier work in our laboratory showed that drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs), a low-cost, waste by-product of the drinking-water treatment process exhibit a high affinity for As. Wet chemical experiments (sorption kinetics and desorption) were coupled with X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements to elucidate the bonding strength and type of As(V) and As(III) sorption by an aluminum-based WTR. A fast (1h), followed by a slower sorption stage resulted in As(V) and As(III) sorption capacities of 96% and 77%, respectively. Arsenic desorption with a 5mM oxalate from the WTR was minimal, being always absorption spectroscopy data showed inner-sphere complexation between As and surface hydroxyls. Reaction time (up to 48h) had no effect on the initial As oxidation state for sorbed As(V) and As(III). A combination of inner-sphere bonding types occurred between As and Al on the WTR surface because mixed surface geometries and interatomic distances were observed.

  7. Data entry module and manuals for the Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Justin L.; Pilliod, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within their jurisdictions. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations, which often are referred to as land treatments. These treatments include removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding of burned areas, application of herbicides, and other activities. Data documenting these land treatments usually are stored at local management offices in various formats. Therefore, anyone interested in the types and effects of land treatments across multiple jurisdictions must first assemble the information, which can be difficult if data discovery and organization involve multiple local offices. A centralized system for storing and accessing the data helps inform land managers when making policy and management considerations and assists scientists in developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as a comprehensive database incorporating tabular data, documentation, photographs, and spatial data about land treatments in a single system. It was developed over a period of several years and refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders. Currently, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land treatment data are being entered by USGS personnel as part of a memorandum of understanding between the USGS and BLM. The LTDL has a website maintained by the USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center where LTDL data can be viewed http://ltdl.wr.usgs.gov/. The resources and information provided in this data series allow other agencies, organizations, and individuals to download an empty, stand-alone LTDL database to individual or networked computers. Data entered in these databases may be submitted to the USGS for possible inclusion in the online LTDL. Multiple computer programs are used to accomplish the objective of the LTDL. The support of an information

  8. Recycling potential of air pollution control residue from sewage sludge thermal treatment as artificial lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Gusiatin, Zygmunt M; Thornton, Arthur; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Zielinska, Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    Thermal treatment of sewage sludge produces fly ash, also known as the air pollution control residue (APCR), which may be recycled as a component of artificial lightweight aggregates (ALWA). Properties of APCR are typical: high content of Ca, Mg, P2O5, as well as potential to induce alkaline reactions. These properties indicate that ALWA prepared with a high content of APCR may remove heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium nitrogen from wastewater with high efficiency. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the optimal composition of ALWA for potential use as a filter media in wastewater treatment systems. Five kinds of ALWA were produced, with different proportions of ash (shown as percentages in subscripts) in mixture with bentonite: ALWA0 (reference), ALWA12.5, ALWA25, ALWA50, and ALWA100. The following parameters of ALWA were determined: density, bulk density, compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, and removal efficiency of ions Zn(2+), NH4 (+), and PO4 (3-). Tests showed that ALWA had good mechanical and hydraulic properties, and might be used in wastewater filtering systems. Phosphates and zinc ions were removed with high efficiency (80-96%) by ALWA25-100 in static (batch) conditions. The efficiency of ammonium nitrogen removal was low, <18%. Artificial wastewater treatment performance in dynamic conditions (through-flow), showed increasing removal efficiency of Zn(2+), PO4 (3-) with a decrease in flow rate.

  9. Activation of peroxymonosulfate using drinking water treatment residuals for the degradation of atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Liu, Xitao; Ma, Jun; Lin, Chunye; Qi, Chengdu; Li, Xiaowan; Zhou, Zhou; Fan, Guoxuan

    2018-02-15

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) are safe byproducts of water treatment plants containing iron. This work studies the degradation of atrazine (ATZ) by WTR-catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (PMS) in aqueous solutions. Factors that affect the catalytic performance (the PMS concentration, catalyst dose, initial solution pH, reaction temperature and water matrix species) were investigated. The results show that the catalytic degradation efficiency of ATZ increases with the increase in PMS concentration and temperature, whereas a higher content of WTRs results in lower removal efficiency because of the quenching effect and negative effect of high pH. For an initial solution pH of 3 and 5, 94.1% and 87.4% of ATZ degradation can be achieved within 6h, whereas the value is only 26% for pH of 7. The production of sulfate radicals (SO 4 - ) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) was confirmed by classic radical quenching and electron spin resonance (ESR) tests. Based on the GC-MS and LC-MS results, the main degradation pathways of ATZ may contain dealkylation, dechlorination-hydroxylation, and alkyl chain oxidation processes. In addition to the ATZ removal ability, the WTRs/PMS system can simultaneously remove phosphorus. This article provides a new idea for wastewater treatment and usage of WTRs as a resource. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aluminum-based drinking-water treatment residuals: a novel sorbent for perchlorate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Datta, Rupali

    2006-03-01

    Perchlorate contamination of aquifers and drinking-water supplies has led to stringent regulations in several states to reduce perchlorate concentrations in water at acceptable levels for human consumption. Several perchlorate treatment technologies exist, but there is significant cost associated with their use, and the majority of them are unable to degrade perchlorate to innocuous chloride. We propose the use of a novel sorbent for perchlorate, i.e. an aluminum-based drinking-water treatment residual (Al-WTR), which is a by-product of the drinking-water treatment process. Perchlorate sorption isotherms (23+/-1 degrees C) showed that the greatest amount (65%) of perchlorate removed by the Al-WTR was observed with the lowest initial perchlorate load (10 mg L(-1)) after only 2 h of contact time. Increasing the contact time to 24 h, perchlorate removal increased from 65 to 76%. A significant correlation was observed between the amounts of perchlorate removed with evolved chloride in solution, suggesting degradation of perchlorate to chloride.

  11. Long-term trends in restoration and associated land treatments in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Stella M.; Munson, Seth M.; Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.; Bradford, John B.; Butterfield, Bradley J.

    2018-01-01

    Restoration treatments, such as revegetation with seeding or invasive species removal, have been applied on U.S. public lands for decades. Temporal trends in these management actions have not been extensively summarized previously, particularly in the southwestern United States where invasive plant species, drought, and fire have altered dryland ecosystems. We assessed long-term (1940–2010) trends in restoration using approximately 4,000 vegetation treatments conducted on Bureau of Land Management lands across the southwestern United States. We found that since 1940, the proportions of seeding and vegetation/soil manipulation (e.g. vegetation removal or plowing) treatments have declined, while the proportions of prescribed burn and invasive species treatments have increased. Treatments in pinyon-juniper and big sagebrush communities declined in comparison to treatments in desert scrub, creosote bush, and riparian woodland communities. Restoration-focused treatment objectives increased relative to resource extraction objectives. Species richness and proportion of native species used in seeding treatments also increased. Inflation-adjusted costs per area rose 750% for vegetation/soil manipulation, 600% for seeding, and 400% for prescribed burn treatments in the decades from 1981 to 2010. Seeding treatments were implemented in warmer and drier years when compared to the climate conditions of the entire study period and warmer and wetter years relative to several years before and after the treatment. These results suggest that treatments over a 70-year period on public lands in the southwestern United States are shifting toward restoration practices that are increasingly large, expensive, and related to fire and invasive species control.

  12. Intermittent hormonal therapy in the treatment of post-irradiation residual/recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Aaron O; Kocherill, Paul G; Wallace, Michelle; Forman, Jeffrey D

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of intermittent hormonal therapy in the treatment of residual/recurrent prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with biochemical evidence of residual/recurrent prostate cancer were initially treated with radiation therapy (RT)(13), neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy and RT (3), or RT following prostatectomy (1). The mean follow-up time was 19.4 months from the initiation of hormonal therapy. Hormonal therapy consisted of an LH-RH agonist alone (7), an anti-androgen alone (1) or a combination of both (9). Hormonal therapy was continued until the prostatic specific antigen (PSA) level became undetectable. IHT was reinstituted when the PSA reached a pre-determined level, usually greater than or equal to 10ng/ml. Results: The mean time from completion of primary treatment to the initiation of hormonal therapy was 32.5 months. The mean PSA at the start of the first cycle of hormonal therapy was 43.9ng/ml, the second cycle, 11.9ng/ml and the third cycle, 24ng/ml. The mean PSA levels at the end of the first and second cycle of hormonal therapy were .48 and .42ng/ml, respectively. No patient has yet completed the third cycle of hormonal therapy. The average duration of hormonal therapy was 10 months for the first cycle and 4 months for the second cycle. The mean intermittent time off hormones were 9.3 months between cycles 1 and 2, and 10 months between cycles 2 and 3. No patient has yet become refractory to hormonal therapy. Currently all patients are alive. All patients experienced hot flashes and decreased libido at varying degrees during treatment. Thirty-five percent experienced gynecomastia. During the intervals between hormonal therapy, most patients reported a decrease in hot flashes. Conclusion: This analysis supplies preliminary evidence that intermittent hormonal therapy is a viable option in patients with biochemical evidence of disease following initial therapy. It is associated with less treatment

  13. Bioenergy from crops and biomass residues: a consequential life-cycle assessment including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    demonstrated that algae represent an interesting alternative to terrestrial energy crops. This study provides GHG emission factors for a wide number of bioenergy scenarios. The aim is to inform decision/policy makers on the environmental consequences of producing biofuels from different sources...... generation biofuels produced from residual biomass promise important environmental savings. However, since these residues are today in-use for specific purposes (e.g., feeding), a detailed modelling of the consequences (e.g., on the feed-market) induced by their diversion to energy should be performed...... at identifying all the consequences associated with the establishment of bioenergy systems compared with the reference (current use of fossil and biomass resource). The modelling was facilitated with the LCA-model EASETECH. The functional unit was 1 unit-energy produced (i.e., 1 kWh electricity, 1 MJ heat or 1...

  14. On-site treatment and landfilling of MSWI air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are difficult to landfill due to substantial leaching of trace metals. An on-site pretreatment prior to landfilling of APC-residues was investigated in terms of bench-scale experiments with a semidry APC-residue a......Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are difficult to landfill due to substantial leaching of trace metals. An on-site pretreatment prior to landfilling of APC-residues was investigated in terms of bench-scale experiments with a semidry APC...

  15. Identification of Soil Properties and Organophosphate Residues From Agricultural Land in Wanasari Sub-District, Brebes, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joko, Tri; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Sunoko, Henna Rya; Rachmawati, Savitri

    2018-02-01

    Organophosphates have been used to eradicate pests and prevent losses from harvest failures caused by pest attack. It is undeniable that the organophosphate persist in soil. This study aims to identify the organophosphate residue and soil properties include pH, soil texture, and permeability. The soil samples were taken from cropland in 10 villages, Wanasari sub-district, Brebes, Indonesia. Organophosphate residue determined by gas chromatography using Flame Photometric Detector. Soil texture was determined by soil texture triangle from NRCS USDA, and the permeability value was determined by falling head method. The mean value of chlorpyrifos, profenofos, diazinon were 0.0078; 0.0388; 0.2271 mg/l respectively. The soil texture varies from clay, silt clay, loam, silt loam, and silt clay loam with permeability value at 10-7 with the soil pH value between 6.4 - 8.1. The results showed that organophosphate residues found in the soil and its potential affect the soil fertility decline. We recommend to conduct routine soil quality analysis to prevent soil damage in the agricultural environment.

  16. Evaluation of Residual Stress Measurements Before and After Post-Weld Heat Treatment in the Weld Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardowska, Anna M.; Price, John W. H.; Finlayson, Trevor R.; Ibrahim, R.

    2010-11-01

    Welding repairs are increasingly a structural integrity concern for aging pressure vessel and piping components. It has been demonstrated that the residual stress distribution near repair welds can be drastically different from that of the original weld. Residual stresses have a significant effect on the lifetime performance of a weld, and a reduction of these stresses is normally desirable. The aim of this paper is to investigate residual stresses in various weld repair arrangements using the non-destructive neutron diffraction technique. This research is focused on characterization of the residual stress distribution: (i) in the original weld; (ii) in a shallow toe weld repair; and (iii) after conventional post-weld heat treatment. The focus of the measurements is on the values of the subsurface strain/stress variations across the weld.

  17. Effect of Solution Properties on Arsenic Adsorption by Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, R.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2005-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element in the environment. Higher levels of As in soils may result from various anthropogenic sources such as use of arsenical pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes, and coal combustion. This is of great environmental and human health concern due to the high toxicity and proven carcinogenicity of several arsenical species. Thus there is a need for developing cost effective technologies capable of lowering bioavailable As concentrations in soils to environmentally acceptable levels. In-situ immobilization of metals using inexpensive amendments such as minerals (apatite, zeolite, or clay minerals) or waste by-products (steel shot, beringite, and iron-rich biosolids) to reduce bioavailability is an inexpensive alternative to the more expensive ex-situ remediation methods. One such emerging in-situ technique is the application of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs). WTRs can be classified as a byproduct of drinking water treatment plants and are generally composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. WTRs possess amorphous structure and generally have high positive charge. Because As is chemically similar to phosphorus, the oxyanions As (V) and As (III) may have the potential of being retained by the WTRs. Thus, it is hypothesized that WTRs retain As irreversibly, thereby reducing As biavailability. As mobility of arsenic is controlled by adsorption reactions, knowledge of adsorption of As by WTRs is of primary relevance. Although the overall rate of adsorption is dependent on numerous factors, review of the literature indicates that competing ions in solution play an important role in the overall retention of As; however, little work has been conducted to identify which ions provide the most competition. As arsenic adsorption appears to be influenced by the variable pH-dependent charges developed on the soil particle surfaces, the effect of pH is also of critical importance. Hence, the

  18. Efficacy of surgical techniques and factors affecting residual stone rate in the treatment of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Hüseyin; Budak, Salih; Kumsar, Şükrü; Köse, Osman; Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Adsan, Öztuğ

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate, the efficacy of surgical methods and the factors affecting the residual stone rate by scrutinizing retrospectively the patients who had undergone renal stone surgery. Records of 109 cases of kidney stones who had been surgically treated between January 2010, and July 2013 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups in terms of surgical treatment; open stone surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Patients' history, physical examination, biochemical and radiological images and operative and postoperative data were recorded. The patients had undergone PNL (n=74; 67.9%), RIRS (n=22;20.2%), and open renal surgery (n=13; 11.9%). The mean and median ages of the patients were 46±9, 41 (21-75) and, 42 (23-67) years, respectively. The mean stone burden was 2.6±0.7 cm(2) in the PNL, 1.4±0.1 cm(2) in the RIRS, and 3.1±0.9 cm(2) in the open surgery groups. The mean operative times were 126±24 min in the PNL group, 72±12 min in the RIRS group and 82±22 min in the open surgery group. The duration of hospitalisation was 3.1±0.2 days, 1.2±0.3 days and 3.4±1.1 days respectively. While the RIRS group did not need blood transfusion, in the PNL group blood transfusions were given in the PNL (n=18), and open surgery (n=2) groups. Residual stones were detected in the PNL (n=22), open surgery (n=2), and RIRS (n=5) groups. PNL and RIRS have been seen as safe and effective methods in our self application too. However, it should not be forgotten that as a basical method, open surgery may be needed in cases of necessity.

  19. Granulation of drinking water treatment residuals as applicable media for phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuqing; Cui, Jun; Pei, Yuansheng

    2018-02-22

    Recycling drinking water treatment residuals (DWTR) show promise as a strategy for phosphorus (P) removal; however, powdered DWTR is not an ideal practical medium due to clogging. This study granulates DWTR by entrapping powdered DWTR in alginate beads. Results show that granular DWTR has an appreciable amount of mesopores along with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 43.8 m 2 /g and total pore volume of 0.049 cm 3 /g. Most metals (e.g., Al, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in granular DWTR became more stable and granular DWTR could be considered non-hazardous material. Further analysis indicates that the granular DWTR has strong P adsorption capability with a maximum adsorption capacity of 19.70 mg/g as estimated by the Langmuir model. Good P adsorption may be attributed to the formation of Fe-PO 4 and Al-PO 4 associated with the amorphous state of enormous iron and aluminum in granular DWTR. More importantly, granular DWTR exhibits good mechanical stability and maintained its shape with weight loss below 12.49% after three recycling rounds. Overall, granular DWTR appears to serve as better media for phosphorus removal in water treatment structures such as wetlands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 76 FR 34200 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Revision of the Treatment Standards for Carbamate Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... 2050-AG65 Land Disposal Restrictions: Revision of the Treatment Standards for Carbamate Wastes AGENCY... wastes from the production of carbamates and carbamate commercial chemical products, off-specification or... or intended to be discarded. Currently, under the LDR program, most carbamate wastes must be treated...

  1. A randomised controlled trial on the effect of mask choice on residual respiratory events with continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, Matthew R; Narizhnaya, Mariya; Segal, Alan Z; Barone, Daniel; Krieger, Ana C

    2014-06-01

    It has been found that mask style can affect the amount of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) required to reduce an apnoea/hyponoea index (AHI) to mask style to another post titration could affect the residual AHI with CPAP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in residual AHI with CPAP treatment between oronasal and nasal masks. Twenty-one subjects (age mean (M)=62.9, body mass index (BMI) M=29.6 kg/m2) were randomised (14 subjects completed the protocol) to undergo an in-laboratory CPAP titration with either a nasal mask or an oronasal mask. Subjects were then assigned this mask for 3weeks of at-home CPAP use with the optimal treatment pressure determined on the laboratory study (CPAP M=8.4 cm of H2O). At the end of this 3-week period, data were collected from the CPAP machine and the subject was given the other mask to use with the same CPAP settings for the next 3weeks at home (if the nasal mask was given initially, the oronasal one was given later and vice versa). On completion of the second 3-week period, data on residual AHI were again collected and compared with the first 3-week period on CPAP. A Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test (two-tailed) revealed that residual AHI with CPAP treatment was significantly higher with the oronasal compared with the nasal mask (z = -3.296, pmask, and 50% of the subjects had a residual AHI >10/h in the oronasal mask condition, even though all of these subjects were titrated to an AHI of mask compared with a nasal mask. Switching to an oronasal mask post titration results in an increase in residual AHI with CPAP treatment, and pressure adjustment may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction and measurement of relieved residual stress by the cryogenic heat treatment for Al6061 alloy: mechanical properties and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dae Hoon; Ko, Dae Cheol; Kim, Byung Min; Lim, Hak Jin; Lee, Jung Min

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to predict the residual stress resulting from the cryogenic heat treatment (CHT) which affects the mechanical properties and microstructure for Al6061 alloy. The CHT is very effective method to reduce the residual stress by quenching media such as liquid nitrogen, boiling water and steam. In this study, experimental T6 and CHT are carried out to measure the temperature of Al parts and to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient. This coefficient is used to predict the residual stress during FE-simulation. In order to consider the relaxation of residual stress during artificial ageing, the Zener-Wert-Avrami function with elasto-plastic nonlinear analysis is used in this study. The predicted residual stress is compared with the measured one by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and is found to be in good agreement with results of the FE-simulation. Further, after T6 and CHT, the electrical conductivity and hardness of the Al6061 alloy are measured to estimate the mechanical properties and its microstructure such as precipitates is observed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, the creation of precipitates during T6 and CHT are verified by XRD with component analysis. It is found that CHT affects the residual stress, mechanical properties, and precipitation of the Al 6061 alloy.

  3. Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester: effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Meijer, T.; Vinyeta, E.; Klis, van der J.D.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 17ß-19-nortestosterone (17ßNT) treatment of barrows on residue levels and growth was evaluated. Five barrows were treated three times during the fattening period with 17ßNT phenylpropionate (Nandrosol, nandrolone phenylpropionate 50¿mg/ml,1¿mg/kg body weight). Another five barrows were

  4. Ractopamine residues in urine, plasma and hair of cattle during and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaohua; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Lijun; Zhao, Qingyu; Bu, Dengpan

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate ractopamine residues in urine, plasma and hair of cattle during and after treatment. Three cattle (body weight = 620 ± 6.2 kg) were administered ractopamine (2.01 mg/kg body weight) into the rumen for 5 consecutive days. Ractopamine concentrations in samples were determined by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method. The concentrations of parent ractopamine in urine were 1,631.1 ng/mL on withdrawal day 0 and 8.3 ng/mL on withdrawal day 14. After hydrolysis of its conjugates, ractopamine concentration ranged from 11,796.7 ng/mL (withdrawal day 0) to 39.7 ng/mL (withdrawal day 14). In plasma, parent ractopamine and its conjugates were below the limits of quantification (LOQ = 0.2 ng/mL) on withdrawal days 5 and 7. Accumulation of ractopamine in black and white hair was 124.6 and 78.1 ng/g, respectively, on withdrawal day 0, and 226.7 and 165.6 ng/g, respectively, on withdrawal day 14. This study demonstrated the rapid elimination and high bioavailability of ractopamine in urine and plasma in cattle. However, accumulation of ractopamine in cattle's hair is high and persistent, so hair can be used as the target matrix for monitoring ractopamine abuse in ruminants.

  5. Surface arsenic speciation of a drinking-water treatment residual using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Parsons, Jason G; Datta, Rupali; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2007-07-15

    Drinking-water treatment residuals (WTRs) present a low-cost geosorbent for As-contaminated waters and soils. Previous work has demonstrated the high affinity of WTRs for As, but data pertaining to the stability of sorbed As is missing. Sorption/desorption and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), both XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) studies, were combined to determine the stability of As sorbed by an Fe-based WTR. Arsenic(V) and As(III) sorption kinetics were biphasic in nature, sorbing >90% of the initial added As (15,000 mg kg(-1)) after 48 h of reaction. Subsequent desorption experiments with a high P load (7500 mg kg(-1)) showed negligible As desorption for both As species, approximately <3.5% of sorbed As; the small amount of desorbed As was attributed to the abundance of sorption sites. XANES data showed that sorption kinetics for either As(III) or As(V) initially added to solution had no effect on the sorbed As oxidation state. EXAFS spectroscopy suggested that As added either as As(III) or as As(V) formed inner-sphere mononuclear, bidentate complexes, suggesting the stability of the sorbed As, which was further corroborated by the minimum As desorption from the Fe-WTR.

  6. Ecotoxicological assessment of dewatered drinking water treatment residue for environmental recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Wendling, Laura A; Pei, Yuansheng

    2017-09-01

    The beneficial recycle of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) in environmental remediation has been demonstrated in many reports. However, the lack of information concerning the potential toxicity of dewatered DWTR hinders its widespread use. The present study examined the ecotoxicity of dewatered aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) DWTR leachates to a green alga, Chlorella vulgaris. Data from the variations of cell density and chlorophyll a content suggested that algal growth in DWTR leachates was inhibited. The algal cellular oxidation stress was initially induced but completely eliminated within 72 h by antioxidant enzymes. The expression of three photosynthesis-related algae genes (psaB, psbC, and rbcL) also temporarily decreased (within 72 h). Moreover, the algal cells showed intact cytomembranes after exposure to DWTR leachates. Further investigation confirmed that inhibition of algal growth was due to DWTR-induced phosphorus (P) deficiency in growth medium, rather than potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and Al) contained in DWTR. Interestingly, the leachates could potentially promote algal growth via increasing the supply of new components (e.g. calcium, kalium, magnesium, and ammonia nitrogen) from DWTR. In summary, based on the algae toxicity test, the dewatered Fe/Al DWTR was nontoxic and its environment recycling does not represent an ecotoxicological risk to algae.

  7. Aluminum drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs) as sorbent for mercury: Implications for soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepyan, Anna; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2009-05-15

    The potential of readily available and non-hazardous waste material, aluminum drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs), to efficiently sorb and immobilize mercury (Hg) from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Al-WTR samples with average specific surface area of 48m(2)/g and internal micropore surface area of 120m(2)/g were used in a series of batch sorption experiments. Obtained sorption isotherms indicated a strong affinity of Hg for Al-WTRs. Using the Langmuir adsorption model, a relatively high maximum sorption capacity of 79mg Hg/g Al-WTRs was determined. Sorption kinetic data was best fit to a pseudo-first-order model, while the use of the Weber-Morris and Bangham models suggested that the intraparticle diffusion could be the rate-limiting step. Also, Al-WTRs effectively immoblized Hg in the pH range of 3-8. The results from these short-term experiments demonstrate that Al-WTRs can be effectively used to remove Hg from aqueous solutions. This ability points to the potential of Al-WTRs as a sorbent in soil remediation techniques based on Hg-immobilization.

  8. Comparison of metals extractability from Al/Fe-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Bai, Leilei; Pei, Yuansheng; Wendling, Laura A

    2014-12-01

    Recycling of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) as environment amendments has attracted substantial interest due to their productive reuse concomitant with waste minimization. In the present study, the extractability of metals within six Al/Fe-hydroxide-comprised WTRs collected throughout China was investigated using fractionation, in vitro digestion and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The results suggested that the major components and structure of the WTRs investigated were similar. The WTRs were enriched in Al, Fe, Ca, and Mg, also contained varying quantities of As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn, but Ag, Hg, Sb, and Se were not detected. Most of the metals within the WTRs were largely non-extractable using the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) procedure, but many metals exhibited high bioaccessibility based on in vitro digestion. However, the WTRs could be classified as non-hazardous according to the TCLP assessment method used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Further analysis showed the communication factor, which is calculated as the ratio of total extractable metal by BCR procedure to the total metal, for most metals in the six WTRs, was similar, whereas the factor for Ba, Mn, Sr, and Zn varied substantially. Moreover, metals in the WTRs investigated had different risk assessment code. In summary, recycling of WTRs is subject to regulation based on assessment of risk due to metals prior to practical application.

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Verification Sampling of LANL-Derived Residual Radionuclides in Soils within Tract A-18-2 for Land Conveyance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Public Law 105-119 directs the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to convey or transfer parcels of land to the Incorporated County of Los Alamos or their designees and to the Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, in trust for the Pueblo de San Ildefonso. Los Alamos National Security is tasked to support DOE in conveyance and/or transfer of identified land parcels no later than September 2022. Under DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (O458.1, 2013) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) implementing Policy 412 (P412, 2014), real property with the potential to contain residual radioactive material must meet the criteria for clearance and release to the public. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) is a second investigation of Tract A-18-2 for the purpose of verifying the previous sampling results (LANL 2017). This sample plan requires 18 projectspecific soil samples for use in radiological clearance decisions consistent with LANL Procedure ENV-ES-TP-238 (2015a) and guidance in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM, 2000). The sampling work will be conducted by LANL, and samples will be evaluated by a LANL-contracted independent lab. However, there will be federal review (verification) of all steps of the sampling process.

  10. Analysis by the Residual Method for Estimate Market Value of Land on the Areas with Mining Exploitation in Subsoil under Future New Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwozdz-Lason, Monika

    2017-12-01

    This paper attempts to answer some of the following questions: what is the main selling advantage of a plot of land on the areas with mining exploitation? which attributes influence on market value the most? and how calculate the mining influence in subsoil under future new building as market value of plot with commercial use? This focus is not accidental, as the paper sets out to prove that the subsoil load bearing capacity, as directly inferred from the local geotechnical properties with mining exploitation, considerably influences the market value of this type of real estate. Presented in this elaborate analysis and calculations, are part of the ongoing development works which aimed at suggesting a new technology and procedures for estimating the value of the land belonging to the third category geotechnical. Analysed the question was examined both in terms of the theoretical and empirical. On the basis of the analysed code calculations in residual method, numerical, statistical and econometric defined results and final conclusions. A market analysis yielded a group of subsoil stabilization costs which depend on the mining operations interaction, subsoil parameters, type of the contemplated structure, its foundations, selected stabilization method, its overall area and shape.

  11. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Assessment of LANL-Derived Residual Radionuclides in Soils within Tract A-16-e for Land Conveyance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Jessica [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    Public Law 105-119 directs the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to convey or transfer parcels of land to the Incorporated County of Los Alamos or their designees and to the Department of Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, in trust for the Pueblo de San Ildefonso. Los Alamos National Security is tasked to support DOE in conveyance and/or transfer of identified land parcels no later than September 2022. Under DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (O458.1, 2013), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) implementing Policy 412 (P412, 2014a), real property with the potential to contain residual radioactive material must meet the criteria for clearance and release to the public. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates Tract A-16-e and proposes 50 project-specific soil samples for use in radiological clearance decisions consistent with LANL Procedure ENV-ES-TP-238 (2015a) and guidance in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM, 2000).

  12. Development of an efficient process for the treatment of residual sludge discharged from an anaerobic digester in a sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Naoki; Tang, Yue-Qin; Iwamura, Makoto; Ohta, Hiroto; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    In order to reduce the discharge of residual sludge from an anaerobic digester, pre-treatment methods including low-pressure wet-oxidation, Fenton oxidation, alkali treatment, ozone oxidation, mechanical destruction and enzymatic treatment were evaluated and compared. VSS removal efficiencies of greater than 50% were achieved in cases of low-pressure wet-oxidation, Fenton oxidation and alkali treatment. Residual sludge from an anaerobic digester was pre-treated and subjected to thermophilic anaerobic digestion. As a result, the process of low-pressure wet-oxidation followed by anaerobic digestion achieved the highest VSS removal efficiency of 83%. The total efficiency of VSS removal of sewage sludge consisting of primary and surplus sludge would be approximately 92%, assuming that the VSS removal efficiency of sewage sludge is 50% in the anaerobic digester of the sewage treatment plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutron diffraction measurements for the determination of heat treatment effectiveness in generating compressive residual stress in an automotive crown gear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, G.; Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.; Pyzalla, A.; Quadrini, E.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Thermal austenitizing and tempering treatments are being developed in automotive industry to prevent crack initiation and avoid crack propagation, especially in components where stress intensity factors influence the stress field and then the fatigue life of the component itself. This is the case of crown gears, where the teeth root undergoes frequently to cracking when tensile residual stresses are present at the surface, as typical loads are impulsive and very high. The sign reversal of these stresses is the aim of austenitizing and tempering treatments. In this work residual stress measurements carried out at HMI-BENSC are presented, in a UNI55Cr3 steel crown gear submitted to such kind of treatments, performed with a new multi-frequency induction technique whose effectiveness is checked. (author)

  14. A Regulator's Guide to Management of Radioactive Residuals from Drinking Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is intended for state regulators, technical assistance providers, and field staffto help states address radionuclide residual disposal by outlining options available to help systems address elevated radionuclide levels.

  15. Bundling of harvesting residues and whole-trees and the treatment of bundles; Hakkuutaehteiden ja kokopuiden niputus ja nippujen kaesittely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipainen, H.; Seppaenen, V.; Rinne, S.

    1996-12-31

    The conditions on which the bundling of the harvesting residues from spruce regeneration fellings would become profitable were studied. The calculations showed that one of the most important features was sufficient compaction of the bundle, so that the portion of the wood in the unit volume of the bundle has to be more than 40 %. The tests showed that the timber grab loader of farm tractor was insufficient for production of dense bundles. The feeding and compression device of the prototype bundler was constructed in the research and with this device the required density was obtained.The rate of compaction of the dry spruce felling residues was about 40 % and that of the fresh residues was more than 50 %. The comparison between the bundles showed that the calorific value of the fresh bundle per unit volume was nearly 30 % higher than that of the dry bundle. This means that the treatment of the bundles should be done of fresh felling residues. Drying of the bundles succeeded well, and the crushing and chipping tests showed that the processing of the bundles at the plant is possible. The treatability of the bundles was also excellent. By using the prototype, developed in the research, it was possible to produce a bundle of the fresh spruce harvesting residues, the diameter of which was about 50 cm and the length about 3 m, and the rate of compaction over 50 %. By these values the reduction target of the costs is obtainable

  16. Drying of residue and separation of nitrate salts in the sludge waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Lee, K. I.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the dissolution property of nitrate salts in the dissolution process by water and the drying property of residue after separating nitrates in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Desalination was carried out with the adding ratio of water and drying property was analyzed by TG/DTA, FTIR, and XRD. Nitrate salts involved in the sludge were separated over 97% at the water adding ratio of 2.5. But a small quantity of calcium and sodium nitrate remained in the residue These were decomposed over 600 .deg. C and calcium carbonate, which was consisted mainly of residue, was decomposed into calcium oxide over 750 .deg. C. The residue have to be decomposed over 800 .deg. C to converse uranyl nitrate of six value into the stable U 3 O 8 of four value. As a result of removing the nitrates at the water adding ratio of 2.5 and drying the residue over 900 .deg. C, volume of the sludge waste decreased over 80%

  17. Evolution of Residual Stress and Distortion of Cold-Rolled Bearing Ring from Annealing to Quenched-Tempered Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bohan; Lu, Xiaohui

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the correlation between the residual stress and distortion behavior of a cold-rolled ring from the annealing to quenching-tempering (QT) process. Due to the cold-rolled process, the external periphery of the bearing ring experiences a compressive residual stress. To relieve the residual stress, cold-rolled rings are annealed at 700 °C which is higher than the starting temperature of recrystallization. When cold-rolled rings are annealed at 700 °C for 15 min, the compressive residual stress is reduced to zero and the outer diameter of the annealed ring becomes larger than that of a non-annealed sample, which is unrelated to annealing time. Simultaneously, the roundness and taper deviation do not obviously change compared with those of non-annealed sample. The stress relaxation during the annealing process was attributed to the recovery and recrystallization of ferrite. Annealing has a genetic influence on the following QT heat treatment, wherein the lowest residual stress is in the non-annealed cold-rolled ring. From the annealing to QT process, the deviation of the outer diameter, roundness, and taper increased with annealing time, a large extend than that of non-annealed samples.

  18. Influence of the inherent properties of drinking water treatment residuals on their phosphorus adsorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Leilei; Wang, Changhui; He, Liansheng; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-12-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption on five drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) collected from different regions in China. The physical and chemical characteristics of the five WTRs were determined. Combined with rotated principal component analysis, multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the inherent properties of the WTRs and their P adsorption capacities. The results showed that the maximum P adsorption capacities of the five WTRs calculated using the Langmuir isotherm ranged from 4.17 to 8.20mg/g at a pH of 7 and further increased with a decrease in pH. The statistical analysis revealed that a factor related to Al and 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Al (Alox) accounted for 36.5% of the variations in the P adsorption. A similar portion (28.5%) was attributed to an integrated factor related to the pH, Fe, 200 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe (Feox), surface area and organic matter (OM) of the WTRs. However, factors related to other properties (Ca, P and 5 mmol/L oxalate-extractable Fe and Al) were rejected. In addition, the quantity of P desorption was limited and had a significant negative correlation with the (Feox+Alox) of the WTRs (p<0.05). Overall, WTRs with high contents of Alox, Feox and OM as well as large surface areas were proposed to be the best choice for P adsorption in practical applications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Innovative approach for recycling phosphorous from agro-wastewaters using water treatment residuals (WTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Iris; Ippolito, James A; Massey, Michael S; Litaor, Iggy M

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus capture from polluting streams and its re-use using industrial byproducts has the potential to also reduce environmental threats. An innovative approach was developed for P removal from soil leachate and dairy wastewater using Al-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) to create an organic-Al-WTR composite (Al/O-WTR), potentially capable of serving as a P fertilizer source. Al-WTR was mixed with either soil leachate, or with dairy wastewater, both of which contained elevated P concentrations (e.g., 7.6-43.5 mg SRP L -1 ). The Al-WTR removed ∼95% inorganic P, above 80% organic P, and over 60% dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the waste streams. P removal was correlated with P concentration in the waste streams and was consistent with an increase in Al/O-WTR P content as determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Organic C was a major constituent in the original Al-WTR (31.4%) and increased by 1% in the Al/O-WTRs. Organic C accumulation on particles surfaces possibly enhanced weak P bonding. Desorption experiments indicated an initial and substantial P release (30 mg SRP kg -1 Al/O-WTR), followed by relatively constant low P solubility (ca. 10 mg kg -1 ). Organic C was continuously released to the solution (over 8000 mg kg -1 ), concomitantly with Ca and other electrolytes, possibly indicating dissolution from inner pores, accounting for the highly porous nature of the Al-WTR, evident by SEM images. The potential of P-loading on Al/O-WTR to promote P recycling should be further studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacterial toxicity assessment of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) and lake sediment amended with DWTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-11-01

    Drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) seems to be very promising for controlling lake sediment pollution. Logically, acquisition of the potential toxicity of DWTR will be beneficial for its applications. In this study, the toxicity of DWTR and sediments amended with DWTR to Aliivibrio fischeri was evaluated based on the Microtox(®) solid and leachate phase assays, in combination with flow cytometry analyses and the kinetic luminescent bacteria test. The results showed that both solid particles and aqueous/organic extracts of DWTR exhibited no toxicity to the bacterial luminescence and growth. The solid particles of DWTR even promoted bacterial luminescence, possibly because DWTR particles could act as a microbial carrier and provide nutrients for bacteria growth. Bacterial toxicity (either luminescence or growth) was observed from the solid phase and aqueous/organic extracts of sediments with or without DWTR addition. Further analysis showed that the solid phase toxicity was determined to be related mainly to the fixation of bacteria to fine particles and/or organic matter, and all of the observed inhibition resulting from aqueous/organic extracts was identified as non-significant. Moreover, DWTR addition not only had no adverse effect on the aqueous/organic extract toxicity of the sediment but also reduced the solid phase toxicity of the sediment. Overall, in practical application, the solid particles, the water-soluble substances transferred to surface water or the organic substances in DWTR had no toxicity or any delayed effect on bacteria in lakes, and DWTR can therefore be considered as a non-hazardous material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On-treatment non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, and lipid ratios in relation to residual vascular risk after treatment with potent statin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; Boekholdt, S Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), tri...

  2. Reduction of pesticide residues on fresh vegetables with electrolyzed water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wuyundalai; Liu, Haijie; Chen, Tianpeng; Zhou, Yanxin; Su, Yi-Cheng; Li, Lite

    2011-05-01

    Degradation of the 3 pesticides (acephate, omethoate, and dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate [DDVP]) by electrolyzed water was investigated. These pesticides were commonly used as broad-spectrum insecticides in pest control and high-residual levels had been detected in vegetables. Our research showed that the electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water (pH 2.3, available chlorine concentration:70 ppm, oxidation-reduction potential [ORP]: 1170 mV) and the electrolyzed reducing (ER) water (pH 11.6, ORP: -860 mV) can reduce the pesticide residues effectively. Pesticide residues on fresh spinach after 30 min of immersion in electrolyzed water reduced acephate by 74% (EO) and 86% (ER), omethoate by 62% (EO) and 75% (ER), DDVP by 59% (EO) and 46% (ER), respectively. The efficacy of using EO water or ER water was found to be better than that of using tap water or detergent (both were reduced by more than 25%). Besides spinach, the cabbage and leek polluted by DDVP were also investigated and the degradation efficacies were similar to the spinach. Moreover, we found that the residual level of pesticide residue decreased with prolonged immersion time. Using EO or ER water to wash the vegetables did not affect the contents of Vitamin C, which inferred that the applications of EO or ER water to wash the vegetables would not result in loss of nutrition. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Raise of efficiency of flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water from reclaimed land by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Yamazaki, Masao; Sawai, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    When rain falls on the coastal reclaimed land filled with home garbage in Tokyo, a large quantity of water containing much organic contaminant flows out. It is difficult to treat this water exuding from reclaimed land by conventional method. Because the water with low BOD which is difficult to treat by biological process flows out for long period after the stabilization of reclaimed land. When the water is treated by flocculation and precipitation, the substances with high molecular weight are easily removed, but the rate of removal of fulvic acid with low molecular weight, which accounts for more than 60% of the composition of the water, is very poor. Therefore, it was examined to change the fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation, and to improve the efficiency of the flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water. Exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and it was separated into humic acid and fulvic acid. The Co-60 gamma ray of 5 kCi was irradiated to the samples. The experimental method and the results are reported. The change of fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation was most efficient at pH 2.2. More than 90% of organic contaminants was able to be removed. (Kako, I.)

  4. Impact of single annual treatment and four-monthly treatment for hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, and factors associated with residual infection among Kenyan school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepha, Stella; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Anderson, Roy M; Pullan, Rachel L; Nuwaha, Fred; Cano, Jorge; Njenga, Sammy M; Odiere, Maurice R; Allen, Elizabeth; Brooker, Simon J; Nikolay, Birgit

    2017-02-09

    School-based deworming is widely implemented in various countries to reduce the burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), however, the frequency of drug administration varies in different settings. In this study, we compared the impact of a single annual treatment and 4-monthly treatment over a follow-up among Kenyan school children, and investigated the factors associated with residual infection. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial investigating whether deworming for STHs alters risk of acquiring malaria. Children received either a single treatment or 4-monthly albendazole treatments were followed longitudinally from February 2014 to October 2014. The relative impact of treatment and factors associated with residual infections were investigated using mixed-effects regression models. Predisposition to infection was assessed based on Spearman's rank and Kendall's Tau correlation coefficients. In the 4-monthly treatment group, the proportion of children infected with hookworm decreased from 59.9 to 5.7%, while Ascaris lumbricoides infections dropped from 55.7 to 6.2%. In the single treatment group, hookworm infections decreased over the same time period from 58.7 to 18.3% (12.6% absolute difference in reduction, 95% CI: 8.9-16.3%), and A. lumbricoides from 56.7 to 23.3% (17.1% absolute difference in reduction, 95% CI: 13.1-21.1%). There was strong evidence for predisposition to both STH types. Residual hookworm infection among children on 4-monthly treatment were associated with male sex and baseline nutritional status, whereas A. lumbricoides infection was associated with individual and school-level infection at baseline, latrine cleanliness at schools. This study found that 4-monthly treatment w more effective than single annual treatment. Repeated treatments led to dramatic reductions in the intensities of STHs, but did not completely clear infections among school children in Kenya, a presumed reflection of reinfection in a setting

  5. Quantification of heavy metals from residual waste and ashes from the treatment plant of residual water Reciclagua and,effects for the health of those workers which manipulate those residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero D, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the technique of leaching using thermostatted column in series is applied, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the toxic metals that are present in the residual muds of the water treatment plant located in the municipality of Lerma Estado de Mexico, named RECICLAGUA, likewise the technique is used of emission spectrometry for plasma and X-ray fluorescence for the qualitative analysis. Its were take samples of residual mud and of incinerated mud of the treatment plant of residual waters of the industrial corridor Toluca -Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma Estado de Mexico. For this study there were mixed 100 g of residual mud with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one pH at 2, 5, 7 and 10, it was added bisulfite, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate sodium and 3.939 of DTPA (triple V) (Diethylene triamine pentaacetate). To this mud and ashes were extracted the toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using thermostatted columns placed in series that were designed by the Dr. Jaime Vite Torres; it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the equipment with those that work it was patented by the same one. With the extraction of these metals benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much the use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors where the metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using emission spectrometry by plasma in solids by this way to be able to know the content of the present metals in the sample before and later of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the X-ray diffraction analysis that provides an elementary content of the samples, identifying elements that are present in

  6. Ultrafiltration in laxative treatment of urban solid residues dump. Experience in the Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter (Girona, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of lixiviates owes fundamentally to the degradation of the organic matter present in the solid residues of dump and his dragging for rain water percolated. These liquids are characterized by high concentrations of organic pollutants, ammonia nitrogen, metallic ions and other potentially toxic substances. Several technologies for lixiviates treatment are used in Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter (Girona), like ultrafiltration, which has demonstrated his efficiency and reliability during the first 12 months of exploitation. (Author)

  7. Aluminum-based water treatment residual use in a constructed wetland for capturing urban runoff phosphorus: Column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) have a strong affinity to sorb phosphorus. In a proof-of-concept greenhouse column study, Al-WTR was surface-applied at 0, 62, 124, and 248 Mg/ha to 15 cm of soil on top of 46 cm of sand; Al-WTR rates were estimated to capture 0, 10, 20, and 40 year...

  8. Decrease of Pirimiphos-Methyl and Deltamethrin Residues in Stored Rice with Post-Harvest Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanshan; Li, Yanjie; Zhang, Qian; Zou, Nan; Gu, Kejia; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2014-01-01

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged (QuEChERS) method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE) material was applied to the analysis of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin residues in stored rice. Two dustable powder (DP) formulations (2% pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin DP; 5% pirimiphos-methyl DP) were applied in simulated storehouse trials in the lab. The residues and dissipation of the two pesticides in stored rice were investigated. Slow dissipation of both pesticides was observed in stored rice. The half-lives of pirimiphos-methyl were 23.9–28.9 days, and those of deltamethrin were 23.9–24.8 days. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl from application rates of 4.5–6.75 a.i. mg/kg (active ingredient milligram per kilogram) and 10–15 a.i. mg/kg were 1.6–3.8 mg/kg and 3.0–4.5 mg/kg at 60 days Pre-harvest Interval (PHI). Residues of deltamethrin from an application rate of 0.5–0.75 a.i. mg/kg were 0.13–0.14 mg/kg at 60 days PHI. Both pesticides residues were below the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Therefore, at the recommended dosages they are safe for use on stored rice. PMID:24840352

  9. Decrease of Pirimiphos-Methyl and Deltamethrin Residues in Stored Rice with Post-Harvest Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanshan Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged (QuEChERS method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE material was applied to the analysis of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin residues in stored rice. Two dustable powder (DP formulations (2% pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin DP; 5% pirimiphos-methyl DP were applied in simulated storehouse trials in the lab. The residues and dissipation of the two pesticides in stored rice were investigated. Slow dissipation of both pesticides was observed in stored rice. The half-lives of pirimiphos-methyl were 23.9–28.9 days, and those of deltamethrin were 23.9–24.8 days. Residues of pirimiphos-methyl from application rates of 4.5–6.75 a.i. mg/kg (active ingredient milligram per kilogram and 10–15 a.i. mg/kg were 1.6–3.8 mg/kg and 3.0–4.5 mg/kg at 60 days Pre-harvest Interval (PHI. Residues of deltamethrin from an application rate of 0.5–0.75 a.i. mg/kg were 0.13–0.14 mg/kg at 60 days PHI. Both pesticides residues were below the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC. Therefore, at the recommended dosages they are safe for use on stored rice.

  10. Rheological and fractal characteristics of unconditioned and conditioned water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y J; Wang, Y L; Feng, J

    2011-07-01

    The rheological and fractal characteristics of raw (unconditioned) and conditioned water treatment residuals (WTRs) were investigated in this study. Variations in morphology, size, and image fractal dimensions of the flocs/aggregates in these WTR systems with increasing polymer doses were analyzed. The results showed that when the raw WTRs were conditioned with the polymer CZ8688, the optimum polymer dosage was observed at 24 kg/ton dry sludge. The average diameter of irregularly shaped flocs/aggregates in the WTR suspensions increased from 42.54 μm to several hundred micrometers with increasing polymer doses. Furthermore, the aggregates in the conditioned WTR system displayed boundary/surface and mass fractals. At the optimum polymer dosage, the aggregates formed had a volumetric average diameter of about 820.7 μm, with a one-dimensional fractal dimension of 1.01 and a mass fractal dimension of 2.74 on the basis of the image analysis. Rheological tests indicated that the conditioned WTRs at the optimum polymer dosage showed higher levels of shear-thinning behavior than the raw WTRs. Variations in the limiting viscosity (η(∞)) of conditioned WTRs with sludge content could be described by a linear equation, which were different from the often-observed empirical exponential relationship for most municipal sludge. With increasing temperature, the η(∞) of the raw WTRs decreased more rapidly than that of the raw WTRs. Good fitting results for the relationships between lgη(∞)∼T using the Arrhenius equation indicate that the WTRs had a much higher activation energy for viscosity of about 17.86-26.91 J/mol compared with that of anaerobic granular sludge (2.51 J/mol) (Mu and Yu, 2006). In addition, the Bingham plastic model adequately described the rheological behavior of the conditioned WTRs, whereas the rheology of the raw WTRs fit the Herschel-Bulkley model well at only certain sludge contents. Considering the good power-law relationships between the

  11. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pH<10, possibly due to the dissolution of ettringite (at alkaline pH) or calcium (Ca)-antimonate. Treated APC residues, stored anoxically in the laboratory, simulating the conditions at the NOAH Langøya landfill, gave rise to decreasing concentrations of Sb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of the nature of residual masses at end of treatment in lymphoma patients using volume perfusion computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syha, R.; Gruenwald, L.; Spira, D.; Ketelsen, D.; Claussen, C.D.; Horger, M. [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Horger, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, M2 - Lehrstuhl fuer Numerische, Garching (Germany); Vogel, W. [Eberhard Karls University, Department of Medical Oncology and Haematology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the diagnostic benefit of volume perfusion computed tomography (VPCT) at end of treatment for response assessment in lymphoma patients. Seventy-five patients with different lymphoma subtypes were included: 50/75 patients had residual masses at end of treatment, 26/50 patients underwent VPCT at baseline and at end of treatment, and 24/50 patients only had end-of-treatment VPCTs. We evaluated the size of the main lymphoma mass, its blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and k-trans, calculated ratios (baseline and end of treatment) as well as sensitivity/specificity/negative (NPV)/positive predictive values (PPV). For VPCT at end of treatment, a cutoff threshold between responders and non-responders was calculated. For patients undergoing VPCT at baseline and end of treatment, reduction in size, BF, BV and k-trans was significant (P < 0.001). Identification of non-response was reached at: <53 % reduction in size (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy/PPV/NPV of 88.89 %/62.5 %/80.77 %/84.21 %/71.43 %), <15 % reduction of BF (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy/PPV/NPV of 100 %/37.5 %/80.77 %/0.26 %/100 %), or <45 % reduction of k-trans (sensitivity/specificity/accuracy/PPV/NPV of 88.89 %/75 %/84.62 %/88.89 %/75 %). In the subgroup undergoing VPCT at end of treatment, BF >18.51 ml/100 ml indicated non-responsiveness (sensitivity 92.86 %, specificity 72.73 %, accuracy 84 %, PPV 81.25 %, NPV 88.89 %). VPCT seems adequate for assessment of lymphoma response at end of treatment. The degree of residual lymphoma perfusion at end of treatment helps to identify patients likely to remain in remission 1 year after completion of therapy. (orig.)

  13. Effects of thermal treatment on mineralogy and heavy metal behavior in iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Bender-Koch, C.; Starckpoole, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    Stabilization of air pollution control residues by coprecipitation with ferrous iron and subsequent thermal treatment (at 600 and 900 °C) has been examined as a means to reduce heavy metal leaching and to improve product stability. Changes in mineralogy and metal binding were analyzed using various...... volatilized or destabilized with respect to leaching. Pb, in particular, exhibited increased reactivity following the formation of an ordered iron oxide structure at 900 °C. The thermal treatment had a positive effect on Cr release, which was reduced significantly at 900 °C in the presence of organic matter...

  14. Low-Level Burial Grounds dangerous waste permit application: Request for exemption from lined trench requirements and from land disposal restrictions for residual liquid at 218-E-12B Burial Ground Trench 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document has been prepared and is being submitted to the respective agencies to satisfy three objectives of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) concerning Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Facility. Figure 1-1 shows the general location of the Hanford Site. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is one of eight burial grounds included in the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG), a treatment, storage and/or disposal (TSD) unit. Decommissioned, defueled naval submarine reactor compartments (SRCs) contain radioactivity caused by exposure of structural components to neutrons during normal operation of the submarines. After all the alternatives were evaluated in the US Department of the Navy 1984 environmental impact statement (EIS) (USN 1984), land burial of the SRCs was selected as the preferred disposal option. The SRCs currently are sent to Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. In addition to radioactivity, the SRCs disposed in. The DOE-RL's three objectives in preparing and submitting this document are as follows. Request from Ecology an exemption from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements for Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Petition Ecology to exempt residual liquid in the SRCs from land disposal restrictions. Obtain EPA Region 10 review and comment on the request to Ecology for exemption from liner/leachate system requirements

  15. Cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land including areas near nuclear facilities. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Faust, R.A.; Brewster, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 337 references summarizes the literature published on the cleanup and treatment of radioactively contaminated land. Specifically, this bibliography focuses on literature concerned with the methods of cleanup and treatment being applied - chemical, physical, or vegetative stabilization; the types of equipment being used; and the influence of climatic conditions on the method selected for use. The emphasis in such literature is placed on hazardous site cleanup efforts that have been completed as well as those that are in progress and are being planned. Appendix A includes 135 additional references to literature identified but not included in the bibliography because of time and funding constraints. Appendix B consists of a table that identifies the cleanup and treatment research conducted at specific sites. All of the information included in this bibliography is stored in a computerized form that is readily available upon request

  16. Characterization of residues from thermal treatment of treated wood and extraction of Cu, Cr, As and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2005-01-01

    , that the charcoal contained a high concentration of Zn, probably from paint. Chemical extraction experiments in HNO were conducted with the charcoal and it was found that the order of extraction (in percentage) was Zn > Cu > As > Cr. A SEM/EDX investigation of the mixed ash from combustion showed the presence...... a matter to cope with when methods to avoid As emission are implemented: the residues with increased concentrations of Cu, Cr and As. In the present paper two different residues after thermal treatment are characterized: a mixed bottom and fly ash from combustion of CCA impregnated wood, and a charcoal...... form in a small layer on the surface of some matrix particles indicating condensation of volatile Cu species. Chemical extraction with inorganic acids showed the order of percentages mobilized as: As > Cu > Cr....

  17. Statistical modeling to management and treatment of scrap with low and very low residual activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Bermejo Fernandez, R.; Anaya Lazaro, M.

    2011-01-01

    The experience of recent years on the management of scrap metal containing residual activity have allowed the development of a simple statistical model for the management of these materials. This statistical model includes a breakdown of the various processing operations to which these materials undergo and the effects in the process of radiological controls associated to the control of declassification that defines disposal (recycled by smelting, reclamation, temporary storage the plant or sent to final storage of radioactive waste.

  18. Phytotoxicity and groundwater impacts of leaching from thermal treatment residues in roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing; Zhang, Hua

    2018-01-01

    The use of coal fly ash (CFA), municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) and flue gas desulfurization residue (FGDR) in road construction has become very common owing to its economical advantages. However, these residues may contain toxic constituents that pose an environmental risk if they leach out and flow through the soil, surface water and groundwater. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the ecotoxicity and groundwater impact of these residues before decisions can be made regarding their utilization for road construction. In this study, the physico-chemical characteristics, leaching and phytotoxicity of these residues were investigated. Specifically, multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the contributions of the leaching constituents of the CFA, MSWIBA and FGDR leachates to the germination index of wheat seeds. B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb were found to be more toxic to the wheat seeds than the other heavy metals. Furthermore, the leached concentrations of the constituents from the CFA, MSWIBA and FGDR were below the regulatory threshold limits of the Chinese identification standard for hazardous wastes. Analyses conducted using a numerical groundwater model (WiscLEACH) indicated that the predicted field concentrations of metals from the CFA, MSWIBA and FGDR increased with time up to about 30years at the point of compliance, then decreased with time and distance. Overall, this study demonstrated that the risks resulting from MSWIBA, CFA and FGDR leaching could be assessed before its utilization for road construction, providing crucial information for the adoption of these alternative materials. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Treatment and use of air pollution control residues from MSW incineration: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, João C.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2008-01-01

    This work reviews strategies for the management of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues, particularly solid particles collected from flue gases. These tiny particles may be retained by different equipment, with or without additives (lime, activated carbon, etc.), and depending on the different possible combinations, their properties may vary. In industrial plants, the most commonly used equipment for heat recovery and the cleaning of gas emissions are: heat recovery devices (boi...

  20. Obtaining variances from the treatment standards of the RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDRs) [40 CFR 268] impose specific requirements for treatment of RCRA hazardous wastes prior to disposal. Before the LDRs, many hazardous wastes could be land disposed at an appropriately designed and permitted facility without undergoing treatment. Thus, the LDRs constitute a major change in the regulations governing hazardous waste. EPA does not regulate the radioactive component of radioactive mixed waste (RMW). However, the hazardous waste component of an RMW is subject to RCRA LDR regulations. DOE facilities that manage hazardous wastes (including radioactive mixed wastes) may have to alter their waste-management practices to comply with the regulations. The purpose of this document is to aid DOE facilities and operations offices in determining (1) whether a variance from the treatment standard should be sought and (2) which type (treatability or equivalency) of petition is appropriate. The document also guides the user in preparing the petition. It shall be noted that the primary responsibility for the development of the treatability petition lies with the generator of the waste. 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Residual settlements detection of ocean reclaimed lands with multi-platform SAR time series and SBAS technique: a case study of Shanghai Pudong International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Yang, Tianliang; Zhao, Qing; Pepe, Antonio; Dong, Hongbin; Sun, Zhibin

    2017-09-01

    Shanghai Pudong International airport is one of the three major international airports in China. The airport is located at the Yangtze estuary which is a sensitive belt of sea and land interaction region. The majority of the buildings and facilities in the airport are built on ocean-reclaimed lands and silt tidal flat. Residual ground settlement could probably occur after the completion of the airport construction. The current status of the ground settlement of the airport and whether it is within a safe range are necessary to be investigated. In order to continuously monitor the ground settlement of the airport, two Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) time series, acquired by X-band TerraSAR-X (TSX) and TanDEM-X (TDX) sensors from December 2009 to December 2010 and from April 2013 to July 2015, were used for analyzing with SBAS technique. We firstly obtained ground deformation measurement of each SAR subset. Both of the measurements show that obvious ground subsidence phenomenon occurred at the airport, especially in the second runway, the second terminal, the sixth cargo plane and the eighth apron. The maximum vertical ground deformation rates of both SAR subset measurements were greater than -30 mm/year, while the cumulative ground deformations reached up to -30 mm and -35 mm respectively. After generation of SBAS-retrieved ground deformation for each SAR subset, we performed a joint analysis to combine time series of each common coherent point by applying a geotechnical model. The results show that three centralized areas of ground deformation existed in the airport, mainly distributed in the sixth cargo plane, the fifth apron and the fourth apron, The maximum vertical cumulative ground subsidence was more than -70 mm. In addition, by analyzing the combined time series of four selected points, we found that the ground deformation rates of the points located at the second runway, the third runway, and the second terminal, were progressively smaller as time goes by

  2. Aging of aluminum/iron-based drinking water treatment residuals in lake water and their association with phosphorus immobilization capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Yuan, Nannan; Pei, Yuansheng; Jiang, He-Long

    2015-08-15

    Aluminum and Fe-based drinking water treatment residuals (DWTRs) have shown a high potential for use by geoengineers in internal P loading control in lakes. In this study, aging of Al/Fe-based DWTRs in lake water under different pH and redox conditions associated with their P immobilization capability was investigated based on a 180-day incubation test. The results showed that the DWTRs before and after incubation under different conditions have similar structures, but their specific surface area and pore volume, especially mesopores with radius at 2.1-5.0 nm drastically decreased. The oxalate extractable Al contents changed little although a small amount of Al transformed from oxidizable to residual forms. The oxalate extractable Fe contents also decreased by a small amount, but the transformation from oxidizable to residual forms were remarkable, approximately by 14.6%. However, the DWTRs before and after incubation had similar P immobilization capabilities in solutions and lake sediments. Even the maximum P adsorption capacity estimated by the Langmuir model increased after incubation. Therefore, it was not necessary to give special attention to the impact of Al and Fe aging on the effectiveness of DWTRs for geoengineering in lakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Switching to aripiprazole for the treatment of residual mutism resulted in distinct clinical courses in two catatonic schizophrenia cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Shou

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of a partial agonist for the dopamine D 2 receptor, aripiprazole, for catatonia in schizophrenia has been reported. We report distinct clinical courses in challenging aripiprazole to treat residual mutism after severe catatonic symptoms improved. In the first case, mutism was successfully treated when the patient was switched from olanzapine to aripiprazole. In contract, switching to aripiprazole from risperidone aggravated auditory hallucinations in the second case. We will discuss the benefits and risks of using aripiprazole for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia and the possibility of dopamine supersensitivity psychosis.

  4. Switching to aripiprazole for the treatment of residual mutism resulted in distinct clinical courses in two catatonic schizophrenia cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumasa Muneoka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The efficacy of a partial agonist for the dopamine D2 receptor, aripiprazole, for catatonia in schizophrenia has been reported. Methods: We report distinct clinical courses in challenging aripiprazole to treat residual mutism after severe catatonic symptoms improved. Results: In the first case, mutism was successfully treated when the patient was switched from olanzapine to aripiprazole. In contract, switching to aripiprazole from risperidone aggravated auditory hallucinations in the second case. Conclusions: We will discuss the benefits and risks of using aripiprazole for the treatment of catatonic schizophrenia and the possibility of dopamine supersensitivity psychosis.

  5. Influence of post-harvest application rates of cyprodinil, treatment time and temperature on residue levels and efficacy in controlling green mould on 'Valencia' oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Cabras, Paolo; Angioni, Alberto

    2009-07-01

    The effectiveness of heat treatments with water and cyprodinil in controlling post-harvest green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum was investigated on artificially inoculated 'Valencia' oranges. Residue levels of cyprodinil were determined in the oranges as a function of active ingredient concentration, temperature and treatment time. Cyprodinil residues were significantly dependent on treatment time when applied at 600 mg l(-1) and 20 degrees C, but not when fruit were treated at 150-300 mg l(-1). The application of cyprodinil at 50 or 100 mg l(-1) at 55 degrees C for 30 s produced similar residue levels, while residues increased when the application rate was 150 mg l(-1). Cyprodinil at 100 mg l(-1) and 60 degrees C produced a significant increase in residues compared to treatment at 50 mg l(-1); no significant increase in residues was found when the application rate was raised from 100 to 150 mg l(-1). In comparison to treatments performed at 20 degrees C, the application of a heated cyprodinil mixture resulted in significantly higher residues in fruit. All treatments with cyprodinil at 20 degrees C similarly reduced green mould after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. After 18 days, treatment with cyprodinil at 600 mg l(-1) for 30 s was more effective than at 150-300 mg l(-1). When dip time was extended to 90 or 180 s, treatment efficacy was positively related to fungicide concentration. Treatments with water at 55 degrees C for 30 s were as effective as cyprodinil at 50-100 mg l(-1), but less effective than cyprodinil at 150 mg l(-1). After 7 days, treatment with water or cyprodinil at 50-150 mg l(-1) and 60 degrees C were equally effective in controlling green mould; while, after 18 days, treatment with cyprodinil at 150 mg l(-1) was consistently more effective than at 50-100 mg l(-1) or hot water alone.

  6. Methylene blue treatment for residual symptoms of bipolar disorder: randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Martin; McKinnon, Margaret; Blagdon, Ryan; Garnham, Julie; MacLellan, Susan; O'Donovan, Claire; Hajek, Tomas; Nair, Cynthia; Dursun, Serdar; MacQueen, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    Residual symptoms and cognitive impairment are among important sources of disability in patients with bipolar disorder. Methylene blue could improve such symptoms because of its potential neuroprotective effects. We conducted a double-blind crossover study of a low dose (15 mg, 'placebo') and an active dose (195 mg) of methylene blue in patients with bipolar disorder treated with lamotrigine. Thirty-seven participants were enrolled in a 6-month trial (trial registration: NCT00214877). The outcome measures included severity of depression, mania and anxiety, and cognitive functioning. The active dose of methylene blue significantly improved symptoms of depression both on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (P = 0.02 and 0.05 in last-observation-carried-forward analysis). It also reduced the symptoms of anxiety measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (P = 0.02). The symptoms of mania remained low and stable throughout the study. The effects of methylene blue on cognitive symptoms were not significant. The medication was well tolerated with transient and mild side-effects. Methylene blue used as an adjunctive medication improved residual symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  7. Effect of thermal treatments on the degradation of antibiotic residues in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Khalil, Salma; Bayen, Stéphane

    2017-11-22

    The thermal stability of antibiotics commonly detected in food is reviewed. To quantify degradation, 2 major techniques have been reported: liquid chromatography-based methods and microbiological tests. As the degradation products may also display some antimicrobial activity, microbiological tests may not be considered accurate analytical methods for quantifying antibiotic residues' degradation. Degradation percentages are summarized for different antibiotics and for various media (water, oil, milk, and animal tissues). Studies presented in the literature confirm that the thermal degradation of β-lactams, quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines can be described using a first-order kinetic model. Degradation rates, k, derived for this model for liquid matrix (water) at 100 °C, followed the general trend amongst antibiotic classes: β-lactams = tetracyclines (most heat-labile) > lincomycin > amphenicols > sulfonamides > oxfendazole > levamisole (most heat-stable). Although thermal processing results in a decrease in the concentration of parent antibiotic residues, degradation by-products have not been properly characterized to date. As some of these products were shown to be hazardous, further investigation is needed to determine their impact on food safety and human health. It is therefore currently difficult to definitively conclude whether or not antibiotic degradation during food processing is necessarily beneficial in terms of food safety.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON RESIDUAL DEFORMATION CHIPPER KNIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Alifanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To carry out experimental studies of the influence of temperature modes on residual deformation of the sample-ing knives were manufactured pilot models of chipper knives 6HV2S steels (basic and U8A 9HF each in size up to its analog (finished knife. We draw on the modes recommended for these steels.The experimentalresultsshowed that the samples with smallsize and relatively large thickness after THEN do not have any permanent deformations. Samples ments concerning thin and having a rectangularshape (length 300 mm, then there are residual after deformation as Trough. The magnitude of the deflection is greater the smaller the ratio of the thickness of the sample to its length and width. It is found that the samples made from steel 6HV2S have a deflection value smaller than the samples of steel grades and 9HF U8A.Repair any defects in the form of troughs manage curved by heating the samples to the tempering temperature and the subsequent exposure between steel plates in a hydraulic press under a load to cool the workpiece.Thus, as a result of the research found that the residual deformation-tion (trough samples of knives from different grades (6HV2S, 9HF, U8A has a different value, depending on the geometrical parameters of knives (length, thickness, width and grades. The deflection can be easily eliminated by additional straightening.In the course of the work of steel 6HV2S supplied to the Belarusian market of Russia, at the branch of JSC «Atlant» -BSZ it was manufactured a few sets of prototypes chipper knives, intended for testing in a production environment on the woodworking enterprises of the republic (of «Ivatsevichidrev», JSC «Vitebskdrev/».Production tests of experimental knives made in accordance with the process technology-mi, developed in Barga, showed their compliance with production requirements and also require-ments of state standards, which allows recommend them for a wide introduction to woodworking factories, specializing in

  9. Land Disposal Restrictions Treatment Standards: Compliance Strategies for Four Types of Mixed Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortune, W.B.; Ranek, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the unique challenges involved in achieving compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Public Law 94-580) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) treatment standards for four types of mixed wastes generated throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex: (1) radioactively contaminated lead acid batteries; (2) radioactively contaminated cadmium-, mercury-, and silver-containing batteries; (3) mercury-bearing mixed wastes; and (4) radioactive lead solids. For each of these mixed waste types, the paper identifies the strategy pursued by DOE's Office of Pollution Prevention and Resource Conservation Policy and Guidance (EH-43) in coordination with other DOE elements and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet the compliance challenge. Specifically, a regulatory interpretation was obtained from EPA agreeing that the LDR treatment standard for wastes in the D008 'Radioactive Lead Solids' sub-category applies to radioactively contaminated lead acid batteries. For cadmium-, mercury-, and silver-containing batteries, generically applicable treatability variances were obtained from EPA approving macro-encapsulation as the alternative LDR treatment standard for all three battery types. Joint DOE/EPA technology demonstrations were pursued for mercury-bearing mixed wastes in an effort to justify revising the LDR treatment standards, which focus on thermal recovery of mercury for reuse. Because the demonstrations failed to produce enough supporting data for a rulemaking, however, EPA has recommended site-specific treatability variances for particular mercury-bearing mixed waste streams. Finally, DOE has filed an application for a determination of equivalent treatment requesting approval of container-based macro-encapsulation technologies as an alternative LDR treatment standard for radioactive lead solids. Information is provided concerning the length of time required to implement each of these strategies, and suggestions for

  10. [Biooxidation of gold-bearing sulfide ore and subsequent biological treatment of cyanidation residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaev, A T; Bulaev, A G; Semenchenko, G V; Kanaeva, Z K; Shilmanova, A A

    2016-01-01

    The percolation biooxidation parameters of ore from the Bakyrchik deposit were studied. An investigation of the technological parameters (such as the concentration of leaching agents, irrigation intensity, and pauses at various stages of the leaching) revealed the optimal mode for precious metal extraction. The stages of the ore processing were biooxidation, gold extraction by cyanidation or thiosulfate leaching, and biological destruction of cyanide. The gold and silver recovery rates by cyanidation were 64.0 and 57.3%, respectively. The gold and silver recovery rates by thiosulfate leaching were 64.0 and 57.3%, respectively. Gold and silver recovery rates from unoxidized ore (control experiment) by cyanidation were 20.9 and 26.8%, respectively. Thiosulfate leaching of unoxidized ore allowed the extraction of 38.8 and 24.2% of the gold and silver, respectively. Cyanidation residues were treated with bacteria of the genus Alcaligenes in order to destruct cyanide.

  11. Masonry concrete block strength compound with sawdust according to residue treatment - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.14372

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima Souza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of building blocks with the partial replacement of fine aggregates by sawdust is evaluated. The parameter adopted comprised analysis of the compressive strength according to the treatment applied to sawdust residue of the species Dinizia Excelsa Ducke (red angelim. Blocks were composed by replacing fine aggregates by sawdust at 5% weight. Before mixing the wood residues to the concrete, the former underwent treatment so that wood residues could be compatible with the cement matrix. Two treatment processes were investigated. The first treatment comprised the washing of residues in an alkaline solution (lime at a 5% proportion (weight / weight. The second treatment comprised the immersion of the residue in aluminum sulfate. Analysis was undertaken from compressive strength assays of the blocks on the 7th and 28th day. Results showed low efficiency in the alkaline-based treatment (lime and good performance in the aluminum sulfate-based treatment. The production of masonry blocks with a replacement of 5% fine aggregates for this type of treatment and species studied is possible. 

  12. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Treatment Systems, Effluent Qualities, and Costs - Module 4, Objectives, Script, and Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module describes the following conventional treatment systems and evaluates their use as pretreatment steps for land application: preliminary, primary, secondary, disinfection, and advanced waste treatment. Effluent qualities are summarized, a brief discussion of application systems is given, and cost comparisons are discussed in some detail.…

  13. Production of date palm fruits free of acaricides residues by ozone technology as post-harvest treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Khaled A

    2015-06-01

    Distilled water and ozonated water as postharvest wash treatments for 15-60 min as dipping times were tested to remove two acaricides namely, dicofol and amitraz from different varieties of date fruits. Recovered amount of the acaricides was extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dicofol removal percentages in the presence of ozone increased in the order of Nabtet Aly > Nabout Seif > Khalas > Sakay, while amitraz removal increased in the order of Nabtet Aly > Nabout Seif > Sakay > Khalas, respectively, and the percentages of residues on date fruits depended on the dipping time. Kinetic studies revealed that dicofol and amitraz were easily removable from date fruits treated with ozonated water. Ozone-treated date palm fruits were not associated with significant changes in antioxidant capacity, and phenolic and sugar contents. Due to the large amount of dates consumed by Saudi residents, a higher risk of exposure to pesticides, especially in children and other vulnerable individuals may occur and the search for safety methods to remove pesticides with negligible residual deposits has always been preferred. Therefore, the present study validated that ozone technology as wash treatments is safe and promising processes for the removal of acaricides from date fruits surface under domestic conditions to reduce the impact over consumer's health.

  14. Agro-Residues: Surface Treatment and Characterization of Date Palm Tree Fiber as Composite Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed A. Elbadry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research are to investigate the effect of different surface treatment methods on the different properties of date palm fiber (DPF compared to raw DPF fibers such as surface morphology, density, thermal stability, and tensile properties. The first surface treatment is called surface hand cleaning which can be carried out by cleaning the fibers by soft sand cloth; the second one is the same as the first one after DPF heat treatment in the furnace at 100°C for 1.5 h and the third one is by chemical treatment with 1% NaOH at 100°C for 1 h. The results showed that the mechanical performance of DPF was enhanced by the different treatments and the chemical treatment has pronounced effect on the behavior of DPF. Raw fibers showed the highest variability and presented the lowest value of Weibull modulus, whereas the fibers showed less variability by carrying out the different treatments. Moreover, using soda treatment cleans the fiber surface which causes fibrillation and therefore the tensile strength of the fibers increases.

  15. Initial Effects of Reproduction Cutting Treatments on Residual Hard Mast Production in the Ouachita Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2003-01-01

    We compared indices of total hard mast production (oak and hickory combined) in 20, second-growth, pine-hardwood stands under five treatments to determine the effects of different reproduction treatments on mast production in the Ouachita Mountains. We evaluated mast production in mature unharvested controls and stands under four reproduction cutting methods (single-...

  16. Identification of residual non-biodegradable organic compounds in wastewater effluent after two-stage biochemical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuqing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main non-biodegradable compounds (soluble microbial product – SMP of wastewater from the Maotai aromatic factories, located in the Chishui river region, were analyzed by UV spectroscopy, and by solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, after a two-stage biochemical treatment. The UV-Vis spectra revealed that the wastewater contained two double-bonds in conjugated systems (conjugated diene or α, β- unsaturated ketone, etc. and simple non-conjugated chromophores containing n electrons from carbonyl groups or the like. The residual organic non-biodegradable substances were identified using SPE-GC/MS analysis as complex polymers containing hydroxyl, carbonyl, and carboxyl functional groups with multiple connections to either benzene rings or heterocyclic rings. As these compounds are difficult to remove by conventional biochemical treatments, our findings provide a scientific basis for the design of efficient new strategies to remove SMP from wastewater.

  17. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  18. Coupling of solar-assisted advanced oxidative and biological treatment for degradation of agro-residue-based soda bleaching effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amit; Prakash, Nagaraja Tejo; Sud, Dhiraj

    2012-11-01

    This study evaluates the effect of integrated solar-assisted advanced oxidation process (AOP) and biological treatment on the extent of degradation of effluents from chlorination (C) and first alkaline extraction (E(1)) stages of soda pulp bleaching in agro-residue-based pulp and paper mill. Biodegradation of the effluents was attempted in suspended mode using activated sludge from the functional pulp and paper industry effluent treatment plant acclimatized to effluents in question. The photocatalytic treatment was employed using zinc oxide (ZnO) in slurry mode for decontamination of effluents in a batch manner and the degradation was evaluated in terms of reduction in chemical oxygen demand. The biological treatment (24 h) of C and E(1) effluent resulted in 30 and 57 % of degradation, respectively. Solar-induced AOP of C and E(1) effluents resulted in 53 and 43 % degradation under optimized conditions (2.5 g L(-1) ZnO at pH 8.0) after 6 h of exposure. For C effluent, a short duration of solar/ZnO (1 h) prior to biological treatment reduced the time required at biological step from 24 to 12 h for almost same extent (92 %) of degradation. However, sequential biological treatment (24 h) followed by solar/ZnO (2 h) resulted in 85.5 % degradation. In contrast, in the case of E(1) effluent, sequential biological (24 h)-solar/ZnO (2 h) system effectively degrades effluent to 95.4 % as compared to 84.8 % degradation achieved in solar/ZnO (2 h)-biological treatment (24 h) system. In the present study, the sequencing of photocatalysis with the biological treatment is observably efficient and technically viable process for the complete mineralization of the effluents.

  19. Trace Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and fate of trace-level contamination of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. The effluents of wastewater treatment plants, usually directly emitted to the environment, often contain the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Diclofenac was chosen because it is of high consumption; by background literature indicate toxic effects on biota and the lack of profile in sewage removal provided by the city. For this purpose, a survey on the presence of diclofenac in urban wastewater of Rio de Janeiro was carried out. It were evaluated diclofenac concentration in the affluent and effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP Penha and Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected along the line of treatment of each WWTP, and for clean up the samples were solid phase extraction (SPE, analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, assisted by diode array detector (DAD techniques. The removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in the wastewater treatment plants was roughly evaluated. Diclofenac was detected in all samples analysed wastewater (treated and raw, which confirms the low removal efficiency of conventional treatment systems, aerobes and anaerobes.

  20. Influence of the surface treatment of tire rubber residues added in mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Marques

    Full Text Available In this work it was evaluated the influence tire rubber addition in mortars in order to replace part of the sand (12% by volume. It was also intended to verify if the tire rubber treatment with NaOH saturated aqueous solution causes interference on the mechanical properties of the mixture. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, water absorption, modulus of elasticity, and flow test were made in specimens of 5cmx10cm and the tests were carried out to 7, 28, 56, 90, and 180 days. The results show reduction on mechanical properties values after addition of tire rubber and decrease of the workability. It was also observed that the tire rubber treatment does not cause any alteration on the results compared to the rubber without treatment.

  1. Study of treatment of the residual waters of an atomizer milk plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra C, J.H.; Wills B, B.A.; Saldarriaga M, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a study on the characterization and treatment test of the wastewater of a dairy plant, which is mainly devoted to the production of powdered milk and whey, are presented in this work. It includes a description of the procedures to carry out the field and the laboratory test. Several coagulation tests were run using alum, lime, ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, sulfuric acid and a poli electrolyte. In the case of wastewater from process all treatments were very effective in removal of both suspended and fatty solids; the removal of the organic improved with the addition of ferric sulfate plus floatation, and with the use of soda and ferric chloride. The treatment of wastewater from washing operations was more effective with a serial addition of sulfuric acid and ferric chloride

  2. Application of processes of advanced oxidation as phenol treatment in industrial residual waters of refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Jorge Enrique; Ortiz, Olga Patricia; Rios, Fabian

    2005-01-01

    Although more efficient and economical processes for the treatment of sewage have been developed in recent years, the challenge they are facing-due to the greater knowledge of the effect that pollutants have on the environment, the greater consumption of water because of the development of human and industrial activity and the reduction of fresh water sources indicate that we are far from attaining the final solution. This affirmation specially applies to the pollutants, which are resistant to biological treatment processes, such as most of the aromatic compounds found in sewage of the petrochemical industries. In this document, the processes known as advanced oxidation will be explored. Theses have been reported as having the greatest potential in the treatment of these pollutants. Likewise the results of the application of these technologies with waters typical of the petroleum industry will be reported. These have previously been evaluated with processes of typical ozonization

  3. Evaluation of residual iron in carbon nanotubes purified by acid treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, E.R., E-mail: eliltonedwards@hotmail.com [Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, CEP: 12.516-410 CP:20, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Antunes, E.F. [National Institute for Space Research - INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP: 12.254-97, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Aeronautical Institute of Technology - ITA, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes, 50, CEP: 12.228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil); Botelho, E.C. [Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, CEP: 12.516-410 CP:20, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Baldan, M.R.; Corat, E.J. [National Institute for Space Research - INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, CEP: 12.254-97, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-01

    A detailed analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) surfaces after non-oxidative and oxidative purification treatments in liquid-phase. The MWCNT were produced by pyrolysis of camphor and ferrocene, that provides a high yield but with high iron contamination ({approx}15% wt). The elimination and/or oxidation of iron nanoparticles were monitored by Fe2p and O1s core level. Oxygen-based functional groups attachment was also investigated by C1s fitting. The effectiveness of each treatment in iron removal was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The integrity of the MWCNT structure was verified by Raman spectroscopy (RS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A purity degree higher than 98% was achieved only with non-oxidative treatments using sonification process.

  4. Alternatives for the treatment of the organic fraction of the urban solid residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Fonseca, Mabelin; Fernandez Mena, Dalia; Abalos Rodriguez, Arelis; Rodriguez Perez, Suyen

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of municipal solid waste outdoors, or in some cases burning under the same conditions, is action now and final disposition of these wastes without measuring their consequences. In the student's residence 'Antonio Maceo' Orient University is hosting up to 2250 students belonging to a total of 22 university, generating at full capacity, 3375 kg / day of MSW. This research aims to analyze the solid waste generated in the student's residence, where improperly evaluated the final disposition thereof. It was found that discharges are not separated at the source observed at the landfill, food waste, sweeping waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, glass, metal, textile waste, wood, etc. Samplings were carried out directly in 12 rooms of the residence for a total of 48 people, along with students, as part of the educational activities implemented within this work. The average weight of degradable waste generated was 2.5 kg / day during the sampling, revealing the presence of traces of cooked food (cereals, legumes, carbohydrates), fruit and vegetable remains, remains of shells of different origins ( meats, eggs), remnants of tea, etc. The average content of total solids in the waste sampled was 36.3 ± 5.4% and volatile solids content on dry weight was 81.3 ± 2.5% to an average density of 0.68 g / cm3. This residue is characterized to be treated in an anaerobic batch reactor where it is recirculated leachate and studied the competing microorganisms in the anaerobic degradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttinger, Alexandra; Dreibelbis, Robert; Roha, Kristin; Ngabo, Fidel; Kayigamba, Felix; Mfura, Leodomir; Moe, Christine

    2015-10-27

    There is a critical need for safe water in healthcare facilities (HCF) in low-income countries. HCF rely on water supplies that may require additional on-site treatment, and need sustainable technologies that can deliver sufficient quantities of water. Water treatment systems (WTS) that utilize ultrafiltration membranes for water treatment can be a useful technology in low-income countries, but studies have not systematically examined the feasibility of this technology in low-income settings. We monitored 22 months of operation of 10 WTS, including pre-filtration, membrane ultrafiltration, and chlorine residual disinfection that were donated to and operated by rural HCF in Rwanda. The systems were fully operational for 74% of the observation period. The most frequent reasons for interruption were water shortage (8%) and failure of the chlorination mechanism (7%). When systems were operational, 98% of water samples collected from the HCF taps met World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for microbiological water quality. Water quality deteriorated during treatment interruptions and when water was stored in containers. Sustained performance of the systems depended primarily on organizational factors: the ability of the HCF technician to perform routine servicing and repairs, and environmental factors: water and power availability and procurement of materials, including chlorine and replacement parts in Rwanda.

  6. Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Huttinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need for safe water in healthcare facilities (HCF in low-income countries. HCF rely on water supplies that may require additional on-site treatment, and need sustainable technologies that can deliver sufficient quantities of water. Water treatment systems (WTS that utilize ultrafiltration membranes for water treatment can be a useful technology in low-income countries, but studies have not systematically examined the feasibility of this technology in low-income settings. We monitored 22 months of operation of 10 WTS, including pre-filtration, membrane ultrafiltration, and chlorine residual disinfection that were donated to and operated by rural HCF in Rwanda. The systems were fully operational for 74% of the observation period. The most frequent reasons for interruption were water shortage (8% and failure of the chlorination mechanism (7%. When systems were operational, 98% of water samples collected from the HCF taps met World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for microbiological water quality. Water quality deteriorated during treatment interruptions and when water was stored in containers. Sustained performance of the systems depended primarily on organizational factors: the ability of the HCF technician to perform routine servicing and repairs, and environmental factors: water and power availability and procurement of materials, including chlorine and replacement parts in Rwanda.

  7. Treatment of Residual Sodium and Sodium Potassium from Fast Reactors. Review of Recent Accomplishments, Challenges and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In addition to the usual radiation and conventional hazards present during the decommissioning of disused nuclear installations, the presence of residual sodium or the alloy sodium potassium — used in primary, secondary and support systems in reactors using liquid metal as a coolant — presents additional technical, safety and cost challenges for decommissioning. This results from the propensity of these materials to react exothermically with water and moisture in the air potentially resulting in toxic and explosive reactionsThis publication discusses a variety of treatment methods to be considered when dismantling components that still contain residual quantities of sodium or sodium potassium, several of which were presented as contributed papers to the IAEA session during the 5. International Conference and Exhibition on Decommissioning Challenges, in Avignon, France, 7–11 April 2013. The publication provides a synthesis of information presented during the session, which was developed further at a consultants meeting held in Vienna, 2–6 December 2013. Decommissioning challenges faced at eight different facilities in five different countries are discussed, as well as the achievements and lessons learned that are of value to the worldwide decommissioning community

  8. Residual cervical lymphadenopathy after definitive treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: fine needle aspiration cytology, computed tomography and histopathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, S-T; Yuen, H-W; Lim, K-H; Goh, Y-H; Goh, H-K C

    2011-01-01

    Patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma may have residual cervical lymphadenopathy after definitive treatment of the primary tumour and regional cervical nodal disease. Whether such lymphadenopathy truly represents persistent disease is unclear. There are few published studies addressing this clinical problem. We retrospectively and systematically reviewed the clinical records of 12 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who had presented to a tertiary academic hospital, over an 11-year period, with suspected persistent cervical nodal disease after definitive radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Findings on fine needle aspiration cytology and computed tomography scanning were correlated with final histopathological results. The incidence of negative neck dissection was 41.7 per cent. The positive and negative predictive values of fine needle aspiration cytology in identifying disease were 100 and 42.9 per cent, respectively. Computed tomography scanning had a positive predictive value of 58.3 per cent in identifying disease. In patients treated definitively for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, residual cervical lymphadenopathy may not represent persistent disease. Head and neck surgeons involved in the management of these patients should bear in mind the current limitations of fine needle aspiration cytology and computed tomography in confirming the diagnosis pre-operatively. Salvage neck dissection may over-treat some of these patients.

  9. [Pre-prosthetics: role of the physiotherapist in the treatment of the residual limb and prosthetic preparation of the person].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffi, Alberto; Mulè, Chiara; Taveggia, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The rehabilitation of amputees requires a multi-discipline approach. Within the work of the team, physiotherapy plays a central role both in terms of the technical skills made available to the patient, as well as in terms of the psychological-motivational support offered to the amputee during treatment. The pre-prosthetic phase of rehabilitation is the beginning of a complex rehabilitative process during which starts with an assessment of the general clinical condition of the patient and their residual capacities, so as to develop personalised rehabilitative strategies based upon the needs of the amputee. This whole process aims to get the amputee standing with a prosthetic as quickly as possible, thus allowing the social reintegration of the amputee.

  10. Occurrence and seasonal variations of 25 pharmaceutical residues in wastewater and drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot-Wasik, A; Jakimska, A; Śliwka-Kaszyńska, M

    2016-12-01

    Thousands of tons of pharmaceuticals are introduced into the aqueous environment due to their incomplete elimination during treatment process in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and water treatment plants (WTPs). The presence of pharmacologically active compounds in the environment is of a great interest because of their potential to cause negative effects. Furthermore, drugs can undergo different processes leading to the formation of new transformation products, which may be more toxic than the parent compound. In light of these concerns, within the research a new, rapid and sensitive analytical procedure for the determination of a wide range of pharmaceuticals from different classes using solid phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) technique in different water samples was developed. This methodology was applied to investigate the occurrence, removal efficiency of 25 pharmaceuticals during wastewater and drinking water treatment, and seasonal variability in the amount of selected pharmaceuticals in WWTP and WTP over a year. The most often detected analytes in water samples were carbamazepine (100 % of samples) and ibuprofen (98 % of samples), concluding that they may be considered as pollution indicators of the aqueous environment in tested area. Highly polar compound, metformin, was determined at very high concentration level of up to 8100 ng/L in analyzed water samples. Drugs concentrations were much higher in winter season, especially for non-steroidal inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and caffeine, probably due to the inhibited degradation related to lower temperatures and limited sunlight. Carbamazepine was found to be the most resistant drug to environmental degradation and its concentrations were at similar levels during four seasons.

  11. A study of dual polymer conditioning of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Zhao, Y Q; Kearney, P

    2007-06-01

    Conditioning of an aluminum-based water treatment sludge by single and dual polymers was investigated in this study. Capillary suction time (CST), specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and settling rate were used to evaluate the sludge dewatering characteristics. Sludge dewaterability resulting from single and dual polymer conditioning were compared for the purpose of exploring the validity and effectiveness of dual polymer conditioning strategy. Unlike activated sludge derived from wastewater treatment, results from this study have demonstrated that conditioning of the alum sludge by the combined use of an cationic polymer (FO-4140) followed by an anionic polymer (LT-25) does not exhibit considerable advantage in further improvement of sludge dewaterability with comparison of single polymer conditioning. This study supports the view that for aluminum-based water treatment sludge, inter particle bridging seems to be the dominative mechanism and the charge neutralization plays a less important role in the conditioning process. In addition, an intrinsic relationship between CST and SRF was deducted and tested via the experimental data obtained from the study.

  12. Haplotype of platelet receptor P2RY12 gene is associated with residual clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jun-Lei; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Yang; Yang, Xue-Li; Fu, Yu; Liang, Guang-Kai; Lu, Yun; Liu, Jian; Shi, Lu-Wen

    To investigate a possible association between common variations of the P2RY12 and the residual clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity after adjusting for the influence of CYP2C19 tested by thromboelastography (TEG). One hundred and eighty patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) treated with clopidogrel and aspirin were included and platelet function was assessed by TEG. Five selected P2RY12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs6798347, rs6787801, rs6801273, rs6785930, and rs2046934), which cover the common variations in the P2RY12 gene and its regulatory regions, and three CYP2C19 SNPs ( * 2, * 3, * 17) were genotyped and possible haplotypes were analyzed. The high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) prevalence defined by a platelet inhibition rate <30% by TEG in adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-channel was 69 (38.33%). Six common haplotypes were inferred from four of the selected P2RY12 SNPs (denoted H 0 to H 5 ) according to the linkage disequilibrium R square (except for rs2046934). Haplotype H 1 showed a significantly lower incidence of HTPR than the reference haplotype (H 0 ) in the total study population while haplotypes H 1 and H 2 showed significantly lower incidences of HTPR than H 0 in the nonsmoker subgroup after adjusting for CYP2C19 effects and demographic characteristics. rs2046934 (T744C) did not show any significant association with HTPR. The combination of common P2RY12 variations including regulatory regions rather than rs2046934 (T744C) that related to pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel in patients with ACS was independently associated with residual on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity. This is apart from the established association of the CYP2C19. This association seemed more important in the subgroup defined by smoking.

  13. Residues and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in farmland soils irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, C.X.; Wang, Z.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Ecoenvironmental Science Research Center

    2005-08-01

    Sewage and industrial effluents from biological treatment plant have been widely used for agricultural irrigation in north part of China. In the present study, field surveys were carried out in the farmlands irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants that receive sewage wastewater and industrial discharges. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the soils irrigated using both ground water and effluents were compared. The origins of PAHs in the soils were discussed. The results showed that wastewater irrigation could cause accumulation of PAHs in soils close to the pollution discharge. Significantly higher concentrations of PAHs were observed in the sampling sites close to the entrance of main channel in contrast to those along branches and the reference sites. There was no significant relationship between the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and organic matter content in soil (TOC). Soil contamination of these persistent organic pollutants as affected by effluent irrigation was characterized by the dominant accumulation of high-molecular-weight PAHs (HMW-PAHs). In the case study, concentration of benzo(a)pyrane (BaP, 45.6 ng/g), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IcP, 86.3 ng/g), benzo(g,h,i)perlene (BgP, 66.9 ng/g) could exceed the limits of the soil quality standard for biodegraded soils. In identification of the sources, the IcP/BgP values of PAHs in soils were more close to that in air particulates from coal/coke source (1.09 {+-} 0.03 ng/g). Therefore, both of the PAHs residues in effluents and emission from a nearby coal/coke plant were responsible. Also in this case study, low levels of the OCPs were observed and were not of significant concern in this wastewater irrigation area.

  14. Effect of residual H2O2 from advanced oxidation processes on subsequent biological water treatment: A laboratory batch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; van Halem, Doris; Liu, Gang; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; van der Hoek, Jan Peter

    2017-10-01

    H 2 O 2 residuals from advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may have critical impacts on the microbial ecology and performance of subsequent biological treatment processes, but little is known. The objective of this study was to evaluate how H 2 O 2 residuals influence sand systems with an emphasis on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal, microbial activity change and bacterial community evolution. The results from laboratory batch studies showed that 0.25 mg/L H 2 O 2 lowered DOC removal by 10% while higher H 2 O 2 concentrations at 3 and 5 mg/L promoted DOC removal by 8% and 28%. A H 2 O 2 dosage of 0.25 mg/L did not impact microbial activity (as measured by ATP) while high H 2 O 2 dosages, 1, 3 and 5 mg/L, resulted in reduced microbial activity of 23%, 37% and 37% respectively. Therefore, DOC removal was promoted by the increase of H 2 O 2 dosage while microbial activity was reduced. The pyrosequencing results illustrated that bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria. The presence of H 2 O 2 showed clear influence on the diversity and composition of bacterial communities, which became more diverse under 0.25 mg/L H 2 O 2 but conversely less diverse when the dosage increased to 5 mg/L H 2 O 2 . Anaerobic bacteria were found to be most sensitive to H 2 O 2 as their growth in batch reactors was limited by both 0.25 and 5 mg/L H 2 O 2 (17-88% reduction). In conclusion, special attention should be given to effects of AOPs residuals on microbial ecology before introducing AOPs as a pre-treatment to biological (sand) processes. Additionally, the guideline on the maximum allowable H 2 O 2 concentration should be properly evaluated. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of liquid hot water, very dilute acid and alkali treatments for enhancing enzymatic digestibility of hazelnut tree pruning residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Kevser; Buyukkileci, Ali Oguz

    2018-04-05

    The effect of pretreatments on the composition of the hazelnut tree pruning residue (HTPR) and on the digestibility of the cellulose was investigated. The liquid hot water (LHW) and the very dilute acid (VDA) treatments were effective in solubilizing hemicellulose. The cellulose conversion increased up to around 60% (corresponding to 32-36 g/L glucose) with decreasing hemicellulose concentration in the pretreated HTPR. The alkali treatment provided partial delignification, however, the glucose production was comparably lower. Combining the hemicellulose removal and the delignification effect of different pretreatments in two-stage processes (LHW-alkali and VDA-alkali treatments) enhanced the cellulose concentration in the solids, but not the amount of glucose released in the enzymatic digestion. These results suggested that the hemicellulose was the main barrier against the conversion of cellulose in the LHW and VDA treated HTPR and the glucose in the hydrolysis medium inhibited the cellulase activity, which prevented the complete conversion of cellulose. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  17. Coagulant Recovery from Water Treatment Residuals: A Review of Applicable Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.; Jarvis, P.; Judd, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional water treatment consumes large quantities of coagulant and produces even greater volumes of sludge. Coagulant recovery (CR) presents an opportunity to reduce both the sludge quantities and the costs they incur, by regenerating and purifying coagulant before reuse. Recovery and purification must satisfy stringent potable regulations for harmful contaminants, while remaining competitive with commercial coagulants. These challenges have restricted uptake and lead research towards lower-gain, lower-risk alternatives. This review documents the context in which CR must be considered, before comparing the relative efficacies and bottlenecks of potential technologies, expediting identification of the major knowledge gaps and future research requirements. PMID:26064036

  18. Influence of post-harvest treatments with fludioxonil and soy lecithin co-application in controlling blue and grey mould and fludioxonil residues in Coscia pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, M; D'Aquino, S; Migheli, Q; Pirisi, F M; Angioni, A

    2009-01-01

    The residue levels of fludioxonil (FLU) were determined in Coscia pear following a 1-, 2- or 4-min dip in an aqueous mixture of FLU containing 300 or 100 mg l(-1) (active ingredient, a.i.) at 20 and 50 degrees C, respectively, with or without 2% soy lecithin. The efficacy of heat treatment with water and FLU mixtures was investigated on artificially inoculated pears for the control of post-harvest decay caused by blue (Penicillium expansum Link) and grey (Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr.) mould. Treatment with 300 mg l(-1) FLU at 20 degrees C increased residues significantly when treatment time rose from 1 to 2 min; no further increase was recorded when dip time raised from 2 to 4 min. FLU residue rates were unaffected by treatment time when 300 mg l(-1) a.i. was applied in combination with lecithin at 20 degrees C. While treatment with 100 mg l(-1) a.i. at 50 degrees C for 1 and 2 min resulted in similar residue levels, significantly higher residues were detected when dip time increased from 1 to 4 min. Co-application of lecithin significantly decreased FLU residues with respect to fruit treated with FLU alone. Treatments with FLU at 20 or 50 degrees C effectively controlled decay over 10 days of incubation. While co-application of lecithin did not affect the efficacy of FLU at 300 mg l(-1)and 20 degrees C, treatment efficacy decreased when lecithin was applied in combination with 100 mg l(-1) FLU and 50 degrees C for 4 min and to a greater extent when dip time was 1-2 min.

  19. Characterization using XRD of puzzolanic materials from residual sludge from water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón, G.; Montaño, A. M.; González, C. P.

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this work is to do mechanical and chemical characterization of puzzolanic materials using compressive strength measurements and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). These materials are composed of red clay and aluminous sludge produced by the treatment of potable water at Planta Algodonal, Ocaña, Norte de Santander, Colombia. Ceramic bricks were sintered to 1100°C and ten were characterized in their physically, mechanically and chemically properties. The results showed that the relationships with which the Colombian standards according to NTC 4017 (100KGF/cm2) for non-structural bricks are maintained for those containing 10% (105Kgf/cm2) and 20% (102.9Kgf/cm2) of sludge with respect to clay.

  20. Targeting glutamate system for novel antipsychotic approaches: relevance for residual psychotic symptoms and treatment resistant schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Sarappa, Chiara; Magara, Salvatore; Iasevoli, Felice

    2012-05-05

    Antipsychotics are the mainstay of schizophrenia treatment. However, approximately one third of schizophrenic patients do not respond or respond poorly to antipsychotics. Therefore, there is a need for new approaches that can improve schizophrenia treatment significantly. Promising strategies arise from the modulation of glutamatergic system, according to its proposed involvement in schizophrenia pathogenesis. In this review, we critically updated preclinical and clinical data on the modulation of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activity by NMDA-Rs co-agonists, glycine transporters inhibitors, AMPAkines, mGluR5 agonists, NMDA-Rs partial agonists. We focused on: 1) preclinical results in animal models mimicking the pathophysiology of psychosis, mainly believed to be responsible of negative and cognitive symptoms, and predicting antipsychotic-like activity of these compounds; and 2) clinical efficacy in open-label and double-blind trials. Albeit promising preclinical findings for virtually all compounds, clinical efficacy has not been confirmed for D-cycloserine. Contrasting evidence has been reported for glycine and D-serine, that may however have a role as add-on agents. More promising results in humans have been found for glycine transporter inhibitors. AMPAkines appear to be beneficial as pro-cognitive agents, while positive allosteric modulators of mGluR5 have not been tested in humans. Memantine has been proposed in early stages of schizophrenia, as it may counteract the effects of glutamate excitotoxicity correlated to high glutamate levels, slowing the progression of negative symptoms associated to more advanced stages of the illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Soil as a Treatment Medium - Module 3, Objectives, Script and Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module examines the basic properties of soil which have an influence on the success of land treatment of wastes. These relevant properties include soil texture, soil structure, permeability, infiltration, available water capacity, and cation exchange capacity. Biological, chemical and physical mechanisms work to remove and renovate wastes…

  2. The Role of Taxation in the Prevention and Treatment of Land Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Deborah C.

    1995-01-01

    Tax provisions for land care are often justified as corrections for externalities. It is argued in this paper that land care provisions can be justified independently of an externality correction objective, since land care provisions can be viewed as a partial correction of the failure of the depreciation provisions in the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 to recognise that items other than plant and articles devalue through use. This argument only applies to depreciation over the effective life...

  3. Residual tumour detection in post-treatment granulation tissue by using advanced diffusion models in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujima, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Daisuke; Sakashita, Tomohiro; Homma, Akihiro; Kudo, Kohsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the detectability of the residual tumour in post-treatment granulation tissue using parameters obtained with an advanced diffusion model in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated by chemoradiation therapy. We retrospectively evaluated 23 patients with HNSCC after the full course of chemoradiation therapy. The diffusion-weighted image (DWI) acquisition used single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging with 11 b-values (0-1000). We calculated 10 DWI parameters using a mono-exponential model, a bi-exponential model, a stretched exponential model (SEM), a diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) model and a statistical diffusion model (SDM) in the region of interest (ROI) placed on the post-treatment granulation tissue. The presence of residual tumour was determined by histological findings or clinical follow-up. Among the 23 patients, seven patients were revealed to have residual tumour. The univariate analysis revealed significant differences in six parameters between the patients with and without residual tumour. From the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the highest area under curve was detected in the center of the Gaussian distribution of diffusion coefficient (D s ) obtained by the SDM. The multivariate analysis revealed that the D s and diffusion heterogeneity (α) obtained by the SEM were predictors for the presence of residual tumour. DWI parameters obtained by advanced fitting models will be one of the diagnostic tools for the detection of residual tumour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by spreading the sewage sludge on the soil surface, incorporating or injecting the sewage sludge into soil, or spraying the sewage sludge. Because sewage sludge disposal practices (e.g., landfilling) are becoming less available and more costly, and because of the increasing desire to beneficially reuse waste residuals whenever possible, land application is increasingly chosen as a sewage sludge use or disposal practice. Approximately 33 percent of the 5.4 million dry metric tons of sewage sludge generated annually in the United States at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) is land applied. Of the sewage sludge that is land applied, approximately 67% is land applied on agricultural lands, 3% on forest lands, approximately 9% on reclamation sites, and 9% on public contact sites; 12% is sold or given away in a bag or other container for application to the land (Federal Register, Vol. 58, No. 32, February 19, 1993). In addition, approximately 8.6 billion gallons of domestic septage is generated annually. Land application of sewage sludge has been practiced in many countries for centuries so that the nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus) and organic matter in sewage sludge can be beneficia

  5. Residual manifestations of hypercortisolemia following surgical treatment in a patient with Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Sara K; Karaviti, Lefkothea P; Brandt, Mary L; Lopez, Monica E; Masand, Prakash; Devaraj, Sridevi; Hicks, John; Anderson, Lauren; Lodish, Maya; Keil, Meg; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-01-01

    Cushing Syndrome is difficult to diagnose, and the comorbidities and persistent late effects of hypercortisolemia after treatment of the primary disease are challenging for the patient and the endocrinologist. To report the case of a girl with obesity and hypertension, ultimately diagnosed with Cushing syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. In this case, the complications of hypercortisolism persisted short term despite surgical intervention. A 4 year old morbidly obese African-American girl with developmental delay presented with hypertensive emergency in the ER and 18-month history of progressive weight gain. Her previous history included premature adrenarche, hypertension, seizures and a random high cortisol with suppressed ACTH. She was subsequently stabilized, and a diagnostic work-up persistently demonstrated elevated cortisol and suppressed ACTH. An abdominal MRI showed bilateral adrenal multinodular disease, consistent with multinodular hyperplasia of the adrenal glands. Based on these findings the patient underwent a bilateral adrenalectomy, which confirmed primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. The patient had a complicated, protracted post-operative course requiring adjustment of therapy for persistent hypertension. Two months after surgery, she was readmitted to the Emergency Department with hyperpyrexia and hypertension and succumbed to the complications of sepsis. This case highlights the significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in treating children with Cushing syndrome. Resolution of the source of hypercortisolemia does not imply regression of hypertension or recovery of the immune system. Although the child underwent bilateral adrenalectomy, persistent consequences of prolonged severe hypercortisolism contributed to her death two months later.

  6. Effect of conditioning by PAM polymers with different charges on the structural and characteristic evolutions of water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W L; Wang, Y L; Chen, Y J

    2013-11-01

    Three types of polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculants with different charges (cationic PAM WD4960, nonionic PAM M351, and anionic PAM WDA110) were used for water treatment residuals (WTRs) conditioning, and the physicochemical, morphological and structural characteristics of raw and conditioned WTRs were investigated. Rheological methods were employed to analyze the internal structural transition between the raw and conditioned WTRs under a typical dosage of WD4960. Results showed that when the raw WTRs were conditioned with the polymers, the optimum dosage of WD4960 was 4.82 g/kg total suspended solid (TSS) while that of both M351 and WDA110 was 7.24 g/kg TSS. The residual PAM content in the supernatant of the WTR matrix conditioned at the optimum WD4960 dosage was 5.59 mg/L, which is the least among the supernatants obtained with the three types of PAM. Furthermore, the visible fulvic acid (FA) in the supernatant disappeared and the intensity of the ultraviolet FA decreased. The average diameter of irregularly shaped aggregates in the WTR suspensions increased from 35.73 μm to several hundred micrometers with increasing PAM dosage. The size of WTR aggregates conditioned at the optimum WD4960 dosage was much larger than that of aggregates obtained at the optimum M351 or WDA110 dosages. Two-dimensional fractal dimension (D2) values presented an increasing trend with increasing PAM dosage. D2 values of the conditioned WTR aggregates were 1.87, 1.76, and 1.83 at optimum WD4960, M351, and WDA110 dosages, respectively. The cationic PAM (CPAM) WD4960 thus appears to be a more ideal conditioner for WTRs. Consistent relationships were observed among the capillary suction time (CST), average particle size, and D2 values of the conditioned WTR aggregates at the optimum WD4960 dosage. Mass fractal dimensions (D(f)) indicated that both the raw and WD4960-conditioned WTRs behave like weak-link flocs/aggregates. D(f) values (log G'-log TSS) of the WTR aggregates before and after

  7. Effects of aluminium water treatment residuals, used as a soil amendment to control phosphorus mobility in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulén, Barbro; Etana, Ararso; Lindström, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from agricultural soils is a serious environmental concern. Application of aluminium water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs) at a rate of 20 Mg ha(-1) to clay soils from central Sweden significantly increased mean topsoil P sorption index (PSI) from 4.6 to 5.5 μmol kg(-1) soil. Mean degree of P saturation in ammonium lactate extract (DPS-AL) significantly decreased from 17 to 13%, as did plant-available P (P-AL). Concentrations of dissolved reactive P (DRP) decreased by 10-85% in leaching water with Al-WTR treatments after exposure of topsoil lysimeters to simulated rain. Soil aggregate stability (AgS) for 15 test soils rarely improved. Three soils (clay loam, silty loam and loam sand) were tested in greenhouse pot experiments. Aluminium-WTR application of 15 or 30 ton ha(-1) to loam sand and a clay loam with P-AL values of 80-100 mg kg(-1) soil significantly increased growth of Italian ryegrass when fertilised with P but did not significantly affect growth of spring barley on any soil. Al-WTR should only be applied to soils with high P fertility where improved crop production is not required.

  8. In vitro and cellular activities of the selected fruits residues for skin aging treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATTAYA LOURITH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Peel extracts of litchi and rambutan, and that of tamarind seed coat were investigated in relation to their utility in skin-aging treatments. Standardized extracts of tamarind were significantly (p < 0.05 more efficient at O2 •- scavenging (IC50 = 27.44 ± 0.09 than those of litchi and rambutan (IC50 = 29.57 ± 0.30 and 39.49 ± 0.52 μg/ml, respectively and the quercetin standard (IC50 = 31.88 ± 0.15 μg/ml. Litchi extract proved significantly (p < 0.05 more effective for elastase and collagenase inhibition (88.29 ± 0.25% and 79.46 ± 0.92%, respectively than tamarind (35.43 ± 0.68% and 57.69 ± 5.97% or rambutan (31.08 ± 0.38% and 53.99 ± 6.18%. All extracts were safe to human skin fibroblasts and inhibit MMP-2, with litchi extract showing significantly (p < 0.01 enhanced inhibition over the standard, vitamin C (23.75 ± 2.74% and 10.42 ± 5.91% at 0.05 mg/ml, respectively. Extracts suppress melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells through inhibition of tyrosinase and TRP-2, with litchi extract being the most potent, even more so than kojic acid (standard. These results highlight the potential for adding value to agro-industrial waste, as the basis for the sustainable production of innovative, safe, anti-aging cosmetic products.

  9. Results of the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumours using enucleation and treatment of the residual bony defect with Carnoy's solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y Y; Lau, S L; Tsoi, K Y Y; Ma, H L; Ng, C L

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the recurrence rate of keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs) treated by enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution, and to assess the surgical morbidities associated with this treatment. KCOTs treated using a standard protocol of enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution between 1990 and 2013 were evaluated. One hundred and five KCOTS in 105 patients (54 male, 51 female) were analysed. The mean follow-up period was 86.6 months (range 24-313 months). The recurrence rate was 11.4%. A postoperative inferior alveolar nerve neurosensory deficit occurred in 30.1% of the mandibular cases, with 16% of these being permanent. The postoperative infection and fracture rates were 1.9% and 0.9%, respectively. Younger age, multilocular KCOTs, larger tumour size, and longer antero-posterior lesion length on the radiograph were found to be risk factors for recurrence. It is concluded that enucleation and the application of Carnoy's solution to treat KCOTs results in a relatively low recurrence rate and a low rate of surgical morbidities. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This quality assurance project plan describes the technical requirements and quality assurance activities of the environmental data collection/analyses operations to close Central Facilities Area Sewage treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and the land application area. It describes the organization and persons involved, the data quality objectives, the analytical procedures, and the specific quality control measures to be employed. All quality assurance project plan activities are implemented to determine whether the results of the sampling and monitoring performed are of the right type, quantity, and quality to satisfy the requirements for closing Lagoon 3 and the land application area.

  11. Association Between Pesticide Residue Intake From Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment With Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Han; Williams, Paige L; Gillman, Matthew W; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Souter, Irene; Toth, Thomas L; Ford, Jennifer B; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2018-01-01

    Animal experiments suggest that ingestion of pesticide mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations decreases the number of live-born offspring. Whether the same is true in humans is unknown. To examine the association of preconception intake of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables (FVs) with outcomes of infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This analysis included 325 women who completed a diet assessment and subsequently underwent 541 ART cycles in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) prospective cohort study (2007-2016) at a fertility center at a teaching hospital. We categorized FVs as having high or low pesticide residues using a validated method based on surveillance data from the US Department of Agriculture. Cluster-weighted generalized estimating equations were used to analyze associations of high- and low-pesticide residue FV intake with ART outcomes. Adjusted probabilities of clinical pregnancy and live birth per treatment cycle. In the 325 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.1 [4.0] y; body mass index, 24.1 [4.3]), mean (SD) intakes of high- and low-pesticide residue FVs were 1.7 (1.0) and 2.8 (1.6) servings/d, respectively. Greater intake of high-pesticide residue FVs was associated with a lower probability of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of high-pesticide FV intake (women in the highest quartile (≥2.3 servings/d) had 18% (95% CI, 5%-30%) lower probability of clinical pregnancy and 26% (95% CI, 13%-37%) lower probability of live birth. Intake of low-pesticide residue FVs was not significantly related to ART outcomes. Higher consumption of high-pesticide residue FVs was associated with lower probabilities of pregnancy and live birth following infertility treatment with ART. These data suggest that dietary pesticide exposure within the range of typical human exposure may be associated with adverse reproductive consequences.

  12. Method of environmental management for the treatment and the right disposal of hazardous waste. case: contaminated land fuller with dielectric oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo, Edison Alexander; Cardona Gallo, Santiago Alonso; Rojano, Benjamin; Ruiz, Orlando Simon

    2012-01-01

    The environmental management of a dangerous waste understands different stages: generation, minimization, transport, appraisement, treatment and elimination. In this work two technologies are explored for the treatment and the elimination of a dangerous residual (RESPEL, Earth Fuller polluted with dielectric oil): a physical-chemistry and another biological one. For the physic-chemical Technology, was used as solvent and hexane reached a removal of the dielectric oil of around 87% on contaminated earth Fuller, with an ratio Fuller earth: solvent 1:8 w/v, a speed agitation of 100 rpm and a contact time of 30 min. Quality dielectric oil recovered is not suitable for use in electrical equipment, due to its low dielectric strength, low density and poor color. The land reclaimed Fuller had a bulk density of 0.641 g/ml, a density of 2,231 g/ml and a porosity of 72,075%, which indicates that this land is very close in their physical characteristics to Fuller earth clean. Biotechnology for the contaminated soil was treated in a biological reactor or Bioslurry evaluating the stirring speed and time of degradation necessary to achieve adequate levels of decontaminate to provide the waste in a landfill without conventional risk to human health ecosystems and humans, removals were achieved in this system the order of 49.68%, but did not reach the cleanup levels required by the Resolution 1170 of 1997 of DAMA, the result is important as it was believed that high concentrations of hydrocarbons of this type (more than 10 %) are inhibitory to biological activity. Chromatographic monitoring was made 10 hydrocarbon species present in the dielectric oil that are keys in this product.

  13. Recycling of drinking water treatment residue as an additional medium in columns for effective P removal from eutrophic surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Wu, Yu; Bai, Leilei; Zhao, Yaqian; Yan, Zaisheng; Jiang, Helong; Liu, Xin

    2018-04-03

    This study assesses the feasibility of recycling drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) to treat eutrophic surface water in a one-year continuous flow column test. Heat-treated DWTR was used as an additional medium (2%-4%) in columns in case excessive organic matter and N were released from the DWTR to surface water. The results indicated that with minimal undesirable effects on other water properties, DWTR addition substantially enhanced P removal, rendering P concentrations in treated water oligotrophic and treated water unsuitable for Microcystis aeruginosa breeding. Long-term stable P removal by DWTR-column treatment was mainly attributed to the relatively low P levels in raw water (<0.108 mg L -1 ) and high P adsorption capability of DWTR, as confirmed by increases in amorphous Al/Fe in DWTR after the tests and low adsorption of P in the mobile forms. The major components of DWTR showed minimal changes, and potential metal pollution from DWTR was not a factor to consider during recycling. DWTR also enriched functional bacterial genera that benefitted biogeochemical cycles and multiple pollution control (e.g., Dechloromonas, Geobacter, Leucobacter, Nitrospira, Rhodoplanes, and Sulfuritalea); an apparent decrease in Mycobacterium with potential pathogenicity was observed in DWTR-columns. Regardless, limited denitrification of DWTR-columns was observed as a result of low bioavailability of C in surface water. This finding indicates that DWTR can be used with other methods to ensure denitrification for enhanced treatment effects. Overall, the use of DWTR as an additional medium in column systems can potentially treat eutrophic surface water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Achieving land use potential through reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers are presented under the headings: policy, rules and regulations; surface mine spoil and soil; wetlands technical division; forestry and wildlife technical division; abatement and treatment of acidic conditions; wetlands technical division; ecological evaluations of reclamation success; international tailing reclamation technical division; disposal and utilization of coal combustion residues; landscape architecture technical division; impacts and biological treatment of acidic drainage; reclamation with trees and woods shrubs; reclamation and restoration practices; and ultimate land use

  15. Fate of Ah receptor agonists during biological treatment of an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Lillemor K; Klee, Nina; Olsman, Helena; Hollert, Henner; Engwall, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    Sweden is meeting prohibition for deposition of organic waste from 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a higher degree. Two biological treatment alternatives are anaerobic digestion and composting. Different oxygen concentrations result in different microbial degradation pathways and, consequently, in a different quality of the digestion or composting residue, It is therefore necessary to study sludge treatment during different oxygen regimes in order to follow both degradation of compounds and change in toxicity. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was treated with anaerobic digestion or composting, and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of both pharmaceutical and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. However, little data are available concerning sludge with nitroaromatics and any associated dioxin-like activity. Therefore, we studied the sludge before and after the treatments in order to detect any changes in levels of Ah receptor (AhR) agonists using two bioassays for dioxin-like compounds. An industrial sludge was treated with anaerobic digestion or composting in small reactors in a semi-continuous manner. The same volume as the feeding volume was taken out daily and stored at -20 degrees C. Sample preparation for the bioassays was done by extraction using organic solvents, followed by clean up with silica gel or sulphuric acid, yielding two fractions. The fractions were dissolved in DMSO and tested in the bioassays. The dioxin-like activity was measured using the DR-CALUX assay with transfected H4IIE rat hepatoma pGudluc cells and an EROD induction assay with RTL-W1 rainbow trout liver cells. The bioassays showed that the sludge contained AhR agonists at levels of TCDD

  16. Study of field assessment methods and worker risks for processing alternatives to support principles for FUSRAP waste materials. Part 1: Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Its purpose was to provide information to the Environmental Management Advisory Board`s FUSRAP Committee for use in its deliberation of guiding principles for FUSRAP sites, in particular the degree to which treatment should be considered in the FUSRAP Committee`s recommendations. Treatment of FUSRAP wastes to remove thorium could be beneficial to management of lands that contain thorium if such treatment were effective and cost efficient. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation. Both types of information should be useful for decisions on whether and how to apply thorium removal methods to FUSRAP waste materials.

  17. Study of field assessment methods and worker risks for processing alternatives to support principles for FURSRAP waste materials. Part 1: Treatment methods and comparative risks of thorium removal from waste residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.D.; Hamby, D.M.; Martin, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    This study was done to examine the risks of remediation and the effectiveness of removal methods for thorium and its associated radioactive decay products from various soils and wastes associated with DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Its purpose was to provide information to the Environmental Management Advisory Board's FUSRAP Committee for use in its deliberation of guiding principles for FUSRAP sites, in particular the degree to which treatment should be considered in the FUSRAP Committee's recommendations. Treatment of FUSRAP wastes to remove thorium could be beneficial to management of lands that contain thorium if such treatment were effective and cost efficient. It must be recognized, however, that treatment methods invariably require workers to process residues and waste materials usually with bulk handling techniques. These processes expose workers to the radioactivity in the materials, therefore, workers would incur radiological risks in addition to industrial accident risks. An important question is whether the potential reduction of future radiological risks to members of the public justifies the risks that are incurred by remediation workers due to handling materials. This study examines, first, the effectiveness of treatment and then the risks that would be associated with remediation. Both types of information should be useful for decisions on whether and how to apply thorium removal methods to FUSRAP waste materials

  18. The financial feasibility of delivering forest treatment residues to bioenergy facilities over a range of diesel fuel and delivered biomass prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; Susan Hummel; Woodam. Chung

    2013-01-01

    Forest treatments have the potential to produce significant quantities of forest residue biomass, which includes the tops and limbs from merchantable trees and smaller trees removed to meet management objectives. We spatially analyzed the sensitivity of financially feasible biomass volumes for delivery to a bioenergy facility across 16 combinations of delivered biomass...

  19. Patient preferences for clean intermittent catheterisation and transurethral indwelling catheterisation for treatment of abnormal post-void residual bladder volume after vaginal prolapse surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, R. A.; Nieuwkerk, P. T.; Burger, M. P.; Emanuel, M. H.; Roovers, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    To determine patient preferences for clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC) relative to transurethral indwelling catheterisation (TIC) as the treatment of abnormal post-void residual bladder volume (PVR) following vaginal prolapse surgery. Scenario-based preference assessment during face-to-face

  20. Veterinary treatment of cows with isoxsuprine for a caesarian section may temporarily lead to residues in hair of both cow and calf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Hende, van J.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Isoxsuprine is a beta-agonist that can be used for growth promotion in cattle, but it is also used as registered veterinary medicine. To investigate if veterinary treatment of cows could lead to residues of isoxsuprine in the hair of their newborn calves, an animal experiment was performed. Four

  1. 26 CFR 1.860E-1 - Treatment of taxable income of a residual interest holder in excess of daily accruals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of taxable income of a residual interest holder in excess of daily accruals. 1.860E-1 Section 1.860E-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment...

  2. Efficacy of heat treatments with water and fludioxonil for postharvest control of blue and gray molds on inoculated pears and fludioxonil residues in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Mulas, Maurizio; Melis, Rita Anna Maria; Giobbe, Sara; Migheli, Quirico; Garau, Anna; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo

    2008-05-01

    The residue levels of fludioxonil (FLU) were determined in pear cultivars Precoce di Fiorano, Coscia, and Spadona estiva after a 2-min dip in an aqueous mixture of FLU containing 300 or 100 mg/liter of active ingredient at 20 or 50 degrees C and after 12 days at 17 degrees C and 80% relative humidity (simulated shelf life conditions). The accumulation trend of FLU residues was determined in 'Precoce di Fiorano' pears after treatments with 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/liter of active ingredient at 20 or 50 degrees C for 2 min or at 60 degrees C for 1 min. The efficacy of heat treatments with water and FLU was investigated on artificially inoculated 'Precoce di Fiorano', 'Coscia', and 'Spadona estiva' pears for the control of postharvest blue mold and gray mold caused by Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Treatment with 300 mg/liter FLU at 20 degrees C resulted in residue levels similar to those from treatment with 100 mg/liter FLU at 50 degrees C in 'Coscia' fruit but in significantly lower residues in 'Precoce di Fiorano' and 'Spadona estiva' pears. Post-shelf life residues decreased in all cultivars, especially in 'Spadona estiva' pears treated with 300 mg/liter FLU at 20 degrees C. Residue levels of FLU in 'Precoce di Fiorano' pears treated at 20, 50, or 60 degrees C were correlated with fungicide dosage. When an equal rate was used, treatment at 50 degrees C resulted in a higher and a notably higher FLU deposition than that found under treatment at 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively. The in vitro tests showed that both pathogens were very sensitive to FLU, with MICs averaging 0.05 and 0.1 mg/liter for B. cinerea and P. expansum isolates, respectively. The 50% effective concentration ranged between 0.01 and 0.05 mg/liter for B. cinerea and between 0.05 and 0.1 mg/liter for P. expansum. In the in vivo trials, hot water treatment effectively reduced the incidence of both diseases during the first 4 to 8 days, depending on cultivar, dip temperature

  3. Lanthanum-modified drinking water treatment residue for initial rapid and long-term equilibrium phosphorus immobilization to control eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Wu, Yu; Wang, Youquan; Bai, Leilei; Jiang, Helong; Yu, Juhua

    2018-06-15

    This study presents an approach for developing inactivating materials to achieve an initial rapid and a long-term equilibrium P immobilization to control eutrophication based on drinking water treatment residue (DWTR), which is a byproduct of potable water production. By taking advantage of the long-term equilibrium P adsorption by DWTR, the La chemical properties, and the previous success of using La-modified bentonite clay (Phoslock ® ), we used DWTR as a La carrier with different ratios to develop the specific materials. The La loading mechanisms, the potentially toxic effect of La-modified DWTR on snail Bellamya aeruginosa (within 120 d), and the short- and long-term (within 80 d) P immobilization characteristics of the modified DWTR were investigated to understand the performance of the developed materials. The results showed that La loading into DWTR was based on ligand exchanges and the formation of new particles; DWTR loaded with <5% La had no toxicity against the snail. Most importantly, the loading of 5% La to DWTR substantially enhanced the rapid immobilization capacity of DWTR, achieving an initial rapid and a long-term equilibrium P adsorption in aqueous solutions. This study promotes the beneficial recycling of DWTR and results in a win-win situation for lake restoration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationships between ambient geochemistry, watershed land-use and trace metal concentrations in aquatic invertebrates living in stormwater treatment ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouna-Renier, N.K.; Sparling, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Stormwater treatment ponds receive elevated levels of metals from urban runoff, but the effects of these pollutants on organisms residing in the ponds are unknown. We investigated the accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb by macroinvertebrates collected from stormwater treatment ponds in Maryland serving commercial, highway, residential and open-space watersheds, and determined whether watershed land-use classification influences metal concentrations in macroinvertebrates, sediments, and water. Three types of invertebrate samples were analyzed for molluscs, odonates, and composite. Zn concentrations in odonates from ponds draining watersheds with commercial development (mean=113.82 ug/g) were significantly higher than concentrations in the other land-use categories. Similarly, Cu levels in odonates from commercial ponds (mean=27.12 ug/g) were significantly higher than from highway (mean=20.23 ug/g) and open space (mean=17.79 ug/g) ponds. However, metal concentrations in sediments and water did not differ significantly among land-uses. The results suggest that despite the high variation in ambient metal concentrations within each land-use category, macroinvertebrates in ponds serving commercial watersheds accumulate higher levels of Cu and Zn. The levels of Cu, Zn, and Pb in invertebrates from all ponds were less than dietary concentrations considered toxic to fish.

  5. Quantification of heavy metals from residual waste and ashes from the treatment plant of residual water Reciclagua and,effects for the health of those workers which manipulate those residuals; Cuantificacion de metales pesados de lodo residual y cenizas de la planta tratadora de aguas residuales Reciclagua y efectos a la salud de los trabajadores que manipulan los residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero D, J.J

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the technique of leaching using thermostatted column in series is applied, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the toxic metals that are present in the residual muds of the water treatment plant located in the municipality of Lerma Estado de Mexico, named RECICLAGUA, likewise the technique is used of emission spectrometry for plasma and X-ray fluorescence for the qualitative analysis. Its were take samples of residual mud and of incinerated mud of the treatment plant of residual waters of the industrial corridor Toluca -Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma Estado de Mexico. For this study there were mixed 100 g of residual mud with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one pH at 2, 5, 7 and 10, it was added bisulfite, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate sodium and 3.939 of DTPA (triple V) (Diethylene triamine pentaacetate). To this mud and ashes were extracted the toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using thermostatted columns placed in series that were designed by the Dr. Jaime Vite Torres; it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the equipment with those that work it was patented by the same one. With the extraction of these metals benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much the use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors where the metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using emission spectrometry by plasma in solids by this way to be able to know the content of the present metals in the sample before and later of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the X-ray diffraction analysis that provides an elementary content of the samples, identifying elements that are present in

  6. A productivity and cost comparison of two systems for producing biomass fuel from roadside forest treatment residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel Anderson; Woodam Chung; Dan Loeffler; John Greg Jones

    2012-01-01

    Forest operations generate large quantities of forest biomass residues that can be used for production of bioenergy and bioproducts. However, a significant portion of recoverable residues are inaccessible to large chip vans, making use financially infeasible. New production systems must be developed to increase productivity and reduce costs to facilitate use of these...

  7. Dilute alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatment of microwave liquefied rape straw residue for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Feng Li; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yongze Jiang; Yuzhu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw in methanol was conducted to collect the liquefied residues for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs).The liquefied residue with content of 23.44% from 180∘C/7.5 min was used to fibrillate CNCs with dilute alkali (2% NaOH) and hydrogen peroxide (5% H2O2...

  8. Short communication: use of the BetaStar Plus assay for detection of ceftiofur antimicrobial residues in milk from individual cows following intramammary treatment for mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, D L; Norby, B; Grooms, K E; Jagodzinski, E N; Erskine, R J; Halbert, L W; Coetzee, J F; Wulf, L; Rice, J A

    2015-09-01

    Development and use of on-farm assays to detect antimicrobial residues in milk is important to reduce the risk of violative residues in marketed milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a lateral-flow immunodiagnostic assay (BetaStar Plus, Neogen Corp., Lansing, MI) in detecting ceftiofur residues in milk from individual cows treated for mastitis. This assay is currently approved by the US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for detecting β-lactam residues in commingled milk. Forty-five dairy cows with clinical mastitis from 4 dairy farms were enrolled and treated intramammary with 125 mg of ceftiofur hydrochloride (Spectramast LC, Zoetis, Madison, NJ) according to the manufacturer's label recommendation. Composite milk samples were collected (A) before first intramammary antimicrobial treatment, (B) before the last intramammary antimicrobial treatment, (C) the last milking of the product-labeled milk withhold, (D) the first milking after the product-labeled milk withhold had been met, and (E) 72 h after the product-labeled milk withhold had been met. Samples were tested using the BetaStar Plus assay within 48 h of collection. Parallel samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and for somatic cell count and milk components. The BetaStar Plus assay identified 6.7, 60.0, 46.7, 22.2, and 6.7% positive samples at each of the respective time points. The assay had sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 84.7%, respectively, compared with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis using FDA published residue tolerance levels for ceftiofur (or ceftiofur metabolites) as a threshold. The BetaStar Plus assay could be useful for detecting ceftiofur residues in milk from individual cows following intramammary treatment for mastitis before the milk is shipped for processing. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: Laboratory investigation of design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2002-01-01

    The key design parameters of a new process for treatment of air-pollution-control (APC) residues (the Ferroxprocess) were investigated in the laboratory. The optimisation involved two different APC-residues from actual incinerator plants. The design parameters considered were: amount of iron oxide...... that an optimum process configuration could be obtained yielding a stabilised solid product with low leaching of heavy metals and a dischargable wastewater with high contents of salts (in order to remove salts from the solid product) and low concentrations of heavy metals. The amount of iron added to the APC...

  10. The Study on Ecological Treatment of Saline Lands to Mitigate the Effects of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiancang; Zhu, Jiwei; Wang, Tao

    2010-05-01

    The soil water and salt movement is influenced strongly by the frequent droughts, floods and climate change. Additionally, as continued population growth, large-scale reclaiming of arable land and long-term unreasonable irrigation, saline land is increasing at the rate of 1,000,000~15,000,000 mu each year all over the world. In the tradition management, " drainage as the main " measure has series of problem, which appears greater project, more occupation of land, harmful for water saving and downstream pollution. To response the global climate change, it has become the common understanding, which promote energy-saving and environment protection, reflect the current model, explore the ecological management model. In this paper, we take severe saline land—Lubotan in Shaanxi Province as an example. Through nearly 10 years harnessing practice and observing to meteorology, hydrology, soil indicators of climate, we analyze the influence of climate change to soil salinity movement at different seasons and years, then put forward and apply a new model of saline land harnessing to mitigate the Effects of Climate Change and self-rehabilitate entironment. This model will be changed "drainage" to "storage", through the establishment engineering of " storage as the main ", taken comprehensive measures of " project - biology - agriculture ", we are changing saline land into arable land. Adapted to natural changes of climate, rainfall, irrigation backwater, groundwater level, reduced human intervention to achieve system dynamic equilibrium. During the ten years, the salt of plough horizon has reduced from 0.74% to 0.20%, organic matter has increased from 0.7% to 0.92%, various indicators of soil is begining to go better. At the same time, reduced the water for irrigation, drainage pollution and investment costs. Through the model, reformed severe saline land 18,900 mu, increased new cultivated land 16,500 mu, comprehensive efficient significant, ensured the coordinated

  11. Soil erosion measurements under organic and conventional land use treatments and different tillage systems using micro-scale runoff plots and a portable rainfall simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Song, Zhengshan; Wittwer, Raphaël; van der Heijden, Marcel; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major environmental problem of our time and negatively affects soil organic matter (SOM), aggregate stability or nutrient availability for instance. It is well known that agricultural practices have a severe influence on soil erosion by water. Several long-term field trials show that the use of low input strategies (e.g. organic farming) instead of conventional high-input farming systems leads to considerable changes of soil characteristics. Organic farming relies on crop rotation, absence of agrochemicals, green manure and weed control without herbicides. As a consequence, SOM content in the top soil layer is usually higher than on arable land under conventional use. Furthermore, the soil surface is better protected against particle detachment and overland flow due to a continuous vegetation cover and a well-developed root system increases soil stability. Likewise, tillage itself can cause soil erosion on arable land. In this respect, conservation and reduced tillage systems like No-Till or Ridge-Till provide a protecting cover from the previous year's residue and reduce soil disturbance. Many studies have been carried out on the effect of farming practices on soil erosion, but with contrasting results. To our knowledge, most of those studies rely on soil erosion models to calculate soil erosion rates and replicated experimental field measurement designs are rarely used. In this study, we performed direct field assessment on a farming system trial in Rümlang, Switzerland (FAST: Farming System and Tillage experiment Agroscope) to investigate the effect of organic farming practises and tillage systems on soil erosion. A portable single nozzle rainfall simulator and a light weight tent have been used with micro-scale runoff plots (0.4 m x 0.4 m). Four treatments (Conventional/Tillage, Conventional/No-Tillage, Organic/Tillage, Organic/Reduced-tillage) have been sampled with 8 replications each for a total of 32 runoff plots. All plots have been

  12. Effect of Different Intrauterine Oxytetracycline Treatment on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows with Clinical Endometritis and Determination of Oxytetracycline Residues in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam MAKKI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study was to determine whether intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline (OTC is an appropriate method for the treatment of postpartum endometritis in dairy cows or not. To this end, 280 lactating Holstein cows with clinical signs of endometritis were randomly assigned into three treatment groups and 186 cows were sampled for cytology experiment. In group 1 (n=73 cows were treated with intrauterine infusion of 5 g/cow 10% OTC. In group 2 (n=44, before intrauterine OTC treatment, caudal epidural anesthesia was used to eliminate straining. In group 3 (n=49 after intrauterine infusion of 5g/cow 10% OTC, 100 ml of normal saline was injected to reduce the concentration of OTC and 20 untreated cows were assigned into control group (group 4. Clinical treatment rates were 79.4%, 68.1%, 65.3 %and 50% in OTC, OTC and caudal epidural anesthesia (OTC+CEA, OTC+Serum and control groups, respectively (P>0.05. Cytological treatment rate in each experiment group was significantly higher than the cytological treatment rate in control group in the second examination (P<0.05. To find out OTC residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method, milk samples of 6 treated cows from each group were collected randomly 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after treatment. Maximum amounts of OTC residues were found 72 hours after treatment in all treatment groups. To evaluate the reproductive performance, the researchers compared 280 cows of treatment groups were compared with 1088 cows that were clinically healthy without any signs of clinical endometritis. The reproductive performance of the two groups were not significantly different, except days to first service which was lower in cows without clinical endometritis (P<0.05. According to the cytology study and the presence of antibiotic residues in milk samples at different times, the use of intrauterine OTC for treatment of clinical endometritis seems skeptical.

  13. Graf Type-IV Hips Have a Higher Risk of Residual Acetabular Dysplasia at 1 Year of Age Following Successful Pavlik Harness Treatment for Developmental Hip Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Eduardo N; Sanders, Julia; Kestel, Lauryn A; Carry, Patrick M; Meyers, Mariana L

    2016-09-22

    We asked whether patient-specific factors and ultrasound (US) measurements of hip dysplasia severity at initial examination influence short-term residual acetabular dysplasia in patients successfully treated with Pavlik harness for developmental hip dysplasia. After IRB approval, 134 hips (84 patients) successfully treated by the Pavlik method between August 2011 and October 2014 with follow-up at 12 months of age were identified. Early successful treatment was defined as normal examination and US after approximately 12 weeks of Pavlik treatment. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with acetabular index (AI) measurements at 12 months as well as factors associated with an increase in AI between the 6- and 12-month timepoints (dysplastic progression). The study consisted of 134 hips (84 patients). The distribution of dysplastic, Barlow, and Ortolani hips was 44.8% (N=60), 30.6% (N=41), and 24.6% (N=33), respectively. The crude incidence of residual dysplasia at the 6-month visit (AI>30 degrees) was 11.7% (12/102). The incidence of residual dysplasia at the 12-month visit (AI>28 degrees) was 11.8% (13/111). Graf type was the only variable associated with AI values at the 12-month visit (mean difference: Graf type-IV-Other, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-4.9; P=0.026). The risk of residual acetabular dysplasia after normal hip US following Pavlik treatment is not negligible. Radiographic surveillance is warranted to monitor and screen for dysplasia progression. Patients with dislocated Graf type-IV hips at diagnosis are at increased risk of residual acetabular dysplasia at 1 year after successful treatment with the Pavlik method. Level III-therapeutic study.

  14. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Sisani, Luciano [TSA spa, Via Case Sparse 107, Magione (Italy); Damiano, Roberto [GESENU spa, Via della Molinella 7, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  15. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela; Sisani, Luciano; Damiano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes

  16. Four weeks of treatment with liraglutide reduces insulin dose without loss of glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients with and without residual beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielgast, Urd; Krarup, Thure; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of 4 weeks of treatment with liraglutide on insulin dose and glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients with and without residual ß-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Ten type 1 diabetic patients with residual ß-cell function (C-peptide positive) and 19.......1]; P Treatment with liraglutide in type 1 diabetic patients reduces insulin dose with improved or unaltered glycemic control....... activity was performed before (week 0) and during (week 4) treatment. Differences in insulin dose; HbA(1c); time spent with blood glucose 10, and 3.9-9.9 mmol/L; and body weight were evaluated. RESULTS Insulin dose decreased from 0.50 ± 0.06 to 0.31 ± 0.08 units/kg per day (P

  17. Thermal treatment of stabilized air pollution control residues in a waste incinerator pilot plant. Part 1: Fate of elements and dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeldt, Brita; Jay, Klaus; Seifert, Helmuth; Vehlow, Jürgen; Christensen, Thomas H; Baun, Dorthe L; Mogensen, Erhardt P B

    2004-02-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerator plants that are treated by means of the Ferrox process can be more safely disposed of due to reduction of soluble salts and stabilization of heavy metals in an iron oxide matrix. Further stabilization can be obtained by thermal treatment inside a combustion chamber of a municipal solid waste incinerator. The influence of the Ferrox products on the combustion process, the quality of the residues, and the partitioning of heavy metals between the various solids and the gas have been investigated in the Karlsruhe TAM-ARA pilot plant for waste incineration. During the experiments only few parameters were influenced. An increase in the SO2 concentration in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed compared with reference tests. Higher contents of Fe and volatile heavy metals such as Zn, Cd, Pb and partly Hg in the Ferrox products lead to increased concentration of these elements in the solid residues of the co-feeding tests. Neither the burnout nor the PCDD/F formation was altered by the addition of the Ferrox products. Co-feeding of treated APC residues seems to be a feasible approach for obtaining a single solid residue from waste incineration.

  18. Insecticide treated curtains and residual insecticide treatment to control Aedes aegypti: An acceptability study in Santiago de Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Dennis; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Toledo, María Eugenia; Ceballos, Enrique; Fabré, Francisco; Lefèvre, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Within the context of a field trial conducted by the Cuban vector control program (AaCP), we assessed acceptability of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) and residual insecticide treatment (RIT) with deltamethrin by the community. We also assessed the potential influence of interviewees' risk perceptions for getting dengue and disease severity. We embedded a qualitative study using in-depth interviews in a cluster randomized trial (CRT) testing the effectiveness of ITCs and RIT in Santiago de Cuba. In-depth interviews (N = 38) were conducted four and twelve months after deployment of the tools with people who accepted the tools, who stopped using them and who did not accept the tools. Data analysis was deductive. Main reasons for accepting ITCs at the start of the trial were perceived efficacy and not being harmful to health. Constraints linked to manufacturer instructions were the main reason for not using ITCs. People stopped using the ITCs due to perceived allergy, toxicity and low efficacy. Few heads of households refused RIT despite the noting reasons for rejection, such as allergy, health hazard and toxicity. Positive opinions of the vector control program influenced acceptability of both tools. However, frequent insecticide fogging as part of routine AaCP vector control actions diminished perceived efficacy of both tools and, therefore, acceptability. Fifty percent of interviewees did feel at risk for getting dengue and considered dengue a severe disease. However, this did not appear to influence acceptability of ITCs or RIT. Acceptability of ITCs and RIT was linked to acceptability of AaCP routine vector control activities. However, uptake and use were not always an indication of acceptability. Factors leading to acceptability may be best identified using qualitative methods, but more research is needed on the concept of acceptability and its measurement.

  19. Effect of solution chemistry on arsenic sorption by Fe- and Al-based drinking-water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Rachana; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Makris, Konstantinos C; Datta, Rupali

    2010-02-01

    Drinking-water treatment residual (WTR) have been proposed as a low-cost alternative sorbent for arsenic (As) - contaminated aquatic and soil systems. However, limited information exists regarding the effect of solution chemistry on As sorption by WTR. A batch incubation study was carried out to investigate the effect of solution pH (3-9) on As(V) sorption by Al- and Fe-based WTR as a function of solid: solution ratio (SSR) and initial As concentration. The effect of competing ligands (phosphate-P(V) and sulfate), and complexing metal (calcium) on As(V) sorption envelopes at the optimum SSR (200gL(-1)) was also evaluated. At 200gL(-1) SSR, maximum As(V) sorption ( approximately 100%) exhibited by the Fe-WTR was limited at the pH range of 3-7, whereas, the Al-WTR demonstrated approximately 100% As(V) sorption in the entire pH range. The negative pH effect on As(V) sorption became more pronounced with increasing initial As concentrations and decreasing SSR. Sorption of As(V) by surfaces of both WTR decreased in the presence of P(V), exhibiting strong pH dependence. Only for the Fe-WTR, increased dissolved iron concentrations at pH>7 supported a Fe-hydroxide reductive dissolution mechanism to account for the enhanced As sorption at alkaline pH. Addition of sulfate did not influence As(V) sorption by both WTR. A cooperative effect of calcium on As(V) sorption was observed at alkaline pH due to the formation of a calcium-arsenate phase. The constant capacitance model provided reasonable fits to the sorption envelope data for both single ion and binary ion (As and P) systems, but it was unable to explain the enhanced As sorption by the Fe-WTR at pH>7.

  20. Insecticide treated curtains and residual insecticide treatment to control Aedes aegypti: An acceptability study in Santiago de Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Pérez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of a field trial conducted by the Cuban vector control program (AaCP, we assessed acceptability of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs and residual insecticide treatment (RIT with deltamethrin by the community. We also assessed the potential influence of interviewees' risk perceptions for getting dengue and disease severity.We embedded a qualitative study using in-depth interviews in a cluster randomized trial (CRT testing the effectiveness of ITCs and RIT in Santiago de Cuba. In-depth interviews (N = 38 were conducted four and twelve months after deployment of the tools with people who accepted the tools, who stopped using them and who did not accept the tools. Data analysis was deductive. Main reasons for accepting ITCs at the start of the trial were perceived efficacy and not being harmful to health. Constraints linked to manufacturer instructions were the main reason for not using ITCs. People stopped using the ITCs due to perceived allergy, toxicity and low efficacy. Few heads of households refused RIT despite the noting reasons for rejection, such as allergy, health hazard and toxicity. Positive opinions of the vector control program influenced acceptability of both tools. However, frequent insecticide fogging as part of routine AaCP vector control actions diminished perceived efficacy of both tools and, therefore, acceptability. Fifty percent of interviewees did feel at risk for getting dengue and considered dengue a severe disease. However, this did not appear to influence acceptability of ITCs or RIT.Acceptability of ITCs and RIT was linked to acceptability of AaCP routine vector control activities. However, uptake and use were not always an indication of acceptability. Factors leading to acceptability may be best identified using qualitative methods, but more research is needed on the concept of acceptability and its measurement.

  1. Handling of wet residues in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro

    to water bodies and uses of such bodies, distance to available agricultural land, characteristics of the local wastewater treatment plant, local and national legislation, or availability of subsidies. This study uses as example the geographical, legislative, economic and social boundary conditions......In countries with high prices of fresh water use and wastewater discharge, water recycling has become an alternative to traditional water consumption and discharge for industries with water-based processes. Industrial water recycling means in many cases that water has to be treated and cleaned......, to remove from it the substances which presence impedes reusing the water. These substances accumulate in a by-product called wet residue. An integral part of water recycling projects in the industry is the handling and disposal of the wet residues generated. The treatment, utilisation and disposal of wet...

  2. Neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soil dust and associated parent soil in fields with a history of seed treatment use on crops in southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limay-Rios, Victor; Forero, Luis Gabriel; Xue, Yingen; Smith, Jocelyn; Baute, Tracey; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2016-02-01

    Using neonicotinoid insecticides as seed treatments is a common practice in field crop production. Exposure of nontarget organisms to neonicotinoids present in various environmental matrices is debated. In the present study, concentrations of neonicotinoid residues were measured in the top 5 cm of soil and overlying soil surface dust before planting in 25 commercial fields with a history of neonicotinoid seed treatment use in southwestern Ontario in 2013 and 2014 using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The mean total concentrations were 3.05 ng/g and 47.84 ng/g in 2013 and 5.59 ng/g and 71.17 ng/g in 2014 for parent soil and soil surface dust, respectively. When surface and parent soil residues were compared the mean concentration in surface dust was 15.6-fold and 12.7-fold higher than that in parent soil in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Pooled over years, the surface dust to parent soil ratio was 13.7, with mean concentrations of 4.36 ng/g and 59.86 ng/g for parent soil and surface dust, respectively. The present study's results will contribute important knowledge about the role these residues may play in the overall risk assessment currently under way for the source, transport, and impact of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in a maize ecosystem. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Large breast size as a risk factor for late adverse effects of breast radiotherapy: Is residual dose inhomogeneity, despite 3D treatment planning and delivery, the main explanation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, Christy; Haviland, Joanne; Tsang, Yat; Sydenham, Mark; Yarnold, John

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Large breast size is associated with an increased risk of late adverse effects after breast conservation surgery and radiotherapy, even when 3D dosimetry is used. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that residual dose inhomogeneity is sufficient to explain the association. Methods: Patients previously treated after breast conservation surgery with whole breast radiotherapy using 3D dosimetry and followed up in the UK FAST hypofractionation trial were selected for this analysis. The residual level of dose inhomogeneity across the whole breast treatment volume was used to test for association between residual dosimetry and post-treatment change in breast appearance at 2 years post-radiotherapy. Results: At 2 years, 201/279 (72%) of women had no change in photographic breast appearance, 61 (22%) had mild change and 17 (6%) had marked change. Breast size and dosimetry were both significantly associated with late effects in univariate analyses, but only breast size remained an independent significant risk factor for change in breast appearance when included in a multiple regression model together with other prognostic factors (p = 0.006 for trend). Conclusion: Large-breasted women are more likely to suffer change in breast size and shape after whole breast radiotherapy delivered using 3D dosimetry, but residual dose inhomogeneity is insufficient to explain the association.

  4. Criterion for the selection of a system of treatment of residues and their application to the wine of the alcoholic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caicedo M, Luis Alfonso; Fonseca, Jose Joaquin; Rodriguez, Gerardo

    1996-01-01

    The selection of a system of residues treatment should follow the criterion of the process denominated BATEA (better available and feasible technical and economical process). Because their application is difficult for not having objective parameters of evaluation, a method is presented that classifies the evaluation criterions in general and specific. For the quantification of these aspects factors like FQO are used, FCI, FTR, FD and the factor of applicability of the treatment (FAT). The method applied to the wine; allows concluding that it is the evaporation the best treatment system for this process, while other systems are not developed or it increases the recompensing rate

  5. Market impacts of hypothetical fuel treatment thinning programs on federal lands in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Henry Spelter; Kenneth Skog; Andrew Kramp; Dennis P. Dykstra

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the economics of forest fuel thinning programs on federal lands in the U.S. West, and presents a model of regional timber and product market impacts. The issue of economics is vital to the debate about fire management, and this paper presents market implications of two alternative silvicultural strategies, even-aged and uneven-aged...

  6. Weld repair practices without post weld heat treatment for ferritic alloys and their consequences on residual stresses: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloraier, A.; Al-Mazrouee, A.; Price, J.W.H.; Shehata, T.

    2010-01-01

    The use of the half-bead, temper bead welding (TBW), and cold repair techniques is proving to reduce the cost of repairs and extend the life of aged components in power plants, petrochemical and hydrocarbon processing industries. It has been a significant area of interest for more than twenty years. A critical factor in this context is residual stress. The presence of residual stresses can lead to cracking which ultimately results in structural failure. This paper reviews the half-bead, TBW, and cold repair technique practices and their consequences on residual stresses within the nuclear, power, refinery and petrochemical industries and some of the contributions made by our group of researchers in this area. This paper reviews recent work by the Monash University group. We report our work on TBW residual stresses when measured using neutron diffraction which shows very little reduction in residual stresses over normally completed welds. The use of automatic FCAW has been explored in our group and is reported.

  7. Dose Assessment of Los Alamos National Laboratory-Derived Residual Radionuclides in Soils within C Tracts (C-2, C-3, and C-4) for Land Transfer Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, Jessica M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whicker, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-26

    Three separate Sampling and Analysis Plans (SAPs) were prepared for tracts C-2, C-3, and C-4. The objective of sampling was to confirm, within the stated statistical confidence limits, that the mean levels of potential radioactive residual contamination in soils in the C Tracts are documented, in appropriate units, and are below the 15 mrem/y (150 μSv/y) Screening Action Levels (SALs). Results show that radionuclide concentration upper-bound 95% confidence levels were close to background levels, with the exception of Pu-239 and Cs-137 being slightly elevated above background, and all measurements were below the ALs and meet the real property release criteria for future construction or recreational use. A follow-up ALARA analysis showed that the costs of cleanup of the soil in areas of elevated concentration and confirmatory sampling would far exceed any benefit from dose reduction.

  8. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Padmakar S; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Mandokar, Rashmi B

    2009-01-01

    Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner). A total of 70 specimens (64 Chi 10 Chi 3.3 mm) were polymerized according to the manufacturer's instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10). Control group specimens were not subjected to any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W) and time (3, 4, and 5 min) settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student's t-test and one-way analysis of variance. For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min) by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  9. Effect of microwave postpolymerization treatment on residual monomer content and the flexural strength of autopolymerizing reline resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Padmakar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Microwave postpolymerization has been suggested as a method to improve the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing denture reline resin. However, the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on flexural strength have not been investigated. Objectives : This study analyzed the effect of microwave postpolymerization on the residual monomer content and its influence on the flexural strength of an autopolymerizing reline resin (Denture Liner. Materials and Methods : A total of 70 specimens (64 Χ 10 Χ 3.3 mm were polymerized according to the manufacturer′s instructions and divided into 7 groups (n = 10. Control group specimens were not subjectedto any further processing. Before testing, the specimens were subjected to postpolymerization in a microwave oven using different power (550 and 650 W and time (3, 4, and 5 min settings. Two specimens of each group were then manually ground into fine powder and samples extracted from the specimens using reflux method. The samples were then subjected to gas chromatography for residual monomer determination in area%. Eight specimens were subjected to a three-point bending device with a span of 50 mm and crosshead speed of 5 mm/min, and the flexural strength was determined in MPa. Data analyses included Student′s t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results : For the Denture Liner reline resin, the residual monomer content decreased and the flexural strength increased significantly with the application of microwave irradiation using different time/power combinations. The specimens with the lowest residual monomer content were the similar specimens which presented with the highest flexural strength. Conclusion : Microwave postpolymerization irradiation can be an effective method for increasing the flexural strength of denture liner (at 650 W for 5 min by reducing the residual monomer content by further polymerization at free radical sites.

  10. Effect of torrefaction pre-treatment on physical and combustion characteristics of biomass composite briquette from rice husk and banana residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Atan Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is an alternative renewable energy sources that can generates energy almost same as fossil fuel. The depletion sources of fossil fuel had increase the potential use of biomass energy. In Malaysia, rice husk and banana residues are abundantly left and not treated with proper disposal method which later may contribute to environment and health problems. Thus the development of biomass composite briquette made from rice husk and banana residue is one of the potential ways to reduce the problems and hence may contribute the better way to treat the waste by recycling the waste into a form of biomass product. The biomass briquettes are used for thermal applications because it can produce a complete combustion as it has a consistent quality and high burning efficiency. However, the quality of the biomass briquette can be added by application of torrefaction pre-treatment method. Torrefaction is a thermal method that can produce more high quality of the briquette with high calorific value, high fixed carbon content, low volatile matter, and low ash content. This study was conducted to assess the physical and combustion characteristic of the biomass briquette from rice husk and banana residue which was produced through torrefaction process. The biomass briquette, were densified by using hot press machine with temperature of 180°C for about 30 minutes. The briquette produce are 150 μm in particle size with varies in mixing ratio of rice husk to banana residue which are 100:0, 80:20 and 60:40. After the briquetting process, the biomass fuel briquettes have been undergoes parameter testing and the data have been analysed. Result showed the best biomass briquette is developed from torrefied rice husk and banana residue mixed at ratio of 60:40. Moreover, SEM image reveal that torrefaction pre-treatment has shrinkage the fibres size which confirming the thermal stability of the briquette.

  11. Treatment of biological waste and residues V. Biological - mechanical - thermal processes; Bio- und Restabfallbehandlung V. Biologisch - mechanisch - thermisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, K.; Kern, M. (eds.); Weber-Wied, R. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    From 2005, the TA Siedlungsabfall (Waste Management Regulation) will come into force, and European legislation will overrule national legislation. Dumping of untreated waste in landfills will be prohibited, i.e. incinerators for thermal waste treatment must be constructed. In view of the rigid specifications for emissions and residues and the demand for Europe-wide invitations for tender, time is running short. The book outlines the options for action of the German states and of some applicant states for EC membership. The German government already issued an Ordinance for Power Generation from Biomass. Independent of this, also secondary fuels are gaining ground, and several contributions of the conference discussed quality assurance and utilization of secondary fuels. Composting and sewage sludge utilization are further current issues. Air pollution, soil and groundwater protection, job security and energy potential are gone into, and an outline of the current situation of waste management is attempted. [German] Die aktuelle abfallwirtschaftliche Situation wird in besonderem Masse gepraegt durch das nahende Jahr 2005 sowie die zunehmende Abhaengigkeit nationalstaatlicher Handlungsspielraeume von den Vorgaben europaeischer Rahmenrichtlinien. Hierbei wird der Handlungsdruck spuerbar, spaetestens ab dem Jahr 2005 der TA Siedlungsabfall Rechnung tragen zu muessen. Die verbleibenden Zeitraeume sind daher eng bemessen, beruecksichtigt man insbesondere die langen Genehmigungs- und Errichtungszeitraeume fuer thermische Behandlungsanlagen. Vor dem Hintergrund der europaweiten Ausschreibungspflicht wird die gegenwaertige technische Diskussion zur MBA sehr stark durch die nunmehr von der Bundesregierung konkretisierten Emissions- und Ablagerungsanforderungen gepraegt. Der vorliegende Band soll aufzeigen, welche Handlungsspielraeume sich hierbei aus Sicht der verschiedenen Bundeslaender ergeben. Ein Blick ueber die Grenzen hinaus zu einigen zukuenftigen EU

  12. Dose Assessment of Los Alamos National Laboratory-Derived Residual Radionuclides in Soils within Tract A-18-2 for Land Conveyance and Transfer Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    In 2017, soil sampling for radiological materials was conducted within Tract A-18-2 specifically for land conveyance decisions. Measurements of radionuclides in soil samples were evaluated against a recreational use scenario, and all measurements were below screening action levels for each radionuclide. The total estimated dose was less than 1 mrem/y (< 10 μSv/y) for a hypothetical recreational user (compared to a dose limit of 25 mrem/y (250 μSv/y)). Dose estimates were based on the 95% upper confidence limits for radionuclide concentrations within the Tract. Additionally, dose estimates less than 3 mrem/y are considered to be As Low As Reasonably Achievable, so no follow-up analysis was conducted. Release of this property is consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 458.1 and Policy 412.

  13. Dose Assessment of Los Alamos National Laboratory-Derived Residual Radionuclides in Soils within Tract A-18-2 for Land Conveyance and Transfer Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-26

    In 2017, soil sampling for radiological materials was conducted within Tract A-18-2 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for land conveyance decisions. Measurements of radionuclides in soil samples were evaluated against a recreational use scenario, and all measurements were below screening action levels for each radionuclide. The total estimated dose was less than 1 mrem/yr (<10 μSv/yr) for a hypothetical recreational user (compared with a dose limit of 25 mrem/yr [250 μSv/yr]). Dose estimates were based on the 95% upper confidence levels for radionuclide concentrations within the Tract. Dose estimates less than 3 mrem/yr are considered to be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), therefore no follow-up analysis was conducted. Release of this property is consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 458.1 (DOE 2013) and Policy 412 (LANL 2014).

  14. Thermoplasticity and oxidative treatment of coal liquefaction residue obtained from NEDOL 1t/d PSU; NEDOL ho ekika zansa no netsuryudosei to sanka kaishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, O. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-10-20

    This paper describes the following matters on the result of investigating liquefaction residues of two kinds of coals generated from a NEDOL liquefaction process, with respect to change in their thermoplasticity associated with oxidative treatment, using a Gieseler plastometer: The liquefaction residues show extremely high Gieseler fluidity before the oxidative treatment. However, the maximum fluidity and the flow temperature range decrease as a result of the oxidative treatment at 150{degree}C, and the fluidity disappears nearly completely in the oxidation of 400 hours or less. The maximum fluidity decreases with the progress of oxidation even under a pressurized condition (range of up to 40 kgf/cm{sup 2}), and this trend grows remarkable if the pressure is raised. Time-based change in the FT-IR spectra of the liquefaction residues associated with the oxidation was investigated by using an photoacoustic method and a diffusion reflection method. The result showed that such reactions have advanced as generation of oxygen containing groups including ketone and ester, and pull-out of aliphatic hydrogen. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Interactions in recovery and in residual injury from sequential treatments of mouse haemopoietic and stromal marrow cell populations, using X-rays, cyclophosphamide and busulphan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.Y.; Hendry, J.H.; Testa, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The acute recovery of day 11 CFU-S, iv-CFC and CFU-F in mouse bone marrow, following a test dose of X-rays, cyclophosphamide (CP) or busulphan given to mice previously treated with repeated priming dose X-rays or CP, was in general predictable from the amount of residual injury after the priming doses. A marked exception was iv-CFC after X-rays, which although amplified to near normal levels during the residual injury phase, recovered after the test irradiation from low-levels of CFU-S. The amount of residual injury after sequential treatments of different agents was in general less than expected on the basis of the product of the effects of the individual agents. This was most marked for CP priming treatments, where the long-term recovery of day 11 CFU-S after the test dose remained persistently above control levels. Also, some correlation was found between improved stromal recovery (CFU-F) and the CFU-S content following the sequential treatment protocols. (author). 33 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  16. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS

  17. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  18. A novel method to determine residual detergent in biological samples post endotoxin reduction treatment and evaluation of strategies for subsequent detergent removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Anne Serdakowski; Japutra, Chietara; Planck, Kyle; Lihon, Michael; Nguyen, Andrew Anh

    2016-08-01

    Endotoxin removal using detergent washes and extractions are well-established, efficient, and cost-effective methods; however, removing residual detergent post treatment has been shown to be a challenge. In this communication, we show a simple and fast method for determining the detergent concentration in a protein solution post treatment and highlight strategies for detergent removal to achieve levels below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), the minimum concentration at which detergent micelles form. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wäger, Patrick A.; Hischier, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses

  20. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  1. Sclerosis and the Nd:YAG, Q-switched laser with multiple frequency for treatment of telangiectases, reticular veins, and residual pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, J L; Del Rio, R; Palou, J

    1998-10-01

    The combination of low concentrations of sclerosing solution and the Nd:YAG, Q-switched laser with multiple (quadruple) frequency provides good results in the treatment of telangiectases and reticular varicose veins of the lower extremities, as well as pigmentation that may appear during sclerotherapy. This paper is based on a series of patients with telangiectases and reticular veins who were treated with sclerotherapy and the Nd:YAG, Q-switched laser with quadruple frequency. Patients with telangiectases and reticular veins received two or three treatment sessions with polydocanol and the Nd:YAG, Q-switched laser with quadruple frequency. Then, they were assessed a clinical score corresponding to the level of improvement achieved. Residual hematic pigmentation lesions were also eliminated with the laser. Excellent improvement was evident in 90% of the patients with minimal residual lesions. The combined technique of sclerosing solution and the Nd:YAG laser with multiple frequency is a valid alternative for the elimination of telangiectases and reticular veins of the lower limbs. This technique has several advantages, such as the use of low concentrations of sclerosing solution, high patient acceptance levels due to minimal disturbances, and the fact that local anesthesia is unnecessary. Good results are obtained without complications and minimal residual pigmentation. These mild pigmentation can be treated with the Nd:YAG laser.

  2. Residual Effects of Forestry Herbicides on Floristic Diversity, Stand Structute, and Composition Eleven years after Site Preparation Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Robert S. Boyd; M. Boyd Edwards

    1993-01-01

    The global conservation of biodiversity will require efforts at multiple levels to be successful. Because herbicides are applied annually to 100,000's of hectares of forest lands in the Southeastern Region, U.S.A, it is crucial we know their short-term and long-term impacts on forest biodivetsity, structure, and composition. It is recognized that effective...

  3. Do postfire mulching treatments affect plant community recovery in California coastal sage scrub lands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Sarah A; Endress, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the use of postfire mulch treatments to stabilize slopes and reduce soil erosion in shrubland ecosystems has increased; however, the potential effects on plant recovery have not been examined. To evaluate the effects of mulching treatments on postfire plant recovery in southern California coastal sage scrub, we conducted a field experiment with three experimental treatments, consisting of two hydromulch products and an erosion control blanket, plus a control treatment. The area burned in 2007, and treatments were applied to six plot blocks before the 2008 growing season. Treatment effects on plant community recovery were analyzed with a mixed effects ANOVA analysis using a univariate repeated measures approach. Absolute plant cover increased from 13 to 90% by the end of the second growing season, and the mean relative cover of exotic species was 32%. The two hydromulch treatments had no effect on any plant community recovery response variable measured. For the erosion control blanket treatment, the amount of bare ground cover at the end of the second growing season was significantly lower (P = 0.01), and greater shrub height was observed (P mulch treatments did not provide either a major benefit or negative impact to coastal sage scrub recovery on the study area.

  4. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela; Sisani, Luciano; Damiano, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Iron storage in liver, bone marrow and splenic Gaucheroma reflects residual disease in type 1 Gaucher disease patients on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenboog, Martine; Bohte, Anneloes E; Akkerman, Erik M; Stoker, Jaap; Hollak, Carla E M

    2017-11-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the storage of glycosphingolipids in macrophages. Despite effective therapy, residual disease is present in varying degrees and may be associated with late complications, such as persistent bone or liver disease and increased cancer risk. Gaucher macrophages are capable of storing iron and locations of residual disease may thus be detectable with iron imaging. Forty type 1 GD (GD1) patients and 40 matched healthy controls were examined using a whole-body magnetic resonance imaging protocol consisting of standard sequences, allowing analysis of iron content per organ, expressed as R2* (Hz). Median R2* values were significantly elevated in GD1 patients as compared to healthy controls in liver [41 Hz (range 29-165) vs. 38 Hz (range 28-53), P iron levels in liver and bone marrow, which may carry a risk for liver fibrosis and cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Switching to aripiprazole for the treatment of residual mutism resulted in distinct clinical courses in two catatonic schizophrenia cases

    OpenAIRE

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Kimura, Shou

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The efficacy of a partial agonist for the dopamine D2 receptor, aripiprazole, for catatonia in schizophrenia has been reported. Methods: We report distinct clinical courses in challenging aripiprazole to treat residual mutism after severe catatonic symptoms improved. Results: In the first case, mutism was successfully treated when the patient was switched from olanzapine to aripiprazole. In contract, switching to aripiprazole from risperidone aggravated auditory hallucinations in ...

  7. Residual Mosquito Barrier Treatments on U.S. Military Camouflage Netting in a Southern California Desert Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    8217- ’̂ pioneering work with other treated artificial substrates such as suspended or spread sheets,’’’"’ livestock fencing,’"" attractant -baited...more attractive to tnosquitoes, or situated in a zone with greater densities of mosquitoes. Mosquito reductions in treated enclosures and the treated...Permethrin as a residual lawn spray for adult mosquito control. Mosq News 1983; 43: 164-9. 7. Robert LL, Perich MJ: Phlebotomine sand fly ( Diptera

  8. Forecasting land cover change impacts on drinking water treatment costs in Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Source protection is a critical aspect of drinking water treatment. The benefits of protecting source water quality in reducing drinking water treatment costs are clear. However, forecasting the impacts of environmental change on source water quality and its potential to influenc...

  9. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Suitability of steam exploded residual softwood for the production of binderless panels. Effect of the pre-treatment severity and lignin addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angles, M.N.; Ferrando, F.; Farriol, X.; Salvado, J. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Escola Tecnica Superior d' Enginyeria

    2001-07-01

    A steam explosion pre-treatment was applied at various severities to softwood residual substrate to determine the most suitable pre-treatment for the manufacture of binderless panels. The effect of adding acid to the pre-treatment of fibres was also evaluated. The changes in the chemical composition and morphology of the original material were investigated by fractionation analyses and scanning electron micrographs. High severities caused defibrillation of the material allowing to build links to form the panels. Prehydrolysis with acid had a great effect of the structure of the material even at low acid concentration, The physical and mechanical properties of the panel improved with as the severity of the pre-treatment increased up to a point where mechanical properties deteriorated. The composites with highest internal bond had a high cellulose content and a medium lignin content, All these factors suggested that steamed pre-treated residual could be improved by adding a natural binder to produce the panels. A test of producing panels with addition of several kinds of lignin (up to 20%) was performed. With no significant changes in density, water stability (thickness swelling and water absorption) internal bond and mechanical properties were greatly improved., Results after accelerated ageing test were also enhanced. (Author)

  11. Pain related to cancer treatments and diagnostic procedures: a no man's land?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, C I; Bossi, P; Santini, D; Fallon, M

    2014-06-01

    While guidelines are available for the management of cancer-related pain, little attention is given to the assessment and treatment of pain caused by treatments and diagnostic procedures in cancer patients. We evaluated the literature on pain related to cancer treatment and diagnostic procedures within a critical analysis. The data available are sparse, suggesting that little attention has been directed at this important aspect of oncology. This points to potentially suboptimal patient management. Appropriate studies are necessary in order to understand the incidence and appropriate management of pain, both during and/or after oncological treatments and diagnostic procedures. At the same time, Health Care Professionals should have heightened awareness of the causes and treatment of pain with the aim of anticipating and managing pain most appropriately for each individual patient. This is clearly an important component of holistic patient care before, during, and after oncological treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Evaluation of a treatment system type septic tank - filter anaerobic of upward flow for the residual waters of the ecological benefit of the coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez C, Jose Alejandro

    1997-01-01

    Colombia is the first country in the production of soft coffee in the world. The benefit for humid way it makes that this quality of coffee is obtained; however, the high consumption of water in the process and the later discharge to the superficial or underground sources, they have generated an environmental problem of great magnitude. Also, the sources of water that they have been contaminated with the discharges of the liquid waste that come from benefit of coffee they present, among other, serious inconveniences to be used as supplying sources of drinkable water. In time of crop, the coffee areas and their superficial sources of water usually register high indexes of contamination like consequence of the discharges of residual waters that come from the benefit of the coffee. In the Departments of Quindio, Valle, Caldas, Antioquia, etc., they have been come executing investigations of the residuals treatment that are derived of the pulp removal of the coffee (via humid), for anaerobic methods with satisfactory results. This project had the collaboration of the Departmental Committee of Coffee of Antioquia and the Environmental Engineering of the Antioquia University and it is formulated toward the evaluation of a Anaerobic filter of Ascendant flow, FAFA, preceded of a septic tank (biological sedimentation), as a treatment system of the coffee residual waters, with a waste native of a ecological benefit area. The obtained results were satisfactory although the generated waste is very intermittent and in times that are not of coffee crop it doesn't take place; what hinders more the application of biological systems for its treatment

  13. Phosphorus Sorption Capacity of Concrete Waste, Natural Sorbents, Alum Residuals from Water Supply Sludge, and Ceramic Material for Tertiary Treatment in Onsite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Larpkiattaworn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus (P sorption capacity was determined for concrete waste, alum residuals from water treatment sludge, and natural sorbents (shells, clay, kaolin, and mordenite from various parts of Thailand. The material showing the best P sorption capacity (shells was selected for preparing a ceramic material to support the growth of nitrifying bacteria. The ceramic material, consisting of shells (50% by weight, alum residuals sludge (40% by weight and a soil (10% by weight heat at 750°C for about one hour, was studied for its P sorption capacity. Langmuir and Freundlich sorption isotherms yielded similar relative maximum P sorption capacities for the sorbents. The results from the Langmuir calculations showed the following maximum P sorption capacities: 32.26 g P/Kg shells, 31.25 g P/Kg concrete waste, 7.19 g P/Kg alum residuals sludge, 290 mg P/Kg clay, 80 mg P/Kg kaolin, and 30 mg P/Kg mordenite. The P sorption capacity for the prepared ceramic material at grain size 12 mm was 4.85 g P/kg. This result suggests that the ceramic material could be used for P sorption while providing growth support for nitrifying bacteria, similar to the well documented a popular P sorption material: light expanded clay aggregate (LECA from Sweden.

  14. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Echols, Kathy R.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Henquinet, Jeffrey; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2015-01-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH water under an air atmosphere (pH drifted to ≥9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5–8.2), then transferred to control water for 5 d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems.

  15. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kemble, Nile E; Echols, Kathy R; Brumbaugh, William G; Henquinet, Jeffrey W; Watten, Barnaby J

    2015-06-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH pH drifted to ≥9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5-8.2), then transferred to control water for 5 d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Effect of shot peening treatment in the behavior of residual stress in duplex stainless steel during medium cycle fatigue; Efeito do tratamento de shot peening no comportamento das tensoes residuais em aco inoxidavel duplex durante fadiga de medio ciclo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, Peter D.S.; Rebello, Joao Marcos A. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais; Fonseca, Maria P. Cindra, E-mail: mcindra@vm.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (PGMEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    The lifetime of duplex stainless steel parts experiencing cyclic fatigue is directly influenced by the residual stresses present in the ferrite and austenite phases. The motivation for this work was to analyze the behaviour of the residual stresses fields introduced by shot peening treatment in both phases, in the sample surface as in the subsurface layers, in low fatigue cycles, using the X-rays diffraction technique. The results shows that the compressive residual stresses introduced by the shot peening treatment in both phases improved fatigue life of the material. However, the cyclical loads produce partial or total relief in these residual stresses fields. It was verified that the shot peening process induced the formation of microcracks only in the ferrite phase. The largest variations in the total compressive residual stresses fields also occurred in this phase. The samples surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  17. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  18. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  19. Field Sampling Plan for Closure of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant Lagoon 3 and Land Application Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This field sampling plan describes sampling of the soil/liner of Lagoon 3 at the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The lagoon is to be closed, and samples obtained from the soil/liner will provide information to determine if Lagoon 3 and the land application area can be closed in a manner that renders it safe to human health and the environment. Samples collected under this field sampling plan will be compared to Idaho National Laboratory background soil concentrations. If the concentrations of constituents of concern exceed the background level, they will be compared to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels. If the concentrations of constituents of concern are lower than the background levels, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels, or the preliminary remediation goals, then Lagoon 3 and the land application area will be closed. If the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act levels and/or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act preliminary remediation goals are exceeded, additional sampling and action may be required.

  20. Measurements of functional residual capacity during intensive care treatment: the technical aspects and its possible clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, H; Eichler, W

    2009-10-01

    Direct measurement of lung volume, i.e. functional residual capacity (FRC) has been recommended for monitoring during mechanical ventilation. Mostly due to technical reasons, FRC measurements have not become a routine monitoring tool, but promising techniques have been presented. We performed a literature search of studies with the key words 'functional residual capacity' or 'end expiratory lung volume' and summarize the physiology and patho-physiology of FRC measurements in ventilated patients, describe the existing techniques for bedside measurement, and provide an overview of the clinical questions that can be addressed using an FRC assessment. The wash-in or wash-out of a tracer gas in a multiple breath maneuver seems to be best applicable at bedside, and promising techniques for nitrogen or oxygen wash-in/wash-out with reasonable accuracy and repeatability have been presented. Studies in ventilated patients demonstrate that FRC can easily be measured at bedside during various clinical settings, including positive end-expiratory pressure optimization, endotracheal suctioning, prone position, and the weaning from mechanical ventilation. Alveolar derecruitment can easily be monitored and improvements of FRC without changes of the ventilatory setting could indicate alveolar recruitment. FRC seems to be insensitive to over-inflation of already inflated alveoli. Growing evidence suggests that FRC measurements, in combination with other parameters such as arterial oxygenation and respiratory compliance, could provide important information on the pulmonary situation in critically ill patients. Further studies are needed to define the exact role of FRC in monitoring and perhaps guiding mechanical ventilation.

  1. Municipal solid wastes (RSU) treatment in land filled controlled: Of its sanitary problems to energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urzola C, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Excessive world wastes production generates constant preoccupations with relation to its management. The methods of classic elimination as sanitary landfill controlled as compared to controvertible incineration and gasification plants as well as expectations created in connection with practices of recycling, its are intensive discussions motive between town halls, technical specialists, ecologists and general public. What is certain is that wastes in the last 30 years have been valued economically. Today the wastes are appreciated by certain sectors that begin to monopolize the recycling line because they see an excellent business. All methods of residues elimination produce at same time other wastes. Solid nature wastes generally end in the landfill and semi-liquid waste are dehydrated with same objective. In the present Thesis, without intending to say that the landfill processing will be the better option, is outlined the form of optimizing the utilization of same. It's demonstrated that landfill, furthermore to fulfil its sanitary function, are converted into an energetic alternative with utilization of flammable gas generated in them, something which represents an interesting value added if is converted into source of welfare for social and economically kernels, as happens in peripheries of the sanitary landfill at large Latin American cities. Of other side are considered principal aspects that intervene in methane gas generation and quality and utilization alternatives. Finally it is made emphasis in environmental situation at European and international level about the landfill gases, how is outlined greenhouse effect topic, what are environmental actions for year 2000 and are related some biogas utilization experiences at Europe

  2. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  3. 76 FR 19003 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Nevada and California; Site Specific Treatment Variances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... provides the best demonstrated treatment available for this waste by reducing the amount of selenium... available for this waste by reducing the amount of selenium potentially released to the environment, while... Variances for Hazardous Selenium Bearing Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...

  4. Influence of treatment by vibration in residual stress generated in the laser welding of HSLA and IF steels; Influencia do tratamento de vibracao nas tensoes residuais geradas na soldagem a laser de acos ARBL e IF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuvas, T.C.; Fonseca, M.P. Cindra, E-mail: chuvas@vm.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (PGMEC/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Castello, D.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    The stress relieving treatment by vibration is a new technology under development, which has many advantages over thermal methods. In this work was analyzed the surface residual stress generated in the laser welding of biphasic HSLA and IF steels, both used in the automotive industry. Residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction, by the sen{sup 2} {Psi} method. Residual stresses generated in the welding of the samples were tensile at all points measured. After welding, the samples were submitted to the mechanical vibration treatment. Some samples presented a significant reduction in the stress values. The welded joints were also characterized by optical microscopy. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Membrane Ultrafiltration and Residual Chlorination as a Decentralized Water Treatment Strategy for Ten Rural Healthcare Facilities in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Huttinger; Robert Dreibelbis; Kristin Roha; Fidel Ngabo; Felix Kayigamba; Leodomir Mfura; Christine Moe

    2015-01-01

    There is a critical need for safe water in healthcare facilities (HCF) in low-income countries. HCF rely on water supplies that may require additional on-site treatment, and need sustainable technologies that can deliver sufficient quantities of water. Water treatment systems (WTS) that utilize ultrafiltration membranes for water treatment can be a useful technology in low-income countries, but studies have not systematically examined the feasibility of this technology in low-income settings...

  6. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge treatment and its use on land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko

    Sewage sludge is generated as an end-product of wastewater treatment processes, and its management holds importance in the operation of wastewater treatment plants from both an economic and an environmental point of view. At the same time, the management of sewage sludge is becoming increasingly...... collection schemes: a compulsory environmental information disclosure requirement, a pollutant discharge monitoring requirement and state-of-the-art on-site data collection. While adequately capturing impacts in relation to global warming and marine eutrophication, an LCA based on existing data sources might...... of reactive N from organic fertilisers persist over time. The window of emission is dependent on the degree of stabilisation: while the effect from treated sewage sludge ceases after 25 years, the effect from the application of more stable material such as composted municipal solid waste persists over 100...

  7. Residual hepatocellular carcinoma after oxaliplatin treatment has increased metastatic potential in a nude mouse model and is attenuated by Songyou Yin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Wei; Liu, Liang; Wang, Wen-Quan; Tang, Zhao-You; Ren, Zheng-Gang; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Sun, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Bin-Bin; Li, Qi-Song; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The opposite effects of chemotherapy, which enhance the malignancy of treated cancers such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are not well understood. We investigated this phenomenon and corresponding mechanisms to develop a novel approach for improving chemotherapy efficacy in HCC. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2 (with low metastatic potential) and MHCC97L (with moderate metastatic potential) were used for the in vitro study. An orthotopic nude mouse model of human HCC was developed using MHCC97L cells. We then assessed the metastatic potential of surviving tumor cells after in vitro and in vivo oxaliplatin treatment. The molecular changes in surviving tumor cells were evaluated by western blot, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry. The Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin (composed of five herbs) was investigated in vivo to explore its effect on the metastatic potential of oxaliplatin-treated cancer cells. MHCC97L and HepG2 cells surviving oxaliplatin treatment showed enhanced migration and invasion in vitro. Residual HCC after in vivo oxaliplatin treatment demonstrated significantly increased metastasis to the lung (10/12 vs. 3/12) when re-inoculated into the livers of new recipient nude mice. Molecular changes consistent with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were observed in oxaliplatin-treated tumor tissues and verified by in vitro experiments. The Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin (4.2 and 8.4 g/kg) attenuated EMT and inhibited the enhanced metastatic potential of residual HCC in nude mice (6/15 vs. 13/15 and 3/15 vs. 13/15, respectively). The surviving HCC after oxaliplatin treatment underwent EMT and demonstrated increased metastatic potential. Attenuation of EMT by Songyou Yin may improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in HCC

  8. Use of Interface Treatment to Reduce Emissions from Residuals in Lower Permeability Zones to Groundwater flowing Through More Permeable Zones (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P.; Cavanagh, B.; Clifton, L.; Daniels, E.; Dahlen, P.

    2013-12-01

    Many soil and groundwater remediation technologies rely on fluid flow for contaminant extraction or reactant delivery (e.g., soil vapor extraction, pump and treat, in situ chemical oxidation, air sparging, enhanced bioremediation). Given that most unconsolidated and consolidated settings have permeability contrasts, the outcome is often preferential treatment of more permeable zones and ineffective treatment of the lower permeability zones. When this happens, post-treatment contaminant emissions from low permeability zone residuals can cause unacceptable long-term impacts to groundwater in the transmissive zones. As complete remediation of the impacted lower permeability zones may not be practicable with conventional technologies, one might explore options that lead to reduction of the contaminant emissions to acceptable levels, rather than full remediation of the lower permeability layers. This could be accomplished either by creating a sustained emission reaction/attenuation zone at the high-low permeability interface, or by creating a clean soil zone extending sufficiently far into the lower permeability layer to cause the necessary reduction in contaminant concentration gradient and diffusive emission. These options are explored in proof-of-concept laboratory-scale physical model experiments. The physical models are prepared with two layers of contrasting permeability and either dissolved matrix storage or nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in the lower permeability layer. A dissolved oxidant is then delivered to the interface via flow across the higher permeability layer and changes in contaminant emissions from the low permeability zone are monitored before, during, and after oxidant delivery. The use of three oxidants (dissolved oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium persulfate) for treatment of emissions from petroleum hydrocarbon residuals is examined.

  9. cExternal beam radiation results in minimal changes in post void residual urine volumes during the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallner Kent E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the impact of external beam radiation therapy (XRT on weekly ultrasound determined post-void residual (PVR urine volumes in patients with prostate cancer. Methods 125 patients received XRT for clinically localized prostate cancer. XRT was delivered to the prostate only (n = 66 or if the risk of lymph node involvement was greater than 10% to the whole pelvis followed by a prostate boost (n = 59. All patients were irradiated in the prone position in a custom hip-fix mobilization device with an empty bladder and rectum. PVR was obtained at baseline and weekly. Multiple clinical and treatment parameters were evaluated as predictors for weekly PVR changes. Results The mean patient age was 73.9 years with a mean pre-treatment prostate volume of 53.3 cc, a mean IPSS of 11.3 and a mean baseline PVR of 57.6 cc. During treatment, PVR decreased from baseline in both cohorts with the absolute difference within the limits of accuracy of the bladder scanner. Alpha-blockers did not predict for a lower PVR during treatment. There was no significant difference in mean PVR urine volumes or differences from baseline in either the prostate only or pelvic radiation groups (p = 0.664 and p = 0.458, respectively. Patients with a larger baseline PVR (>40 cc had a greater reduction in PVR, although the greatest reduction was seen between weeks one and three. Patients with a small PVR ( Conclusion Prostate XRT results in clinically insignificant changes in weekly PVR volumes, suggesting that radiation induced bladder irritation does not substantially influence bladder residual urine volumes.

  10. Effect of post-polymerization heat-treatments on degree of conversion, leaching residual MMA and in vitro cytotoxicity of autopolymerizing acrylic repair resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Canan; Aktaş, Esin; Deniz, Günnur; Ünlüçerçi, Yeşim; Kızılcan, Nilgün; Bayraktar, Gülsen

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of post-polymerization heat-treatments on degree of conversion (DC), residual methyl methacrylate concentration (MMA(r)) and in vitro cytotoxicity of autopolymerizing acrylic repair resin. A total of 336 specimens were prepared by bench- and hydroflask-curing and subjected to post-polymerization heat-treatments: a) water immersion at 60°C for 30 min, b) microwaving at 500 W for 3 min, c) combined use of water immersion and microwaving d) no treatment (as control). Specimens were eluted in cell culture medium for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. DC and MMA(r) in eluates were measured by FTIR spectrometry and HPLC, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity of eluates on L-929 fibroblasts was determined by XTT assay. Data were statistically analyzed with Dunn's multiple comparison and Pearson correlation tests (p≤0.05). DC was highest (99.9%) in bench- and hydroflask-cured groups which were subjected to water immersion. At all elution periods, MMA(r) was detected in eluates of all treatment groups and were higher in bench-cured groups than hydro-flask cured groups. Cell proliferation values indicated slightly cytotoxic effect throughout 7 days; regardless of the curing method or post-polymerization treatment. The correlation between MMA(r) and cell proliferation was negative after elution of 1, 2, 5 days and was only statistically significant (pMMA. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Residual states in 30 percent of adult patients with Bell's palsy. Early treatment with cortisone improves the healing process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Thomas; Stjernquist-Desatnik, Anna; Kanerva, Mervi; Hultcrantz, Malou; Engström, Mats; Jonsson, Lars

    2015-01-06

    Bell's palsy is an acute unilateral weakness or paralysis of the face of unknown cause. The incidence of the disease is 30 individuals per 100,000 per year. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and other known causes for acute peripheral facial palsy must be ruled out. The prognosis is overall favorable and about 70% of the patients recover completely within 6 months without treatment. Recent randomized controlled Bell's palsy trials have shown that treatment with corticosteroids shortens time to recovery and improves recovery rates while antiviral treatment alone is not more effective than placebo. The combination of corticosteroids and antivirals has not been proven more effective than corticosteroids alone. We present an update of Bell's palsy in adults with focus on diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of these patients.

  12. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero D, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the

  13. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  14. Combining physico-chemical analysis with a Daphnia magna bioassay to evaluate a recycling technology for drinking water treatment plant waste residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Xu, Yongpeng; Zhu, Shijun; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-12-01

    Recycling water treatment plant (WTP) waste residuals is considered to be a feasible method to enhance the efficiency of pollutant removal. This study also evaluated the safety and water quality of a pilot-DWTP waste residuals recycling technology by combining physical-chemistry analysis with a Daphnia magna assay. The water samples taken from each treatment step were extracted and concentrated by XAD-2 resin and were then analyzed for immobilization and enzyme activity with D. magna. The measured parameters, such as the dissolve organic carbon (DOC), UV254 and THM formation potential (THMFPs) of the recycling process, did not obviously increase over 15 days of continuous operation and were even lower than typical values from a conventional process. The extract concentration ranged from 0 to 2 Leq/ml as measured on the 7th and 15th days and the immobilization of D. magna exposed to water treated by the recycling process was nearly equivalent to that of the conventional process. Both the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the catalase (CAT) activity assay indicated that a lower dose of water extract (0.5, 1, 1.5 Leq/ml) could stimulate the enzyme activity of D. magna, whereas a higher dose (2 Leq/ml at the sampling point C3, R3, R4 ) inhibits the activity. Moreover, the SOD and CAT activity of D. magna with DOC and UV254 showed a strong concentration-effect relationship, where the concentration range of DOC and UV254 were 4.1-16.2 mg/L and 0.071-4.382 cm(-1), respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the conventional and recycling treatment processes and the toxicity of water samples in the recycling process did not increase during the 15-day continuous recycling trial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Memantine add-on to antipsychotic treatment for residual negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Iwata, Nakao

    2017-07-01

    We examined whether memantine add-on to antipsychotic treatment is beneficial in schizophrenia treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to achieve stronger evidence on the efficacy and safety of memantine add-on for treating schizophrenia. We analyzed double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of memantine add-on treatment in schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotics. The primary outcomes were amelioration of negative symptoms and all-cause discontinuation. Dichotomous outcomes are presented as risk ratios (RRs), and continuous outcomes are presented as mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs). Eight studies (n = 448) were included. Although memantine add-on treatment was superior to placebo for ameliorating negative symptoms (SMD = -0.96, p = 0.006, I 2  = 88%; N = 7, n = 367) in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale general subscale (MD = -1.62, p = 0.002, I 2  = 0%; N = 4, n = 151) and Mini-Mental Status Examination score (MD = -3.07, p add-on treatment remained superior to placebo (SMD = -1.29, p = 0.00001). Meta-regression analysis showed that patient age was associated with memantine-associated amelioration of negative symptoms (slope = 0.171, p = 0.0206). Memantine add-on treatment may be beneficial for treating psychopathological symptoms (especially negative symptoms) in schizophrenia patients. The negative-symptom effect size may be associated with younger adult schizophrenia patients.

  16. Interaction of acid mine drainage with Ordinary Portland Cement blended solid residues generated from active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitari, Wilson M; Petrik, Leslie F; Key, David L; Okujeni, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) has been investigated as a possible treatment agent for Acid mine drainage (AMD) and established to be an alternative, cheap and economically viable agent compared to the conventional alkaline agents. However, this treatment option also leads to generation of solid residues (SR) that require disposal and one of the proposed disposal method is a backfill in coal mine voids. In this study, the interaction of the SR with AMD that is likely to be present in such backfill scenario was simulated by draining columns packed with SR and SR + 6% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) unsaturated with simulated AMD over a 6 month period. The evolving geochemistry of the liquid/solid (L/S) system was evaluated in-terms of the mineral phases likely or controlling contaminants attenuation at the different pH regimes generated. Stepwise acidification of the percolates was observed as the drainage progressed. Two pH buffer zones were observed (7.5-9 and 3-4) for SR and (11.2-11.3 and 3.5-4) for SR + 6% OPC. The solid residue cores (SR) appeared to have a significant buffering capacity, maintaining a neutral to slightly alkaline pH in the leachates for an extended period of time (97 days: L/S 4.3) while SR + 6% OPC reduced this neutralization capacity to 22 days (L/S 1.9). Interaction of AMD with SR or SR + 6% OPC generated alkaline conditions that favored precipitation of Fe, Al, Mn-(oxy) hydroxides, Fe and Ca-Al hydroxysulphates that greatly contributed to the contaminants removal. However, precipitation of these phases was restricted to the pH of the leachates remaining at neutral to circum-neutral levels. Backfill of mine voids with SR promises to be a feasible technology for the disposal of the SR but its success will greatly depend on the disposal scenario, AMD generated and the alkalinity generating potential of the SR. A disadvantage would be the possible re-dissolution of the precipitated phases at pH water column. However extrapolation of this concept to a field

  17. Impact of microwave pre-treatment on the batch anaerobic digestion of two-phase olive mill solid residue: a kinetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, B.; Gonzalez de Canales, M.; Martin, A.; Borja, R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a microwave (MW) pre-treatment on two-phase olive mill solid residue (OMSR) or alperujo with a view to enhancing its anaerobic digestibility was studied. The MW pre-treatment was carried out at a power of 800 W and at a targeted temperature of 50 °C using different heating rates and holding times. The following specific energies were applied: 4377 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW1), 4830 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW2), 7170 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW3) and 7660 kJ·kg TS−1 (MW4). The maximum methane yield, 395±1 mL CH4·g VSadded−1, was obtained for MW4. The effect of the pre-treatment on the kinetics of the process was also studied. The methane production curves generated during the batch tests showed a first exponential stage and a second sigmoidal stage for all the cases studied. In the first stage, the kinetic constant for the pre-treatment MW1 was 54.8% higher than that obtained for untreated OMSR. [es

  18. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  19. Surgical treatment of residual osgood-schlatter disease in young adults: role of the mobile osseous fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Gabriel; Falah, Mazen; Keren, Yaniv; Eidelman, Mark

    2011-03-11

    Osgood-Schlatter disease is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain over the tibial tubercle. This condition usually resolves spontaneously at skeletal maturity. Few patients develop pain over the tibial tubercle. Radiological examination demonstrates a round regular ossification over the tubercle. Treatment is usually symptomatic, but occasionally surgical treatment is necessary, usually due to the development of a painful ossicle. This article reports our experience with refractory Osgood-Schlatter disease in 22 patients. Most patients were operated under local anesthesia. A midline longitudinal skin incision was used, followed by subperiosteal dissection of the osseous fragment. The knee was put in soft dressing. Patients were encouraged to resume daily activity immediately postoperatively. No wound complications were noted. All patients returned to their previous level of physical activity within 12 weeks postoperatively. All but 1 were free of pain on kneeling or direct pressure over the knee joint. Based on our experience, we devised a treatment algorithm. We believe that the key factors for successful surgical treatment are clear visualization of separation on lateral knee radiographic view and a clinical mobility positive test (firm grasping of the prominent part of the tubercle and its sliding movement). Our results are uniformly good; the only failure related to mistaken inclusion criteria where the lateral radiograph did not show a distinctly separated fragment. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Characterization of residues from thermal treatment of treated wood and extraction of Cu, Cr, As and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2005-01-01

    Thermal treatment of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated waste wood is a way to utilize the energy resource of the wood and at the same time to reduce the volume of the waste. An issue of concern in relation to the thermal treatment is As emission to the air. Meanwhile, there is still......, that the charcoal contained a high concentration of Zn, probably from paint. Chemical extraction experiments in HNO were conducted with the charcoal and it was found that the order of extraction (in percentage) was Zn > Cu > As > Cr. A SEM/EDX investigation of the mixed ash from combustion showed the presence...... form in a small layer on the surface of some matrix particles indicating condensation of volatile Cu species. Chemical extraction with inorganic acids showed the order of percentages mobilized as: As > Cu > Cr....

  1. Creep Deformation, Rupture Analysis, Heat Treatment and Residual Stress Measurement of Monolithic and Welded Grade 91 Steel for Power Plant Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Triratna

    Modified 9Cr-1 Mo (Grade 91) steel is currently considered as a candidate material for reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) and reactor internals for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), and in fossil-fuel fired power plants at higher temperatures and stresses. The tensile creep behavior of Grade 91 steel was studied in the temperature range of 600°C to 750°C and stresses between 35 MPa and 350 MPa. Heat treatment of Grade 91 steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times. Moreover, Thermo-Ca1c(TM) calculation was used to predict the precipitate stability and their evolution, and construct carbon isopleths of Grade 91 steel. Residual stress distribution across gas tungsten arc welds (GTAW) in Grade 91 steel was measured by the time-of-flight neutron diffraction using the Spectrometer for Materials Research at Temperature and Stress (SMARTS) diffractometer at Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA. Analysis of creep results yielded stress exponents of ˜9-11 in the higher stress regime and ˜1 in the lower stress regime. The creep behavior of Grade 91 steel was described by the modified Bird-Mukherjee-Dorn relation. The rate-controlling creep deformation mechanism in the high stress regime was identified as the edge dislocation climb with a stress exponent of n = 5. On the other hand, the deformation mechanism in the Newtonian viscous creep regime (n = 1) was identified as the Nabarro-Herring creep. Creep rupture data were analyzed in terms of Monkman-Grant relation and Larson-Miller parameter. Creep damage tolerance factor and stress exponent were used to identify the cause of creep damage. The fracture surface morphology of the ruptured specimens was studied by scanning electron microscopy to elucidate the failure mechanisms. Fracture mechanism map for Grade 91 steel was developed based on the available material parameters and experimental observations. The microstructural

  2. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  3. Characterization of CTX-M enzymes, quinolone resistance determinants, and antimicrobial residues from hospital sewage, wastewater treatment plant, and river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Danieli; Palmeiro, Jussara Kasuko; da Silva Nogueira, Keite; de Lima, Thiago Marenda Rosa; Cardoso, Marco André; Pontarolo, Roberto; Degaut Pontes, Flávia Lada; Dalla-Costa, Libera Maria

    2017-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are widespread in hospitals and have been increasingly isolated from aquatic environments. The aim of the present study was to characterize extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and quinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from a hospital effluent, sanitary effluent, inflow sewage, aeration tank, and outflow sewage within a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), as well as river water upstream and downstream (URW and DRW, respectively), of the point where the WWTP treated effluent was discharged. β-lactamase (bla) genes, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), and quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were assessed by amplification and sequencing in 55 ESBL-positive and/or quinolone-resistant isolates. Ciprofloxacin residue was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. ESBL-producing isolates were identified in both raw (n=29) and treated (n=26) water; they included Escherichia coli (32), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22) and Klebsiella oxytoca (1). Resistance to both cephalosporins and quinolone was observed in 34.4% of E. coli and 27.3% of K. pneumoniae. Resistance to carbapenems was found in 5.4% of K. pneumoniae and in K. oxytoca. Results indicate the presence of bla CTX-M (51/55, 92.7%) and bla SHV (8/55, 14.5%) ESBLs, and bla GES (2/55, 3.6%) carbapenemase-encoding resistance determinants. Genes conferring quinolone resistance were detected at all sites, except in the inflow sewage and aeration tanks. Quinolone resistance was primarily attributed to amino acid substitutions in the QRDR of GyrA (47%) or to the presence of PMQR (aac-(6')-Ib-cr, oqxAB, qnrS, and/or qnrB; 52.9%) determinants. Ciprofloxacin residue was absent only from URW. Our results have shown strains carrying ESBL genes, PMQR determinants, and mutations in the gyrA QRDR genes mainly in hospital effluent, URW, and DRW samples. Antimicrobial use, and the inefficient removal of MDR bacteria and antibiotic residue during sewage treatment, may

  4. Additional correction of OAB symptoms by two anti-muscarinics for men over 50 years old with residual symptoms of moderate prostatic obstruction after treatment with Tamsulosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosilov, Kirill; Loparev, Sergey; Ivanovskaya, Marina; Kosilova, Liliya

    2015-03-01

    To study the effectiveness and safety of combined standard-dosed Solifenacin and Trospium for management of symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) in elderly patients after the treatment with Tamsulosin. A total of 417 men over 50 years of age (average age 57.9 (8.3)) with diagnosed prostatic obstruction (score 8-19 according to I-PSS), who had not taken Tamsulosin before, were enrolled in the study. I-PSS questionnaire (from 8 to 19 - moderate) and Awareness Tool questionnaire for evaluating OAB symptoms (total score for OAB symptoms over 8) were used at the beginning and at the end of the observation. Also, urodynamic parameters were examined. Percentage of patients with prevalent symptoms of obstruction of urethra decreases after the treatment with Tamsulosin and then rises again (36.2%), but absolute number of patients remains smaller than initial data. Percentage of patients with relative prevalence of symptoms of overactive bladder slightly increases against administration of Tamsulosin and reaches initial values at the time of administration of anti-muscarinic drugs with absolute decrease in number of such patients. Combination of Trospium and Solifenacin is an effective way to manage residual symptoms of hyperactive bladder during treatment of early obstruction of urinary bladder.

  5. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kristina [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  6. Effects of Land Configuration and Wood-shavings Mulch on Pore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the soil water retention curves of FBM, ORM and TRM are always higher than the retention curves for the bare treatments across the range of measured pressure potentials. Key words: Land configuration, wood-shavings, water retention, pore size, conservation, residue. Nigerian Journal of Soil Research Vol.5 ...

  7. Short-term alendronate treatment does not maintain a residual effect on spinal fusion with interbody devices and bone graft after treatment withdrawal: an experimental study on spinal fusion in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baoding; Zou, Xuenong; Li, Haisheng; Xue, Qingyun; Bünger, Cody

    2013-02-01

    Whether alendronate treatment has a residual effect on bone ingrowth into porous biomaterial in humans or experimental animals after treatment withdrawal is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate bone ingrowth into porous tantalum and carbon fiber interbody implants after discontinuing alendronate treatment in experimental spinal fusion in pigs. Twenty-four pigs were randomly divided into two groups of each 12 pigs. The pigs underwent anterior intervertebral lumbar arthrodeses at L2-3, L4-5 and L6-7. Each level was randomly allocated to one of the three implants: a porous tantalum ring with pedicle screw fixation, a porous tantalum ring or a carbon fiber cage with anterior staple fixation. The central hole of implants was packed with an autograft. Alendronate was given orally for the first 3 months to one of the two groups. The pigs were observed for 6 months postoperatively. Histology and micro-CT scans were done at the endpoint. The spinal fusion rates of each implant showed no differences between two treatment groups. Furthermore, no differences were found between two groups as for bone ingrowth into the central holes of implants and bone-implant interface in each implant, or as for the pores of tantalum implants. Trabecular bone microarchitecture in the central hole of the carbon fiber cage did not differ between two treatment groups. The application of ALN, with a dose equivalent to that given to humans during the first 3 months after surgery, does not maintain a residual effect on spinal fusion with porous tantalum ring and autograft after treatment withdrawal in a porcine ALIF model.

  8. Determination of pharmaceutical residues and assessment of their removal efficiency at the Daugavgriva municipal wastewater treatment plant in Riga, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, I; Muter, O; Pugajeva, I; Rusko, J; Perkons, I; Bartkevics, V

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products (PPs) belong to emerging contaminants that may accumulate along with other chemical pollutants in wastewaters (WWs) entering industrial and/or urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In the present study, the technique of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-HRMS) was applied for the analysis of 24 multi-class PPs in WW samples collected at different technological stages of Daugavgriva WWTP located in Riga, Latvia. Caffeine and acetaminophen levels in the range of 7,570-11,403 ng/L and 810-1,883 ng/L, respectively, were the predominant compounds among 19 PPs determined in the WW. The results indicate that aerobic digestion in biological ponds was insufficiently effective to degrade most of the PPs (reduction efficiency <0-50.0%) with the exception of four PPs that showed degradation efficiency varying from 55.0 to 99.9%. Tests of short-term chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis for PP degradation in WW samples were performed, and the results reflected the complexity of different degradation mechanisms and physicochemical transformations of PPs. The toxicological studies of WW impact on Daphnia magna indicated gradual reduction of the total toxicity through the treatment stages at the WWTP.

  9. A chemically enhanced biological process for lowering operative costs and solid residues of industrial recalcitrant wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iaconi, Claudio; Del Moro, Guido; De Sanctis, Marco; Rossetti, Simona

    2010-06-01

    An innovative process based on ozone-enhanced biological degradation, carried out in an aerobic granular biomass system (SBBGR--Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor), was tested at pilot scale for tannery wastewater treatment chosen as representative of industrial recalcitrant wastewater. The results have shown that the process was able to meet the current discharge limits when the biologically treated wastewater was recirculated through an adjacent reactor where a specific ozone dose of 120 mg O3/L(influent) was used. The benefits produced by using ozone were appreciable even visually since the final effluent of the process looked like tap water. In comparison with the conventional treatment, the proposed process was able to reduce the sludge production by 25-30 times and to save 60% of operating costs. Molecular in situ detection methods were employed in combination with the traditional measurements (oxygen uptake rate, total protein content, extracellular polymeric substances and hydrophobicity) to evaluate microbial activity and composition, and the structure of the biomass. A stable presence of active bacterial populations was observed in the biomass with the simultaneous occurrence of distinctive functional microbial groups involved in carbon, nitrogen and sulphate removal under different reaction environments established within the large microbial aggregates. The structure and activity of the biomass were not affected by the use of ozone. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced primary treatment of concentrated black water and kitchen residues within DESAR concept using two types of anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Elmitwalli, T; Zeeman, G

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of concentrated domestic wastewater streams--black or brown water, and solid fraction of kitchen waste is considered as a core technology in a source separation based sanitation concept (DESAR--decentralised sanitation and reuse). A simple anaerobic digester can be implemented for an enhanced primary treatment or, in some situations, as a main treatment. Two reactor configurations were extensively studied; accumulation system (AC) and UASB septic tank at 15, 20 and 25 degrees C. Due to long retention times in an AC reactor, far stabilisation of treated medium can be accomplished with methanisation up to 60%. The AC systems are the most suitable to apply when the volume of waste to be treated is minimal and when a direct reuse of a treated medium in agriculture is possible. Digested effluent contains both liquid and solids. In a UASB septic tank, efficient separation of solids and liquid is accomplished. The total COD removal was above 80% at 25 degrees C. The effluent contains COD and nutrients, mainly in a soluble form. The frequency of excess sludge removal is low and sludge is well stabilised due to a long accumulation time.

  11. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  12. Methods for storage and disposal of residues from wastewater treatment of former uranium mining and milling facilities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larue, J.; Weiss, D.; Kiessig, G.

    2002-01-01

    In connection with the flooding of uranium mines in Saxony and Thuringia, there are contaminated pit waters that must be purified before discharge into surface waters. The expected duration of the water purification process until concentrations of natural radionuclides, various heavy metals and arsenic are low enough to allow direct discharge into surface waters amounts to decades . To prevent or minimize the leaching of the contaminants from the sludge of the water treatment in the long term, the contaminants are either transformed into chemical compounds of low solubility or affixed within ion exchange resins. Due to the accumulation of those contaminants during the water processing procedure, the residua must be disposed of for reasons of radiation protection and waste management. A final storage of the residua in accord with nuclear regulatory stipulations is unnecessary because of the contamination levels and also because of the mining origin. The method of residua-storage chosen to be best suited to a particular site has to be based on costs-to-benefit analyses, giving due consideration to the different aspects e.g. radiation and environmental protection, long term safety, form of immobilization, site specific conditions. These methods will be described and illustrated using specific examples of applications. (author)

  13. Characterization of Rio Blanco retort 1 water following treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis; Residual brine treated by wet-air oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocornik, D.; Renk, R.

    1986-09-01

    Laboratory research has been conducted to evaluate the chemical, physical, and toxicological characteristics of treated and untreated water pumped from the flooded modified in situ retort at lease tract C-a. This wastewater had a total dissolved solids (TDS) content of about 5450 mg/L and a total organic carbon content of about 16 mg/L. Wet chemical analyses, metals analyses, particle-size analyses, and MICROTOX assays were performed on the wastewater before and after treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The reverse osmosis membrane used in this research was a Filmtec model SW30-2521 spiral-wound polyamide unit. In a short duration test at a TDS of 21,800 mg/L, the reverse osmosis system successfully removed dissolved solids and organics from the wastewater. The water was also much less toxic to the MICROTOX organism after treatment by reverse osmosis. Membrane fouling was observed when water with a TDS of 54,500 mg/L was treated. Treatment of the reverse osmosis residual brine was attempted by subcritical wet-air oxidation. The brine remaining after the 170-hour test on the water with a TDS of 5450 mg/L was subjected to temperatures ranging from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F) and pressures from 500 to 1600 psig for approximately 30 minutes. The waste treated by the higher temperatures and pressures showed good removals of organics, nitrogen compounds, and some metals. The sample treated at 302/sup 0/C (575/sup 0/F) and 1300 psi was assayed for MICROTOX response and no toxicity was measured. The reverse osmosis brine was significantly toxic to the MICROTOX organism before treatment by subcritical wet-air oxidation. 14 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Minimum incidence of congenital talipes equino-varus (CTEV) and post treatment evaluation of residual deformities in a population in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzivire, D; Useh, D; Mashegede, P T; Siziya, S

    2002-01-01

    To determine the minimum incidence (MI) of congenital talipes equino-varus (CTEV) in children; evaluate the association between CTEV and other congenital anomalies, and to assess the presence of residual deformities after conservative management at the physiotherapy department of Harare Central Hospital (HCH), Zimbabwe. A three year retrospective study. Physiotherapy Department, HCH, Harare, Zimbabwe. Eighty-two children with CTEV who were assessed and treated at HCH Physiotherapy Department from January 1994 to December 1996. MI of club foot and degree of correction of the club foot after conservative management of the deformity by the physiotherapist. An MI rate of about 0.9 per 1000 was found over a three year period. It was also found that 30.5% of these children had other associated congenital abnormalities. There was no significant association between gender and severity of deformity (P = 0.326). A significant association between the severity of CTEV and the presence of other associated congenital deformities was found (P = 0.013). 91% of the feet were found to have a satisfactory result of treatment using the Wynne Davis scoring system (WDSS). 52% of the patients with residual deformity after discharge from physiotherapy presented with limitation in ankle and sub-talar movements. This study also indicated that children with grade 2 type of deformities were more likely to have other congenital abnormalities than those with grades 1 or 3. The MI of CTEV in the studied population was found to be lower than other countries. The WDSS indicated that a great majority of the feet examined scored above average score.

  15. Effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical Marginal-gaps on the survival of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment approach restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Kemoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART approach has been in existence for a while, the reasons for the poor performance of multisurface ART restorations are not very clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical marginal-gaps on survival of proximal ART restorations. Settings: Two rural divisions in Kenya were selected for the study. Design: A randomized clinical trial. Material and Methods: The 804 children in the study had their baseline- and 2-year dental plaque levels documented. Each child received one proximal restoration in a primary molar using ART approach, together with trained and pre-tested operators/assistants, three glass ionomer cements (GIC-brands and two tooth-isolation methods. The restorations were clinically evaluated soon after placement and after 2 years. Post-restorative bite-wing radiographs taken soon after restoration were also evaluated. Statistical analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 14 computer programme was used and results tested using Pearson′s correlation, Cox Proportional Hazards regression analysis and Multiple Logistic regression models tests. Results: At baseline and after 2 years, the mean cumulative survival and plaque index changed from 94.4% to 30.8% and 2.34 (Standard Deviation, or SD of 0.46 to 1.92 (SD 2.1 respectively, with higher plaque indices associated with higher restoration failures. Of the 507 radiographs evaluated, 48 (9.5%, 63 (12.4% and 9 (1.8% restorations had residual caries (RC, cervical marginal-gaps (CMG and both RC/CMG respectively. Survival of the restorations with RC/CMG was significantly lower (p = 0.003 compared to those with RC or without RC. Conclusion: Low survival of proximal restorations in the study was associated with the presence of cervical marginal-gaps.

  16. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pollutant removal performance of an integrated upflow-constructed wetland filled with haydites made of Al-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendong; Han, Yu; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Ke; Yue, Qiang; Bo, Longli; Wang, Xiaochang

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the pollutants removal performance of an integrated upflow-constructed wetland (IUCW) system in a 1.5 years' continuous operation. The average concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH 4 -N, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the effluent were 21.9, 1.47, 2.63, and 0.18 mg/L, respectively, which corresponded to 90.1%, 23.3%, 86.1%, and 97.2% removals from the raw water, respectively. The residual concentration of COD was 219 mg/L at start-up and decreased notably to 52.8 mg/L after 50 days of operation. NH 4 -N was difficult to remove because the average concentration of dissolved oxygen in the IUCW system was lower than 0.6 mg/L. In contrast, the residual concentrations of both TN and TP in the effluent were stable, with average removal rates as high as 89% and 99%, respectively, at start-up of the system. Changing the organic loading rates from 45.0 g/(m 2 ·day) to 20.0 or 60.0 g/(m 2 ·day) both inhibited the removal of TN. Further study showed that the removal of organic matter mainly occurred within 10-20 cm of the wetland cell. Considering its strong organic, nitrogen, and phosphate removal capacity, the IUCW system was determined to be effective in decentralized wastewater treatment.

  18. Combining mechanical-biological residual waste treatment plants with the carbonisation-combustion process; Kombination MBA mit dem Schwel-Brenn-Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, J.; Wiehn, G. [Siemens AG Unternehmensbereich KWU, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Energieerzeugung

    1998-09-01

    The disposal market for household waste is strongly influenced by the legal framework governing it. A further factor that makes it difficult for the authorities responsible for disposal to decide on residual waste disposal by means of thermal or mechanical-biological treatment plants is the downward pressure on disposal prices from inexpensive, underused landfills. This makes it all the more important for a future-oriented waste management to develop a both economically and ecologically optimised waste disposal concept. In this situation there is much in favour of adopting a concept consisting of a combination of mechanical, mechanical-biological, and thermal treatment which takes due account of waste disposal concepts at the regional and supraregional scale. [Deutsch] Der Entsorgungsmarkt fuer Siedlungsabfaelle wird stark durch die Entwicklung der rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen beeinflusst. Hinzu kommt, dass der Entscheidungsprozess der oeffentlichen Entsorgungstraeger zur Restabfallentsorgung mittels thermischer oder mechanisch-biologischer Anlagen durch den Druck auf die Entsorgungspreise aufgrund der kostenguenstigen, nicht ausgelasteten Deponien erschwert wird. Umso mehr muss das Ziel einer zukunftsorientierten Abfallwirtschaft sein, unter oekonomischen und oekologischen Gesichtspunkten ein optimiertes Abfallkonzept aufzubauen. Hier kann es sehr hilfreich sein, sich eines Konzeptes, bestehend aus der Kombination von mechanischer, mechanisch-biologischer und thermischer Behandlung unter Beruecksichtigung des regionalen und ueberregionalen Abfallkonzeptes zu bedienen. (orig./SR)

  19. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  20. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  1. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridker, Paul M; Genest, Jacques; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Libby, Peter; Gotto, Antonio M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Mora, Samia; MacFadyen, Jean G; Glynn, Robert J; Kastelein, John J P

    2010-07-31

    HDL-cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with occurrence of cardiovascular events. We addressed, using the JUPITER trial cohort, whether this association remains when LDL-cholesterol concentrations are reduced to the very low ranges with high-dose statin treatment. Participants in the randomised placebo-controlled JUPITER trial were adults without diabetes or previous cardiovascular disease, and had baseline concentrations of LDL cholesterol of less than 3.37 mmol/L and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein of 2 mg/L or more. Participants were randomly allocated by a computer-generated sequence to receive rosuvastatin 20 mg per day or placebo, with participants and adjudicators masked to treatment assignment. In the present analysis, we divided the participants into quartiles of HDL-cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1 and sought evidence of association between these quartiles and the JUPITER primary endpoint of first non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke, hospitalisation for unstable angina, arterial revascularisation, or cardiovascular death. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00239681. For 17,802 patients in the JUPITER trial, rosuvastatin 20 mg per day reduced the incidence of the primary endpoint by 44% (p<0.0001). In 8901 (50%) patients given placebo (who had a median on-treatment LDL-cholesterol concentration of 2.80 mmol/L [IQR 2.43-3.24]), HDL-cholesterol concentrations were inversely related to vascular risk both at baseline (top quartile vs bottom quartile hazard ratio [HR] 0.54, 95% CI 0.35-0.83, p=0.0039) and on-treatment (0.55, 0.35-0.87, p=0.0047). By contrast, among the 8900 (50%) patients given rosuvastatin 20 mg (who had a median on-treatment LDL-cholesterol concentration of 1.42 mmol/L [IQR 1.14-1.86]), no significant relationships were noted between quartiles of HDL-cholesterol concentration and vascular risk either at baseline (1.12, 0.62-2.03, p=0.82) or on-treatment (1.03, 0.57-1.87, p=0.97). Our analyses

  2. Biochemical changes and drug residues in ascidian Halocynthia roretzi after formalin–hydrogen peroxide treatment regimen designed against soft tunic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Soft tunic syndrome (STS is a protozoal disease caused by Azumiobodo hoyamushi in the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Previous studies have proven that combined formalin–hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 bath is effective in reducing STS progress and mortality. To secure target animal safety for field applications, toxicity of the treatment needs to be evaluated. Healthy ascidians were bathed for 1 week, 1 h a day at various bathing concentrations. Bathing with 5- and 10-fold optimum concentration caused 100% mortality of ascidians, whereas mortality by 0.5- to 2.0-fold solutions was not different from that of control. Of the oxidative damage parameters, MDA levels did not change after 0.5- and 1.0-fold bathing. However, free radical scavenging ability and reducing power were significantly decreased even with the lower-than-optimal 0.5-fold concentration. Glycogen content tended to increase with 1-fold bathing without statistical significance. All changes induced by the 2-fold bathing were completely or partially restored to control levels 48 h post-bathing. Free amino acid analysis revealed a concentration-dependent decline in aspartic acid and cysteine levels. In contrast, alanine and valine levels increased after the 2-fold bath treatment. These data indicate that the currently established effective disinfectant regimen against the parasitic pathogen is generally safe, and the biochemical changes observed are transient, lasting approximately 48 h at most. Low levels of formalin and H2O2 were detectable 1 h post-bathing; however, the compounds were completely undetectable after 48 h of bathing. Formalin–H2O2 bathing is effective against STS; however, reasonable care is required in the treatment to avoid unwanted toxicity. Drug residues do not present a concern for consumer safety.

  3. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  4. Influence of cover crops and crop residue treatment on soil organic carbon stocks evaluated in Swedish long-term field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeplau, Christopher; Bolinder, Martin A.; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kätterer, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural soils are strongly controlled by management. In this study we quantified the effect of cover crops and crop residue management on SOC stocks in Swedish long-term experiments. Eight pairs of cover crop (undersown ryegrass) vs. no cover crop were investigated in Swedish long-term field experiments (16 to 24 years). Yields of the main crop were not affected by the cover crop. Cover crops significantly increased SOC stocks, with a mean carbon sequestration rate in all experiments (excluding one) of 0.32±0.29 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Interestingly, this sequestration is similar to that estimated for a U.S.experiment, where ryegrass growth is much less temperature- and light-limited than under Swedish conditions. This sequestration rate is also the same as that recently reported for many other cover crops in a global meta-analysis but less than SOC changes in ley-dominated rotations which under Nordic conditions were shown to accumulate in average 0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 more carbon compared to exclusively annual cropping systems. Thus, originally introduced in agricultural rotations to reduce nitrate leaching, cover crops are also an effective practice to increase SOC stocks, even at relatively high latitudes. The effect of crop residue treatment was studied in 16 pairs of straw incorporated (SI) vs. straw removed (SR) treatments in six Swedish long-term field experiments. Data series on SOC with 5-28 sampling dates during 27-53 years were analysed using ICBM, a dynamic SOC model. At five out of six sites, the humification coefficient for straw (hlitter; the fraction of straw C that is entering the slow C pool) was much smaller (0-0.09) than the ICBM default h-value for plant material estimated in previous studies (0.125). The derived hlitter-values and thus the stabilization of straw-derived carbon increased significantly with clay content. For an Italian site (with five pairs of SI vs. SR) that was used for model validation we found

  5. Disappearing or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging: Is local treatment required?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Young Kon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Suk; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Seung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical course of disappearing colorectal liver metastases (DLM) or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases (RTCLM) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who had colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and received chemotherapy. Among 137 patients who received chemotherapy for CLM and underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI between 2010 and 2012, 43 patients with 168 DLMs and 48 RTCLMs were included. The cumulative in situ recurrence rate of DLM and progression rate of RTCLM and their predictive factors were evaluated. A total of 150 DLMs and 26 RTCLMs were followed up without additional treatment. At 1 and 2 years, respectively, the cumulative in situ recurrence rates for DLM were 10.9 % and 15.7 % and the cumulative progression rates for RTCLM were 27.2 % and 33.2 %. The in situ recurrence rate at 2 years was 4.9 % for the DLM group that did not show reticular hypointensity of liver parenchyma on hepatobiliary phase. DLM on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and DWI indicates a high possibility of clinical complete response, especially in patients without chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Thirty-three percent of RTCLMs showed progression at 2 years. (orig.)

  6. TENORM: Drinking Water Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has specific regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) that limit the amount of radioactivity allowed in community water systems. Learn about methods used to treat these water supplies to remove radioactivity and manage wastes.

  7. Statistical modeling to management and treatment of scrap with low and very low residual activity; Hacia la modelizacion estadistica de la gestion y tratamiento de chatarras con baja y muy bajo actividad residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Bermejo Fernandez, R.; Anaya Lazaro, M.

    2011-07-01

    The experience of recent years on the management of scrap metal containing residual activity have allowed the development of a simple statistical model for the management of these materials. This statistical model includes a breakdown of the various processing operations to which these materials undergo and the effects in the process of radiological controls associated to the control of declassification that defines disposal (recycled by smelting, reclamation, temporary storage the plant or sent to final storage of radioactive waste).

  8. 77 FR 50622 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Concerning Regulations That Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National Technology... Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations K. Congressional Review Act I. Background A. Basis for Land... the likelihood of migration of hazardous constituents from the waste so that short-term and long-term...

  9. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate as augmentation therapy in adults with residual symptoms of major depressive disorder after treatment with escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Madhukar H; Cutler, Andrew J; Richards, Cynthia; Lasser, Robert; Geibel, Brooke B; Gao, Joseph; Sambunaris, Angelo; Patkar, Ashwin A

    2013-08-01

    Evaluate the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate augmentation for major depressive disorder (MDD) in escitalopram nonremitters. In this proof-of-concept study (conducted from July 2009-August 2010) with a prespecified critical α = .10, adults with nonpsychotic MDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and residual depressive symptoms (17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score ≥ 4) after 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram were randomized to 6 weeks of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (20-50 mg/d) or placebo augmentation. The primary endpoint, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score change in escitalopram nonremitters (MADRS total score > 10) from week 8 (augmentation baseline) to week 14/end of study, was assessed using analysis of covariance, with last observation carried forward. For nonremitters (placebo, n = 64; lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, n = 65), the least squares (LS) mean (90% CI) treatment difference for MADRS total score reduction at week 14/end of study (-2.3 [-4.5 to -0.1]; P = .0902) met the prespecified criterion for lisdexamfetamine dimesylate superiority (adjusted effect size, -0.3); the number needed to treat for MADRS remission (MADRS total score ≤ 10) was 6.7. The LS mean treatment difference in remitters was not statistically significant (1.2 [-1.6 to 4.0]; P = .4726). Among randomized participants, 49.4% (42/85) receiving placebo and 60.2% (53/88) receiving lisdexamfetamine dimesylate had ≥ 1 treatment-emergent adverse event, the most frequent with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate being dry mouth and headache (both 11.4%). Mean (SD) vital sign and electrocardiogram changes (placebo vs lisdexamfetamine dimesylate) were 0.5 (8.98) versus 2.3 (9.04) mm Hg (systolic blood pressure), -1.0 (7.19) versus 0.9 (6.61) mm Hg (diastolic blood pressure), -0.4 (7.39) versus 4.8 (8.64) beats per minute (heart rate), and -1.6 (11.23) versus -4.9 (11.84) milliseconds (Fridericia-adjusted QTc). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate augmentation

  10. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  11. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Optimizing the use of fibrous residues in beef and dairy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A K; MacDonald, J C; Erickson, G E; Kononoff, P J; Klopfenstein, T J

    2015-06-01

    Increased corn prices over the past decade have altered land use away from traditional forage in favor of corn. Accordingly, beef and dairy producers have had to adopt nontraditional forage resources into their production systems, many of which have become available as a result of increased corn production. Corn residues have become more available due to increases in corn hectares and yield. The individual plant components (i.e., husk, leaf, and stem) vary in fiber digestibility (NDF digestibility estimates = 40.5, 31.4, and 0.6% ± 0.8 for husk, leaf, and stalk, respectively). Stocking cattle to consume 3.6 kg forage/25.5 kg of grain allows cattle to graze selectively; selection of husks and leaves improves cattle performance. Byproducts of the wet and dry milling industries can be supplemented to calves grazing corn residues to provide protein and energy. Optimal gains were observed when these byproducts were supplemented at approximately 2.5 kg/d to 250-kg growing calves. Gestating beef cows do not require supplemental inputs when grazing corn residue, if stocked appropriately. Alkaline treatment of crop residues improves their feeding value. Concentrations of up to 20% harvested corn residue treated with calcium oxide can be included in finishing diets with an average of 1.3% reduction in G:F when diets contain 40% wet or modified distillers grains. Conversely, when untreated corn residues are included in similar finishing diets, G:F is reduced by 13.4%. Calcium oxide-treated residues included in beef growing diets increases DMI and ADG without significant improvements in G:F. Calcium oxide treatment of corn residues has been evaluated in dairy diets by replacing corn or corn silage with variable results. Efficient use of nontraditional fiber sources, such as corn milling byproducts and corn residue, are critical to the future viability of ruminant animal production.

  12. Management of industrial solid residues; Gerenciamento de residuos solidos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the management of industrial solid wastes, approaching the following subjects: classification of industrial solid residues; directives and methodologies for the management of industrial solid residues; instruments for the management of industrial solid residues; handling, packing, storage and transportation; treatment of industrial solid residues; final disposal - landfill for industrial residues; the problem of treatment and final disposer of domestic garbage in Brazil; recycling of the lubricant oils used in brazil; legislation.

  13. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  14. Simulating feedbacks in land use and land cover change models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the many advances in land use and land cover change modelling over the past decade many challenges remain. One of these challenges relates to the explicit treatment of feedback mechanisms in descriptive models of the land use system. This paper argues for model-based analysis to explore

  15. Disposal Situation of Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs and Assessment of the Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals for Its Land Use in Shanxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoling Duan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use of sewage sludge is the primary disposal method in Shanxi, accounting for 42.66% of all. To determine the ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge, contents of seven heavy metals in sewage sludge from 9 municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTPs that had the highest application for land use were determined. The order of the measured concentrations was: Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd, and all heavy metals contents were within the threshold limit values of the Chinese Control Standards for Pollutants in Sludge from Agriculture Use (GB4284-84. Four indices were used to assess the pollution and the ecological risk of heavy metals. By the mean values of the geoaccumulation index (Igeo, heavy metals were ranked in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Ni > Pb. The values showed that the pollution of Zn in station 3 and Cd in station 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 9 were heavily; Cu in station 8 and 9, Zn in station 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 and Cd in station 5 and 7 were moderately to heavily, and the accumulation of other heavy metals were not significant. The single-factor pollution index (PI suggested that none of the stations had heavy metals contamination, except for Cu in station 9, Zn in station 3 and 8, and Cd in station 1 and 9, which were at a moderate level. According to the results of the Nemerow’s synthetic pollution index (PN, sewage sludge from all stations was safe for land use with respect to heavy metals contamination, except for stations 3, 8 and 9, which were at the warning line. The monomial potential ecological risk coefficient (Eri revealed that heavy metals ecological risks in most stations were low. However, station 9 had a moderate risk for Cu; station 6 had a moderate risk, stations 5 and 7 had high risk, other stations had very high risk for Cd. According to the results of the potential ecological risk index (RI, station 1, 8 and 9 had high risk; station 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 had a moderate risk, and station 6 had a

  16. Disposal Situation of Sewage Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and Assessment of the Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals for Its Land Use in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Baoling; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Qiang; Bu, Yushan

    2017-07-21

    Land use of sewage sludge is the primary disposal method in Shanxi, accounting for 42.66% of all. To determine the ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge, contents of seven heavy metals in sewage sludge from 9 municipal waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) that had the highest application for land use were determined. The order of the measured concentrations was: Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd, and all heavy metals contents were within the threshold limit values of the Chinese Control Standards for Pollutants in Sludge from Agriculture Use (GB4284-84). Four indices were used to assess the pollution and the ecological risk of heavy metals. By the mean values of the geoaccumulation index (I geo ), heavy metals were ranked in the following order: Cd > Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Ni > Pb. The values showed that the pollution of Zn in station 3 and Cd in station 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 and 9 were heavily; Cu in station 8 and 9, Zn in station 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 and Cd in station 5 and 7 were moderately to heavily, and the accumulation of other heavy metals were not significant. The single-factor pollution index (PI) suggested that none of the stations had heavy metals contamination, except for Cu in station 9, Zn in station 3 and 8, and Cd in station 1 and 9, which were at a moderate level. According to the results of the Nemerow's synthetic pollution index (PN), sewage sludge from all stations was safe for land use with respect to heavy metals contamination, except for stations 3, 8 and 9, which were at the warning line. The monomial potential ecological risk coefficient (Eri) revealed that heavy metals ecological risks in most stations were low. However, station 9 had a moderate risk for Cu; station 6 had a moderate risk, stations 5 and 7 had high risk, other stations had very high risk for Cd. According to the results of the potential ecological risk index (RI), station 1, 8 and 9 had high risk; station 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 had a moderate risk, and station 6 had a low risk. The

  17. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  18. Treatment reduction for children and young adults with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia defined by minimal residual disease (UKALL 2003): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Ajay; Goulden, Nick; Wade, Rachel; Mitchell, Chris; Hancock, Jeremy; Hough, Rachael; Rowntree, Clare; Richards, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) is the most sensitive and specific predictor of relapse risk in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during remission. We assessed whether treatment intensity could be adjusted for children and young adults according to MRD risk stratification. Between Oct 1, 2003 and June 30, 2011, consecutive children and young adults (aged 1-25 years) with ALL from the UK and Ireland were recruited. Eligible patients were categorised into clinical standard, intermediate, and high risk groups on the basis of a combination of National Cancer Institute (NCI) criteria, cytogenetics, and early response to induction therapy, which was assessed by bone marrow blast counts taken at days 8 (NCI high-risk patients) and 15 (NCI standard-risk patients) after induction began. Clinical standard-risk and intermediate-risk patients were assessed for MRD. Those classified as MRD low risk (undetectable MRD at the end of induction [day 29] or detectable MRD at day 29 that became undetectable by week 11) were randomly assigned to receive one or two delayed intensification courses. Patients had received induction, consolidation, and interim maintenance therapy before they began delayed intensification. Delayed intensification consisted of pegylated asparaginase on day 4; vincristine, dexamethasone (alternate weeks), and doxorubicin for 3 weeks; and 4 weeks of cyclophosphamide and cytarabine. Computer randomisation was done with stratification by MRD result and balancing for sex, age, and white blood cell count at diagnosis by method of minimisation. Patients, clinicians, and data analysts were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was event-free survival (EFS), which was defined as time to relapse, secondary tumour, or death. Our aim was to rule out a 7% reduction in EFS in the group given one delayed intensification course relative to that given two delayed intensification courses. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is

  19. Ultrafiltration in laxative treatment of urban solid residues dump. Experience in the Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter (Girona, Spain); Ultrafiltracion en el tratamiento de lixiviados de vertedero de RSU. Experiencia en el Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of lixiviates owes fundamentally to the degradation of the organic matter present in the solid residues of dump and his dragging for rain water percolated. These liquids are characterized by high concentrations of organic pollutants, ammonia nitrogen, metallic ions and other potentially toxic substances. Several technologies for lixiviates treatment are used in Deposito Controlado de Puigpalter (Girona), like ultrafiltration, which has demonstrated his efficiency and reliability during the first 12 months of exploitation. (Author)

  20. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  1. Tratamento de águas residuárias da suinocultura utilizando-se filtros orgânicos Treatment of swine wastewater using organic filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane dos Santos Brandão

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento primário da água residuária de suinocultura pode ser feito por filtragem; para isto, torna-se oportuno o estudo de materiais alternativos a serem utilizados como meio filtrante e, com este intuito, foram utilizados o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, a casca de arroz, a casca de café, o fino de carvão vegetal, o sabugo de milho e a serragem de madeira, acondicionados em tubos de PVC de diâmetro de 100 mm, constituindo colunas de 500 mm de altura. O sistema de filtragem foi mantido sob escoamento permanente, com fluxo em meio saturado, e pequena ou nenhuma alteração foi detectada na concentração de N-total, Ca, Mg e Zn no efluente do filtro, enquanto que as concentrações de P-total, Na e K aumentaram no efluente obtido em filtros de casca de arroz, casca de café e sabugo de milho. Significativa redução na concentração de Cu foi constatada para todos os materiais utilizados como filtro, atingindo-se eficiência de remoção de até 43,6%. Eficiências de remoção superiores a 90% foram obtidas para sólidos sedimentáveis enquanto a remoção de sólidos totais ficou abaixo de 33,0%.The primary treatment of swine wastewater can be done by filtration. To this end, the study of alternative materials as a filter media is necessary. With this objective, rice husk, coffee straw, sugar-cane trash, triturated corncob, wood sawdust and fine vegetable coal were used as media, conditioned in PVC tubes of 100 mm in diameter and 500 mm in height. The filtering system was maintained under saturated flow conditions. Little or no change was detected in the concentration of N-total, Ca, Mg and Zn in the effluent of the filter, although the concentration of P-total and K increased in the effluents of the filters of rice husk, coffee straw, triturate corncob, reaching a maximum removal efficiency of 43.6%. Removal efficiencies of sedimentable solids higher than 90.0% were obtained in all materials employed as a filtration media, although

  2. Monitoring of air toxics through air pathways in support of a No-Migration permit at a refinery land treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wineberry, W.T. Jr.; McReynolds, J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of Exxon's petition of the EPA for No-Migration variances, ambient concentrations of toxicants and carcinogens are required to be verified through onsite monitoring for comparison to the appropriate health based limits as well as for calibration of previously used atmospheric dispersion models. Ambient air around land treatment facilities us a very complex, dynamic system of interacting chemicals. Pollutants can be found in the gas phase, in the particulate phase, or in the aerosol phase. The complex nature of the dynamic air system around these facilities contributes to the complexity of the sampling and analytical selection for the identification and quantification for these chemicals. The selection of the proper sampling and analysis methods for a pollutant depends on many important interrelated factors, including compounds of interest, the level of detection required, the degree of specificity needed, and the purpose of the data collected. Other factors which may be as important as the above are cost, the accuracy and precision required, need for real-time versus long-term data, and the need for on-site or off-site analysis. Sampling time, sampling rate, the volume of air to be sampled and the acceptable risk level are also factors which must be considered when choosing a sampling method. The purpose of the ambient air monitoring program is to obtain a comparison of predicted concentration to those measured. This paper will focus on the ambient air monitoring program at Exxon's land treatment facility as part of a No-Migration variance to EPA's Land Ban Regulations. Ambient Air Monitoring data involving volatile, semi-volatile and metals/particulate matter less than ten microns (PM-10) will be presented

  3. Characterisation of winery wastewater from continuous flow settling basins and waste stabilisation ponds over the course of 1 year: implications for biological wastewater treatment and land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, P J; Holtman, G; Haldenwang, R; le Roes-Hill, M

    2016-11-01

    Wineries generate 0.2 to 4 L of wastewater per litre of wine produced. Many cellars make use of irrigation as a means of disposal, either directly or after storage. In order to consider the potential downstream impacts of storage/no storage, this study critically compared the seasonal organic and inorganic composition of fresh winery effluent with effluent that had been stored in waste stabilisation ponds. Ethanol and short chain volatile fatty acids were the main contributors to chemical oxygen demand (COD), with average concentrations of 2,086 and 882 mgCOD/L, respectively. Total phenolics were typically present in concentrations wastewater treatment by natural nitrogen supplementation. It is therefore recommended that if land requirements can be met, winery effluent should be stored in ponds prior to treatment.

  4. Alternative treatments for indoor residual spraying for malaria control in a village with pyrethroid- and DDT-resistant vectors in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangena, J.A.A.; Adiamoh, M.; Alessandro, D' U.; Jarju, L.; Jawara, M.; Jeffries, D.; Malik, N.; Nwakanma, D.; Kaur, H.; Takken, W.; Lindsay, S.W.; Pinder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malaria vector control is threatened by resistance to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used for treating bed nets. The second major vector control method is indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids or the organochloride DDT. However, resistance to pyrethroids frequently

  5. Improving yield and composition of protein concentrates from green tea residue in an agri-food supply chain: Effect of pre-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Krimpen, Van Marinus M.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Rather than improving crop-production yield, developing biorefinery technology for unused biomass from the agri-food supply chain may be the crucial factor to reach sustainable global food security. A successful example of food-driven biorefinery is the extraction of protein from green tea residues,

  6. Land Application of Treated Sewage Sludge in the United States: Regulatory Considerations for Risk Reduction and Determining Treatment Process Equivalency

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, municipal wastewater includes discharges from households, commercial businesses and various industries. Microorganisms associated with these wastes can be concentrated in the solids (sludge) which are removed during treatment operations. Beneficial reuse a...

  7. Distribution and biodegradability of 14C-residues bound in various soil fractions after treatment of the soil with model 14C-chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, I.; Meer-Bekk, C. ter; Korte, F.

    1986-01-01

    The long-term fate of 14 C-labelled 4-chloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichloroaniline, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and trichloroethylene in soil was studied under field conditions. As a natural reference compound, 14 C-glucose was also studied. Most of the trichloroethylene applied was lost by volatilization and/or degradation during a 25-week period. The soils were exhaustively extracted with methanol and then re-extracted with acetate buffer solutions. The extracted soils were fractionated into humic acid, fulvic acid, humin and inorganic fractions. With the exception of 2,4,6-trichloroaniline the bound residues were more than 31% of the amount of radiocarbon initially applied. Insoluble residues of the natural compound glucose were bound preferentially in the inorganic fraction, whereas 14 C of the four xenobiotics was concentrated more in the humic acid fraction, with the portion increasing in the order: glucose 14 C in soil is present in a metabolized form. (author)

  8. Characterization of residues of effluent treatment plant from lapping process of soda-lime glass and its application in the production of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Aline Pignaton; Calmon, Joao Luiz; Tristao, Fernando Avancini

    2012-01-01

    This study enunciates the physical, chemical and mineralogical composition of the residue from the process of ETE cutting of soda-lime glasses and its application in concrete as a replacement to the weight of CPV ARI RS cement, at levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Tests were performed on fresh and hardened (ages 3, 7, 28 and 300 days). The results were compared and statistically analyzed. In the fresh state, reductions in the amount of exuding water and consistency were observed. The results of compressive strength were statistically different, while the results for the tensile strength by diametrical compression and modulus of elasticity results were belonging to homogeneous groups. Beneficial effects the levels of residue on the cementitious matrix and the transition zone of concrete were identified by SEM, particularly concrete in S15

  9. Treatment of minimal residual disease after surgery or chemotherapy in mice carrying HPV16-associated tumours: cytokine and gene therapy with IL-2 and GM-CSF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Indrová, Marie; Šímová, Jana; Jandlová, Táňa; Bieblová, Jana; Jinoch, P.; Bubeník, Jan; Vonka, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2004), s. 161-167 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA MZd NC7552; GA ČR GA301/01/0985 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV16 * gene therapy * minimal residual tumour disease Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2004

  10. Genetically modified cellular vaccines against human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-associated tumors: adjuvant treatment of minimal residual disease after surgery/chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2009), s. 169-173 ISSN 1107-0625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/06/0774; GA ČR GA301/07/1410 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : residual tumour disease * HPV 16 * cellular vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2009

  11. Three-way principal component analysis as a tool to evaluate the chemical stability of metal bearing residues from wastewater treatment by the ferrite process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Rafael; Vega, Marisol; Barrado, Enrique; Castrillejo, Yolanda; Sánchez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal fractionation of residues from the ferrite process was investigated by n-way PCA. • BCR sequential extraction procedure used for metal fractionation. • Tucker3 algorithm originated a coherent two-term trilinear model. • Metal fractionation patterns correlate with magnetic character of solids. -- Abstract: The chemical fractionation patterns of eight metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been determined in 27 metal-bearing residues by using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. The residues were generated as by-products during the optimization of a semi-continuous reactor for metal removal from wastewater based on ferrite synthesis by co-precipitation. The three-dimensional X dataset (samples × metals × fractions) obtained by applying the BCR procedure has been analyzed by multivariate methods: matrix augmentation (MA-PCA) and three-way principal component analysis, 3-PCA (PARAFAC and Tucker3 models). MA-PCA and PARAFAC methods led to two-factor models giving a satisfactory but incomplete picture of the metal fractionation patterns, but the Tucker3 [2,1,2] model allowed to simultaneously describe both the ‘pseudo-total’ (acid-soluble) contents and the chemical fractionation by means of two non-null interactions g 111 and g 212 which explain 53.5% and 18.0% of the total variance, respectively. The A-mode loadings of the g 212 interaction showed the close relationship between the magnetic character of the solid residues, i.e. the crystalline structure, and the chemical fractionation patterns of the metals resulting from the application of the BCR sequential extraction procedure

  12. On-Treatment Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Apolipoprotein B, Triglycerides, and Lipid Ratios in Relation to Residual Vascular Risk After Treatment With Potent Statin Therapy JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Ridker, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to determine whether residual risk after high-dose statin therapy for primary prevention individuals with reduced levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is related to on-treatment apolipoprotein B, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

  13. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  14. Quantifying the net economic benefits of mechanical wildfire hazard treatments on timberlands of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Karen L. Abt; James R. Barbour

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical treatment of vegetation is done on public and private lands for many possible reasons, including enhancing wildlife habitat, increasing timber growth of residual stands, and improving resistance to damaging pests. Few studies, however, have focused on the circumstances under which mechanical wildfire hazard reduction treatments can yield positive net...

  15. Residues of Avermectin B1a in rotational crops and soils following soil treatment with [14C]Avermectin B1a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moye, H.A.; Malagodi, M.H.; Yoh, H.; Leibee, G.L.; Ku, C.C.; Wislocki, P.G.

    1987-01-01

    [ 14 C]Avermectin B 1 a was applied twelve times to muck and sandy loam soils and three times to sandy soil at 0.025-0.030 lb/acre per application. These applications simulated the intended use of avermectin B 1 a on celery, vegetables, and cotton, respectively. Following three aging periods in each soil type, sorghum, lettuce, and carrot or turnip seeds were planted and harvested at one-fourth, half, and full size. Analysis of these crops by oxidative combustion demonstrated that crops grown in muck, sandy loam, and sandy soils contained radiolabeled residues ranging from below the limit of quantitation (BLQ) to 7.4 μg/kg of avermectin B 1 a equivalents, BLQ to 11.6 μg/kg, and BLQ to 3.54 μg/kg, respectively. There was a general trend of decreasing residue concentrations with increasing preharvest intervals in crops grown in all soils. The radioactivity present in muck and sandy loam soils disappeared with half-lives ranging from 103 to 267 days and from 102 to 132 days, respectively

  16. Review of the logging residue problem and its reduction through marketing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Adams; Richard C. Smith

    1976-01-01

    This study notes the increasing concern over logging residue in forest land management and describes the various administrative and technological means for accomplishing reductions of logging residue. Alternative sales arrangements can include such things as reduction of stumpage charges for low quality logs or required yarding of unutilized material to the landing or...

  17. THE NATURE OF LAND OWNERSHIP AND THE PROTECTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    solution to these problems and in this context the writer strongly suggests that a land registration system of some model .... The construction of a coherent legal regime for land has not been a simple or instant process. ... crown and also to prescribe the residue of unalienated land as the sovereign's beneficial interests. It ...

  18. Disposal of radioactive residuals requires careful planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontius, F.W.

    1994-01-01

    Radionuclides removed from source waters during water treatment become concentrated in residual liquids and sludges. Treatment technologies used to remove these contaminants from source waters may generate wastes that contain substantial radioactivity. Water systems that install one or more of these technologies in order to comply with the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) eventually adopted must dispose of the residuals. Disposal of radionuclide-containing wastes can be especially difficult, depending on the nature and amount of radioactivity present

  19. Effect of heat treatment on residual stress and wear behaviors of the TiNi/Ti2Ni based laser cladding composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang-Feng; Li, Jun; Lv, Ying-Hao; Hu, Lie-Feng

    2017-12-01

    The TiNi/Ti2Ni based composite coatings reinforced by TiC and TiB2 were prepared on Ti6Al4V at different circumstance temperatures (25 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C, and 800 °C) by laser cladding, then were preserved for 3 h. Macromorphologies and microstructures of the coatings were examined through an optical microscope (OM), an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Residual stresses along the depth direction of the coatings were measured by the nanoindentation method, and wear behaviors of the coatings were also investigated using an ultra-functional wear testing machine. Results showed that the coatings were mainly composed of TiNi/Ti2Ni as the matrix and TiC/TiB2 as the reinforcement. A small amount of Cr2Ti was formed in the coatings prepared at 400 °C and 600 °C. Besides that, Ti3Al was also observed in the coating prepared at 800 °C. The tensile stress existed in the coatings prepared at 25 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C when the coating prepared at 800 °C was regarded as the stress-free reference. The average residual stress in the surface of coating prepared at 25 °C reached the largest value of about 2.79 GPa and presented a decreasing tendency with increasing the circumstance temperature (1.03 GPa at 400 °C, 0.52 GPa at 600 °C, and 0 GPa at 800 °C). It revealed that the rise in circumstance temperature contributed to the reduction in cracking susceptibility in the laser cladding coating. However, the wear volumes of the coatings were increased with increasing the circumstance temperature (0.1912 mm3 at 25 °C, 0.2828 mm3 at 400 °C, 0.3732 mm3 at 600 °C, and 0.6073 mm3 at 800 °C) due to the weakening in strain-hardening effect and the reduction in reinforcement density. The wear mechanism of the coatings was transformed from the single brittle-debonding into the combination of micro-cutting and brittle-debonding when the circumstance temperature was changed from room temperature to

  20. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides

  1. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-02-03

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides.

  2. Bark- and wood-borer colonization of logs and lumber after heat treatment to ISPM 15 specifications: the role of residual bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2009-01-01

    Wood packaging material (WPM) is a major pathway for international movement of bark- and wood-infesting insects. ISPM 15, the first international standard for treating WPM, was adopted in 2002 and first implemented in the United States in 2006. ISPM 15 allows bark to remain on WPM after treatment, raising concerns that insects could infest after treatment, especially...

  3. Logging utilization research in the Pacific Northwest: residue prediction and unique research challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik C. Berg; Todd A. Morgan; Eric A. Simmons; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2015-01-01

    Logging utilization research results have informed land managers of changes in utilization of forest growing stock for more than 40 years. The logging utilization residue ratio- growing stock residue volume/mill delivered volume- can be applied to historic or projected timber harvest volumes to predict woody residue volumes at varied spatial scales. Researchers at the...

  4. Tertiary treatment of urban wastewater using the microalgae Botryococcus braunii; Tratamiento terciario de agua residual urban utilizando la microalga Botrycoccus braunii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orpez, R.; Sanchez, S.; Martinez, M. E.; Hodaifa, G.; El Yousfi, F.; Ibari, N.

    2009-07-01

    Urban wastewater proceeding from secondary treatment is rich in compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, and other nutrients. the elimination of such compounds, in the few cases in which it is carried out, is achieved through tertiary treatment. The development of an alternative study is proposed on a tertiary treatment using the microalgae Botryococcus braunii ( A race). The results show the possibility of using secondarily treated sewage from domestic waste water as a medium to grow B. braunii and for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus by algal consumption. (Author) 11 refs.

  5. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  6. Biodegradation of some agricultural residues by fungi in agitated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digestibility of agricultural residues in animal feeding is deeply dependent on the amounts and types of their fibers. Biological treatment of agricultural residues is a new method for improvement of digestibility. Therefore, the capacity of a few fungi in biodegradation of some agricultural residues was studied. Losses of crude ...

  7. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  8. Cover crop residue management for optimizing weed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Bastiaans, L.; Kropff, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Although residue management seems a key factor in residue-mediated weed suppression, very few studies have systematically compared the influence of different residue management strategies on the establishment of crop and weed species. We evaluated the effect of several methods of pre-treatment and

  9. A biogas plant for the digestion of distillery residue in combination with waste water treatment; Biogasanlage fuer die Vergaerung von Destillationsrueckstaenden in Kombination mit der Abwasserreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigtlaender, A.; Vetter, H.

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project at a Swiss food-processing company that produces fruit juices and beverages containing fruit components. The company uses an anaerobic pre-treatment plant to treat effluents before they are discharged to a local municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP). The report describes the installation, which generates biogas that is used to provide heating energy for the processes used in the extraction process. The monitoring and measurement system is described and figures are quoted for energy production in the company's facilities. Also, the energy savings in the local WWTP resulting from the reduced energy consumption of the aeration blowers as a result of the pre-treatment of the wastes are discussed. Operational aspects of the installation are examined. including temperature effects on the digestion process, control strategies and waste air treatment.

  10. Treatment of residual sugar cane filter-mud wastes; Tratamiento de suspensiones residuales de cachaza generados en la fabricacion de azucar de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas Martinez, A. de; Canizares Canizares, P.; Villasenor Camacho, J.; Rios Cornejo, J. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. Ciudad Real (Spain); Garcia Garcia, A. [Instituto Cientifico de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar. La Haban. Cuba (Cuba)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the treatment of wet sugarcane filter mud by a solid liquid separation step using a pilot filtration device, followed by chemical treatment of the wastewater in the effluent. The results obtained using the mechanical filtration unit. Masko-Zoll indicate that this system is a technically viable procedure. The obtained solid is easily handled. Likewise, the results obtained in the chemical treatment of the liquid wastes generated during the filtration tests were 98.7%, 91.9% and 99.4% for removal efficiencies of turbidity, COD and suspended solids, respectively. A different option studies was previous settling of wastewater followed by physicochemical treatment, which allows reducing 55% the coagulant consumption and it makes unnecessary the flocculant addition. An economical study would decide the most adequate alternative. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. Effect of Different Intrauterine Oxytetracycline Treatment on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows with Clinical Endometritis and Determination of Oxytetracycline Residues in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    MAKKI, Meysam; GHEISARI, Hamid; AHMADI, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Main objective of this study was to determine whether intrauterine infusion of oxytetracycline (OTC) is an appropriate method for the treatment of postpartum endometritis in dairy cows or not. To this end, 280 lactating Holstein cows with clinical signs of endometritis were randomly assigned into three treatment groups and 186 cows were sampled for cytology experiment. In group 1 (n=73) cows were treated with intrauterine infusion of 5 g/cow 10% OTC. In group 2 (n=44), before intrauterine OTC...

  12. THERMOSELECT. Continuous environment-friendly treatment of residues by gasification and direct melting; THERMOSELECT. Unterbrechungslose umweltgerechte Restabfallbehandlung durch Vergasung und Direkteinschmelzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeng, P.; Klein, K.; Stahlberg, R.; Weisenburger, P. [Thermoselect Suedwest GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The Thermoselect process comprises waste compaction, degassing, gasification with pure oxygen, and melting of inorganic components in a continuous closed cycle process. The high-quality products can be recycled almost completely: The synthesis gas can be used as feedstock or combusted, also in high-efficiency power generation processes. The other products, e.g. the high-grade mineral and metal granulates, can be utilized without restrictions. The residual fraction which must be dumped is very small. (orig) [Deutsch] Mit Thermoselect ist eine neue Technik auf dem Markt, die durch die konsequente Umsetzung der Verfahrensschritte Abfallverdichtung, Entgasung, Vergasung mit reinem Sauerstoff und Einschmelzung der anorganischen Muellbestandteile in einem unterbrechungslosen geschlossenen Prozess hochwertige Produkte aus Abfaellen erzeugt, die nahezu vollstaendig verwertet werden koennen. Das erzeugte Synthesegas kann sowohl stofflich als auch thermisch genutzt werden, wobei der Einsatz von stromerzeugungsverfahren mit hohen Wirkungsgraden moeglich ist. Die ubrigen Produkte, z.B. das mineralische und das metallische Granulat, erreichen eine Qualitaet, die eine uneingeschraenkte Nutzung zulaesst. Die Anteile der z.Zt. noch zu entsorgenden Reststoffe ist gering, wobei derzeit meist wirtschafatliche Gruende deren Entsorgung nahelegen. (orig)

  13. The land of milk and honey: a picture of refugee torture survivors presenting for treatment in a South African trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Monica; Higson-Smith, Craig; Bantjes, Megan; Polatin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Intake data obtained from 55 refugee torture survivors accessing trauma treatment services at a centre in Johannesburg, South Africa, paints a picture of suffering beyond the torture experience. The intake forms part of a more comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system developed for the work done with torture survivors accessing psychosocial services. The diverse sample with different nationalities highlights that torture occurs in many countries on the African continent. It also highlights South Africa's role as a major destination for refugee and asylum seekers. However, "the land of milk and honey" and the process of arriving here, often poses additional challenges for survivors of torture. This is reflected in the high levels of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (69%), anxiety (91%), and depression (74%) for our sample, all of which were significantly correlated. The loss of employment status from before the torture experience until the time of intake was great for this sample, impacting on their recovery. In addition the presence of medical conditions (44%), disabilities (19%), and pain (74%) raise serious questions regarding interventions that focus mainly on psychosocial needs. No significant gender differences were found. The paper begins to paint a clearer picture of the bio-psycho-social state of torture survivors accessing services in South Africa, as well as highlighting many of the contextual challenges which impact on recovery.

  14. Effects of season and urea treatment on infection of stumps of Picea abies by Heterobasidion annosum in stands on former arable land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandtberg, P.O. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research; Johansson, Martin [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Seeger, P. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Statistics

    1996-09-01

    Between 1986 and 1990, a series of thinnings were made in previously unthinned first rotation stands on former arable land located in the southern half of Sweden. The aim was to evaluate the effects of season and urea treatment on the frequency of infection of stumps of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) by the root-rot fungus Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. Untreated stumps, resulting from 60 thinnings (22-100 stumps each, altogether ca 3000 stumps) made at different times of year, were investigated 3-24 months after cutting to determine whether they were infected with H. annosum. On average only 2% of the stumps from thinnings made in November-February were infected, whereas the incidence of infection among stumps thinned in June-July was 34%. Two methods of treating stumps with urea to prevent stump infection by H. annosum after thinning were evaluated in terms of effectiveness. The freshly cut stumps were treated with a 20% urea solution, transformed to a gel by adding 0.2% carboxymethyl cellulose, or with a 30% urea solution. On average, the reduction in infection rate obtained was 62% with the first method and 85% with the latter. In a separate study involving a concentration series of urea, there was a considerable drop in protection efficiency, from 89% to 58%, when the concentration was decreased from 30% to 15%. 38 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  16. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  17. Quality control of flow cytometry data analysis for evaluation of minimal residual disease in bone marrow from acute leukemia patients during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorklund, E.; Matinlauri, I.; Tierens, A.

    2009-01-01

    before implementation of MRD at cutoff level 10 as one of stratifying parameters in next Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) treatment program for ALL. In 4 quality control (QC) rounds 15 laboratories determined the MRD levels in 48 follow-up samples from 12 ALL patients treated...

  18. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridker, P.M.; Genest, J.; Boekholdt, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background HDL-cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with occurrence of cardiovascular events. We addressed, using the JUPITER trial cohort, whether this association remains when LDL-cholesterol concentrations are reduced to the very low ranges with high-dose statin treatment. Metho...

  19. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridker, Paul M.; Genest, Jacques; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Libby, Peter; Gotto, Antonio M.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Mora, Samia; Macfadyen, Jean G.; Glynn, Robert J.; Kastelein, John Jp

    2010-01-01

    Background HDL-cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with occurrence of cardiovascular events. We addressed, using the JUPITER trial cohort, whether this association remains when LDL-cholesterol concentrations are reduced to the very low ranges with high-dose statin treatment. Methods

  20. Residual stresses in steel and zirconium weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Coleman, C.E.; Bowden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional scans of residual stress within intact weldments provide insight into the consequences of various welding techniques and stress-relieving procedures. The neutron diffraction method for nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses has been applied to a circumferential weld in a ferritic steel pipe of outer diameter 114 mm and thickness 8.6 mm. The maximum tensile stresses, 250 MPa in the hoop direction, are found at mid-thickness of the fusion zone. The residual stresses approach zero within 20 mm from the weld center. The residual stresses caused by welding zirconium alloy components are partially to blame for failures due to delayed-hydride cracking. Neutron diffraction measurements in a GTA-welded Zr-2.5 Nb plate have shown that heat treatment at 530 C for 1 h reduces the longitudinal residual strain by 60%. Neutron diffraction has also been used to scan the residual stresses near circumferential electron beam welds in irradiated and unirradiated Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes. The residual stresses due to electron beam welding appear to be lower than 130 MPa, even in the as-welded state. No significant changes occur in the residual stress pattern of the electron-beam welded tube, during a prolonged exposure to thermal neutrons and the temperatures typical of an operating nuclear reactor

  1. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridker, P.M.; Genest, J.; Boekholdt, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background HDL-cholesterol concentrations are inversely associated with occurrence of cardiovascular events. We addressed, using the JUPITER trial cohort, whether this association remains when LDL-cholesterol concentrations are reduced to the very low ranges with high-dose statin treatment. Methods...... Participants in the randomised placebo-controlled JUPITER trial were adults without diabetes or previous cardiovascular disease, and had baseline concentrations of LDL cholesterol of less than 3.37 mmol/L and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein of 2 mg/L or more. Participants were randomly allocated...... by a computer-generated sequence to receive rosuvastatin 20 mg per day or placebo, with participants and adjudicators masked to treatment assignment. In the present analysis, we divided the participants into quartiles of HDL-cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1 and sought evidence of association between...

  2. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  3. Future land use plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ''Future Land Use'' initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities' interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory's view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts

  4. Tratamento de águas residuárias de fecularia por meio de lagoas de estabilização Residuary water treatment of fecularia by means of stabilization lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro T. Campos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Embora o uso de lagoas de tratamento seja uma tecnologia amplamente conhecida e utilizada para resíduos orgânicos, no caso específico dos resíduos líquidos da industrialização da mandioca, as experiências são reduzidas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar a eficiência na redução da carga poluidora de lagoas de tratamento de resíduos líquidos de fecularia. Para tanto, foram coletadas amostras na entrada do sistema e em cada uma das sete lagoas da Fecularia Horizonte, em Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, no período de maio a setembro de 2004. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: Demanda Bioquímica de Oxigênio (DBO, Demanda Química de Oxigênio (DQO, Sólidos Totais (ST, Sólidos Fixos (SF, Sólidos Voláteis (SV, N-NH4+, Condutividade Elétrica (CE, Fósforo (P, Cloretos (CL- e pH. O sistema promoveu redução de 96,3% de DQO e 96,4% de DBO, e fósforo e sólidos apresentaram comportamento semelhante. Já N-NH4+, CL- e CE oscilaram durante o sistema com redução, sobretudo nas lagoas de polimento.The use of lagoon of treatment is a technology thoroughly known and used for organic residues. But, in the specific case of liquid residues from the cassava industrialization, the experiences are reduced. The objective of this study was evaluating the efficiency in the reduction of the pollutant load of lagoons of treatment of liquid residues of cassava industry. Thus samples were collected in the entrance of the system and in each of the seven lagoons of the Fecularia Horizonte, in Marechal Cândido Rondon - PR, Brazil, from May to September of 2004. The following parameters were appraised: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Solids (TS, Fixed Solids (FS, Volatile Solids (VS, N-NH + 4, Electric Conductivity (EC, Phosphorus (P, Clorets (Cl- and pH. The system promoted reduction of 96.3% of COD and 96.4% of BOD, and phosphorus and solids presented similar behavior. However, N-NH+4, CL- and EC

  5. Tratamento de água residuária de curtume com utilização de sementes de moringa (Moringa oleifera L.. = Treatment of residuary water from tannery utilizing moringa(Moringa oleifera L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Moreira Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da comprovação por vários estudos que as sementes de Moringa (Moringa oleifera L. apresentam a capacidade de clarificar e purificar água potencialmente fora de especificações para consumo humano. Objetivou-se com o presente projeto avaliar se a semente de moringa tem capacidade de purificar água residuária de curtume. Foi utilizada água residuária bruta, coletada antes das estações de tratamento de dois curtumes no município de Maringá, Paraná. As sementes de moringa foram obtidas nos municípios de Umuarama e Floraí, Paraná. As sementes foram retiradas do fruto antes do processo de deiscência e trituradas em meio de água destilada. O sistema foi realizado em sistema descontínuo de tratamento, utilizando vasos de 25litros, onde foram utilizados 15 litros de água residuárias de curtume. Foram feitos uma testemunha e três tratamentos com a mesma concentração 8,0 g L-1 variando a fração em função do tempo de 4, 8 e 12 horas. Foram avaliados os parâmetros: pH, nitrogênio amoniacal, turbidez, DBO e DQO. Os melhores resultados obtidos foram no parâmetro nitrogênio. = The evidence from several studies have indicated that the seeds of Moringa (Moringa oleifera L. have the ability to clarify and purify water potentially out of specification for human consumption. The objective of this project was to evaluate whether the seeds of moringa are capable of purifying wastewater from tannery. Untreated wastewater was used, collected before entering the treatment plants of two tanneries in the city of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. The moringa seeds were collected in the municipalities of Umuarama and Floraí, Paraná, Brazil. Seeds were removed from the fruit before dehiscence and crushed within distilled water. The system was carried out in batch processing, using 25-liter pots, and 15 liters of wastewater from the tannery. One control and three treatments were used. All groups contained the same concentration 8.0 g L-1

  6. HDL cholesterol and residual risk of first cardiovascular events after treatment with potent statin therapy: an analysis from the JUPITER trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridker, P.M.; Genest, J.; Boekholdt, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    by a computer-generated sequence to receive rosuvastatin 20 mg per day or placebo, with participants and adjudicators masked to treatment assignment. In the present analysis, we divided the participants into quartiles of HDL-cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1 and sought evidence of association between...... these quartiles and the JUPITER primary endpoint of first non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke, hospitalisation for unstable angina, arterial revascularisation, or cardiovascular death. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00239681. Findings For 17802 patients in the JUPITER trial...

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of the transformation and removal of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO nanoparticles in wastewater treatment and land application of biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Lauren E; Auffan, Melanie; Durenkamp, Mark; McGrath, Steve; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-04-01

    The use of nano-enabled materials in industry and consumer products is increasing rapidly and with it, the more imperative it becomes to understand the consequences of such materials entering the environment during production, use or disposal. The novel properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) that make them desirable for commercial applications also present the possibility of impacting aquatic and terrestrial environments in ways that may differ from materials in bulk format. Modeling techniques are needed to proactively predict the environmental fate and transport of nanomaterials. A model for nanoparticle (NP) separation and transformation in water treatment was parameterized for three metal and metal-oxide NPs. Functional assays to determine NP specific distribution and transformation were used to parameterize the model and obtain environmentally relevant concentrations of NPs and transformation byproducts leaving WWTPs in effluent and biosolids. All three NPs were predicted to associate >90% with the solid phase indicating significant accumulation in the biosolids. High rates of transformation for ZnO and Ag NPs resulted in ~97% transformation of the NPs that enter the plant despite differences in transformation rate in aerobic versus anaerobic environments. Due to high insolubility and negligible redox transformation, the only process predicted to impact TiO2 NP fate and transport in WWTPs was distribution between the solid and liquid phases. Subsequent investigation of ZnO NP species fate and transport when land applied in biosolids indicated that steady state concentrations of ZnO phases would likely be achieved after approximately 150days under loading conditions of biosolids typical in current practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. GKSS-workshop: contaminated sludges. Treatment and utilization fine graned residues; GKSS-Workshop: Kontaminierte Schlaemme. Behandlung und Nutzungsmoeglichkeiten feinkoerniger Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvermann, G.; Luther, G.; Niemeyer, B. [eds.] [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung Technikum

    2000-07-01

    New regulations, such as the materials recycling act, soil protection act and unsolved problems related to the treatment of contaminated sludges, the utilisation of the gained products demand the development of innovative techniques for industrial, dredged or drilling sludges. The workshop offered a platform for intensive discussions between representatives of industry, research institutions, associations, and authorities. The main aim of the workshop was the presentation of fundamental background of sludge processing and advanced technical solutions. The available proceedings contain 21 lectures held on the workshop with the following ranges of topics of the sludge treatment: legislation, R and D-funding, technological bases, decontamination processes, dewatering and drying processes, recycling and immobilization. (orig.) [German] Neue Gesetze wie das Kreislaufwirtschafts- oder das Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz und anstehende Probleme bei der Beseitigung belasteter Schlaemme - zum Beispiel Industrie-, Bohr- und Baggergutschlaemme - erfordern die Entwicklung innovativer Techniken zu ihrer Aufbereitung, Reinigung bzw. Verwertung. Der Workshop bot ein Formung zur intensiven Diskussion zwischen Industrie, Forschung, Verbaenden und Behoerden. Ziel war es, unterschiedliche Methoden der Schlammbehandlung zu eroertern, Loesungswege aufzuzeigen und Moeglichkeiten fuer Kooperationen zu erarbeiten. Der vorliegende Band enthaelt Beitraege der Referenten, die sich auf folgende Themenbereiche der Schlammbehandlung konzentrieren: juristische Aspekte, Foerdermoeglichkeiten, Grundlagen, Aufbereitung von Schlaemmen, Entwaesserung und Trocknung von Schlaemmen, Verwertung und Immobilisierung. (orig.)

  9. Pesticides residues in water treatment plant sludge: validation of analytical methodology using liquid chromatography coupled to Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moracci, Luiz Fernando Soares

    2008-01-01

    The evolving scenario of Brazilian agriculture brings benefits to the population and demands technological advances to this field. Constantly, new pesticides are introduced encouraging scientific studies with the aim of determine and evaluate impacts on the population and on environment. In this work, the evaluated sample was the sludge resulted from water treatment plant located in the Vale do Ribeira, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The technique used was the reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Compounds were previously liquid extracted from the matrix. The development of the methodology demanded data processing in order to be transformed into reliable information. The processes involved concepts of validation of chemical analysis. The evaluated parameters were selectivity, linearity, range, sensitivity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification and robustness. The obtained qualitative and quantitative results were statistically treated and presented. The developed and validated methodology is simple. As results, even exploring the sensitivity of the analytical technique, the work compounds were not detected in the sludge of the WTP. One can explain that these compounds can be present in a very low concentration, can be degraded under the conditions of the water treatment process or are not completely retained by the WTP. (author)

  10. Carbonation of residual brines produced by ammonia-soda process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, I. V.; Piriou, P.; Filippov, L. O.; Yvon, J.; Grandjean, M.

    2013-03-01

    This work deals with the carbonation of residual brines produced during the manufacture of soda ash to avoid the unsuitable phase transformation during the land storage. The study resulted in a demonstration pilot, which showed the feasibility of such an approach and the possibility of his extension to an industrial scale. Carbonation of the residual brines is a promising process as it entirely transforms Ca(OH)2, "CaOHCl" and CSH into calcite, avoids the further phase evolution, allows to obtain a neutral pH which considerably reduce the land storage impact on environment and shorten by around 10 % the global CO2 emission of the ammonia-soda process.

  11. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  12. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  13. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2015-01-01

    in West Greenland were carried out when it was hunting season for mux ox and caribou, exploring relations between education and perception of environment. All these trips have called for attention to the relation between actual engagement with ‘nature’ and experienced human-nature relations. Based on my......, hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... to grow with the features of the land. Framed this way, ‘nature’ was regarded as part of the social world. I suggest that learning among Arctic hunters is social and twofold. First, we can learn how human-environment relations influence individual life trajectories. Secondly, ‘nature’ as part...

  14. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  15. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  16. Avaliação de desempenho de reator UASB no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura Evaluation of performance of UASB reactor in swine wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e a avaliação de um sistema de tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura constituído de decantador e seguido de reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (reator UASB, em escala real. O reator UASB foi construído de alvenaria e concreto armado. Coletaram-se amostras do esgoto bruto e do efluente do decantador e reator UASB, e se monitoraram os seguintes parâmetros: temperatura, pH, alcalinidade, ácidos voláteis totais (AVT, sólidos suspensos totais (SST, sólidos suspensos voláteis (SSV, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO e demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, de acordo com os métodos estabelecidos pelo Standard Methods (APHA, 1998. Os resultados médios de remoção total de DQO e de DBO foram de 93 e 92%, respectivamente. As concentrações médias de DQO, DBO e SST no efluente final foram de 0,8, 1,8 e 0,8 g L-1, respectivamente. A carga orgânica volumétrica (COV aplicada no reator UASB variou de 1,1 a 17,5 kg DQO m-3 d-1. O sistema decantador-reator UASB apresenta-se como alternativa promissora para o tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura.This research presents the development and evaluation of a system for treatment of swine wastewaters constituted by slat settler, followed by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, at full scale. The UASB reactor was completely made of masonry and reinforced concrete. The evaluation of the treatment system was carried out through samples collected in the influent and effluent from the settler and UASB reactor. The following parameters were analyzed: temperature, pH, alkalinity, total volatile acids (VFA, suspended solids (TSS, volatile suspended solids (VSS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, according to the methods established by the Standard Methods (APHA, 1998. The mean results of COD and BOD removal were 93 and 92%, respectively. The mean concentrations of COD, BOD and TSS in the final effluent were

  17. Biotechnological Potential of Agro Residues for Economical Production of Thermoalkali-Stable Pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 by Solid-State Fermentation and Its Efficacy in the Treatment of Ramie Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Chand Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of a thermostable and highly alkaline pectinase by Bacillus pumilus dcsr1 was optimized in solid-state fermentation (SSF and the impact of various treatments (chemical, enzymatic, and in combination on the quality of ramie fibres was investigated. Maximum enzyme titer (348.0±11.8 Ug−1 DBB in SSF was attained, when a mixture of agro-residues (sesame oilseed cake, wheat bran, and citrus pectin, 1 : 1 : 0.01 was moistened with mineral salt solution ( 0.92, pH 9.0 at a substrate-to-moistening agent ratio of 1 : 2.5 and inoculated with 25% of 24 h old inoculum, in 144 h at 40°C. Parametric optimization in SSF resulted in 1.7-fold enhancement in the enzyme production as compared to that recorded in unoptimized conditions. A 14.2-fold higher enzyme production was attained in SSF as compared to that in submerged fermentation (SmF. The treatment with the enzyme significantly improved tensile strength and Young’s modulus, reduction in brittleness, redness and yellowness, and increase in the strength and brightness of ramie fibres.

  18. The distribution, solid-phase speciation, and desorption/dissolution of As in waste iron-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellitteri, Christopher A; Scheckel, Kirk G

    2006-08-01

    Arsenic concentrations and solid-phase speciation were assessed as a function of depth through Fe-media beds for two commercially available products (Granular Ferric Hydroxide-GFH and Bayoxide E33-E33) from pilot-scale water treatment field tests. These results were compared with data from solution (de-ionized water-DI-H2O) concentrations of As equilibrated with Fe-media in an anoxic environment at 4 degrees C. The materials had a high capacity for As (GFH media 9620 mg kg(-1) As, E33 Media 5246 mg kg(-1)). Arsenic concentrations decreased with bed depth. For E33, X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy results showed that As(V) was the dominant solid-phase species. For GFH, As(III) was detected and the proportion (relative to As(V)) of As(III) increased with bed depth. Arsenic concentrations in DI-H2O equilibrated with the media were low (35 microg l(-1)) over a period of 50 d. Arsenic concentrations in the equilibrated solutions also decreased with depth. Results from tests on soluble As speciation show that As in solution is in the form of As(V). Kinetic desorption experiments carried out at different pH values (3, 5, 7, 8, and 9) show that the media exhibit some acid/base neutralization capacity and tend to bind As sufficiently. Concentrations of As in the pH desorption experiments were in the same order of magnitude as the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure extractions (tens of microgl(-1)) except at low pH values. For the GFH media tested at a pH of three, As increases in solution and is mainly associated with colloidal (operationally defined as between 0.1 and 1.0 microm) iron.

  19. Economic Modeling of Residual Generation for the Lingayen Gulf Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas McGlone

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines is one of four countries involved in the Southeast Asian core project of LOICZ (Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone which has among its general goals the determination of how changes in human activities affect the fluxes of materials between land, sea, and atmosphere through the coastal zone. The economic component of the Philippine project addresses the question: “How does a change in economic activity affect coastal waters?” Of particular concern is the introduction of anthropogenically-derived residuals (N, P, C, SS into coastal waters. A regional input-output (IO model for Region 1 of the Philippines has been developed to estimate how projected changes in economic activity may affect residual flows into Lingayen Gulf. A residual coefficient matrix, derived from information obtained with a rapid assessment model (RA of residual generation in the Lingayen Gulf watershed, has been incorporated into the IO model. Such a model allows for analysis of various economic scenarios for the region, with projections of residual generation as the output. The resulting changes in residual flows may then serve as inputs to biogeochemical models of Lingayen Gulf. From this process, the impact of various economic scenarios on the water quality of Lingayen Gulf may be ascertained.This paper discusses and compares the RA and IO models of residual generation for the Lingayen Gulf watershed and provides examples of the scenario analysis process.

  20. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  1. Monitoramento sanitário de um sistema integrado de tratamento de águas residuárias da suinocultura Sanitary monitoring of an integrated system for the treatment of wastewaters from pig farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla S. S. Barros

    2003-12-01

    technique. The pH analyses were done potentiometrically. RESULTS: For the three microorganisms, the largest decrease in bacterial counts in the storage tanks occurred with 90 or 120 days of retention. There was a marked decrease in the bacterial count in the percolates of the three soils. For the three soil types the greatest reduction in bacterial counts was found in medium soil, due to its acidity (pH < 7.0. Hydraulic retention was not sufficient to ensure the sanitary adequacy of the wastewaters and their use for irrigation, given that fecal coliform values were above 1 000 CFU per 100 mL. Therefore, adding the residues to the soil was considered a second stage of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The retention of wastewaters followed by adding them to soil was effective in minimizing the contaminating effect of pig farming residues. The storage time for wastewaters from pig farming could be decreased from 120 to 90 days.

  2. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  3. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  4. Eviromental Economic and Technological Residues Management Demands: An Optimization Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Soares Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial residues management is a very demanding task since many different goals must be achieved. The combination of different approaches used by people from different stuff is very challenging activity that can misuse the residues potential value and applicability. An interactive WEB base tool, to integrate different sectors and overcome residues management difficulties will be presented. The system must be loaded with all data concerning the residue life cycle, and through data integration and modeling routine will give the best alternative as output. As wider and complete the system data becomes, by information loading from differen t segment, more efficient the residues management becomes. The user friendly tool will encourage the participation of industries, labs and research institutions to obtain qualified information about industrial residues inventory, raw materials recovery, characteristics, treatment and alternative uses, to achieve residues management sustainability.

  5. Identification of hardly biodegradable residuals (sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances) during waste water treatment, including the development of analytical methods; Identifizierung von schwer abbaubaren Reststoffen (stickstoff- und schwefelhaltigen Verbindungen) bei der Abwasserbehandlung, einschliesslich analytischer Methodenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehle, E.; Huber, A.; Metzger, J.W.

    1999-07-01

    Organic residuals in sewage, which are not removed completely by waste water treatment may be relevant in environmental toxicology and may disturb drinking water treatment processes. The organic residuals must be identified before new techniques to eliminate these substances from waste water can be developed and steps can be taken to prevent them from polluting waste waters. In the research project sum parameters of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances in municipal waste water were determined. A new method was developed to determine the organic sulfur in compounds absorbed on activated carbon (AOS). The determination of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between total nitrogen and the sum of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NO{sub 2}{sup -}N. The removal of organic substances from the inorganic matrix was only possible for standard solutions, but not for real samples. More than 60 substances contributing to the sum parameters could be identified with GC-MS and GC-AED, an most of them could be quantified. 30-70% of the sulfur-containing substances detected with GC-AED could be identified. With the GC-MS screening method 21 drugs or drug metabolites could be identified and partly quantified. Hydrophilic organic residuals were identified and quantified with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV- and fluorescence detectors and also with a mass detector (ESI-MS-MS). With the methods described only a small percentage of the sum of AOS and DON could be detected, although new materials for the solid phase enrichment and new analytical methods, such as HPLC-MS-MS were used. In order to get information about the degree of elimination (absorption or degradation) of different drugs in a municipal sewage plant, laboratory-scale tests under aerobic conditions were performed. A batch reactor containing drugs in environmentally relevant concentrations and a suspension of activated sludge was coupled online with HPLC

  6. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  7. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  8. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  9. Treatment of Explosives Residues From Range Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    metal wire (steel wire heated till it was glowing orange in a bunsen burner ) were used as sources of ignition. These sources were meant to represent...laboratory conditions. Neither red-hot metal probes nor open flames resulted in ignition or smoldering.  Methods to efficiently mix and apply...soybean oil in a very dry and in a moderately wet state. Both an open flame (butane-type lighter used for lighting candles, barbecues, etc.) and a hot

  10. The importance of antibiotic residues presence detection in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic residues are the most present inhibitory substances in milkhaving undesirable effect on human health, technological characteristics and the quality of milk and dairy products. In order to protect consumer's health and to ensure high quality milk production, European Union (EU) regulation 2377/90 sets a maximum permitted levels for antibiotic residues in milk. Although the presence of antibiotic residues in milk can be due to animal diseases treatment, and in the case of milking ani...

  11. Fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons in soil microcosms following the application of treated residual municipal wastewater solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tucker R; Sadowsky, Michael J; LaPara, Timothy M

    2014-05-20

    Substantial quantities of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are discharged with treated residual municipal wastewater solids and subsequently applied to soil. The objective of this work was to determine the decay rates for ARGs and class 1 integrons following simulated land application of treated wastewater solids. Treated residual solids from two full-scale treatment plants were applied to sets of triplicate soil microcosms in two independent experiments. Experiment 1 investigated loading rates of 20, 40, and 100 g kg(-1) of residual solids to a sandy soil, while experiment 2 investigated a loading rate of 40 g kg(-1) to a silty-loamy soil. Five ARGs (erm(B), sul1, tet(A), tet(W), and tet(X)), the integrase of class 1 integrons (intI1), 16S rRNA genes, 16S rRNA genes of all Bacteroides spp., and 16S rRNA genes of human-specific Bacteroides spp. were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. ARGs and intI1 quantities declined in most microcosms, with statistically significant (P rates were much slower than have been previously reported for unit operations used to treat wastewater solids (e.g., anaerobic digestion). This research suggests that the design and operation of municipal wastewater treatment facilities with the explicit goal of mitigating the release of ARGs should focus on using technologies within the treatment facility, rather than depending on attenuation subsequent to land application.

  12. Modeling crop residue burning experiments to evaluate smoke emissions and plume transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxi Zhou; Kirk R. Baker; Sergey L. Napelenok; George Pouliot; Robert Elleman; Susan M. O' Neill; Shawn P. Urbanski; David C. Wong

    2018-01-01

    Crop residue burning is a common land management practice that results in emissions of a variety of pollutants with negative health impacts. Modeling systems are used to estimate air quality impacts of crop residue burning to support retrospective regulatory assessments and also for forecasting purposes. Ground and airborne measurements from a recent field experiment...

  13. Modeling crop residue burning experiments to evaluate smoke emissions and plume transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residue burning is a common land management practice that results in emissions of a variety of pollutants with negative health impacts. Modeling systems are used to estimate air quality impacts of crop residue burning to support retrospective regulatory assessments and also ...

  14. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  15. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  16. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  17. Comparative effects of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of Southeast Nigeria to assess the effects of amending soil with plant residues on soil physical and chemical properties. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, ...

  18. Comparative effect of plant residues and NPK fertilizer on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at two locations in 2001 and 2002 on acidic Ultisol of southeast Nigeria to access the effect of amending soil with plant residues on maize performance. The soil amendment treatments compared were natural fallow, wood ash at 6 tha-1, peanut residue at 12 tha-1, combination of wood ash ...

  19. 40 CFR 180.225 - Phosphine; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphine; tolerances for residues. 180.225 Section 180.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for residues of the fumigant in or on all RACs resulting from preharvest treatment of pest burrows in...

  20. Residues Of Streptomycin Antibiotic In Commercial Layers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the muscle samples recorded residue concentration levels higher than the W.H.O recommended maximum residue level for streptomycin antibiotic in muscle tissue of food animals. In view of the importance of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial diseases in both human and animals, it is advocated that the use of ...

  1. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  2. Residual nitrogen fertilization effect of common bean production on succeeding corn intercropped with Congo grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos de Almeida Carmeis Filho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Crop production in conservation systems involving intercropped cultivations mainly with corn have been proposed as a technology to promote sustainability in the Brazilian Cerrado areas. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of residual nitrogen fertilization applied in common bean on subsequent corn sole or intercropped with Congo grass (Urochloa ruziziensis in no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks with three replicates in a split-plot design. The treatments were composed by two cropping systems (sole and intercropped with Congo grass, and the sub-plots were five doses of nitrogen (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg of N ha-1, applied in topdressing on common-bean (previous crop. There was no effect of cropping systems and residual amount of nitrogen application in the vegetative and reproductive development of corn. Corn intercropped with Congo grass leaded an adequate formation of crop residue and total land covering target at sustainability of no-tillage system.

  3. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  4. Crop Residue Biomass Effects on Agricultural Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High residue loads associated with conservation tillage and cover cropping may impede water flow in furrow irrigation and thus decrease the efficiency of water delivery and runoff water quality. In this study, the biomass residue effects on infiltration, runoff, and export of total suspended solids (TSS, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, sediment-associated carbon (TSS-C, and other undesirable constituents such as phosphate (soluble P, nitrate (, and ammonium ( in runoff water from a furrow-irrigated field were studied. Furrow irrigation experiments were conducted in 91 and 274 m long fields, in which the amount of residue in the furrows varied among four treatments. The biomass residue in the furrows increased infiltration, and this affected total load of DOC, TSS, and TSS-C. Net storage of DOC took place in the long but not in the short field because most of the applied water ran off in the short field. Increasing field length decreased TSS and TSS-C losses. Total load of , , and soluble P decreased with increasing distance from the inflow due to infiltration. The concentration and load of P increased with increasing residue biomass in furrows, but no particular trend was observed for and . Overall, the constituents in the runoff decreased with increasing surface cover and field length.

  5. Characterization of bound residues in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, G.D. Jr.; Wheeler, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    The characterization of unextractable (or 'bound') pesticide residues in plants can be difficult owing to the insoluble nature of the pesticide-plant complex. An unextractable residue can be defined as material derived from the applied pesticide which remains in the plant matrix after exhaustive organic solvent extraction. Experiments with a variety of pesticide classes in plants indicate that the level of unextractable residue varies with the plant species, the pesticide and the exposure time of the plant to the pesticide. Methods used in attempts to release 'bound' residues from solvent-extracted plant tissues include acid hydrolyses, enzymatic treatments and techniques of high-temperature distillation. These methods solubilize or release varying amounts of unextractable material; the amounts depend on the pesticide and on the extent to which the plant fibre is degraded. In experiments using radiolabelled dieldrin (1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 10-hexachloro-6, 7-epoxy-1, 4, 4a, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8a-octahydro-exo-1, 4-endo-5,6-dimethanonaphthalene), carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) and permethrin ([3-phenoxybenzyl(+-)-3-(2, 2-dichlorovinyl)-2, 2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate]) in radishes, portions of the unextractable material solubilized by the above methods were identified as parent compound and/or closely related metabolites. The bioavailability and toxicological significance of unextractable pesticide residues need to be evaluated. (author)

  6. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  7. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  8. Addendum to Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Assessment of LANL-Derived Residual Radionuclides in Soils within Tract A-16-d for Land Conveyance and Transfer for Sewage Treatment Facility Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gillis, Jessica Mcdonnel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This report summarizes the sampling design used, associated statistical assumptions, as well as general guidelines for conducting post-sampling data analysis. Sampling plan components presented here include how many sampling locations to choose and where within the sampling area to collect those samples. The type of medium to sample (i.e., soil, groundwater, etc.) and how to analyze the samples (in-situ, fixed laboratory, etc.) are addressed in other sections of the sampling plan.

  9. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  10. Desempenho de forrageiras em sistemas alagados de tratamento de águas residuárias do processamento do café Performance of forage crops in wetlands used in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas gramíneas forrageiras de inverno, azevém (Lolium multiflorum e aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, foram cultivadas em sistemas alagados construídos (SACs utilizados no tratamento das águas residuárias do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC com o objetivo de se avaliar seu desempenho agronômico. Essas forrageiras foram submetidas a diferentes cargas orgânicas (650 a 1.500 kg ha-1 d-1 de DQO, proporcionadas pela aplicação dos efluentes de filtros anaeróbios, utilizados no tratamento da ARC. Como tratamento testemunha, as mesmas espécies vegetais foram cultivadas em solução de Hoagland. A matéria seca produzida pelas forrageiras ao longo dos 53 dias de monitoramento dos SACs variou de 7,4 a 14,0 e 0,5 a 2,7 t ha-1, e os rendimentos acumulados de proteína bruta variaram de 1.017 a 2.187 e 66,6 a 316,8 kg ha-1 para o azevém e a aveia, respectivamente. Os resultados permitiram concluir que, dentre as forrageiras estudadas, o azevém se mostrou mais adequado para ser cultivado em SACs utilizados no pós-tratamento da ARC efluente de filtros anaeróbios, já que apresentou maior rendimento de matéria seca e proteína bruta e, portanto, melhor adaptação ao sistema.Two winter grasses, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and oats (Avena strigosa Schreb, were grown in constructed wetlands (SACs used in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing (ARC with the aim to evaluate their agronomic performance. These forage crops were submitted to different organic loads (650 to 1500 kg ha-1 d-1 of COD, offered by the application of anaerobic effluent filters, used in the treatment of ARC. As a control treatment, the same plant species were grown in a Hoagland solution. The forage dry matter produced by over 53 days of monitoring SACs ranged from 7.4 to 14.0 and from 0.5 to 2.7 t ha-1, and the crude protein yield ranged from 1017 to 2187 and 66.6 to 316.8 kg ha-1 for ryegrass and oats, respectively. The results showed that, among the

  11. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...

  13. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  14. 40 CFR 180.342 - Chlorpyrifos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... avoid atomization or splashing of the spray. (iii) Paint-on application for spot treatment shall be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... removed or covered during treatment. (ii) Spray concentration for spot treatment shall be limited to a...

  15. Comparison of land and ocean disposal alternatives for bulk wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stull, E.A.; Merry-Libby, P.

    1985-01-01

    Land and ocean disposal alternatives for a large volume of wastes and residues containing naturally occurring radionuclides are assessed. These wastes and residues are currently stored at the US Department of Energy's Niagara Falls Storage Site near Lewiston, New York. Both land and ocean disposal are considered for the 180,000 m 3 of slightly contaminated wastes (average 36 pCi/g radium-226), whereas only land disposal is considered for the 11,000 m 3 of residues (average 67,000 pCi/g radium-226). The land and ocean disposal alternatives share similar engineering considerations, occupational and transportation risks, and radiological risks. Impacts from placement of the wastes in the ocean would be negligible. However, the land-based activities required to transport the wastes to the ocean would account for most of the potential impacts associated with the ocean disposal alternatives. Thus, the land and ocean disposal alternatives are comparable in terms of potential environmental impacts

  16. Desempenho de sistemas alagados no tratamento de águas residuárias do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro Performance of constructed wetlands used in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nove sistemas alagados (SACESHs foram construídos em escala piloto (1,5 m de comprimento, 0,5 de largura e 0,4 m de profundidade, cultivados com Typha sp. e Alternanthera phyloxeroides, e operados sob diferentes taxas de aplicação orgânica, no tratamento da água residuária do processamento dos frutos do cafeeiro (ARC. Três sistemas receberam ARC sem nenhum pré-tratamento, em três foi aplicada ARC com correção de pH e correção nutricional e nos três últimos os efluentes de filtros anaeróbios utilizados no tratamento da ARC, que teve o pH e o teor de nutrientes corrigidos. Os resultados mostraram que o aumento nas taxas de carga superficial dos constituintes da ARC no sistema proporcionou decréscimo na eficiência de remoção de matéria orgânica e compostos fenólicos, em todos os SACESHs avaliados. Os tempos de detenção hidráulica superiores a 100 h proporcionaram maiores eficiências na remoção de DQO (SAC*1, SAC F1 e SAC F2 e DBO (SAC1, SAC*1, SAC F2 e SAC F3 que os tempos de detenção hidráulica de aproximadamente 60 h aplicados nas fases iniciais do experimento. Entre os SACESHs, o SAC F1, que recebeu a menor taxa de aplicação orgânica (1.500 kg ha-1 d-1 de DQO, apresentou desempenho mais satisfatório no que se refere à remoção de DBO (63%, DQO (85% e compostos fenólicos (65%.Nine constructed wetlands (SACESHs were built on a pilot scale (1.5 m long, 0.5 wide and 0.4 m deep, grown with Typha sp. and Alternanthera phyloxeroides, and operated under different organic loads in the treatment of wastewater of coffee processing (ARC. Three systems received no ARC pre-treatment, three received ARC with correction of pH and nutritional correction, and the last three received the effluent of filters used in the anaerobic treatment of ARC that had the pH and nutrient content corrected. The results showed that the increase in the rate of surface charge of the constituents of the ARC provided the decrease in efficiency

  17. Land Competition and Land-Use Change:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vongvisouk, Thoumthone

    are affecting livelihoods in northern Laos. The research engages a range of approaches, theories and concepts, including political ecology, polycentric resource governance, land-change science, regime shifts in land systems, land sparing versus land sharing, and the sustainable livelihood framework. During...... field research, semi-structured interviews and household questionnaire surveys were employed. Additionally, secondary information was collected during the interviews held with key-informants at different administrative levels. Qualitative information was analyzed by using the NVivo qualitative research......, and industrial tree plantations but shifting cultivation still remains an important land-use system. Land conversion from shifting cultivation for subsistence to commercial crops is most clearly seen in areas with good infrastructure (e.g. road network). This conversion is partly in response to market demands...

  18. Impacts of historic and projected land-cover, land-use, and land-management change on carbon and water fluxes: The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D. M.; Lombardozzi, D. L.; Lawrence, P.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Human land-use activities have resulted in large changes to the Earth surface, with resulting implications for climate. In the future, land-use activities are likely to intensify to meet growing demands for food, fiber, and energy. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) aims to further advance understanding of the broad question of impacts of land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) as well as more detailed science questions to get at process-level attribution, uncertainty, and data requirements in more depth and sophistication than possible in a multi-model context to date. LUMIP is multi-faceted and aims to advance our understanding of land-use change from several perspectives. In particular, LUMIP includes a factorial set of land-only simulations that differ from each other with respect to the specific treatment of land use or land management (e.g., irrigation active or not, crop fertilization active or not, wood harvest on or not), or in terms of prescribed climate. This factorial series of experiments serves several purposes and is designed to provide a detailed assessment of how the specification of land-cover change and land management affects the carbon, water, and energy cycle response to land-use change. The potential analyses that are possible through this set of experiments are vast. For example, comparing a control experiment with all land management active to an experiment with no irrigation allows a multi-model assessment of whether or not the increasing use of irrigation during the 20th century is likely to have significantly altered trends of regional water and energy fluxes (and therefore climate) and/or crop yield and carbon fluxes in agricultural regions. Here, we will present preliminary results from the factorial set of experiments utilizing the Community Land Model (CLM5). The analyses presented here will help guide multi-model analyses once the full set of LUMIP simulations are available.

  19. Perda de carga em filtros orgânicos utilizados no tratamento de água residuária de suinoculturas Head-loss evolution in organic filters for swine wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a realização deste trabalho, objetivou-se parametrizar a equação de evolução da perda de carga, para descrição do processo de filtração de água residuária da suinocultura. No preenchimento das colunas filtrantes, foram utilizados bagaço de cana-de-açúcar triturado, serragem de madeira e pergaminho de grãos de café. Dados de perda de carga em diferentes profundidades e tempos de operação dos filtros orgânicos foram coletados para ajuste das equações de perda de carga. Para as equações ajustadas, foram obtidos altos coeficientes de determinação, sendo que a significância dos coeficientes da regressão foi, na sua quase totalidade, de 1% de probabilidade, podendo ser utilizada na predição do comportamento dos filtros. As variáveis tempo de operação e profundidade das colunas filtrantes, constituídas pelos três materiais filtrantes, apresentaram comportamento quadrático na estimativa da perda de carga total. O tempo ideal de operação ininterrupta dos filtros, sem troca de material filtrante, foi de, aproximadamente, 1,5 h e, depois de corrido esse tempo, o material filtrante deverá ser substituído.This work was developed to adjust the equation of head-loss, describing the head-loss process with the depth and operation time of organic filter utilized in treatment of swine wastewater. Sugarcane bagasse, sawdust and coffee husk, by-products of agricultural and agro-industrial activities, were used to fill the filter columns. Data on head-loss in different depths with the time of organic filters operation were collected to analyze the head-loss evolution. In head-loss equations as function of depth and filter operation time high values were obtained for the coefficients of determination and the regression coefficients presented, in almost, significant at 1% probability, predicting the behavior of the filters, constituted of sawdust, sugarcane bagasse and coffee husk. The variables, operation time and the filter

  20. Aspects of Land Take in the Metropolitan Area of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Land take is a phenomenon of great concern nowadays because of the large number of its negative impacts regarding biological, economic and social balance. In Italy, the development of urban and other artificial land has been irreversibly transforming a non-renewable resource such as soil, regardless the almost constant population rate, with different speed depending of the region considered. The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon in the metropolitan area of Naples, which is an area highly affected by territorial aggression of human matrix. The data used are both by the Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA Report 2015 on the usage of the land and by ISTAT relating to the resident population up to the 1st of January 2015 and the extension of land for agricultural use (Census 2010. The mathematical combination of this data creates a new indicator that can be referred to as “residual land”; this residual area is of great extension with many different characteristics and it could represent the area where the phenomenon of land take most occurs. The identification, measurement and analysis of “residual land” provide new insights on the evolution of land take and this new indicator can represent a critical element to work on to prevent future land transformation and protect natural and agricultural areas within the Italian context.

  1. Determination of crop residues and the physical and mechanical properties of soil in different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring and management of soil quality is crucial for sustaining soil function in ecosystem. Tillage is one of the management operations that drastically affect soil physical quality. Conservation tillage methods are one of the efficient solutions in agriculture to reduce the soil erosion, air pollution, energy consumption, and the costs, if there is a proper management on the crop residues. One of the serious problems in agriculture is soil erosion which is rapidly increased in the recent decades as the intensity of tillage increases. This phenomenon occurs more in sloping lands or in the fields which are lacking from crop residues and organic materials. The conservation tillage has an important role in minimizing soil erosion and developing the quality of soil. Hence, it has attracted the attention of more researchers and farmers in the recent years. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of different tillage methods has been investigated on the crop residues, mechanical resistance of soil, and the stability of aggregates. This research was performed on the agricultural fields of Urmia University, located in Nazloo zone in 2012. Wheat and barley were planted in these fields, consecutively. The soil texture of these fields was loamy clay and the factorial experiments were done in a completely randomized block design. In this study, effect of three tillage systems including tillage with moldboard (conventional tillage, tillage with disk plow (reduced tillage, chisel plow (minimum tillage and control treatment on some soil physical properties was investigated. Depth is second factor that was investigated in three levels including 0-60, 60-140, and 140-200 mm. Moreover, the effect of different percentages of crop residues on the rolling resistance of non-driving wheels was studied in a soil bin. The contents of crop residues have been measured by using the linear transects and image processing methods. In the linear

  2. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  3. Effect of post-harvest forestry residue management practices on the diversity of epigeal coleopterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ramírez Aliaga

    2017-01-01

    and summer, the treatment with residues left registered significantly greater abundance and species richness. In the residue management, the practices of intact leaving residue should be considered as the least impacting on diversity and abundance of epigeal coleopterans and is recommended for creating refugee areas to promote diversity of beetles in this area of study.

  4. Mechanically induced residual stresses: Modelling and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranart, Jean-Claude E.

    Accurate characterisation of residual stress represents a major challenge to the engineering community. This is because it is difficult to validate the measurement and the accuracy is doubtful. It is with this in mind that the current research program concerning the characterisation of mechanically induced residual stresses was undertaken. Specifically, the cold expansion of fastener holes and the shot peening treatment of aerospace alloys, aluminium 7075 and titanium Ti-6Al-4V, are considered. The objective of this study is to characterise residual stresses resulting from cold working using three powerful techniques. These are: (i) theoretical using three dimensional non-linear finite element modelling, (ii) semi-destructive using a modified incremental hole drilling technique and (iii) nondestructive using a newly developed guided wave method supplemented by traditional C-scan measurements. The three dimensional finite element results of both simultaneous and sequential cold expansion of two fastener holes revealed the importance of the separation distance, the expansion level and the loading history upon the development and growth of the plastic zone and unloading residual stresses. It further showed that the commonly adopted two dimensional finite element models are inaccurate and incapable of predicting these residual stresses. Similarly, the dynamic elasto-plastic finite element studies of shot peening showed that the depth of the compressed layer, surface and sub-surface residual stresses are significantly influenced by the shot characteristics. Furthermore, the results reveal that the separation distance between two simultaneously impacting shots governs the plastic zone development and its growth. In the semi-destructive incremental hole drilling technique, the accuracy of the newly developed calibration coefficients and measurement techniques were verified with a known stress field and the method was used to measure peening residual stresses. Unlike

  5. Land management and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    encompasses the total natural and built environment. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...... land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction....

  6. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  7. Chemical treatment of post-harvest Marandu grass seed residues with different moisture contents Tratamento químico do resíduo pós-colheita de sementes de capim-marandu com diferentes teores de umidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Toledo Piza Roth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this was to evaluate the effect of chemical treatments with urea (3 or 5% DM and anhydrous ammonia (3% DM applied to the post-harvest hay residues of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu that contained different moisture contents (15, 25 or 30%. A randomized block design was used with eight treatments and four replications (defined as the bale layers within the hay stacks. The hay treated with 3% anhydrous ammonia and 15% moisture content reduced the levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF from 84.3 to 79.1% and increased the in vitro digestibility of the dry matter (DM from 37.3 to 55.5% compared to the control group. The variation in the moisture content did not significantly alter the action of ammonia, with mean values of 77.6% NDF and 57.3% in vitro digestibility of DM. The hay with 5% urea reduces the NDF content from 84.3 to 79.6% compared to the untreated hay, so the hay moisture content has to be increased to 30% to achieve a greater effect on the DM digestibility, which subsequently increases by 12 percentage units.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do tratamento químico com ureia (3 ou 5% na MS e amônia anidra (3% na MS no feno de resíduo pós-colheita de sementes de Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu, contendo diferentes teores de umidade (15, 25 ou 30%. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições (camadas de fardos dentro das pilhas. O feno tratado com 3% de amônia anidra com 15% de umidade ocasionou redução de 84,3 para 79,1% nos teores de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e elevação de 37,3 para 55,5% na digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (MS em relação ao grupo controle. A variação na umidade não alterou de maneira significativa a ação da amônia, cujos valores médios foram 77,6% de FDN e 57,3% de digestibilidade in vitro da MS. O feno com 5% de ureia reduziu os teores de FDN de 84,3 para 79,6% em relação ao feno não-tratado, o que tornou necess

  8. Regulatory framework for NORM residues in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepin, S.; Dehandschutter, B.; Poffijn, A.; Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC), Rue Ravenstein 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    The Belgian radiation protection authority (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC) has published in March 2013 a decree regulating the acceptance of NORM residues by nonradioactive waste treatment facilities. This regulation is based on the concept of 'work activities involving natural radiation sources' in the sense of article 40 of the 96/29/EURATOM directive. The disposal or processing facilities which accept NORM residues with an activity concentration above a generic exemption level will be considered as 'work activities' and submitted to declaration according to the Belgian radiation protection regulations. On basis of this declaration, specific acceptance criteria for the different types of processing/ disposal of the residues (disposal on landfill, recycling into building materials, etc.) are imposed. FANC has drafted guidelines for these acceptance criteria. A methodological guide for the operators of the concerned facilities was also published. Moreover, sites where significant quantities of NORM residues are or have been disposed, are subjected to an environmental monitoring in the framework of the national program of radiological surveillance of FANC. FANC also introduced in its regulations the concept of anthropogenic radon-prone areas: e.g. former phosphogypsum stacks have been defined as anthropogenic radon-prone areas, which allows some form of regulatory control of these sites. (authors)

  9. Thermal Adsorption Processing Of Hydrocarbon Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudad H. Al.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The raw materials of secondary catalytic processes must be pre-refined. Among these refining processes are the deasphalting and demetallization including their thermo adsorption or thermo-contact adsorption variety. In oil processing four main processes of thermo-adsorption refining of hydrocarbon residues are used ART Asphalt Residual Treating - residues deasphaltizing 3D Discriminatory Destructive Distillation developed in the US ACT Adsorption-Contact Treatment and ETCC Express Thermo-Contact Cracking developed in Russia. ART and ACT are processes with absorbers of lift type reactor while 3D and ETCC processes are with an adsorbing reactor having ultra-short contact time of the raw material with the adsorbent. In all these processes refining of hydrocarbon residues is achieved by partial Thermo-destructive transformations of hydrocarbons and hetero-atomic compounds with simultaneous adsorption of the formed on the surface of the adsorbents resins asphaltene and carboids as well as metal- sulphur - and nitro-organic compounds. Demetallized and deasphalted light and heavy gas oils or their mixtures are a quality raw material for secondary deepening refining processes catalytic and hydrogenation cracking etc. since they are characterized by low coking ability and low content of organometallic compounds that lead to irreversible deactivation of the catalysts of these deepening processes.

  10. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  11. Landing spot selection for UAV emergency landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eendebak, P.T.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Hollander, R.J.M. den

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method for landing zone selection using obstacle detection to be used for UAV emergency landings. The method is simple enough to allow real-time implementation on a UAV system. The method is able to detect objects in the presence of camera movement and motion parallax. Using the

  12. Effect of residual stresses on hydrogen permeation in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouanga, M.; Bercot, P.; Takadoum, J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on electrochemical permeation in iron membrane was investigated. Four thermal and mechanical treatments were chosen to obtain different surface states in relation to the residual stresses. Residual stresses were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Macherauch and Mueller method. The results were completed by the microhardness measurements. For all iron membranes, compressive residual stresses were obtained. Electrochemical permeation experiments using a Devanathan and Stachurski cell were employed to determine the hydrogen permeation behaviour of the various iron membranes. The latter was charged with hydrogen by galvanostatic cathodic polarization in 0.1 M NaOH at 25 deg. C. The experimental results revealed that hydrogen permeation rate increases with increasing residual stresses introduced in iron membranes.

  13. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Vector)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Vector-based land cover data set derived from classified 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source...

  14. LandSat-Based Land Use-Land Cover (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Raster-based land cover data set derived from 30 meter resolution Thematic Mapper satellite imagery. Classification is divided into 16 classes with source imagery...

  15. Biogas systems for sisal and other agro-industrial residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Danish Technological Inst., Section for Biotechnology, Taastrup (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Most of the East-African agro-industries are generating very large quantities of organic residues from production and processing of different crops. In the East-African Region the most important of these crops are: Sisal, Sugar, Coffee, Cashew nuts and Pineapple. In other 3. world countries, Palm oil and Cassava (Tapioca starch) processing are main producers of organic waste products. Moreover, large quantities of organic residues are generated from other food processing activities like breweries, consumption of bananas etc. The following pages give examples of setups and system designs of anaerobic treatment systems for some of the residues mentioned above. When considering anaerobic treatment of sisal residues, which constitutes the main agro-industrial biomass resource in Tanzania, two major issues should be considered: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; And optionally, potential methods for pre-treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield. The sisal liquid residues are degraded very fast and efficiently in UASB systems. At COD loading rates less than 11 kg COD/m{sup 3} x day, the reduction in organic matter is more than 90% and methane yields obtained are between 373 and 377 ml CH{sub 4}/g COD reduced. The treatment of sisal solid residues in CSTR systems has been examined both at mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic temperatures (55 deg. C.). (EG)

  16. Effect of farmyard manure, mineral fertilizers and mung bean residues on some microbiological properties of eroded soil in district Swat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naeem

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of organic and inorganic fertilizers and mung bean residues on improving microbiological properties of eroded lands of District Swat, North West Frontier Province (NWFP Pakistan under wheat-mung bean-wheat cropping system during 2006 to 2008. The experiment was laid out in RCBD split-plot arrangement. Mung bean was grown and a basal dose of 25-60 kg N-P2O5 ha-1 was applied. After mung bean harvest, three residues management practices, i.e., R+ (mung bean residues incorporated into soil, R- (mung bean residues removed and F (fallow were performed in the main-plots. Sub-plot factor consisted of six fertilizer treatments for wheat crop i.e., T1 (control, T2 (120 kg N ha-1, T3 (120-90-0 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T4 (120-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O ha-1, T5 (90-90-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O + 10 t FYM ha-1 and T6 (60-90-60 kg N-P2O5- K2O + 20 t FYM ha-1. The results showed that microbial activity, microbial biomass-C and-N, mineralizable C and N were highest with T6 as well as with the incorporation of mung bean residues (R+. Compared with control, T6 increased microbial biomass C, N, mineralizable C and N by 33.8, 164.1, 35.5 and 110.6% at surface and 38.4, 237.5, 38.7 and 124.1% at sub