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Sample records for residual zenith delay

  1. Validation of real-time zenith tropospheric delay estimation with TOMION software within WAGNSS networks

    OpenAIRE

    Graffigna, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The TOmographic Model of the IONospheric electron content (TOMION) software implements a simultaneous precise geodetic and ionospheric modeling, which can be used to test new approaches for real-time precise GNSS modeling (positioning, ionospheric and tropospheric delays, clock errors, among others). In this work, the software is used to estimate the Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) emulating real time and its performance is evaluated through a comparative analysis with a built-in GIPSY estima...

  2. Retrieving Precipitable Water Vapor Data Using GPS Zenith Delays and Global Reanalysis Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available GPS has become a very effective tool to remotely sense precipitable water vapor (PWV information, which is important for weather forecasting and nowcasting. The number of geodetic GNSS stations set up in China has substantially increased over the last few decades. However, GPS PWV derivation requires surface pressure to calculate the precise zenith hydrostatic delay and weighted mean temperature to map the zenith wet delay to precipitable water vapor. GPS stations without collocated meteorological sensors can retrieve water vapor using standard atmosphere parameters, which lead to a decrease in accuracy. In this paper, a method of interpolating NWP reanalysis data to site locations for generating corresponding meteorological elements is explored over China. The NCEP FNL dataset provided by the NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction and over 600 observed stations from different sources was selected to assess the quality of the results. A one-year experiment was performed in our study. The types of stations selected include meteorological sites, GPS stations, radio sounding stations, and a sun photometer station. Compared with real surface measurements, the accuracy of the interpolated surface pressure and air temperature both meet the requirements of GPS PWV derivation in most areas; however, the interpolated surface air temperature exhibits lower precision than the interpolated surface pressure. At more than 96% of selected stations, PWV differences caused by the differences between the interpolation results and real measurements were less than 1.0 mm. Our study also indicates that relief amplitude exerts great influence on the accuracy of the interpolation approach. Unsatisfactory interpolation results always occurred in areas of strong relief. GPS PWV data generated from interpolated meteorological parameters are consistent with other PWV products (radio soundings, the NWP reanalysis dataset, and sun photometer PWV data. The

  3. Global model of zenith tropospheric delay proposed based on EOF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Langlang; Chen, Peng; Wei, Erhu; Li, Qinzheng

    2017-07-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the main error budgets in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. Many empirical correction models have been developed to compensate this delay, and models which do not require meteorological parameters have received the most attention. This study established a global troposphere zenith total delay (ZTD) model, called Global Empirical Orthogonal Function Troposphere (GEOFT), based on the empirical orthogonal function (EOF, also known as geographically weighted PCAs) analysis method and the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) Atmosphere data from 2012 to 2015. The results showed that ZTD variation could be well represented by the characteristics of the EOF base function Ek and associated coefficients Pk. Here, E1 mainly signifies the equatorial anomaly; E2 represents north-south asymmetry, and E3 and E4 reflects regional variation. Moreover, P1 mainly reflects annual and semiannual variation components; P2 and P3 mainly contains annual variation components, and P4 displays semiannual variation components. We validated the proposed GEOFT model using tropospheric delay data of GGOS ZTD grid data and the tropospheric product of the International GNSS Service (IGS) over the year 2016. The results showed that GEOFT model has high accuracy with bias and RMS of -0.3 and 3.9 cm, respectively, with respect to the GGOS ZTD data, and of -0.8 and 4.1 cm, respectively, with respect to the global IGS tropospheric product. The accuracy of GEOFT demonstrating that the use of the EOF analysis method to characterize ZTD variation is reasonable.

  4. Data assimilation of GNSS zenith total delays from a Nordic processing centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Magnus; Ridal, Martin; Thorsteinsson, Sigurdur; Ning, Tong

    2017-11-01

    Atmospheric moisture-related information estimated from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) ground-based receiver stations by the Nordic GNSS Analysis Centre (NGAA) have been used within a state-of-the-art kilometre-scale numerical weather prediction system. Different processing techniques have been implemented to derive the moisture-related GNSS information in the form of zenith total delays (ZTDs) and these are described and compared. In addition full-scale data assimilation and modelling experiments have been carried out to investigate the impact of utilizing moisture-related GNSS data from the NGAA processing centre on a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model initial state and on the ensuing forecast quality. The sensitivity of results to aspects of the data processing, station density, bias-correction and data assimilation have been investigated. Results show benefits to forecast quality when using GNSS ZTD as an additional observation type. The results also show a sensitivity to thinning distance applied for GNSS ZTD observations but not to modifications to the number of predictors used in the variational bias correction applied. In addition, it is demonstrated that the assimilation of GNSS ZTD can benefit from more general data assimilation enhancements and that there is an interaction of GNSS ZTD with other types of observations used in the data assimilation. Future plans include further investigation of optimal thinning distances and application of more advanced data assimilation techniques.

  5. Estimating Zenith Tropospheric Delays from BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Observations

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    Xin Sui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The GNSS derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD plays today a very critical role in meteorological study and weather forecasts, as ZTDs of thousands of GNSS stations are operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Recently, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS was officially announced to provide operational services around China and its neighborhood and it was demonstrated to be very promising for precise navigation and positioning. In this contribution, we concentrate on estimating ZTD using BDS observations to assess its capacity for troposphere remote sensing. A local network which is about 250 km from Beijing and comprised of six stations equipped with GPS- and BDS-capable receivers is utilized. Data from 5 to 8 November 2012 collected on the network is processed in network mode using precise orbits and in Precise Point Positioning mode using precise orbits and clocks. The precise orbits and clocks are generated from a tracking network with most of the stations in China and several stations around the world. The derived ZTDs are compared with that estimated from GPS data using the final products of the International GNSS Service (IGS. The comparison shows that the bias and the standard deviation of the ZTD differences are about 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, which are very close to the differences of GPS ZTD estimated using different software packages.

  6. Predictions of Tropospheric Zenithal Delay for South America : Seasonal Variability and Quality Evaluation

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    Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zenithal Tropospheric Delay (Z TD is an important error source in the observable involved in the positioning methods using artificial satellite. Frequently, the Z TD influence in the positioning is minimized by applying empirical models. However, such models are not able to supply the precision required to some real time applications, such as navigation and steak out. In 2010 it will be implanted the new navigation and administration system of the air traffic, denominated CNS-ATM (Communication Navigation Surveillance - Air Traffic Management. In this new system the application of positioning techniques by satellites in the air traffic will be quite explored because they provide good precision in real time. The predictions of Z TD values from Numeric Weather Prediction (NWP, denominated dynamic modeling, is an alternative to model the atmospheric gases effects in the radio-frequency signals in real time. The Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC has generated operationally prediction of Z TD values to South American Continent since March, 2004. The aims of the present paper are to investigate the Z TD seasonal variability and evaluate the quality of predicted Z TD values. One year of GPS data from Brazilian Continuous GPS Network (RBMC was used in this evaluation. The RMS values resulting from this evaluation were in the range of 4 to 11 cm. Considering the Z TDtemporal variability, the advantages provide by this modeling, the results obtained in this evaluation and the future improvements, this work shows that the dynamic modeling has great potential to become the most appropriate alternative to model Z TD in real time.

  7. Assimilation of zenith total delays in the AROME France convective scale model: a recent assessment

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    Jean-Francois Mahfouf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of assimilating GPS zenith total delays (ZTD in the convective scale model AROME is assessed over a 1-month period in summer 2013. The experimental set-up is similar to the current operational usage at Météo-France where the observing system has been expanded in July 2013 in a three-dimensional variational (3D-Var data assimilation scheme with a 3-hour cycling. Three experiments are performed. In a baseline experiment the GPS ZTD provided through the E-GVAP programme are withdrawn from the observing system (NOGPS. In a second experiment, GPS ZTD from E-GVAP are included in the observing system, representing the operational configuration at Météo-France (EGVAP. The last experiment is similar to EGVAP but new ZTD observations processed by the University of Luxembourg are also assimilated on top of all other observations (UL01. In the first stage, it has been verified through a systematic comparison with model counterparts that the quality of ZTD data processed by the University of Luxembourg is similar to the one provided by other analysis centres from the E-GVAP programme. After a number of quality controls, it has been possible to assimilate around 90 additional observations on top of around 600 stations from E-GVAP every 3 hours. Despite the small fraction of observations assimilated in AROME that ZTD represent (<2%, it is shown that they systematically improve the atmospheric humidity short-range forecasts by a comparison with other observing systems informative about water vapour (radiosoundings, satellite radiances, surface networks even though it is by small amounts. When examining objective precipitation scores over France, the improvement brought by the UL01 stations on top of E-GVAP is systematic for all daily precipitation thresholds. Examination of several case studies reveals the ability of the ZTD observations to modify the intensity and location of precipitating areas in accordance with previous studies. The addition

  8. Determination of zenith hydrostatic delay and its impact on GNSS-derived integrated water vapor

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    X. Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface pressure is a necessary meteorological variable for the accurate determination of integrated water vapor (IWV using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS. The lack of pressure observations is a big issue for the conversion of historical GNSS observations, which is a relatively new area of GNSS applications in climatology. Hence the use of the surface pressure derived from either a blind model (e.g., Global Pressure and Temperature 2 wet, GPT2w or a global atmospheric reanalysis (e.g., ERA-Interim becomes an important alternative solution. In this study, pressure derived from these two methods is compared against the pressure observed at 108 global GNSS stations at four epochs (00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 UTC each day for the period 2000–2013. Results show that a good accuracy is achieved from the GPT2w-derived pressure in the latitude band between −30 and 30° and the average value of 6 h root-mean-square errors (RMSEs across all the stations in this region is 2.5 hPa. Correspondingly, an error of 5.8 mm and 0.9 kg m−2 in its resultant zenith hydrostatic delay (ZHD and IWV is expected. However, for the stations located in the mid-latitude bands between −30 and −60° and between 30 and 60°, the mean value of the RMSEs is 7.3 hPa, and for the stations located in the high-latitude bands from −60 to −90° and from 60 to 90°, the mean value of the RMSEs is 9.9 hPa. The mean of the RMSEs of the ERA-Interim-derived pressure across at the selected 100 stations is 0.9 hPa, which will lead to an equivalent error of 2.1 mm and 0.3 kg m−2 in the ZHD and IWV, respectively, determined from this ERA-Interim-derived pressure. Results also show that the monthly IWV determined using pressure from ERA-Interim has a good accuracy − with a relative error of better than 3 % on a global scale; thus, the monthly IWV resulting from ERA-Interim-derived pressure has the potential to be used for climate studies

  9. Analysing the Zenith Tropospheric Delay Estimates in On-line Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Services and PPP Software Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez Astudillo, Jorge; Lau, Lawrence; Tang, Yu-Ting; Moore, Terry

    2018-02-14

    As Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals travel through the troposphere, a tropospheric delay occurs due to a change in the refractive index of the medium. The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique can achieve centimeter/millimeter positioning accuracy with only one GNSS receiver. The Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) is estimated alongside with the position unknowns in PPP. Estimated ZTD can be very useful for meteorological applications, an example is the estimation of water vapor content in the atmosphere from the estimated ZTD. PPP is implemented with different algorithms and models in online services and software packages. In this study, a performance assessment with analysis of ZTD estimates from three PPP online services and three software packages is presented. The main contribution of this paper is to show the accuracy of ZTD estimation achievable in PPP. The analysis also provides the GNSS users and researchers the insight of the processing algorithm dependence and impact on PPP ZTD estimation. Observation data of eight whole days from a total of nine International GNSS Service (IGS) tracking stations spread in the northern hemisphere, the equatorial region and the southern hemisphere is used in this analysis. The PPP ZTD estimates are compared with the ZTD obtained from the IGS tropospheric product of the same days. The estimates of two of the three online PPP services show good agreement (<1 cm) with the IGS ZTD values at the northern and southern hemisphere stations. The results also show that the online PPP services perform better than the selected PPP software packages at all stations.

  10. Analysing the Zenith Tropospheric Delay Estimates in On-line Precise Point Positioning (PPP Services and PPP Software Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mendez Astudillo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals travel through the troposphere, a tropospheric delay occurs due to a change in the refractive index of the medium. The Precise Point Positioning (PPP technique can achieve centimeter/millimeter positioning accuracy with only one GNSS receiver. The Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD is estimated alongside with the position unknowns in PPP. Estimated ZTD can be very useful for meteorological applications, an example is the estimation of water vapor content in the atmosphere from the estimated ZTD. PPP is implemented with different algorithms and models in online services and software packages. In this study, a performance assessment with analysis of ZTD estimates from three PPP online services and three software packages is presented. The main contribution of this paper is to show the accuracy of ZTD estimation achievable in PPP. The analysis also provides the GNSS users and researchers the insight of the processing algorithm dependence and impact on PPP ZTD estimation. Observation data of eight whole days from a total of nine International GNSS Service (IGS tracking stations spread in the northern hemisphere, the equatorial region and the southern hemisphere is used in this analysis. The PPP ZTD estimates are compared with the ZTD obtained from the IGS tropospheric product of the same days. The estimates of two of the three online PPP services show good agreement (<1 cm with the IGS ZTD values at the northern and southern hemisphere stations. The results also show that the online PPP services perform better than the selected PPP software packages at all stations.

  11. First Zenith Total Delay and Integrated Water Vapour Estimates from the Near Real-Time GNSS Data Processing Systems at the University of Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Since September 2011 the University of Luxembourg in collaboration with the University of Nottingham has been setting up two near real-time processing systems for ground-based GNSS data for the provision of zenith total delay (ZTD) and integrated water vapour (IWV) estimates. Both systems are based on Bernese v5.0, use the double-differenced network processing strategy and operate with a 1-hour (NRT1h) and 15-minutes (NRT15m) update cycle. Furthermore, the systems follow the approach of the E-GVAP METO and IES2 systems in that the normal equations for the latest data are combined with those from the previous four updates during the estimation of the ZTDs. NRT1h currently takes the hourly data from over 130 GNSS stations in Europe whereas NRT15m is primarily using the real-time streams of EUREF-IP. Both networks include additional GNSS stations in Luxembourg, Belgium and France. The a priori station coordinates for all of these stem from a moving average computed over the last 20 to 50 days and are based on the precise point positioning processing strategy. In this study we present the first ZTD and IWV estimates obtained from the NRT1h and NRT15m systems in development at the University of Luxembourg. In a preliminary evaluation we compare their performance to the IES2 system at the University of Nottingham and find the IWV estimates to agree at the sub-millimetre level.

  12. Introducing Zenith project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupejova, E.

    2008-01-01

    Zenith ia a international program of continuous improvement, aimed at reaching high work performance in all ENEL activities and in all countries where ENEL is present Zenith covers various projects aimed at cost reduction, processes simplification and performance improvement that have been already initiated in the past (DTC, TTC, QUASAR...) The program includes 5 pillars to reach perfection: - reaching for operational proficiency by underlining the leading role of ENEL and continuous searching possibilities how to improve processes and activities; - to learn methods of continuous the others; - to learn and apply the methods of improvement; - continuously apply the methods of improvement; - continuously monitor and publish the results and implementation of ZENITH standard. (author)

  13. Plutonium cores of zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Drageset, A; Freemantle, R G; Wilson, D J

    1965-03-15

    The report describes a series of experiments carried out with plutonium fuel in the heated zero power reactor ZENITH, with the aim of testing current theoretical methods, with particular reference to excess reactivity, temperature coefficients, differential spectrum and reaction rate distributions. Two cores of widely different fissile/moderator atom ratios were loaded in order to test the theory under significantly varied spectrum conditions.

  14. Delayed amputation following trauma increases residual lower limb infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhilash; Glass, Graeme E; Ahmadi, Hootan; Mackey, Simon; Simmons, Jon; Hettiaratchy, Shehan; Pearse, Michael; Nanchahal, Jagdeep

    2013-04-01

    Residual limb infection following amputation is a devastating complication, resulting in delayed rehabilitation, repeat surgery, prolonged hospitalisation and poor functional outcome. The aim of this study was to identify variables predicting residual limb infection following non-salvageable lower limb trauma. All cases of non-salvageable lower limb trauma presenting to a specialist centre over 5 years were evaluated from a prospective database and clinical and management variables correlated with the development of deep infection. Forty patients requiring 42 amputations were identified with a mean age of 49 years (±19.9, 1SD). Amputations were performed for 21 Gustilo IIIB injuries, 12 multi-planar degloving injuries, seven IIIC injuries and one open Schatzker 6 fracture. One limb was traumatically amputated at the scene and surgically revised. Amputation level was transtibial in 32, through-knee in one and transfemoral in nine. Median time from injury to amputation was 4 days (range 0-30 days). Amputation following only one debridement and within 5 days resulted in significantly fewer stump infections (p = 0.026 and p = 0.03, respectively, Fisher's exact test). The cumulative probability of infection-free residual limb closure declined steadily from day 5. Multivariate analyses revealed that neither the nature of the injury nor pre-injury patient morbidity independently influenced residual limb infection. Avoiding residual limb infection is critically dependent on prompt amputation of non-salvageable limbs. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Shifted Legendre method with residual error estimation for delay linear Fredholm integro-differential equations

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    Şuayip Yüzbaşı

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest a matrix method for obtaining the approximate solutions of the delay linear Fredholm integro-differential equations with constant coefficients using the shifted Legendre polynomials. The problem is considered with mixed conditions. Using the required matrix operations, the delay linear Fredholm integro-differential equation is transformed into a matrix equation. Additionally, error analysis for the method is presented using the residual function. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. The results obtained in this study are compared with the known results.

  16. Zenith 1 truss transfer ceremony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Zenith-1 (Z-1) Truss is officially presented to NASA by The Boeing Co. on the Space Station Processing Facility floor on July 31. STS-92 Commander Col. Brian Duffy, comments on the presentation. Pictured are The Boeing Co. processing team and STS-92 astronauts. The Z-1 Truss is the cornerstone truss of the International Space Station and is scheduled to fly in Space Shuttle Discovery's payload pay on STS-92 targeted for launch Oct. 5, 2000. The Z-1 is considered a cornerstone truss because it carries critical components of the Station's attitude, communications, thermal and power control systems as well as four control moment gyros, high and low gain antenna systems, and two plasma contactor units used to disperse electrical charge build- ups. The Z-1 truss and a Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-3), also flying to the Station on the same mission, will be the first major U.S. elements flown to the ISS aboard the Shuttle since the launch of the Unity element in December 1998.

  17. Delayed cracking in 301LN austenitic steel after deep drawing: Martensitic transformation and residual stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrahmoune, M.R.; Berveiller, S.; Inal, K.; Patoor, E.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the delayed cracking phenomenon of the 301LN unstable austenitic steel, by determining the distribution of residual stresses after deep drawing, taking into account the phase transformation. Deep drawing for different ratios is done for two different temperatures. Cracks appear for the highest drawing ratio (DR = 2.00) in the top of the cup. The breaking patterns observed using a scanning electron microscope show ductile fracture in the middle region, and both intergranular and transgranular rupture in the edges. Martensite contents throughout the cup wall and through the thickness are determined. Increasing the martensite content was found to have a great effect on the cracking sensitivity. X-ray diffraction allows us to determine the residual stresses in the martensitic phase. These last are positive, increase with increasing drawing ratios. The maximum value is located at the middle height of the cup, it exceeds 500 MPa for the 2.00 drawing ratio, and is less than 350 MPa for the 1.89 drawing ratio

  18. A report on core 5 of ZENITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, F.R.; Cameron, I.R.; Freemantle, R.G.; Reed, D.L.; Wilson, D.J.

    1964-06-01

    The determination of the excess reactivity, control rod worths, flux fine structure, temperature coefficients, differential spectra and reaction rates of various nuclides for the fifth loading of the heated zero energy reactor ZENITH is described. The core contained 32.6 Kgm of U235, giving a carbon/U235 atomic ratio of 1072, and formed the least moderated of the range studied. Comparisons of the experimental results with calculations using multigroup diffusion codes are presented. (author)

  19. Development and production of Zenith fissile elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D; Wheatley, C C.H.; Lloyd, H

    1959-06-15

    The development of a new glass-bonded alumina-uranium oxide composition forming the fissile component of the Zenith fuel elements is described, together with the production of the initial charge containing 15 Kg. of U{sub 235]; the composition is capable of retaining fission product gases at high temperatures. The description includes criticality considerations, details of manufacture, and production statistics of the 11,000 discs produced.

  20. Effects of operating conditions on compositional characteristics and reaction kinetics of liquid derived by delayed coking of nigerian petroleum residue

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    O. O. Bello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal upgrading of Nigerian petroleum residue was studied at relatively low pressure in a delayed coking reactor system. In this work, the intent was to investigate the effects of process variables such as reaction temperature (200(0C to 600(0C, reaction time (0 to 120min, additive concentration loading and additive-to-residue ratio on the amounts and quality of organic liquid product (OLP. The liquid products derived from the delayed coking process were characterized by means of instrumental analysis of gas-liquid chromatography. Results obtained from the analyses of the OLP revealed an upward trend of the conversion process and the selectivity of the aromatic compounds with additive-to-residue ratio (ARR and increase in temperature. This led to maximum yield of 37.2% achieved with ARR of 5 compared to 31% achieved with ordinary thermal conversion. The selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons was maximum at 83.1wt% the selectivity towards aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons were highest for methanol-potassium hydroxide and methanol respectively. In all additive system cases, maximum OLP was produced at an optimum reaction temperature of 370(0C in the delayed coking reactor and at higher residence time. The gaseous product consisted of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and C1 - C6 hydrocarbons, which amounted to about 20 to 30 wt% of liquid distillate. The information obtained in this study show that the organic liquid products are amenable to characterization procedure and provided the basis for the identification of processes for upgrading Nigerian petroleum residue and such other starting materials such as bitumen or fossil fuel coal liquids.

  1. Elimination of residual amplitude modulation in tunable diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy using an optical fiber delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup Lal; Ruxton, Keith; Johnstone, Walter; Lengden, Michael; Duffin, Kevin

    2009-06-08

    A new fiber-optic technique to eliminate residual amplitude modulation in tunable diode laser wavelength modulation spectroscopy is presented. The modulated laser output is split to pass in parallel through the gas measurement cell and an optical fiber delay line, with the modulation frequency / delay chosen to introduce a relative phase shift of pi between them. The two signals are balanced using a variable attenuator and recombined through a fiber coupler. In the absence of gas, the direct laser intensity modulation cancels, thereby eliminating the high background. The presence of gas induces a concentration-dependent imbalance at the coupler's output from which the absolute absorption profile is directly recovered with high accuracy using 1f detection.

  2. Cosmic ray zenith angle distribution at low geomagnetic latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, G [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Gagliardini, A; Ghielmetti, H S

    1977-12-01

    The intensity of secondary charged cosmic rays at different zenith angles was measured by narrow angle Geiger-Mueller telescopes up to an atmospheric depth of 2 g cm/sup -2/. The angular distribution observed at high altitudes is nearly flat at small angles around the vertical and suggests that the particle intensity peaks at large zenith angles, close to the horizon.

  3. Clinical value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for differentiating recurrent or residual brain tumor from delayed cerebral necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, June S.; Langston, James W.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Kingsley, Peter B.; Ogg, Robert J.; Pui, Margaret H.; Kun, Larry E.; Jenkins, Jesse J.; Gang, Chen; Ochs, Judith J.; Sanford, Robert A.; Heideman, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed cerebral necrosis (DN) is a significant risk for brain tumor patients treated with high-dose irradiation. Although differentiating DN from tumor progression is an important clinical question, the distinction cannot be made reliably by conventional imaging techniques. We undertook a pilot study to assess the ability of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) to differentiate prospectively between DN or recurrent/residual tumor in a series of children treated for primary brain tumors with high-dose irradiation. Methods and Materials: Twelve children (ages 3-16 years), who had clinical and MR imaging (MRI) changes that suggested a diagnosis of either DN or progressive/recurrent brain tumor, underwent localized 1 H MRS prior to planned biopsy, resection, or other confirmatory histological procedure. Prospective 1 H MRS interpretations were based on comparison of spectral peak patterns and quantitative peak area values from normalized spectra: a marked depression of the intracellular metabolite peaks from choline, creatine, and N-acetyl compounds was hypothesized to indicate DN, and median-to-high choline with easily visible creatine metabolite peaks was labeled progressive/recurrent tumor. Subsequent histological studies identified the brain lesion as DN or recurrent/residual tumor. Results: The patient series included five cases of DN and seven recurrent/residual tumor cases, based on histology. The MRS criteria prospectively identified five out of seven patients with active tumor, and four out of five patients with histologically proven DN correctly. Discriminant analysis suggested that the primary diagnostic information for differentiating DN from tumor lay in the normalized MRS peak areas for choline and creatine compounds. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows promising sensitivity and selectivity for differentiating DN from recurrent/progressive brain tumor. A novel diagnostic index based on peak areas for choline and

  4. Time-of-flight neutron spectra measurements in Zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Coates, M S; Diment, K M; Durrani, S A; Gayther, D B; Poole, M J; Reed, D L

    1962-01-15

    Neutron spectra in the second core loading of ZENITH have been measured using a neutron chopper. Spectra at two positions in the reactore core were obtained over a range of temperatures extending to 650 deg C.

  5. Tropospheric nitrogen dioxide column retrieval based on ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, F. M.; Hendrick, F.; Pinardi, G.; Fayt, C.; Van Roozendael, M.

    2013-12-01

    A retrieval approach has been developed to derive tropospheric NO2 vertical column amounts from ground-based zenith-sky measurements of scattered sunlight. Zenith radiance spectra are observed in the visible range by the BIRA-IASB Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument and analyzed by the DOAS technique, based on a least-squares spectral fitting. In recent years, this technique has shown to be a well-suited remote sensing tool for monitoring atmospheric trace gases. The retrieval algorithm is developed and validated based on a two month dataset acquired from June to July 2009 in the framework of the Cabauw (51.97° N, 4.93° E) Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI). Once fully operational, the retrieval approach can be applied to observations from stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The obtained tropospheric vertical column amounts are compared with the multi-axis retrieval from the BIRA-IASB MAX-DOAS instrument and the retrieval from a zenith-viewing only SAOZ instrument (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales), owned by Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS). First results show a good agreement for the whole time series with the multi-axis retrieval (R = 0.82; y = 0.88x + 0.30) as well as with the SAOZ retrieval (R = 0.85; y = 0.76x + 0.28 ). Main error sources arise from the uncertainties in the determination of tropospheric and stratospheric air mass factors, the stratospheric NO2 abundances and the residual amount in the reference spectrum. However zenith-sky measurements have been commonly used over the last decades for stratospheric monitoring, this study also illustrates the suitability for retrieval of tropospheric column amounts. As there are long time series of zenith-sky acquisitions available, the developed approach offers new perspectives with regard to the use of observations from the NDACC

  6. Temperature coefficients of reactivity in the fourth loading of ZENITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro Manso, R.; Freemantle, R.G.; Rogers, J.D.

    1962-10-01

    Measurements have been made of the temperature coefficients of reactivity associated with the core plus end reflectors and the side reflector of the fourth core loading of ZENITH, which had a carbon/U235 atomic ratio of 7788 and no other absorber. (author)

  7. A report on the first loading of ZENITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absalom, R.M.; Barclay, F.R.; Cameron, I.R.; Della Loggia, V.E.; Hage, W.; Kinchin, G.H.; Sanders, J.E.; Tiren, L.I.; Wilson, D.J.

    1960-12-01

    The loading to criticality of the first core of the zero energy reactor ZENITH, and the results of the subsequent experimental programme are described. The composition of the reactor core corresponds to graphite: U235 and Th232: U235 atomic ratios of 3843 and 9.51 respectively. (author)

  8. A report on the first loading of ZENITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absalom, R M; Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Della Loggia, V E; Hage, W; Kinchin, G H; Sanders, J E; Tiren, L I; Wilson, D J [Industrial Power Reactors Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1960-12-15

    The loading to criticality of the first core of the zero energy reactor ZENITH, and the results of the subsequent experimental programme are described. The composition of the reactor core corresponds to graphite: U235 and Th232: U235 atomic ratios of 3843 and 9.51 respectively. (author)

  9. Temperature coefficients of reactivity in the fourth loading of ZENITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro Manso, R; Freemantle, R G; Rogers, J D [Graphite Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-10-15

    Measurements have been made of the temperature coefficients of reactivity associated with the core plus end reflectors and the side reflector of the fourth core loading of ZENITH, which had a carbon/U235 atomic ratio of 7788 and no other absorber. (author)

  10. An interim report on the Zenith Exponential Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absalom, R M; Cameron, I R; Kinchin, G H; Sanders, J E; Wilson, D J [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1959-06-15

    The following memorandum gives an interim account of the exponential experiments with Zenith-type fuel elements being carried out at Winfrith. Results quoted are still subject to revision: however it is hoped that the description of the work at this stage will stimulate discussion and suggestions for further measurements before the experiment is dismantled later in the year. The measurements are being undertaken in order to form some initial understanding of the reactor physics of uranium 235-thorium-graphite systems of the type later to be studied in Zenith. There have been no previous investigations of this type of system in the U.K. though measurements on enriched uranium-graphite systems have been reported from the U.S.A.. A practical result of the measurements will be a revision of the estimated critical loadings for Zenith, since the exponential systems studied cover the range of loadings proposed for the first critical assemblies. The theoretical work on these systems includes a two-group analysis being carried on in the Zenith group and a multigroup analysis being made by the H.T.G.C. Technical Assessments Group, including a Monte Carlo study of resonance capture.

  11. HF-induced airglow at magnetic zenith: theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Mishin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of airglow at 630nm (red line and 557.7nm (green line during HF modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP heating facility are analyzed. We propose a theoretical framework for understanding the generation of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves during magnetic zenith injections. We show that observations of HF-induced airglow in an underdense ionosphere as well as a decrease in the height of the emitting volume are consistent with this scenario.

  12. Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Zenith (SASZe) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer – Zenith (SASZe) provides measurements of zenith spectral shortwave radiance at 1Hz over a continuous spectral range from approximately 300 nm to 1700 nm. The SASZe design connects an optical collector located outdoors to a pair of spectrometers and data collections system located indoors within a climate-controlled building via an umbilical cable of fiber optic and electrical cables. The light collector incorporates a collimator yielding a 1-degree Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) field of view. The data-acquisition electronics and spectrometers include an in-line fiber optic shutter and two Avantes fiber-coupled grating spectroradiometers within a temperature-controlled container. The Avantes Avaspec ULS 2048 charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer covers the wavelength range from about 300-1100 nm with a pixel spacing of less than 0.6 nm and a spectral resolution of about 2.4 nm FWHM. The Avantes Avaspec NIR256-1.7 spectrometer covers the wavelength range from about 950 nm to 1700 nm with a pixel spacing of less than 4 nm and a spectral resolution of about 6 nm FWHM.

  13. Experimental programme and analysis, ZENITH II, Core 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, G.; Sanders, J. E.; Sherwin, J.

    1974-10-15

    The Phase 3 program of reactor physics experiments on the HTR (or Mk 3 GCR) lattices continued during the first half of 1974 with a study of a series of critical builds in Zenith II aimed at testing predictions of shut-down margins in the local criticality-situations arising during power reactor refueling. The paper describes the experimental program and the subsequent theoretical analysis using methods developed in the United Kingdom for calculating low-enriched uranium HTR fuel systems. The importance of improving the accuracy of predictions of shut-down margins arises from the basic requirement that the core in its most reactive condition and with a specified number of absorbers removed from the array must remain sub-critical with a margin adequate to cover the total uncertainty of +/- 1 Nile (that is, 1 % delta-k). The major uncertainty is that in modelling the complex fuel/absorber configuration, and this is the aspect essentially covered in the Zenith II Core 4 studies.

  14. Energy and zenith angle dependence of atmospheric muons

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, K

    1973-01-01

    The recently proposed new process for energetic-muon production in the atmosphere should be tested at Mt. Chacaltaya. Rigorous calculations of zenith-angle distribution of atmospheric muons have been made for the altitude of 5200 m above sea level with energy range from 100 GeV to 100 TeV and for zenith angles from 0 degrees to 92.3 degrees . Calculations are based on the extension of the Chapman function to the case of a non-isothermal atmosphere, taking into account (i) energy- dependent nuclear-interaction mean free path of cosmic-ray hadrons in air, (ii) different magnitudes of photonuclear cross-section in the energy-loss process of muons in the atmosphere, (iii) contributions of atmospheric muons arriving below the horizontal directions, and (iv) atmospheric structure and geomagnetic deflection. Results are compared with those corresponding to sea level. Range straggling, particularly its effect on horizontally incident muons, is investigated by Monte Carlo calculation, indicating that its effects and t...

  15. Effects of delayed cord clamping on residual placental blood volume, hemoglobin and bilirubin levels in term infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J S; Erickson-Owens, D A; Collins, J; Barcelos, M O; Parker, A B; Padbury, J F

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the effects of a 5-min delay (DCC) versus immediate cord clamping (ICC) on residual placental blood volume (RPBV) at birth, and hemoglobin and serum bilirubin at 24 to 48 h of age. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 73 women with term (37 to 41 weeks) singleton fetuses were randomized to DCC (⩾5 min; n=37) or ICC (protocol violations. Cord milking was the proxy for DCC (n=11) when the provider could not wait. Infants randomized to DCC compared with ICC had significantly less RPBV (20.0 versus 30.8 ml kg -1 , Phemoglobin levels (19.4 versus 17.8 g dl -1 , P=0.002) at 24 to 48 h, with no difference in bilirubin levels. Term infants had early hematological advantage of DCC without increases in hyperbilirubinemia or symptomatic polycythemia.

  16. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlar, Joseph; Tjernstroem, Michael; Leck, Caroline [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mauritsen, Thorsten [Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Shupe, Matthew D.; Persson, P.O.G. [University of Colorado, NOAA-ESRL-PSD, Boulder, CO (United States); Brooks, Ian M.; Birch, Cathryn E. [University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds (United Kingdom); Sirevaag, Anders [University of Bergen, Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Nicolaus, Marcel [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsoe (Norway); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5 N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), from August to early September 2008. Surface temperature indicated four distinct temperature regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermodynamic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt-season regime was interrupted by a 3-day cold regime where temperatures dropped from near zero to -7 C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero for 1 week until once again temperatures dropped rapidly and the energy budget residuals became negative. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlled by the cloudiness. Variable heat, moisture and cloud distributions were associated with changing air-masses. Surface cloud radiative forcing, the net radiative effect of clouds on the surface relative to clear skies, is estimated. Shortwave cloud forcing ranged between -50 W m{sup -2} and zero and varied significantly with surface albedo, solar zenith angle and cloud liquid water. Longwave cloud forcing was larger and generally ranged between 65 and 85 W m{sup -2}, except when the cloud fraction was tenuous or contained little liquid water; thus the net effect of the clouds was to warm the surface. Both cold periods occurred under tenuous, or altogether absent, low-level clouds containing little liquid water, effectively reducing the cloud greenhouse effect. Freeze-up progression was enhanced by a combination of increasing solar zenith angles and surface albedo, while inhibited by a large, positive surface cloud forcing until a new air-mass with considerably less cloudiness advected over the experiment area. (orig.)

  17. Month-hour distributions of zenith luminance and diffuse illuminance in Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler, Alfonso; Gopinathan, Kannam K.; Robledo, Luis; Ruiz, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Month-hour equal mean zenith luminance contours are obtained from one year of data of zenith luminance measurements for cloudless, overcast and partly cloudy skies and also when the combined data for all sky types are considered. For many hours in different months, the overcast sky luminance values are roughly about three times the cloudless sky luminance values and one and a half times the partly cloudy sky values. The dependence of month-hour equal mean zenith luminance contours on the ratio of global to extraterrestrial illuminance on a horizontal surface is also given. From equal mean zenith luminance contours, the approximate values of the mean zenith luminance for different sky conditions and different hours and months of the year can be easily obtained. Month-hour equal mean diffuse illuminance contours are obtained from diffuse illuminance measurements performed during the period 1992-1998. The dependence on solar altitude of the monthly average hourly values of diffuse illuminance is given and compared to the corresponding one obtained from data for Bet Dagan (Israel)

  18. Parameterization of Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function as a Function of the Zenith Angle around the Knee Region

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsttar, Marwah M.; Al-Rubaiee, A. A.; Ali, Abdul Halim Kh.

    2016-01-01

    Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (CLLDF) simulation was fulfilled using CORSIKA code for configurations of Tunka EAS array of different zenith angles. The parameterization of the CLLDF was carried out as a function of the distance from the shower core in extensive air showers (EAS) and zenith angle on the basis of the CORSIKA simulation of primary proton around the knee region with the energy 3.10^15 eV at different zenith angles. The parameterized CLLDF is verified in comparison...

  19. Microscopic observation of zenithal bistable switching in nematic devices with different surface relief structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uche, C; Elston, S J; Parry-Jones, L A

    2005-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystals have been shown to exhibit zenithal electro-optic bistability in devices containing sinusoidal and deformed sinusoidal gratings. Recently it has been shown that zenithal bistable states can also be supported at isolated edges of square gratings. In this paper, we present microscopic observations of bistability in cells containing sinusoidal gratings and long-pitch square gratings. We have also investigated a novel display based on square wells. High frame-rate video microscopy was used to obtain time-sequenced images when the devices were switched with monopolar pulses. These show that zenithal bistable switching can occur by two different processes: (i) domain growth (observed in cells containing sinusoidal gratings) and (ii) homogenous switching (observed in cells containing isolated edges

  20. Inclined Zenith Aurora over Kyoto on 17 September 1770: Graphical Evidence of Extreme Magnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Iwahashi, Kiyomi

    2017-10-01

    Red auroras were observed in Japan during an extreme magnetic storm that occurred on 17 September 1770. We show new evidence that the red aurora extended toward the zenith of Kyoto around midnight. The basic appearance of the historical painting of the red aurora is geometrically reproduced based on the inclination of the local magnetic field and a detailed description in a newly discovered diary. The presence of the inclined zenith aurora over Kyoto suggests that the intensity of the September 1770 magnetic storm is comparable to, or slightly larger than that of the September 1859 Carrington storm.

  1. Dependence on zenith angle of the strength of 3-meter equatorial electrojet irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierkic, H.M.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    Radar measurements in Peru were used to deduce the zenith angle dependence of the scattering cross section of plasma irregularities generated by instabilities in the equatorial electrojet. The irregularities probed by the 50 MHz Jicamarca radar had a wavelength of 3m. The cross section for the type 2 irregularities was isotopic in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the cross section for the stronger type 1 irregularities varied with zenith angle at a rate of approximately 0.3 dB/degree; the horizontally traveling waves were more than 100 times stronger than those traveling vertically

  2. An interim report on the second loading of Zenith. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absalom, R M; Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Collins, A G; Della Loggia, V E; Freemantle, R G; Hage, W; Kinchin, G H; Sanders, J E; Tiren, L I; Wilson, D J

    1961-02-15

    The loading to criticality of the second core of the high-temperature zero-energy reactor ZENITH and the results of the subsequent experimental programme are described. The composition of the reactor core corresponds to graphite: U235 and TH232 : U235 atomic ratios of 2107 and 4.75 respectively.

  3. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Jesus, A. C. Assis; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubertg, J. -J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Berting, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunnerg, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenweing, J. -P.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kretschmer, W.; Loehner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the

  4. The Zenith Passage of the Sun at the Mesoamerican Sites of Tula and Chichen Itza

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Using software SunCalc.org we can easily observe the alignments of buildings along the direction of the sunset on the day of the zenith passage of the sun, at two Mesoamerican sites. These sites are those of Tula and Chichen Itza.

  5. Zenith-angle distributions of atmospheric muons above 20 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decoster, R.J.; Stevenson, M.L.; Breakstone, A.; Flatte, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The results of a magnetic-spectrometer experiment at ground level with optical spark chambers, scintillator hodoscope trigger and an air-gap magnet, are reported to given an evaluation of the zenith-angle distribution of the atmospheric muons above 20 GeV. An automatic flying spot digitizer, the Hummingbird, was used

  6. Zenith: A Radiosonde Detector for Rapid-Response Ionizing Atmospheric Radiation Measurements During Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, A. C. R.; Ryden, K. A.; Hands, A. D. P.; Dyer, C.; Burnett, C.; Gibbs, M.

    2018-03-01

    Solar energetic particle events create radiation risks for aircraft, notably single-event effects in microelectronics along with increased dose to crew and passengers. In response to this, some airlines modify their flight routes after automatic alerts are issued. At present these alerts are based on proton flux measurements from instruments onboard satellites, so it is important that contemporary atmospheric radiation measurements are made and compared. This paper presents the development of a rapid-response system built around the use of radiosondes equipped with a radiation detector, Zenith, which can be launched from a Met Office weather station after significant solar proton level alerts are issued. Zenith is a compact, battery-powered solid-state radiation monitor designed to be connected to a Vaisala RS-92 radiosonde, which transmits all data to a ground station as it ascends to an altitude of 33 km. Zenith can also be operated as a stand-alone detector when connected to a laptop, providing real-time count rates. It can also be adapted for use on unmanned aerial vehicles. Zenith has been flown on the Met Office Civil Contingency Aircraft, taken to the European Organization for Nuclear Research-EU high energy Reference Field facility for calibration and launched on a meteorological balloon at the Met Office's weather station in Camborne, Cornwall, UK. During this sounding, Zenith measured the Pfotzer-Regener maximum to be at an altitude of 18-20 km where the count rate was measured to be 1.15 c s-1 cm-2 compared to 0.02 c s-1 cm-2 at ground level.

  7. Divergence of sun-rays by atmospheric refraction at large solar zenith angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of photolysis rates at large zenith angles it has been demonstrated that refraction by the earth's atmosphere must be taken into account. In fact, due to the modified optical path the optical transmittance is thereby increased in most instances. Here we show that in addition the divergence of sun-rays, which is also caused by refraction but which reduces the direct solar irradiance, should not be neglected. Our calculations are based on a spherically symmetric atmosphere and include extinction by Rayleigh scattering, ozone, and background aerosol. For rays with 10km tangent altitude the divergence yields a reduction of about 10% to 40% at solar zenith angles of 91° to 96°. Moreover, we find that the divergence effect can completely cancel the relative enhancement caused by the increase of transmittance.

  8. Gingival zenith and its role in redefining esthetics: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Pawar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to quantify some clinical parameters useful as esthetic guidelines when gingival contour is modified and to compare the left and right sides of six maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts mounted on an articulator according to the axis orbital plane were photographed from 35 young adults. The angle formed between the gingival line and maxillary midline (GLA and the distance between the gingival zenith of the lateral incisor and the gingival line were measured (LID using a flexible protractor and digital vernier caliper, respectively. The asymmetry was evaluated using a paired t test for the left vs right measurements of GLA and LID. The descriptive statistics for GLA and LID were calculated. Results: The GLA measurements of the left side (86.7΀΁4.2΀ were significantly greater than those of the right side (84.6΀΁5.4΀, and the mean absolute symmetry for GLA was 1.7΀΁4.4΀. The mean LID measurement was 0.92΁0.11. Conclusions: The gingival zenith of the canine is apical to the gingival zenith of the incisors (GLA <90΀ and the gingival zenith of the lateral incisor is below or on (17% the gingival line when head is oriented on the axis orbital plane. A directional asymmetry was shown with the right side higher than the left side. Along with the other parameters related to dental esthetics, these clinical parameters may serve as esthetic guidelines and may enable us to obtain a more predictable outcome.

  9. Reactivity and reaction rate studies on the fourth loading of ZENITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, I.R.; Freemantle, R.G.; Reed, D.L.; Wilson, D.J.

    1963-08-01

    The determination of the excess reactivity, control rod worths, prompt neutron lifetime, flux fine structure, and reaction rates of various nuclides for the fourth loading of the heated zero energy reactor ZENITH is described. The core contains 7.76 kg of U235, giving a carbon/U235 atom ratio of 7578, and forms the most dilute of the range studied. Comparisons of the experimental results with calculations using multigroup diffusion codes are presented. (author)

  10. Reactivity and reaction rate studies on the fourth loading of ZENITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, I R; Freemantle, R G; Reed, D L; Wilson, D J [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-08-15

    The determination of the excess reactivity, control rod worths, prompt neutron lifetime, flux fine structure, and reaction rates of various nuclides for the fourth loading of the heated zero energy reactor ZENITH is described. The core contains 7.76 kg of U235, giving a carbon/U235 atom ratio of 7578, and forms the most dilute of the range studied. Comparisons of the experimental results with calculations using multigroup diffusion codes are presented. (author)

  11. Estimates of radiance reflected towards the zenith at the surface of the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of water colour by ship-mounted sensors represents an important tool for the validation of satellite products and the monitoring of water quality. The recorded radiance from the sea has to be corrected for the surface-reflected radiance from sun and sky in order to obtain the water-leaving radiance. Here the simple case of radiance reflected towards the zenith is studied. A set of observed sky radiance and solar irradiance data from Oslo has been used together with a Gaussian slope distribution for the sea surface in order to estimate the reflected radiance. The spectral range studied is 405–650 nm, the solar zenith angles are in the range 37°–76°, and the wind speeds are up to 10 m s−1. The analysis of the results show that the reflected radiance has to be separated into three contributions: sky radiance and sun rays reflected at the foam-free surface and irradiance reflected by whitecaps and foam. It is then demonstrated that by using four input values, namely the downward irradiance, the sky radiance from the zenith, the solar zenith angle and the wind speed, it is possible to obtain by simple expressions estimates of the reflected radiance that only differ from the former calculated values by relative errors of less than 5%. The analysis also indicates that for the spectral range studied neither the water-leaving radiance nor the surface-reflected radiance can be disregarded relative to the other one in the Case 2 waters of the Oslofjord-Skagerrak area. The results form a first step towards the study of reflected radiance in viewing angles differing from the nadir direction.

  12. Evidence of L-mode electromagnetic wave pumping of ionospheric plasma near geomagnetic zenith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Leyser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The response of ionospheric plasma to pumping by powerful HF (high frequency electromagnetic waves transmitted from the ground into the ionosphere is the strongest in the direction of geomagnetic zenith. We present experimental results from transmitting a left-handed circularly polarized HF beam from the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter association Heating facility in magnetic zenith. The CASSIOPE (CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer spacecraft in the topside ionosphere above the F-region density peak detected transionospheric pump radiation, although the pump frequency was below the maximum ionospheric plasma frequency. The pump wave is deduced to arrive at CASSIOPE through L-mode propagation and associated double (O to Z, Z to O conversion in pump-induced radio windows. L-mode propagation allows the pump wave to reach higher plasma densities and higher ionospheric altitudes than O-mode propagation so that a pump wave in the L-mode can facilitate excitation of upper hybrid phenomena localized in density depletions in a larger altitude range. L-mode propagation is therefore suggested to be important in explaining the magnetic zenith effect.

  13. Determination of coupling coefficients at various zenith angles of the basis of the cosmic ray azimuth effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belskiy, S. A.; Dmitriev, B. A.; Romanov, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    The value of EW asymmetry and coupling coefficients at different zenith angles were measured by means of a double coincidence crossed telescope which gives an opportunity to measure simultaneously the intensity of the cosmic ray hard component at zenith angles from 0 to 84 deg in opposite azimuths. The advantages of determining the coupling coefficients by the cosmic ray azimuth effect as compared to their measurement by the latitudinal effect are discussed.

  14. Delayed power analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Azarov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Time dependent core power behavior in a nuclear reactor is described with well-known neutron kinetics equations. At the same time, two portions are distinguished in energy released from uranium nuclei fission; one released directly at fission and another delayed (residual) portion produced during radioactive decay of fission products. While prompt power is definitely described with kinetics equations, the delayed power presentation still remains outstanding. Since in operation the delayed power part is relatively small (about 6%) operation, it can be neglected for small reactivity disturbances assuming that entire power obeys neutron kinetics equations. In case of a high negative reactivity rapidly inserted in core (e.g. reactor scram initiation) the prompt and delayed components can be calculated separately with practically no impact on each other, employing kinetics equations for prompt power and known approximation formulas for delayed portion, named residual in this specific case. Under substantial disturbances the prompt component in the dynamic process becomes commensurable with delayed portion, thus making necessary to take into account their cross impact. A system of differential equations to describe time-dependent behavior of delayed power is presented. Specific NPP analysis shows a way to significantly simplify the task formulation. (author)

  15. Wet tropospheric delays forecast based on Vienna Mapping Function time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepecka, Zofia; Kalita, Jakub

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the dry part of the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) is much easier to model than the wet part (ZTW). The aim of the research is applying stochastic modeling and prediction of ZTW using time series analysis tools. Application of time series analysis enables closer understanding of ZTW behavior as well as short-term prediction of future ZTW values. The ZTW data used for the studies were obtained from the GGOS service hold by Vienna technical University. The resolution of the data is six hours. ZTW for the years 2010 -2013 were adopted for the study. The International GNSS Service (IGS) permanent stations LAMA and GOPE, located in mid-latitudes, were admitted for the investigations. Initially the seasonal part was separated and modeled using periodic signals and frequency analysis. The prominent annual and semi-annual signals were removed using sines and consines functions. The autocorrelation of the resulting signal is significant for several days (20-30 samples). The residuals of this fitting were further analyzed and modeled with ARIMA processes. For both the stations optimal ARMA processes based on several criterions were obtained. On this basis predicted ZTW values were computed for one day ahead, leaving the white process residuals. Accuracy of the prediction can be estimated at about 3 cm.

  16. Augmentation of Quasi-Zenith Satellite Positioning System Using High Altitude Platforms Systems (HAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Toshiaki; Harigae, Masatoshi

    Recently, some feasibility studies on a regional positioning system using the quasi-zenith satellites and the geostationary satellites have been conducted in Japan. However, the geometry of this system seems to be unsatisfactory in terms of the positioning accuracy in north-south direction. In this paper, an augmented satellite positioning system by the High Altitude Platform Systems (HAPS) is proposed since the flexibility of the HAPS location is effective to improve the geometry of satellite positioning system. The improved positioning performance of the augmented system is also demonstrated.

  17. A method for comparison of experimental and theoretical differential neutron spectra in the Zenith reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.L.; Symons, C.R.

    1965-01-01

    A method of calculation is given which assists the analyses of chopper measurements of spectra from ZENITH and enables complex multigroup theoretical calculations of the spectra to be put into a form which may be compared with experiment. In addition the theory of the cut-off function has been extended to give analytical expressions which take into account the effects of sub-collimators, off centre slits and of a rotor made of a material partially transparent to neutrons. The theoretical cut-off function suggested shows good agreement with experiment. (author)

  18. A method for comparison of experimental and theoretical differential neutron spectra in the Zenith reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D L; Symons, C R [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-01-15

    A method of calculation is given which assists the analyses of chopper measurements of spectra from ZENITH and enables complex multigroup theoretical calculations of the spectra to be put into a form which may be compared with experiment. In addition the theory of the cut-off function has been extended to give analytical expressions which take into account the effects of sub-collimators, off centre slits and of a rotor made of a material partially transparent to neutrons. The theoretical cut-off function suggested shows good agreement with experiment. (author)

  19. Momentum and zenithal dependence of the enhancements of intensities of cosmic ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, M.S.; Osborne, A.R.; Benbrook, J.R.; Sheldon, W.R.; Duller, N.M.; Green, P.J.; Choate, L.M.; Magnusson, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The absolute directional differential intensities of high-energy cosmic ray muons near sea level have been measured over the momentum range 2-700 GeV/c in the vertical direction and zenithal interval 55deg-90deg. The measurements were made with the AMH magnetic spectrometer-telescope. The enhancements I(65deg)/I(0deg) and I(80deg)/I(0deg) of the muon intensities as a function of momentum are presented and compared with the theoretical results of Maeda and Asbury et al. (author)

  20. Analytical Model for Estimating the Zenith Angle Dependence of Terrestrial Cosmic Ray Fluxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available A new model called "PHITS-based Analytical Radiation Model in the Atmosphere (PARMA version 4.0" was developed to facilitate instantaneous estimation of not only omnidirectional but also angular differential energy spectra of cosmic ray fluxes anywhere in Earth's atmosphere at nearly any given time. It consists of its previous version, PARMA3.0, for calculating the omnidirectional fluxes and several mathematical functions proposed in this study for expressing their zenith-angle dependences. The numerical values of the parameters used in these functions were fitted to reproduce the results of the extensive air shower simulation performed by Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS. The angular distributions of ground-level muons at large zenith angles were specially determined by introducing an optional function developed on the basis of experimental data. The accuracy of PARMA4.0 was closely verified using multiple sets of experimental data obtained under various global conditions. This extension enlarges the model's applicability to more areas of research, including design of cosmic-ray detectors, muon radiography, soil moisture monitoring, and cosmic-ray shielding calculation. PARMA4.0 is available freely and is easy to use, as implemented in the open-access EXcel-based Program for Calculating Atmospheric Cosmic-ray Spectrum (EXPACS.

  1. Plan of Time Management of Satellite Positioning System using Quasi-zenith Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Fujieda, Miho; Amagai, Jun; Yokota, Shoichiro; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Hama, Shin'ichi; Morikawa, Takao; Kawano, Isao; Kogure, Satoshi

    The Quasi-Zenith satellites System (QZSS) is developed as an integrated satellite service system of communication, broadcasting and positioning for mobile users in specified regions of Japan from high elevation angle. Purposes of the satellite positioning system using Quasi-Zenith satellite (QZS) are to complement and augment the GPS. The national institutes concerned have been developing the positioning system using QZS since 2003 and will carry out experiments and researches in three years after the launch. In this system, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) is mainly in charge of timing system for the satellite positioning system using QZS, such as onboard hydrogen maser atomic clock and precise time management system of the QZSS. We started to develop the engineering model of the time management system for the QZSS. The time management system for the QZSS will be used to compare time differences between QZS and earth station as well as to compare between three onboard atomic clocks. This paper introduces time management of satellite positioning system using the QZSS.

  2. Overview of the MISSE 7 Polymers and Zenith Polymers Experiments After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Grace T.; de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7), two experiments called the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 1.5 years. The Polymers Experiment contained 47 samples, which were flown in a ram or wake flight orientation. The objectives of the Polymers Experiment were to determine the LEO atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atoms, given in cu cm/atom) of the polymers, and to determine if atomic oxygen erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. The Zenith Polymers Experiment was flown in a zenith flight orientation. The primary objective of the Zenith Polymers Experiment was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the erosion of fluoropolymers. Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) was flown in each experiment for atomic oxygen fluence determination. This paper provides an introduction to both the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and the MISSE 7 Zenith Polymers Experiment, and provides initial erosion yield results.

  3. Inferring spatial clouds statistics from limited field-of-view, zenith observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.H.; Thorne, L.R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Many of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) measurements produce a time series of zenith observations, but spatial averages are often the desired data product. One possible approach to deriving spatial averages from temporal averages is to invoke Taylor`s hypothesis where and when it is valid. Taylor`s hypothesis states that when the turbulence is small compared with the mean flow, the covariance in time is related to the covariance in space by the speed of the mean flow. For clouds fields, Taylor`s hypothesis would apply when the {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} turbulence is small compared with advective flow (mean wind). The objective of this study is to determine under what conditions Taylor`s hypothesis holds or does not hold true for broken cloud fields.

  4. Beam-splitter switches based on zenithal bistable liquid-crystal gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C; Beccherelli, Romeo; Kriezis, Emmanouil E

    2014-10-01

    The tunable optical diffractive properties of zenithal bistable nematic liquid-crystal gratings are theoretically investigated. The liquid-crystal orientation is rigorously solved via a tensorial formulation of the Landau-de Gennes theory and the optical transmission properties of the gratings are investigated via full-wave finite-element frequency-domain simulations. It is demonstrated that by proper design the two stable states of the grating can provide nondiffracting and diffracting operation, the latter with equal power splitting among different diffraction orders. An electro-optic switching mechanism, based on dual-frequency nematic materials, and its temporal dynamics are further discussed. Such gratings provide a solution towards tunable beam-steering and beam-splitting components with extremely low power consumption.

  5. Order reconstruction phenomena and temperature-driven dynamics in a 3D zenithally bistable device

    KAUST Repository

    Raisch, A.

    2014-07-01

    We model the zenithally bistable device (ZBD) in three dimensions (3D), within the Landau-de Gennes theory, and find three stable static states in 3D without an applied field: the vertically aligned nematic (VAN) state, the hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) state and a third, high-tilt state, which we call the THAN state, with an interior and a surface defect. We recover the order reconstruction (OR) phenomenon around the defects in the HAN and THAN states and the 3D THAN and HAN solutions exhibit stable biaxial cylinders connecting defects on opposite faces of the ZBD device. We demonstrate a two-way temperature-driven switching between high-tilt and low-tilt states through controlled heating and cooling procedures in two dimensions (2D), with no applied fields. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  6. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PEMESANAN BARANG BERBASIS WEB DI TOKO ZENITH KOMPUTER DI PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Wongso Johan Wyanaputra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Sistem Informasi Pemesananberbasis web merupakan bagian dari sistem informasi pemasaran yang dikembangkan untuk mengumpulkan, mengolah data sehingga data tersebut dapat dilihat kembali untuk disalurkan sebagai suatu informasi yang berguna. Wujud dari pengembangan Sistem Informasi Pemesananberbasis web ini adalah pembuatan aplikasi Komputer yang mampu mewakili sistem informasi yang dirancang secara keseluruhan.Aplikasi Sistem Informasi pemesanan yang dihasilkan mampu mengelola data pemesanan secara terorgasisasi, serta menghasilkan laporan yang lengkap, akurat dan selalu aktual untuk setiap tingkatan manajemen. Perancangan sistemnya menggunakan PHP (Personal Home Page dan rancangan databasenya menggunakan Xamp Server. Hasil dari perancangan aplikasi Sistem Informasi Pemesananberbasis web menunjukkan bahwa peranan aplikasi Komputer dalam sistem informasi sangat penting sebagai penunjang dalam meningkatkan kualitas kegiatan Pemesanan dan pelayanan di lingkungan toko Zenith Komputer. Abstract: Information Systems is a web Pemesananberbasis Part Of The Marketing Information System was developed to review collect, process the data so that the data can be Seen Back to review the information supplied as a useful thing. From the form of development of Information Systems web Pemesananberbasis Singer Was Able Computer Application Development Information System Designed represent keseluruhan.Aplikasi Operating System Generated Ordering Information Ability to Manage Booking Data Operating terorgasisasi, as well as generate reports The complete, Accurate And Always Currents for EVERY level management review, The design of the system using PHP (Personal Home Page and database design using XAMP Server. Results From designing web applications Pemesananberbasis Information System showed that Role of Information Systems Computer Application hearts hearts Sangat as supporting activities improving QUALITY Booking And Environmental Services at Zenith

  7. Characterizing the zenithal night sky brightness in large territories: how many samples per square kilometre are needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bará, Salvador

    2018-01-01

    A recurring question arises when trying to characterize, by means of measurements or theoretical calculations, the zenithal night sky brightness throughout a large territory: how many samples per square kilometre are needed? The optimum sampling distance should allow reconstructing, with sufficient accuracy, the continuous zenithal brightness map across the whole region, whilst at the same time avoiding unnecessary and redundant oversampling. This paper attempts to provide some tentative answers to this issue, using two complementary tools: the luminance structure function and the Nyquist-Shannon spatial sampling theorem. The analysis of several regions of the world, based on the data from the New world atlas of artificial night sky brightness, suggests that, as a rule of thumb, about one measurement per square kilometre could be sufficient for determining the zenithal night sky brightness of artificial origin at any point in a region to within ±0.1 magV arcsec-2 (in the root-mean-square sense) of its true value in the Johnson-Cousins V band. The exact reconstruction of the zenithal night sky brightness maps from samples taken at the Nyquist rate seems to be considerably more demanding.

  8. A CAD-CAM prosthodontic option and gingival zenith position for a rotated maxillary right central incisor: An evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Digital imaging provides an immediate treatment option for the patients. Software also provides an interim aid, for the clinician as well as technician, in the form of two-dimensional photographs. CAD-CAM is entirely a helping instrument against the conservative prosthetic options and gingival zenith position for a rotated central incisor. It helps in patient education and in motivation.

  9. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  10. A Prototype of Tropospheric Delay Correction in L1-SAIF Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, Noboru; Sakai, Takeyasu; Fukushima, Sounosuke; Ito, Ken

    L1-SAIF signal is one of the navigation signals of Quasi-Zenith Satellite System, which provides an augmentation function for mobile users in Japan. This paper presents the detail of the tropospheric delay correction in L1-SAIF augmentation. The tropospheric delay correction information is generated at the ground station using the data collected at GEONET (GPS Earth Observation NETwork) stations. The correction message contains the information of the zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) values at 105 Tropospheric Grid Points (TGP) in the experiment area. From this message a mobile user can acquire the ZTD value at some neighboring TGPs, and estimate the local ZTD value accurately by using a suitable ZTD model function. Only 3 L1-SAIF messages are necessary to provide all of the tropospheric correction information. Several investigations using the actual data observed at many GEONET stations overall Japan have proved that it is possible to achieve the correction accuracy of 13.2mm (rms).

  11. The zenithal 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope: a unique facility for supernova studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Pandey, S. B.; Hickson, P.; Borra, E. F.; Anupama, G. C.; Surdej, J.

    2018-05-01

    The 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope (ILMT) will soon become operational at the newly developed Devasthal observatory near Nainital (Uttarakhand, India). Coupled with a 4k × 4k pixels CCD detector and TDI optical corrector, it will reach approximately 22.8, 22.3, and 21.4 mag in the g΄, r΄, and i΄ spectral bands, respectively, in a single scan. The limiting magnitudes can be further improved by co-adding the consecutive night images in particular filters. The uniqueness to observe the same sky region by looking towards the zenith direction every night makes the ILMT a unique instrument to detect new supernovae (SNe) by applying the image subtraction technique. High cadence (˜24 h) observations will help to construct dense sampling multi-band SNe light curves. We discuss the importance of the ILMT facility in the context of SNe studies. Considering the various plausible cosmological parameters and observational constraints, we perform detailed calculations of the expected SNe rate that can be detected with the ILMT in different spectral bands.

  12. Delayed Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, it is due to a combination of physical and psychological concerns. Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication ...

  13. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  14. Stratospheric NO2 vertical profile retrieved from ground-based Zenith-Sky DOAS observations at Kiruna, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Myojeong; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Hendrick, François; Pukite, Janis; Van Roozendael, Michel; Platt, Ulrich; Raffalski, Uwe; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Stratospheric NO2 destroys ozone and acts as a buffer against halogen-catalyzed ozone loss through the formation of reservoir species (ClONO2, BrONO2). Since the importance of both mechanisms depends on the altitude, the investigation of stratospheric NO2 vertical distribution can provide more insight into the role of nitrogen compounds in the destruction of ozone. Here we present stratospheric NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from twilight ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations at Kiruna, Sweden (68.84°N, 20.41°E) covering 1997 - 2013 periods. This instrument observes zenith scattered sunlight. The sensitivity for stratospheric trace gases is highest during twilight due to the maximum altitude of the scattering profile and the light path through the stratosphere, which vary with the solar zenith angle. The profiling algorithm, based on the Optimal Estimation Method, has been developed by IASB-BIRA and successfully applied at other stations (Hendrick et al., 2004). The basic principle behind this profiling approach is that during twilight, the mean Rayleigh scattering altitude scans the stratosphere rapidly, providing height-resolved information on the absorption by stratospheric NO2. In this study, the long-term evolution of the stratospheric NO2 profile at polar latitude will be investigated. Hendrick, F., B. Barret, M. Van Roozendael, H. Boesch, A. Butz, M. De Mazière, F. Goutail, C. Hermans, J.-C. Lambert, K. Pfeilsticker, and J.-P. Pommereau, Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: Validation of the technique through correlative comparisons, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4, 2091-2106, 2004

  15. Analisis Six Sigma pada Produk Casing Pompa sebagai Metode Perbaikan Kualitas (Studi Kasus: PT. Zenith Allmart Precisindo)

    OpenAIRE

    Haryono, Haryono; Rakasiwi, Hafiedza Pradana

    2014-01-01

    Pada Februari 2014, produk baja terbanyak yang diproduksi PT. Zenith Allmart Precisindo (ZAP) adalah casing pompa dengan reject sebesar 3,35%, padahal target maksimal reject 2% per bulan, ada gap sebesar 1,35%. Analisis DMAIC Six Sigma dilaksanakan untuk mengurangi persentase reject. Pada define, ditentukan project charter, peta proses produksi, dan SIPOC diagram. Dari SIPOC diagram ditentukan 10 CTQ. Pada fase measure dilakukan attribute agreement analysis untuk QC, hasilnya adalah repeabili...

  16. A Simple Parameterization of the Cosmic-Ray Muon Momentum Spectra at the Surface as a Function of Zenith Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna, D.

    2006-01-01

    The designs of many neutrino experiments rely on calculations of the background rates arising from cosmic-ray muons at shallow depths. Understanding the angular dependence of low momentum cosmic-ray muons at the surface is necessary for these calculations. Heuristically, from examination of the data, a simple parameterization is proposed, based on a straighforward scaling variable. This in turn, allows a universal calculation of the differential muon intensity at the surface for all zenith an...

  17. Erosion Results of the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and Zenith Polymers Experiment After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Yi, Grace T.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Leneghan, Halle A.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (E(sub y), volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. Two spaceflight experiments, the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment, were developed to determine the AO E(sub y) of various polymers flown in ram, wake or zenith orientations in LEO. These experiments were flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission for 1.5 years on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments included Kapton H(TradeMark) witness samples for AO fluence determination in ram and zenith orientations. The Polymers Experiment also included samples to determine whether AO erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 7 mission, a description of the flight experiments with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the AO fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO E(sub y) results. The E(sub y) values ranged from 7.99x10(exp -28)cu cm/atom for TiO2/Al2O3 coated Teflon(TradeMark) fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) flown in the ram orientation to 1.22x10(exp -23cu cm/atom for polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) flown in the zenith orientation. The E(sub y) of similar samples flown in different orientations has been compared to help determine solar exposure and associated heating effects on AO erosion. The E(sub y) data from these ISS spaceflight experiments provides valuable information for LEO spacecraft design purposes.

  18. Observed Spectral Invariant Behavior of Zenith Radiance in the Transition Zone Between Cloud-Free and Cloudy Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhin, Y.; Chiu, C.; Wiscombe, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) new Shortwave Spectrometer (SWS) looks straight up and measures zenith radiance at 418 wavelengths between 350 and 2200 nm. Because of its 1-sec sampling resolution, the SWS provides a unique capability to study the transition zone between cloudy and clear sky areas. A surprising spectral invariant behavior is found between ratios of zenith radiance spectra during the transition from cloudy to cloud-free atmosphere. This behavior suggests that the spectral signature of the transition zone is a linear mixture between the two extremes (definitely cloudy and definitely clear). The weighting function of the linear mixture is found to be a wavelength-independent characteristic of the transition zone. It is shown that the transition zone spectrum is fully determined by this function and zenith radiance spectra of clear and cloudy regions. This new finding may help us to better understand and quantify such physical phenomena as humidification of aerosols in the relatively moist cloud environment and evaporation and activation of cloud droplets.

  19. Light pollution offshore: Zenithal sky glow measurements in the mediterranean coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ges, Xavier; Bará, Salvador; García-Gil, Manuel; Zamorano, Jaime; Ribas, Salvador J.; Masana, Eduard

    2018-05-01

    Light pollution is a worldwide phenomenon whose consequences for the natural environment and the human health are being intensively studied nowadays. Most published studies address issues related to light pollution inland. Coastal waters, however, are spaces of high environmental interest, due to their biodiversity richness and their economical significance. The elevated population density in coastal regions is accompanied by correspondingly large emissions of artificial light at night, whose role as an environmental stressor is increasingly being recognized. Characterizing the light pollution levels in coastal waters is a necessary step for protecting these areas. At the same time, the marine surface environment provides a stage free from obstacles for measuring the dependence of the skyglow on the distance to the light polluting sources, and validating (or rejecting) atmospheric light propagation models. In this work we present a proof-of-concept of a gimbal measurement system that can be used for zenithal skyglow measurements on board both small boats and large vessels under actual navigation conditions. We report the results obtained in the summer of 2016 along two measurement routes in the Mediterranean waters offshore Barcelona, travelling 9 and 31.7 km away from the coast. The atmospheric conditions in both routes were different from the ones assumed for the calculation of recently published models of the anthropogenic sky brightness. They were closer in the first route, whose results approach better the theoretical predictions. The results obtained in the second route, conducted under a clearer atmosphere, showed systematic differences that can be traced back to two expected phenomena, which are a consequence of the smaller aerosol content: the reduction of the anthropogenic sky glow at short distances from the sources, and the slower decay rate of brightness with distance, which gives rise to a relative excess of brightness at large distances from the

  20. Spectrum measurements in the ZENITH plutonium core 7 using a neutron chopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Pitcher, H H.W.; Symons, C R [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-05-15

    As part of the experimental programme on the first plutonium loading of ZENITH (Core 7) a series of measurements was carried out with the neutron chopper on a beam emerging from the core centre. The general experimental programme on the two ZENITH plutonium cores has been covered elsewhere. Core 7 had a carbon/Pu239 atomic ratio of 2666 and a steel/Pu239 ratio of 76.8, giving an absorption cross-section at 2200 m/sec. of 0.31 barns/carbon atom. The fuel was in the form of 'spikes' of 0.020 in. thick Pu/Al alloy sheathed in 0.020 in. aluminium, the isotopic composition of the plutonium being 97.4% Pu239, 2.55% Pu240 and 0.1% Pu241. The overall layout of the reactor core and reflector is shown in the vertical section through the reactor vessel and the plan view. The core consists of a vertical array of 235 cylindrical graphite sleeves of outer diameter 7.37 cm into each of which a cylindrical graphite box may be loaded. Sunning longitudinally inside the box are six parallel grooves which act as locations for the edges of either the Pu/Al spikes or graphite dummies of the same external dimensions. Each groove accommodates two spikes end-to-end, with a small graphite spacer between to avoid welding together of the spike sheaths when heated. Lateral spacers of graphite or stainless steel fill the five spaces between the six spikes or dummies. The total length of the plutonium-loaded core region is 140 cm, the ends of the element forming graphite reflectors of length 53 cm. In Core 7 each fuel element contained 10 Pu-Al spikes. The fuel elements are arranged in a triangular lattice of pitch 7.62 cm to form the reactor core, of diameter 1.23 m. A radial graphite reflector approximately 1 metre thick surrounds the core and is separated from it by an annular lampblack thermal barrier, contained within graphite tiles, which reduces heat transfer from the core. The reactor can be heated by circulation of nitrogen through a 250 kW heater below the core. The nitrogen flows

  1. Spectrum measurements in the ZENITH plutonium core 7 using a neutron chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, F.R.; Cameron, I.R.; Pitcher, H.H.W.; Symons, C.R.

    1964-05-01

    As part of the experimental programme on the first plutonium loading of ZENITH (Core 7) a series of measurements was carried out with the neutron chopper on a beam emerging from the core centre. The general experimental programme on the two ZENITH plutonium cores has been covered elsewhere. Core 7 had a carbon/Pu239 atomic ratio of 2666 and a steel/Pu239 ratio of 76.8, giving an absorption cross-section at 2200 m/sec. of 0.31 barns/carbon atom. The fuel was in the form of 'spikes' of 0.020 in. thick Pu/Al alloy sheathed in 0.020 in. aluminium, the isotopic composition of the plutonium being 97.4% Pu239, 2.55% Pu240 and 0.1% Pu241. The overall layout of the reactor core and reflector is shown in the vertical section through the reactor vessel and the plan view. The core consists of a vertical array of 235 cylindrical graphite sleeves of outer diameter 7.37 cm into each of which a cylindrical graphite box may be loaded. Sunning longitudinally inside the box are six parallel grooves which act as locations for the edges of either the Pu/Al spikes or graphite dummies of the same external dimensions. Each groove accommodates two spikes end-to-end, with a small graphite spacer between to avoid welding together of the spike sheaths when heated. Lateral spacers of graphite or stainless steel fill the five spaces between the six spikes or dummies. The total length of the plutonium-loaded core region is 140 cm, the ends of the element forming graphite reflectors of length 53 cm. In Core 7 each fuel element contained 10 Pu-Al spikes. The fuel elements are arranged in a triangular lattice of pitch 7.62 cm to form the reactor core, of diameter 1.23 m. A radial graphite reflector approximately 1 metre thick surrounds the core and is separated from it by an annular lampblack thermal barrier, contained within graphite tiles, which reduces heat transfer from the core. The reactor can be heated by circulation of nitrogen through a 250 kW heater below the core. The nitrogen flows

  2. Demonstrating of Cosmic Ray Characteristics by Estimating the Cherenkov Light Lateral Distribution Function for Yakutsk Array as a Function of the Zenith Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsttar, Marwah M.; Al-Rubaiee, A. A.; Ali, Abdul Halim Kh.

    2016-01-01

    Cherenkov light lateral distribution function (CLLDF) in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) for different primary particles (e-, n , p, F, K and Fe) was simulated using CORSIKA code for conditions and configurations of Yakutsk EAS array with the fixed primary energy 3 PeV around the knee region at different zenith angles. Basing on the results of CLLDF numerical simulation, sets of approximated functions are reconstructed for different primary particles as a function of the zenith angle. A compariso...

  3. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  4. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  5. Performance Assessment of a Gnss-Based Troposphere Path Delay Estimation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Gilles; Avanzi, Alessandro; Graziani, Alberto; Tortora, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    perform the differentiation. The code relies on several IGS products, like SP3 precise orbits and SINEX positions available for the master stations in order to remove several error components, while the phase ambiguities (both wide and narrow lane) are resolved using the modified LAMBDA (MLAMBDA) method. The double-differenced data are then processed by a Kalman Filter that estimates the contingent positioning error of the rover station, its Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD) and the residual phase ambiguities. On the other hand, the Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD) is preliminarily computed using a mathematical model, based on surface meteorological measurements. The final product of the developed code is an output file containing the estimated ZWD and ZHD time-series in a format compatible with the major orbit determination software, e.g. the CSP card format (TRK-2-23) used by NASA JPL's Orbit Determination Program.

  6. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  7. Assessment of tropospheric delay mapping function models in Egypt: Using PTD database model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfatah, M. A.; Mousa, Ashraf E.; El-Fiky, Gamal S.

    2018-06-01

    For space geodetic measurements, estimates of tropospheric delays are highly correlated with site coordinates and receiver clock biases. Thus, it is important to use the most accurate models for the tropospheric delay to reduce errors in the estimates of the other parameters. Both the zenith delay value and mapping function should be assigned correctly to reduce such errors. Several mapping function models can treat the troposphere slant delay. The recent models were not evaluated for the Egyptian local climate conditions. An assessment of these models is needed to choose the most suitable one. The goal of this paper is to test the quality of global mapping function which provides high consistency with precise troposphere delay (PTD) mapping functions. The PTD model is derived from radiosonde data using ray tracing, which consider in this paper as true value. The PTD mapping functions were compared, with three recent total mapping functions model and another three separate dry and wet mapping function model. The results of the research indicate that models are very close up to zenith angle 80°. Saastamoinen and 1/cos z model are behind accuracy. Niell model is better than VMF model. The model of Black and Eisner is a good model. The results also indicate that the geometric range error has insignificant effect on slant delay and the fluctuation of azimuth anti-symmetric is about 1%.

  8. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . The underlying reasons for the large variation in the age at pubertal onset are not fully established; however, nutritional status and socioeconomic and environmental factors are known to be influencing, and a significant amount of influencing genetic factors have also been identified. The challenges...... optimal in discriminating especially CDGP from HH. Management of the delayed puberty depends on the etiology. For boys with CDGP an observational period will often reveal imminent puberty. If puberty is not progressing spontaneously, sex steroid replacement is effective in stimulating the development...

  9. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Search for neutrino generated air shower candidates with energy ≥ 1019 eV and Zenith angle θ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knurenko, Stanislav; Petrov, Igor; Sabourov, Artem

    2017-06-01

    The description of the methodology and results of searching for air showers generated by neutral particles such as high energy gamma quanta and astroneutrinos are presented. For this purpose, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the data: the electron, the muon and the EAS Cerenkov light, and their response time in scintillation and Cherenkov detectors. Air showers with energy more than 5·1018 eV and zenith angle θ ≥ 55∘ are selected and analyzed. Search results indicate a lack of air shower events formed by gamma-rays or high-energy neutrinos, but it does not mean that such air showers do not exist in nature; for example, experiments that recorded showers having a marked low muon content, i.e., "Muonless", are likely to be candidates for showers produced by neutral primary particles.

  11. Contribution of corner reflections from oriented ice crystals to backscattering and depolarization characteristics for off-zenith lidar profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, Anatoli G.; Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Veselovskii, Igor A.

    2018-06-01

    Backscattering Mueller matrix and the depolarization and color ratios for quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal ice plates have been calculated within the framework of the physical optics approximation. In the case of a tilted lidar, the dependence of the color and depolarization ratios on polarization of the incident light has been analyzed. It is shown that the corner reflection effect inherent to the pristine hexagonal ice crystals results in sharp peaks of both the backscattering cross section and depolarization ratio at the lidar tilts of about 30° off zenith. The experimental results obtained recently by Veselovskii et al. [13] at the lidar tilt of 43° have been interpreted as a partial manifestation of the corner reflection effect. The retrieval of the vertical profile of the ice crystal fraction consisting of quasi-horizontally oriented hexagonal plates has been demonstrated.

  12. Application of ray-traced tropospheric slant delays to geodetic VLBI analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Armin; Böhm, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    The correction of tropospheric influences via so-called path delays is critical for the analysis of observations from space geodetic techniques like the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). In standard VLBI analysis, the a priori slant path delays are determined using the concept of zenith delays, mapping functions and gradients. The a priori use of ray-traced delays, i.e., tropospheric slant path delays determined with the technique of ray-tracing through the meteorological data of numerical weather models (NWM), serves as an alternative way of correcting the influences of the troposphere on the VLBI observations within the analysis. In the presented research, the application of ray-traced delays to the VLBI analysis of sessions in a time span of 16.5 years is investigated. Ray-traced delays have been determined with program RADIATE (see Hofmeister in Ph.D. thesis, Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Geoinformation, Technische Universität Wien. http://resolver.obvsg.at/urn:nbn:at:at-ubtuw:1-3444, 2016) utilizing meteorological data provided by NWM of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). In comparison with a standard VLBI analysis, which includes the tropospheric gradient estimation, the application of the ray-traced delays to an analysis, which uses the same parameterization except for the a priori slant path delay handling and the used wet mapping factors for the zenith wet delay (ZWD) estimation, improves the baseline length repeatability (BLR) at 55.9% of the baselines at sub-mm level. If no tropospheric gradients are estimated within the compared analyses, 90.6% of all baselines benefit from the application of the ray-traced delays, which leads to an average improvement of the BLR of 1 mm. The effects of the ray-traced delays on the terrestrial reference frame are also investigated. A separate assessment of the RADIATE ray-traced delays is carried out by comparison to the ray-traced delays from the

  13. Comparison of stratospheric NO2 profiles above Kiruna, Sweden retrieved from ground-based zenith sky DOAS measurements, SAOZ balloon measurements and SCIAMACHY limb observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Myojeong; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Hendrick, François; Pukite, Janis; Van Roozendael, Michel; Platt, Ulrich; Raffalski, Uwe; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Stratospheric NO2 not only destroys ozone but acts as a buffer against halogen catalyzed ozone loss by converting halogen species into stable nitrates. These two roles of stratospheric NO2 depend on the altitude. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the vertical distribution of stratospheric NO2. We compare the NO2 profiles derived from the zenith sky DOAS with those obtained from, SAOZ balloon measurements and satellite limb observations. Vertical profiles of stratospheric NO2 are retrieved from ground-based zenith sky DOAS observations operated at Kiruna, Sweden (68.84°N, 20.41°E) since 1996. To determine the profile of stratospheric NO2 measured from ground-based zenith sky DOAS, we apply the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM) to retrieval of vertical profiles of stratospheric NO2 which has been developed by IASB-BIRA. The basic principle behind this profiling approach is the dependence of the mean scattering height on solar zenith angle (SZA). We compare the retrieved profiles to two additional datasets of stratospheric NO2 profile. The first one is derived from satellite limb observations by SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY) on EnviSAT. The second is derived from the SAOZ balloon measurements (using a UV/Visible spectrometer) performed at Kiruna in Sweden.

  14. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  15. Software development and its description for Geoid determination based on Spherical-Cap-Harmonics Modelling using digital-zenith camera and gravimetric measurements hybrid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, K.; Jaeger, R.; Balodis, J.; Kaminskis, J.

    2017-10-01

    Over several years the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (GGI) was engaged in the design and development of a digital zenith camera. At the moment the camera developments are finished and tests by field measurements are done. In order to check these data and to use them for geoid model determination DFHRS (Digital Finite element Height reference surface (HRS)) v4.3. software is used. It is based on parametric modelling of the HRS as a continous polynomial surface. The HRS, providing the local Geoid height N, is a necessary geodetic infrastructure for a GNSS-based determination of physcial heights H from ellipsoidal GNSS heights h, by H=h-N. The research and this publication is dealing with the inclusion of the data of observed vertical deflections from digital zenith camera into the mathematical model of the DFHRS approach and software v4.3. A first target was to test out and validate the mathematical model and software, using additionally real data of the above mentioned zenith camera observations of deflections of the vertical. A second concern of the research was to analyze the results and the improvement of the Latvian quasi-geoid computation compared to the previous version HRS computed without zenith camera based deflections of the vertical. The further development of the mathematical model and software concerns the use of spherical-cap-harmonics as the designed carrier function for the DFHRS v.5. It enables - in the sense of the strict integrated geodesy approach, holding also for geodetic network adjustment - both a full gravity field and a geoid and quasi-geoid determination. In addition, it allows the inclusion of gravimetric measurements, together with deflections of the vertical from digital-zenith cameras, and all other types of observations. The theoretical description of the updated version of DFHRS software and methods are discussed in this publication.

  16. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...

  17. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...

  18. Analysis of width/height ratio and gingival zenith in patients with bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Inocencya Pavesi Pini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the width/length ratio and the gingival zenith (GZ, by means of dental casts and digital caliper, in patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors after treatment. METHODS: The sample was composed of 52 subjects divided into 3 groups: BRG (n = 18, patients with bilateral agenesis treated with tooth re-contouring; BIG (n = 10 patients with agenesis treated with implants and CG (n = 24, control group. The data were analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk, Spearman correlation, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, t test and ANOVA tests (p 0.05. GZ data for the right and left sides of the smile were not considered statistically different. CONCLUSION: Although no statistical difference was found in the comparison between the groups, analysis of the descriptive values showed that group BIG showed the greatest difference in values with regard to width/length ratio. Regarding gingival zenith, BRG showed the greatest difference.OBJETIVO: o propósito desse estudo foi analisar, por meio de modelos de estudo e paquímetro digital, a proporção largura/altura e o zênite gengival (ZG em pacientes com agenesia bilateral do incisivo lateral superior após o tratamento. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 52 voluntários divididos em 3 grupos: GBR (n=18, pacientes com agenesia bilateral tratados com reanatomizações dentárias; GBI (n=10, pacientes com agenesia bilateral tratados com implantes; e GC (n=24, grupo controle. Os dados foram avaliados por meio dos testes de Shapiro-Wilk, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, teste t, ANOVA (p0,05. Os valores obtidos para os lados direito e esquerdo foram considerados iguais dentro de cada grupo. CONCLUSÃO: embora não tenham sido encontradas diferenças estatísticas na comparação entre os grupos, pela análise descritiva dos dados, o GBI foi o grupo que apresentou as medidas mais destoantes dos demais em relação à proporção largura/altura, sendo que, para o zênite gengival, a maior

  19. A new software suite for NO2 vertical profile retrieval from ground-based zenith-sky spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, L.; Roscoe, H.K.; Chipperfield, M.P.; Roozendael, M. van; Goutail, F.

    2005-01-01

    Here we present an operational method to improve accuracy and information content of ground-based measurements of stratospheric NO 2 . The motive is to improve the investigation of trends in NO 2 , and is important because the current trend in NO 2 appears to contradict the trend in its source, suggesting that the stratospheric circulation has changed. To do so, a new software package for retrieving NO 2 vertical profiles from slant columns measured by zenith-sky spectrometers has been created. It uses a Rodgers optimal linear inverse method coupled with a radiative transfer model for calculations of transfer functions between profiles and columns, and a chemical box model for taking into account the NO 2 variations during twilight and during the day. Each model has parameters that vary according to season and location. Forerunners of each model have been previously validated. The scheme maps random errors in the measurements and systematic errors in the models and their parameters on to the retrieved profiles. Initialisation for models is derived from well-established climatologies. The software has been tested by comparing retrieved profiles to simultaneous balloon-borne profiles at mid-latitudes in spring

  20. Estimation of the sea level muon spectra at different zenith angles below 10 TeV energy

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, M; Pal, P B; Bhattacharya, D P

    2001-01-01

    The moderate energy primary cosmic ray nucleon spectrum has been calculated from the direct measurements of Webber et al. (1987), Seo et al. (1992) and Menn et al. (1997). Along with the other results surveyed by Swordy (1993). Using these directly measured primary mass composition results all particle primary nucleon energy spectrum has been constructed using superposition model to estimate the energy spectra of muons from the decay of the cosmic ray non-prompt and prompt mesons in the atmosphere. The Z-factors have been estimated from the CERN LEBC-EHS on the Lorentz invariant cross section results on pp to pi /sup +or-/X and pp to K/sup +or-/X inclusive reactions and FNAL data on pi /sup +or-/p to pi /sup +or-/X reactions, and duly corrected for A-A collisions. Using these Z-factors the meson energy spectra in the atmosphere have been calculated. The sea level muon energy spectra at zenith angles 0 degrees , 45 degrees , 72 degrees , and 75 degrees have been derived from the decay of non-prompt mesons by a...

  1. A new software suite for NO{sub 2} vertical profile retrieval from ground-based zenith-sky spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, L. [British Antarctic Survey/NERC, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom); Roscoe, H.K. [British Antarctic Survey/NERC, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: h.roscoe@bas.ac.uk; Chipperfield, M.P. [Environment Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Roozendael, M. van [Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA/IASB), 1180 Brussels (Belgium); Goutail, F. [Service d' Aeronomie du CNRS, BP3, 91271 Verrieres le Buisson (France)

    2005-05-15

    Here we present an operational method to improve accuracy and information content of ground-based measurements of stratospheric NO{sub 2}. The motive is to improve the investigation of trends in NO{sub 2}, and is important because the current trend in NO{sub 2} appears to contradict the trend in its source, suggesting that the stratospheric circulation has changed. To do so, a new software package for retrieving NO{sub 2} vertical profiles from slant columns measured by zenith-sky spectrometers has been created. It uses a Rodgers optimal linear inverse method coupled with a radiative transfer model for calculations of transfer functions between profiles and columns, and a chemical box model for taking into account the NO{sub 2} variations during twilight and during the day. Each model has parameters that vary according to season and location. Forerunners of each model have been previously validated. The scheme maps random errors in the measurements and systematic errors in the models and their parameters on to the retrieved profiles. Initialisation for models is derived from well-established climatologies. The software has been tested by comparing retrieved profiles to simultaneous balloon-borne profiles at mid-latitudes in spring.

  2. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  3. Spatial Variability of Wet Troposphere Delays Over Inland Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; Clark, Elizabeth A.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has enabled the study of water levels in large lakes and reservoirs at a global scale. The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (scheduled launch 2020) will simultaneously measure water surface extent and elevation at an unprecedented accuracy and resolution. However, SWOT retrieval accuracy will be affected by a number of factors, including wet tropospheric delay—the delay in the signal's passage through the atmosphere due to atmospheric water content. In past applications, the wet tropospheric delay over large inland water bodies has been corrected using atmospheric moisture profiles based on atmospheric reanalysis data at relatively coarse (tens to hundreds of kilometers) spatial resolution. These products cannot resolve subgrid variations in wet tropospheric delays at the spatial resolutions (of 1 km and finer) that SWOT is intended to resolve. We calculate zenith wet tropospheric delays (ZWDs) and their spatial variability from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model simulations at 2.33 km spatial resolution over the southwestern U.S., with attention in particular to Sam Rayburn, Ray Hubbard, and Elephant Butte Reservoirs which have width and length dimensions that are of order or larger than the WRF spatial resolution. We find that spatiotemporal variability of ZWD over the inland reservoirs depends on climatic conditions at the reservoir location, as well as distance from ocean, elevation, and surface area of the reservoir, but that the magnitude of subgrid variability (relative to analysis and reanalysis products) is generally less than 10 mm.

  4. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  5. Assessment of performances of sun zenith angle and altitude parameterisations of atmospheric radiative transfer for spectral surface downwelling solar irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, L.; Blanc, Ph.

    2010-09-01

    change in irradiance with a specific variable. The communication discusses two parameterisations found in the literature. One deals with the solar zenith angle, the other with the altitude. We assess their performances in retrieving solar irradiance for 32 spectral bands, from 240 nm to 4606 nm. The model libRadtran is run to create data sets for all sun zenith angles (every 5 degrees) and all altitudes (every km). These data sets are considered as a reference. Then, for each parameterisation, we compute the parameters using two irradiance values for specific values of angle (e.g., 0 and 60 degrees) or altitude (e.g., 0 and 3 km). The parameterisations are then applied to other values of angle and altitude. Differences between these assessments and the reference values of irradiance are computed and analysed. We conclude on the level of performances of each parameterisation for each spectral band as well as for the total irradiance. We discuss the possible use of these parameterisations in the future method Heliosat-4 and possible improvements. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement no. 218793 (MACC project).

  6. Endovascular abdominal aortic repair for AAA. Anatomical suitability and limitation in Japanese population according to the inclusion criteria of Zenith AAA stent graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Atsushi; Okita, Yutaka; Okada, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Since 2007, the EVAR (endovascular abdominal aortic repair) grafts, Zenith, Excluder and Powerlink had been commercially available in Japan. However, a small iliac artery, typical of Japanese population especially in women, was a limiting factor to indicate EVAR. We analyzed the suitability of EVAR in Japanese population according to the inclusion criteria of Zenith AAA stent graft in the current study. From January 2006 to December 2007, 106 AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm) patients (88 men, 18 women) with a mean age of 73 years were investigated in our institution by multi-slice CT scan in terms of suitability of EVAR, then we measured their abdominal aorta and iliac artery parameters as follows; proximal neck diameter (PND) and length (PNL), common iliac artery diameter (CIAD) and length (CIAL), suprarenal (SNA) and infrarenal neck angulation (INA), external iliac artery diameter (EIAD) and aortic length from the lowest renal artery to the aortic bifurcation (AOL). The inclusion criteria for Zenith AAA stent graft treatment were; PND: 18-28 mm, PNL more than 15 mm, unilateral CIAD less than 20 mm, CIAL at least 10 mm, SNA less than 45 degree and INA less than 60 degree, unilateral EIAD more than 7.5 mm. The indication of EVAR was 25.5% (27/106 patients), and was especially very low in women (5.6%) strictly according to the inclusion criteria of the Zenith AAA stent graft. The main reason of exclusion of EVAR was proximal short neck (40.5%), small iliac artery (30.4%) and infrarenal aortic neck angulation (29.1%). In our analysis, female AAA patients had small PNL and EIAD with angulated neck compared with male AAA ones. Anatomical suitability of EVAR in Japanese population strictly following by the inclusion criteria of Zenith AAA stent graft was low due to their characteristic differences from the European Union (EU) and the United States (US) patients, such as short proximal neck, steep neck angulation and small iliac artery, especially in women. More flexible

  7. Operations Charioteer, Musketeer, Touchstone, Cornerstone, Aqueduct, Sculpin and Julin. Tests Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Mighty Oak, Middle Note Mission Ghost, Mission Cyber, Misty Echo, Disko Elm, Mineral Quarry, Distant Zenith, Diamond Fortune, and Hunters Trophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schoengold, Carole

    1999-01-01

    ...; Tests MILL YARD, DIAMOND BEECH, MIGHTY OAK, MIDDLE NOTE, MISSION GHOST, MISSION CYBER, MISTY ECHO, DISKO ELM, MINERAL QUARRY, DISTANT ZENITH, DIAMOND FORTUNE, and HUNTERS TROPHY, 9 October 1985 to 18 September 1992...

  8. UAVs and Control Delays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Vries, S. C

    2005-01-01

    .... Delays of about 250-300 ms often lead to unacceptable airplane handling qualities. Techniques such as filtering and predictive displays may extend the range of acceptable delays up to about 400 ms...

  9. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...

  10. Delayed Orgasm and Anorgasmia

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, ...

  11. Utilization of GPS Tropospheric Delays for Climate Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparta, Wayan

    2017-01-01

    The tropospheric delay is one of the main error sources in Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and its impact plays a crucial role in near real-time weather forecasting. Accessibility and accurate estimation of this parameter are essential for weather and climate research. Advances in GPS application has allowed the measurements of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) in all weather conditions and on a global scale with fine temporal and spatial resolution. In addition to the rapid advancement of GPS technology and informatics and the development of research in the field of Earth and Planetary Sciences, the GPS data has been available free of charge. Now only required sophisticated processing techniques but user friendly. On the other hand, the ZTD parameter obtained from the models or measurements needs to be converted into precipitable water vapor (PWV) to make it more useful as a component of weather forecasting and analysis atmospheric hazards such as tropical storms, flash floods, landslide, pollution, and earthquake as well as for climate change studies. This paper addresses the determination of ZTD as a signal error or delay source during the propagation from the satellite to a receiver on the ground and is a key driving force behind the atmospheric events. Some results in terms of ZTD and PWV will be highlighted in this paper. (paper)

  12. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Development of residual voltage testing equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Wu, Mingjun; Cao, Li; He, Jinyi; Deng, Zhensheng

    2014-07-01

    For the existing measurement methods of residual voltage which can't turn the power off at peak voltage exactly and simultaneously display waveforms, a new residual voltage detection method is put forward in this paper. First, the zero point of the power supply is detected with zero cross detection circuit and is inputted to a single-chip microcomputer in the form of pulse signal. Secend, when the zero point delays to the peak voltage, the single-chip microcomputer sends control signal to power off the relay. At last, the waveform of the residual voltage is displayed on a principal computer or oscilloscope. The experimental results show that the device designed in this paper can turn the power off at peak voltage and is able to accurately display the voltage waveform immediately after power off and the standard deviation of the residual voltage is less than 0.2 V at exactly one second and later.

  14. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Marshak; Warren Wiscombe; Yuri Knyazikhin; Christine Chiu

    2011-05-24

    We proposed a variety of tasks centered on the following question: what can we learn about 3D cloud-radiation processes and aerosol-cloud interaction from rapid-sampling ARM measurements of spectral zenith radiance? These ARM measurements offer spectacular new and largely unexploited capabilities in both the temporal and spectral domains. Unlike most other ARM instruments, which average over many seconds or take samples many seconds apart, the new spectral zenith radiance measurements are fast enough to resolve natural time scales of cloud change and cloud boundaries as well as the transition zone between cloudy and clear areas. In the case of the shortwave spectrometer, the measurements offer high time resolution and high spectral resolution, allowing new discovery-oriented science which we intend to pursue vigorously. Research objectives are, for convenience, grouped under three themes: • Understand radiative signature of the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy areas using data from ARM shortwave radiometers, which has major climatic consequences in both aerosol direct and indirect effect studies. • Provide cloud property retrievals from the ARM sites and the ARM Mobile Facility for studies of aerosol-cloud interactions. • Assess impact of 3D cloud structures on aerosol properties using passive and active remote sensing techniques from both ARM and satellite measurements.

  15. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  16. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  17. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  18. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  19. Vernier Delay Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns

  20. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  1. Modelling delays in pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear system analysis has come to form the backbone of pharmacokinetics. Natural systems usually involve time delays, thus models incorporating them would be an order closer approximation to the real world compared to those that do not. Delays may be modelled in several ways. The approach considered in this study is to have a discrete-time delay dependent rate with the delay respresenting the duration between the entry of a drug into a compartment and its release in some form (may be as a metabolite) from the compartment. Such a delay may be because of one or more of several physiological reasons, like, formation of a reservoir, slow metabolism, or receptor binding. The mathematical structure this gives rise to is a system of delay-differential equations. Examples are given of simple one and two compartment systems with drugs like bumetanide, carbamazepine, and quinolone-caffeine interaction. In these examples generally a good fit is obtained and the suggested models form a good approximation. 21 refs., 6 figs

  2. Real-Time Tropospheric Delay Estimation using IGS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürze, Andrea; Liu, Sha; Söhne, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) routinely provides zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) parameter for the assimilation in numerical weather models since more than 10 years. Up to now the results flowing into the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) or E-GVAP (EUMETNET EIG GNSS water vapour programme) analysis are based on batch processing of GPS+GLONASS observations in differential network mode. For the recently started COST Action ES1206 about "Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate" (GNSS4SWEC), however, rapid updates in the analysis of the atmospheric state for nowcasting applications require changing the processing strategy towards real-time. In the RTCM SC104 (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Special Committee 104) a format combining the advantages of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) is under development. The so-called State Space Representation approach is defining corrections, which will be transferred in real-time to the user e.g. via NTRIP (Network Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol). Meanwhile messages for precise orbits, satellite clocks and code biases compatible to the basic PPP mode using IGS products are defined. Consequently, the IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) was launched in 2013 in order to extend the well-known precise orbit and clock products by a real-time component. Further messages e.g. with respect to ionosphere or phase biases are foreseen. Depending on the level of refinement, so different accuracies up to the RTK level shall be reachable. In co-operation of BKG and the Technical University of Darmstadt the real-time software GEMon (GREF EUREF Monitoring) is under development. GEMon is able to process GPS and GLONASS observation and RTS product data streams in PPP mode. Furthermore, several state-of-the-art troposphere models, for example based on numerical weather prediction data, are implemented. Hence, it

  3. Sidereal semi-diurnal variation observed at high zenith angles at Mawson, 1968-1984, and the polarity of the solar main field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacklyn, R.M.; Duldig, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    High zenith-angle North/South telescopes viewing equatorially and at midlatitudes through 40 MWE of atmosphere have been operating at Mawson since early 1968. It is evident that a sidereal semi-diurnal component of galactic origin has been observed, over and above a possible spurious component proposed by Nagashima, arising from a bi-directional component of the solar anisotropy. Although a very pronounced reduction in the semi-diurnal galactic response followed the reversal of polarity of the solar main field during 1969 to 1971, so far the observations indicate that there has been no recurrence of a larger galactic response following the reversal of polarity around 1981. The possible role of the latitudional extent lambda omicron of the wavy neutral sheet is discussed

  4. An Image Segmentation Based on a Genetic Algorithm for Determining Soil Coverage by Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Angela; Ranz, Juan; Burgos-Artizzu, Xavier P.; Pajares, Gonzalo; Sanchez del Arco, Maria J.; Navarrete, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the soil coverage by crop residues after ploughing is a fundamental element of Conservation Agriculture. This paper presents the application of genetic algorithms employed during the fine tuning of the segmentation process of a digital image with the aim of automatically quantifying the residue coverage. In other words, the objective is to achieve a segmentation that would permit the discrimination of the texture of the residue so that the output of the segmentation process is a binary image in which residue zones are isolated from the rest. The RGB images used come from a sample of images in which sections of terrain were photographed with a conventional camera positioned in zenith orientation atop a tripod. The images were taken outdoors under uncontrolled lighting conditions. Up to 92% similarity was achieved between the images obtained by the segmentation process proposed in this paper and the templates made by an elaborate manual tracing process. In addition to the proposed segmentation procedure and the fine tuning procedure that was developed, a global quantification of the soil coverage by residues for the sampled area was achieved that differed by only 0.85% from the quantification obtained using template images. Moreover, the proposed method does not depend on the type of residue present in the image. The study was conducted at the experimental farm “El Encín” in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain). PMID:22163966

  5. Performance analysis of NOAA tropospheric signal delay model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Hassan E; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the dominant global positioning system (GPS) errors, which degrades the positioning accuracy. Recent development in tropospheric modeling relies on implementation of more accurate numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In North America one of the NWP-based tropospheric correction models is the NOAA Tropospheric Signal Delay Model (NOAATrop), which was developed by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Because of its potential to improve the GPS positioning accuracy, the NOAATrop model became the focus of many researchers. In this paper, we analyzed the performance of the NOAATrop model and examined its effect on ionosphere-free-based precise point positioning (PPP) solution. We generated 3 year long tropospheric zenith total delay (ZTD) data series for the NOAATrop model, Hopfield model, and the International GNSS Services (IGS) final tropospheric correction product, respectively. These data sets were generated at ten IGS reference stations spanning Canada and the United States. We analyzed the NOAATrop ZTD data series and compared them with those of the Hopfield model. The IGS final tropospheric product was used as a reference. The analysis shows that the performance of the NOAATrop model is a function of both season (time of the year) and geographical location. However, its performance was superior to the Hopfield model in all cases. We further investigated the effect of implementing the NOAATrop model on the ionosphere-free-based PPP solution convergence and accuracy. It is shown that the use of the NOAATrop model improved the PPP solution convergence by 1%, 10% and 15% for the latitude, longitude and height components, respectively

  6. The dynamics of second-order equations with delayed feedback and a large coefficient of delayed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashchenko, Sergey A.

    2016-12-01

    The dynamics of second-order equations with nonlinear delayed feedback and a large coefficient of a delayed equation is investigated using asymptotic methods. Based on special methods of quasi-normal forms, a new construction is elaborated for obtaining the main terms of asymptotic expansions of asymptotic residual solutions. It is shown that the dynamical properties of the above equations are determined mostly by the behavior of the solutions of some special families of parabolic boundary value problems. A comparative analysis of the dynamics of equations with the delayed feedback of three types is carried out.

  7. Lighting measurement station: measurements of natural lighting for characterization of sky and zenith illuminance; Estacao de medicao de iluminacao: medicao de niveis de iluminacao natural para caracterizacao de iluminancias de ceu e luminancia de zenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Roberta Vieira Goncalves de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Arquitetura. Dept. de Tecnologia da Arquitetura e do Urbanismo]. E-mail: roberta@arq.ufmg.br; Pereira, Fernando Oscar Ruttkay [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Arquitetura. Lab. de Conforto Ambiental]. E-mail: feco@arq.ufsc.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the assembly of a standard station for measuring the day lighting for evaluation of the natural light availability. The mounting and data obtention form will also be described from a standard IDMP day lighting station for measuring the data from measuring zenith, horizontal, and vertical illuminance of the sky and vertical irradiance for the cardinal points.

  8. Optimal Joint Expected Delay Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Xu; Xin Feng; Wen Jun Yang; Ru Chuan Wang; Bing Qing Han

    2013-01-01

    Multicopy forwarding schemes have been employed in delay tolerant network (DTN) to improve the delivery delay and delivery rate. Much effort has been focused on reducing the routing cost while retaining high performance. This paper aims to provide an optimal joint expected delay forwarding (OJEDF) protocol which minimizes the expected delay while satisfying a certain constant on the number of forwardings per message. We propose a comprehensive forwarding metric called joint expected delay (JE...

  9. Fusion cross sections from measurements of delayed X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.J.; Gregorio, D.E. di; Fernandez Niello, J.O; Elgue, M.

    1988-01-01

    The program XRAY is a FORTRAN 77 computer code for the extraction of fusion cross sections from delayed X-ray measurements. This is accomplished by calculating the theoretical expressions of the time dependence of the evaporation-residue cross sections and taking them as adjustable parameters in a χ 2 minimization procedure. (orig.)

  10. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  11. Terrestrial Sagnac delay constraining modified gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, R. Kh.; Izmailov, R. N.; Potapov, A. A.; Nandi, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    Modified gravity theories include f(R)-gravity models that are usually constrained by the cosmological evolutionary scenario. However, it has been recently shown that they can also be constrained by the signatures of accretion disk around constant Ricci curvature Kerr-f(R0) stellar sized black holes. Our aim here is to use another experimental fact, viz., the terrestrial Sagnac delay to constrain the parameters of specific f(R)-gravity prescriptions. We shall assume that a Kerr-f(R0) solution asymptotically describes Earth's weak gravity near its surface. In this spacetime, we shall study oppositely directed light beams from source/observer moving on non-geodesic and geodesic circular trajectories and calculate the time gap, when the beams re-unite. We obtain the exact time gap called Sagnac delay in both cases and expand it to show how the flat space value is corrected by the Ricci curvature, the mass and the spin of the gravitating source. Under the assumption that the magnitude of corrections are of the order of residual uncertainties in the delay measurement, we derive the allowed intervals for Ricci curvature. We conclude that the terrestrial Sagnac delay can be used to constrain the parameters of specific f(R) prescriptions. Despite using the weak field gravity near Earth's surface, it turns out that the model parameter ranges still remain the same as those obtained from the strong field accretion disk phenomenon.

  12. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are herit...

  13. Estimating Delays In ASIC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

    1994-01-01

    Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

  14. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  15. Delayed neutrons in ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1988-01-01

    Delayed neutron analysis carried out at the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization facilities, provides a fast, high sensitivity, low cost, reliable method, particularly suitable for large batches of samples, and for non destructive analysis of a range of materials. While its main use has been in uranium exploration, other applications include archeological investigations, agriculture, oceanography and biology

  16. Precise troposphere delay model for Egypt, as derived from radiosonde data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdelfatah

    2015-06-01

    Real GPS data of six stations in 8-day period were used for the assessment of zenith part of PTD model against the available international models. These international models include Saastamoinen, Hopfield, and the local Egyptian dry model proposed by Mousa & El-Fiky. The data were processed using Bernese software version 5.0. The closure error results indicate that the PTD model is the best model in all session, but when the available radiosonde stations are less, the accuracy of PTD model is near to classic models. As radiosonde data for all ten stations are not available every session, it is recommended to use one of the regularization techniques for database to overcome missing data and derive consistent tropospheric delay information.

  17. Retrieval of stratospheric and tropospheric BrO profiles and columns using ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations at Harestua, 60° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Pyle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A profiling algorithm based on the optimal estimation method is applied to ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible measurements from Harestua, Southern Norway (60° N, 11° E in order to retrieve BrO vertical profiles. The sensitivity of the zenith-sky observations to the tropospheric BrO detection is increased by using for the spectral analysis a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to clear-sky noon summer conditions. The information content and retrieval errors are characterized and it is shown that the retrieved stratospheric profiles and total columns are consistent with correlative balloon and satellite observations, respectively. Tropospheric BrO columns are derived from profiles retrieved at 80° solar zenith angle during sunrise and sunset for the 2000–2006 period. They show a marked seasonality with mean column value ranging from 1.52±0.62×1013 molec/cm² in late winter/early spring to 0.92±0.38×1013 molec/cm² in summer, which corresponds to 1.0±0.4 and 0.6±0.2 pptv, respectively, if we assume that BrO is uniformly mixed in the troposphere. These column values are also consistent with previous estimates made from balloon, satellite, and other ground-based observations. Daytime (10:30 LT tropospheric BrO columns are compared to the p-TOMCAT 3-D tropospheric chemical transport model (CTM for the 2002–2003 period. p-TOMCAT shows a good agreement with the retrieved columns except in late winter/early spring where an underestimation by the model is obtained. This finding could be explained by the non-inclusion of sea-ice bromine sources in the current version of p-TOMCAT. Therefore the model cannot reproduce the possible transport of air-masses with enhanced BrO concentration due to bromine explosion events from the polar region to Harestua. The daytime stratospheric BrO columns are compared to the SLIMCAT stratospheric 3-D-CTM. The model run used in this study, which assumes 21.2 pptv for the Bry loading (15 pptv for long

  18. Using GPS RO L1 data for calibration of the atmospheric path delay model for data reduction of the satellite altimetery observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, L.

    2017-12-01

    Processing satellite altimetry data requires the computation of path delayin the neutral atmosphere that is used for correcting ranges. The path delayis computed using numerical weather models and the accuracy of its computationdepends on the accuracy of numerical weather models. Accuracy of numerical modelsof numerical weather models over Antarctica and Greenland where there is a very sparse network of ground stations, is not well known. I used the dataset of GPS RO L1 data, computed predicted path delay for ROobservations using the numerical whether model GEOS-FPIT, formed the differences with observed path delay and used these differences for computationof the corrections to the a priori refractivity profile. These profiles wereused for computing corrections to the a priori zenith path delay. The systematic patter of these corrections are used for de-biasing of the the satellite altimetry results and for characterization of the systematic errorscaused by mismodeling atmosphere.

  19. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  20. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  1. Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroki

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed serially within 24 hours after head injury in 64 patients having Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or less or cranial fracture shown on roentgenogram. Delayed traumatic extradural hematoma was observed within 7-12 hours after head injury in 6 cases (9.4%). This was prominent in the frontal and occipital regions (67%). Good recovery was seen in 83.3%. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma was observed within 6-24 hours after head injury in 17 cases (26.6%). This higher incidence was related to contre coup injury. Conservative treatment was possible in 14 of the 17 patients (82.4%), showing good recovery in 70%. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  3. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  4. OMI satellite observed formaldehyde column from 2006 to 2015 over Xishuangbanna, southwest China, and validation using ground based zenith-sky DOAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Feng, Tao; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Chanzhen; Guo, Yanlin; Nan, Jialiang; Deng, Yun; Zhou, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) provides a proxy to reveal the isoprene and biogenic volatile organic compounds emission which plays important roles in atmospheric chemical process and climate change. The ground-based observation with zenith-sky DOAS is carried out in order to validate the HCHO columns from OMI. It has a good correlation of 0.71678 between the HCHO columns from two sources. Then we use the OMI HCHO columns from January 2006 to December 2015 to indicate the interannual variation and spatial distribution in Xishuangbanna. The HCHO concentration peaks appeared in March or April for each year significantly corresponding to the intensive fire counts at the same time, which illustrate that the high HCHO columns are strongly influenced by the biomass burning in spring. Temperature and precipitation are also the important influence factors in the seasonal variation when there is nearly no biomass burning. The spatial patterns over the past ten years strengthen the deduction from the temporal variation and show the relationship with land cover and land use, elevation and population density. It is concluded that the biogenic activity plays a role in controlling the background level of HCHO in Xishuangbanna, while biomass burning is the main driving force of high HCHO concentration. And forests are greater contributor to HCHO rather than rubber trees which cover over 20% of the land in the region. Moreover, uncertainties from HCHO slant column retrieval and AMFs calculation are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Radio tomography and scintillation studies of ionospheric electron density modification caused by a powerful HF-wave and magnetic zenith effect at mid-latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, E.D.; Khudukon, B.Z.; Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.; Frolov, V.L.; Myasnikov, E.N.; Muravieva, N.V.; Carlson, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of the ionospheric electron density modified by a powerful wave of the Sura HF heating facility were carried out in Russia at middle latitudes in August 2002. Amplitude scintillations and variations of the phase of VHF signals from Russian orbiting satellites passing over the heated region along the chain of three satellite receivers have been recorded. The experimental data were converted to electron density maps using a stochastic inversion. Tomographic measurements conducted during a low magnetic activity revealed that HF powerful waves can produce significant electron density disturbances up to heights significantly exceeding altitudes of the F layer peak. Both large-scale plasma enhancements and small-scale density irregularities can be generated by the HF radiation. Wavy density structures were also observed within a sector which is much wider than the area covered by the main lobe of the heating antenna. Small-scale density irregularities are mostly field-aligned although large-scale structures can be detected within a much larger area. A distinctive peculiarity of electron density changes occurred during heating is producing a zone of low density inside the area illuminated by the antenna beam. The results indicate that satellite radio tomography and scintillation measurements are effective diagnostic techniques giving a valuable information to studies of effects induced by HF modification. The complete system of plasma density disturbances describing by the theory of 'the magnetic zenith effect' has been for the first time studied in this Letter. A good agreement between the theory and experimental data has been obtained

  6. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  7. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  8. A frequency-domain method for solving linear time delay systems with constant coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mengshi; Chen, Wei; Song, Hanwen; Xu, Jian

    2018-03-01

    In an active control system, time delay will occur due to processes such as signal acquisition and transmission, calculation, and actuation. Time delay systems are usually described by delay differential equations (DDEs). Since it is hard to obtain an analytical solution to a DDE, numerical solution is of necessity. This paper presents a frequency-domain method that uses a truncated transfer function to solve a class of DDEs. The theoretical transfer function is the sum of infinite items expressed in terms of poles and residues. The basic idea is to select the dominant poles and residues to truncate the transfer function, thus ensuring the validity of the solution while improving the efficiency of calculation. Meanwhile, the guideline of selecting these poles and residues is provided. Numerical simulations of both stable and unstable delayed systems are given to verify the proposed method, and the results are presented and analysed in detail.

  9. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  10. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  11. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  12. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  13. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr

  14. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  15. New distributions of the statistical time delay of electrical breakdown in nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V Lj; Gocic, S R; Stamenkovic, S N

    2006-01-01

    Two new distributions of the statistical time delay of electrical breakdown in nitrogen are reported in this paper. The Gaussian and Gauss-exponential distributions of statistical time delay have been obtained on the basis of thousands of time delay measurements on a gas tube with a plane-parallel electrode system. Distributions of the statistical time delay are theoretically founded on binomial distribution for the occurrence of initiating electrons and described by using simple analytical and numerical models. The shapes of distributions depend on the electron yields in the interelectrode space originating from residual states. It is shown that a distribution of the statistical time delay changes from exponential and Gauss-exponential to Gaussian distribution due to the influence of residual ionization

  16. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  17. Measurement-based J(NO2) sensitivity in a cloudless atmosphere under low aerosol loading and high solar zenith angle conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frueh, B.; Trautmann, T.

    2000-01-01

    The comparison between measured and simulated photodissociation frequencies of NO 2 , J(NO 2 ), in a cloudless atmosphere in a recent paper by Frueh et al., 2000 (Journal of Geophysical Research 105, 9843-9857) revealed an overestimation of J(NO 2 ) near ground level by model calculations compared with measurements and an underestimation in the upper part of the aerosol layer. A possible reason for the disagreement is the changing sun position during the vertical ascent. To resolve this problem we carried out a sensitivity study varying the solar zenith angle of 74 o by 1.4 o (which corresponds to the change of sun position during the vertical flight patterns). This results in a considerable deviation of J(NO 2 ) of about 10%. Further sensitivity studies on J(NO 2 ) have been done. These include realistic variations in ground albedo, humidity and aerosol properties. A variation in ground albedo from the measured value of A G = 0.023 (292-420 nm wavelength) to A G = 0 and A G = 0.05, respectively, resulted in an average J(NO 2 ) reduction and enhancement of only 2% near ground level with a slight decrease with increasing altitude. Furthermore, we compared simulations based on different relative humidity profiles with results from a dry atmosphere. Compared to the dry case the deviations of J(NO 2 ) were considerable (5-16%) although the measured aerosol concentration was very low. Moreover, we doubled the aerosol particle concentration. The maximum J(NO 2 ) deviations were in the same order of magnitude as for the relative humidity (5-16%). These changes are in the range of measurement uncertainty of J(NO 2 ) (author)

  18. Phenomena induced by powerful HF pumping towards magnetic zenith with a frequency near the F-region critical frequency and the third electron gyro harmonic frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment is that the pump frequency was just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency, while both the HF pump beam and UHF radar beam were directed towards the magnetic zenith (MZ. The HF pump-induced phenomena were diagnosed with several instruments: the bi-static HF radio scatter on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path, the CUTLASS radar in Hankasalmi (Finland, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the Tromsø ionosonde (dynasonde. The results show thermal electron excitation of the HF-induced striations seen simultaneously from HF bi-static scatter and CUTLASS radar observations, accompanied by increases of electron temperature when the heater frequency was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer by up to 0.4 MHz. An increase of the electron density up to 25% accompanied by strong HF-induced electron heating was observed, only when the heater frequency was near the critical frequency and just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency. It is concluded that the combined effect of upper hybrid resonance and gyro resonance at the same altitude gives rise to strong electron heating, the excitation of striations, HF ray trapping and extension of HF waves to altitudes where they can excite Langmuir turbulence and fluxes of electrons accelerated to energies that produce ionization.

  19. Phenomena induced by powerful HF pumping towards magnetic zenith with a frequency near the F-region critical frequency and the third electron gyro harmonic frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment is that the pump frequency was just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency, while both the HF pump beam and UHF radar beam were directed towards the magnetic zenith (MZ. The HF pump-induced phenomena were diagnosed with several instruments: the bi-static HF radio scatter on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path, the CUTLASS radar in Hankasalmi (Finland, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the Tromsø ionosonde (dynasonde. The results show thermal electron excitation of the HF-induced striations seen simultaneously from HF bi-static scatter and CUTLASS radar observations, accompanied by increases of electron temperature when the heater frequency was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer by up to 0.4 MHz. An increase of the electron density up to 25% accompanied by strong HF-induced electron heating was observed, only when the heater frequency was near the critical frequency and just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency. It is concluded that the combined effect of upper hybrid resonance and gyro resonance at the same altitude gives rise to strong electron heating, the excitation of striations, HF ray trapping and extension of HF waves to altitudes where they can excite Langmuir turbulence and fluxes of electrons accelerated to energies that produce ionization.

  20. Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: validation of the technique through correlative comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hendrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrieval algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM has been developed in order to provide vertical distributions of NO2 in the stratosphere from ground-based (GB zenith-sky UV-visible observations. It has been applied to observational data sets from the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations of Harestua (60° N, 10° E and Andøya (69° N, 16° E in Norway. The information content and retrieval errors have been analyzed following a formalism used for characterizing ozone profiles retrieved from solar infrared absorption spectra. In order to validate the technique, the retrieved NO2 vertical profiles and columns have been compared to correlative balloon and satellite observations. Such extensive validation of the profile and column retrievals was not reported in previously published work on the profiling from GB UV-visible measurements. A good agreement - generally better than 25% - has been found with the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloons. A similar agreement has been reached with correlative satellite data from the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instruments above 25km of altitude. Below 25km, a systematic underestimation - by up to 40% in some cases - of both HALOE and POAM III profiles by our GB profile retrievals has been observed, pointing out more likely a limitation of both satellite instruments at these altitudes. We have concluded that our study strengthens our confidence in the reliability of the retrieval of vertical distribution information from GB UV-visible observations and offers new perspectives in the use of GB UV-visible network data for validation purposes.

  1. Cloud Droplet Size and Liquid Water Path Retrievals From Zenith Radiance Measurements: Examples From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Varnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Knyazikhin, Y.; O'Connor, E. J.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  2. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  3. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  4. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  5. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  6. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  7. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  8. Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  9. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josić, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  10. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay

  11. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  12. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  13. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  14. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  15. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  16. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  17. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  18. Project delay analysis of HRSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Novega, A. S.; Rosyid, D. M.; Suntoyo

    2017-08-01

    Completion of HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) fabrication project sometimes is not sufficient with the targeted time written on the contract. The delay on fabrication process can cause some disadvantages for fabricator, including forfeit payment, delay on HRSG construction process up until HRSG trials delay. In this paper, the author is using semi quantitative on HRSG pressure part fabrication delay with configuration plant 1 GT (Gas Turbine) + 1 HRSG + 1 STG (Steam Turbine Generator) using bow-tie analysis method. Bow-tie analysis method is a combination from FTA (Fault tree analysis) and ETA (Event tree analysis) to develop the risk matrix of HRSG. The result from FTA analysis is use as a threat for preventive measure. The result from ETA analysis is use as impact from fabrication delay.

  19. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  20. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  1. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshiko; Miyamoto, Kazuto; Beppu, Hirokuni; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author)

  2. Residual coal exploitation and its impact on sustainable development of the coal industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Feng, Guorui; Zhang, Min; Ren, Hongrui; Bai, Jinwen; Guo, Yuxia; Jiang, Haina; Kang, Lixun

    2016-01-01

    Although China owns large coal reserves, it now faces the problem of depletion of its coal resources in advance. The coal-based energy mix in China will not change in the short term, and a means of delaying the coal resources depletion is therefore urgently required. The residual coal was exploited first with a lower recovery percentage and was evaluated as commercially valuable damaged coal. This approach is in comparison to past evaluations when the residual coal was allocated as exploitation losses. Coal recovery rates, the calculation method of residual coal reserves and statistics of its mines in China were given. On this basis, a discussion concerning the impacts on the delay of China's coal depletion, development of coal exploitation and sustainable developments, as well as technologies and relevant policies, were presented. It is considered that the exploitation of residual coal can effectively delay China's coal depletion, inhibit the construction of new mines, redress the imbalance between supply and demand of coal in eastern China, improve the mining area environment and guarantee social stability. The Chinese government supports the exploitation technologies of residual coal. Hence, exploiting residual coal is of considerable importance in sustainable development of the coal industry in China. - Highlights: •Pay attention to residual coal under changing energy-mix environment in China. •Estimate residual coal reserves and investigate its exploitation mines. •Discuss impacts of residual coal exploitation on delay of coal depletion in China. •Discuss impacts on coal mining industry and residual coal exploitation technology. •Give corresponding policy prescriptions.

  3. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  4. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  5. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  6. Very short-term reactive forecasting of the solar ultraviolet index using an extreme learning machine integrated with the solar zenith angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ravinesh C; Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio V; Adamowski, Jan F; Quilty, John M

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to erythemally-effective solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that contributes to malignant keratinocyte cancers and associated health-risk is best mitigated through innovative decision-support systems, with global solar UV index (UVI) forecast necessary to inform real-time sun-protection behaviour recommendations. It follows that the UVI forecasting models are useful tools for such decision-making. In this study, a model for computationally-efficient data-driven forecasting of diffuse and global very short-term reactive (VSTR) (10-min lead-time) UVI, enhanced by drawing on the solar zenith angle (θ s ) data, was developed using an extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm. An ELM algorithm typically serves to address complex and ill-defined forecasting problems. UV spectroradiometer situated in Toowoomba, Australia measured daily cycles (0500-1700h) of UVI over the austral summer period. After trialling activations functions based on sine, hard limit, logarithmic and tangent sigmoid and triangular and radial basis networks for best results, an optimal ELM architecture utilising logarithmic sigmoid equation in hidden layer, with lagged combinations of θ s as the predictor data was developed. ELM's performance was evaluated using statistical metrics: correlation coefficient (r), Willmott's Index (WI), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (E NS ), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE) between observed and forecasted UVI. Using these metrics, the ELM model's performance was compared to that of existing methods: multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), M5 Model Tree, and a semi-empirical (Pro6UV) clear sky model. Based on RMSE and MAE values, the ELM model (0.255, 0.346, respectively) outperformed the MARS (0.310, 0.438) and M5 Model Tree (0.346, 0.466) models. Concurring with these metrics, the Willmott's Index for the ELM, MARS and M5 Model Tree models were 0.966, 0.942 and 0.934, respectively. About 57% of the ELM model

  7. Numerical solution of neutral functional-differential equations with proportional delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Giyas Sakar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, homotopy analysis method is improved with optimal determination of auxiliary parameter by use of residual error function for solving neutral functional-differential equations (NFDEs with proportional delays. Convergence analysis and error estimate of method are given. Some numerical examples are solved and comparisons are made with the existing results. The numerical results show that the homotopy analysis method with residual error function is very effective and simple.

  8. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  9. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  10. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  11. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  12. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes

  13. Statistical theory for calculating energy spectra of β-delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Moeller, Peter; Wilson, William B.

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical β-delayed neutron spectra are calculated based on the Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) and the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Neutron emissions from an excited daughter nucleus after β-decay to the granddaughter residual are more accurately calculated than previous evaluations, including all the microscopic nuclear structure information, such as a Gamow-Teller strength distribution and discrete states in the granddaughter. The calculated delayed-neutron spectra reasonably agree with those evaluations in the ENDF decay library, which are based on experimental data. The model was adopted to generate the delayed-neutron spectra for all 271 precursors. (authors)

  14. Green Data Gathering under Delay Differentiated Services Constraint for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy-efficient data gathering techniques play a crucial role in promoting the development of smart portable devices as well as smart sensor devices based Internet of Things (IoT. For data gathering, different applications require different delay constraints; therefore, a delay Differentiated Services based Data Routing (DSDR scheme is creatively proposed to improve the delay differentiated services constraint that is missed from previous data gathering studies. The DSDR scheme has three advantages: first, DSDR greatly reduces transmission delay by establishing energy-efficient routing paths (E2RPs. Multiple E2RPs are established in different locations of the network to forward data, and the duty cycles of nodes on E2RPs are increased to 1, so the data is forwarded by E2RPs without the existence of sleeping delay, which greatly reduces transmission latency. Secondly, DSDR intelligently chooses transmission method according to data urgency: the direct-forwarding strategy is adopted for delay-sensitive data to ensure minimum end-to-end delay, while wait-forwarding method is adopted for delay-tolerant data to perform data fusion for reducing energy consumption. Finally, DSDR make full use of the residual energy and improve the effective energy utilization. The E2RPs are built in the region with adequate residual energy and they are periodically rotated to equalize the energy consumption of the network. A comprehensive performance analysis demonstrates that the DSDR scheme has obvious advantages in improving network performance compared to previous studies: it reduces transmission latency of delay-sensitive data by 44.31%, reduces transmission latency of delay-tolerant data by 25.65%, and improves network energy utilization by 30.61%, while also guaranteeing the network lifetime is not lower than previous studies.

  15. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  16. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  17. Chaos in the delay logistic equation with discontinuous delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ayan; Mukherjee, Debasis

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes a delay logistic equation which models a feedback control problem. Interval map associated to the system is derived. By calculating Lyapunov exponent, we indicate stable orbit and chaotic phenomenon respectively. The results are verified through computer simulation. We identify the parameter which controls the dynamics.

  18. Postraumatic delayed loss of vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, C.R.; Graves, V.B.; Ruetenacht, D.A.; Weinstein, J.M.; Strother, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging studies and clinical findings in 10 patients who suffered delayed vision loss beginning 1 day to 13 years after head trauma have been reviewed. Two different primary lesions could be identified: pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery and carotid cavernous fistula. The pathologic changes associated with pseudoaneurysm included compression of the optic nerves and/or chiasm by arterial aneurysm and intracranial hematoma. Carotid cavernous fistula caused delayed vision loss by compression of the optic nerves and chiasm by saccular dilatation of the cavernous sinus and by abnormal orbital venous drainage with retinal venous stasis, retinal edema, and glaucoma

  19. Time delayed Ensemble Nudging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry

    Optimal nudging method based on time delayed embedding theory has shows potentials on analyzing and data assimilation in previous literatures. To extend the application and promote the practical implementation, new nudging assimilation method based on the time delayed embedding space is presented and the connection with other standard assimilation methods are studied. Results shows the incorporating information from the time series of data can reduce the sufficient observation needed to preserve the quality of numerical prediction, making it a potential alternative in the field of data assimilation of large geophysical models.

  20. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  1. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time. ...

  2. Prevention of delayed hydride cracking in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheadle, B.A.; Coleman, C.E.; Ambler, J.F.R.

    1987-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are susceptible to a mechanism for crack initiation and propagation called delayed hydride cracking. From a review of component failures and experimental results, we have developed the requirements for preventing this cracking. The important parameters for cracking are hydrogen concentration, flaws, and stress; each should be minimized. At the design and construction stages hydrogen pickup has to be controlled, quality assurance needs to be at a high enough level to ensure the absence of flaws, and residual stresses must be eliminated by careful fabrication and heat treatment

  3. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  4. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  5. Another definition for time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Time delay is defined by geometrical considerations which work in classical as well as in quantum mechanics, and its connection with the S-matrix and the virial is proven for potentials with V(x vector) and x vector V(x vector) vanishing as rsup(-1-epsilon) for r -> infinity. (Author)

  6. Weather delay costs to trucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...

  7. Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent joint damage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to minimize delays from the onset of symptoms until the initiation of appropriate therapy. The present study explored the factors that have an impact on the time it takes for Danish patients with RA...

  8. Design flaw could delay collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    "A magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) failed during a key test at the European particle physics laboratory CERN last week. Physicists and engineers will have to repair the damaged magnet and retrofit others to correct the underlynig design flaw, which could delay the start-up of the mammouth subterranean machine." (1,5 page)

  9. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    the delay is contractually defined as a contractor's risk, the contractor is liable to pay liquidated damages to the employer; if it is not, the contractor can under certain circumstances claim an extension of time and in some cases also economic compensation from the employer. The situation where a given...

  10. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, G

    2011-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the

  11. Livermore blasted for project delay

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    In a 12 page report issued last week, a review committee set up by the University of California has concluded that mismanagement and poor planning are to blame for significant cost overruns and delays in the construction of NIF, the worlds largest laser (1 page).

  12. Providing delay guarantees in Bluetooth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait Yaiz, R.; Heijenk, Geert; Titsworth, F.

    2003-01-01

    Bluetooth polling, also referred to as Bluetooth MAC scheduling or intra-piconet scheduling, is the mechanism that schedules the traffic between the participants in a Bluetooth network. Hence, this mechanism is highly determining with respect to the delay packets experience in a Bluetooth network.

  13. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  14. Analysis of a first-order delay differential-delay equation containing two delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, C.; Vallée, R.; Delisle, C.

    1989-09-01

    An experimental and numerical analysis of the behavior of a two-delay differential equation is presented. It is shown that much of the system's behavior can be related to the stability behavior of the underlying linearized modes. A new phenomenon, mode crossing, is explored.

  15. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  16. Sub-lethal effects of pesticide residues in brood comb on worker honey bee (Apis mellifera development and longevity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Y Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous surveys reveal high levels of pesticide residue contamination in honey bee comb. We conducted studies to examine possible direct and indirect effects of pesticide exposure from contaminated brood comb on developing worker bees and adult worker lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Worker bees were reared in brood comb containing high levels of known pesticide residues (treatment or in relatively uncontaminated brood comb (control. Delayed development was observed in bees reared in treatment combs containing high levels of pesticides particularly in the early stages (day 4 and 8 of worker bee development. Adult longevity was reduced by 4 days in bees exposed to pesticide residues in contaminated brood comb during development. Pesticide residue migration from comb containing high pesticide residues caused contamination of control comb after multiple brood cycles and provided insight on how quickly residues move through wax. Higher brood mortality and delayed adult emergence occurred after multiple brood cycles in contaminated control combs. In contrast, survivability increased in bees reared in treatment comb after multiple brood cycles when pesticide residues had been reduced in treatment combs due to residue migration into uncontaminated control combs, supporting comb replacement efforts. Chemical analysis after the experiment confirmed the migration of pesticide residues from treatment combs into previously uncontaminated control comb. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study is the first to demonstrate sub-lethal effects on worker honey bees from pesticide residue exposure from contaminated brood comb. Sub-lethal effects, including delayed larval development and adult emergence or shortened adult longevity, can have indirect effects on the colony such as premature shifts in hive roles and foraging activity. In addition, longer development time for bees may provide a reproductive advantage for parasitic Varroa destructor

  17. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  18. Entropy Transfer between Residue Pairs and Allostery in Proteins: Quantifying Allosteric Communication in Ubiquitin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysima Hacisuleyman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been proposed by Gunasakaran et al. that allostery may be an intrinsic property of all proteins. Here, we develop a computational method that can determine and quantify allosteric activity in any given protein. Based on Schreiber's transfer entropy formulation, our approach leads to an information transfer landscape for the protein that shows the presence of entropy sinks and sources and explains how pairs of residues communicate with each other using entropy transfer. The model can identify the residues that drive the fluctuations of others. We apply the model to Ubiquitin, whose allosteric activity has not been emphasized until recently, and show that there are indeed systematic pathways of entropy and information transfer between residues that correlate well with the activities of the protein. We use 600 nanosecond molecular dynamics trajectories for Ubiquitin and its complex with human polymerase iota and evaluate entropy transfer between all pairs of residues of Ubiquitin and quantify the binding susceptibility changes upon complex formation. We explain the complex formation propensities of Ubiquitin in terms of entropy transfer. Important residues taking part in allosteric communication in Ubiquitin predicted by our approach are in agreement with results of NMR relaxation dispersion experiments. Finally, we show that time delayed correlation of fluctuations of two interacting residues possesses an intrinsic causality that tells which residue controls the interaction and which one is controlled. Our work shows that time delayed correlations, entropy transfer and causality are the required new concepts for explaining allosteric communication in proteins.

  19. Entropy Transfer between Residue Pairs and Allostery in Proteins: Quantifying Allosteric Communication in Ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacisuleyman, Aysima; Erman, Burak

    2017-01-01

    It has recently been proposed by Gunasakaran et al. that allostery may be an intrinsic property of all proteins. Here, we develop a computational method that can determine and quantify allosteric activity in any given protein. Based on Schreiber's transfer entropy formulation, our approach leads to an information transfer landscape for the protein that shows the presence of entropy sinks and sources and explains how pairs of residues communicate with each other using entropy transfer. The model can identify the residues that drive the fluctuations of others. We apply the model to Ubiquitin, whose allosteric activity has not been emphasized until recently, and show that there are indeed systematic pathways of entropy and information transfer between residues that correlate well with the activities of the protein. We use 600 nanosecond molecular dynamics trajectories for Ubiquitin and its complex with human polymerase iota and evaluate entropy transfer between all pairs of residues of Ubiquitin and quantify the binding susceptibility changes upon complex formation. We explain the complex formation propensities of Ubiquitin in terms of entropy transfer. Important residues taking part in allosteric communication in Ubiquitin predicted by our approach are in agreement with results of NMR relaxation dispersion experiments. Finally, we show that time delayed correlation of fluctuations of two interacting residues possesses an intrinsic causality that tells which residue controls the interaction and which one is controlled. Our work shows that time delayed correlations, entropy transfer and causality are the required new concepts for explaining allosteric communication in proteins.

  20. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  1. Depressive illness delayed Hamlet's revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A B; Pickering, Neil

    2002-12-01

    If Hamlet had not delayed his revenge there would have been no play. Many explanations of the delay have been offered in the last four centuries. None is convincing. The interpretation which best fits the evidence best is that Hamlet was suffering from an acute depressive illness, with some obsessional features. He could not make a firm resolve to act. In Shakespeare's time there was no concept of acute depressive illness, although melancholy was well known. Melancholy, however, would have been seen as a character defect. In the tragic model the hero brings himself and others to ruin because of a character defect. Thus, at the time, the play conformed to the tragic model. With today's knowledge, it does not. This analysis adds to, but does not replace, other insights into the play.

  2. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  3. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  4. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  5. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  6. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  7. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  8. Development of delayed radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa; Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime.

    1983-01-01

    The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later. (author)

  9. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  10. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  11. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  12. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  13. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  14. Synchronization in networks with heterogeneous coupling delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter; Bachrathy, Dániel; Orosz, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    Synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with heterogeneous coupling delays is studied. A decomposition of the network dynamics is obtained by block diagonalizing a newly introduced adjacency lag operator which contains the topology of the network as well as the corresponding coupling delays. This generalizes the master stability function approach, which was developed for homogenous delays. As a result the network dynamics can be analyzed by delay differential equations with distributed delay, where different delay distributions emerge for different network modes. Frequency domain methods are used for the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria and synchronized periodic orbits. As an example, the synchronization behavior in a system of delay-coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is investigated. It is shown that the parameter regions where synchronized periodic spiking is unstable expand when increasing the delay heterogeneity.

  15. Penetrative and dislodgeable residue characteristics of 14C-insecticides in apple fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Sanchez, David; Cregg, Bert; Hoffmann, Eric; Flore, James; Wise, John C

    2012-03-28

    Infinite- and finite-dose laboratory experiments were used to study the penetrative and dislodgeable residue characteristics of (14)C-insecticides in apple fruit. The differences in dislodgeable and penetrated residues of three radiolabeled insecticides ((14)C-thiamethoxam, (14)C-thiacloprid, and (14)C-indoxacarb), applied in aqueous solution with commercial formulations, were determined after water and methanol wash extractions. The rate of sorption and extent of penetration into the fruit cuticles and hypanthium of two apple cultivars were measured after 1, 6, and 24 h of treatment exposure, using radioactivity quantification methods. For all three compounds, 97% or more of the treatment solutions were found on the fruit surface as some form of non-sorbed residues. For indoxacarb, sorption into the epicuticle was rapid but desorption into the fruit hypanthium was delayed, indicative of a lipophilic penetration pathway. For the neonicotinoids, initial cuticular penetration was slower but with no such delay in desorption into the hypanthium.

  16. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  17. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that ...

  18. Incomplete and delayed Sox2 deletion defines residual ear neurosensory development and maintenance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, Martina; Jahan, I.; Mácová, Iva; Chumak, Tetyana; Bohuslavová, Romana; Syka, Josef; Fritzsch, B.; Pavlínková, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Dec 5 (2016), č. článku 38253. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-07996S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : inner ear * neurons * hair cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  19. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  20. Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.

  1. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design trends move towards nanometer technologies, more number of new parameters affects the delay of the component. Fuzzy delay models are ideal for modelling the uncertainty found in the design and manufacturing steps.

  2. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  3. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  4. Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

  5. Reasons for diagnostic delay in gynecological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Christensen, René dePont Christensen; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    (≤ or > 60 years), performance of gynecological examination by the GP and notification of cancer suspicion on first referral from GP’s on the diagnostic delay (short delay ≤90 days and long delay >90 days). Results Across cancer type a median total delay of 101 days was observed. The 10% of women......Aim The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe different delay types in women with gynecologic cancer, and to analyze the relationship between diagnostic delay and a number of characteristics for patients, cancers and the health care system. Setting A cohort study of women newly......) and The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD). 161 women were included; ovarian cancer: 63, endometrial cancer: 50, cervical cancer: 34 and vulvar cancer: 14. Outcome measures were different delay types counted in days and the influence of four clinical important variables: Presence of alarm symptoms, age...

  6. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability. In this w......Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability....... In this work, we show that using wirelength as the evaluation metric does not always produce a floorplan with the shortest delay. We propose a temperature dependent wire delay estimation method for thermal aware floorplanning algorithms, which takes into account the thermal effect on wire delay. The experiment...

  7. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  8. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n s , and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z * =1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ε α i <0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  9. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  10. Mitigation of Atmospheric Delay in SAR Absolute Ranging Using Global Numerical Weather Prediction Data: Corner Reflector Experiments at 3 Different Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaoying; Balss, Ulrich; Eineder, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric delay due to vertical stratification, the so-called stratified atmospheric delay, has a great impact on both interferometric and absolute range measurements. In our current researches [1][2][3], centimeter-range accuracy has been proven based on Corner Reflector (CR) based measurements by applying atmospheric delay correction using the Zenith Path Delay (ZPD) corrections derived from nearby Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. For a global usage, an effective method has been introduced to estimate the stratified delay based on global 4-dimensional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) products: the direct integration method [4][5]. Two products, ERA-Interim and operational data, provided by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) are used to integrate the stratified delay. In order to access the integration accuracy, a validation approach is investigated based on ZPD derived from six permanent GPS stations located in different meteorological conditions. Range accuracy at centimeter level is demonstrated using both ECMWF products. Further experiments have been carried out in order to determine the best interpolation method by analyzing the temporal and spatial correlation of atmospheric delay using both ECMWF and GPS ZPD. Finally, the integrated atmospheric delays in slant direction (Slant Path Delay, SPD) have been applied instead of the GPS ZPD for CR experiments at three different test sites with more than 200 TerraSAR-X High Resolution SpotLight (HRSL) images. The delay accuracy is around 1-3 cm depending on the location of test site due to the local water vapor variation and the acquisition time/date. [1] Eineder M., Minet C., Steigenberger P., et al. Imaging geodesy - Toward centimeter-level ranging accuracy with TerraSAR-X. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, 2011, 49(2): 661-671. [2] Balss U., Gisinger C., Cong X. Y., et al. Precise Measurements on the Absolute Localization Accuracy of TerraSAR-X on the

  11. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  12. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  13. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  14. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  15. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  16. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  17. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  18. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  19. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  20. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  1. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  2. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...

  3. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  4. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  5. Dynamics of Nonlinear Time-Delay Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshmanan, Muthusamy

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization of chaotic systems, a patently nonlinear phenomenon, has emerged as a highly active interdisciplinary research topic at the interface of physics, biology, applied mathematics and engineering sciences. In this connection, time-delay systems described by delay differential equations have developed as particularly suitable tools for modeling specific dynamical systems. Indeed, time-delay is ubiquitous in many physical systems, for example due to finite switching speeds of amplifiers in electronic circuits, finite lengths of vehicles in traffic flows, finite signal propagation times in biological networks and circuits, and quite generally whenever memory effects are relevant. This monograph presents the basics of chaotic time-delay systems and their synchronization with an emphasis on the effects of time-delay feedback which give rise to new collective dynamics. Special attention is devoted to scalar chaotic/hyperchaotic time-delay systems, and some higher order models, occurring in different bran...

  6. Group Delay of High Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    Group Delay variations versus frequency is an essential factor which can cause distortion and degradation in the signals. Usually this is an issue in wideband communication systems, such as satellite communication systems, which are used for transmitting wideband data. However, group delay can also...... become an issue, when working with high Q antennas, because of the steep phase shift over the frequency. In this paper, it is measured how large group delay variations can become, when going from a low Q antenna to a high Q antenna. The group delay of a low Q antenna is shown to be around 1.3 ns, whereas...... a high Q antenna has group delay of around 22 ns. It is due to this huge group delay variation characteristics of high Q antennas, that signal distortion might occur in the radio system with high Q antennas....

  7. Permutation entropy with vector embedding delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Douglas J.; Kane, Deb M.

    2017-12-01

    Permutation entropy (PE) is a statistic used widely for the detection of structure within a time series. Embedding delay times at which the PE is reduced are characteristic timescales for which such structure exists. Here, a generalized scheme is investigated where embedding delays are represented by vectors rather than scalars, permitting PE to be calculated over a (D -1 ) -dimensional space, where D is the embedding dimension. This scheme is applied to numerically generated noise, sine wave and logistic map series, and experimental data sets taken from a vertical-cavity surface emitting laser exhibiting temporally localized pulse structures within the round-trip time of the laser cavity. Results are visualized as PE maps as a function of embedding delay, with low PE values indicating combinations of embedding delays where correlation structure is present. It is demonstrated that vector embedding delays enable identification of structure that is ambiguous or masked, when the embedding delay is constrained to scalar form.

  8. Delays in the management of retroperitoneal sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinen, Jojanneke; Almquist, Martin; Styring, Emelie

    2010-01-01

    Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare and treatment should optimally be centralized. Despite successful centralization with 90% of the patients referred prior to surgery, delays occur, which led us to assess lead times in a population-based series. Method. Patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal...... sarcoma in the southern Sweden health care region 2003-2009 were eligible for the study. Data on referrals and diagnostic investigations were collected from clinical files from primary health care, local hospitals, and from the sarcoma centre. Lead times were divided into patient delays and health care...... delays caused by primary health care, local hospitals, or procedures at the sarcoma centre. Results. Complete data were available from 33 patients and demonstrated a median patient delay of 23¿days (0-17¿months) and median health care delay of 94¿days (1-40¿months) with delays of median 15¿days...

  9. Time Delay Estimation Algoritms for Echo Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Sakhnov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The following case study describes how to eliminate echo in a VoIP network using delay estimation algorithms. It is known that echo with long transmission delays becomes more noticeable to users. Thus, time delay estimation, as a part of echo cancellation, is an important topic during transmission of voice signals over packetswitching telecommunication systems. An echo delay problem associated with IP-based transport networks is discussed in the following text. The paper introduces the comparative study of time delay estimation algorithm, used for estimation of the true time delay between two speech signals. Experimental results of MATLab simulations that describe the performance of several methods based on cross-correlation, normalized crosscorrelation and generalized cross-correlation are also presented in the paper.

  10. CGI delay compensation. [Computer Generated Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during agressive tasks such as nap of the earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitude distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  11. Memorized discrete systems and time-delay

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J

    2017-01-01

    This book examines discrete dynamical systems with memory—nonlinear systems that exist extensively in biological organisms and financial and economic organizations, and time-delay systems that can be discretized into the memorized, discrete dynamical systems. It book further discusses stability and bifurcations of time-delay dynamical systems that can be investigated through memorized dynamical systems as well as bifurcations of memorized nonlinear dynamical systems, discretization methods of time-delay systems, and periodic motions to chaos in nonlinear time-delay systems. The book helps readers find analytical solutions of MDS, change traditional perturbation analysis in time-delay systems, detect motion complexity and singularity in MDS; and determine stability, bifurcation, and chaos in any time-delay system.

  12. Magnetic pulse sharpener and delay-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Dai Guangsen; Xia Liansheng

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a method to achieve short rise time pulse which has been delayed with a delay-line and magnetic pulse sharpener. A delay-line and two shock-lines are designed to carry pulsed signal with a maximum voltage magnitude up to 80 kV. A pulse of High voltage with arise time of 48 ns at a level of 0.1%-0.9% were achieved, and the attenuation in the line is very small

  13. Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Amy L Atkinson

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages) may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. Th...

  14. Delayed enhanced MRI in intraparenchymal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Takahiko; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Takeshima, Toshikazu

    1991-01-01

    Delayed enhanced MRI was performed on 20 intraparenchymal tumors, and these findings were compared with those of early enhanced MRI. Using the spin-echo technique (SE: 400-500/20 msec), early scans were obtained 5 minutes, and delayed scans were obtained 60 minutes, after the intravenous injection of 0.1 nmol of gadolinium-DTPA/Kg. We discussed the changes in the delayed scan with regard to the change in the pattern of enhancement and the boundary of enhancement. In these twenty intraparenchymal tumors, there were three low-grade astrocytomas, two anaplastic astrocytomas, seven glioblastomas, and eight metastatic tumors. The changes in the enhanced pattern showed three types as follows: Type I: heterogeneous enhancement in both early and delayed scans; Type II: heterogeneous enhancement in early scan and homogeneous enhancement in delayed scan; Type III: homogeneous enhancement in both early and delayed scans. Most malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas (6/8), anaplastic astrocytomas (2/2), and metastatic tumors (7/8), revealed Type I, although low-grade astrocytomas showed Type II (3/2) and Type III (1/3). The heterogeneous enhancement in delayed scan was found in malignant tumors and in low-grade astrocytoma; even if the early scan revealed heterogeneous enhancement, the delayed scan showed homogeneous enhancement. In the delayed scan, most enhanced boundaries spread out of the boundaries in the early scan. Glioblastomas spread markedly in the delayed scan, although none of the low-grade astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, or metastases revealed marked spreading. We called these marked increases in the delayed scan a 'spreading sign' and thought that this sign was specific to glioblastomas. Recently some authors have emphasized the usefulness of serial scans. Delayed enhanced MRI 60 minutes after the administration of a contrast medium was here found also to be useful for the accurate diagnosis for brain tumors. (author)

  15. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  16. Neutron stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Verdu, G.

    1987-01-01

    From the stochastic transport theory with delayed neutrons, the Boltzmann transport equation with delayed neutrons for the average flux emerges in a natural way without recourse to any approximation. From this theory a general expression is obtained for the Feynman Y-function when delayed neutrons are included. The single mode approximation for the particular case of a subcritical assembly is developed, and it is shown that Y-function reduces to the familiar expression quoted in many books, when delayed neutrons are not considered, and spatial and source effects are not included. (author)

  17. Delayed reproductive death as a dominant phenotype in cell clones surviving X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W.P.; Little, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Residual damage manifested as reduced cloning efficiency was observed in many of the cloned progeny of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human carcinoma SQ-20B cells surviving X-irradiation. This stable phenotype, which we have termed delayed reproductive death, persisted for >50 generations of cell replication post-irradiation. Clones showing this phenotype were aneuploid, and formed colonies with a high proportion of giant cells. By somatic cell hybridization of CHO clones, the delayed reproductive death phenotype was found to be a dominant trait; the cloning efficiency of hybrid clones was persistently depressed, as compared with that of control hybrid cells. These results suggest that delayed reproductive death represents a specific cellular response that may persist in some of the progeny of mammalian cells for long periods after X-irradiation. (author)

  18. Delayed coking studies on Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindhakannan, J.; Khulbe, C. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study that quantified the delayed coking product yields of Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil. It also investigated the effect of operating pressure and feed rates on product yield and quality. The effect of pressure on conversion of sulphur and nitrogen was also examined. Experimental results revealed that the yield of liquid products decreases and the yields of coke and gases increase as the operating pressure increases. Sulphur and nitrogen conversions increase with increasing pressure. In this study, the yield and quality of delayed coking products were not influenced by the variation in feed rates. It was concluded that feed rate changes do not significantly affect the yield and quality of delayed coking products because the residual liquid and coke trapped in the coker drum reside there for a duration that approaches infinity, compared to much smaller average residence time for vapor-phase compounds. tabs., figs.

  19. Combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of indentation cracks in a PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.Y.; Chu, W.Y.; Su, Y.J.; Qiao, L.J.; Gao, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of unloaded indentation cracks in a PZT-5 ceramic has been studied. The results show that residual stress itself is too small to induce delayed propagation of the indentation cracks in silicon oil. If applied constant electric field is larger than 0.2 kV/cm, the combined effect of electric field and residual stress can cause delayed propagation of the indentation crack after passing an incubation time in silicon oil, but the crack will arrest after propagating for 10-30 μm because of decrease of the resultant stress intensity factor induced by the field and residual stress with increasing the crack length. The threshold electric field for delayed propagation of the indentation crack in silicon oil is E DP = 0.2 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 5.25 kV/cm, combined effect of the electric field and residual stress can cause instant propagation of the indentation crack, and under sustained electric field, the crack which has propagated instantly can propagate continuously, until arrest at last. The critical electric field for instant propagation of the indentation crack is E P = 5.25 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 12.6 kV/cm, the microcracks induced by the electric field initiate everywhere, grow and connect in a smooth specimen, resulting in delayed failure, even without residual stress. The threshold electric field for delayed failure of a smooth specimen in silicon oil is E DF = 12.6 kV/cm and the critical electric field for instant failure is E F = 19.1 kV/cm

  20. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  1. Delayed habituation in Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulturk, Sefa; Akyol, Melih; Kececi, Hulusi; Ozcelik, Sedat; Cinar, Ziynet; Demirkazik, Ayse

    2008-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system in Behcet's patients may be affected due to various reasons. This entity may be detected with the measurement of the electrodermal activities, heart rate variability and pupillometric methods. Habituation is one of the implicit forms of learning and memory and the loss of habituation can reveal pathological changes in the synaptic regions. To determine whether there is a functional decrease in the synaptic effectiveness (habituation) of the pathways to sympathetic neurons that had been repeatedly activated in Behcet's. Twelve patients with Behcet's disease and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Sympathetic skin potential (SSP) records were taken at normal room temperature in a quiet place within a Faraday cage. Sixteen square wave single shock impulses (duration: 1200 ms, strength: 5 mA) were applied on each case. After the 1st stimulus, the SSP amplitudes were lower in the patients compared to the controls (P0.05). Whereas there was no significant differences among the SSP amplitudes after the 9th impulse in the controls (P>0.05). The habituation rate of the SSP after consecutive impulses was slowest in the patients compared to controls (P<0.001, t value=12.39). There is a delayed habituation in Behcet's disease and that may due to pathologic changes with vasculitis through their peripheral nerves.

  2. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  3. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  4. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  5. The TCD50 and regrowth delay assay in human tumor xenografts: Differences and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budach, W.; Budach, V.; Stuschke, M.; Dinges, S.; Sack, H.

    1993-01-01

    The response to irradiation of five human xenograft cell lines - a malignant paraganglioma, a neurogenic sarcoma, a malignant histiocytoma, a primary lymphoma of the brain, and a squamous cell carcinoma - were tested in nude mice. All mice underwent 5 Gy whole body irradiation prior to xenotransplantation to minimize the residual immune response. The subcutaneous tumors were irradiated at a tumor volume of 120 mm 3 under acutely hypoxic conditions with single doses between 8 Gy and 80 Gy depending on the expected radiation sensitivity of the tumor line. Endpoints of the study were the tumor control dose 50% (TCD 50 ) and the regrowth delay endpoints growth delay, specific growth delay, and the tumor bed effect corrected specific growth delay. Specific growth delay and corrected specific growth delay at 76% of the TCD 50 was used in order to compare the data to previously published data from spheroids. The lowest TCD 50 was found in the lymphoma with 24.9 Gy, whereas the TCD 50 of the soft tissue sarcomas and the squamous cell carcinoma ranged from 57.8 Gy to 65.6 Gy. The isoeffective dose levels for the induction of 30 days growth delay, a specific growth delay of 3, and a corrected specific growth delay of 3 ranged from 15.5 Gy (ECL1) to 37.1 Gy (FADU), from 7.2 Gy (ENE2) to 45.6 Gy (EPG1) and from 9.2 Gy (ENE2) to 37.6 Gy (EPG1), respectively. The corrected specific growth delay at 76% of the TCD 50 was correlated with the number of tumor rescue units per 100 cells in spheroids, which was available for three tumor lines, and with the tumor doubling time in xenografts (n = 5). The TCD 50 values corresponded better to the clinical experience than the regrowth delay data. There was no correlation between TCD 50 and any of the regrowth delay endpoints. This missing correlation was most likely a result of large differences in the number of tumor rescue units in human xenografts of the same size

  6. Time delays, population, and economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    This research develops an augmented Solow model with population dynamics and time delays. The model produces either a single stationary state or multiple stationary states (able to characterise different development regimes). The existence of time delays may cause persistent fluctuations in both economic and demographic variables. In addition, the work identifies in a simple way the reasons why economics affects demographics and vice versa.

  7. On Delay and Security in Network Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikaliotis, Theodoros K.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, delay and security issues in network coding are considered. First, we study the delay incurred in the transmission of a fixed number of packets through acyclic networks comprised of erasure links. The two transmission schemes studied are routing with hop-by-hop retransmissions, where every node in the network simply stores and…

  8. Delaying Developmental Mathematics: The Characteristics and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marianne; Kuennen, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates which students delay taking a required developmental mathematics course and the impact of delay on student performance in introductory microeconomics. Analysis of a sample of 1462 students at a large Midwestern university revealed that, although developmental-level mathematics students did not reach the same level of…

  9. ANALYSING SURFACE MOVEMENT DELAYS IN AN AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Queuing effect can be in the different components of ground operations. Causes of surface – movement delays are long taxi – in and taxi – out operations during departure and arrival of aircraft. Surface movement delays in an airport are analyzed

  10. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  11. Algebraic entropy for differential-delay equations

    OpenAIRE

    Viallet, Claude M.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the definition of algebraic entropy to a class of differential-delay equations. The vanishing of the entropy, as a structural property of an equation, signals its integrability. We suggest a simple way to produce differential-delay equations with vanishing entropy from known integrable differential-difference equations.

  12. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...

  13. Test Anxiety and Academic Delay of Gratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between college students' willingness to delay gratification, motivation, self-regulation of learning, and their level of test anxiety (N = 364). Academic delay of gratification refers to students' postponement of immediately available opportunities to satisfy impulses in favor of pursuing academic…

  14. Delaying gratification depends on social trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Laura; de la Vega, Alejandro; Chatham, Christopher H.; Munakata, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then choose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity. PMID:23801977

  15. Delaying gratification depends on social trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eMichaelson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Delaying gratification is hard, yet predictive of important life outcomes, such as academic achievement and physical health. Prominent theories focus on the role of self-control, hypersensitivity to immediate rewards, and the cost of time spent waiting. However, delaying gratification may also require trust in people delivering future rewards as promised. To test the role of social trust, participants were presented with character vignettes and faces that varied in trustworthiness, and then chose between hypothetical smaller immediate or larger delayed rewards from those characters. Across two experiments, participants were less willing to wait for delayed rewards from less trustworthy characters, and perceived trustworthiness predicted willingness to delay gratification. These findings provide the first demonstration of a causal role for social trust in willingness to delay gratification, independent of other relevant factors, such as self-control or reward history. Thus, delaying gratification requires choosing not only a later reward, but a reward that is potentially less likely to be delivered, when there is doubt about the person promising it. Implications of this work include the need to revise prominent theories of delay of gratification, and new directions for interventions with populations characterized by impulsivity.

  16. Beta delayed particle emission in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riisager, K.; Gabelmann, H.

    1991-01-01

    A short discussion of theoretical treatments of beta delayed particle emission is followed by a presentation of data on the newly found beta delayed deuteron decay of 6 He. This decay cannot be described properly with existing theories. (author) 8 refs.; 3 figs

  17. Allee effects on population dynamics with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, C.; Merdan, H.; Duman, O.; Akin, O.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the stability analysis of equilibrium points of population dynamics with delay when the Allee effect occurs at low population density. Mainly, our mathematical results and numerical simulations point to the stabilizing effect of the Allee effects on population dynamics with delay

  18. Nonlinear delay monopoly with bounded rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamics of a monopolistic firm in a continuous-time framework. The firm is assumed to be boundedly rational and to experience time delays in obtaining and implementing information on output. The dynamic adjustment process is based on the gradient of the expected profit. The paper is divided into three parts: we examine delay effects on dynamics caused by one-time delay and two-time delays in the first two parts. Global dynamics and analytical results on local dynamics are numerically confirmed in the third part. Four main results are demonstrated. First, the stability switch from stability to instability occurs only once in the case of a single delay. Second, the alternation of stability and instability can continue if two time delays are involved. Third, the occurence of Hopf bifurcation is analytically shown if stability is lost. Finally, in a bifurcation process, there are a period-doubling cascade to chaos and a period-halving cascade to the equilibrium point in the case of two time delays if the difference between the two delays is large.

  19. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design .... To find the quality of non-robust tests, a fuzzy delay ..... Dubois D and Prade H 1989 Processing Fuzzy temporal knowledge. IEEE Transactions ...

  20. Delay-dependent exponential stability of cellular neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Wei Xiaopeng; Xu Jin

    2005-01-01

    The global exponential stability of cellular neural networks (CNNs) with time-varying delays is analyzed. Two new sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential stability for delayed CNNs are obtained. The conditions presented here are related to the size of delay. The stability results improve the earlier publications. Two examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results

  1. Synchronization of delayed systems in the presence of delay time modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kye, Won-Ho; Choi, Muhan; Kim, Myung-Woon; Lee, Soo-Young; Rim, Sunghwan; Kim, Chil-Min; Park, Young-Jai

    2004-01-01

    We investigate synchronization in the presence of delay time modulation for application to communication. We have observed that the robust synchronization is established by a common delay signal and its threshold is presented using Lyapunov exponents analysis. The influence of the delay time modulation in chaotic oscillators is also discussed

  2. Gravitational Lens Time Delays Using Polarization Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Biggs

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational lens time delays provide a means of measuring the expansion of the Universe at high redshift (and therefore in the ‘Hubble flow’ that is independent of local calibrations. It was hoped that many of the radio lenses found in the JVAS/CLASS survey would yield time delays as these were selected to have flat spectra and are dominated by multiple compact components. However, despite extensive monitoring with the Very Large Array (VLA, time delays have only been measured for three of these systems (out of 22. We have begun a programme to reanalyse the existing VLA monitoring data with the goal of producing light curves in polarized flux and polarization position angle, either to improve delay measurements or to find delays for new sources. Here, we present preliminary results on the lens system B1600+434 which demonstrate the presence of correlated and substantial polarization variability in each image.

  3. Controllability of nonlinear delay oscillating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Liang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the controllability of a system governed by second order delay differential equations. We introduce a delay Gramian matrix involving the delayed matrix sine, which is used to establish sufficient and necessary conditions of controllability for the linear problem. In addition, we also construct a specific control function for controllability. For the nonlinear problem, we construct a control function and transfer the controllability problem to a fixed point problem for a suitable operator. We give a sufficient condition to guarantee the nonlinear delay system is controllable. Two examples are given to illustrate our theoretical results by calculating a specific control function and inverse of a delay Gramian matrix.

  4. Dynamics of microbubble oscillators with delay coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C. R.; Sah, S. M.; Rand, R. H.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the stability of the in-phase mode in a system of two delay-coupled bubble oscillators. The bubble oscillator model is based on a 1956 paper by Keller and Kolodner. Delay coupling is due to the time it takes for a signal to travel from one bubble to another through the liquid medium that surrounds them. Using techniques from the theory of differential-delay equations as well as perturbation theory, we show that the equilibrium of the in-phase mode can be made unstable if the delay is long enough and if the coupling strength is large enough, resulting in a Hopf bifurcation. We then employ Lindstedt's method to compute the amplitude of the limit cycle as a function of the time delay. This work is motivated by medical applications involving noninvasive localized drug delivery via microbubbles.

  5. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  6. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  8. Microscopic Control Delay Modeling at Signalized Arterials Using Bluetooth Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekhar, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Real-time control delay estimation is an important performance measure for any intersection to improve the signal timing plans dynamically in real-time and hence improve the overall system performance. Control delay estimates helps to determine the level-of-service (LOS) characteristics of various approaches at an intersection and takes into account deceleration delay, stopped delay and acceleration delay. All kinds of traffic delay calculation especially control delay calculation has always ...

  9. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  10. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  11. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  12. On the cost/delay tradeoff of wireless delay tolerant geographic routing

    OpenAIRE

    Tasiopoulos, Argyrios; Tsiaras, Christos; Toumpis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    In Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), there is a fundamental tradeoff between the aggregate transport cost of a packet and the delay in its delivery. We study this tradeoff in the context of geographical routing in wireless DTNs.We ?rst specify the optimal cost/delay tradeoff, i.e., the tradeoff under optimal network operation, using a dynamic network construction termed the Cost/Delay Evolving Graph (C/DEG) and the Optimal Cost/Delay Curve (OC/DC), a function that gives the minimum possible agg...

  13. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  14. Aligning environmental and regulatory procedures with a holistic project management approach for residue deposits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, BJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available ). 1.1 Legislative responses in South Africa The advent of a democratic South Africa has brought about the promulgation of new environmental legislation. This was necessary to give legal effect to the principles of sustainability as laid down.... Often project delays can be ascribed to non-conformance to the legal and regulatory processes, because: • The South African EIA legislative process that is applicable to mine residue deposition does not focus on project management procedures, project...

  15. Reward acts as a signal to control delay-period activity in delayed-response tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara-Takeda, Satoe; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Funahashi, Shintaro

    2010-03-31

    Prefrontal delay-period activity represents a neural mechanism for the active maintenance of information and needs to be controlled by some signal to appropriately operate working memory. To examine whether reward-delivery acts as this signal, the effects of delay-period activity in response to unexpected reward-delivery were examined by analyzing single-neuron activity recorded in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Among neurons that showed delay-period activity, 34% showed inhibition of this activity in response to unexpected reward-delivery. The delay-period activity of these neurons was affected by the expectation of reward-delivery. The strength of the reward signal in controlling the delay-period activity is related to the strength of the effect of reward information on the delay-period activity. These results indicate that reward-delivery acts as a signal to control delay-period activity.

  16. Chaos synchronization in time-delayed systems with parameter mismatches and variable delay times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahverdiev, E.M.; Nuriev, R.A.; Hashimov, R.H.; Shore, K.A.

    2004-06-01

    We investigate synchronization between two undirectionally linearly coupled chaotic nonidentical time-delayed systems and show that parameter mismatches are of crucial importance to achieve synchronization. We establish that independent of the relation between the delay time in the coupled systems and the coupling delay time, only retarded synchronization with the coupling delay time is obtained. We show that with parameter mismatch or without it neither complete nor anticipating synchronization occurs. We derive existence and stability conditions for the retarded synchronization manifold. We demonstrate our approach using examples of the Ikeda and Mackey Glass models. Also for the first time we investigate chaos synchronization in time-delayed systems with variable delay time and find both existence and sufficient stability conditions for the retarded synchronization manifold with the coupling-delay lag time. (author)

  17. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  18. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  19. Delays in Building Construction Projects in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa B Agyakwah-Baah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the causes of delay of building construction projects in Ghana to determine the most important according to the key project participants; clients, consultants, and contractors. Thirty-two possible causes of delay were identified from the literature and semi-structured interviews of 15 key players in the implementation process. These delay factors were further categorised into nine major groups. The list of delay causes was subjected to a questionnaire survey for the identification of the most important causes of delay. The field survey included 130 respondents made up of 39 contractors, 37 clients and 54 consultants. The relative importance of the individual causes and the groups were calculated and ranked by their relative importance index. The overall results of the study indicate that the respondents generally agree that financial group factors ranked highest among the major factors causing delay in construction projects in Ghana. The financial group factors were delay in honouring payment certificates, difficulty in accessing credit and fluctuation in prices. Materials group factors are second followed by scheduling and controlling factors.

  20. Behavioral effects of delayed timeouts from reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Tom; Poling, Alan

    2017-03-01

    Timeouts are sometimes used in applied settings to reduce target responses, and in some circumstances delays are unavoidably imposed between the onset of a timeout and the offset of the response that produces it. The present study examined the effects of signaled and unsignaled timeouts in rats exposed to concurrent fixed-ratio 1 fixed-ratio 1 schedules of food delivery, where each response on one lever, the location of which changed across conditions, produced both food and a delayed 10-s timeout. Delays of 0 to 38 s were examined. Delayed timeouts often, but not always, substantially reduced the number of responses emitted on the lever that produced timeouts relative to the number emitted on the lever that did not produce timeouts. In general, greater sensitivity was observed to delayed timeouts when they were signaled. These results demonstrate that delayed timeouts, like other delayed consequences, can affect behavior, albeit less strongly than immediate consequences. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  1. Representing delayed force feedback as a combination of current and delayed states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Guy; Mawase, Firas; Karniel, Amir; Shmuelof, Lior; Donchin, Opher; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A; Nisky, Ilana

    2017-10-01

    To adapt to deterministic force perturbations that depend on the current state of the hand, internal representations are formed to capture the relationships between forces experienced and motion. However, information from multiple modalities travels at different rates, resulting in intermodal delays that require compensation for these internal representations to develop. To understand how these delays are represented by the brain, we presented participants with delayed velocity-dependent force fields, i.e., forces that depend on hand velocity either 70 or 100 ms beforehand. We probed the internal representation of these delayed forces by examining the forces the participants applied to cope with the perturbations. The findings showed that for both delayed forces, the best model of internal representation consisted of a delayed velocity and current position and velocity. We show that participants relied initially on the current state, but with adaptation, the contribution of the delayed representation to adaptation increased. After adaptation, when the participants were asked to make movements with a higher velocity for which they had not previously experienced with the delayed force field, they applied forces that were consistent with current position and velocity as well as delayed velocity representations. This suggests that the sensorimotor system represents delayed force feedback using current and delayed state information and that it uses this representation when generalizing to faster movements. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The brain compensates for forces in the body and the environment to control movements, but it is unclear how it does so given the inherent delays in information transmission and processing. We examined how participants cope with delayed forces that depend on their arm velocity 70 or 100 ms beforehand. After adaptation, participants applied opposing forces that revealed a partially correct representation of the perturbation using the current and the

  2. Transmission delays in hardware clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Ramanathan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Various methods, both with software and hardware, have been proposed to synchronize a set of physical clocks in a system. Software methods are very flexible and economical but suffer an excessive time overhead, whereas hardware methods require no time overhead but are unable to handle transmission delays in clock signals. The effects of nonzero transmission delays in synchronization have been studied extensively in the communication area in the absence of malicious or Byzantine faults. The authors show that it is easy to incorporate the ideas from the communication area into the existing hardware clock synchronization algorithms to take into account the presence of both malicious faults and nonzero transmission delays.

  3. A continuous time Cournot duopoly with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Luca; Guerrini, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the classical repeated duopoly model with quantity-setting firms of Bischi et al. (1998) by assuming that production of goods is subject to some gestation lags but exchanges take place continuously in the market. The model is expressed in the form of differential equations with discrete delays. By using some recent mathematical techniques and numerical experiments, results show some dynamic phenomena that cannot be observed when delays are absent. In addition, depending on the extent of time delays and inertia, synchronisation failure can arise even in the event of homogeneous firms.

  4. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  5. Bubbling in delay-coupled lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flunkert, V; D'Huys, O; Danckaert, J; Fischer, I; Schöll, E

    2009-06-01

    We theoretically study chaos synchronization of two lasers which are delay coupled via an active or a passive relay. While the lasers are synchronized, their dynamics is identical to a single laser with delayed feedback for a passive relay and identical to two delay-coupled lasers for an active relay. Depending on the coupling parameters the system exhibits bubbling, i.e., noise-induced desynchronization, or on-off intermittency. We associate the desynchronization dynamics in the coherence collapse and low-frequency fluctuation regimes with the transverse instability of some of the compound cavity's antimodes. Finally, we demonstrate how, by using an active relay, bubbling can be suppressed.

  6. Travelling wave solutions in delayed cooperative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bingtuan; Zhang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    We establish the existence of travelling wave solutions for delayed cooperative recursions that are allowed to have more than two equilibria. We define an important extended real number that is used to determine the speeds of travelling wave solutions. The results can be applied to a large class of delayed cooperative reaction–diffusion models. We show that for a delayed Lotka–Volterra reaction–diffusion competition model, there exists a finite positive number c * + that can be characterized as the slowest speed of travelling wave solutions connecting two mono-culture equilibria or connecting a mono-culture with the coexistence equilibrium

  7. Transcriptional delay stabilizes bistable gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Ott, William; Josić, Krešimir; Bennett, Matthew R

    2013-08-02

    Transcriptional delay can significantly impact the dynamics of gene networks. Here we examine how such delay affects bistable systems. We investigate several stochastic models of bistable gene networks and find that increasing delay dramatically increases the mean residence times near stable states. To explain this, we introduce a non-Markovian, analytically tractable reduced model. The model shows that stabilization is the consequence of an increased number of failed transitions between stable states. Each of the bistable systems that we simulate behaves in this manner.

  8. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  9. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  10. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  11. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  12. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  13. OSCILLATION OF NONLINEAR DELAY DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the oscillatory properties of a class of nonlinear difference equations with several delays. Sufficient criteria in the form of infinite sum for the equations to be oscillatory are obtained.

  14. Compensating for telecommunication delays during robotic telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoni, Leonardo J; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation robotic systems may afford better care and telerehabilitation may extend the use and benefits of robotic therapy to the home. Data transmissions over distance are bound by intrinsic communication delays which can be significant enough to deem the activity unfeasible. Here we describe an approach that combines unilateral robotic telerehabilitation and serious games. This approach has a modular and distributed design that permits different types of robots to interact without substantial code changes. We demonstrate the approach through an online multiplayer game. Two users can remotely interact with each other with no force exchanges, while a smoothing and prediction algorithm compensates motions for the delay in the Internet connection. We demonstrate that this approach can successfully compensate for data transmission delays, even when testing between the United States and Brazil. This paper presents the initial experimental results, which highlight the performance degradation with increasing delays as well as improvements provided by the proposed algorithm, and discusses planned future developments.

  15. Isolation Effect in Immediate and Delayed Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellezza, Francis S.; Cheney, Terry L.

    1973-01-01

    If the hypothesis of selective rehearsal is used to account for the isolation effect, then the recall of isolated items will depend both on the serial position of the isolated item and on whether recall is immediate or delayed. (Author)

  16. A simple chaotic delay differential equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The simplest chaotic delay differential equation with a sinusoidal nonlinearity is described, including the route to chaos, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, and chaotic diffusion. It is prototypical of many other high-dimensional chaotic systems

  17. Time delay of quantum scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    The author presents various aspects of the theory of the time delay of scattering processes. The author mainly studies non-relativistic two-body scattering processes, first summarizing briefly the theory of simple scattering systems. (Auth.)

  18. Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Atkinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. The article also explores whether the inconsistent findings can be attributed to differences in study designs or the definitions of bilingualism used between studies. Based on current evidence, it appears that lifelong bilingualism, where individuals frequently use both languages, may be protective against dementia. However, becoming bilingual in adulthood or using the second language infrequently is unlikely to substantially delay onset of the disease.

  19. Rich dynamics of discrete delay ecological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Mingshu

    2005-01-01

    We study multiple bifurcations and chaotic behavior of a discrete delay ecological model. New form of chaos for the 2-D map is observed: the combination of potential period doubling and reverse period-doubling leads to cascading bubbles

  20. Four-channel delay generator model 5740

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumatz, D.; Milner, M.

    1978-01-01

    The 4-channel delay generator model 5740 generates 4-pulse groups in independent channels. The device offers the possibility of controlling both the time intervals between the pulses of a group and the rate of generation of groups

  1. Lauch of CERN particle accelerator delayed

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists seeking to uncover the secrets of the universe will have to wait a little longer after the CERN laboratory inSwitzerland yesterday confirmed a delay in tests of its massive new particle accelerator." (1 page)

  2. Diagnosis delay in tuberculosis and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibullah, S.; Sheikh, M.A.; Sadiq, A.; Anwar, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the average duration from onset of symptoms to the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, reasons for diagnostic delay, its consequences, association of variables and formulation of recommendations. Results: In this study it was found that average time from onset of initial symptoms to diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis was 120 days. In 64% of the patients medical practitioners were responsible for delaying the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Loss of weight in 40% and haemoptysis is 21% were the consequences of diagnostic delay of tuberculosis. Delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis was statistically significant in those patients who consulted private practitioners, and consequences of tuberculosis were severe in those patients who consulted late. (author)

  3. Variable Delay in port-Hamiltonian Telemanipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secchi, C; Stramigioli, Stefano; Fantuzzi, C.

    2006-01-01

    In several applications involving bilateral telemanipulation, master and slave act at different power scales. In this paper a strategy for passively dealing with variable communication delay in scaled port-Hamiltonian based telemanipulation over packet switched networks is proposed.

  4. Reactive control processes contributing to residual switch cost and mixing cost across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, Lisa R; Karayanidis, Frini; Fulham, Ross; Provost, Alexander; Michie, Patricia T; Heathcote, Andrew; Hsieh, Shulan

    2014-01-01

    In task-switching paradigms, performance is better when repeating the same task than when alternating between tasks (switch cost) and when repeating a task alone rather than intermixed with another task (mixing cost). These costs remain even after extensive practice and when task cues enable advanced preparation (residual costs). Moreover, residual reaction time mixing cost has been consistently shown to increase with age. Residual switch and mixing costs modulate the amplitude of the stimulus-locked P3b. This mixing effect is disproportionately larger in older adults who also prepare more for and respond more cautiously on these "mixed" repeat trials (Karayanidis et al., 2011). In this paper, we analyze stimulus-locked and response-locked P3 and lateralized readiness potentials to identify whether residual switch and mixing cost arise from the need to control interference at the level of stimulus processing or response processing. Residual mixing cost was associated with control of stimulus-level interference, whereas residual switch cost was also associated with a delay in response selection. In older adults, the disproportionate increase in mixing cost was associated with greater interference at the level of decision-response mapping and response programming for repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. These findings suggest that older adults strategically recruit greater proactive and reactive control to overcome increased susceptibility to post-stimulus interference. This interpretation is consistent with recruitment of compensatory strategies to compensate for reduced repetition benefit rather than an overall decline on cognitive flexibility.

  5. Nonlinear Cournot duopoly with implementation delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akio; Szidarovszky, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of two delays on the local as well as on global stability of nonlinear Cournot duopoly dynamics. The two major findings are an analytical construction of the stability switching curve on which stability is lost and the numerical confirmation of the birth of aperiodic global dynamics when the stationary state is locally unstable. The delays matters and can generate various dynamics ranging from simple to complicated dynamics.

  6. Delay in polling systems in heavy traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mei, Robert D.

    1998-10-01

    We study the delay in asymmetric cyclic polling systems with general mixtures of gated and exhaustive service, with generally distributed service times and switch-over times, in heavy traffic. We obtain closed-form expressions for all moments of the delay incurred at each of the queues. The expressions are strikingly simple and can even be expressed as finite products of known factors. The results provide new insights into the heavy-traffic behavior of polling systems.

  7. Acceptable Channel Switching Delays for Mobile TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    as well as three potential effect factors: the transition type, the test environment and the audiovisual content. The results show that delays longer than 5.7 seconds annoyed test participants, and that the transition type had a significant impact on the rating of channel switching delays. However......, neither the test environment nor the audiovisual content influenced the ratings significantly. Finally, a discussion of these results and directions for future research are proposed....

  8. Inverse Problems for Nonlinear Delay Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    population dynamics. We consider the delay between birth and adulthood for neonate pea aphids and present a mathematical model that treats this delay as...which there is currently no known cure. For HIV, the core of the virus is composed of single-stranded viral RNA and protein components. As depicted in...at a CD4 receptor site and the viral core is injected into the cell. Once inside, the protein components enable transcription and integration of the

  9. The Strategic Perils of Delayed Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan S. Anand; Karan Girotra

    2007-01-01

    The value of delayed differentiation (also known as postponement) for a monopolist has been extensively studied in the operations literature. We analyze the case of (imperfectly) competitive markets with demand uncertainty, wherein the choice of supply chain configuration (i.e., early or delayed differentiation) is endogenous to the competing firms. We characterize firms' choices in equilibrium and analyze the effects of these choices on quantities sold, profits, consumer surplus, and welfare...

  10. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermiah Eramah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay. Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s that did not include a lump (p  Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Conclusions Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast cancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing

  11. Time delay in a multichannel formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberzettl, Helmut; Workman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    We reexamine the time-delay formalism of Wigner, Eisenbud, and Smith, which was developed to analyze both elastic and inelastic resonances. An error in the paper of Smith has propagated through the literature. We correct this error and show how the results of Eisenbud and Smith are related. We also comment on some recent time-delay studies, based on Smith's erroneous interpretation of the Eisenbud result

  12. The reasons for delay lumbar puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH. Lotfi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of meningitis and encephalitis and prompt initiation of appropriate therapy is vital and any delay will lead to high mortality and serious and permanent morbidity. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the management of 220 patients with suspected central nervous system (CNS infections (meningitis and encephalitis to determine the percentage of patients’ suspected CNS infection undergo lumbar puncture in acceptable time (in accordance with conventional algorithms. In this descriptive study, patients with suspected CNS infections admitted to Bu-Ali and Qods hospitals, in the period July 2013 to December 2015 were studied. Information of 220 patients was collected. Continuous variables were summarized as means ± standard deviation and categorical variables as frequencies and percentages. Lumbar puncture (LP in patients was delayed in 200 cases (91%. Most common causes of delay in performing LP were prolongation of the process of determining patient needs to puncture, satisfying patients, CT scan delay and the delay in allowing LP by neurologist. In this study, delaying LP rate was higher than other studies. It seems certain pattern in assistants’ visits for counseling. CT requests and neurologic consultation before LP performed for all adult patients.

  13. Nuclear size and cell division delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced division delay has been linked to damage at the nuclear envelope. Further, cells in G 2 phase are drastically arrested by high LET radiation such that single particles traversing cell nuclei may produce measurable division delay. A modest effort was initiated using two related cell lines of different size, near-diploid cells and near-tetraploid cells of Chinese hamster origin, to compare their sensitivity for radiation-induced division delay. If the nuclear surface is the critical target, then a larger nuclear cross-section presented to an alpha-particle beam should exhibit delay induced by a lesser particle fluence. Preliminary estimates of the extent of delay in asynchronous cultures following low doses of gamma-irradiation or of alpha-irradiation were made by in-situ observation of the time of onset of mitosis and by fixation and staining of cultures to determine the mitotic index as a function of time after irradiation. The basic approach to evaluating division delay will be to use Colecemid to accumulate mitotic cells over a period of time

  14. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer on the lesser curvature in upper third of the stomach is a risk factor for postoperative delayed gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Tetsuya; Obata, Daisuke; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Norihiro; Hashimura, Hiroki; Kano, Chise; Matsushita, Megumi; Kanamori, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Kei; Tsujimae, Masahiro; Momose, Kenji; Eguchi, Takaaki; Okuyama, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Fujita, Mikio; Okada, Akihiko

    2018-02-07

    Advances in Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technology have established ESD for early gastric cancer as a safe and stable technique. However, ESD may induce delayed gastric emptying and the cause of food residue retention in the stomach after ESD is not clear. This study aimed to clarify risk factors for delayed gastric emptying with food retention after gastric ESD. We retrospectively examined for food residue in the stomach 1 week after ESD was performed for early gastric carcinoma at Osaka Saiseikai Nakatsu Hospital from February 2008 to November 2016. Food residue was observed in 68 (6.1%) of 1114 patients who underwent gastric ESD. The percentage of lesions located on the lesser curvature of the upper third of the stomach was 45.6% (31/68) in the food residue group and 3.5% (37/1046) in the non-food residue group, which was significantly different (P gastric ESD. Of the 68 patients, 3 had food residue in the stomach on endoscopic examination for follow-up observation after the ESD ulcer had healed. Delayed gastric emptying with food retention after gastric ESD was associated with lesions located in the lesser curvature of the upper stomach, submucosal invasion of the lesion, age older than 80 years, and post-ESD bleeding, though it was temporary in most cases.

  15. The Limitations to Delay-Insensitivity in Asynchronous Circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Alain J

    1990-01-01

    ... produced are delay-insensitive (DI). A digital circuit is DI when its correct operation is independent of the delays in operators and in the wires connecting the operators, except that the delays are finite and positive...

  16. Lag synchronization of chaotic systems with time-delayed linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    delayed linear terms via impulsive control is investigated. Based on the stability theory of impulsive delayed differen- tial equations, some sufficient conditions are obtained guaranteeing the synchronized behaviours between two delayed chaotic ...

  17. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    /processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system...... Delay PLL system should be done in its implementation. This process will result in performance degradation in the digital control system, as the exactly required number of delays is not realized. Hence, in this paper, a Virtual Unit Delay (VUD) has been proposed to address such challenges to the digital......Digital micro-controllers/processors enable the cost-effective control of grid-connected power converter systems in terms of system monitoring, signal processing (e.g., grid synchronization), control (e.g., grid current and voltage control), etc. Normally, the control is implemented in a micro-controller...

  18. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  19. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  20. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  2. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  3. Improving Delay-Range-Dependent Stability Condition for Systems with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the delay-range-dependent stability for systems with interval time-varying delay. Through defining the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and estimating the derivative of the LKF by introducing new vectors, using free matrices and reciprocally convex approach, the new delay-range-dependent stability conditions are obtained. Two well-known examples are given to illustrate the less conservatism of the proposed theoretical results.

  4. Leveraging delay discounting for health: Can time delays influence food choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Olinger, Tamara; Bogucki, Michael; Janssen, Imke; Avery-Mamer, Elizabeth F; Powell, Lisa M

    2018-03-15

    Delay discounting, the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is theorized to promote consumption of immediately rewarding but unhealthy foods at the expense of long-term weight maintenance and nutritional health. An untested implication of delay discounting models of decision-making is that selectively delaying access to less healthy foods may promote selection of healthier (immediately available) alternatives, even if they may be less desirable. The current study tested this hypothesis by measuring healthy versus regular vending machine snack purchasing before and during the implementation of a 25-s time delay on the delivery of regular snacks. Purchasing was also examined under a $0.25 discount on healthy snacks, a $0.25 tax on regular snacks, and the combination of both pricing interventions with the 25-s time delay. Across 32,019 vending sales from three separate vending locations, the 25-s time delay increased healthy snack purchasing from 40.1% to 42.5%, which was comparable to the impact of a $0.25 discount (43.0%). Combining the delay and the discount had a roughly additive effect (46.0%). However, the strongest effects were seen under the $0.25 tax on regular snacks (53.7%) and the combination of the delay and the tax (50.2%). Intervention effects varied substantially between vending locations. Importantly, time delays did not harm overall vending sales or revenue, which is relevant to the real-world feasibility of this intervention. More investigation is needed to better understand how the impact of time delays on food choice varies across populations, evaluate the effects of time delays on beverage vending choices, and extend this approach to food choices in contexts other than vending machines. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02359916. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Susceptibility of cold-worked zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium alloy to delayed hydrogen cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Notched tensile specimens of cold-worked zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium alloy have been stressed at 350 K and 520 K. At 350 K, above a possible threshold stress of 200 MPa, specimens exhibited delayed failure which was attributed to hydride cracking. Metallography showed that hydrides accumulated at notches and tips of growing cracks. The time to failure appeared to be independent of hydrogen content over the range 7 to 100 ppm hydrogen. Crack growth rates of about 10 -10 m/s deduced from fractography were in the same range as those necessary to fracture pressure tubes. The asymptotic stress intensity for delayed failure, Ksub(1H), appeared to be about 5 MPa√m. With this low value of Ksub(1H) small surface flaws may propagate in pressure tubes which contain large residual stresses. Stress relieving and modified rolling procedures will reduce the residual stresses to such an extent that only flaws 12% of the wall thickness or greater will grow. At 520 K no failures were observed at times a factor of three greater than times to failure at 350 K. Zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium appears to be safe from delayed hydrogen cracking at the reactor operating temperature. (author)

  6. Delayed coking unit preheat train optimization; Otimizacao do preaquecimento das Unidades de Coque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marins, Edson R; Geraldelli, Washington O; Barros, Francisco C [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry has been investing in research and development of new techniques and process improvements with the objective to increase the residual fraction profitability and to fulfill the market demands. The adequacy of the refining scheme has led to the development of bottom of the barrel processes that has the objective to convert heavy fractions into products of higher aggregate value. In this context, the process of Delayed Coking presents a great importance in the production of distillates in the diesel range as well as the processing of heavy residues, mostly in the markets where the fuel oil consumption is being reduced. With the approach to help PETROBRAS decide which route to follow during new designs of Delayed Coking units, this work presents a comparative study of the preheat train performance among the energy recovery to preheat the feed, in contrast with preheating the feed and generating steam, simultaneously. In this study the Pinch Technology methodology was used as a procedure for heat integration with the objective of getting the maximum energy recovery from the process, finding the best trade-off between operational cost and investment cost. The alternative of steam generation aims to provide an appropriate flexibility in Delayed Coking units design and operation. (author)

  7. Derivation and computation of discrete-delay and continuous-delay SDEs in mathematical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    Stochastic versions of several discrete-delay and continuous-delay differential equations, useful in mathematical biology, are derived from basic principles carefully taking into account the demographic, environmental, or physiological randomness in the dynamic processes. In particular, stochastic delay differential equation (SDDE) models are derived and studied for Nicholson's blowflies equation, Hutchinson's equation, an SIS epidemic model with delay, bacteria/phage dynamics, and glucose/insulin levels. Computational methods for approximating the SDDE models are described. Comparisons between computational solutions of the SDDEs and independently formulated Monte Carlo calculations support the accuracy of the derivations and of the computational methods.

  8. Global synchronization criteria with channel time-delay for chaotic time-delay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jitao

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Lyapunov stabilization theory, matrix measure, and linear matrix inequality (LMIs), this paper studies the chaos synchronization of time-delay system using the unidirectional linear error feedback coupling with time-delay. Some generic conditions of chaos synchronization with time-delay in the transmission channel is established. The chaotic Chua's circuit is used for illustration, where the coupling parameters are determined according to the criteria under which the global chaos synchronization of the time-delay coupled systems is achieved

  9. Prehospital delay in acute coronary syndrome--an analysis of the components of delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Michael Mundt; Dixen, Ulrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prompt hospital admission is essential when treating acute coronary syndrome. Delay prior to admission is unnecessarily long. Therefore, a thorough scrutiny of the influence of characteristics, circumstantial and subjective variables on elements of prehospital delay among patients...... admitted with acute coronary syndrome is warranted. METHODS: A structured interview was conducted on 250 consecutive patients admitted alive with acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: Median prehospital, decision, physician and transportation delays were 107, 74, 25 and 22 min, respectively. Women (n=77) had...... of acute coronary syndrome among women, and thereby contributes to unnecessary long delay to treatment. The patient's prior experience and interpretation has a significant influence on behaviour....

  10. Residues and duality for projective algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Ernst; Dickenstein, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    This book, which grew out of lectures by E. Kunz for students with a background in algebra and algebraic geometry, develops local and global duality theory in the special case of (possibly singular) algebraic varieties over algebraically closed base fields. It describes duality and residue theorems in terms of K�hler differential forms and their residues. The properties of residues are introduced via local cohomology. Special emphasis is given to the relation between residues to classical results of algebraic geometry and their generalizations. The contribution by A. Dickenstein gives applications of residues and duality to polynomial solutions of constant coefficient partial differential equations and to problems in interpolation and ideal membership. D. A. Cox explains toric residues and relates them to the earlier text. The book is intended as an introduction to more advanced treatments and further applications of the subject, to which numerous bibliographical hints are given.

  11. Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

    2000-07-01

    In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

  12. Distribution of residues and primitive roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Replacing the function f by g, we get the required estimate for N(p, N). D. Proof of Theorem 1.1. When p = 7, we clearly see that (1, 2) is a consecutive pair of quadratic residue modulo 7. Assume that p ≥ 11. If 10 is a quadratic residue modulo p, then we have (9, 10) as a consecutive pair of quadratic residues modulo p, ...

  13. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  14. Impulsive control of time-delay systems using delayed impulse and its application to impulsive master-slave synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jitao; Han Qinglong; Jiang Xiefu

    2008-01-01

    This Letter is concerned with impulsive control of a class of nonlinear time-delay systems. Some uniform stability criteria for the closed-loop time-delay system under delayed impulsive control are derived by using piecewise Lyapunov functions. Then the criteria are applied to impulsive master-slave synchronization of some secure communication systems with transmission delays and sample delays under delayed impulsive control. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the derived results

  15. Carbaryl residues in maize and processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Sattar, A. Jr.; Naqvi, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined using a colorimetric method. No significant differences were observed for residues of the two varieties which ranged between 12.0 to 13.75 mg/kg in the crude oil, and averaged 1.04 and 0.67 mg/kg in the flour and cake respectively. In whole maize plants, carbaryl residues declined to approximately 2 mg/kg 35 days after treatment. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. (author)

  16. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A

    2000-01-01

    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.

  17. Delayed neutrons in liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Bokov, P.; David, J.C.; Dore, D.; Giacri, M.L.; Van Lauwe, A.; Plukiene, R.; Plukis, A.; Ignatiev, S.; Pankratov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories or RIB production facilities currently being designed and constructed around the world will increase the average proton beam power on target by a few orders of magnitude. Increased proton beam power results in target thermal hydraulic issues leading to new target designs, very often based on flowing liquid metal targets such as Hg, Pb, Pb-Bi. Radioactive nuclides produced in liquid metal targets are transported into hot cells, past electronics, into pumps with radiation sensitive components, etc. Besides the considerable amount of photon activity in the irradiated liquid metal, a significant amount of the delayed neutron precursor activity can be accumulated in the target fluid. The transit time from the front of a liquid metal target into areas, where delayed neutrons may be important, can be as short as a few seconds, well within one half-life of many delayed neutron precursors. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the total neutron flux (including delayed neutrons) as a function of time and determine if delayed neutrons contribute significantly to the dose rate. In this study the multi-particle transport code MCNPX combined with the material evolution program CINDER'90 will be used to evaluate the delayed neutron flux and spectra. The following scientific issues will be addressed in this paper: - Modeling of a typical geometry of the liquid metal spallation target; - Predictions of the prompt neutron fluxes, fission fragment and spallation product distributions; - Comparison of the above parameters with existing experimental data; - Time-dependent calculations of delayed neutron precursors; - Neutron flux estimates due to the prompt and delayed neutron emission; - Proposal of an experimental program to measure delayed neutron spectra from high energy spallation-fission reactions. The results of this study should be directly applicable in the design study of the European MegaPie (1 MW

  18. Delayed postoperative gastric emptying following intrathecal morphine and intrathecal bupivacaine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lydon, A M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: A decrease in the rate of gastric emptying can delay resumption of enteral feeding, alter bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and result in larger residual gastric volumes, increasing the risk of nausea and vomiting. We compared the effects of 1) intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) and 2) the combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) on the rate of gastric emptying in patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty four fasting ASA 1-3 patients were randomly assigned, in a double blind manner, to receive intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (17.5 mg), either alone (group 1), or followed by intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) (group 2). Gastric emptying was measured (using an acetaminophen absorption technique), twice in each patient; preoperatively, and approximately one hour postoperatively. Gastric emptying parameters are: AUC (area under the plasma acetaminophen concentration time curve), maximum plasma acetaminophen concentration (Cmax), and time to Cmax (tCmax), analyzed using paired Student\\'s t tests. RESULTS: Gastric emptying rates were reduced in both group 1 (AUC = 14.98 (3.8) and 11.05 (4.6) pre- and postoperatively, respectively) and group 2 (AUC = 13.93 (3.59) and 6.4 (3.42) pre- and postoperatively, respectively); the magnitude of the reduction was greater in group 2 [AUC (P = 0.04), Cmax (P = 0.05), tCmax (P = 0.13)]. CONCLUSION: The combination of intrathecal morphine (0.6 mg) and intrathecal bupivacaine (17.5 mg) delays gastric emptying postoperatively.

  19. Data Assimilation by delay-coordinate nudging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazo, Diego; Lopez, Juan Manuel; Carrassi, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A new nudging method for data assimilation, delay-coordinate nudging, is presented. Delay-coordinate nudging makes explicit use of present and past observations in the formulation of the forcing driving the model evolution at each time-step. Numerical experiments with a low order chaotic system show that the new method systematically outperforms standard nudging in different model and observational scenarios, also when using an un-optimized formulation of the delay-nudging coefficients. A connection between the optimal delay and the dominant Lyapunov exponent of the dynamics is found based on heuristic arguments and is confirmed by the numerical results, providing a guideline for the practical implementation of the algorithm. Delay-coordinate nudging preserves the easiness of implementation, the intuitive functioning and the reduced computational cost of the standard nudging, making it a potential alternative especially in the field of seasonal-to-decadal predictions with large Earth system models that limit the use of more sophisticated data assimilation procedures.

  20. Television viewing associates with delayed language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Pruksananonda, Chandhita

    2008-07-01

    To identify impact of television viewing on language development. The case-control study included 56 new patients with language delay and 110 normal children, aged 15-48 months. Language delay was diagnosed by reviewing language milestones and Denver-II. Television viewing variables and child/parental characteristics between both groups were interviewed. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square test. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from multivariate logistic regression model. Forty-six boys and 10 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.11+/-0.47 years of the case group and 59 boys and 51 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.23+/-0.80 years of the control group were enrolled. Children who had language delay usually started watching television earlier at age 7.22+/-5.52 months vs. 11.92+/-5.86 months, p-valuetelevision than normal children (3.05+/-1.90 h/day vs. 1.85+/-1.18 h/day; p-valuetelevision attelevision>2 h/day were approximately six times more likely to have language delays. There is a relationship between early onset and high frequency of TV viewing and language delay.

  1. Theory of attosecond delays in molecular photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykusheva, Denitsa; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2017-03-28

    We present a theoretical formalism for the calculation of attosecond delays in molecular photoionization. It is shown how delays relevant to one-photon-ionization, also known as Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith delays, can be obtained from the complex dipole matrix elements provided by molecular quantum scattering theory. These results are used to derive formulae for the delays measured by two-photon attosecond interferometry based on an attosecond pulse train and a dressing femtosecond infrared pulse. These effective delays are first expressed in the molecular frame where maximal information about the molecular photoionization dynamics is available. The effects of averaging over the emission direction of the electron and the molecular orientation are introduced analytically. We illustrate this general formalism for the case of two polyatomic molecules. N 2 O serves as an example of a polar linear molecule characterized by complex photoionization dynamics resulting from the presence of molecular shape resonances. H 2 O illustrates the case of a non-linear molecule with comparably simple photoionization dynamics resulting from a flat continuum. Our theory establishes the foundation for interpreting measurements of the photoionization dynamics of all molecules by attosecond metrology.

  2. Time delay interferometry with moving spacecraft arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel-times will necessarily be unequal, time varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up and down links. The reduction of data from moving interferometric laser arrays in solar orbit will in fact encounter nonsymmetric up- and down-link light time differences that are about 100 times larger than has previously been recognized. The time-delay interferometry (TDI) technique uses knowledge of these delays to cancel the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and yields a variety of data combinations sensitive to gravitational waves. Under the assumption that the (different) up- and down-link time delays are constant, we derive the TDI expressions for those combinations that rely only on four interspacecraft phase measurements. We then turn to the general problem that encompasses time dependence of the light-travel times along the laser links. By introducing a set of noncommuting time-delay operators, we show that there exists a quite general procedure for deriving generalized TDI combinations that account for the effects of time dependence of the arms. By applying our approach we are able to re-derive the 'flex-free' expression for the unequal-arm Michelson combinations X 1 , and obtain the generalized expressions for the TDI combinations called relay, beacon, monitor, and symmetric Sagnac

  3. Investigation of delayed fission gas release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayet, Nicolas

    1996-05-01

    The study of the fission gas release process in the high burnup rig IFA-562 has revealed a particular fuel behaviour: a delay in the fission gas release process. It appeared that an important release of gas was measured by the pressure transducers once the power had decreased, whereas, during steady-state operation, the pressure did not increase very much. After examinations, the gap size has been concluded to be the main parameter involving this delay. However the burnup could have been a potential factor, its role is mainly to close the gap by swelling. The observations of low burnup rods have shown the same delayed fission gas release, the gap being small by design and closed essentially by thermal expansion. The study of the kinetics has demonstrated the time-independency of the phenomenon. Thus the proposed mechanism driving this delayed fission gas release would involve three consecutives stages. During steady-state, the gas is released into the interlinkage network of grain boundary bubbles and cracks. Due to the closed gap, the gas is trapped in some void volumes, unable to escape the pellet. During power reduction, the gap and some old/new cracks open, immediately providing a path for the gas to the pressure transducers and explaining this delay in the fission gas release. (author)

  4. Communication key using delay times in time-delayed chaos synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chil-Min; Kye, Won-Ho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Soo-Young

    2004-01-01

    We propose an efficient key scheme, which can generate a great number of communication keys, for communication using chaos synchronization. We have attained the keys from delay times of time-delay coupled chaotic systems. We explain the scheme and the efficiency by coupling Henon and logistic maps and illustrate them by coupling Navier-Stokes and Lorenz equations as a continuous system

  5. Process for measuring residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfinger, F.X.; Peiter, A.; Theiner, W.A.; Stuecker, E.

    1982-01-01

    No single process can at present solve all problems. The complete destructive processes only have a limited field of application, as the component cannot be reused. However, they are essential for the basic determination of stress distributions in the field of research and development. Destructive and non-destructive processes are mainly used if investigations have to be carried out on original components. With increasing component size, the part of destructive tests becomes smaller. The main applications are: quality assurance, testing of manufactured parts and characteristics of components. Among the non-destructive test procedures, X-raying has been developed most. It gives residual stresses on the surface and on surface layers near the edges. Further development is desirable - in assessment - in measuring techniques. Ultrasonic and magnetic crack detection processes are at present mainly used in research and development, and also in quality assurance. Because of the variable depth of penetration and the possibility of automation they are gaining in importance. (orig./RW) [de

  6. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS)

  7. Time-delayed autosynchronous swarm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, James D; Bennet, Derek J; Dadzie, S Kokou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a general Morse potential model of self-propelling particles is considered in the presence of a time-delayed term and a spring potential. It is shown that the emergent swarm behavior is dependent on the delay term and weights of the time-delayed function, which can be set to induce a stationary swarm, a rotating swarm with uniform translation, and a rotating swarm with a stationary center of mass. An analysis of the mean field equations shows that without a spring potential the motion of the center of mass is determined explicitly by a multivalued function. For a nonzero spring potential the swarm converges to a vortex formation about a stationary center of mass, except at discrete bifurcation points where the center of mass will periodically trace an ellipse. The analytical results defining the behavior of the center of mass are shown to correspond with the numerical swarm simulations.

  8. Positive mood effects on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Guindon, Alex; Morisano, Dominique; Peterson, Jordan B

    2010-10-01

    Delay discounting is the process by which the value of an expected reward decreases as the delay to obtaining that reward increases. Individuals with higher discounting rates tend to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Previous research has indicated that personality can influence an individual's discounting rates, with higher levels of Extraversion predicting a preference for immediate gratification. The current study examined how this relationship would be influenced by situational mood inductions. While main effects were observed for both Extraversion and cognitive ability in the prediction of discounting rates, a significant interaction was also observed between Extraversion and positive affect. Extraverted individuals were more likely to prefer an immediate reward when first put in a positive mood. Extraverts thus appear particularly sensitive to impulsive, incentive-reward-driven behavior by temperament and by situational factors heightening positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Delays in the management of retroperitoneal sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seinen, Jojanneke; Almquist, Martin; Styring, Emelie

    2010-01-01

    Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare and treatment should optimally be centralized. Despite successful centralization with 90% of the patients referred prior to surgery, delays occur, which led us to assess lead times in a population-based series. Method. Patients diagnosed with retroperitoneal...... sarcoma in the southern Sweden health care region 2003-2009 were eligible for the study. Data on referrals and diagnostic investigations were collected from clinical files from primary health care, local hospitals, and from the sarcoma centre. Lead times were divided into patient delays and health care...... at the general practitioner, 36 days at local hospitals, and 55 days at the sarcoma centre. Conclusion. Centralization per se is not sufficient for optimized and efficient management. Our findings suggest that delays can be minimized by direct referral of patients from primary health care to sarcoma centers...

  10. On stochastic differential equations with random delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapivsky, P L; Luck, J M; Mallick, K

    2011-01-01

    We consider stochastic dynamical systems defined by differential equations with a uniform random time delay. The latter equations are shown to be equivalent to deterministic higher-order differential equations: for an nth-order equation with random delay, the corresponding deterministic equation has order n + 1. We analyze various examples of dynamical systems of this kind, and find a number of unusual behaviors. For instance, for the harmonic oscillator with random delay, the energy grows as exp((3/2) t 2/3 ) in reduced units. We then investigate the effect of introducing a discrete time step ε. At variance with the continuous situation, the discrete random recursion relations thus obtained have intrinsic fluctuations. The crossover between the fluctuating discrete problem and the deterministic continuous one as ε goes to zero is studied in detail on the example of a first-order linear differential equation

  11. Delay time and tunneling transient phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Villavicencio, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Analytic solutions to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for cutoff wave initial conditions are used to investigate the time evolution of the transmitted probability density for tunneling. For a broad range of values of the potential barrier opacity α, we find that the probability density exhibits two evolving structures. One refers to the propagation of a forerunner related to a time domain resonance [Phys. Rev. A 64, 0121907 (2001)], while the other consists of a semiclassical propagating wave front. We find a regime where the forerunners are absent, corresponding to positive time delays, and show that this regime is characterized by opacities α c . The critical opacity α c is derived from the analytical expression for the delay time, which reflects a link between transient effects in tunneling and the delay time

  12. Delayed switching applied to memristor neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Frank Z.; Yang Xiao; Lim Guan [Future Computing Group, School of Computing, University of Kent, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Helian Na [School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom); Wu Sining [Xyratex, Havant (United Kingdom); Guo Yike [Department of Computing, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rashid, Md Mamunur [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic flux and electric charge are linked in a memristor. We reported recently that a memristor has a peculiar effect in which the switching takes place with a time delay because a memristor possesses a certain inertia. This effect was named the ''delayed switching effect.'' In this work, we elaborate on the importance of delayed switching in a brain-like computer using memristor neural networks. The effect is used to control the switching of a memristor synapse between two neurons that fire together (the Hebbian rule). A theoretical formula is found, and the design is verified by a simulation. We have also built an experimental setup consisting of electronic memristive synapses and electronic neurons.

  13. Delayed switching applied to memristor neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Frank Z.; Yang Xiao; Lim Guan; Helian Na; Wu Sining; Guo Yike; Rashid, Md Mamunur

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic flux and electric charge are linked in a memristor. We reported recently that a memristor has a peculiar effect in which the switching takes place with a time delay because a memristor possesses a certain inertia. This effect was named the ''delayed switching effect.'' In this work, we elaborate on the importance of delayed switching in a brain-like computer using memristor neural networks. The effect is used to control the switching of a memristor synapse between two neurons that fire together (the Hebbian rule). A theoretical formula is found, and the design is verified by a simulation. We have also built an experimental setup consisting of electronic memristive synapses and electronic neurons.

  14. Delayed feedback control in quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, Clive

    2013-09-28

    Feedback control in quantum transport has been predicted to give rise to several interesting effects, among them quantum state stabilization and the realization of a mesoscopic Maxwell's daemon. These results were derived under the assumption that control operations on the system are affected instantaneously after the measurement of electronic jumps through it. In this contribution, I describe how to include a delay between detection and control operation in the master equation theory of feedback-controlled quantum transport. I investigate the consequences of delay for the state stabilization and Maxwell's daemon schemes. Furthermore, I describe how delay can be used as a tool to probe coherent oscillations of electrons within a transport system and how this formalism can be used to model finite detector bandwidth.

  15. Radiochemical Means of Investigating Delayed Neutron Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmol, P. del

    1968-01-01

    Fast radiochemical methods used now for the determination of delayed neutron precursors are classified and reviewed: precipitations, solvent extractions, range experiments, milking, gas sweeping, isotopic and ion exchange, hot atom reactions and diffusion loss. Advantages and limitations of irradiation systems with respect to fast separations are discussed: external beams which allow faster separations only have low neutron fluxes, internal beams which are mostly fit for gaseous reactions; and rabbits for solution irradiations. Future prospects of radiochemical procedures are presented; among these, studies should be mostly oriented towards gaseous reactions which offer possibilities of isolating very short-lived delayed neutron precursors. Chemical procedures for delayed neutron precursor detection are compared with mass spectrometric and isotope separator techniques; it is concluded that the methods are complementary. (author)

  16. Radiochemical Means of Investigating Delayed Neutron Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmol, P. del

    1968-01-01

    Fast radiochemical methods used now for the determination of delayed neutron precursors are classified and reviewed: precipitations, solvent extractions, range experiments, milking, gas sweeping, isotopic and ion exchange, hot-atom reactions and diffusion loss. Advantages and limitations of irradiation systems with respect to fast separations are discussed: external beams which allow faster separations only have low neutron fluxes, internal beams which are mostly fit for gaseous reactions; and rabbits for solution irradiations. Future prospects of radiochemical procedures are presented; among these, studies should be mostly oriented towards gaseous reactions which offer possibilities of isolating very short-lived delayed neutron precursors. Chemical procedures for delayed neutron precursor detection are compared with mass spectrometric and isotope-separator techniques; it is concluded that the methods are complementary. (author)

  17. Abdominal CT findings of delayed postoperative complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zissin, R.; Osadchy, A. [Sapir Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Kfar Saba (Israel)]. E-mail: zisinrivka@clalit.org.il; Gayer, G. [Assaf Harofe Medical Center, Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Zrifin (Israel)

    2007-10-15

    Despite progress in surgical techniques and modern medical treatment, postoperative complications occur not infrequently and vary according to type of surgery, clinical setting, and time elapsed since surgery. In general, they can be divided into early and delayed complications. Delayed postoperative complications can be classified as specific and nonspecific. The common nonspecific delayed complications are incisional hernia and postoperative bowel obstruction. Bowel obstruction can be further categorized as obstruction related to benign or neoplastic etiology, the latter occurring in oncology patients in whom the primary surgery was related to an underlying abdominal neoplasm. Gossypiboma is another, fortunately rare, postoperative complication. Specific complications appear after specific operations and include the following: Splenosis - following splenectomy. Retained gallstones and spilled gallstones - following cholecystectomy, mainly laparoscopic. Dropped appendicolith and stump appendicitis - following appendectomy, mainly laparoscopic. Obturation obstruction by a bezoar - following gastric surgery. Afferent loop syndrome (ALS) - following Bilroth II gastrectomy. (author)

  18. ESTIMATION OF PHASE DELAY DUE TO PRECIPITABLE WATER FOR DINSARBASED LAND DEFORMATION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Susaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for using the estimated precipitable water (PW to mitigate atmospheric phase delay in order to improve the accuracy of land-deformation assessment with differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR. The phase difference obtained from multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images contains errors of several types, and the atmospheric phase delay can be an obstacle to estimating surface subsidence. In this study, we calculate PW from external meteorological data. Firstly, we interpolate the data with regard to their spatial and temporal resolutions. Then, assuming a range direction between a target pixel and the sensor, we derive the cumulative amount of differential PW at the height of the slant range vector at pixels along that direction. The atmospheric phase delay of each interferogram is acquired by taking a residual after a preliminary determination of the linear deformation velocity and digital elevation model (DEM error, and by applying high-pass temporal and low-pass spatial filters. Next, we estimate a regression model that connects the cumulative amount of PW and the atmospheric phase delay. Finally, we subtract the contribution of the atmospheric phase delay from the phase difference of the interferogram, and determine the linear deformation velocity and DEM error. The experimental results show a consistent relationship between the cumulative amount of differential PW and the atmospheric phase delay. An improvement in land-deformation accuracy is observed at a point at which the deformation is relatively large. Although further investigation is necessary, we conclude at this stage that the proposed approach has the potential to improve the accuracy of the DInSAR technique.

  19. Joint Frequency-Domain Equalization and Despreading for Multi-Code DS-CDMA Using Cyclic Delay Transmit Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Takeda, Kazuki; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    Frequency-domain equalization (FDE) based on the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion can provide a better bit error rate (BER) performance than rake combining. To further improve the BER performance, cyclic delay transmit diversity (CDTD) can be used. CDTD simultaneously transmits the same signal from different antennas after adding different cyclic delays to increase the number of equivalent propagation paths. Although a joint use of CDTD and MMSE-FDE for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) achieves larger frequency diversity gain, the BER performance improvement is limited by the residual inter-chip interference (ICI) after FDE. In this paper, we propose joint FDE and despreading for DS-CDMA using CDTD. Equalization and despreading are simultaneously performed in the frequency-domain to suppress the residual ICI after FDE. A theoretical conditional BER analysis is presented for the given channel condition. The BER analysis is confirmed by computer simulation.

  20. A delay fractioning approach to global synchronization of delayed complex networks with stochastic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yao; Wang Zidong; Liang Jinling

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, the synchronization problem is investigated for a class of stochastic complex networks with time delays. By utilizing a new Lyapunov functional form based on the idea of 'delay fractioning', we employ the stochastic analysis techniques and the properties of Kronecker product to establish delay-dependent synchronization criteria that guarantee the globally asymptotically mean-square synchronization of the addressed delayed networks with stochastic disturbances. These sufficient conditions, which are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), can be solved efficiently by the LMI toolbox in Matlab. The main results are proved to be much less conservative and the conservatism could be reduced further as the number of delay fractioning gets bigger. A simulation example is exploited to demonstrate the advantage and applicability of the proposed result

  1. Classic conditioning in aged rabbits: delay, trace, and long-delay conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P R; Groccia-Ellison, M E

    1996-06-01

    Young (0.5 years) and aged (2+, 3+, and 4+ years) rabbits underwent acquisition of the classically conditioned nictitating membrane response in a delay (500-ms conditioned stimulus [CS], 400-ms interstimulus interval [ISI]), long-delay (1,000-ms CS, 900-ms ISI), or trace (500-ms CS, 400-ms stimulus-free period) paradigm. Collapsing across age groups, there is a general tendency for animals to acquire trace conditioning more slowly than delay conditioning. Collapsing across conditioning paradigms, there is a general tendency for aged animals to acquire more slowly than younger animals. Of greater significance, however, are the age differences in the different conditioning paradigms. In the delay and long-delay paradigms, significant conditioning deficits first appeared in the 4(+)-year-old group. In the trace conditioning paradigm, significant conditioning deficits became apparent in the 2(+)-year-old animals.

  2. Modeling of delays in PKPD: classical approaches and a tutorial for delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gilbert; Krzyzanski, Wojciech; Pérez-Ruixo, Juan Jose; Schropp, Johannes

    2014-08-01

    In pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PKPD) the measured response is often delayed relative to drug administration, individuals in a population have a certain lifespan until they maturate or the change of biomarkers does not immediately affects the primary endpoint. The classical approach in PKPD is to apply transit compartment models (TCM) based on ordinary differential equations to handle such delays. However, an alternative approach to deal with delays are delay differential equations (DDE). DDEs feature additional flexibility and properties, realize more complex dynamics and can complementary be used together with TCMs. We introduce several delay based PKPD models and investigate mathematical properties of general DDE based models, which serve as subunits in order to build larger PKPD models. Finally, we review current PKPD software with respect to the implementation of DDEs for PKPD analysis.

  3. Information transfer via implicit encoding with delay time modulation in a time-delay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kye, Won-Ho, E-mail: whkye@kipo.go.kr [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Government Complex Daejeon Building 4, 189, Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-20

    A new encoding scheme for information transfer with modulated delay time in a time-delay system is proposed. In the scheme, the message is implicitly encoded into the modulated delay time. The information transfer rate as a function of encoding redundancy in various noise scales is presented and it is analyzed that the implicit encoding scheme (IES) has stronger resistance against channel noise than the explicit encoding scheme (EES). In addition, its advantages in terms of secure communication and feasible applications are discussed. -- Highlights: ► We propose new encoding scheme with delay time modulation. ► The message is implicitly encoded with modulated delay time. ► The proposed scheme shows stronger resistance against channel noise.

  4. Delayed minocycline but not delayed mild hypothermia protects against embolic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Raza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory reactions occurring in the brain after ischemia may contribute to secondary damage. In the present study, effects of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent, alone or in combination with mild hypothermia on focal embolic cerebral ischemia have been examined. Methods Focal ischemic injury was induced by embolizing a preformed clot into the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Infarction volume was measured at 48 h after the injury. Mortality was also recorded. Results Delayed administration of minocycline alone or delayed minocycline plus delayed mild hypothermia reduced the infarction volume significantly. However, delayed mild hypothermia alone was not protective and delayed mild hypothermia in combination with minocycline did not show any additive effect. Conclusions These results suggest that minocycline is beneficial in focal ischemic brain injury, and the lack of the enhanced neuroprotection may be due to the brief exposure to hypothermia.

  5. Atmospheric Phase Delay in Sentinel SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, V.; Monserrat, O.; Crosetto, M.; Crippa, B.

    2018-04-01

    The repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) Interferometry (InSAR) has been a widely used geodetic technique for observing the Earth's surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. However, InSAR measurements are prone to atmospheric errors. RADAR waves traverse the Earth's atmosphere twice and experience a delay due to atmospheric refraction. The two major layers of the atmosphere (troposphere and ionosphere) are mainly responsible for this delay in the propagating RADAR wave. Previous studies have shown that water vapour and clouds present in the troposphere and the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the ionosphere are responsible for the additional path delay in the RADAR wave. The tropospheric refractivity is mainly dependent on pressure, temperature and partial pressure of water vapour. The tropospheric refractivity leads to an increase in the observed range. These induced propagation delays affect the quality of phase measurement and introduce errors in the topography and deformation fields. The effect of this delay was studied on a differential interferogram (DInSAR). To calculate the amount of tropospheric delay occurred, the meteorological data collected from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET) and MODIS were used. The interferograms generated from Sentinel-1 carrying C-band Synthetic Aperture RADAR Single Look Complex (SLC) images acquired on the study area are used. The study area consists of different types of scatterers exhibiting different coherence. The existing Saastamoinen model was used to perform a quantitative evaluation of the phase changes caused by pressure, temperature and humidity of the troposphere during the study. Unless the phase values due to atmospheric disturbances are not corrected, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements. Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate height and deformation

  6. ATMOSPHERIC PHASE DELAY IN SENTINEL SAR INTERFEROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krishnakumar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR Interferometry (InSAR has been a widely used geodetic technique for observing the Earth’s surface, especially for mapping the Earth’s topography and deformations. However, InSAR measurements are prone to atmospheric errors. RADAR waves traverse the Earth’s atmosphere twice and experience a delay due to atmospheric refraction. The two major layers of the atmosphere (troposphere and ionosphere are mainly responsible for this delay in the propagating RADAR wave. Previous studies have shown that water vapour and clouds present in the troposphere and the Total Electron Content (TEC of the ionosphere are responsible for the additional path delay in the RADAR wave. The tropospheric refractivity is mainly dependent on pressure, temperature and partial pressure of water vapour. The tropospheric refractivity leads to an increase in the observed range. These induced propagation delays affect the quality of phase measurement and introduce errors in the topography and deformation fields. The effect of this delay was studied on a differential interferogram (DInSAR. To calculate the amount of tropospheric delay occurred, the meteorological data collected from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET and MODIS were used. The interferograms generated from Sentinel-1 carrying C-band Synthetic Aperture RADAR Single Look Complex (SLC images acquired on the study area are used. The study area consists of different types of scatterers exhibiting different coherence. The existing Saastamoinen model was used to perform a quantitative evaluation of the phase changes caused by pressure, temperature and humidity of the troposphere during the study. Unless the phase values due to atmospheric disturbances are not corrected, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements. Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate

  7. Observations on early and delayed colostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tade, A O; Salami, B A; Ayoade, B A

    2011-06-01

    Traditional treatment of a variety of colorectal pathologies had included a diverting colostomy that was closed eight or more weeks later during a readmission. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of early colostomy closure and delayed colostomy closure in patients with temporary colostomies following traumatic and non-traumatic colorectal pathologies. In this study early colostomy closure was the closure of a colostomy within three weeks of its construction, while delayed colostomy closure referred to closure after 3 weeks. Complete records of the 37 adult patients who had temporary colostomy constructed and closed between Jan. 1997 December 2003 for various colorectal pathologies were studied. Fourteen patients had early colostomy closure while 23 had delayed closure. In the early colostomy closure group there were 10 men and 4 women. The mean age of the patients was 28yr with a range of 18-65yr. Colostomies were closed 9-18 days after initial colostomy construction. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate 28.6% (4 out of 14). There were two faecal fistulas (14.3%). Twenty-three patients had delayed colostomy closure 8 weeks to 18 months after initial colostomy construction. These were patients unfit for early surgery after initial colostomy construction because of carcinoma, significant weight loss, or sepsis. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate was 26.1%. There were 3 faecal fistulas (13.2%). Outcomes following early colostomy closure and delayed closure were comparable. Patients fit for surgery should have early closure whilst patients who may have compromised health should have delayed closure.

  8. The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.

    2014-01-01

    Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.

  9. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channel Function and Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Human cardiomyocytes express 3 distinct types of delayed rectifier potassium channels. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels conduct the rapidly activating current IKr; KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels conduct the slowly activating current IKs; and Kv1.5 channels conduct an ultrarapid activating current IKur. Here the authors provide a general overview of the mechanistic and structural basis of ion selectivity, gating, and pharmacology of the 3 types of cardiac delayed rectifier potassium ion channels. Most blockers bind to S6 residues that line the central cavity of the channel, whereas activators interact with the channel at 4 symmetric binding sites outside the cavity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The delayed neutron method of uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of delayed neutron analysis (DNA) is discussed. The DNA rig installed on the MOATA reactor, the assay standards and the types of samples which have been assayed are described. Of the total sample throughput of about 55,000 units since the uranium analysis service began, some 78% has been concerned with analysis of uranium ore samples derived from mining and exploration. Delayed neutron analysis provides a high sensitivity, low cost uranium analysis method for both uranium exploration and other applications. It is particularly suitable for analysis of large batch samples and for non-destructive analysis over a wide range of matrices. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Time-delay analyzer with continuous discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayatyan, G.L.; Darbinyan, K.T.; Mkrtchyan, K.K.; Stepanyan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    A time-delay analyzer is described which when triggered by a start pulse of adjustable duration performs continuous discretization of the analyzed signal within nearly 22 ns time intervals, the recording in a memory unit with following slow read-out of the information to the computer and its processing. The time-delay analyzer consists of four CAMAC-VECTOR systems of unit width. With its help one can separate comparatively short, small-amplitude rare signals against the background of quasistationary noise processes. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  12. Delay line MWPC hazard signals inspector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.B.; Kirsten, F.; Guiragossian, Z.G.T.; Schilling, R.

    1976-01-01

    The Hazard Inspector is a CAMAC module which divides a MWPC delay line into 8 independent signal monitor and control segments. Independent control effectively reduces delay line occupation time and cuts the number of background and non-trigger particles accepted by the 4XQT charge-time-pulse-width digitizer, a device presented in a separate communication. Only segments containing legitimate information are digitized. Non-trigger related events are gated out at the digitizer, and contaminating hits are noted for computer correction

  13. Permanent molars: Delayed development and eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi R

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Delayed development and eruption of all the permanent molars is a rare phenomenon, which can cause disturbance in the developing occlusion. The eruption of permanent first and second molars is very important for the coordination of facial growth and for providing sufficient occlusal support for undisturbed mastication. In the case described, the first permanent molars were delayed in their development and were seen erupting at the age of nine and a half years. Severe disparity between the left and the right side of the dentition with respect to the rate of development of molars were also present.

  14. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve

  15. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve

  16. Delay generation methods with reduced memory requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Modern diagnostic ultrasound beamformers require delay information for each sample along the image lines. In order to avoid storing large amounts of focusing data, delay generation techniques have to be used. In connection with developing a compact beamformer architecture, recursive algorithms were......) For the best parametric approach, the gate count was 2095, the maximum operation speed was 131.9 MHz, the power consumption at 40 MHz was 10.6 mW, and it requires 4 12-bit words for each image line and channel. 2) For the piecewise-linear approximation, the corresponding numbers are 1125 gates, 184.9 MHz, 7...

  17. The Consequences of Delaying Entrance into University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Kelly; Groes, Fane

    Because the returns to education depend on the nite horizon of individuals' working lives, human capital models predict that if an individual is going to attend university, she should do so as soon as possible. Delaying university can also mean individuals have fewer years in which to accumulate...... post-schooling experience. In this paper, we use Danish administrative data to estimate the wage losses experienced by individuals who accumulate less post-schooling experience because they postponed entry into university following high school. All else equal, experience-related costs of delaying...

  18. Double Hopf bifurcation in delay differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane Qesmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the computation of elements of double Hopf bifurcation for retarded functional differential equations (FDEs with parameters. We present an efficient method for computing, simultaneously, the coefficients of center manifolds and normal forms, in terms of the original FDEs, associated with the double Hopf singularity up to an arbitrary order. Finally, we apply our results to a nonlinear model with periodic delay. This shows the applicability of the methodology in the study of delay models arising in either natural or technological problems.

  19. 4-channel time delayed pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, L.F.S.; Rossi, J.O.; Del Bosco, E.

    1987-02-01

    It is described the project of a 4-channel delayed pulse generator employed to trigger the plasma centrifuge experiment of the Laboratorio Associado de Plasmas. The circuit delivers pulses with amplitude of 15V, full width at half maximum of 50μs and rise time of 0.7μs. The maximum time delay is 100ms. There are two channels with a fine adjustment of 0-1ms. The system can be manually or automatically driven. (author) [pt

  20. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermiah, Eramah; Abdalla, Fathi; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Larbesh, Entesar; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Collan, Yrjö

    2012-08-21

    To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008-2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time) was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay). Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire) during an interview with each patient and from medical records. The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3-6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer) was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s) that did not include a lump (p diagnosis, the clinical stage distribution was as follows: 9.0% stage I, 25.5% stage II, 54.0% stage III and 11.5% stage IV.Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast

  1. Delayed dermal burns caused by dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovak, A J; Payne, A R

    1984-07-01

    A chemical operator handling dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) developed delayed and pain-free burns on one of his feet 2 days after a supposed spillage of DMAD. The injuries were confirmed to be associated with DMAD by chemical analysis of the operator's safety boot and patch tests. DMAD easily penetrates some protective clothing and dilute solutions can still be hazardous: the toxic effect is compounded by being delayed and painless. The lachrymatory irritant properties of undiluted DMAD are not adequate warning of its presence or spillage in quantities sufficient to cause significant skin damage.

  2. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  3. Congenital rubella syndrome and delayed manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Several hypotheses of different medical and psychological delayed manifestations among people who have congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) have been discussed. This study tests some of these hypotheses of delayed manifestations. Methods: Gathering information about 35 individuals who hav...... which people with CRS face must primarily be understood in relation to congenital deafblindness and dual sensory and communicative deprivation....... CRS and who are congenitally deafblind. Results: None of the hypotheses could be confirmed when individuals with CRS were compared to a control group of individuals who were congenital deafblind with different aetiology than CRS. Conclusions: This study concludes that those health related problems...

  4. Mode Switching for the Multi-Antenna Broadcast Channel Based on Delay and Channel Quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect channel state information degrades the performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communications; its effects on single-user (SU and multiuser (MU MIMO transmissions are quite different. In particular, MU-MIMO suffers from residual interuser interference due to imperfect channel state information while SU-MIMO only suffers from a power loss. This paper compares the throughput loss of both SU and MU-MIMO in the broadcast channel due to delay and channel quantization. Accurate closed-form approximations are derived for achievable rates for both SU and MU-MIMO. It is shown that SU-MIMO is relatively robust to delayed and quantized channel information, while MU-MIMO with zero-forcing precoding loses its spatial multiplexing gain with a fixed delay or fixed codebook size. Based on derived achievable rates, a mode switching algorithm is proposed, which switches between SU and MU-MIMO modes to improve the spectral efficiency based on average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, normalized Doppler frequency, and the channel quantization codebook size. The operating regions for SU and MU modes with different delays and codebook sizes are determined, and they can be used to select the preferred mode. It is shown that the MU mode is active only when the normalized Doppler frequency is very small, and the codebook size is large.

  5. Usefulness and safety of early against delayed oral intake after appendectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, I.A.; Taj, R.U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness and safety of early versus late oral intake after appendectomy. Study Design: Randomized clinical trial. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Multan from August 2008 to February 2009. Material and Methods: One hundred patients with uncomplicated acute appendicitis, undergoing appendectomy under general anesthesia were included in the study and randomly divided into two equal groups. Early oral intake group (group A) was allowed fluids, when patients were out of effects of general anesthesia. Delayed fed (group B) was started oral fluids, on appearance of normal bowel sounds or passage of flatus. Low residue solid diet was started, after tolerance of oral fluids, in both groups. Results: Early oral intake resulted in start of solid diet earlier by average 9 hours; these patients had normal bowel sounds, and passed flatus, earlier, after 4 hours and 5 hours as compared to late feeding group. Six (12%) patients had mild ileus in early fed group whereas 4(8%) patients in delayed fed group had mild ileus. Thirty eight (76%) early fed patients were very satisfied, as compared to 29 (58%) delayed fed patients. The hospital stay was prolonged by 2 days in delayed fed group. Conclusion: Early oral feeding implemented after appendectomy is safe and effective, with a shortened hospital stay as the primary benefit in patients after appendectomy. (author)

  6. Limited value of delayed radiothallium image in the diagnosis of nodular goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Takashi; Yagi, Kanji; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Koh, Toshikiyo; Shimbo, Shin-ichiro

    1991-01-01

    To test whether delayed thallium image can improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid tumor, we have reviewed 35 patients with cold nodules of proven histopathology. Early and delayed images were taken 10-20 min and 3-4 hr postinjection, respectively. In this study, a thyroid nodule was interpreted as malignant if it had normal or increased uptake on early scan and more residual radioactivity than paranodular tissue on delayed scan. In the eighteen patients who had carcinoma, a disappointing 44% false negative rate was observed. No significant difference was seen between retention-positive and negative cases in tumor size or histological type of cancer. Nor could any demographic bias explain the low sensitivity. Of the six false negatives, macroscopic cystic degeneration was seen in two cases, but tumors in the other four were grossly solid. Considering the histological heterogeneity often seen within a thyroid tumor, the portion with increased retention of radiothallium may be too small to be detected in the false negative cases. Furthermore, 3 false positive readings were obtained in 17 patients with benign conditions. We conclude that the contribution of the delayed thallium image was quite limited in predicting or ruling out malignancy in nodular goiters. (author)

  7. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  8. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  9. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  10. Densification of FL Chains via Residuated Frames

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldi, Paolo; Terui, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-195 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Keywords : densifiability * standard completeness * residuated lattices * residuated frames * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016

  11. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  12. Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerva, Johannes; Plank, Barbara; Bos, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate

  13. Cement production from coal conversion residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.D.; Clavenna, L.R.; Eakman, J.M.; Nahas, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Cement is produced by feeding residue solids containing carbonaceous material and ash constituents obtained from converting a carbonaceous feed material into liquids and/or gases into a cement-making zone and burning the carbon in the residue solids to supply at least a portion of the energy required to convert the solids into cement

  14. Residual stress concerns in containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, F.; Kulak, R. F.; Pfeiffer, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    The manufacturing of steel containment vessels starts with the forming of flat plates into curved plates. A steel containment structure is made by welding individual plates together to form the sections that make up the complex shaped vessels. The metal forming and welding process leaves residual stresses in the vessel walls. Generally, the effect of metal forming residual stresses can be reduced or virtually eliminated by thermally stress relieving the vesseL In large containment vessels this may not be practical and thus the residual stresses due to manufacturing may become important. The residual stresses could possibly tiect the response of the vessel to internal pressurization. When the level of residual stresses is significant it will affect the vessel's response, for instance the yielding pressure and possibly the failure pressure. The paper will address the effect of metal forming residual stresses on the response of a generic pressure vessel to internal pressurization. A scoping analysis investigated the effect of residual forming stresses on the response of an internally pressurized vessel. A simple model was developed to gain understanding of the mechanics of the problem. Residual stresses due to the welding process were not considered in this investigation

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salt...

  16. Simulation of activation and propagation delay during tripolar neural stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodall, E.V.; Goodall, Eleanor V.; Kosterman, L. Martin; Struijk, Johannes J.; Struijk, J.J.; Holsheimer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Computer simulations were perfonned to investigate the influence of stimulus amplitude on cathodal activation delay, propagation delay and blocking during stimulation with a bipolar cuff electrode. Activation and propagation delays were combined in a total delay term which was minimized between the

  17. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  18. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  19. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  20. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  1. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  2. Residual stress behaviors induced by laser peening along the edge of curved models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Bin; Grandhi, Ramana V.; Ro, Young Hee

    2012-01-01

    Laser peening (LP) induces high magnitude compressive residual stresses in a small region of a component. The compressive residual stresses cause plastic deformation that is resistant to fatigue fracture. Fatigue cracks are generally nucleated at critical areas, and LP is applied for those regions so as to delay the crack initiation. Many critical regions are located on the edge of the curved portion of structures because of stress concentration effects. Several investigations that are available for straight components may not give meaningful guidelines for peening curved components. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate residual stress behaviors induced by LP along the edge of curved models. Three curved models that have different curvatures are investigated for peening performance. Two types of peening configurations, which are simultaneous corner shot and sequential corner shots, are considered in order to obtain compressive residual stresses along an edge. LP simulations of multiple shots are performed to identify overlapping effects on the edge portion of a curved model. In addition, the uncertainty calculation of residual stress induced by LP considering laser pulse duration is performed

  3. Detection of residual packets in cocaine body packers: low accuracy of abdominal radiography - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, Pascal; Vadrot, Dominique; Revel, Marie-Pierre [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Descartes, Paris (France); Chaillot, Pierre-Fleury [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Audureau, Etienne [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Descartes, Paris (France); Rey-Salmon, Caroline; Becour, Bertrand [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Forensic, Paris (France); Fitton, Isabelle [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of abdominal radiography (AXR) for the detection of residual cocaine packets by comparison with computed tomography (CT). Over a 1-year period unenhanced CT was systematically performed in addition to AXR for pre-discharge evaluation of cocaine body packers. AXR and CT were interpreted independently by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Patient and packet characteristics were compared between the groups with residual portage and complete decontamination. Among 138 body packers studied, 14 (10 %) had one residual packet identified on pre-discharge CT. On AXR, at least one reader failed to detect the residual packet in 10 (70 %) of these 14 body packers. The sensitivity and specificity of AXR were 28.6 % (95 % CI: 8.4-58.1) and 100.0 % (95 % CI: 97.0-100.0) for reader 1 and 35.7 % (95 % CI: 12.8-64.9) and 97.6 % (95 % CI: 93.1-99.5) for reader 2. There were no significant patient or packet characteristics predictive of residual portage or AXR false negativity. All positive CT results were confirmed by delayed expulsion or surgical findings, while negative results were confirmed by further surveillance. Given the poor performance of AXR, CT should be systematically performed to ensure safe hospital discharge of cocaine body packers. (orig.)

  4. Detection of residual packets in cocaine body packers: low accuracy of abdominal radiography - a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Pascal; Vadrot, Dominique; Revel, Marie-Pierre; Chaillot, Pierre-Fleury; Audureau, Etienne; Rey-Salmon, Caroline; Becour, Bertrand; Fitton, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of abdominal radiography (AXR) for the detection of residual cocaine packets by comparison with computed tomography (CT). Over a 1-year period unenhanced CT was systematically performed in addition to AXR for pre-discharge evaluation of cocaine body packers. AXR and CT were interpreted independently by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Patient and packet characteristics were compared between the groups with residual portage and complete decontamination. Among 138 body packers studied, 14 (10 %) had one residual packet identified on pre-discharge CT. On AXR, at least one reader failed to detect the residual packet in 10 (70 %) of these 14 body packers. The sensitivity and specificity of AXR were 28.6 % (95 % CI: 8.4-58.1) and 100.0 % (95 % CI: 97.0-100.0) for reader 1 and 35.7 % (95 % CI: 12.8-64.9) and 97.6 % (95 % CI: 93.1-99.5) for reader 2. There were no significant patient or packet characteristics predictive of residual portage or AXR false negativity. All positive CT results were confirmed by delayed expulsion or surgical findings, while negative results were confirmed by further surveillance. Given the poor performance of AXR, CT should be systematically performed to ensure safe hospital discharge of cocaine body packers. (orig.)

  5. Delayed and late impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Greek environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritidis, P.; Papanicolaou, E. (National Centre for Scientific Research ' Democritos' , Athens (Greece)); Florou, H. (National Centre for Marine Research, Athens (Greece))

    1990-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the Greek environment during and after the winter 1986-87 and the estimated long-term doses to the population are discussed. This includes the delayed peak of caesium concentrations observed in animal products, the contamination of pastry and bread, the additional external exposure in areas of peak caesium deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium, the contamination of marine and lake fish and the residual contamination in air, deposition and surface waters. (author).

  6. Delayed and late impact of the Chernobyl accident on the Greek environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritidis, P.; Papanicolaou, E.; Florou, H.

    1990-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the Greek environment during and after the winter 1986-87 and the estimated long-term doses to the population are discussed. This includes the delayed peak of caesium concentrations observed in animal products, the contamination of pastry and bread, the additional external exposure in areas of peak caesium deposition, the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium, the contamination of marine and lake fish and the residual contamination in air, deposition and surface waters. (author)

  7. Delay Tolerance: A Therapeutic Possibility for AD/HD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke

    2004-01-01

    on these two insights to explore the possibility that the motivational alterations underpinning delay aversion can be modified through specific training regimes in a way equivalent to that found with executive and attentional training. The requirements for such an approach are set out. Delay fading is proposed as a possible basis for reorganizing delay experience, altering the incentive value of delay (e.g., increasing tolerance for delay, thereby reducing AD/HD symptoms.

  8. ATFM airborne delays without extra fuel consumption in wind conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, L.; Prats, X.

    2012-01-01

    Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) regulations, such as ground holdings, are often canceled before their initially planned ending time. The ground delays impact on the cost of recovering part of the delay if the regulation is canceled, as aircraft are still at the origin airport. In previous publications, the authors have suggested a speed reduction strategy to split the assigned ATFM delay between ground delay and airborne delay. By flying at the the minimum speed that g...

  9. Synthetic LISA: Simulating time delay interferometry in a model LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We report on three numerical experiments on the implementation of Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI) for LISA, performed with Synthetic LISA, a C++/Python package that we developed to simulate the LISA science process at the level of scientific and technical requirements. Specifically, we study the laser-noise residuals left by first-generation TDI when the LISA armlengths have a realistic time dependence; we characterize the armlength-measurement accuracies that are needed to have effective laser-noise cancellation in both first- and second-generation TDI; and we estimate the quantization and telemetry bitdepth needed for the phase measurements. Synthetic LISA generates synthetic time series of the LISA fundamental noises, as filtered through all the TDI observables; it also provides a streamlined module to compute the TDI responses to gravitational waves according to a full model of TDI, including the motion of the LISA array and the temporal and directional dependence of the armlengths. We discuss the theoretical model that underlies the simulation, its implementation, and its use in future investigations on system-characterization and data-analysis prototyping for LISA

  10. Performance Evaluation of Blind Tropospheric Delay correction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lekky

    and Temperature 2 wet (GPT2w) models) for tropospheric delay correction, ... In practice, a user often employs a certain troposphere model based on the popularity ... comparisons between some of the models have been carried out in the past for .... prediction of meteorological parameter values, which are then used to ...

  11. STEMI time delays: A clinical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. de Boer (Menko Jan); F. Zijlstra (Felix)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSTEMI time delays have been introduced as a performance indicator or marker of quality of care. As they are only one part of a very complex medical process, one should be aware of concomitant issues that may be overlooked or even be more important with regard to clinical outcome of STEMI

  12. Third order differential equations with delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Liška

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the oscillation and asymptotic properties of solutions of certain nonlinear third order differential equations with delay. In particular, we extend results of I. Mojsej (Nonlinear Analysis 68, 2008 and we improve conditions on the property B of N. Parhi and S. Padhi (Indian J. Pure Appl. Math., 33, 2002.

  13. Radionuclide scan findings in delayed splenic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, F.W.; Jackson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    An initial liver/spleen scan performed on a patient with blunt abdominal trauma was negative 3 days following the accident. A follow-up scan 7 days later showed definite evidence of splenic rupture, proved surgically. The authors conclude that, in such cases, spleen scans may be negative initially because of delayed splenic ruptures

  14. Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallmann, L.; Jordan, I.; Wörner, H. J.; Castiglioni, L.; Hengsberger, M.; Osterwalder, J.; Arrell, C. A.; Chergui, M.; Liberatore, E.; Rothlisberger, U.; Keller, U.

    2017-01-01

    Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface. PMID:29308414

  15. Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gallmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface.

  16. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and Cellular Immune Responses. ... The tuberculin skin test (TST) and peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) culture were conducted using PPD. The cytokines were measured using commercial kits. Results: The mean TST was 24.6 ±8.0 ...

  17. Delay differential systems for tick population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guihong; Thieme, Horst R; Zhu, Huaiping

    2015-11-01

    Ticks play a critical role as vectors in the transmission and spread of Lyme disease, an emerging infectious disease which can cause severe illness in humans or animals. To understand the transmission dynamics of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases, it is necessary to investigate the population dynamics of ticks. Here, we formulate a system of delay differential equations which models the stage structure of the tick population. Temperature can alter the length of time delays in each developmental stage, and so the time delays can vary geographically (and seasonally which we do not consider). We define the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] of stage structured tick populations. The tick population is uniformly persistent if [Formula: see text] and dies out if [Formula: see text]. We present sufficient conditions under which the unique positive equilibrium point is globally asymptotically stable. In general, the positive equilibrium can be unstable and the system show oscillatory behavior. These oscillations are primarily due to negative feedback within the tick system, but can be enhanced by the time delays of the different developmental stages.

  18. Moments of the Wigner delay times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkolaiko, Gregory; Kuipers, Jack

    2010-01-01

    The Wigner time delay is a measure of the time spent by a particle inside the scattering region of an open system. For chaotic systems, the statistics of the individual delay times (whose average is the Wigner time delay) are thought to be well described by random matrix theory. Here we present a semiclassical derivation showing the validity of random matrix results. In order to simplify the semiclassical treatment, we express the moments of the delay times in terms of correlation functions of scattering matrices at different energies. In the semiclassical approximation, the elements of the scattering matrix are given in terms of the classical scattering trajectories, requiring one to study correlations between sets of such trajectories. We describe the structure of correlated sets of trajectories and formulate the rules for their evaluation to the leading order in inverse channel number. This allows us to derive a polynomial equation satisfied by the generating function of the moments. Along with showing the agreement of our semiclassical results with the moments predicted by random matrix theory, we infer that the scattering matrix is unitary to all orders in the semiclassical approximation.

  19. Delayed early proprioceptive information processing in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hemmingsen, RP; Parnas, Josef

    2006-01-01

    . In the patients, the early contralateral parietal activity was delayed and later central activity had increased amplitude, but gating was unaffected. The results could be understood within the "deficiency of corollary discharge" model of schizophrenia but not within the "filtering" theory. Further studies...

  20. A Delay Discounting Model of Psychotherapy Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Joshua K.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) procedures are emerging as an important new method for psychotherapy researchers. In this paper a framework for conceptualizing existing, seemingly discrepant, research findings on termination is introduced and new directions for research are described. To illustrate the value of a DD framework, the common psychotherapy…

  1. Optimal Control for Stochastic Delay Evolution Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingxin, E-mail: mqx@hutc.zj.cn [Huzhou University, Department of Mathematical Sciences (China); Shen, Yang, E-mail: skyshen87@gmail.com [York University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, we investigate a class of infinite-dimensional optimal control problems, where the state equation is given by a stochastic delay evolution equation with random coefficients, and the corresponding adjoint equation is given by an anticipated backward stochastic evolution equation. We first prove the continuous dependence theorems for stochastic delay evolution equations and anticipated backward stochastic evolution equations, and show the existence and uniqueness of solutions to anticipated backward stochastic evolution equations. Then we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality of the control problem in the form of Pontryagin’s maximum principles. To illustrate the theoretical results, we apply stochastic maximum principles to study two examples, an infinite-dimensional linear-quadratic control problem with delay and an optimal control of a Dirichlet problem for a stochastic partial differential equation with delay. Further applications of the two examples to a Cauchy problem for a controlled linear stochastic partial differential equation and an optimal harvesting problem are also considered.

  2. Traumatic and alternating delayed intracranial hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesoin, F.; Redford, H.; Jomin, M.; Viaud, C.; Pruvo, J.

    1984-11-01

    Repeat computed tomography has enabled us to confirm the concept of delayed hematomas. With this in mind we report two cases of alternating, post-traumatic intracranial hematomas; confirming also the role of tamponade after surgical removal of an intracranial hematoma.

  3. early versus delayed induction of labour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    during labour versus 18 patients (52%) in the group that was induced .... (AMG) or a delayed induction group (DIG). Sealed .... Of the 7 CSs in the DIG, 3 were for fetal heart rate .... in mind that labour was never induced later than 48 hours.

  4. Infants' Delayed Recognition Memory and Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Joseph F., III

    1973-01-01

    Infants 21- to 25-weeks-old devoted more visual fixation to novel than familiar stimuli on immediate and delayed recognition tests. The experiments confirm the existence of long-term recognition memory for pictorial stimuli in the early months of life. (DP)

  5. Voluntary suppression of defecation delays gastric emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeerdsma, H. C.; Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    We wished to test the hypothesis that colonic loading with fecal material leads to delayed gastric emptying. Twelve healthy male volunteers were studied. Each of these subjects went through two randomized study periods of four days. In one of these, the subjects defecated upon urge, in the other

  6. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA assists the management of organizations responsible for Nuclear Power Plant Projects with significant delays with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. Several Member States have Nuclear Power Plant Projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules shows large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Solving the special difficulties related with a delayed NPP project is problematic and dependent on the particular country situation. However it is not regarded as an isolated national problem but as a significant issue with a number of difficulties shared by several Member States. The IAEA collects information and supports the management of delayed NPP projects by identifying main common issues, gathering available experience and addressing specific needs. On this background the IAEA is in the position to provide unique impartial assistance based upon best international practices. This enables Member States to maintain readiness for resuming the project construction when the conditions permit and to strengthen management's abilities for the completion of the project. The IAEA's service is tailored to the needs and requirements of the requesting organization, implemented on-site by international experts and addresses areas such as project control measures, human resources, updating to technological and regulatory requirements, project data, nuclear safety review, physical protection and nuclear security and preparation to resume project construction and operation

  7. Traumatic and alternating delayed intracranial hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesoin, F.; Redford, H.; Jomin, M.; Viaud, C.; Pruvo, J.

    1984-01-01

    Repeat computed tomography has enabled us to confirm the concept of delayed hematomas. With this in mind we report two cases of alternating, post-traumatic intracranial hematomas; confirming also the role of tamponade after surgical removal of an intracranial hematoma. (orig.)

  8. Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup

    2004-01-01

    Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.

  9. Exact, almost and delayed fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.

    1999-01-01

    Considers the problem of fault detection and isolation while using zero or almost zero threshold. A number of different fault detection and isolation problems using exact or almost exact disturbance decoupling are formulated. Solvability conditions are given for the formulated design problems....... The l-step delayed fault detection problem is also considered for discrete-time systems....

  10. Denials and Delays of Radioactive Material Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    2011-01-01

    delays of shipments of radioactive materials forms an important issue today. Radioactive materials need to be transported using all modes of transport for use in different applications such as public health, industry, research and production of nuclear power. The transport of radioactive materials is governed by national and international regulations, which are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (TS-R-1). These regulations ensure high standards of safety. Recently there were increasing numbers of instances of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive materials even when complying with the regulations. The denials and delays can result in difficulties to patients and others who rely on products sterilized by radiation. Therefore there is an urgent need for a universally accepted approach to solve this problem. In response, the IAEA has formed an International Steering Committee (ISC) on denials and delays of radioactive materials. Also, it designate the National Focal Points (NFP) representative to help the ISC members and the IAEA by informing about denial operations and how they can help. The Steering Committee developed and adopted an action plan which includes the action to be taken. This plan is based on: Awareness, Training, Communication, Lobbying for marketing, Economic and Harmonization among member states. It is important to work within the mandate of the ISC and in the line of action plan on denials and delays. It identified the following network members such as: National Focal Points, Regional Coordinators, National Committee, National Representative for different modes of transport and similar bodies, Carriers, Producers and Suppliers, Different civil societies, NGO's, Ministry of transport and others.

  11. Exponential synchronization of two nonlinearly non-delayed and delayed coupled complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Song

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the exponential synchronization between two nonlinearly coupled complex networks with non-delayed and delayed coupling is investigated with Lyapunov-Krasovskii-type functionals. Based on the stability analysis of the impulsive differential equation and the linear matrix inequality, sufficient delay-dependent conditions for exponential synchronization are derived, and a linear impulsive controller and simple updated laws are also designed. Furthermore, the coupling matrices need not be symmetric or irreducible. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness and correctness of the synchronization criteria obtained.

  12. Residues from waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, T.; Juul Pedersen, A.; Hyks, J.; Frandsen, F.J.

    2009-08-15

    The overall objective of the project was to improve the understanding of the formation and characteristics of residues from waste incineration. This was done focusing on the importance of the waste input and the operational conditions of the furnace. Data and results obtained from the project have been discussed in this report according to the following three overall parts: i) mass flows and element distribution, ii) flue gas/particle partitioning and corrosion/deposition aspects, and iii) residue leaching. This has been done with the intent of structuring the discussion while tacitly acknowledging that these aspects are interrelated and cannot be separated. Overall, it was found that the waste input composition had significant impact of the characteristics of the generated residues. A similar correlation between operational conditions and residue characteristics could not be observed. Consequently, the project recommend that optimization of residue quality should focus on controlling the waste input composition. The project results showed that including specific waste materials (and thereby also excluding the same materials) may have significant effects on the residue composition, residue leaching, aerosol and deposit formation.It is specifically recommended to minimize Cl in the input waste. Based on the project results, it was found that a significant potential for optimization of waste incineration exist. (author)

  13. Use of ultrasound in petroleum residue upgradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawarkar, A.N.; Pandit, A.B.; Samant, S.D.; Joshi, J.B. [Mumbai Univ., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2009-06-15

    The importance of bottom-of-the barrel upgrading has increased in the current petroleum refining scenario because of the progressively heavier nature of crude oil. Heavy residues contain large concentrations of metals such as vanadium and nickel which foul catalysts and reduce the potential effect of residue fluidized catalytic cracking. This study showed that the cavitational energy induced by ultrasound be be successfully used to upgrade hydrocarbon mixtures. Conventional processes for the upgrading of residual feedstocks, such as thermal cracking and catalytic cracking, were carried out in the temperature range of 400-520 degrees C. Experiments were performed on 2 vacuum residues, Arabian mix vacuum residue (AMVR) and Bombay high vacuum residue (BHVR) and 1 Haldia asphalt (HA). These were subjected to acoustic cavitation for different reaction times from 15 to 120 minutes at ambient temperature and pressure. Two acoustic cavitation devices were compared, namely the ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic horn. In particular, this study compared the ability of these 2 devices to upgrade the petroleum residues to lighter, more value-added products. Different surfactants were used to examine the effect of ultrasound on upgrading the residue when emulsified in water. In order to better understand the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model was developed based on the constituents of the residue. The ultrasonic horn was found to be more effective in bringing about the upgrading than ultrasonic bath. The study also showed that the acoustic cavitation of the aqueous emulsified hydrocarbon mixture could reduce the asphaltenes content to a greater extent than the acoustic cavitation of non-emulsified hydrocarbon mixture. 20 refs., 11 tabs., 17 figs.

  14. Adaptive Aggregation Routing to Reduce Delay for Multi-Layer Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xujing; Liu, Anfeng; Xie, Mande; Xiong, Neal N; Zeng, Zhiwen; Cai, Zhiping

    2018-04-16

    The quality of service (QoS) regarding delay, lifetime and reliability is the key to the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Data aggregation is a method to effectively reduce the data transmission volume and improve the lifetime of a network. In the previous study, a common strategy required that data wait in the queue. When the length of the queue is greater than or equal to the predetermined aggregation threshold ( N t ) or the waiting time is equal to the aggregation timer ( T t ), data are forwarded at the expense of an increase in the delay. The primary contributions of the proposed Adaptive Aggregation Routing (AAR) scheme are the following: (a) the senders select the forwarding node dynamically according to the length of the data queue, which effectively reduces the delay. In the AAR scheme, the senders send data to the nodes with a long data queue. The advantages are that first, the nodes with a long data queue need a small amount of data to perform aggregation; therefore, the transmitted data can be fully utilized to make these nodes aggregate. Second, this scheme balances the aggregating and data sending load; thus, the lifetime increases. (b) An improved AAR scheme is proposed to improve the QoS. The aggregation deadline ( T t ) and the aggregation threshold ( N t ) are dynamically changed in the network. In WSNs, nodes far from the sink have residual energy because these nodes transmit less data than the other nodes. In the improved AAR scheme, the nodes far from the sink have a small value of T t and N t to reduce delay, and the nodes near the sink are set to a large value of T t and N t to reduce energy consumption. Thus, the end to end delay is reduced, a longer lifetime is achieved, and the residual energy is fully used. Simulation results demonstrate that compared with the previous scheme, the performance of the AAR scheme is improved. This scheme reduces the delay by 14.91%, improves the lifetime by 30.91%, and increases energy

  15. Adaptive Aggregation Routing to Reduce Delay for Multi-Layer Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujing Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of service (QoS regarding delay, lifetime and reliability is the key to the application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Data aggregation is a method to effectively reduce the data transmission volume and improve the lifetime of a network. In the previous study, a common strategy required that data wait in the queue. When the length of the queue is greater than or equal to the predetermined aggregation threshold ( N t or the waiting time is equal to the aggregation timer ( T t , data are forwarded at the expense of an increase in the delay. The primary contributions of the proposed Adaptive Aggregation Routing (AAR scheme are the following: (a the senders select the forwarding node dynamically according to the length of the data queue, which effectively reduces the delay. In the AAR scheme, the senders send data to the nodes with a long data queue. The advantages are that first, the nodes with a long data queue need a small amount of data to perform aggregation; therefore, the transmitted data can be fully utilized to make these nodes aggregate. Second, this scheme balances the aggregating and data sending load; thus, the lifetime increases. (b An improved AAR scheme is proposed to improve the QoS. The aggregation deadline ( T t and the aggregation threshold ( N t are dynamically changed in the network. In WSNs, nodes far from the sink have residual energy because these nodes transmit less data than the other nodes. In the improved AAR scheme, the nodes far from the sink have a small value of T t and N t to reduce delay, and the nodes near the sink are set to a large value of T t and N t to reduce energy consumption. Thus, the end to end delay is reduced, a longer lifetime is achieved, and the residual energy is fully used. Simulation results demonstrate that compared with the previous scheme, the performance of the AAR scheme is improved. This scheme reduces the delay by 14.91%, improves the lifetime by 30.91%, and increases

  16. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  17. Residues in food derived from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossklaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs [de

  18. Guidelines for selection and presentation of residue values of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde-Koerts T van der; Hoeven-Arentzen PH van; Ossendorp BC; RIVM-SIR

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide residue assessments are executed to establish legal limits, called Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). MRLs are derived from the results of these pesticide residue trials, which are performed according to critical Good Agricultural Practice. Only one residue value per residue trial may be

  19. Delay, doubt, and decision: how delaying a choice reduces the appeal of (descriptively) normative options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Niels; Gilovich, Thomas; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2010-04-01

    To help explain a regularity in democratic elections, we examined whether choosing to delay making a choice between a focal option and an alternative tends to make people subsequently less likely to choose what they would otherwise have chosen. The results of two experiments demonstrated that participants who were induced to delay making a decision were indeed less likely to choose the descriptively normative option. An additional experiment that primed a sense of doubt in participants provided support for a self-perception account of this result. Electing to delay making a choice is interpreted as an indication of doubt--doubt that tends to be attributed to the most prominent option. Delay-induced doubt about the normative option makes it less likely to be selected.

  20. Delay-range-dependent exponential H∞ synchronization of a class of delayed neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, Hamid Reza; Maass, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to present a multiple delayed state-feedback control design for exponential H ∞ synchronization problem of a class of delayed neural networks with multiple time-varying discrete delays. On the basis of the drive-response concept and by introducing a descriptor technique and using Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, new delay-range-dependent sufficient conditions for exponential H ∞ synchronization of the drive-response structure of neural networks are driven in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The explicit expression of the controller gain matrices are parameterized based on the solvability conditions such that the drive system and the response system can be exponentially synchronized. A numerical example is included to illustrate the applicability of the proposed design method.

  1. Synchronization of nonidentical chaotic neural networks with leakage delay and mixed time-varying delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Jinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, an integral sliding mode control approach is presented to investigate synchronization of nonidentical chaotic neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays as well as leakage delay. By considering a proper sliding surface and constructing Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, as well as employing a combination of the free-weighting matrix method, Newton-Leibniz formulation and inequality technique, a sliding mode controller is designed to achieve the asymptotical synchronization of the addressed nonidentical neural networks. Moreover, a sliding mode control law is also synthesized to guarantee the reachability of the specified sliding surface. The provided conditions are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities, and are dependent on the discrete and distributed time delays as well as leakage delay. A simulation example is given to verify the theoretical results.

  2. Adaptive modification of the delayed feedback control algorithm with a continuously varying time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyragas, V.; Pyragas, K.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple adaptive delayed feedback control algorithm for stabilization of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. The state dependent time delay is varied continuously towards the period of controlled orbit according to a gradient-descent method realized through three simple ordinary differential equations. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm with the Roessler and Mackey-Glass chaotic systems. The stability of the controlled orbits is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents of linearized equations. -- Highlights: → A simple adaptive modification of the delayed feedback control algorithm is proposed. → It enables the control of unstable periodic orbits with unknown periods. → The delay time is varied continuously according to a gradient descend method. → The algorithm is embodied by three simple ordinary differential equations. → The validity of the algorithm is proven by computation of the Lyapunov exponents.

  3. A distributed delay approach for modeling delayed outcomes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuhua; Dunlavey, Michael; Guzy, Serge; Teuscher, Nathan

    2018-04-01

    A distributed delay approach was proposed in this paper to model delayed outcomes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies. This approach was shown to be general enough to incorporate a wide array of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models as special cases including transit compartment models, effect compartment models, typical absorption models (either zero-order or first-order absorption), and a number of atypical (or irregular) absorption models (e.g., parallel first-order, mixed first-order and zero-order, inverse Gaussian, and Weibull absorption models). Real-life examples were given to demonstrate how to implement distributed delays in Phoenix ® NLME™ 8.0, and to numerically show the advantages of the distributed delay approach over the traditional methods.

  4. Stochastic two-delay differential model of delayed visual feedback effects on postural dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Jason; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Longtin, André

    2010-01-28

    We report on experiments and modelling involving the 'visuo-postural control loop' in the upright stance. We experimentally manipulated an artificial delay to the visual feedback during standing, presented at delays ranging from 0 to 1 s in increments of 250 ms. Using stochastic delay differential equations, we explicitly modelled the centre-of-pressure (COP) and centre-of-mass (COM) dynamics with two independent delay terms for vision and proprioception. A novel 'drifting fixed point' hypothesis was used to describe the fluctuations of the COM with the COP being modelled as a faster, corrective process of the COM. The model was in good agreement with the data in terms of probability density functions, power spectral densities, short- and long-term correlations (Hurst exponents) as well the critical time between the two ranges. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society

  5. Topology identification of the complex networks with non-delayed and delayed coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanli; Chen Shihua; Sun Wen

    2009-01-01

    In practical situation, there exists many uncertain information in complex networks, such as the topological structures. So the topology identification is an important issue in the research of the complex networks. Based on LaSalle's invariance principle, in this Letter, an adaptive controlling method is proposed to identify the topology of a weighted general complex network model with non-delayed and delayed coupling. Finally, simulation results show that the method is effective.

  6. Chaos control in delayed chaotic systems via sliding mode based delayed feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasegh, Nastaran [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati St. 16314, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: vasegh@eetd.kntu.ac.ir; Sedigh, Ali Khaki [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyed Khandan Bridge, Shariati St. 16314, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    This paper investigates chaos control for scalar delayed chaotic systems using sliding mode control strategy. Sliding surface design is based on delayed feedback controller. It is shown that the proposed controller can achieve stability for an arbitrary unstable fixed point (UPF) or unstable periodic orbit (UPO) with arbitrary period. The chaotic system used in this study to illustrate the theoretical concepts is the well known Mackey-Glass model. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the designed nonlinear sliding mode controller.

  7. Chaos control in delayed chaotic systems via sliding mode based delayed feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasegh, Nastaran; Sedigh, Ali Khaki

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates chaos control for scalar delayed chaotic systems using sliding mode control strategy. Sliding surface design is based on delayed feedback controller. It is shown that the proposed controller can achieve stability for an arbitrary unstable fixed point (UPF) or unstable periodic orbit (UPO) with arbitrary period. The chaotic system used in this study to illustrate the theoretical concepts is the well known Mackey-Glass model. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the designed nonlinear sliding mode controller.

  8. Pinning synchronization of the complex networks with non-delayed and delayed coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanli; Austin, Francis; Chen Shihua; Sun Wen

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, without assuming the symmetry of the coupling matrix, we investigate the global synchronization of the complex networks with non-delayed and delayed coupling based on the pinning controllers. Some sufficient conditions for the global synchronization by adding linear and adaptive feedback controllers to a part of nodes are obtained. Numerical examples are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theory.

  9. Delay-Dependent Asymptotic Stability of Cohen-Grossberg Models with Multiple Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical behavior of a class of Cohen-Grossberg models with multiple time-varying delays is studied in detail. Sufficient delay-dependent criteria to ensure local and global asymptotic stabilities of the equilibrium of this network are derived by constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals. The obtained conditions are shown to be less conservative and restrictive than those reported in the known literature. Some numerical examples are included to demonstrate our results.

  10. A novel delay-dependent criterion for delayed neural networks of neutral type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.M.; Kwon, O.M.; Park, Ju H.

    2010-01-01

    This Letter considers a robust stability analysis method for delayed neural networks of neutral type. By constructing a new Lyapunov functional, a novel delay-dependent criterion for the stability is derived in terms of LMIs (linear matrix inequalities). A less conservative stability criterion is derived by using nonlinear properties of the activation function of the neural networks. Two numerical examples are illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Maternal Obesity: Risks for Developmental Delays in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffany, Kathleen O'Connor; McVeigh, Katharine H; Kershaw, Trace S; Lipkind, Heather S; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-02-01

    To assess the risk for neurodevelopmental delays for children of mothers who were obese (≥200 pounds) prior to pregnancy, and to characterize delays associated with maternal obesity among children referred to and found eligible to receive Early Intervention Program services. We conducted a retrospective cohort study (N = 541,816) using a population-based New York City data warehouse with linked birth and Early Intervention data. Risks for children suspected of a delay and 'significantly delayed', with two moderate or one severe delay, were calculated. Among the group of children eligible by delay for Early Intervention, analyses assessed risk for being identified with a moderate-to-severe delay across each of five functional domains as well as risks for multiple delays. Children of mothers who were obese were more likely to be suspected of a delay (adjusted RR 1.19 [CI 1.15-1.22]) and borderline association for 'significantly delayed' (adjusted RR 1.01 [CI 1.00-1.02). Among children eligible by delay, children of mothers who were obese evidenced an increased risk for moderate-to-severe cognitive (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.02-1.07]) and physical (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.08]) delays and for global developmental delay (adjusted RR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.08]). Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developmental delay in offspring. Among children with moderate or severe delays, maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of cognitive and physical delays as well as with increased risk for global developmental delay. While causation remains uncertain, this adds to the growing body of research reporting an association between maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental delays in offspring.

  12. Radiation doses from residual radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Fujita, Shoichiro; Harley, John H.

    1987-01-01

    requires knowing the location of the person to within about 200 m from the time of the explosion to a few weeks afterwards. This is an effort that might be comparable to the present shielding study for survivors. The sizes of the four exposed groups are relatively small; however, the number has been estimated only for those exposed to fallout in the Nishiyama district of Nagasaki. Okajima listed the population of Nishiyama as about 600 at the time of the bomb. No figures are available for the other three groups. The individual exposures from residual radiation may not be significant compared with the direct radiation at the time of the bomb. On the other hand, individuals with potential exposure from these sources are dubious candidates for inclusion in a cohort that was presumably not exposed. For comparison with organ doses estimated in other parts of this program, the exposure estimates are converted to absorbed dose in tissue. The first conversion of exposure to absorbed dose in air uses the factor rad in air 0.87 x exposure in R. UNSCEAR uses an average combined factor of 0.7 to convert absorbed dose in air to absorbed dose in tissue for the whole body. This factor accounts for the change in material (air to tissue) and for backscatter and the shielding afforded by other tissues of the body. No allowance for shielding by buildings has been included here. The cumulative fallout exposures given above become absorbed doses in tissue of 12 to 24 rad for Nagasaki and 0.6 to 2 rad for Hiroshima. The cumulative exposures from induced radioactivity become absorbed doses in tissue of 18 to 24 rad for Nagasaki and about 50 rad for Hiroshima. (author)

  13. Cyolane residues in milk of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.; Fakhr, I.M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Consecutive feeding of lactating goats with 14 C-alkyl labelled cyolane for 5 days at dietary levels 8 and 16 ppm resulted in the appearance of measurable insecticide residues in milk (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). The residue levels were markedly reduced after a withdrawal period of 7 days. Analysis of urine and milk residues showed the presence of similar metabolites in addition to the parent compound. The major part of the residue consisted of mono-, diethyl phosphate and 2 hydrophilic unknown metabolites. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to about 50% after 24 hours whereas the plasma enzyme was only slightly affected. The animals remained symptom-free during the experimental period. (author)

  14. Surgical treatment for residual or recurrent strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the surgical treatment is a relatively effective and predictable method for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus, such as posterior fixation sutures, medial rectus marginal myotomy, unilateral or bilateral rectus re-recession and resection, unilateral lateral rectus recession and adjustable suture, no standard protocol is established for the surgical style. Different surgical approaches have been recommended for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus. The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the former operation pattern and the surgical dosages applied on the patients, residual or recurrent angle of deviation and the operator''s preference and experience. This review attempts to outline recent publications and current opinion in the management of residual or recurrent esotropia and exotropia.

  15. Recovery of transuranics from process residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.; Gray, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    Process residues are generated at both the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) and the Savannah River Plant (SRP) during aqueous chemical and pyrochemical operations. Frequently, process operations will result in either impure products or produce residues sufficiently contaminated with transuranics to be nondiscardable as waste. Purification and recovery flowsheets for process residues have been developed to generate solutions compatible with subsequent Purex operations and either solid or liquid waste suitable for disposal. The ''scrub alloy'' and the ''anode heel alloy'' are examples of materials generated at RFP which have been processed at SRP using the developed recovery flowsheets. Examples of process residues being generated at SRP for which flowsheets are under development include LECO crucibles and alpha-contaminated hydraulic oil

  16. U.S. Isostatic Residual Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isores.bin - standard grid containing isostatic residual gravity map for U.S. Grid interval = 4 km. Projection is Albers (central meridian = 96 degrees West; base...

  17. Management of stormwater facility maintenance residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Current research on stormwater maintenance residuals has revealed that the source and nature of these materials is extremely variable, that regulation can be ambiguous, and handling can be costly and difficult. From a regulatory perspective, data ind...

  18. Residual stresses in Inconel 718 engine disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahan Yoann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aubert&Duval has developed a methodology to establish a residual stress model for Inconel 718 engine discs. To validate the thermal, mechanical and metallurgical parts of the model, trials on lab specimens with specific geometry were carried out. These trials allow a better understanding of the residual stress distribution and evolution during different processes (quenching, ageing, machining. A comparison between experimental and numerical results reveals the residual stresses model accuracy. Aubert&Duval has also developed a mechanical properties prediction model. Coupled with the residual stress prediction model, Aubert&Duval can now propose improvements to the process of manufacturing in Inconel 718 engine disks. This model enables Aubert&Duval customers and subcontractors to anticipate distortions issues during machining. It could also be usedt to optimise the engine disk life.

  19. Residual extrapolation operators for efficient wavefield construction

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    and smooth media, the residual implementation based on velocity perturbation optimizes the use of this feature. Most of the other implementations based on the spectral approach are focussed on reducing cost by reducing the number of inverse Fourier transforms

  20. Efficient particle filtering through residual nudging

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2013-05-15

    We introduce an auxiliary technique, called residual nudging, to the particle filter to enhance its performance in cases where it performs poorly. The main idea of residual nudging is to monitor and, if necessary, adjust the residual norm of a state estimate in the observation space so that it does not exceed a pre-specified threshold. We suggest a rule to choose the pre-specified threshold, and construct a state estimate accordingly to achieve this objective. Numerical experiments suggest that introducing residual nudging to a particle filter may (substantially) improve its performance, in terms of filter accuracy and/or stability against divergence, especially when the particle filter is implemented with a relatively small number of particles. © 2013 Royal Meteorological Society.