WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual yolk weight

  1. Effect of egg weight on composition, embryonic growth, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M X; Li, X G; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q; Gao, C Q

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of egg weight on the composition of the egg, the growth of the embryo, and the expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia). A total of 240 fertilized eggs were collected and divided into two groups based on the weight of the eggs, light (LE) and heavy (HE). The composition of 20 eggs from each group was measured, and the remaining eggs were weighed and placed in an incubator. On embryonic days (E) 9, 11, 13, and 15 and day of hatch (DOH), 15 embryos/hatchlings from each group were measured for embryonic growth, and samples were collected. The HE had heavier yolk and albumen weights than the LE (P < 0.01). Compared with the LE, the HE had heavier yolk-free embryonic body and yolk sac weights from E13 to DOH (P < 0.05). Additionally, the HE had larger yolk sac membrane weights from E13 to E15 (P < 0.05) and had more residual yolk sac content on DOH than those of the LE (P < 0.01). The yolk absorption was greater for the HE than for the LE from E11 to E13 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the abundance of CAT2 and PepT1 mRNA in the yolk sac membranes was greater in the HE than in the LE on E13 (P < 0.05). Compared with the LE, the gene expression of EAAT2 in the intestine on E13 was greater in the HE, whereas the expression of EAAT3 was lower in the HE (P < 0.05). Taken together, our results suggest that egg weight influenced the composition of the eggs, embryonic development, and expression of amino acid transporter genes in the yolk sac membranes and small intestines of pigeon embryos. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR, a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05 at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6 to 0.383 (T4. Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  3. Effects of aqua agar as water replacement for posthatch chicks during transportation on residual yolk-sac and growth performance of young broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossaporn Incharoen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most essential nutrients for the maintenance of chicks' function, and delayed access to feed and water post hatch has been reported to dehydrate chicks. Aqua agar (AA was formulated to contain more than 95% water and an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of AA as water replacement for posthatch chicks during transportation. During the simulated transport, chicks were held for 24 h with (AA group or without (NO-AA group aqua agar in chick boxes. During the holding period, chicks in the AA group lost less body weight, compared with the NO-AA group. However, the weight of residual yolk tended to be lower in the AA-treated birds. There were no significant differences in the weight of gizzard, proventriculus, and liver, nor in the weights and lengths of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. A higher body weight was also observed in the AA group at 7 days of age. At 21 days of age, weight gain and feed intake were higher (P < 0.05 in the AA group, when compared to that of the NO-AA group. No significant differences were observed in the feed conversion rate (FCR between the two groups. In conclusion, the data suggests that the use of AA as a water replacement could reduce the negative impact of water deficiency in posthatch period during transportation, resulting in greatly improved growth performance of young broilers at 21 days of age.

  4. Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count, and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976 and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84, respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight, and HCT and PP values. Moreover, 72 hours of fasting affected more intensely HCT and MCV values.

  5. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed

  6. Measurement of residual stresses using fracture mechanics weight functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A residual stress measurement method has been developed to quantify through-the-thickness residual stresses. Accurate measurement of residual stresses is crucial for many engineering structures. Fabrication processes such as welding and machining generate residual stresses that are difficult to predict. Residual stresses affect the integrity of structures through promoting failures due to brittle fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear. In this work, the weight function theory of fracture mechanics is used to measure residual stresses. The weight function theory is an important development in computational fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factors for arbitrary stress distribution on the crack faces can be accurately and efficiently computed for predicting crack growth. This paper demonstrates that the weight functions are equally useful in measuring residual stresses. In this method, an artificial crack is created by a thin cut in a structure containing residual stresses. The cut relieves the residual stresses normal to the crack-face and allows the relieved residual stresses to deform the structure. Strain gages placed adjacent to the cut measure the relieved strains corresponding to incrementally increasing depths of the cut. The weight functions of the cracked body relate the measured strains to the residual stresses normal to the cut within the structure. The procedure details, such as numerical integration of the singular functions in applying the weight function method, will be discussed. (author)

  7. Yolk concentrations of hormones and glucose and egg weight and egg dimensions in unincubated chicken eggs, in relation to egg sex and hen body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M. Aamir; Hulst, Marcel; Hoving-Bolink, Rita A. H.; Smits, Mari A.; de Vries, Bonnie; Weites, Ilse; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Woelders, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Birds can manipulate offspring sex ratio under natural and experimental conditions and maternal hormones have been shown to be involved in this process. Studies also provided evidence for the presence of sex specific concentrations of yolk hormones in avian eggs. These findings led to the suggestion

  8. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen so...

  9. Statistically generated weighted curve fit of residual functions for modal analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookout, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    A statistically generated weighting function for a second-order polynomial curve fit of residual functions has been developed. The residual flexibility test method, from which a residual function is generated, is a procedure for modal testing large structures in an external constraint-free environment to measure the effects of higher order modes and interface stiffness. This test method is applicable to structures with distinct degree-of-freedom interfaces to other system components. A theoretical residual function in the displacement/force domain has the characteristics of a relatively flat line in the lower frequencies and a slight upward curvature in the higher frequency range. In the test residual function, the above-mentioned characteristics can be seen in the data, but due to the present limitations in the modal parameter evaluation (natural frequencies and mode shapes) of test data, the residual function has regions of ragged data. A second order polynomial curve fit is required to obtain the residual flexibility term. A weighting function of the data is generated by examining the variances between neighboring data points. From a weighted second-order polynomial curve fit, an accurate residual flexibility value can be obtained. The residual flexibility value and free-free modes from testing are used to improve a mathematical model of the structure. The residual flexibility modal test method is applied to a straight beam with a trunnion appendage and a space shuttle payload pallet simulator.

  10. Genetic control of residual variance of yearling weight in Nellore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iung, L H S; Neves, H H R; Mulder, H A; Carvalheiro, R

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence for genetic variability in residual variance of livestock traits, which offers the potential for selection for increased uniformity of production. Different statistical approaches have been employed to study this topic; however, little is known about the concordance between them. The aim of our study was to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance on yearling weight (YW; 291.15 ± 46.67) in a Nellore beef cattle population; to compare the results of the statistical approaches, the two-step approach and the double hierarchical generalized linear model (DHGLM); and to evaluate the effectiveness of power transformation to accommodate scale differences. The comparison was based on genetic parameters, accuracy of EBV for residual variance, and cross-validation to assess predictive performance of both approaches. A total of 194,628 yearling weight records from 625 sires were used in the analysis. The results supported the hypothesis of genetic heterogeneity of residual variance on YW in Nellore beef cattle and the opportunity of selection, measured through the genetic coefficient of variation of residual variance (0.10 to 0.12 for the two-step approach and 0.17 for DHGLM, using an untransformed data set). However, low estimates of genetic variance associated with positive genetic correlations between mean and residual variance (about 0.20 for two-step and 0.76 for DHGLM for an untransformed data set) limit the genetic response to selection for uniformity of production while simultaneously increasing YW itself. Moreover, large sire families are needed to obtain accurate estimates of genetic merit for residual variance, as indicated by the low heritability estimates (Box-Cox transformation was able to decrease the dependence of the variance on the mean and decreased the estimates of genetic parameters for residual variance. The transformation reduced but did not eliminate all the genetic heterogeneity of residual variance, highlighting

  11. Does the oviparity-viviparity transition alter the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Qing; Qu, Yan-Fu; Wang, Xue-Ji; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2017-11-29

    The oviparity-viviparity transition is a major evolutionary event, likely altering the reproductive process of the organisms involved. Residual yolk, a portion of yolk remaining unutilized at hatching or birth as parental investment in care, has been investigated in many oviparous amniotes but remained largely unknown in viviparous species. Here, we used data from 20 (12 oviparous and 8 viviparous) species of snakes to see if the oviparity-viviparity transition alters the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes. We used ANCOVA to test whether offspring size, mass and components at hatching or birth differed between the sexes in each species. We used both ordinary least squares and phylogenetic generalized least squares regressions to test whether relationships between selected pairs of offspring components were significant. We used phylogenetic ANOVA to test whether offspring components differed between oviparous and viviparous species and, more specifically, the hypothesis that viviparous snakes invest more in the yolk as parental investment in embryogenesis to produce more well developed offspring that are larger in linear size. In none of the 20 species was sex a significant source of variation in any offspring component examined. Newborn viviparous snakes on average contained proportionally more water and, after accounting for body dry mass, had larger carcasses but smaller residual yolks than did newly hatched oviparous snakes. The rates at which carcass dry mass (CDM) and fat body dry mass (FDM) increased with residual yolk dry mass (YDM) did not differ between newborn oviparous and viviparous snakes. Neither CDM nor FDM differed between newborn oviparous and viviparous snakes after accounting for YDM. Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that the partitioning of yolk between embryonic and post-embryonic stages differs between snakes that differ in parity mode, but instead show that the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes is species

  12. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer...

  13. Egg quality and yolk lipid composition of laying hens fed diets containing cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fontoura Vidal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the addition of cashew nuts meal (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% to laying hen diets on egg quality and yolk composition. The variables studied were: egg weight, specific gravity, Haugh Units, percentages of shell, albumen, and yolk, moisture, total solids, total lipids, fatty acids profile, and yolk cholesterol. The addition of up to 25% of cashew nuts meal to hen diets did not affect egg quality and freshness, moisture and total solids content. However, an increase in total lipid content and a decrease in yolk pigmentation was observed. Oleic acid level increased in the yolk, whereas palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid levels decreased. The addition of cashew nuts meal increased the monounsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio in the yolk and reduced the cholesterol content. Therefore, the use of cashew nuts meal in laying hen diets favorably modifies the fatty acid composition of egg yolk and contributes to a better acceptance of this food by consumers since it also reduces yolk cholesterol levels.

  14. Uncertainty of pesticide residue concentration determined from ordinary and weighted linear regression curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolci Omeroglu, Perihan; Ambrus, Árpad; Boyacioglu, Dilek

    2018-03-28

    Determination of pesticide residues is based on calibration curves constructed for each batch of analysis. Calibration standard solutions are prepared from a known amount of reference material at different concentration levels covering the concentration range of the analyte in the analysed samples. In the scope of this study, the applicability of both ordinary linear and weighted linear regression (OLR and WLR) for pesticide residue analysis was investigated. We used 782 multipoint calibration curves obtained for 72 different analytical batches with high-pressure liquid chromatography equipped with an ultraviolet detector, and gas chromatography with electron capture, nitrogen phosphorus or mass spectrophotometer detectors. Quality criteria of the linear curves including regression coefficient, standard deviation of relative residuals and deviation of back calculated concentrations were calculated both for WLR and OLR methods. Moreover, the relative uncertainty of the predicted analyte concentration was estimated for both methods. It was concluded that calibration curve based on WLR complies with all the quality criteria set by international guidelines compared to those calculated with OLR. It means that all the data fit well with WLR for pesticide residue analysis. It was estimated that, regardless of the actual concentration range of the calibration, relative uncertainty at the lowest calibrated level ranged between 0.3% and 113.7% for OLR and between 0.2% and 22.1% for WLR. At or above 1/3 of the calibrated range, uncertainty of calibration curve ranged between 0.1% and 16.3% for OLR and 0% and 12.2% for WLR, and therefore, the two methods gave comparable results.

  15. Can MRI diffusion-weighted imaging identify postoperative residual/recurrent soft-tissue sarcomas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Maher ElDaly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI and quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC mapping in the detection of recurrent/residual postoperative soft tissue sarcomas. Materials and Methods: This study included 36 patients; 27 patients had postoperative recurrent/residual soft tissue sarcomas and 9 patients had postoperative and treatment-related changes (inflammation/fibrosis. The DWI was obtained with 3 b values including 0, 400, and 800 s/mm2. Calculation of the ADC value of the lesion was done via placing the region of interest (ROI to include the largest area of the lesion. ADC values were compared to histopathology. Results: Our results showed that including CE-MRI improved the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in recurrence detection compared to conventional non-enhanced sequences. However, it showed low specificity (55.56% with a high false-positive rate that may lead to an unnecessary biopsy of a mass such as region of postoperative scar tissue. Conclusion: The joint use of gadolinium-enhanced MRI and quantitative DWI with ADC mapping offer added value in the detection of recurrent/residual postoperative soft tissue sarcoma. This combined use increased both the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity with a cut-off average ADC value for detecting nonmyxoid recurrent/residual lesions ≤1.3 × 10−3 mm2/s (100% specificity and 90.48% sensitivity. Our results showed limited value of DWI with ADC mapping in assessing myxoid sarcomatous tumor recurrences.

  16. Use of a dynamic grid adaptation in the asymmetric weighted residual method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, V.; Romstedt, P.; Werner, W.

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic grid adaptive method has been developed for use with the asymmetric weighted residual method. The method automatically adapts the number and position of the spatial mesh points as the solution of hyperbolic or parabolic vector partial differential equations progresses in time. The mesh selection algorithm is based on the minimization of the L 2 norm of the spatial discretization error. The method permits the accurate calculation of the evolution of inhomogeneities, like wave fronts, shock layers, and other sharp transitions, while generally using a coarse computational grid. The number of required mesh points is significantly reduced, relative to a fixed Eulerian grid. Since the mesh selection algorithm is computationally inexpensive, a corresponding reduction of computing time results

  17. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to...

  18. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that...

  19. Yolk formation in some Charadriiform birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudybush, T.E.; Grau, C.R.; Petersen, M.R.; Ainley, D.G.; Hirsch, K.V.; Gilman, A.P.; Patten, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    By counting and measuring the major ova of breeding birds at autopsy and combining these data with time intervals between ovipositions, rough estimates have been made of the time required to form yolk in some non-captive birds (King 1973). Direct studies have been made in domestic fowl (Gallus gallus var. domesticus; Gilbert 1972), turkeys (Meleagris galloparvo; Bacon and Cherms 1968), and Common quail (Coturnix coturnix; Bacon and Koontz 1971), by feeding the birds a capsule containing dye each day, and counting dye rings in the yolks after the eggs have been hardcooked. Recently developed methods of fixing and staining eggs have revealed differences in yolk deposited during day and night, thus permitting another estimation of the number of days during which yolk was deposited, and without direct contact with the female (Grau 1976). In eggs from chickens and quail that have been fed dyes, yolk that stained darkly with dichromate was shown to be deposited during the active daytime feeding periods, while pale-staining yolk was deposited during the night. Thus, pairs of light and dark rings, which together take a day to be deposited, may be counted to estimate time of yolk formation.In the present study we have applied the yolk ring method of estimating the number of days during which the bulk of the yolk is deposited around the central white core (Grau 1976) to the eggs of some shorebirds, gulls, terns and alcids.

  20. Computation of point reactor dynamics equations with thermal feedback via weighted residue method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo Changan; Liu Xiaoming

    1986-01-01

    Point reactor dynamics equations with six groups of delayed neutrons have been computed via weighted-residual method in which the delta function was taken as a weighting function, and the parabolic with or without exponential factor as a trial function respectively for an insertion of large or smaller reactivity. The reactivity inserted into core can be varied with time, including insertion in forms of step function, polynomials up to second power and sine function. A thermal feedback of single flow channel model was added in. The thermal equations concerned were treated by use of a backward difference technique. A WRK code has been worked out, including implementation of an automatic selection of time span based on an input of error requirement and of an automatic change between computation with large reactivity and that with smaller one. On the condition of power varied slowly and without feedback, the results are not sensitive to the selection of values of time span. At last, the comparison of relevant results has shown that the agreement is quite well

  1. Effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 strain on egg yolk fat and cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to evaluate the functional efficiency of a probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M74 in the feed on egg yolk weight, egg yolk fat and cholesterol contents of Shaver Starcross 288 hens.  Feed in the experimental group was enriched with a probiotic additive containing of 5*109 viable Enterococcus faecium per g. Egg samples a total 30 pcs per group were collected during the first egg-laying period at week 28 and 38 of hens´ age. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Significantly lower concentrations of egg yolk cholesterol were found in the experimental group at week 28, and week 38 in compare with controls. In conclusion, the addition of probiotic strains Enterococcus faecium M74 to the feed of Shaver Starcross 288 hens reduced cholesterol in egg yolk at all sampling times. Even though the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics has not yet been fully understood, it is an established fact that cholesterol and bile salt metabolism are closely linked. However, the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics based on the bile salt hydrolase activity hypothesis has not yet been sufficiently elucidated.

  2. Effect of different dietary energy and protein sources on antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and microstructure of salted yolks in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Hu, Y J; Fouad, A M; Lin, C X; Xu, Z P; Chen, W; Fan, Q L; Xia, W G; Wang, S; Wang, Y; Yang, L; Zheng, C T

    2018-01-08

    The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and

  3. Effect of Olive Leaf ( Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cayan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05 while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p0.05. To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets.

  4. Egg yolk plasma can replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, E; Duchamp, G; Batellier, F; Beaumal, V; Anton, M; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Magistrini, M

    2011-01-01

    Hen egg yolk is normally used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders, but its use has sanitary and practical disadvantages. Moreover the protection afforded by egg yolk has not yet been completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to compare the egg yolk plasma fraction to whole egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. Plasma contains mainly Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), which are widely presumed to be the cryoprotective agent in egg yolk. Plasma can be produced on an industrial scale, sterilised by gamma-irradiation and incorporated in a ready-to-use extender (our ultimate objective). Plasma samples were subjected to different doses of gamma-irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) without dramatic chemical changes that may affect their cryoprotective properties. Stallion semen was frozen with whole egg yolk as a control and with sterilised egg yolk plasma. A fertility trial was conducted on a total of 70 mares' cycles. Fertility per cycle was 60% after insemination of semen frozen in our control extender containing egg yolk (EY), compared to 69% for the extender containing sterilised egg yolk plasma (EYP) (P > 0.05). Post-thaw motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were also analysed. Motility parameters were not significantly different between extenders except for the variable VAP (for EY versus EYP, VAP: 63 μm.s(-1) versus 59 μm.s(-1), a, b: P 0.05). Membrane integrity was better preserved in EY than in EYP but the difference between extenders was small (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrated that sterilised egg yolk plasma has the potential to replace egg yolk in stallion freezing extender. This experiment led to the development of a ready-to-use extender called INRA-Freeze(®) (IMV-Technologies, France). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic control of residual variance of yearling weight in nellore beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iung, L.H.S.; Neves, H.H.R.; Mulder, H.A.; Carvalheiro, R.

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence for genetic variability in residual variance of livestock traits, which offers the potential for selection for increased uniformity of production. Different statistical approaches have been employed to study this topic; however, little is known about the concordance between

  6. Gal d 6 is the second allergen characterized from egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Blanco, Juan; Villota, Julian; Juste, Sonsoles; Moneo, Ignacio; Caballero, María Luisa

    2010-06-23

    Only one allergen from the egg yolk, alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) has been described thus far. A new egg yolk allergen was detected studying 27 egg allergic patients. The study was performed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting and IgE-immunoblotting-inhibition assays. An egg yolk extract was fractioned by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the new allergen detected was characterized by N-terminal amino acid analysis. A total of 5 of the 27 patients (18%) detected a yolk allergen of an apparent molecular weight of 35 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Heating and reduction treatments did not affect its allergenicity, although digestion with simulated gastric fluid diminished the IgE-binding capacity of the allergen. The N-terminal amino acid sequence corresponded with the YGP42 protein, a fragment of the vitellogenin-1 precursor. Thus, a second egg yolk allergen has been described and designated Gal d 6 by the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee.

  7. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  8. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (Pcarcass conformation of 0.74 units (Pcarcass organs did not differ (P>0.05) between RFI groups except for the empty weight of reticulo

  9. Effect of Red Pepper ( Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3. In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3. In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05. However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05. All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05 the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  10. Research on the optimal dynamical systems of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations based on weighted residual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, NaiFu; Guan, Hui; Wu, ChuiJie

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the theory of constructing optimal dynamical systems based on weighted residual presented by Wu & Sha is applied to three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, and the optimal dynamical system modeling equations are derived. Then the multiscale global optimization method based on coarse graining analysis is presented, by which a set of approximate global optimal bases is directly obtained from Navier-Stokes equations and the construction of optimal dynamical systems is realized. The optimal bases show good properties, such as showing the physical properties of complex flows and the turbulent vortex structures, being intrinsic to real physical problem and dynamical systems, and having scaling symmetry in mathematics, etc.. In conclusion, using fewer terms of optimal bases will approach the exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equations, and the dynamical systems based on them show the most optimal behavior.

  11. Pinocytosis in the rat visceral yolk sac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R.; Lloyd, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Low temperature, 2,4-dinitrophenol and moniodoacetate could each completely abolish the pinocytic uptake of 125 I-labelled polyvinylpyrrolidone, 125 I-labelled bovine serum albumin or colloidal 198 Au by 17.5-day rat visceral yolk sac cultured in vitro. Cytochalasin B and colchicine caused a partial and dose-dependent inhibition. It is concluded that the mechanism of pinocytic uptake of these substrates is not micropinocytosis as conventionally defined. Removal of extracellular calcium or the presence of theophylline inhibited liquid-phase pinocytosis by the rat yolk sac, whereas addition of ouabain caused a biphasic response: a slight stimulation of pinosome formation at a low concentration, and an inhibitory effect at a higher concentration. (Auth.)

  12. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altuntaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control, 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77. Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7 and C18:1 (n-9 in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA in the egg yolk.

  13. The potency of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY specific as immunotherapy to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Agus Sudjarwo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgYs specific as immunotherapy to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC infection. Lohmann laying hens were immunized intramuscularly with antigenic of MTBC. Egg yolk was separated from egg white, and IgY antibody was then purified by multiple polyethylene glycols 6000 extraction and ammonium sulfate purification steps. The IgY anti-MTBC concentration in egg yolk increased at 2 weeks and it reached a maximum at 4 weeks after immunization. After 6 weeks, the levels of IgY anti-MTBC decreased gradually. The antibody of MTBC was detected and produces a specific line of precipitation in agar gel precipitation test beginning the week 2 after the first immunization. Analysis of results obtained with ELISA showed a significant increase in the MTBC specific antibodies after 2 weeks and reached a plateau at 4 weeks from the booster immunization. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed the IgY preparation to be pure and dissociated into protein bands with molecular weights of 112, 78, 69, 49, and 28 kDa and Western blot analysis shown the presence of anti-MTBC IgY in egg yolks, with molecular weights of approximately 78 kDa. These results suggested that egg yolk could be a practical strategy in large-scale production of specific anti-MTBC IgY for immunotherapy of TBC.

  14. Time-varying effect moderation using the structural nested mean model: estimation using inverse-weighted regression with residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Yuen, Robert A.; Murphy, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the problem of examining time-varying causal effect moderation using observational, longitudinal data in which treatment, candidate moderators, and possible confounders are time varying. The structural nested mean model (SNMM) is used to specify the moderated time-varying causal effects of interest in a conditional mean model for a continuous response given time-varying treatments and moderators. We present an easy-to-use estimator of the SNMM that combines an existing regression-with-residuals (RR) approach with an inverse-probability-of-treatment weighting (IPTW) strategy. The RR approach has been shown to identify the moderated time-varying causal effects if the time-varying moderators are also the sole time-varying confounders. The proposed IPTW+RR approach provides estimators of the moderated time-varying causal effects in the SNMM in the presence of an additional, auxiliary set of known and measured time-varying confounders. We use a small simulation experiment to compare IPTW+RR versus the traditional regression approach and to compare small and large sample properties of asymptotic versus bootstrap estimators of the standard errors for the IPTW+RR approach. This article clarifies the distinction between time-varying moderators and time-varying confounders. We illustrate the methodology in a case study to assess if time-varying substance use moderates treatment effects on future substance use. PMID:23873437

  15. Finding coevolving amino acid residues using row and column weighting of mutual information and multi-dimensional amino acid representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Some amino acid residues functionally interact with each other. This interaction will result in an evolutionary co-variation between these residues - coevolution. Our goal is to find these coevolving residues. RESULTS: We present six new methods for detecting coevolving...... residues. Among other things, we suggest measures that are variants of Mutual Information, and measures that use a multidimensional representation of each residue in order to capture the physico-chemical similarities between amino acids. We created a benchmarking system, in silico, able to evaluate...

  16. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of vitamin E supplementation in tris-egg yolk extender on sperm parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was determined. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of ... of WAD goat bucks during cryopreservation. Keywords: Antioxidants, bucks, freezing, oxidative stress, sperm ...

  17. Ovarian yolk sac tumour in a girl - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Charu; Shah, Hemanshi; Sisodiya Shenoy, Neha; Makhija, Deepa; Waghmare, Mukta

    2017-01-01

    Yolk sac tumours are rare ovarian malignancies accounting for less than 1% of malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. They are mostly seen in adolescents and young women and are usually unilateral making fertility preservation imperative. Raised alpha-feto protein level is the hallmark of this tumour. We describe stage III yolk sac tumour in a girl child.

  18. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  19. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  20. Controlled Synthesis of Au@AgAu Yolk-Shell Cuboctahedra with Well-Defined Facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Calderon, Alejandra; Bahena, Daniel; Yacaman, Miguel J

    2016-08-02

    The synthesis of Au@AgAu yolk-shell cuboctahedra nanoparticles formed by galvanic replacement in a seed-mediated method is described. Initially, single-crystal Au seeds are used for the formation of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes, which serve as the template material for the deposition of an external Au layer. The well-controlled synthesis yields the formation of cuboctahedra nanoparticles with smooth inner and outer Au/Ag surfaces. The deposition/oxidation process is described to understand the formation of cuboctahedra and octahedra nanoparticles. The Au core maintains the initial morphology of the seed and remains static at the center of the yolk-shell because of residual Ag. Structural analysis of the shell indicates intrinsic stacking faults (SFs) near the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) compositional analysis show an Au-Ag nonordered alloy forming the shell. The three-dimensional structure of the nanoparticles presented open facets on the [111] as observed by electron tomography SIRT reconstruction over a stack of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The geometrical model was validated by analyzing the direction of streaks in coherent nanobeam diffraction (NBD). The catalytic activity was evaluated using a model reaction based on the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NTP) by NaBH4 in the presence of Au@AgAu yolk-shell nanoparticles.

  1. Effects of selection for yolk cholesterol on growth and meat quality in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Bednarczyk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Descendants ( of S18 generation of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica, selected for low (line 11, n=15 or for high (line 12, n=6 yolk cholesterol content were used for this experiment. The high (12 and low (11 lines were developed from a control egg type (line13 wild color plumage stock 07, from Poultry Breeding Station in Ivanka at Danube (Slovakia that was maintained without conscious selection. The results of selected lines were compared to this one from unselected lines, egg type (line 13, n=15 and meat type (line 8, n=15, to study productive performance (growth and carcass weight as well as meat quality traits (intramuscular collagen properties, fatty and cholesterol content. The birds were grown up to 35 days of age. Quails were fed ad libitum with commercial diets according to their ages. Animals had free access to water during the experiment. The body weight of the quails was controlled every week (from week 1 to 5. At the slaughter (at avg. weight of 104.0, 107.7, 110.6 g vs 209.3 g for lines 11, 12, 13 vs 8, respectively; P<0.05 the hot carcass weight was recorded and dressing percentage was calculated. Pectoralis superficialis muscles were removed from the carcasses to assess intramuscular collagen (IMC properties (collagen and crosslink concentrations, intramuscular lipid and cholesterol contents. Growth and slaughter performance, intramuscular fat percentage and IMC properties of Pectoralis superficialis were not different between the birds selected for low (line 11 and high (line 12 yolk cholesterol content and were also found to be similar between the quails of egg type and those selected for yolk cholesterol content (lines 11 and 12. Compared to the birds of egg type line and those selected for yolk cholesterol content, the quails of meat type had higher growth and carcass traits (P<0.05, while meat quality traits were found to be similar. The meat of the quails selected for low cholesterol in the egg yolk (line 11

  2. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) as non-antibiotic production enhancers for use in swine production: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lili; Zhen, Yuhong; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of in-feed antibiotics for growth and disease prevention in livestock production has been under severe scrutiny. The use and misuse of in-feed antibiotics has led to problems with drug residues in animal products and increased bacterial resistance. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) have attracted considerable attention as an alternative to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages over mammalian IgG such...

  3. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-05-01

    Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day(-1) per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not on a dry matter basis. Orange carrot treatment significantly reduced egg mass production, whereas yellow and purple carrot treatments did not differ from the control. Egg and yolk weights of all carrot-supplemented treatments were significantly lower than those of the control, but yolk percentages were similar. Yolk redness increased significantly in the order control 1.5-fold) and beta-carotene (>100-fold) compared with the control. Supplementing the feed of egg-laying hens with coloured carrots efficiently increased yolk colour parameters and carotenoid contents, which gives opportunities for improved nutritional value of eggs from forage material-supplemented hens.

  4. A comparison between the dimensions of positive transtibial residual limb molds prepared by air pressure casting and weight-bearing casting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaei, Behnam; Ebrahimi, Ismail; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Saeedi, Hassan; Jalali, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Creating a socket with proper fit is an important factor to ensure the comfort and control of prosthetic devices. Several techniques are commonly used to cast transtibial stumps but their effect on stump shape deformation is not well understood. This study compares the dimensions, circumferences and volumes of the positive casts and also the socket comfort between two casting methods. Our hypothesis was that the casts prepared by air pressure method have less volume and are more comfortable than those prepared by weight bearing method. Fifteen transtibial unilateral amputees participated in the study. Two weight bearing and air pressure casting methods were utilized for their residual limbs. The diameters and circumferences of various areas of the residual limbs and positive casts were compared. The volumes of two types of casts were measured by a volumeter and compared. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to measure the sockets fit comfort. Circumferences at 10 and 15 cm below the patella on the casts were significantly smaller in air pressure casting method compared to the weight bearing method (p=0.00 and 0.01 respectively). The volume of the cast in air pressure method was lower than that of the weight bearing method (p=0.006). The amputees found the fit of the sockets prepared by air pressure method more comfortable than the weight bearing sockets (p=0.015). The air pressure casting reduced the circumferences of the distal portion of residual limbs which has more soft tissue and because of its snug fit it provided more comfort for amputees, according to the VAS measurements.

  5. Soft template synthesis of yolk/silica shell particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Xu, Dongsheng

    2010-04-06

    Yolk/shell particles possess a unique structure that is composed of hollow shells that encapsulate other particles but with an interstitial space between them. These structures are different from core/shell particles in that the core particles are freely movable in the shell. Yolk/shell particles combine the properties of each component, and can find potential applications in catalysis, lithium ion batteries, and biosensors. In this Research News article, a soft-template-assisted method for the preparation of yolk/silica shell particles is presented. The demonstrated method is simple and general, and can produce hollow silica spheres incorporated with different particles independent of their diameters, geometry, and composition. Furthermore, yolk/mesoporous silica shell particles and multishelled particles are also prepared through optimization of the experimental conditions. Finally, potential applications of these particles are discussed.

  6. THE EGG – FUNCTIONAL FOOD.COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VARIOUS NUTRITIONAL SOLUTIONS TO ENRICH THE EGG POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS. II YOLK FATTY ACIDS PROFILE RESULTING FROM THE DIETARY USE OF SAFFLOWER OIL AND FLAX SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTE RODICA. D.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained in a study on the comparative evaluation of the effect of a diet with safflower oil and flax seeds compared to a control soybean oil diet given to layers on the bioproductive effects, egg characteristics and yolk fatty acids profile. The trial involved 32 Lowman Brown layers during the age period 23- 28 weeks (1 week of accommodation and 4 experimental weeks. The layers, assigned to 2 groups (16 layers/group, 4 layers/cage received diets based on corn, wheat and soybean meal. The diets differed by the source of fatty acids: soybean oil for the control group (SO; safflower oil and flax seeds for SSO+FS. The diets were supplemented with 250 ppm vitamin E. Twelve eggs per group were collected randomly 10 and 30 days, respectively, after the beginning of the experiment. The paper presents comparative data on the: average egg weight, egg component (egg shell, yolk, egg white weight, intensity of yolk colour (Hoffman – La Roche colour range, yolk protein, fat yolk pH (measured one week after collection, the eggs being kept at 50C and yolk fatty acids. All data show that the profile of yolk unsaturated fatty acids can be handled quite easily by the nature of the dietary fats, their level of inclusion and their dietary ratio.

  7. Insulin-egg yolk dispersions in self microemulsifying system

    OpenAIRE

    Singnurkar P; Gidwani S

    2008-01-01

    Formulation of insulin into a microemulsion very often presents a physicochemical instability during their preparation and storage. In order to overcome this lack of stability and facilitate the handling of these colloidal systems, stabilization of insulin in presence of hydrophobic components of a microemulsion appears as the most promising strategy. The present paper reports the use of egg yolk for stabilization of insulin in self microemulsifying dispersions. Insulin loaded egg yolk self m...

  8. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Agrawal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry,viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05 among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p0.05 difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63- 5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No significant difference in the rate of transfer of IgY was observed in four breeds studied (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown and moderate seropositivity was detected for Salmonella-specific antibodies in progeny chicks.

  9. Artificially Increased Yolk Hormone Levels and Neophobia in Domestic Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bertin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In birds there is compelling evidence that the development and expression of behavior is affected by maternal factors, particularly via variation in yolk hormone concentrations of maternal origin. In the present study we tested whether variation in yolk hormone levels lead to variation in the expression of neophobia in young domestic chicks. Understanding how the prenatal environment could predispose chicks to express fear-related behaviors is essential in order to propose preventive actions and improve animal welfare. We simulated the consequences of a maternal stress by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The chicks from these hormone-treated eggs (H and from sham embryos (C that received the vehicle-only were exposed to novel food, novel object and novel environment tests. H chicks approached a novel object significantly faster and were significantly more active in a novel environment than controls, suggesting less fearfulness. Conversely, no effect of the treatment was found in food neophobia tests. Our study highlights a developmental influence of yolk hormones on a specific aspect of neophobia. The results suggest that increased yolk hormone levels modulate specifically the probability of exploring novel environments or novel objects in the environment.

  10. Effect of domestic cooking methods on egg yolk xanthophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Lopes-Lutz, Daise; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2012-12-26

    Xanthophylls are a class of bioactive compounds known to play an important role in preventing age-related macular degeneration. Egg yolk is a rich source of highly bioavailable xanthophylls including lutein and zeaxanthin. The effects of domestic cooking methods (boiling, frying, microwaving) on egg yolk xanthophyll content were investigated. A LC-(APCI)-MS/MS method was used to identify and quantify all-E- and Z-isomers of lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and β-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester in fresh and cooked egg yolks. Both fresh and cooked yolks showed similar xanthophyll profiles but with higher contents of Z-isomers in cooked samples. All-E-lutein was the most affected, with 22.5%, 16.7%, and 19.3% reductions in boiled, microwaved, and fried yolk extracts, respectively. Total xanthophyll losses ranged from 6% to 18%. The results presented here could be useful in calculating the dietary intake of xanthophylls and also in assessing the xanthophyll profiles and contents of egg-containing products.

  11. Brominated flame retardants in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, D F K; Sadler, A; Quade, S C; Sun, W-F; Lau, B P-Y; Kosarac, I; Hayward, S; Ryan, J J

    2011-06-01

    Chicken eggs categorised as conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range and organic were collected at grading stations in three regions of Canada between 2005 and 2006. Free run eggs, which were only available for collection from two regions, were also sampled during this time frame. Egg yolks from each of these egg types (n = 162) were analysed to determine brominated flame retardant levels, specifically polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). PBDEs were detected in 100% of the 162 samples tested, while HBCD was observed in 85% of the egg yolks. Total PBDE concentrations in egg yolks ranged from 0.018 to 20.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 3.03 ng g(-1) lipid), with PBDE 209 identified as being the major contributor to ΣPBDE concentrations. In addition to PBDE 209, PBDE 99, 47, 100, 183 and 153 were important contributors to ΣPBDE concentrations. Total HBCD concentrations ranged from below the limit of detection to a maximum concentration of 71.9 ng g(-1) lipid (median = 0.053 ng g(-1) lipid). The α-isomer was the dominant contributor to ΣHBCD levels in Canadian egg yolks and was the most frequently detected HBCD isomer. ΣPBDE levels exhibited large differences in variability between combinations of region and type. ΣHBCD concentrations were not significantly different among regions, although differences were observed between the different types of egg yolks analysed in the present study.

  12. Structural Characterization and Antioxidative Activity of Low-Molecular-Weights Beta-1,3-Glucan from the Residue of Extracted Ganoderma lucidum Fruiting Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Feng Kao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major cell wall constituent of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum is β-1,3-glucan. This study examined the polysaccharide from the residues of alkaline-extracted fruiting bodies using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC, and it employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS to confirm the structures. We have successfully isolated low-molecular-weight β-1,3-glucan (LMG, in high yields, from the waste residue of extracted fruiting bodies of G. lucidum. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay evaluated the capability of LMG to suppress H2O2-induced cell death in RAW264.7 cells, identifying that LMG protected cells from H2O2-induced damage. LMG treatment decreased H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. LMG also influenced sphingomyelinase (SMase activity, stimulated by cell death to induce ceramide formation, and then increase cell ROS production. Estimation of the activities of neutral and acid SMases in vitro showed that LMG suppressed the activities of both neutral and acid SMases in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LMG, a water-soluble β-1,3-glucan recycled from extracted residue of G. lucidum, possesses antioxidant capability against H2O2-induced cell death by attenuating intracellular ROS and inhibiting SMase activity.

  13. Yolk coelomitis in Fiji Island banded iguanas (Brachylophus fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Brian A; Howard, Lauren; Kinkaid, John; Vidal, Justin D; Papendick, Rebecca

    2008-06-01

    Yolk coelomitis is a major cause of death in captive sexually mature female Fiji Island banded iguanas (Brachylophus fasciatus) maintained by the Zoological Society of San Diego. The medical records, breeding histories, and pathology archival materials from this group were reviewed to study this health problem. From 1987 through 2004, deaths of nine of 21 adult females were due to yolk coelomitis. Most iguanas had a history of reproduction-related problems, which included reproductive failure, episodes of lethargy associated with ovarian activity, folliculostasis, ovostasis, and behavioral abnormalities. Most affected iguanas either were found dead or presented moribund and subsequently died or were euthanized. Clinical signs were nonspecific and included lethargy, cutaneous discoloration, and coelomic effusion. Yolk leakage in most cases was associated with the presence of large vitellogenic follicles undergoing atresia and resulted in coelomitis characterized by florid mesothelial proliferation.

  14. Study on preparation the egg yolk puff with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was studied chitosans with different degrees of deacetylation (70%,80%,90%,95% and different usages of chitosan that were added to research the effect of functional indexs in the egg yolk puff,such as calcium content and cholesterol content.Preliminarily chitosan was explored in the application of the Egg yolk puff.Text results showed that when the deacetylation degree of chitosan and its usage were 90% and 1% separately,the functional indexs and sensory quality of the Egg yolk puff can reach the equilibrium.Its calcium content was 76.2 mg/100 g,increased by 44.3 percent.Its cholesterol content was 290 mg/100 g,decreased by 35.1%.

  15. Mass spectrometry characterization for N-glycosylation of immunoglobulin Y from hen egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody that exists in hen egg yolk. It is a glycoprotein, not much is known about its N-glycan structures, site occupancy and site-specific N-glycosylation. In this study, purified protein from hen egg yolk was identified as IgY based on SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. N-glycan was released from IgY using peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase treatment, and the molecular weight of IgY was calculated using the difference between the molecular weight of IgY and deglycosylated IgY. Two potential N-Glycosylation sites (ASN 308 and ASN 409 ) were detected on IgY by nanoLC-ESI MS. Sugar chains were separated using normal phase liquid chromatography after fluorescence labeling, and 17 N-glycan structures were confirmed using ESI-MS. The sugar chain pattern contained high-mannose oligosaccharide, hybrid oligosaccharide and complex oligosaccharide. These results could lead to other important information regarding IgY glycosylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Distinct antigenic characteristics of murine parietal yolk sac laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Tichy, D; Damjanov, A

    1987-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (LAM-A and LAM-B) specific for laminin from normal and neoplastic parietal yolk sac (PYS) cells were produced in rats immunized with a mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell line. Both antibodies immunoprecipitated the 400,000- and 200,000-Da chains of laminin and reacted...... with purified PYS laminin in ELISA. LAM-A reacted with mouse and rat PYS laminin, whereas LAM-B reacted only with mouse PYS laminin. Formaldehyde- and methanol-fixed adult and fetal somatic tissues were immunohistochemically unreactive with either of the two antibodies. In acetone-fixed tissue sections, both...

  17. Comparison of yolk fatty acid content, blood and egg cholesterol of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    POO) and Kilka fish oil. (KFO) on yolk fatty acid content .... Egg quality parameters such as; haugh unit score, yolk color index (as measured by ..... oil) diet on performance, carcass quality and fat status in broilers. Afr. J. Biotechnol.

  18. Cryoprotective and contraceptive properties of egg yolk as an additive in rooster sperm diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, Julián; Castaño, Cristina; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Coloma, Miguel A; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Prieto, María T; Campo, Jose L

    2012-12-01

    The addition of chicken egg yolk to semen extenders is thought to reduce the fertilizing potential of rooster spermatozoa--but not (or at least not as much) that of other avian species. The aim of the present study was to determine whether quail egg yolk, a novel extender additive, provides advantages over chicken egg yolk in the cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa. Experiments were also performed to determine whether the harmful effect of egg yolk occurs during cryopreservation or during fertilization after artificial insemination. Heterospermic rooster semen samples were divided into aliquots and cooled in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-based medium containing 15% chicken egg yolk, 15% quail egg yolk or no egg yolk at all. The viability of spermatozoa of cooled samples (5 °C) without egg yolk were less viable (Prooster sperm cells against cold shock and during freezing and thawing, but exerts a contraceptive effect in the genital tract of the hen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Atg1-Tor pathway regulates yolk catabolism in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Hallie; Sopko, Richelle; Coughlin, Margaret; Perrimon, Norbert; Mitchison, Tim

    2015-11-15

    Yolk provides an important source of nutrients during the early development of oviparous organisms. It is composed mainly of vitellogenin proteins packed into membrane-bound compartments called yolk platelets. Catabolism of yolk is initiated by acidification of the yolk platelet, leading to the activation of Cathepsin-like proteinases, but it is unknown how this process is triggered. Yolk catabolism initiates at cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Using maternal shRNA technology we found that yolk catabolism depends on the Tor pathway and on the autophagy-initiating kinase Atg1. Whereas Atg1 was required for a burst of spatially regulated autophagy during late cellularization, autophagy was not required for initiating yolk catabolism. We propose that the conserved Tor metabolic sensing pathway regulates yolk catabolism, similar to Tor-dependent metabolic regulation on the lysosome. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. The multivariate egg: quantifying within- and among-clutch correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens using multivariate mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Erik; Siitari, Heli; Schwabl, Hubert; Richner, Heinz; Tschirren, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Egg components are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in birds and other oviparous species. Because different egg components can have opposite effects on offspring phenotype, selection is expected to favour their mutual adjustment, resulting in a significant covariation between egg components within and/or among clutches. Here we tested for such correlations between maternally derived yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens in great tit (Parus major) eggs using a multivariate mixed-model approach. We found no association between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens within clutches, indicating that within clutches the two egg components are deposited independently. Across clutches, however, there was a significant negative relationship between yolk immunoglobulins and yolk androgens, suggesting that selection has co-adjusted their deposition. Furthermore, an experimental manipulation of ectoparasite load affected patterns of covariance among egg components. Yolk immunoglobulins are known to play an important role in nestling immune defence shortly after hatching, whereas yolk androgens, although having growth-enhancing effects under many environmental conditions, can be immunosuppressive. We therefore speculate that variation in the risk of parasitism may play an important role in shaping optimal egg composition and may lead to the observed pattern of yolk immunoglobulin and yolk androgen deposition across clutches. More generally, our case study exemplifies how multivariate mixed-model methodology presents a flexible tool to not only quantify, but also test patterns of (co)variation across different organisational levels and environments, allowing for powerful hypothesis testing in ecophysiology.

  1. Gewichtsverlies, serumnatriumconcentratie en restverschijnselen bij patiëntjes met hypertone dehydratie door onvoldoende borstvoeding [Weight loss, serum sodium concentration and residual symptoms in patients with hypernatremic dehydration caused by insufficient breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuning-Boers, J.M.; Dommelen, P. van; Wouwe, J.P. van; Verkerk, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To determine the relationship between serum sodium concentration and weight loss as well as residual symptoms in newborns with hypernatremic dehydration caused by insufficient breastfeeding; and to determine the sensitivity of the following rule of thumb 'if weight loss is less than 10%,

  2. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria Tenella Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effec­tively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated.Methods: Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophi­lized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oo­cysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed.Results: The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG, reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P0.05.Conclusion: Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis.

  3. Effect of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on salmonella in high immunity egg yolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Haili; Han Keguang; Zheng Mingxue; Li Guozhu

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella were inoculated into the yolk and irradiated with different dose of 60 Co γ-ray. The results show that 3 kGy irradiation dose can kill all Salmonella in the yolk and D 10 value of Salmonella in the yolk is 0.36-0.46 kGy

  4. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of melatonin supplementation in semen extenders on cryosurvival of spermatozoa obtained from West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was studied. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of melatonin (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mM) were diluted with semen samples. The diluted semen samples were ...

  5. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  6. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (pfeeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (pfeed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  7. Morphofunctional transformations of the yolk syncytial layer during zebrafish development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakova, Ekaterina Alexandrovna A; Efremov, Vladimir Ivanovich I

    2014-02-01

    The yolk syncytial layer (YSL) is a provisory extraembryonic structure of teleost fishes and representatives of some other taxa with meroblastic cleavage. The YSL of teleosts is a symplast with polymorphous polyploid nuclei. It is known to perform nutritional, morphogenetic, immune, and, probably, other functions. Data about the YSL organization, functioning and regulation is fragmentary. Although gene expression patterns and other aspects of YSL functioning have been studied in Danio rerio, the morphology of its YSL has not been described in detail. The study of zebrafish YSL structure on sequential developmental stages is necessary to recognize specific features of this important polyfunctional system in this model organism and to extend our knowledge about provisory systems. The thickness of the YSL and the distribution of its nuclei are not uniform on each stage and change during development. During oblong and sphere stages the internal YSL (I-YSL) is filled with yolk inclusions; interphase yolk syncytial nuclei (YSN) and mitotic asters can be seen. During doming and epiboly the external YSL (E-YSL) is thicker than I-YSL. On the subsequent stages the YSL is thickened caudally. The dorsal YSL part is thickened during early segmentation stages and becomes the thinnest YSL region later. The anterior part of the YSL is thin, but enlarges during larval period. The YSN of different size and diverse forms, from regular to lobed, are present and form clusters. The number of irregular-shaped nuclei increases during development. The YSL thickens in the end of endotrophic and in the course of endo-exotrophic period, and its cytoplasm contains numerous yolk inclusions. After yolk exhaustion the YSL is flat. As the YSL degrades, the YSN become pycnotic, and the YSL remnant probably is cleared by phagocytes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Yolk sac development in lizards (Lacertilia: Scincidae): New perspectives on the egg of amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, James R; Thompson, Michael B

    2017-04-01

    Embryos of oviparous reptiles develop on the surface of a large mass of yolk, which they metabolize to become relatively large hatchlings. Access to the yolk is provided by tissues growing outward from the embryo to cover the surface of the yolk. A key feature of yolk sac development is a dedicated blood vascular system to communicate with the embryo. The best known model for yolk sac development and function of oviparous amniotes is based on numerous studies of birds, primarily domestic chickens. In this model, the vascular yolk sac forms the perimeter of the large yolk mass and is lined by a specialized epithelium, which takes up, processes and transports yolk nutrients to the yolk sac blood vessels. Studies of lizard yolk sac development, dating to more than 100 years ago, report characteristics inconsistent with this model. We compared development of the yolk sac from oviposition to near hatching in embryonic series of three species of oviparous scincid lizards to consider congruence with the pattern described for birds. Our findings reinforce results of prior studies indicating that squamate reptiles mobilize and metabolize the large yolk reserves in their eggs through a process unknown in other amniotes. Development of the yolk sac of lizards differs from birds in four primary characteristics, migration of mesoderm, proliferation of endoderm, vascular development and cellular diversity within the yolk sac cavity. Notably, all of the yolk is incorporated into cells relatively early in development and endodermal cells within the yolk sac cavity align along blood vessels which course throughout the yolk sac cavity. The pattern of uptake of yolk by endodermal cells indicates that the mechanism of yolk metabolism differs between lizards and birds and that the evolution of a fundamental characteristic of embryonic nutrition diverged in these two lineages. Attributes of the yolk sac of squamates reveal the existence of phylogenetic diversity among amniote lineages

  9. Salovum egg yolk containing antisecretory factor as an adjunct therapy in severe cholera in adult males: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nur H; Ashraf, Hasan; Olesen, Maryam; Salam, Mohammed A; Gyr, Niklaus; Meier, Remy

    2011-08-01

    Cholera involves stimulation of intestinal secretory process in response to cholera toxin leading to profuse watery diarrhoea that might cause death due to dehydration unless timely rehydration therapy is initiated. Efforts to identify and test potential antisecretory agents are ongoing. Antisecretory factor (AF) is a naturally-occurring protein produced in the human secretory organs, including the intestine, with antisectory properties demonstrated in animal and human models of secretory diarrhoea. Salovum egg yolk powder contains antisecretory proteins in a much higher (500 times) concentration than that of normal hen eggs. This is achieved by feeding hens with specially-processed cereals, capable of inducing antisecretory proteins in the yolk. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of Salovum egg yolk powder containing AF in the treatment of adult cholera patients. In an open, randomized controlled trial (pilot study), 40 adult male patients with severe cholera were studied: 20 received standard treatment (oral rehydration solution, antibiotic, and usual hospital diet) plus Salovum egg yolk powder (study group) and 20 received standard treatment alone (control group). All the patients received tablet doxycycline (300 mg) once immediately after randomization. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject before enrollment. The main outcome measures were stool weight and duration of diarrhoea. The demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of the study patients were comparable between the groups. No significant differences were found in the mean stool weight, g/kg of body-weight during the first 24 hours [study vs control group, mean +/- standard deviation (SD), 218 +/- 119 vs 195 +/- 136], second 24 hours (mean +/- SD, 23 +/- 39 vs 22 +/- 34), and cumulative up to 72 hours (mean +/- SD, 245 +/- 152 vs 218 +/- 169). The duration (hours) of diarrhoea after admission in the hospital was also similar in both the groups (mean +/- SD, 33 +/- 14

  10. A STUDY ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF YOLK RETENTION IN BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Aziz Khan. Shakeel Akhtar Khan, Shahnaz Hamid2. Asim Aslam and Masood

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present project was designed to identify the factors responsible for yolk retention in broiler chicks. Four different experiments were conducted to find out the effect of four factors (experimental yolk sac infection with Echerichia coli, off-feed period between hatching and housing. first feeding time in the poultry house and type of initial feed on yolk absorption. Results of these experiments showed that yolk sac infection with E. coli led to decrease in rate of yolk absorption. Moisture and protein percentage was increased in infected yolk but fat percentage was not affected by yolk sac infection. On the other hand, post hatch starvation due to delay in housing and delay in first feeding did not affect rate of yolk absorption. Moisture percentage was not affected while fat absorption increased and protein absorption decreased due to fasting. It was also observed that feeding ground corn in early life of chick led to slow absorption of yolk contents as compared to feeding commercial starter ration and 2% sugar solution. Yolk composition was not affected by feeding commercial starter ration, ground corn and 2% sugar solution in early life of chick. It is concluded that experimental infection with E. coli and ground corn as initial feed leads to slow absorption of yolk sac in young broiler chicks.

  11. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  12. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in great tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while

  13. Pre-operative assessment of residual disease in locally advanced breast cancer patients: A sequential study by quantitative diffusion weighted MRI as a function of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Khushbu; Sharma, Uma; Sah, Rani G; Mathur, Sandeep; Hari, Smriti; Seenu, Vurthaluru; Parshad, Rajinder; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R

    2017-10-01

    The potential of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing pathologic response and surgical margins in locally advanced breast cancer patients (n=38) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was investigated. DWI was performed at pre-therapy (Tp0), after I (Tp1) and III (Tp3) NACT at 1.5T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of whole tumor (ADC WT ), solid tumor (ADC ST ), intra-tumoral necrosis (ADC Nec ) was determined. Further, ADC of 6 consecutive shells (5mm thickness each) including tumor margin to outside tumor margins (OM1 to OM5) was calculated and the data analyzed to define surgical margins. Of 38 patients, 6 were pathological complete responders (pCR), 19 partial responders (pPR) and 13 were non-responders (pNR). Significant increase was observed in ADC ST and ADC WT in pCR and pPR following therapy. Pre-therapy ADC was significantly lower in pCR compared to pPR and pNR indicating the heterogeneous nature of tumor which may affect drug perfusion and consequently the response. ADC of outside margins (OM1, OM2, and OM3) was significantly different among pCR, pPR and pNR at Tp3 which may serve as response predictive parameter. Further, at Tp3, ADC of outside margins (OM1, OM2, and OM3) was significantly lower compared to that seen at Tp0 in pCR, indicating the presence of residual disease in these shells. Pre-surgery information may serve as a guide to define cancer free margins and the extent of residual disease which may be useful in planning breast conservation surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Residual Biomass from the Textile Industry as Carbon Source for Production of a Low-Molecular-Weight Xylanase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Caetano Duarte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pretreated dirty cotton residue (PDCR from the textile industry was used as an alternative carbon source for the submerged cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae and the production of xylanases. The filtered culture supernatant was fractionated by ultrafiltration followed by three chromatographic steps, which resulted in the isolation of a homogeneous low-molecular-weight xylanase (Xyl-O1 with a mass of 21.5 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE co-polymerized with 0.1% oat spelt xylan. Enzyme catalysis was the most efficient at 50 °C and pH 6.0. The Km values (mg·mL−1 for the soluble fraction of oat spelt and birchwood xylans were 10.05 and 3.34, respectively. Xyl-O1 was more stable in the presence of 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB, 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT, l-cysteine or β-mercaptoethanol, which increased the rate of catalysis by 40%, 14%, 40% or 37%, respectively. The enzyme stability was improved at pH 7.0 in the presence of 20 mM l-cysteine, with the retention of nearly 100% of the activity after 6 h at 50 °C. Xyl-O1 catalyzed the cleavage of internal β-1,4 linkages of the soluble substrates containing d-xylose residues, with a maximum efficiency of 33% for the hydrolysis of birchwood xylan after 12 h of incubation. Identification of the hydrolysis products by high-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD indicated the predominance of the hydrolysis products X2-X6 during the first 12 h of incubation and the accumulation of higher xylooligomers after the elution of the last xylooligomer standard, xylohexaose.

  15. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul; Bae, Yoon Sung

    2012-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  16. Primary Yolk Sac Tumor of the Omentum: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Chang Kyu; Oh, Young Taik; Jung, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institue of Radiological Science, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Yoon Sung [Dept. of Pathology, Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A 32-year-old woman had been referred to our hospital for lower abdominal pain. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge solid mass with an internal cystic portion. The patient underwent a staging laparotomy and subsequent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph nodes sampling, and total omentectomy. At staging laparotomy, a large omental mass was found. The tumor displayed the typical histological patterns observed in the yolk sac tumor. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum value on the 10th day after surgery was 11,576.67 IU/mL and decreased to 6.46 IU/mL after chemotherapy. At the end of the treatment, all the findings, including the AFP level, were normal. We report a case of primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum in a 32-year-old woman.

  17. Insulin-egg yolk dispersions in self microemulsifying system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singnurkar, P S; Gidwani, S K

    2008-11-01

    Formulation of insulin into a microemulsion very often presents a physicochemical instability during their preparation and storage. In order to overcome this lack of stability and facilitate the handling of these colloidal systems, stabilization of insulin in presence of hydrophobic components of a microemulsion appears as the most promising strategy. The present paper reports the use of egg yolk for stabilization of insulin in self microemulsifying dispersions. Insulin loaded egg yolk self microemulsifying dispersions were prepared by lyophilization followed by dispersion into self microemulsifying vehicle. The physicochemical characterization of selfmicroemulsifying dispersions includes such as insulin encapsulation efficiency, in vitro stability of insulin in presence of proteolytic enzymes and in vitro release. The biological activity of insulin from the dispersion was estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and in vivo using Wistar diabetic rats. The particle size ranged 1.023±0.316 μm in diameter and insulin encapsulation efficiency was 98.2±0.9 %. Insulin hydrophobic self microemulsifying dispersions suppressed insulin release in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer and shown to protect insulin from enzymatic degradation in vitro in presence of chymotripsin. Egg yolk encapsulated insulin was bioactive, demonstrated through both in vivo and in vitro.

  18. Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

  19. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruangdit, S.; Maijan, P.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  20. Effects of dietary yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition and humoral immune response of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Sakine; Yalçin, Suzan; Cakin, Kemal; Eltan, Onder; Dağaşan, Levent

    2010-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate supplementation increased egg production (P Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g(-1) yolk (P yeast autolysate supplementation. Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg(-1) had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg(-1) yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects in laying hens. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Biomass production on the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington: updated logging residue ratios, slash pile volume-to-weight ratios, and supply curves for selected locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason C. Cross; Eric C. Turnblom; Gregory J. Ettl

    2013-01-01

    Biomass residue produced by timber harvest operations is estimated for the Olympic and Kitsap Peninsulas, Washington. Scattered residues were sampled in 53 harvest units and piled residues were completely enumerated in 55 harvest units. Production is based on 2008 and 2009 data and is stratified by forest location, ownership type, harvest intensity, and harvest method...

  2. Disappearing or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging: Is local treatment required?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Young Kon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Suk; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Seung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical course of disappearing colorectal liver metastases (DLM) or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases (RTCLM) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who had colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and received chemotherapy. Among 137 patients who received chemotherapy for CLM and underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI between 2010 and 2012, 43 patients with 168 DLMs and 48 RTCLMs were included. The cumulative in situ recurrence rate of DLM and progression rate of RTCLM and their predictive factors were evaluated. A total of 150 DLMs and 26 RTCLMs were followed up without additional treatment. At 1 and 2 years, respectively, the cumulative in situ recurrence rates for DLM were 10.9 % and 15.7 % and the cumulative progression rates for RTCLM were 27.2 % and 33.2 %. The in situ recurrence rate at 2 years was 4.9 % for the DLM group that did not show reticular hypointensity of liver parenchyma on hepatobiliary phase. DLM on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and DWI indicates a high possibility of clinical complete response, especially in patients without chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Thirty-three percent of RTCLMs showed progression at 2 years. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of the residual tumour of colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy: diffusion-weighted MR magnetic resonance imaging in the peripheral and entire tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Mathilde; Doblas, Sabrina; Giraudeau, Celine [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Clichy (France); Ronot, Maxime; Van Beers, Bernard; Vilgrain, Valerie [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Clichy (France); Radiology Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Belghiti, Jacques [Hepatobiliary Surgery Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Paradis, Valerie [Pathology Department, Beaujon Hospital, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France)

    2016-01-15

    To evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in detecting residual tumours (RTs) in colorectal liver metastases (CLMs) following chemotherapy, with a focus on tumour periphery. From January 2009-January 2012, 57 patients who underwent liver resection for CLMs with preoperative MRI (<3 months) including DWI were retrospectively included. CLMs were classified into three response groups on pathology: (1) major histological (MHR, RTs ≤ 10 %), (2) partial histological (PHR, RT = 10-49 %), and (3) no histological (NHR, RT ≥ 50 %). On DWI, regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the entire tumour and tumour periphery. Apparent diffusion (ADC) and pure diffusion (D) coefficients were calculated using a monoexponential fit, and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test on a lesion-per-lesion analysis. 111 CLMs were included. Fourteen (12.5 %), 42 (38 %) and 55 (49.5 %) CLMs presented a MHR, PHR and NHR, respectively. ADC and D of the peripheral ROIs were significantly higher in the MHR group (P = 0.013/P = 0.013). ADC and D from the entire tumour were not significantly different among the groups (P = 0.220/P = 0.103). In CLM treated with chemotherapy, ADC and D values from the entire tumour are not related to the degree of RT, while peripheral zone diffusion parameters could help identify metastases with MHR. (orig.)

  4. Four-dimensional data coupled to alternating weighted residue constraint quadrilinear decomposition model applied to environmental analysis: Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Shutao; Cui, Yaoyao; Wang, Yutian; Liu, Lingfei; Yang, Zhe

    2018-03-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out by three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy combining with Alternating Weighted Residue Constraint Quadrilinear Decomposition (AWRCQLD). The experimental subjects were acenaphthene (ANA) and naphthalene (NAP). Firstly, in order to solve the redundant information of the three-dimensional fluorescence spectral data, the wavelet transform was used to compress data in preprocessing. Then, the four-dimensional data was constructed by using the excitation-emission fluorescence spectra of different concentration PAHs. The sample data was obtained from three solvents that are methanol, ethanol and Ultra-pure water. The four-dimensional spectral data was analyzed by AWRCQLD, then the recovery rate of PAHs was obtained from the three solvents and compared respectively. On one hand, the results showed that PAHs can be measured more accurately by the high-order data, and the recovery rate was higher. On the other hand, the results presented that AWRCQLD can better reflect the superiority of four-dimensional algorithm than the second-order calibration and other third-order calibration algorithms. The recovery rate of ANA was 96.5% 103.3% and the root mean square error of prediction was 0.04 μgL- 1. The recovery rate of NAP was 96.7% 115.7% and the root mean square error of prediction was 0.06 μgL- 1.

  5. Properties of low-fat, low-cholesterol egg yolk prepared by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringe, N A

    1997-01-01

    A dry egg yolk ingredient called Eggcellent has 74% less fat and 90% less cholesterol than liquid egg yolks, when reconstituted on an equal protein basis. The phospholipids and proteins are retained, enabling the ingredient to have the taste and texturizing properties of fresh egg yolk. Using the new yolk, it is possible to significantly improve the acceptability of low-fat, low-cholesterol bakery products, scrambled eggs and mayonnaise dressings without losing nutritional claims. The structures and functional properties of egg yolk components and the conditions required to optimize their benefits in foods are reviewed. The lipoproteins of low-fat, low-cholesterol yolk have valuable properties as flavorants, texturizers, foaming agents, emulsifiers, antioxidants, colorants, and nutraceuticals.

  6. Effect of egg yolk on growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 7H12 liquid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, Y.; Ta, K.D.; Heifets, L.

    1988-01-01

    Of 92 drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum specimens, 86 showed growth in two types of 7H12 broth, one with egg yolk and the other without egg yolk. In addition, two strains grew only in plain 7H12 broth without yolk, and four others were recovered only in the medium supplemented with egg yolk. The radiometrically detected growth was higher in the presence of egg yolk, corresponding to a higher number of CFU per milliliter in these cultures. The improvement of growth in 7H12 broth supplemented with egg yolk was most noticeable in cultures isolated from sputum specimens having a low number of acid-fast bacilli in the smear and producing only a few colonies on solid media

  7. Oil exudation and histological structures of duck egg yolks during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K M; Chung, W H; Jao, C L; Hsu, K C

    2010-04-01

    Changes in oil exudation and histological structures of salted duck egg yolks during brining up to 5 wk were investigated. During brining, the salt contents of albumen, exterior yolk (hardened portion), and interior yolk (soft or liquid portion) gradually increased accompanied by slight decreases in moisture content. The hardening ratio of salted egg yolks increased rapidly to about 60% during the first week of brining and then reached 100% at the end of brining. After brining, part of the lipids in salted egg yolk became free due to the structural changes of low-density lipoprotein induced by dehydration and increase of salt content, and more free lipids in salted egg yolk were released after the cooking process. With the brining time increased up to 5 wk, the outer region of the cooked salted yolk gradually changed into dark brown, brown, orange, and then dark brown, whereas the center region changed into light yellow, yellow, dark yellow, and then yellow again. The microstructures of cooked salted egg yolks showed that the yolk spheres in the outer and middle regions retained their original shape, with some shrinking and being packed more loosely when brining time increased, and the exuded oil filled the space between the spheres. Furthermore, the yolk spheres in the center region transformed to a round shape but still showed granulation after 4 wk of brining, whereas they were mostly disrupted after 2 to 5 wk of brining. One of the most important characteristics of cooked salted egg yolks, gritty texture, contributed to oil exudation and granulated yolk spheres were observed at the brining time of 4 wk.

  8. The influence of a residual group in low-molecular-weight allergoids of Artemisia vulgaris pollen on their allergenicity, IgE- and IgG-binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirković, T; Gavrović-Jankulović, M; Prisić, S; Jankov, R M; Burazer, L; Vucković, O; Sporcić, Z; Paranos, S

    2002-11-01

    Reaction of epsilon-amino groups of lysine with potassium cyanate, maleic, or succinic anhydride leads to allergoids of low molecular weight. No study has been performed to compare their properties and investigate the influence of a residual group on allergenicity and human IgE- and IgG-binding of these derivatives. Allergoids of a pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, and succinic and maleic anhydride. Biochemical properties were investigated by determination of amino groups, enzyme activity, isoelectric focusing IEF and SDS-PAGE. IgE- and IgG-binding was determined using immunoblots and ELISA inhibition. Allergenicity was investigated by skin prick tests (SPT) on a group of 52 patients, of which 6 were control subjects, 30 were patients with no previous immunotherapy (IT), and 16 were patients undergoing immunotherapy. The same degree of amino-group modification (more than 85%), residual enzyme activity (less then 15%), IEF, and SDS-PAGE pattern were noted. In the immunoblots of IgE-binding, there was more pronounced reduction in the succinyl and maleyl derivatives than in the carbamyl one. IgG-binding was less affected by carbamylation than by acid anhydride modification. The SPT showed that the succinylated derivative had the most reduced allergenicity (98% showed a reduced wheal diameter when tested with the succinyl derivative, 87% with the maleyl allergoid, and 83% with the carbamyl allergoid). The most significant difference among allergoids could be seen in the group of patients with high skin reactivity (83% of patients showed no reaction to the succinyl derivative when compared to the value of 28% for the carbamyl derivative or 22% for the maleyl derivative). According to our results, all three modification procedures yielded allergoids with a similar extent of modification. No single biochemical parameter investigated in the study could predict the degree of reduced allergenicity in vivo. The most reduced

  9. Influence of sumac (Rhus Coriaria L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol and blood parameters in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Y; Salih, Y G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential effect of different levels of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) seed powder and ginger (Zingiber officinale) root powder on egg yolk fatty acid composition, blood/yolk cholesterol in laying hen. A total of 63 (ATAK-S: Domestic Turkish Laying Hens) laying hens (average weight: 1470 g each hen, 25-weeks of age) were assigned to seven treatment diets including sumac seed (S) and ginger root powder (G) at 0 g/kg (control), 10 g/kg (S1), 20 g/kg (S2), and 30 g/kg (S3); 10 g/kg (G1), 20 g/kg (G2), or 30 g/kg in rations respectively, for 8 weeks. After a two-week adaptation period to cages, the hens were allocated to 7 groups with 9 replicates of 1 hen in per cage each. The replications were allotted equally into the upper and lower cages to minimize the effects of cage level. In this study, egg yolk cholesterol had a decrease (p <0.05) in supplemented diet( sumac seed and ginger root powder). Fatty acid content in yolk; saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and rate of n6/n3 were not significant (p <0.05). However, dietary supplementation with sumac and ginger powder reduced and yolk/blood cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Supplementation of sumac and ginger affected on HDL, there was found a significant effect (p < 0.05) in treatment groups. Moreover, LDL positively decreased in all treatment groups compared with the control group. The findings of this study suggested that feeding sumac and ginger tend to be decreasing cholesterol levels in both yolk and blood on laying hens. It can be concluded that ginger root and sumac seed powder can be used as an effective feed additive to improve fatty acid composition and yolk and blood cholesterol in ATAK-S laying hens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Silencing of RpATG6 impaired the yolk accumulation and the biogenesis of the yolk organelles in the insect vector R. prolixus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila H Vieira

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In oviparous animals, the egg yolk is synthesized by the mother in a major metabolic challenge, where the different yolk components are secreted to the hemolymph and delivered to the oocytes mostly by endocytosis. The yolk macromolecules are then stored in a wide range of endocytic-originated vesicles which are collectively referred to as yolk organelles and occupy most of the mature oocytes cytoplasm. After fertilization, the contents of these organelles are degraded in a regulated manner to supply the embryo cells with fundamental molecules for de novo synthesis. Yolk accumulation and its regulated degradation are therefore crucial for successful development, however, most of the molecular mechanisms involved in the biogenesis, sorting and degradation of targeted yolk organelles are still poorly understood. ATG6 is part of two PI3P-kinase complexes that can regulate the recruitment of the endocytic or the autophagy machineries. Here, we investigate the role of RpATG6 in the endocytosis of the yolk macromolecules and in the biogenesis of the yolk organelles in the insect vector Rhodnius prolixus. We found that vitellogenic females express high levels of RpATG6 in the ovaries, when compared to the levels detected in the midgut and fat body. RNAi silencing of RpATG6 resulted in yolk proteins accumulated in the vitellogenic hemolymph, as a consequence of poor uptake by the oocytes. Accordingly, the silenced oocytes are unviable, white (contrasting to the control pink oocytes, smaller (62% of the control oocyte volume and accumulate only 40% of the yolk proteins, 80% of the TAG and 50% of the polymer polyphosphate quantified in control oocytes. The cortex of silenced oocytes present atypical smaller vesicles indicating that the yolk organelles were not properly formed and/or sorted, which was supported by the lack of endocytic vesicles near the plasma membrane of silenced oocytes as seen by TEM. Altogether, we found that RpATG6 is central for the

  11. Aging impacts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on furfural production residue-derived biochars: Porosity, functional properties, and inorganic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Zhixiang; Zheng, Hao; Dai, Yanhui; Luo, Xianxiang; Wang, Zhenyu

    2017-12-31

    The aging of biochar by low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), which are typical root-derived exudates, is not well understood. Three LMWOAs (ethanoic, malic, and citric acids) were employed to investigate their aging impacts on the biochars from furfural production residues at 300-600°C (BC300-600). The LMWOAs created abundant macropores in BC300, whereas they significantly increased the mesoporosity and surface area of BC600 by 13.5-27.0% and 44.6-61.5%, respectively. After LMWOA aging, the content of C and H of the biochars increased from 51.3-60.2% and 1.87-3.45% to 56.8-69.9% and 2.06-4.45%, respectively, but the O content decreased from 13.8-24.8% to 7.82-19.4% (except BC300). For carbon fraction in the biochars, the LMWOAs barely altered the bulk and surface functional properties during short-term aging. The LMWOAs facilitated the dissolution of minerals (e.g., K 2 Mg(PO 3 ) 4 , AlPO 4 , and Pb 2 P 2 O 7 ) and correspondingly promoted the release of not only plant nutrients (K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Fe 3+ , PO 4 3- , and SO 4 2- ) but also toxic metals (Al 3+ and Pb 2+ ). This research provided systematic insights on the responses of biochar properties to LMWOAs and presented direct evidence for acid activation of inorganic minerals in the biochars by LMWOAs, which could enhance the understanding of environmental behaviors of biochars in rhizosphere soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2014-01-01

    Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individu...

  13. Production and Purification Immunoglobulin against E. coli in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Nassiri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk. Materials and Methods Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the

  14. Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the diet of white leghorn layers. ... Evaluation was based on egg yolk colour intensity measured based on Roche colour fan scores, potassium dichromate grades and consumer preference scores on raw, boiled and fried egg samples. Egg production, feed ...

  15. Efficacy of egg-yolk citrate extender fortified with aqueous garlic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was designed to harness the potential of aqueous fresh and dried garlic extracts supplement in egg yolk extender for rooster semen to improve fertility and hatchability of egg. Aqueous extract of fresh and dry garlic were obtained and supplemented into egg yolk-citrate buffer at 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% for ...

  16. Geographical trends in the yolk carotenoid composition of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeva, T.; Ruuskanen, S.; Salminen, J.P.; Belskii, E.; Jarvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Korpimäki, E.; Krams, I.; Moreno, J.; Morosinotto, C.; Mänd, R.; Orell, M.; Qvarnström, A.; Siitari, H.; Slater, F.M.; Tilgar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Laaksonen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids in the egg yolks of birds are considered to be important antioxidants and immune stimulants during the rapid growth of embryos. Yolk carotenoid composition is strongly affected by the carotenoid composition of the female’s diet at the time of egg formation. Spatial and temporal

  17. Sex-specific effects of yolk testosterone on survival, begging and growth of zebra finches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Engelhardt, N; Carere, C; Dijkstra, C; Groothuis, TGG

    2006-01-01

    Yolk androgens affect offspring hatching, begging, growth and survival in many bird species. If these effects are sex-specific, yolk androgen deposition may constitute a mechanism for differential investment in male and female offspring. We tested this hypothesis in zebra finches. In this species,

  18. Comparison of yolk fatty acid content, blood and egg cholesterol of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POO) and Kilka fish oil (KFO) on yolk fatty acid content, ratio of fatty acids (FAs), antibody titre, and blood and yolk cholesterol of laying hens. One hundred White Hy-Line 26-wk-old (W-36) hens were allotted to 6 dietary treatments containing 0, 1.5 ...

  19. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B

    1990-01-01

    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  20. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  1. [14C]Virginiamycin residues in eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corpet, D.E.; Baradat, M.; Bories, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    Laying hens were fed ab libitum a diet supplemented at 40, 10, and 0 mg/kg with [ 14 C]virginiamycin, to determine whether or not virginamycin or its metabolites were transferred to the eggs. About 0.05% of the ingested 14 C dose was recovered in the eggs. Radiolabeled residues expressed in terms of virginiamycin equivalents were found to be 5.1 ng/g in the albumen and 31.8 ng/g in the yolk from hens fed a 10 mg/kg diet. No antibiotic activity could be detected in the eggs. Tentative identifications showed that in the albumen about 17% of the 14 C behaved chromatographically like virginiamycin and 18% was associated to the ovalbumin. In the yolk 31% of the 14 C was associated to proteins, 58% to fatty acids, and 4% to unsaponifiable matter

  2. Effect of food additives on egg yolk gelation induced by freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primacella, Monica; Fei, Tao; Acevedo, Nuria; Wang, Tong

    2018-10-15

    This study demonstrates technological advances in preventing yolk gelation during freezing and thawing. Gelation negatively affects yolk functionality in food formulation. Preventing gelation using 10% salt or sugar limits the application of the yolk. Novel food additives were tested to prevent gelation induced by freezing. Significant reduction (p freezing at -20 °C) indicates that hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose (HCMC), proline, and hydrolyzed egg white and yolk (HEW and HEY) are effective gelation inhibitors. The mechanisms in which these additives prevented gelation were further studied through measuring the changes in the amount of freezable water, lipoprotein particle size, and protein surface hydrophobicity. Overall, this study provides several alternatives of gelation inhibitor that have great potentials in replacing the use of salt or sugar in commercial operation of freezing egg yolk for shelf-life extension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Emerging Complimentary Medicine-Yolk Oil Made from Heating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ming Hu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Yolk oil is common in Asia. According to the Flora Sinensis, yolk oil is a multipurpose medicine, with specific dermatological and fever indications. Nowadays, it is generally used as a complimentary medicine for heart diseases. Yolk oil can be made from heating or chemical extraction method. It is generally believed that yolk oil made from heating (YOheat method is more effective as a medicine than that from extraction (YOext. The technical details of the heating method remain an issue of argument, including the degree of char and the threat of carcinogens formed during the heating process. Most yolk oil related studies used YOext as research material. Nevertheless, animal studies have showed that YOheat reduced triglycerides and total cholesterol in rodent liver. It is expected an easy-to-make complimentary medicine like YOheat may become even more common and thus evidence based studies should be conducted to verify its pharmacological effects and safety.

  4. High resolution T2 weighted liver MR imaging using functional residual capacity breath-hold with a 1.0-Tesla scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Akihiko; Katsuda, Toshizo; Gotanda, Rumi; Gotanda, Tatsuhiro; Mitani, Masahiko; Takeda, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: During acquisition of rapid high resolution (HR) T2 weighted (T2W) liver magnetic resonance (MR) images using a 1.0-Tesla (T) scanner, the liver is segmented into odd and even sections that are acquired at two different times using the multi-breath-hold (MBH) strategy. Misalignment between the two breath-hold (B-H) images may result in the occurrence of a blind area and a decrease in diagnostic accuracy. Here, a functional residual capacity (FRC) B-H method was developed to overcome this problem. Material and methods: Twenty-five volunteers were enrolled. The sagittal images were reconstructed from whole liver transverse images. When the B-H phases are different, misalignment may occur in the craniocaudal and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. In this study, misalignments of the abdominal wall were measured in the AP direction. The misalignment was compared between four B-H phases, maximum inspiration (MI), maximum expiration (ME), voluntary expiration (VE) and FRC using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Differences between groups were compared using the t-test for multi-group comparisons. In addition, qualitative analysis of misalignment was performed between VE and FRC in 52 clinical patients and the χ 2 test was performed. Results: The misalignment widths of FRC, ME, MI and VE B-Hs were 2.7 ± 3.8, 6.4 ± 7.4, 9.1 ± 8.4 and 6.0 ± 6.7 mm, respectively. Misalignment of the liver position using FRC was significantly smaller than for the other B-H methods (p < 0.05). Significant differences between the VE B-H and FRC B-H were also observed in the qualitative analysis (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The liver positions obtained when using FRC B-H were significantly more reproducible than when using the other B-H methods. The FRC B-H method resulted in a reduction in the blind area and an extension of the diagnostic area to the whole liver.

  5. Social environment during egg laying: Changes in plasma hormones with no consequences for yolk hormones or fecundity in female Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M A Langen

    Full Text Available The social environment can have profound effects on an individual's physiology and behaviour and on the transfer of resources to the next generation, with potential consequences for fecundity and reproduction. However, few studies investigate all of these aspects at once. The present study housed female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica in pairs or groups to examine the effects on hormone concentrations in plasma and yolk and on reproductive performance. Circulating levels of androgens (testosterone and 5-α-dihydrotestosterone and corticosterone were measured in baseline samples and after standardised challenges to assess the responsiveness of the females' endocrine axes. Effects of the social environment on female fecundity were analysed by measuring egg production, egg mass, fertilization rates, and number of hatched offspring. Counter to expectation, females housed in pairs had higher plasma androgen concentrations and slightly higher corticosterone concentrations than females housed in groups, although the latter was not statistically significant. Pair vs. group housing did not affect the females' hormonal response to standardised challenges or yolk testosterone levels. In contrast to previous studies, the females' androgen response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge was not related to yolk testosterone levels. Non-significant trends emerged for pair-housed females to have higher egg-laying rates and higher fertility, but no differences arose in egg weight or in the number, weight or size of hatchlings. We propose that our unexpected findings are due to differences in the adult sex ratio in our social treatments. In pairs, the male may stimulate female circulating hormone levels more strongly than in groups where effects are diluted due to the presence of several females. Future studies should vary both group size and sex composition to disentangle the significance of sexual, competitive and affiliative social interactions for

  6. The impact of N-glycosylation on conformation and stability of immunoglobulin Y from egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Long; He, Zhenjiao; Chen, Jiahui; Liu, Yaofa; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a new therapeutic antibody, and its applications in industry are very broad. To provide insight into the effects of N-glycosylation on IgY, its conformation and stability were studied. In this research, IgY was extracted from egg yolk and then digested by peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine-amidase. SDS-PAGE and infrared absorption spectrum showed that carbohydrates were distinctly reduced after enzymolysis. The circular dichroism spectrum indicated that the IgY molecule became more flexible and disordered after removal of N-glycan. The fluorescence intensity revealed that Trp residues were buried in a more hydrophobic environment after disposal of N-glycan. Storage stability decreased with the removal of oligosaccharide chains based on size-exclusion chromatography analysis. Deglycosylated IgY exhibited less resistance to guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding. After deglycosylation, IgY was more sensitive to pepsin. Therefore, N-glycosylation played an important role in the maintenance of the structure and stability of IgY. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Freezing, Thermal Pasteurization, and Hydrostatic Pressure on Fractionation and Folate Recovery in Egg Yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Nassim; Pouliot, Yves; House, James D; Doyen, Alain

    2017-09-06

    In this study, the impact of pasteurization and freezing of raw material, as performed at a commercial scale, on egg yolk fractionation and folate recovery was assessed. Freezing induced denaturation of the lipoproteins in egg yolk, which prevented further fractionation of the yolk. Thermal pasteurization of egg yolk at 61.1 °C for 3.5 min as well as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (400 MPa for 5 min) did not change (p < 0.05) the composition of egg yolk or yolk fractions after their recovery by centrifugation. Expressed as dry matter, folate in pasteurized yolk was measured to be 599 μg/100 g, while its concentration reached 1969.7 μg/100 g for pasteurized granule and 1902.5 μg/100 g for HHP-treated granule. Folate was not detected in plasma, emphasizing the complete separation of yolk folate into granule. Further, we studied the effect of HHP on different dilutions of egg yolk, which were then fractionated. Egg yolk was diluted with water at different concentrations (0.1, 1.0, 10, 25, and 50%), HHP-treated at 400 MPa for 5 min, and centrifuged. Characterization of the compositions of the separated granule and plasma followed. Folate was stable under the HHP conditions used. However, HHP caused separation of folate from the yolk structure into water-soluble plasma. After HHP processing, the amount of folate detected in the plasma fraction was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (1434.9 μg/100 g) in the 25% diluted samples but was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in HHP-treated granule samples. Native sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results showed that phosvitin, α-livetin, and apovitellenin VIa were the proteins most resistant to HHP. This study confirms that dilution of egg yolk before HHP treatment can significantly (p < 0.05) change the composition of granule and plasma fractions after centrifugal fractionation of egg yolk.

  8. Using life-histories to predict and interpret variability in yolk hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, O P; Gilchrist, H G; Bêty, J; Wynne-Edwards, K E; Berzins, L; Williams, T D

    2009-09-01

    Variation in yolk hormones is assumed to provide the plasticity necessary for mothers to individually optimize reproductive decisions via changes in offspring phenotype, the benefit being to maximise fitness. However, rather than routinely expecting adaptive variation within all species, the pattern and magnitude of yolk hormone deposition should theoretically relate to variation in life-histories. Here we present data on intra-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone in three species along a developmental continuum (European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): fully altricial; black guillemot (Cepphus grylle): semi-precocial; common eider (Somateria mollissima): fully precocial) to examine how and why variation in life-histories might relate to the evolution of variation in yolk steroids. Starlings and guillemots showed a significant increase in yolk corticosterone across the laying sequence; however, we found no pattern within eider clutches. Moreover, starlings showed the largest difference (94.6%) in yolk corticosterone between first- and last-laid eggs, whereas guillemots showed a moderate difference (58.9%). Despite these general species-specific patterns, individuals showed marked variation in the intra-clutch patterns of yolk corticosterone within each species indicating potential differences in intra-clutch flexibility among females. It is well documented that exposure to elevated yolk glucocorticoids reduces offspring quality at birth/hatching in many taxa and it has therefore been proposed that elevated yolk levels may modulate offspring competition and/or facilitate brood reduction under harsh conditions in birds. Our data suggests that intra-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone has the potential to act as an adaptive maternal effect in species where modulation of competition between nest-bound offspring would benefit mothers (starlings and guillemots). However, in precocial species where mothers would not benefit from a modulation of offspring quality

  9. Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Petz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Veterinary drugs and feed additives (especially some coccidiostats) can be absorbed by the digestive tract of laying hens and transferred to the egg. Physicochemical characteristics of these compounds determine their pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution to and within the egg. Traditionally the

  10. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  11. An unusual feature of yolk sac placentation in Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Favaron, P O; Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A M

    2012-01-01

    . Elsewhere it was non-villous and closely attached to the uterus. The uterine glands were shallow and wide mouthed. They were associated with vessels and filled with secretion, suggesting the release of histotroph. This feature was absent at later stages. The intimate association of the yolk sac......We studied the development of the inverted yolk sac in a New World rodent, Necromys lasiurus during early placentation. Ten implantation sites were investigated by means of histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. The yolk sac was villous near its attachment to the placenta...

  12. Use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Rojas V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an additive canthaxanthin based and annatto extract (Bixa orellana L. in diets of laying hens and its effect on the color of the yolk and the egg shelf life. Position 864 hens 34 to 45 weeks old, distributed in a completely randomized design with six replicates per treatment were used. Treatments were T0 (control diet, T1 (T0 + 30 g of canthaxanthin and annatto extract and T2 (T0 + 60 g of canthaxanthin and annatto extract. The results were 88.6; 91.9 and 90.8% for laying percentage; 60.5; 61.6 and 61.5 g for egg weight; 53.6; 56.4 and 55.7 g for egg mass. The yolk color temperature 7 °C for Roche scale was 6, 9 and 12 and colorimetric Minolta was to "L" of 42.10; 40.24 and 39.65; for "a" of 0.07; 3.68 and 6.44 and for "b" of 19.35; 18.36 and 18.18. Shelf life at room temperature 7 °C was 81, 86 and 90 UH. Lipid peroxidation was 0.10; 0.07 and 0.05 μmol MDA.g-1 yolk; for T0, T1 and T2 respectively. In all variables indicated statistically significant differences between treatments (p < 0.05. Food consumption was 103.9; 109.2 and 107.5 g and feed conversion of 1.94; 1.93 and 1.92. It is concluded that the addition of canthaxanthin and annatto extract to 30 and 60 g t-1 feed than the control, improved performance parameters, yolk color and egg shelf life.

  13. Effects of rice bran on performance, egg quality, oxidative status, yolk fatty acid composition, and fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Fouad, A M; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of different dietary levels of rice bran (RB) in laying duck diets on performance, egg quality, oxidation status, egg yolk fatty acid composition, and hepatic expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes. Longyan females (1080) with similar BW at 19 wk of age were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The basal diet (I) was a typical corn-soybean ration while the experimental diets (II to VI) substituted RB for corn and wheat bran and a small reduction of soybean meal. The level of substitution in diets (II to VI) was 6%, 12%, 18%, 24%, and 30%, respectively. The experiment lasted for 12 wks. Average egg weight and daily egg mass decreased linearly as the level of RB inclusion increased (Pegg yolk linearly decreased with increasing RB, and many of the key polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, linearly increased (Pegg yolk cholesterol or triglyceride content (P>0.05). In conclusion, the current study suggests that ducks from 19 to 31 wk could be fed diets with up to about 18% RB without effect on the number of eggs produced, egg quality, and oxidative status. Increasing amounts of RB linearly increased egg yolk concentrations of key fatty acids like C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 and decreased the hepatic abundance of FAS and SREBP-1 transcripts. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Development of the inverted visceral yolk sac in three species of caviids (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglino, M A; Franciolli, A L R; de Oliveira, M F; Ambrósio, C E; Bonatelli, M; Machado, M R F; Mess, A

    2008-08-01

    Guinea pig related rodents possess numerous derived placental characters. We attempt to identify diversity within the visceral yolk sac and its association with the chorioallantoic placenta in three species of caviids, two of them possessing a capsule formed by the decidua that covers the chorioallantoic placenta. The results verify that in early pregnancy all three species have an inverted yolk sac placenta. In advanced pregnancy the species differ: Galea spixii, as representative without a capsule, bear a yolk sac in apposition to the chorioallantoic placenta with signs of exchange activity until term. Galea is similar to other caviomorphs in this respect. In Dasyprocta leporina and Cuniculus paca, the representatives possessing a capsule, the yolk sac endoderm lacks signs of substance exchange. Evidently, the presence of a capsule prevents such an interaction. The variations established here must be considered if animal models for human placentation are required which have restricted access to the chorioallantoic placenta from the outside.

  15. Sphingomyelin exhibits greatly enhanced protection compared with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine against detergent bile salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, A.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Portincasa, P.; Palasciano, G.; Groen, A. K.; van Erpecum, K. J.

    2000-01-01

    Inclusion of phosphatidylcholine within bile salt micelles protects against bile salt-induced cytotoxicity. In addition to phosphatidylcholine, bile may contain significant amounts of sphingomyelin, particularly under cholestatic conditions. We compared protective effects of egg yolk

  16. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dziekońska Anna; Kinder Marek; Fraser Leyland; Strzeżek Jerzy; Kordan Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo) on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  17. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziekońska Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  18. High Yolk Testosterone Transfer Is Associated with an Increased Female Metabolic Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin; Canale, Cindy I; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Yolk androgens of maternal origin are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects. Although in many species short-term benefits of exposure to high yolk androgen concentrations for the offspring have been observed, females differ substantially in the amount of androgens they transfer to their eggs. It suggests that costs for the offspring or the mother constrain the evolution of maternal hormone transfer. However, to date, the nature of these costs remains poorly understood. Unlike most previous work that focused on potential costs for the offspring, we here investigated whether high yolk testosterone transfer is associated with metabolic costs (i.e., a higher metabolic rate) for the mother. We show that Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) females that deposit higher testosterone concentrations into their eggs have a higher resting metabolic rate. Because a higher metabolic rate is often associated with a shorter life span, this relationship may explain the negative association between yolk testosterone transfer and female longevity observed in the wild. Our results suggest that metabolic costs for the mother can balance the short-term benefits of yolk testosterone exposure for the offspring, thereby contributing to the maintenance of variation in maternal yolk hormone transfer in natural populations.

  19. Egg Yolk Protective Effect in Boar Spermatozoa Cooled at 5ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Vasile Rusu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many boar reproduction researches are directed to improve extenders and to increase cold shock protection of semen. Little research is focused on the influence of egg yolk combined with alternative cold shock protective media. Egg yolk could interfere with other compounds present in the extender composition. The influence of egg yolk addition was assessed in boar sperm cells, cooled at 5ºC, to elucidate its effect on motility and membrane integrity. Flow Cytometry and Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA were used to determine the rate of sperm with intact plasma and acrosomal membrane, respectively the sperm cells motility. Statistical analyses (T-Test were performed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00. Androhep Plus supplemented with 20% egg yolk (AhPlus+20%EY indicated a higher cold shock protection in progressive motility (93.9±2.64% and membrane integrity (79.78±4.14%, rather than the extender without egg yolk (p0.05. The combination egg yolk-AhPlus seems to be an alternative to standard extenders, conferring stability in boar sperm cells against cold shock.

  20. Giant seminoma case with very small yolk sac and embryo carcinoma components, detected by intensive histopathological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Nakaya, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We experienced the giant seminoma with 18 × 10 × 10 cm sized and about 2.6 kg weight of 25 year old patient. We intensively examined the histological tissue type distributions in this giant seminoma. Most of the tumor consisted of seminoma components. In addition, the tumor included the very small fragments of yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma component at the root part of the seminoma mass. This shows that intensive histological examination may contribute to the finding of other embryonic component of the large seminoma. This may show that leaving the seminoma growing may generate the other embryonic tumor component, not always big enough to find out in a routine procedure, during the growth, in the different way from the original mixed cell germ tumor.

  1. Egg Yolk Antibodies, State of the Art and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Rüdiger; Hlinak, Andreas

    1996-01-01

    Immunization of chickens and extraction of antibodies from egg yolk belongs to the alternative methods since the animals suffering is reduced by non-invasive antibody-sampling. Also, the number of animals needed to produce a certain amount of antibody can be reduced since chickens produce a significant higher antibody quantity than rabbits. Despite its several advantages this technology (IgY-technology) is rather scarcely used. Traditional behavior as well as limited or no information at all may hamper a broader acceptance at present. However, significant arguments exist in chicken housing, the choice of appropriate IgY-extraction methods and a lack of information regarding the use of IgY-antibodies. This paper intends to give a short introduction in the IgY-technology, to briefly discuss the state of the art and to inform on recent developments and discussions in this field. The suitability of IgY for special fields of application (as a result of the structural differences between IgY and IgG) is emphasized (e.g. assays combining IgG and IgY, immunization of chickens against highly conserved anti-genes). In addition, it is stressed that the IgY-technology as an alternative method can particularly integrate requirements of animal protection (reduce, replace, refine), science (characteristics of avian immune system and resulting properties of IgY) and economy (amount of IgY produced from one chicken).

  2. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, M.B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, J.R.A. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, A.C.V. [Departamento de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Fioretto, E.T. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Maria, D.A. [Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biofísica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-10

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers.

  3. Rat visceral yolk sac cells: viability and expression of cell markers during maternal diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aires, M.B.; Santos, J.R.A.; Souza, K.S.; Farias, P.S.; Santos, A.C.V.; Fioretto, E.T.; Maria, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of the visceral yolk sac (VYS) is critical for embryo organogenesis until final fetal development in rats, and can be affected by conditions such as diabetes. In view of the importance of diabetes during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal health, the objective of this study was to assess fetal weight, VYS cell markers, and viability in female Wistar rats (200-250 g) with induced diabetes (alloxan, 37 mg/kg) on the 8th gestational day (gd 8). At gd 15, rats from control (n=5) and diabetic (n=5) groups were anesthetized and laparotomized to remove the uterine horns for weighing of fetuses and collecting the VYS. Flow cytometry was used for characterizing VYS cells, and for determining mitochondrial activity, cell proliferation, DNA ploidy, cell cycle phases, and caspase-3 activity. Fetal weight was reduced in the diabetic group. Expression of the cell markers CD34, VEGFR1, CD115, CD117, CD14, CCR2, CD90, CD44, STRO-1, OCT3/4, and Nanog was detected in VYS cells in both groups. In the diabetic group, significantly decreased expression of CD34 (P<0.05), CCR2 (P<0.001), and OCT3/4 (P<0.01), and significantly increased expression of CD90 (P<0.05), CD117 (P<0.01), and CD14 (P<0.05) were observed. VYS cells with inactive mitochondria, activated caspase-3, and low proliferation were present in the rats with diabetes. Severe hyperglycemia caused by maternal diabetes had negative effects on pregnancy, VYS cell viability, and the expression of cell markers

  4. Effects on egg yolk colour of paprika or paprika combined with marigold flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Saito

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available COLOR-UP® and COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® were fed to a total of 144 twenty-five-week-old Charoen Pokphand brown laying hens to investigate whether yellow xanthophylls present in marigold flowers in combination with red xanthophylls from paprika fruit can further enhance egg yolk colour. The birds were randomly assigned to three groups: yellow corn basal diet control group (17.50 CP, 2750 kcal/kg ME; the 0.1% dietary paprika group; and the 0.1% dietary paprika plus 0.1% marigold group. Each group contained four replicates with 12 birds. Egg quality was recorded weekly from 25 to 28 weeks of age. Parameters did not show any difference except for egg yolk colour. Egg yolk colour scores were greater in the paprika group than in the control group (11.47 vs. 8.64; P<0.05. Egg yolk colour scores of the paprika plus marigold group (12.17 were higher than those of the paprika group (P<0.05. Compared with the control, mean lightness value decreased in the paprika plus marigold group (P<0.05, suggesting a deep egg yolk colour in this group. Redness, yellowness, and chroma were improved in both experimental groups (P<0.05. The spectral reflectance wavelength of egg yolk from the experimental groups increased between 600 and 700 nm, suggesting improved chroma. These results indicate that yellow xanthophylls from marigold flower extract (COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® in combination with red xanthophylls present in paprika (COLOR-UP® can further enhance egg yolk colour and chroma.

  5. Effects on egg yolk colour of paprika or paprika combined with marigold flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Komori

    Full Text Available COLOR-UP® and COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® were fed to a total of 144 twenty-five-week-old Charoen Pokphand brown laying hens to investigate whether yellow xanthophylls present in marigold flowers in combination with red xanthophylls from paprika fruit can further enhance egg yolk colour. The birds were randomly assigned to three groups: yellow corn basal diet control group (17.50 CP, 2750 kcal/kg ME; the 0.1% dietary paprika group; and the 0.1% dietary paprika plus 0.1% marigold group. Each group contained four replicates with 12 birds. Egg quality was recorded weekly from 25 to 28 weeks of age. Parameters did not show any difference except for egg yolk colour. Egg yolk colour scores were greater in the paprika group than in the control group (11.47 vs 8.64; P<0.05. Egg yolk colour scores of the paprika plus marigold group (12.17 were higher than those of the paprika group (P<0.05. Compared with the control, mean lightness value decreased in the paprika plus marigold group (P<0.05, suggesting a deep egg yolk colour in this group. Redness, yellowness and chroma were improved in both experimental groups (P<0.05. The spectral reflectance wavelength of egg yolk from the experimental groups increased between 600 and 700 nm, suggesting improved chroma. These results indicate that yellow xanthophylls from marigold flower extract (COLOR-UP YELLOW-S® in combination with red xanthophylls present in paprika (COLOR-UP® can further enhance egg yolk colour and chroma.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Glaze, J B; Welch, C M; Kerley, M; Hill, R A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). RFI_Regress was calculated using ADG_Regress (ADG calculated as the response of BW gain and DOF) and MMWT_PWG (metabolic midweight calculated throughout the postweaning gain test), considered the control in Red Angus. A similar calculation served as control for Charolais; RFI was calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weights (RFI_Calc). The RFI weaning weight (RFI_WW) was calculated using ADG_WW (ADG from weaning till the final out weight of the postweaning gain test) and MMWT_WW, calculated similarly. Overall average estimated DMI was highly correlated to the measurements derived over shorter periods, with 10 d being the least correlated and 60 d being the most correlated. The ADG_Calc (calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weight/DOF) and ADG_WW were highly correlated in Charolais. The ADG_Regress and ADG_Calc were highly correlated, and ADG_Regress and ADG_WW were moderately correlated in Red Angus. The control measures of RFI were highly correlated with the RFI_WW in Charolais and Red Angus. The outcomes of including abbreviated period DMI in the model with the weaning weight gain measurements showed that the model using 10 d of intake (RFI WW_10) was the least correlated with the control measures. The model with 60 d of intake had

  7. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  8. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks. For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks, period 2 (58 to 61 weeks, and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks. For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly improved (P < 0.05 at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05 at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05, and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05, but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  9. Failure of zinc to prevent dysmorphogenesis of cultured rat conceptuses by anti-yolk sac antiserum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, R.; Freeman, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Day 10 rat conceptuses were cultured for 48h in the presence of either cadmium or anti-vesceral yolk sac antiserum (AVYS). Cadmium was embryotoxic at concentrations exceeding 0.25 ug/ml while AVYS caused embryonic dysmorphogenesis, particularly affecting the optic vesicles, at concentrations of 2 ul/ml and above. The effect of pretreatment with zinc on embryotoxicity caused by cadmium or AVYS was studied. Zinc ameliorated the effects of cadmium but had no effect on AVYS-induced embryonic abnormalities. In a second set of experiments inhibition of 125 I-labelled PVP uptake by the yolk sac of cultured whole conceptuses was studied. Cadmium and AVYS both inhibited uptake compared to control cultures. Zinc again ameliorated the effect of cadmium but had no action against AVYS-induced inhibition. These results are in contrast to their previous findings using isolated cultured yolk sacs in which zinc ameliorated the inhibitory effects on 125 I-labelled PVP uptake of both cadmium and AVYS. These data show that in experiments using the isolated cultured yolk sac and the intact cultured conceptus, a qualitatively different response in yolk sac behavior is observed under similar experimental conditions

  10. Endocytosis of the major yolk proteins of the silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia: Uptake kinetics and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakosky, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The oocytes of Lepidopteran insects take up several yolk proteins in defined proportions even though their relative availability in the hemolymph changes during the several days required to complete yolk formation in all the eggs. There are three hemolymph yolk precursors, vitellogenin, microvitellogenin and lipophorin; one precursor, paravitellogenin is produced in the ovary. The control mechanism for their proportional endocytosis is not known. In this thesis, the author describe the purification of all four proteins and the radiolabeling of the hemolymph precursors. The radiolabeled proteins were tested with an in vitro incubation system to assess the biological activity of the proteins and the reliability of the incubation methods. All of the labeled probes were transferred from the incubation medium to yolk spheres within the oocyte in a saturable, energy-dependent, and stage-specific manner. The rates of uptake were similar to the estimated rates of uptake in situ. The concentration dependence of in vitro uptake was investigated and found to be consistent with in situ concentrations and the composition of yolk in mature eggs. Two precursors, vitellogenin and lipophorin, competed for uptake indicating that they share a common binding site while the third, microvitellin, did not compete with the others. Though vitellogenin and lipophorin competed for uptake, only vitellogenin displayed the unique ability to increase the uptake rate of microvitellin and fluid in vitro

  11. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus Yolk Sac Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Illing

    Full Text Available This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW. In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish.

  12. Improved fatty acid analysis of conjugated linoleic acid rich egg yolk triacylglycerols and phospholipid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jack; Proctor, Andrew

    2014-07-16

    Reports from chicken conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding trials are limited to yolk total fatty acid composition, which consistently described increased saturated fatty acids and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids. However, information on CLA triacylglycerol (TAG) and phospholipid (PL) species is limited. This study determined the fatty acid composition of total lipids in CLA-rich egg yolk produced with CLA-rich soy oil, relative to control yolks using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), determined TAG and PL fatty acid compositions by thin-layer chromatography-GC-FID (TLC-GC-FID), identified intact PL and TAG species by TLC-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC-MALDI-MS), and determined the composition of TAG and PL species in CLA and control yolks by direct flow infusion electrospray ionization MS (DFI ESI-MS). In total, 2 lyso-phosphatidyl choline (LPC) species, 1 sphingomyelin species, 17 phosphatidyl choline species, 19 TAG species, and 9 phosphatidyl ethanolamine species were identified. Fifty percent of CLA was found in TAG, occurring predominantly in C52:5 and C52:4 TAG species. CLA-rich yolks contained significantly more LPC than did control eggs. Comprehensive lipid profiling may provide insight on relationships between lipid composition and the functional properties of CLA-rich eggs.

  13. Direct Effects of Microalgae and Protists on Herring (Clupea harengus) Yolk Sac Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Moyano, Marta; Niemax, Jan; Peck, Myron A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of microalgae (Rhodomonas baltica) and heterotrophic protists (Oxyrrhis marina) on the daily growth, activity, condition and feeding success of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae from hatch, through the end of the endogenous (yolk sac) period. Yolk sac larvae were reared in the presence and absence of microplankton and, each day, groups of larvae were provided access to copepods. Larvae reared with microalgae and protists exhibited precocious (2 days earlier) and ≥ 60% increased feeding incidence on copepods compared to larvae reared in only seawater (SW). In the absence and presence of microalgae and protists, life span and growth trajectories of yolk sac larvae were similar and digestive enzyme activity (trypsin) and nutritional condition (RNA-DNA ratio) markedly declined in all larvae directly after yolk sac depletion. Thus, microplankton promoted early feeding but was not sufficient to alter life span and growth during the yolk sac phase. Given the importance of early feeding, field programs should place greater emphasis on the protozooplankton-ichthyoplankton link to better understand match-mismatch dynamics and bottom-up drivers of year class success in marine fish.

  14. A Novel Pattern of Yolk Processing in Developing Snake Eggs (Colubridae: Lampropeltini) and its Functional and Evolutionary Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kathryn G; Blackburn, Daniel G

    2017-07-01

    Early amniotic vertebrates evolved large-yolked eggs that permitted production of well-developed, terrestrial hatchlings. This reproductive pattern required new mechanisms for cellularizing the yolk and mobilizing it for embryonic use. In birds, cells that line the yolk sac cavity phagocytose and digest the yolk material, a pattern that is commonly assumed to be universal among oviparous amniotes. However, recent evidence challenges the assumption that all squamate reptiles conform to the avian developmental pattern. In this paper, scanning electron microscopy and histology were used to study mechanisms of yolk processing in two colubrid snakes, the kingsnake Lampropeltis getula and the milksnake L. triangulum. Endodermal cells from the yolk sac splanchnopleure proliferate massively as they invade the yolk sac cavity, forming elaborate chains of interlinked cells. These cells grow in size as they phagocytose yolk material. Subsequently, vitelline capillaries invade the masses of yolk-laden cells and become coated with the endodermal cells, forming an elaborate meshwork of cell-coated strands. The close association of cells, yolk, and blood vessels allows yolk material to be cellularized, digested, and transported for embryonic use. The overall pattern is like that of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus, but contrasts markedly with that of birds. Given recent evidence that this developmental pattern may also occur in certain lizards, we postulate that it is ancestral for squamates. Studies of lizards, crocodilians, and turtles are needed to clarify the evolutionary history of this pattern and its implications for the evolution of the amniotic (terrestrial) vertebrate egg. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Bowden, Rachel M; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Zebrafish Embryonic Lipidomic Analysis Reveals that the Yolk Cell Is Metabolically Active in Processing Lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fraher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of lipids in providing energy and structural cellular components during vertebrate development is poorly understood. To elucidate these roles further, we visualized lipid deposition and examined expression of key lipid-regulating genes during zebrafish embryogenesis. We also conducted a semiquantitative analysis of lipidomic composition using liquid chromatography (LC-mass spectrometry. Finally, we analyzed processing of boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY lipid analogs injected into the yolk using thin layer chromatography. Our data reveal that the most abundant lipids in the embryo are cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and triglyceride. Moreover, we demonstrate that lipids are processed within the yolk prior to mobilization to the embryonic body. Our data identify a metabolically active yolk and body resulting in a dynamic lipid composition. This provides a foundation for studying lipid biology during normal or pharmacologically compromised embryogenesis.

  17. Metabolic fate of yolk fatty acids in the developing king penguin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groscolas, René; Fréchard, Françoise; Decrock, Frédéric; Speake, Brian K

    2003-10-01

    This study examines the metabolic fate of total and individual yolk fatty acids (FA) during the embryonic development of the king penguin, a seabird characterized by prolonged incubation (53 days) and hatching (3 days) periods, and a high n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated FA ratio in the egg. Of the approximately 15 g of total FA initially present in the egg lipid, 87% was transferred to the embryo by the time of hatching, the remaining 13% being present in the internalized yolk sac of the chick. During the whole incubation, 83% of the transferred FA was oxidized for energy, with only 17% incorporated into embryo lipids. Prehatching (days 0-49), the fat stores (triacylglycerol) accounted for 58% of the total FA incorporated into embryo lipid. During hatching (days 49-53), 40% of the FA of the fat stores was mobilized, the mobilization of individual FA being nonselective. At hatch, 53% of the arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) of the initial yolk had been incorporated into embryo lipid compared with only 15% of the total FA and 17-24% of the various n-3 polyunsaturated FA. Similarly, only 32% of the yolk's initial content of 20:4n-6 was oxidized for energy during development compared with 72% of the total FA and 58-66% of the n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The high partitioning of yolk FA toward oxidization and the intense mobilization of fat store FA during hatching most likely reflect the high energy cost of the long incubation and hatching periods of the king penguin. The preferential partitioning of 20:4n-6 into the structural lipid of the embryo in the face of its low content in the yolk may reflect the important roles of this FA in tissue function.

  18. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Yousr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF. Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y and tryptophan (W, in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23 and KLSDW (EYGF-33, contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56 was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69% and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL. The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL. In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33 (10 mg/mL had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  19. Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Bioactive Peptides Purified from Egg Yolk Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa; Howell, Nazlin

    2015-12-07

    Protein by-products from the extraction of lecithin from egg yolk can be converted into value-added products, such as bioactive hydrolysates and peptides that have potential health enhancing antioxidant, and antihypertensive properties. In this study, the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of peptides isolated and purified from egg yolk protein were investigated. Defatted egg yolk was hydrolyzed using pepsin and pancreatin and sequentially fractionated by ultrafiltration, followed by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fractions (EYGF). Of these, two fractions, EYGF-23 and EYGF-33, effectively inhibited the peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in an oxidizing linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant mechanism involved superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and ferrous chelation. The presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as tyrosine (Y) and tryptophan (W), in sequences identified by LC-MS as WYGPD (EYGF-23) and KLSDW (EYGF-33), contributed to the antioxidant activity and were not significantly different from the synthetic BHA antioxidant. A third fraction (EYGF-56) was also purified from egg yolk protein by gel filtration and exhibited high ACE inhibitory activity (69%) and IC50 value (3.35 mg/mL). The SDNRNQGY peptide (10 mg/mL) had ACE inhibitory activity, which was not significantly different from that of the positive control captopril (0.5 mg/mL). In addition, YPSPV in (EYGF-33) (10 mg/mL) had higher ACE inhibitory activity compared with captopril. These findings indicated a substantial potential for producing valuable peptides with antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activity from egg yolk.

  20. Yolk coelomitis in a white-throated monitor lizard (Varanus albigularis : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Gardner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Yolk coelomitis as a result of pre-ovulatory follicular stasis is a common disorder in captive reptiles, especially in captive lizards of various genera. The clinical signs are generally fairly non-specific and diagnosis is based on clinical signs together with most of the common diagnostic modalities. The condition is most likely a husbandry and environment-related reproductive disorder. It has not been reported in wild free-living specimens. This report describes the clinical presentation and post mortem lesions in a white-throated monitor lizard that died during treatment for non-specific clinical signs related to a severe yolk coelomitis.

  1. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Induction of rat yolk sac carcinomas with consistent pattern of laminin, entactin, and type IV collagen biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four yolk sac carcinomas in Lewis rats were experimentally induced by puncturing the pregnant uterine wall with a hypodermic needle at day 9-13 of gestation. Morphologically, the tumours were composed of parietal- and visceral yolk sac carcinoma and to a less degree of trophoblastic giant...

  3. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

  4. Bioavailability of lutein from a lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage and its dried re-suspended versions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunger, M.; Quataert, M.C.J.; Kamps, L.M.; Versloot, P.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Togtema, K.A.; Amerongen, van A.; Mensink, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Drying a fresh lutein-enriched egg-yolk beverage would extend its shelf life, however, functional properties should not be affected. It was investigated whether consumption of a dried beverage containing lutein-enriched egg-yolk significantly increases serum lutein. One-hundred healthy young

  5. Cu₂O template synthesis of high-performance PtCu alloy yolk-shell cube catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Sheng-Hua; He, Xu-Jun; Ding, Liang-Xin; Pan, Zheng-Wei; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Wu, Mingmei; Li, Gao-Ren

    2014-10-21

    Novel PtCu alloy yolk-shell cubes were fabricated via the disproportionation and displacement reactions in Cu2O yolk-shell cubes, and they exhibit significantly improved catalytic activity and durability for methanol electrooxidation.

  6. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  7. Reflection of serum immunoglobulin isotypes in the egg yolk of laying hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Nath Barman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the seroconversion and development of egg yolk immunoglobulins in adult laying White Leghorn hens immunized against an isolate of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC bearing K91 and K88ac antigens, obtained from diarrheic piglet. Materials and Methods: Adult laying White Leghorn hens were immunized with inactivated enterotoxic E. coli strain isolated originally from a case of piglet diarrhea following recommended schedule. The development of whole antibodies and isotype-specific antibodies in serum and egg yolk were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Piglets suffering from diarrhea with fecal samples positive for ETEC were fed with egg yolk and compared with diarrheic control group. Results: The serum and egg yolk ELISA antibody titer against E. coli strain used in the present study was as high as 2666.66±307.92 and 933.33±203.67 respectively on 50 day-post-vaccination (DPV. The immunoglobulin Y (IgY was the predominant isotype in serum and egg yolk, which reached the peak titer of 2200±519.61 in serum on 40 DPV and 800±244.94 in egg yolk on 50 DPV. IgM titer in serum and egg yolk was found to be meager, and no IgA could be detected. Diarrheic piglets fed with the egg yolk suspension from immunized hens showed a promising result in controlling diarrhea. Conclusion: Egg yolk antibodies are considered a suitable immunotherapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy. High titer of egg yolk antibodies raised in the immunized hen against an isolate of ETEC holds the potential to be used for passive protection of diarrheic piglets during their most susceptible period of infection.

  8. Biotic and environmental stress induces nitration and changes in structure and function of the sea urchin major yolk protein toposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; Ferraro, Giarita; Maffioli, Elisa; Marasco, Daniela; Merlino, Antonello; Zingone, Adriana; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Palumbo, Anna

    2018-03-15

    The major yolk protein toposome plays crucial roles during gametogenesis and development of sea urchins. We previously found that nitration of toposome increases in the gonads of a Paracentrotus lividus population living in a marine protected area affected by toxic blooms of Ostreospsis cf. ovata, compared to control populations. This modification is associated with ovatoxin accumulation, high levels of nitric oxide in the gonads, and a remarkable impairment of progeny development. However, nothing is known about the environmental-mediated-regulation of the structure and biological function of toposome. Here, we characterize through wide-ranging biochemical and structural analyses the nitrated toposome of sea urchins exposed to the bloom, and subsequently detoxified. The increased number of nitrated tyrosines in toposome of sea urchins collected during algal bloom induced structural changes and improvement of the Ca 2+ -binding affinity of the protein. After 3 months' detoxification, ovatoxin was undetectable, and the number of nitric oxide-modified tyrosines was reduced. However, the nitration of specific residues was irreversible and occurred also in embryos treated with metals, used as a proxy of environmental pollutants. The structural and functional changes of toposome caused by nitration under adverse environmental conditions may be related to the defective development of sea urchins' progeny.

  9. Reproductive tradeoffs and yolk steroids in female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Crews, D; Fivizzani, A; Elf, P

    2006-11-01

    Life history theory predicts tradeoffs among reproductive traits, but the physiological mechanisms underlying such tradeoffs remain unclear. Here we examine reproductive tradeoffs and their association with yolk steroids in an oviparous lizard. Female leopard geckos lay two eggs in a clutch, produce multiple clutches in a breeding season, and reproduce for several years. We detected a significant tradeoff between egg size and the number of clutches laid by females during their first two breeding seasons. Total reproductive effort was strongly condition-dependent in the first season, but much less so in the second season. Although these and other tradeoffs were unmistakable, they were not associated with levels of androstenedione, oestradiol, or testosterone in egg yolk. Female condition and egg size, however, were inversely related to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in egg yolk. Finally, steroid levels in egg yolk were not directly related to steroid levels in the maternal circulation when follicles were developing, indicating that steroid transfer to eggs is regulated. These findings suggest that maternal allocation of DHT could mitigate tradeoffs that lead to poor offspring quality (i.e. poor female condition) and small offspring size (i.e. small egg size).

  10. Maternal androgens in egg yolks : Relation with sex, incubation time and embryonic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, C.M; Müller, W; Dijkstra, C.; Groothuis, A.G.G.

    2003-01-01

    Hormones of maternal origin are known to be transferred to the egg yolks of oviparous species. Several studies have shown that within and between clutch variation of maternal androgens may be adaptively tuned. Moreover, it has recently been hypothesized that sex steroids of maternal origin may play

  11. Ovarian mixed germ cell tumor with yolk sac and teratomatous components in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Manivel, J Carlos; Olson, Erik J

    2013-05-01

    Mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary have rarely been reported in veterinary species. A 3-year-old intact female Labrador Retriever dog was presented for lethargy, abdominal distention, and a midabdominal mass. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large (23 cm in diameter) left ovarian tumor and multiple small (2-3 cm in diameter) pale tan masses on the peritoneum and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histological examination of the left ovary revealed a mixed germ cell tumor with a yolk sac component with rare Schiller-Duval bodies and a teratomatous component comprised primarily of neural differentiation. The abdominal metastases were solely comprised of the yolk sac component. The yolk sac component was diffusely immunopositive for cytokeratin with scattered cells reactive for α-fetoprotein and placental alkaline phosphatase. Within the teratomatous component, the neuropil was diffusely immunopositive for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and neurofilaments with a few glial fibrillary acidic protein immunopositive cells. Ovarian germ cell tumors may be pure and consist of only 1 germ cell element or may be mixed and include more than 1 germ cell element, such as teratoma and yolk sac tumor.

  12. Yolk@Shell Nanoarchitectures with Bimetallic Nanocores-Synthesis and Electrocatalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiet, Amandine; Unmüssig, Tobias; Göbel, Caren; Vainio, Ulla; Wollgarten, Markus; Driess, Matthias; Schlaad, Helmut; Polte, Jörg; Fischer, Anna

    2016-10-10

    In the present paper, we demonstrate a versatile approach for the one-pot synthesis of metal oxide yolk@shell nanostructures filled with bimetallic nanocores. This novel approach is based on the principles of hydrophobic nanoreactor soft-templating and is exemplified for the synthesis of various AgAu NP @tin-rich ITO (AgAu@ITO TR ) yolk@shell nanomaterials. Hydrophobic nanoreactor soft-templating thereby takes advantage of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpiridine) inverse micelles as two-compartment nanoreactor template, in which the core and the shell of the micelles serve as metal and metal oxide precursor reservoir, respectively. The composition, size and number of AuAg bimetallic nanoparticles incorporated within the ITO TR yolk@shell can easily be tuned. The conductivity of the ITO TR shell and the bimetallic composition of the AuAg nanoparticles, the as-synthesized AuAg NP @ITO TR yolk@shell materials could be used as efficient electrocatalysts for electrochemical glucose oxidation with improved onset potential when compared to their gold counterpart.

  13. Measurement of Iron in Egg Yolk: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment Using Biochemical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kevin M.; Quiazon, Emmanuel M.; Indralingam, Ramee

    2008-01-01

    The generally accepted method to determine iron content in food is by acid digestion or dry ashing and subsequent flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We have developed an experiment that chemically extracts the iron from an egg yolk and quantifies it using UV-vis absorption…

  14. Colour and viscosity of egg yolk after addition of beetroot to feed for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kopřiva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The colour and viscosity of egg yolk are among major indicators assessed by consumers and food technology. This study attempts to evaluate the colour and viscosity of yolk in laying hens’ eggs after the addition of dried beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta var. rubra at the amount of 1% and 2% per feeding dose (in July and August 2012. The experiment was performed on 24 hens that were divided into three groups of 8 laying hens. The preparatory phase lasted one week (standard diet, followed by four weeks during which experimental layers received a diet enriched with beetroot. Then, all layers were fed a mixture without beetroot for the following four weeks. Eggs were collected during the whole period of 8 weeks. In total, 30 eggs from each group were subjected to analysis. The colour of eggs was determined using spectrophotometry, by the Colour-guide sphere spex portable colorimeter. The results showed a significant (P ab did not show a significant difference (P < 0.05 between the control and experimental groups. The egg yolk viscosity was lower in experimental groups compared to the control group but the difference was not significant. The addition of dried beetroot at the amount of 1 and 2% per feeding dose had no effect on colour and viscosity. This paper supported the null hypothesis that the addition of dried beetroot to the feeding dose at the amount of 1% and 2% has no effect on the colour and viscosity of egg yolk.

  15. Penguin Chicks Benefit from Elevated Yolk Androgen Levels under Sibling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poisbleau, Maud; Mueller, Wendt; Carslake, David; Demongin, Laurent; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Van Camp, Jeff; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Martina S.; Roelofs, Yvonne; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Deschner, Tobias; Müller, Wendt; Reina, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Crested penguins (genus Eudyptes) have a peculiar hatching pattern, with the first-laid egg (A-egg) hatching after the second-laid egg (B-egg) and chicks from A-eggs typically having a much lower survival probability. Maternal yolk androgens have been suggested to contribute to the competitive

  16. Increased exposure to yolk testosterone has feminizing effects in chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedstra, B.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    Competing for food by altricial and semiprecocial bird nestlings is a behaviour well known for its sensitivity to maternal androgens during prenatal development. Whether a similar effect is present in precocial species that do not beg is less well known. We therefore increased yolk testosterone

  17. Testosterone influences song behaviour and social dominance – But independent of prenatal yolk testosterone exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, maternally derived yolk androgens have been shown to significantly alter offspring development, and a number of these effects persist into adulthood. However, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Mechanisms that have been suggested are changes in the endogenous

  18. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... for diagnostic testing. (b) The authorized laboratory must identify each egg as to the breeding flock...

  19. Antiproliferative Activity of Egg Yolk Peptides in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousr, Marwa N; Aloqbi, Akram A; Omar, Ulfat M; Howell, Nazlin K

    2017-01-01

    Egg yolk peptides were successfully prepared from egg yolk protein by-products after lecithin extraction. Defatted egg yolk protein was hydrolyzed with pepsin and pancreatin and purified by gel filtration to produce egg yolk gel filtration fraction (EYGF-33) with antiproliferative activity. The highlight of this study was that the peptide EYGF-33 (1.0 mg/ml) significantly inhibits cell viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2) with no inhibitory effects on the viability of human colon epithelial normal cells (HCEC) after 48 h. Reduced cell viability can be explained by cell cycle arrest in the S-phase in which DNA replication normally takes place. EYGF-33 significantly enhanced the production of superoxide anions in the mitochondria of Caco-2 cells; this could activate a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway leading to typical Poly Adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage as observed in the Western blot result. The induction of apoptotic cell death by EYGF-33 was supported by the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS). However, further elucidation of the mechanism of EYGF-33-mediated apoptosis would provide further support for its use as a potential therapeutic and chemopreventive agent.

  20. Diagnostic utility of egg yolk for the detection of avian metapneumovirus antibodies in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Yoo, Yae-Na; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2010-12-01

    Surveillance and diagnosis of avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) infection typically involve measurement of serum antibodies. In the current study, eggs instead of serum samples were used for the detection of AMPV antibodies in egg-laying chicken hens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). AMPV-free commercial layer hens were experimentally challenged with AMPV strain SC1509 through intravenous or oculonasal administration. Antibody levels were determined by ELISA. AMPV antibodies were detected in egg yolks from challenged hens by 7 days postinoculation (dpi), with the peak titer at 16 dpi. Antibody levels in eggs laid at 28 dpi correlated well (r = 0.93) with sera taken 28 dpi from the same hens. In a field trial of the yolk ELISA, six broiler breeder farms were surveyed, and all tested positive for AMPV antibodies in hen eggs, although positivity varied from farm to farm. Abnormal discolored eggs collected from outbreak farms had significantly higher titers of AMPV yolk antibodies than normal eggs from the same farm, unlike clinically healthy farms, where normal and abnormal eggs had similar antibody titers. These results indicate that diagnosis of AMPV infection by yolk ELISA to detect anti-AMPV antibodies may be a suitable alternative to serologic testing.

  1. Manipulative signals in family conflict? On the function of maternal yolk hormones in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Wendt; Lessells, C(Kate). M.; Korsten, Peter; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus

    Maternal hormones in the yolk of birds' eggs have been a focus of attention in behavioral and evolutionary ecology stimulated by the pioneering work of Hubert Schwabl. Since then, knowledge of both the factors that influence maternal deposition patterns and their consequences for offspring

  2. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  3. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12 from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull with mass motility (≥3+ and total motility (70% and above were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01 higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01 higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05 higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%.

  4. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  5. Effect of dietary energy and protein on the performance, egg quality, bone mineral density, blood properties and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakibul Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary metabolizable energy (ME and crude protein (CP on the performance, egg quality, blood properties, bone characteristics and yolk fatty acid composition of organic laying hens. At 23 weeks, a total of 600 Brown nick laying hens were randomly distributed into 24 outdoor pens (4 replicate pens/treatment; 25 birds/pen and were given (2750, 2775 and 2800 kcal of ME/kg and CP (16 and 17% resulting in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of organic dietary treatments. The experiment lasted 23 weeks. The performance of laying hens were not affected by the dietary treatment while the egg weight was increased with energy and CP levels in the diet (P<0.05. Serum total protein was not affected by dietary energy and protein level. Total cholesterol and triglyceride tend to reduce with the increasing amount of CP in the diet. Thereafter, bone and egg quality characteristics were numerically increased in dietary 2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. On the other hand, docosahexanoic acid content in egg yolk was higher (P<0.01 in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 17% CP treatment. As a result, the performance, blood and fatty acid composition were maximized in 2750 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP treatment. Thus, dietary 2750-2775 kcal of ME/kg and 16% CP may enhance performance, blood and fatty acid composition of organic laying hens.

  6. Estimation of selected residual antibiotics in muscle, kidney, liver, and egg of layer chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, H.; Iqbal, J.; Naeem, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present studies were conducted for the estimation of quinolone residues in our local poultry products. The poultry products included muscle, kidney, liver and egg (yolk and white). The quinolones included in this study were, oxolonic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. An assessment of the variation of each analyte (quinolones antibiotic residues) in these products was made. A comparison was made among the analyte (quinolones) concentrations in different tissues/organs and their internationally permissible safer maximum residue limits (MRLS'). Infra Red spectra were used to detect the presence and identification of different quinolones. HPLC with ODS Column and U.V. detector was used for the quantification. (author)

  7. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  9. Biofortified orange maize enhances β-cryptoxanthin concentrations in egg yolks of laying hens better than tangerine peel fortificant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heying, Emily K; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; Vasic, Vedran; Cook, Mark; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-12-10

    The xanthophyll β-cryptoxanthin provides vitamin A and has other purported health benefits. Laying hens deposit xanthophyll carotenoids into egg yolk. Hens (n = 8/group) were fed conventional-bred high β-cryptoxanthin biofortified (orange) maize, tangerine peel-fortified white maize, lutein-fortified yellow maize, or white maize for 40 d to investigate yolk color changes using L*a*b* scales, yolk carotenoid enhancement, and hen vitamin A status. Yolks from hens fed orange maize had scores indicating a darker, orange color and mean higher β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene concentrations (8.43 ± 1.82, 23.1 ± 4.8, 0.16 ± 0.08 nmol/g, respectively) than other treatments (P eggs could be another choice for consumers, providing enhanced color through a provitamin A carotenoid and supporting eggs' status as a functional food.

  10. Characterization of PHB1 and its role in mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development of Artemia embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To cope with harsh environments, crustaceans such as Artemia produce diapause gastrula embryos (cysts with suppressed metabolism. Metabolism and development resume during post-diapause development, but the mechanism behind these cellular events remains largely unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Our study investigated the role of prohibitin 1 (PHB1 in metabolic reinitiation during post-diapause development. We found that PHB1 was developmentally regulated via changes in phosphorylation status and localization. Results from RNA interference experiments demonstrated PHB1 to be critical for mitochondrial maturation and yolk degradation during development. In addition, PHB1 was present in yolk platelets, and it underwent ubiquitin-mediated degradation during the proteolysis of yolk protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PHB1 has an indispensable role in coordinating mitochondrial maturation and yolk platelet degradation during development in Artemia. This novel function of PHB1 provides new clues to comprehend the roles of PHB1 in metabolism and development.

  11. Evaluation of yolk protein as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    is also regulated by estrogens in molluscs even though it still remains unknown if and where vertebrate steroids are synthesized in molluscs and regulation of the endocrine system in molluscs is also unknown. By using our newly developed ELISA the present work investigates if yolk protein is a suitable......During recent years invertebrates and especially molluscs have received increasing attention in the field of endocrine disruption and development of OECD test guidelines to assess the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in molluscs is under development. The development of standardized...... tests to detect effects of EDCs in molluscs has proved cumbersome due to lack of specific biomarkers and endpoints for endocrine effects. Intersex (presence of oocytes in the testis) and induction of vitellogenin (the yolk protein precursor in oviparous vertebrates) have been used as biomarkers for EDCs...

  12. Interspecies variation in yolk selenium concentrations among eggs of free-living birds: The effect of phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Athanasios C; Karadas, Filiz; Surai, Peter F; Wood, Nicholas A R; Cassey, Phillip; Bortolotti, Gary R; Speake, Brian K

    2006-01-01

    Birds deposit the trace element selenium (Se) into their eggs because an adequate supply of this micronutrient is essential for embryonic development. Although there is considerable interest in egg Se with regard to topics as diverse as poultry nutrition and environmental pollution, data on the natural levels of Se in eggs of free-living avian species are currently very limited. To address this lack of information, we measured the yolk Se concentrations in eggs of 14 avian species collected in the wild. The concentrations (ng/g wet yolk) varied from 394 to 2238, with a mean value of 1040. Values (means+/-SD) for eggs from the UK, Canada and New Zealand were, respectively, 522+/-192 (3 species), 1194+/-584 (8 species) and 1147+/-200 (3 species). However, analysis by appropriate statistical models indicates that the effect of phylogenetic relatedness among these species is so significant that it removes any effect of geographical location. In particular, species belonging to the order Passeriformes displayed significantly higher yolk Se levels than Non-Passeriforme species. In marked contrast to the free-living species, our previously published data indicate that the Se concentration in egg yolk of the domestic chicken is only about 100 ng/g wet yolk when the birds are maintained on a basal commercial diet without supplementary Se. The results reveal an extensive interspecies variation in yolk Se (across a 6-fold range) for eggs collected from the wild. Nevertheless, the Se concentrations in the yolks of all the free-living species were far higher (4-21-fold) than that achieved in the yolk of the domestic chicken consuming a standard basal diet.

  13. Comparison of Bioactive Compound Content in Egg Yolk Oil Extracted from Eggs Obtained from Different Laying Hen Housing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandrs Kovalcuks

    2015-01-01

    Egg yolk oil is a natural source of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins, pigments and others. Bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil depends from its content in eggs, from which oil was extracted. Many studies show that bioactive compound content in egg is correlated to the content of these compounds in hen feed, but there is also an opinion that hen housing systems also have influence on egg chemical content. The aim of this stud...

  14. Comparing sugar type supplementation for cryopreservation of boar semen in egg yolk based extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Gonzalez, N; Cano, R; de Blas, I; Espinosa, E

    2010-08-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to lower fertility when compared to fresh semen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of different sugars (lactose, trehalose and glucose) on boar spermatozoa cryopreserved in an egg yolk based extender. Ejaculates were collected from a boar previously selected and semen samples were processed using the straw freezing procedure. In experiment 1, subsamples of semen were frozen in three different extenders: recommended lactose egg yolk extender (LEY); trehalose egg yolk extender (TEY) and glucose egg yolk extender (GEY). Sperm quality was assessed for motility, viability, acrosome integrity and hypoosmotic swelling test response upon collection, after freezing and thawing and then every hour for 3h. Results showed that total motility at 1 and 3h, progressive motility at 3h, positive hypoosmotic response at 2 and 3h and acrosome integrity at all times were significantly improved when trehalose was added to the extender. In experiment 2, sugar influence was also demonstrated in vitro fertilization. A total of 1691 oocytes were in vitro matured and inseminated with frozen-thawed sperm at 2000:1 sperm:oocyte ratio and coincubated for 6h. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in NCSU-23 medium to assess fertilization parameters and embryo development. Both penetration and monospermy rates were significantly higher for trehalose frozen semen. A significant increase was observed in efficiency and blastocyst formation rates from TEY to the other groups. Our results demonstrated that trehalose extender enhances spermatozoa viability and its in vitro fertilization parameters in boar ejaculates with good sperm freezability. Further studies are necessary to assess the impact of sugars on the entire population. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of DHA-enriched hen egg yolk and L-cysteine supplementation on quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched hen egg yolks and L-cysteine supplementation on the qualities of the cryopreserved boar semen. A total of 15 ejaculates from 5 Pietrain boars were divided into 4 groups according to the compositions of the freezing extenders used, that is, normal hen egg yolk (group I), DHA-enriched hen egg yolk (group II), normal hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L(-1) of cysteine supplementation (group III) and DHA-enriched hen egg yolk with 5 mmol L(-1) of cysteine supplementation (group IV). The semen was cryopreserved using controlled rate freezer and was thawed at 50 degrees C for 12 s. Progressive motility, sperm viability, acrosome integrity and functional integrity of sperm plasma membrane of the post-thawed semen were evaluated. The supplementation of L-cysteine in the freezing extender alone (group III) improved progressive motility (P semen qualities (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the supplementation of antioxidant L-cysteine alone or in combination with DHA-enriched hen egg yolk significantly improved the post-thawed semen qualities, especially progressive motility and acrosome integrity.

  16. Influence of natural and synthetic carotenoids on the color of egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Papa Spada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carotenoids are incorporated into the diet of laying hens in order to modify the yolk color. A natural source of carotenoids in tropical countries is annatto, which could be used in the diets of hens. This study aimed to evaluate the addition of natural (annatto and synthetic carotenoids to the diet of laying hens (commercial and alternative and their effects on yolk color and consumer sensory perception of fresh and stored eggs obtained from two different preparations (boiled and fried. Physicochemical analysis of proximate composition, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, emulsion activity and instrumental color were performed. Cooking caused significant alterations to the moisture in the preparations and this may have directly affected the color intensity, influencing factors related to egg appearance. In this study, 85 % of the panelists indicated that yolk color is an important attribute of the product’s quality. There was no antioxidant effect of the carotenoids in raw eggs. Synthetic additives should be better dosed to obtain the desired effect. Storage did not alter the proximate composition of the eggs.

  17. Zebrafish yolk lipid processing: a tractable tool for the study of vertebrate lipid transport and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa L. Miyares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, particularly in developed nations. Investigating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in experimentally tractable animal models is a crucial step towards understanding and treating human dyslipidemias. The zebrafish, a well-established embryological model, is emerging as a notable system for studies of lipid metabolism. Here, we describe the value of the lecithotrophic, or yolk-metabolizing, stages of the zebrafish as a model for studying lipid metabolism and lipoprotein transport. We demonstrate methods to assay yolk lipid metabolism in embryonic and larval zebrafish. Injection of labeled fatty acids into the zebrafish yolk promotes efficient uptake into the circulation and rapid metabolism. Using a genetic model for abetalipoproteinemia, we show that the uptake of labeled fatty acids into the circulation is dependent on lipoprotein production. Furthermore, we examine the metabolic fate of exogenously delivered fatty acids by assaying their incorporation into complex lipids. Moreover, we demonstrate that this technique is amenable to genetic and pharmacologic studies.

  18. Identification and Extraction of Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin from Egg by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus strains exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistances are isolatedfrom most communities and hospital infections. Treatment of patients with these infections hasbeen difficult. The aim of this study was to detect and extract, the egg yolk immunoglobulin Y asa potential source of anti- S. aureus antibody.Methods: Specific IgY was produced by immunizing hens with formalin-killed S. aureus. Thespecificity of serum`s antibody was confirmed by ELISA method. The antibodies were extractedfrom egg yolk by polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation. Proteins were analysed by sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Results: Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY were raised against S. aureus in the serum afterinjections. Up to 104 dilution specific antibodies were determined in serum.Conclusion: The results of the ELISA indicates the specificity of the immunoglobulin Y to thetarget antigen. In order to find a viable alternative to antibiotic treatments, more research must bedone on the ability of these antibodies to inhibit the growth of S. aureus.

  19. In vitro assessment of soybean lecithin and egg yolk based diluents for cryopreservation of goat semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, Hossein; Towhidi, Armin; Zhandi, Mahdi; Bahreini, Majid; Sharafi, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    Soybean lecithin is a suitable plant-based cryoprotectant for freezing ruminant sperm. Optimum level of lecithin was not clear for goat semen cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soybean lecithin in semen extender on post-thaw sperm quality including CASA-motion parameters, viability, plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation. Semen samples were collected from 4 Mahabadi bucks using an artificial vagina. Different concentrations of soy lecithin (SL, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% w/v) were compared to 15% (v/v) egg yolk-based extender (TR-EY). No significant difference was observed for sperm progressive motility, viability or plasma membrane integrity in 1.5% SL media (33.8%, 66%, and 62.7%, respectively) and TR-EY medium (35.4%, 67.2%, and 64.9%, respectively). Sperm motion characteristics (VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH and LIN) and rapid spermatozoa were improved with extender containing 1% and 1.5% SL, compared to TR-EY extender. Furthermore, egg yolk produced significantly higher malondialdehyde (4.02±0.21) than other groups. Results suggest that the optimal lecithin concentration in the semen extender was 1.5% and also soy lecithin can substitute for egg yolk during cryopreservation for caprine sperm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effect of Increasing Yolk Testosterone Levels on Early Behaviour in Japanese Quail Hatchlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okuliarová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate effects of increased testosterone content in egg yolk on early behaviour of 1- and 2-day-old Japanese quail. Three different doses of testosterone (0.25; 2.5 and 25 ng, not exceeding a physiological range, were examined in three separate experiments. Testosterone propionate dissolved in 20 μl olive oil was injected into the yolk before the onset of incubation. Behaviour of newly hatched chicks was recorded in response to both a novel environment in the open-field test and manual restraining in the test of tonic immobility (TI. Behavioural consequences of embryonic exposure to elevated testosterone were observed in the open-field test in all three experiments which indicated inhibition of behavioural responses in hatchlings. Birds treated with testosterone in ovo displayed longer latency to leave the start square, decreased locomotor activity, enhanced defecation and lower number of distress calls as compared to control birds. In TI test, the influence of treatment was manifested at the highest concentration only. Hatchlings from testosterone treated eggs expressed longer duration of TI and required less attempts to induce TI in comparison with the control group. Our results demonstrated increased fearfulness of Japanese quail chicks hatched from eggs with experimentally elevated testosterone content. The effect is specific for a short period after hatching since previous studies reported stimulatory effect of yolk testosterone on behaviour of Japanese quail later in ontogeny.

  2. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-06-22

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds.

  3. Volatile flavours in raw egg yolk of hens fed on different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagemann, Ina; Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-08-30

    Recent studies have suggested that the composition of lipophilic components of egg yolk is influenced by the feed. The aim of the present study was to isolate volatile flavours from egg yolk after different feeding trials using solvent extraction and thin layer high-vacuum distillation. The resulting aroma extract was analysed by various gas chromatographic techniques. Chickens were either fed with laying meal, laying meal plus cabbage and onion or laying meal plus rapeseed oil or held in free-range. The predominating odour impressions were described as onion-like. Comparing all analytical and sensory data of the flavour extracts, there were minimal differences among the respective samples. Free-range eggs contained fewer volatile compounds than the other samples, whereas rapeseed oil supplementation caused an enrichment of sulfur compounds. While data from gas chromatography/flame ionisation detection, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/olfactometry were less conclusive, the results from sulfur-specific analysis using gas chromatography/flame photometric detection showed a considerable effect. However, because of the low abundance of sulfur compounds in the yolk, these differences are not expected to be perceivable by the consumer. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  5. Effects of lutein-enriched egg yolk in buttermilk or skimmed milk on serum lipids & lipoproteins of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severins, N; Mensink, R P; Plat, J

    2015-02-01

    Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.001) in the egg yolk groups. In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Elimination of hydrogen sulphide and β substitution in cystein, catalyzed by the cysteine-lyase of hens yolk-sac and yolk (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Fromageot, P.

    1961-01-01

    The yolk of incubated hen's eggs contains a pyridoxal phosphate activated enzyme, free of iron, copper, magnesium and calcium. This enzyme activates the β-carbon atom of cysteine. Its reactivity is demonstrated by the ease with which this β-carbon fixes various sulfur containing substances in which the sulfur has reducing properties: inorganic sulfide, sulfide or cysteine itself. In the absence of substances able to react with the β-carbon atom, the active complex, consisting of the enzyme and the aminated tri-carbon chain, is hydrolysed to pyruvic acid and ammonia. The liberation of hydrogen sulfide thus appears to be the consequence either of the substitution of the β-carbon atom of cysteine or of the decomposition of the complex which this aminoacid forms with the enzyme studied. The latter seems therefore to possess an activity which differs from the activity of the desulfhydrases as yet known. We suggest to call this enzyme cystein-lyase. (authors) [fr

  7. Effects of dietary combination of chromium and biotin on egg production, serum metabolites, and egg yolk mineral and cholesterol concentrations in heat-distressed laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Gursu, M F; Vijaya, J; Kucuk, O

    2004-11-01

    Chromium picolinate is used in the poultry diet because of its antistress effects in addition to the fact that the requirement for it is increased during stress. This study was conducted to determine if the negative effects of high ambient temperature (34 degrees C) on egg production, egg quality, antioxidant status, and cholesterol and mineral content of egg yolk could be alleviated by combination of chromium picolinate and biotin (0.6/2.0; Diachrome, as formulated by Nutrition 21 Inc.), in laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japanica). Quails (n= 240; 50 d old) were divided into 8 groups, 30 birds per group. The quails were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2, 4, or 8 mg of Diachrome/kg diet. Birds were kept at 22 degrees C and 53% relative humidity (RH). At 14 wk of age, the thermoneutral (TN) group remained in the same temperature as at the beginning of experiment, whereas the heat stress (HS) group was kept in an environment-controlled room (34 degrees C and 41% RH) for 3 wk. Heat exposure decreased performance when the basal diet was fed (p = 0.001). Diachrome supplementation at 4 and 8 mg/kg diet, increased feed intake (p = 0.05), egg production (p = 0.05), feed efficiency (p = 0.01), egg weight (p = 0.05), and Haugh unit (p = 0.01) in quails reared under heat stress conditions. Heat exposure increased concentrations of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.001), glucose, and cholesterol (p = 0.01), which were elevated by supplemental Diachrome (p < or = 0.05). Egg yolk Cr, Zn, and Fe (p = 0.01) concentrations increased linearly, whereas MDA and cholesterol concentrations decreased (p = 0.05) as dietary Diachrome supplementation increased in HS groups. Similar effects of supplementation on serum levels of glucose and cholesterol (p = 0.05) and egg yolk concentrations of cholesterol (p = 0.05) and Cr (p = 0.01) were observed in TN groups. No significant differences in other values were observed in the TN groups. Results of the

  8. Liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can efficiently replace chicken egg yolk in human semen cryopreservation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutalik, Srinivas; Salian, Sujith Raj; Avadhani, Kiran; Menon, Jyothsna; Joshi, Haritima; Hegde, Aswathi Raju; Kumar, Pratap; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Cryopreservation of spermatozoa plays a significant role in reproductive medicine and fertility preservation. Chicken egg yolk is used as an extender in cryopreservation of human spermatozoa using glycerol egg yolk citrate (GEYC) buffered medium. Even though 50% survival of spermatozoa is generally achieved with this method, the risk of high levels of endotoxins and transmission pathogens from chicken egg yolk is a matter of concern. In the present study we attempted to establish a chemically defined cryopreservation medium which can replace the chicken egg yolk without affecting sperm survival. Ejaculates from 28 men were cryopreserved with GEYC based freezing medium or liposome encapsulated soy lecithin-cholesterol based freezing medium (LFM). The semen samples were subjected to rapid thawing after 14 days of storage in liquid nitrogen. Post-thaw analysis indicated significantly higher post-thaw motility and sperm survival in spermatozoa cryopreserved with LFM compared to conventional GEYC freezing medium. The soy lecithin and cholesterol at the ratio of 80:20 with sucrose showed the highest percentage of post-thaw motility and survival compared to the other compositions. In conclusion, chemically defined cryopreservation medium with liposome encapsulated soy lecithin and cholesterol can effectively replace the chicken egg yolk from human semen cryopreservation medium without compromising post-thaw outcome.

  9. Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanostructures for enhanced performance in both photoelectric and photocatalytic solar conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinrong; Sun, Hang; Shang, Yinxing; Tang, Yanan; She, Ping; Zeng, Shan; Xu, Kongliang; Lu, Guolong; Liang, Song; Yin, Shengyan; Liu, Zhenning

    2018-05-01

    Solar energy conversion is an important field gaining increasing interest. Herein, bio-inspired Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared via a facial one-pot hydrothermal approach. The Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs can self-assemble into 3D-structure to form photoelectrode for photoelectric conversion. The obtained photoelectrode demonstrates a swift and stable photocurrent of 3.5 μA/cm2, which is 4.2 and 1.6 times higher than those of the photocurrents generated by the counterparts of commercial TiO2 and Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs, respectively. Moreover, compared to the commercial TiO2 and Au@TiO2 core-shell NPs, the Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs also exhibit superior photocatalytic activity, delivering a H2 evolution rate of 4.92 mmol/g h. The performance improvement observed for the Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs is likely contributed by two synergistic factors, i.e. the incorporation of AuNPs and the unique hollow structure, which benefit the activity by simultaneously enhancing light utilization, charge separation and reaction site accessibility. The rational design and fabrication of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell NPs hold great promise for future application in efficient solar energy conversion.

  10. Enzymatic exchange of sulphur between cysteine and hydrogen sulphide in the yolk sac of an incubated bird's egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapeville, F.; Fromageot, P.

    1960-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the formation of cysteic acid from sulphate in incubated hen's eggs is due to the following reactions: a) reduction of sulphate to sulphite by the yolk sac endoderm cells; b) synthesis of cysteic acid from the sulphite in the presence of cysteine with liberation of hydrogen sulphide: HS-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH + SO 3 H - → H 2 S + - O 3 S-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH (1). The enzymatic system responsible for this reaction is localized on the yolk sac endoderm and in the yolk. It may be wondered whether reaction (1) is not made up of two consecutive reactions, one of which is reversible: HS-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH ↔ H 2 S + organic chain (2) and organic chain + SO 3 H - → - O 3 S-CH 2 -CH(NH 2 )-COOH (3). It would then be clear why the addition of sulphite displaces the equilibrium towards the production of cysteic acid and hydrogen sulphide. If this is the case, the addition of ordinary cysteine and of marked hydrogen sulphide to the biological medium should make it possible to detect the formation of 35 S cysteine. The present work shows that the desulphurization of the cysteine (reaction 2) by the yolk sac + the yolk is in fact a reversible reaction, and that an enzymatic exchange occurs between the sulphur of the cysteine and that of the hydrogen sulphide. (author) [fr

  11. Multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres for high-performance acetone gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ya; Zhu, Zongye; Ding, Degong; Lu, Wenbo; Xue, Qingzhong

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres have been successfully prepared by using carbonaceous microspheres as templates. It is found that the multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres based sensor shows optimal sensing performances (response value of 38.2, response/recovery time of 19 s/71 s) toward 500 ppm acetone at 200 °C. In addition, this sensor exhibits a low detection limit of 0.5 ppm acetone (response value of 1.36) and a good selectivity toward hydrogen, methane, ethanol, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that acetone gas response of multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres is significantly better than that of ZnCo2O4 nanotubes and ZnCo2O4 nanosheets. High acetone response of the multi-shelled ZnCo2O4 yolk-shell spheres is attributed to the enhanced gas accessibility of the multi-shell morphology caused by the small crystalline size and high specific surface area while the short response/recovery time is mainly related to the rapid gas diffusion determined by the highly porous structure. Our work puts forward an exciting opportunity in designing various yolk-shelled structures for multipurpose applications.

  12. EFFECT OF UNRIPE GRAPE JUICE (VERJUICE ON PLASMA LIPID LEVELS IN RABBITS RENDERED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC BY FEEDING EGG YOLK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aminian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Since many years it has been a general belief in Iranian traditional medicine that unripe grape juice (verjuice has lipid-lowering effect. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. Fifty rabbits were selected and divided into 5 groups with 10 rabbits in each. Group 1 had no supplemental diet. Group 2 were fed 10 ml egg yolk daily and group 3 were fed 10 ml egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for six weeks. In the second part of study, 20 rabbits rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding egg yolk for six weeks, then they were divided into two groups: Group 4 received 10 ml of the egg yolk daily, and group 5 received 10 ml of the egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for the next 6 weeks. The plasma lipid profiles were measured at the beginning and then every two weeks. In the first part of study total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations in group 2 rose 10 times in comparison with group 1, but addition of verjuice in group 3 did not prevent rising of these values. In the second part of study, TC and LDL-C values rose in groups 4 and 5 in a parallel fashion. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride (TG were not statistically significant throughout the study. In conclusion, this study did not support preventive or therapeutic effect of verjuice in hypercholesterolemia.

  13. Yolk sac mesenchymal progenitor cells from New World mice (Necromys lasiurus with multipotent differential potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelipe Oliveira Favaron

    Full Text Available Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13% and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%. Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73 and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117. In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine.

  14. Determination of egg yolk xanthophylls by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulc, Lučka; Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena; Glavnik, Vesna

    2013-11-29

    An isocratic HPLC method was developed for the determination of eight xanthophylls (lutein, capsanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, β-apo-8'-carotenal, ethyl-8'-apo-β-carotene-8'-oate, citranaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin; registered as additives in poultry feeding) in egg yolks. Optimum separation of all-E-isomers of these xanthophylls was achieved in less than 18min on a ProntoSIL C30 column at 27°C using acetone-methanol-0.5M triethylammonium acetate buffer pH 7 14:5:1 (v/v) as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1mL/min using spectrophotometric detection at 450nm. Other mobile phases were also found suitable, including acetone-water 93:7 (v/v) and acetone-methanol 1:4 (v/v) and the influences of column temperature on the separation and addition of triethylammonium acetate buffer pH 7 to the mobile phase on enhancement of the peak areas were evaluated. Preparation of test solution from yolks included a short vortexing of 0.5g of yolk in 10mL of acetone, followed by 15min magnetic stirring under nitrogen and centrifugation. The method was validated for 5 analytes. The calibration range was between 0.04 and 2μg/mL and the mean recovery of the analytes (95%) and the intra-day precision of the method (RSD less than 5%) on three levels in triplicates were obtained. Analyses of eggs from four husbandry classes showed the presence of up to four xanthophylls (lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and ethyl-8'-apo-β-carotene-8'-oate) and traces of β-cryptoxanthin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ácidos graxos da gema e composição do ovo de poedeiras alimentadas com rações com farelo de coco Yolk fatty acids and egg components from layers fed diets with coconut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Carvalho Santiago Barreto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão do farelo de coco (FC na ração e do tempo de alimentação de poedeiras comerciais, sobre os ácidos graxos da gema e os componentes do ovo. O delineamento foi em esquema fatorial 5x2, com cinco níveis de inclusão do FC (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% e dois tempos de alimentação (14 e 28 dias. Foram avaliados o peso e as porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca dos ovos, bem como os sólidos e lipídios totais e o perfil de ácidos graxos das gemas. A inclusão do FC e o tempo de alimentação influenciaram apenas a proporção de ácido mirístico na gema, que aumentou com a inclusão do FC aos 28 dias de alimentação. Os ácidos esteárico e oléico variaram somente com o tempo de alimentação, e as maiores concentrações foram obtidas aos 28 dias. A relação de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados para ácidos graxos saturados da gema diminuiu a partir de 10% de inclusão e aumentou com o tempo de alimentação das aves. O uso de farelo de coco, na ração de poedeiras comerciais, não influencia a proporção dos componentes do ovo, apenas altera a concentração do ácido mirístico da gema.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of coconut meal (CM inclusion in commercial layer diets and feeding time, on egg components and yolk fatty acid composition. The experiment followed a factorial design 5x2, with five levels of CM inclusion (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% and two feeding time (14 and 28 days. Parameters evaluated included: egg weight, and albumen, yolk and shell percentages, as well as solids, lipids and fatty acid profile of the yolk. The inclusion of CM and feeding time affected the yolk content of myristic acid which increased with CM level and with feeding time. The levels of stearic and oleic acids in the yolk varied with feeding time and were higher in the eggs after 28 days. Polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio in yolk decreased, when dietary CM levels were

  16. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  17. Yolk protein is expressed in the insect testis and interacts with sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Ewa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male and female gametes follow diverse developmental pathways dictated by their distinct roles in fertilization. While oocytes of oviparous animals accumulate yolk in the cytoplasm, spermatozoa slough off most of their cytoplasm in the process of individualization. Mammalian spermatozoa released from the testis undergo extensive modifications in the seminal ducts involving a variety of glycoproteins. Ultrastructural studies suggest that glycoproteins are involved in sperm maturation in insects; however, their characterization at the molecular level is lacking. We reported previously that the circadian clock controls sperm release and maturation in several insect species. In the moth, Spodoptera littoralis, the secretion of glycoproteins into the seminal fluid occurs in a daily rhythmic pattern. The purpose of this study was to characterize seminal fluid glycoproteins in this species and elucidate their role in the process of sperm maturation. Results We collected seminal fluid proteins from males before and after daily sperm release. These samples were separated by 2-D gel electrophoresis, and gels were treated with a glycoprotein-detecting probe. We observed a group of abundant glycoproteins in the sample collected after sperm release, which was absent in the sample collected before sperm release. Sequencing of these glycoproteins by mass spectroscopy revealed peptides bearing homology with components of yolk, which is known to accumulate in developing oocytes. This unexpected result was confirmed by Western blotting demonstrating that seminal fluid contains protein immunoreactive to antibody against yolk protein YP2 produced in the follicle cells surrounding developing oocytes. We cloned the fragment of yp2 cDNA from S. littoralis and determined that it is expressed in both ovaries and testes. yp2 mRNA and YP2 protein were detected in the somatic cyst cells enveloping sperm inside the testis. During the period of sperm

  18. IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Pauly, Diana; Chacana, Pablo A.; Calzado, Esteban G.; Brembs, Bj?rn; Schade, R?diger

    2011-01-01

    Hens can be immunized by means of i.m. vaccination (Musculus pectoralis, left and right, injection volume 0.5-1.0 ml) or by means of Gene-Gun plasmid-immunization. Dependent on the immunogenicity of the antigen, high antibody-titres (up to 1:100,000 - 1:1,000,000) can be achieved after only one or 3 - 4 boost immunizations. Normally, a hen lays eggs continuously for about 72 weeks, thereafter the laying capacity decreases. This protocol describes the extraction of total IgY from egg yolk b...

  19. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Prabir

    2015-01-01

    I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA).

  20. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis with small teratomatous foci: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Hazarika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available I have reported a case of endometrioid like yolk sac tumor of the testis in a 20-year-old boy. Endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is a rare tumor. A few cases have been reported in ovary. In case of male, a case of pure glandular endometrioid like yolk sac tumor is reported in a 43 years male in right undescended testis and another case of abdominal metastasis showing endometrioid pattern from mixed testicular germ cell tumor comprising of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. My patient was a 20-year-old male presented with painless enlargement of right testis. Grossly the tumor was glistening creamish white with a multicystic appearance. Histopathological examination showed the tumor to be composed of glandular elements resembling early secretory endometrium, foci of keratinized thin squamous epithelium and a single focus of benign cartilage. The glandular elements show immunohistochemical positivity for AFP, cytokeratin 7 (CK7 and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA.

  1. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  2. An evaluation of soybean lecithin as an alternative to avian egg yolk in the cryopreservation of fish sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Bozkurt, Yusuf; Yavas, Ilker

    2013-08-01

    Plant-derived lecithin has been used as a more sanitary alternative to avian egg yolk in livestock sperm cryopreservation protocols but its efficacy for cryopreserving fish sperm has not previously been tested comparatively. Here various concentrations of soybean lecithin were evaluated for the cryopreservation of carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm. Sexually mature fish were induced to spermiation and ovulation with ovopel. The extenders were prepared by using 300 mM glucose, 10% DMSO, supplemented with different ratios of lecithin (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%) and 10% egg yolk (control I). Negative control was made without egg yolk and soybean lecithin (control II). The pooled semen was diluted separately at ratio of 1:3 (v/v) by using egg yolk and soybean-based extenders. Diluted semen placed into 0.25 ml straws were equilibrated at 4 °C for 15 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Fertilization was conducted using a ratio of 1 × 10(5)spermatozoa/egg. Supplementation of 10% lecithin to extender showed the best cryoprotective effect for sperm motility and duration of motility against freezing damage compared to 15%, 20% and control II groups (plecithin provided a greater result in terms of fertilization success when compared to extenders containing 20% lecithin or control II (plecithin has a similar cryoprotective actions with conventional egg yolk-based extender against freezing damages and fertilization. Therefore, soybean lecithin is a suitable alternative to avian egg yolk for the cryopreservation of fish sperm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Testing an egg yolk supplemented diet on boars to aid in sperm adaptation at 5°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Isabel; Miller-Lux, Yvonne; Osborne, Betty; Bonet, Sergi; Althouse, Gary C

    2015-01-01

    In many species, extended semen can be stored at low temperatures to slow bacterial growth. However, boar semen performs poorly at temperatures below 15 °C and this poses unique challenges, as it is not easy to maintain a constant 15-19 °C during shipment. Some extenders have been formulated with egg yolk for storage at 5 °C but the addition of egg yolk is not applicable in the majority of commercial operations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if boar dietary supplementation with powdered egg yolk imparts any protective effects on sperm quality when stored at 15 °C and 5 °C for up to 11 days in a conventional extender. Ten boars were fed a commercial diet with the addition of 0.11 Kg of powdered egg yolk for 10 weeks. Ejaculates collected on weeks 4, 6, 8, and 10 were processed for storage at both 15 °C and 5 °C and compared with ejaculates from boars fed a standard diet. Throughout an 11-day storage period, sperm quality was assessed including several motility and morphologic parameters and select plasma membrane properties (fluidity, integrity, and triacylglycerol content). Linear regression models were used to describe effects of treatment, storage day, week and temperature on all sperm parameters. Overall, there were minimal beneficial effects of egg yolk treatment on sperm quality parameters. Sperm from egg yolk supplemented boars did have a slower decline in viability and plasma membrane fluidity than that observed in the control sperm when stored at 5 °C (p boars compared to controls at week 10 (p boars.

  4. Green synthesis and characterisation of platinum nanoparticles using quail egg yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Gungor, Azize Alayli; Ince, Selvi; Babagil, Aynur

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology is extensively used in all parts today. Therefore, nano synthesis is also significant in all explored areas. The results of studies conducted have revealed that nanoparticle synthesis is performed by using both chemical and physical methods. It is well known that these syntheses are carried out at high charge, pressure and temperature in harsh environments. Therefore, this study investigated green synthesis method that sustains more mild conditions. In this study, quail egg yolk having high vitamin and protein content was prepared for green synthesis reaction and used for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticles in the reaction medium. Reaction situations were optimised as a function of pH, temperature, time and concentration by using quail egg yolk. The results showed that the highest platinum nanoparticles were synthesised at 20 °C and pH 6.0 for 4 h. Also, optimal concentration of metal ions was established as 0.5 mM. The synthesised platinum nanoparticles were characterised by using UV spectrum, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.

  5. Yolk-shell structured Sb@C anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Junhua; Yan, Pengfei; Luo, Langli; Qi, Xingguo; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Biwei; Feng, Shuo; Wang, Chongmin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Yuehe; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Despite great advances in sodium-ion battery developments, the search for high energy and stable anode materials remains a challenge. Alloy or conversion-typed anode materials are attractive candidates of high specific capacity and low voltage potential, yet their applications are hampered by the large volume expansion and hence poor electrochemical reversibility and fast capacity fade. Here, we use antimony (Sb) as an example to demonstrate the use of yolk-shell structured anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries. The Sb@C yolk-shell structure prepared by controlled reduction and selective removal of Sb2O3 from carbon coated Sb2O3 nanoparticles can accommodate the Sb swelling upon sodiation and improve the structural/electrical integrity against pulverization. It delivers a high specific capacity of ~554 mAh•g-1, good rate capability (315 mhA•g-1 at 10C rate) and long cyclability (92% capacity retention over 200 cycles). Full-cells of O3-Na0.9[Cu0.22Fe0.30Mn0.48]O2 cathodes and Sb@C-hard carbon composite anodes demonstrate a high specific energy of ~130 Wh•kg-1 (based on the total mass of cathode and anode) in the voltage range of 2.0-4.0 V, ~1.5 times energy of full-cells with similar design using hard carbon anodes.

  6. The Ability of Immunoglobulin Yolk Recognized the Antigen in the Tissue of Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigen-antibody reaction is an important tool for the analysis of localization of target molecules, including antigenic protein within worm tissues. The purpose of the present research was to demonstrate the ability of immunoglobulin yolk (IgY anti-excretory/secretory recognized the antigen in the tissue of Ascaridia galli by mean of immunohistochemistry method. The excretory/secretory protein was procured from A. galli and concentrated by mean of vivaspin 30,000 MWCO. IgY was produced by egg yolks of immunized chickens with excretory/secretory, and purified using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC method. A. galli adult worms were cut in transversal and longitudinal section of the center and anterior region. Slides were incubated with both primary IgY for overnight at 4 oC and secondary antibody rabbit anti-chicken IgY HRP-conjugate for one hour at room temperature. The slides were stained with 3-amino, 9-ethylcarbazole (AEC chromogen, counterstained with Lillie Mayer Haematoxylin, and mounted in glyserin aqueous mount. Antigen-antibody reaction was investigated under a microscope. The result showed that antigen was appeared in the tissues such as cuticle, epicuticle, buccal cavity, and eggs inside the uterine of A. galli. This research concluded that IgY stimulated by the excretory/secretory was able to recognized the antigen scattered in the tissues of A. galli so the IgY could be applied for immunodiagnostic.

  7. Production and purification of IgY antibodies from chicken egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wala Ahmad Amro

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of polyclonal antibodies from the serum of immunized mammals has significantly contributed to scientific research and diagnosis. The fact that recent technologies allow the production of antibodies in the yolk of eggs laid by hens, has led to the development of an alternative method for antibody generation that is less stressful to animals. As hens are kept under almost all their natural conditions, antibodies are isolated from the collected eggs; this technology is expected to become an interesting alternative to the conventionally serum-based techniques that eventually require to sacrifice the animal.Here we present a modified protocol for the isolation of IgY antibodies from immunized chickens and provide comparison between two chicken breeds in relative to IgY yield per egg. Our results show the possibility of generating large quantities of highly pure IgY from chicken eggs and also show large differences in the yield of IgY production between the two studied breeds. The results of this work indicate that IgY technology can be used for the production of primary antibodies for immunological work and disease diagnosis. Keywords: IgY, Chicken egg yolk, Gel filtration chromatography, Salmonella typhimurium

  8. Oxidative Damage Caused by Common Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Egg Yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhaneh Afshordi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacteria in foodstuff are the most important agent of foodborne disease. Aside from their infectious effects, obligate aerobes have a respiratory metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. Therefore, they can produce reactive oxygen species and free radicals in contaminated food. Malondialdehyde (MDA is a product of lipid peroxidation used as an indicator of oxidative stress. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the oxidative damage produced by two common food pathogenic bacteria in foodstuff. Materials and Methods: The egg yolks were incubated with different dilutions (105,106, and 107 of Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis at 37°C for 20 hours. The level of MDA in egg yolk was measured by fast and simple enzymatic or colorimetric methods, such as the thiobarbituric acid reactive species method. Results: The high group (107 had a higher MDA level of 1.97 ± 0.11 (μg MDA/g in S. aureus and 1.65 ± 0.27 (mg MDA/L in S. enteritidis than the control (0.90 ± 0.13 mg MDA/L. Conclusions: We concluded that common food pathogenic bacteria can induce oxidative damage in foodstuff aside from other common problems. Heating or sterilization methods cannot protect foodstuff from the damage caused by the presence of pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Response surface optimization of pH and ionic strength for emulsion characteristics of egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, S; Zorba, O

    2009-11-01

    Effects of pH (3.5, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 8.5) and ionic strength (0.05, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.55 M NaCl) on emulsion capacity, emulsion stability (ES), apparent yield stress of emulsion (AYS), and emulsion density (ED) of egg yolk were studied by using a model system. Ionic strength and pH had significant (P emulsion characteristics of egg yolk. Their interaction effects also have been found significant on ES, AYS, and ED. Predicted solutions of ES, emulsion capacity, and ED were minimum. The critical point of ES was determined to be at pH 6.08 and an ionic strength of 0.49 (M NaCl). Predicted solution for AYS was a maximum, which was determined to be at pH 6.04 and an ionic strength of 0.29 (M NaCl). Optimum values of pH and ionic strenght were 4.61 to 7.43 and 0.10 to 0.47, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of cloned cells, animal model, and ATRA sensitivity of human testicular yolk sac tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Junfeng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The testicular yolk sac tumor (TYST is the most common neoplasm originated from germ cells differentiated abnormally, a major part of pediatric malignant testicular tumors. The present study aimed at developing and validating the in vitro and vivo models of TYST and evaluating the sensitivity of TYST to treatments, by cloning human TYST cells and investigating the histology, ultra-structure, growth kinetics and expression of specific proteins of cloned cells. We found biological characteristics of cloned TYST cells were similar to the yolk sac tumor and differentiated from the columnar to glandular-like or goblet cells-like cells. Chromosomes for tumor identification in each passage met nature of the primary tumor. TYST cells were more sensitive to all-trans-retinoic acid which had significantly inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Cisplatin induced apoptosis of TYST cells through the activation of p53 expression and down-regulation of Bcl- expression. Thus, we believe that cloned TYST cells and the animal model developed here are useful to understand the molecular mechanism of TYST cells and develop potential therapies for human TYST.

  11. Comparisons among serum, egg albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of basal and stimulated adrenocortical activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N J; Renema, R; Wilkinson, C; Schaefer, A L

    2009-09-01

    1. Serial blood samples from individual birds were analysed for corticosterone concentrations under basal and stimulated conditions, and matched to eggs from the same birds for comparison to albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone. 2. Serum corticosterone exhibited increases in response to stimulation by ACTH and Handling stress. There were no significant increases in egg albumin or yolk concentrations of corticosterone following stimulation. 3. Several significant correlations were observed between the mean and area under the curve (AUC) measurements of serum corticosterone concentrations with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid from 1 to 2 d later. 4. The results demonstrated a relationship between endogenous concentrations of serum corticosterone that reflected daily adrenocortical output with albumin and yolk corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid the following day. 5. The results do not support the concept of albumin and yolk concentrations of corticosterone as biomarkers of acute adrenocortical responses to stimulation.

  12. Raman spectroscopic analysis of the carotenoid concentration in egg yolks depending on the feeding and housing conditions of the laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Karoline; Schanzer, Sabine; Patzelt, Alexa; Sterry, Wolfram; Fluhr, Joachim W; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen; Darvin, Maxim E

    2012-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopic measurements are suited to analyze the concentration of carotenoid antioxidants in biological samples. Previously, it has been shown that the carotenoid concentration of nutritional egg yolks has a direct influence on the carotenoid content of human skin in vivo. In the present study, resonance Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze the carotenoid concentration in the yolks of hen eggs, which were housed in battery cages or alternatively on free-range grassland. The egg yolks of hens, which had access to grassland, contained approximately double the amount of carotenoid concentration than the egg yolks of hens housed in battery cages (p egg yolks, depending on fodder, housing and weather conditions, were investigated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Effect of Egg Yolk Chicken Utilization In Fat Liquoring Process to Tensile Strength, Elongation at Break, Water Absorption and Shank Skin Leather Stitch Tear Strength of Combination Tanning (Chrome – Tannine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research were to examine level of egg yolk chicken utilization that effective in fat liquoring process to tensile strength, elongation at break, watter absorptin and stitchtear strength of combination tann (Chrome – tannine of shank skin. The material used were fresh shank skin which seven week old, fresh egg with prserved for not more seven days. Data analyse used  in this study was complete randomice desaign (CRD. The research treatment was level of egg yolk utilization that are 5 % (P1, 7,5 % (P2, 10,0 % (P3 and 12,5 % (P4. Each treatment repeated four times, and the control using 6,0 % paradol HISN oil (%age calculated from the weight of wet blue. The result shown that rates of tensile strength of P1, P2, P3, P4 respectively were 67,93, 88,09, 89,31, 70,00 kg/cm2. Elongation at break by 24,5, 29,5, 30,0, 28,0 %. Watter absorption by 181,54, 146,20, 132,81, 132,56 %, and stritchtear strength by 43,00, 63,80, 69,50, 60,98 kg/cm. The utilization level of egg yolk 10 % could produce a better tensile strength and elongation at break, watter absorption and stitchtearstrength. It was suggested for used as fat liquoring agent in tanning process shsnk., skin leather. Keywords : Fat liquoring, Tensile strength, Elongation at break, Watter absorbtion,Stitchtear strength

  14. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  15. Arranjos para efeitos fixos e estruturas de (covariâncias residuais para análises de medidas repetidas do peso de bovinos da raça Canchim Fixed effects arrays and residual covariance structures to analyze sequential weights of Canchim beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Buranelo Toral

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar o arranjo para efeitos fixos e a estrutura de (covariância residual que melhor representam a variabilidade dos pesos dentro do rebanho e dentro dos indivíduos, considerando-se dados de pesos de bovinos analisados como medidas repetidas. Foram utilizados dados de peso de 3.690 bovinos Canchim, obtidos ao nascimento, à desmama, aos 12 e aos 18 meses de idade. Analisaram-se diferentes arranjos para os efeitos fixos (grupos de contemporâneos e/ou efeitos principais de ano, mês ou época de nascimento e sexo do bezerro e diferentes estruturas de (covariâncias para os resíduos, considerando-se ou não alteração da variância residual ao longo da vida do animal e alteração da correlação entre as medidas tomadas em intervalos diferentes. Os resultados indicaram que o arranjo mais adequado dos efeitos fixos para representar a variabilidade dos pesos dos animais dentro do rebanho foi o grupo de contemporâneos formado por ano, mês e sexo do bezerro e que as melhores estruturas de (covariâncias residuais foram a Fator Analítico de Primeira Ordem e a Não Estruturada, que consideram o aumento das variâncias com o aumento da idade do indivíduo e as correlações diferentes para cada par de medidas de peso.The aim of this work was to evaluate arrays of fixed effects and residual covariance structures that best fit the herd and the animal variability to weights at birth, weaning, twelve and eighteen months of 3,690 Canchim animals. Different arrays of fixed effects (contemporary groups and, or the main effects of year, month or season of birth and sex and different residual covariance structures (considering or not change of variance and of correlation between weights at different ages were studied. The results indicated that the most adequate array of fixed effects to fit herd variability was the contemporary group of year, month and sex. The best residual covariance structures were

  16. Semente residual do urucum na alimentação de poedeiras comerciais: desempenho e características dos ovos = Annato seed byproduct used as a source of pigment in laying hen diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia de Melo Braz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da inclusão da semente residual de urucum (SRU sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com rações contendo sorgo. Cento e quarenta e quatro poedeiras comerciais foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de quatro aves. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração àbase de milho e, as demais, à base de sorgo com a inclusão de 0,0; 0,5; 1,0;1,5 e 2,0% de SRU. As variáveis: consumo de ração, percentagem de postura, peso e massa de ovo, conversão alimentar, percentagem de gema, albúmem e casca e unidades Haugh não foramafetadas significativamente pelos níveis de inclusão de SRU. Entretanto, a pigmentação da gema aumentou linearmente com o aumento de SRU na ração. A inclusão de 2% de SRU em rações contendo sorgo foi capaz de pigmentar as gemas em, aproximadamente, 61,4% da pigmentação obtida em rações compostas por milho.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of annatto (Bixa orellana L. seed byproduct (ASB in diets with sorghum on laying hens performance and eggs characteristics. A hundred and forty-four laying hens were randomly allotted to six treatments and six replications with four birds each. Treatments consisted of one diet based on corn and the five others based on sorghum with the inclusion of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0% of ASB. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion, yolk, albumen and shell percentages and Haugh units were not affected by the inclusion levels of ASB. However, yolk colour increased linearly as ASB increased in diet. The inclusion of 2% of annatto seed byproduct on laying hens diets based on sorghum improves egg yolk colour nearly 61.4% of that obtained with birds fed diet based on yellow corn.

  17. Fertility results using bovine semen cryopreserved with extenders based on egg yolk and soy bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagtendonk-de Leeuw, A M; Haring, R M; Kaal-Lansbergen, L M; den Daas, J H

    2000-07-01

    Semen extenders containing components such as egg yolk and skim milk are difficult to standardize and they introduce the risk of microbial contamination. A well-defined extender not originating from animal tissues would present a valuable contribution to the AI industry. We evaluated the fertility of bovine semen cryopreserved with 3 different extenders: 1) TRIS-Standard, prepared at 2 local AI laboratories, containing 20% (v/v) pasteurized egg yolk, 2) TRIS-Concentrate, prepared by adding 20% (v/v) pasteurized egg yolk and 1:5 (v/v) nonpyrogenic water, and 3) Biociphos Plus, a soybean extract containing extender, prepared by adding 1:5 nonpyrogenic water. Ejaculates of 4 Holstein bulls were split into 3 aliquots and cryopreserved with the 3 extenders. Prior to this study, the semen dose-response curve for each of the 4 bulls was developed in a field trial by freezing the semen and randomly distributing the straws throughout the Netherlands for insemination. Optimal semen doses were thus established to detect the effect of extenders on fertility, evaluated by 56-day non-return rate (NR56), and by the estimated conception rate and the calving rate, given a conception. We used the multiphasic model developed by Grossman et al. (7). A total of 22,246 first and second inseminations were recorded. The NR56 ranged among bulls from 67.0 to 70.1% for Tris-Standard, from 67.5 to 69.9% for Tris-Concentrate and from 60.2 to 66.7% for Biociphos Plus. No significant differences in NR56 were detected between Tris-Standard and Tris-Concentrate (P=0.54), whereas Biociphos Plus resulted in a significantly lower NR56 than Tris-Standard and Tris-Concentrate (P<0.05). Estimated conception rate was 72.1, 73.6 and 69.6% and estimated calving rate, given a conception was 80.6, 78.3 and 77.1 for Tris-Standard, Tris-Concentrate and Biociphos Plus, respectively. These results indicate that 1) semen extended with a custom made TRIS-Concentrate can be succesfully used in the field resulting

  18. Mechanisms of Egg Yolk Formation and Implications on Early Life History of White Perch (Morone americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Schilling

    Full Text Available The three white perch (Morone americana vitellogenins (VtgAa, VtgAb, VtgC were quantified accurately and precisely in the liver, plasma, and ovary during pre-, early-, mid-, and post-vitellogenic oocyte growth using protein cleavage-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS. Western blotting generally mirrored the PC-IDMS results. By PC-IDMS, VtgC was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic ovary tissues and VtgAb was quantifiable in pre-vitellogenic liver tissues however, neither protein was detected by western blotting in these respective tissues at this time point. Immunohistochemistry indicated that VtgC was present within pre-vitellogenic oocytes and localized to lipid droplets within vitellogenic oocytes. Affinity purification coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using highly purified VtgC as a bait protein revealed a single specific interacting protein (Y-box binding protein 2a-like [Ybx2a-like] that eluted with suramin buffer and confirmed that VtgC does not bind the ovary vitellogenin receptors (LR8 and Lrp13. Western blotting for LR8 and Lrp13 showed that both receptors were expressed during vitellogenesis with LR8 and Lrp13 expression highest in early- and mid-vitellogenesis, respectively. The VtgAa within the ovary peaked during post-vitellogenesis, while VtgAb peaked during early-vitellogenesis in both white perch and the closely related striped bass (M. saxatilis. The VtgC was steadily accumulated by oocytes beginning during pre-vitellogenesis and continued until post-vitellogenesis and its composition varies widely between striped bass and white perch. In striped bass, the VtgC accounted for 26% of the vitellogenin-derived egg yolk, however in the white perch it comprised only 4%. Striped bass larvae have an extended developmental window and these larvae have yolk stores that may enable them to survive in the absence of food for twice as long as white perch after hatch. Thus, the VtgC may play an integral role in providing nutrients to

  19. Utilization Efficiency of Yolk Egg on Maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare Embryos and Larvae in Different Incubation Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the efficiency of yolk egg utilization in embryos and larvae, hatching rate, incubation time to hatch, and growth rate of maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare larvae incubated at room remperature, 27oC, and 30oC.  Results of study showed that yolk egg utilization efficiency of embryos and larvae incubated at 30oC was 73.70% and 0,18%, respectively, and no different with that of room and 27oC incubation temperatures.  Hatching rate of eggs incubated at 30oC (84.75% was also same with that of other treatments.  However, incubation time to hatch (27.41 hours was shorter than that of other treatments.  The growth rate by length of larvae (2.16% and survival rate (75.28% incubated at 30oC was also higher compared with that of other treatments.  Thus, in general, optimum temperature for egg hatching and larval rearing of maanvis was 30oC. Keywords: maanvis, Pterophyllum scalare, egg yolk, larvae, embryo, temperature   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur pada embrio dan larva, derajat penetasan, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas, dan laju pertumbuhan serta kelangsungan hidup larva ikan maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare yang diinkubasi pada suhu ruang, 27oC dan 30oC.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur bila diinkubasi pada suhu 30oCsebesar 73,70% pada fase embrio dan 0,18% pada fase larva, dan tidak berbeda dengan suhu ruang dan 27oC.  Demikian juga dengan derajat penetasan telur  (84,75% tidak berbeda dengan perlakuan lainnya.  Sementara itu, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas (27,41 jam lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan suhu inkubasi perlakuan lainnya. Demikian juga dengan laju pertumbuhan panjang (2,16% dan kelangsungan hidup larva (75,28% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Dengan demikian, secara umum suhu optimal untuk penetasan dan pemeliharaan larva ikan maanvis adalah 30°C. Kata kunci: ikan maanvis

  20. The effect of a diet supplemented with sea-buckthorn pomace on the colour and viscosity of the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea-buckthorn pomace is a very valuable product which contains not only important nutrients but also high-quality oils. The question addressed in the present study was to what extent the diet containing the sea-buckthorn pomace would affect the viscosity and colour of egg yolk measured in the CIELAB system. The feeding mixture for laying hens was supplemented with 20; 50 and 100 g∙kg-1 of sea-buckthorn pomace. As a result, colour indices of the egg yolk such as L*, a* and b* changed significantly (α = 0.01. The greatest relative enhancement was observed for indicator a* for the red colour. Visually, this corresponds to the more intense orange colour of the egg yolk. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet for laying hens resulted in a larger increase in indicator ∆E* (CIE total colour difference compared to the control group. Colour indicator hab is the only indicator whose value oscillated around that determined for the control group. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet resulted in an increase in colour indices a*, b* and C*ab. Indicator ∆E* also increased significantly with an increasing amount of sea-buckthorn pomace in a diet. Egg yolks were darker, had more intense red and yellow colours, and showed lower viscosity which are all features preferred by the consumer.

  1. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. [Separation and identification of red pigments in natural red yolk of duck's eggs by HPLC-MS-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangzhong; Zhang, Min; Peng, Guanghua; Wang, Haibin; Zhang, Shenghua

    2004-05-01

    The natural red yolk of duck's eggs is produced by the laying duck in the lake areas in southward of China. In the laying duck breeding areas such as Honghu, Jianli, Xiantao, Tianmen and Hanchuan citys in Hubei Province, the culturists are used to feeding fresh pondweeds to the laying ducks. The yolk of duck's eggs is natural red with the chrominance reaching up to and/or above RCF (Roche Yolk Color Fan) 15. The red pigment components of natural red yolk of duck's eggs were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) and high resolution electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS). Four isomers of red pigments were separated by HPLC on a RP-C18 column with methanol-water (99.5:0.5, v/v) as mobile phase. The lambda(max) of the four components were 482, 488, 496, 501 nm, respectively, and all of them were single peak on chromatogram. They had the same molecular mass (Mr = 562), and had the same fragment peaks of MS2 with rhodoxanthin. The molecular formula of red pigments was determined as C40H50O2 by high resolution EI-MS. The results indicate that the red pigment is rhodoxanthin, and they are all cis-isomers of rhodoxanthin.

  3. DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF POWDERED EGG YOLK ADDED TO THE ACP-103® EXTENDER IN SWINE SEMEN CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Toniolli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to improve the conservation of boar semen. Egg yolk is known to have cryoprotectant properties. This study aimed to test different concentrations of egg yolk added to the coconut milk powder extender (ACP-103®, and verify which one is better to maintain sperm viability. The ejaculated (36 were diluted in ACP-103® supplemented with different concentrations of egg yolk (0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 7%. The conservation occurred at 17 °C, and vigor and motility analysis were carried out daily. On days 1 (D0, 3 (D2 and 5 (D4 the semen was evaluated for vitality, morphology and osmotic resistance. For statistical nonparametric analysis Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s tests were performed, and for parametric data ANOVA and Tukey test were used. A decrease in vigor and motility was observed in all treatments. Treatments T2, T3 and T4 better maintained spermatic on D0 (2.4±0.8, 2.5±1.1, and 2.8±0.9, respectively, with no signi cant differences among them. The same was observed for motility (77±15%, 74±23%, and 81±16% on D0. Analyses of vitality, morphology and osmotic resistance did not show statistical difference among treatments. In conclusion, the concentration of egg yolk (7% added to the ACP-103® can be e ectively used as extender to maintain sperm viability.

  4. Alkali resistant Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts for direct internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won-Jun; Hong, Young Jun; Kim, Hak-Min; Shim, Jae-Oh; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Kang, Yun Chan

    2017-06-01

    A facile and scalable spray pyrolysis process is applied to synthesize multi-shelled Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts on various supports (Al2O3, CeO2, ZrO2, and La(OH)3). The prepared catalysts are applied to direct internal reforming (DIR) in a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Even on exposure to alkali hydroxide vapors, the Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts remain highly active for DIR-MCFCs. The Ni@Al2O3 microspheres show the highest conversion (92%) of CH4 and the best stability among the prepared Ni-loaded yolk-shell catalysts. Although the initial CH4 conversion of the Ni@ZrO2 microspheres is higher than that of the Ni@CeO2 microspheres, the Ni@CeO2 microspheres are more stable. The catalytic performance is strongly dependent on the surface area and acidity and also partly dependent on the reducibility. The acidic nature of Al2O3 combined with its high surface area and yolk-shell structure enhances the adsorption of CH4 and resistance against alkali poisoning, resulting in efficient DIR-MCFC reactions.

  5. Supplementation of laying-hen feed with palm tocos and algae astaxanthin for egg yolk nutrient enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Laurie A; Wang, Tong; Xin, Hongwei; Dolde, David

    2012-02-29

    Adding supplements to hen feed can increase egg nutritional value. Astaxanthin, tocotrienols, and tocopherols are potent antioxidants that provide health benefits to humans. We hypothesized that the addition of these nutrients to hen feed would result in an increased nutrient content in egg yolk with minimum changes in functional properties. Laying hens (Hy-Line W-36 breed) were fed four diets with different supplementation levels of palm toco concentrate and algae biomass containing astaxanthin for 8 weeks. Egg yolks were analyzed for physical, chemical, and functional properties. The feed with the highest nutrient concentration was also studied for stability of these antioxidants using the Arrhenius approach. No significant differences were observed in functional properties except for emulsification capacity and sensory characteristics among eggs from different diet treatments. Changes in egg yolk color reached the maximum values at day 8. Incorporation of tocopherols and tocotrienols increased until day 8, astaxanthin incorporation increased until day 10, and all decreased thereafter. Feed nutrients resulted in a dose-response relationship of these compounds in the egg yolk. The transfer efficiency ranged from 0 to 9.9% for tocotrienols and tocopherols and from 7.6 to 14.9% for astaxanthin at their peak values. Results of the Arrhenius accelerated stability study showed significant differences in the shelf life of various nutrients, and these results can be used to properly formulate and store the feed materials.

  6. Contribution to the study of the reduction of sulfate by the yolk sac of the chicken embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, Claude

    1958-11-01

    This academic reports addresses additional information obtained about the reduction of sulfate into sulphite by the yolk sac of a chicken embryo. Two important difficulties have been faced: the impossibility to isolate this reduction from reactions which immediately use the formed sulphite, and the impossibility to obtain an acellular preparation able to reduce the sulfate. Then, the problem of reduction of sulfate into sulphite by the yolk sac is associated with the problem of permeability of yolk sac cells to the studied substances. Thus, the author studied whether other animal species could provide a better material than the chicken embryo for this study of sulfate reduction. It appears that some vertebrate embryos present some evidence of sulphur metabolism similar to that of chicken embryo. However, this last one revealed to be the most favourable for the study. The author reports the study of the evolution of the reduction activity of the yolk sac sulfate with respect to the embryo age, and the effect of some metabolic inhibitors on this activity [fr

  7. Effects of different rearing and feeding systems on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignoli, Giovanni; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Mandrioli, Mara; Barbanti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Laura; Lercker, Giovanni

    2009-12-23

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks produced with two rearing systems (battery cages and free-range) and two types of feedings (conventional and organic) were studied. Nine fresh egg yolks of each crossed treatment were pooled, frozen for a month, freeze-dried, vacuum-packed, and kept at -18 degrees C until analysis. No significant differences were observed in the lipid (58.0-62.1%) and total sterol contents (33.0-35.5 g/kg of lipids) of the freeze-dried egg yolks. Free rearing and conventional feeding systems resulted in significantly higher total tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, and lutein contents, as compared to the battery cage and the organic feed, respectively. However, no significant differences were found in lipid oxidation (peroxide value = 0.7-0.9 mequiv of O(2)/kg of fat; thiobarbituric reactive substances = 1.0-1.3 mg of malonylaldehyde/kg of sample) and cholesterol oxidation (28.8-43.5 mg of cholesterol oxidation products/kg of lipids; 0.08-0.12% oxidized cholesterol) of freeze-dried egg yolks except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, which was significantly lower in samples obtained with organic feed.

  8. The relationship between carbon stable isotope ratios of hatchling down and egg yolk in Black-headed Gulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Baarspul, T.; Dekkers, T.; Van Tienen, P.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstructed the nutrient source for egg synthesis by sampling Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) eggs for yolk, analyzing their carbon stable isotope ratio, and comparing that to hatchling down. Most of the variation in carbon stable isotope ratio was explained by differences between nests,

  9. Weight Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  10. Experimental and theoretical NMR studies of interaction between phenylalanine derivative and egg yolk lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałęsa, Roksana; Ptak, Tomasz; Siodłak, Dawid; Kupka, Teobald; Broda, Małgorzata A

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of phenylalanine diamide (Ac-Phe-NHMe) with egg yolk lecithin (EYL) in chloroform was studied by (1)H and (13)C NMR. Six complexes EYL-Ac-Phe-NHMe, stabilized by N-H···O or/and C-H···O hydrogen bonds, were optimized at M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) level. The assignment of EYL and Ac-Phe-NHMe NMR signals was supported using GIAO (gauge including atomic orbital) NMR calculations at VSXC and B3LYP level of theory combined with STO-3Gmag basis set. Results of our study indicate that the interaction of peptides with lecithin occurs mainly in the polar 'head' of the lecithin. Additionally, the most probable lecithin site of H-bond interaction with Ac-Phe-NHMe is the negatively charged oxygen in phosphate group that acts as proton acceptor. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation coupled with multiple detections: A complementary approach in the characterization of egg yolk plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Haiyang; Li, Yueqiu; Choi, Jaeyeong; Huo, Shuying; Ding, Liang; Shen, Shigang; Lee, Seungho

    2016-09-23

    The capability of asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with UV/VIS, multiangle light scattering (MALS) and quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) (AF4-UV-MALS-QELS) for separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma was evaluated. The accuracy of hydrodynamic radius (Rh) obtained from QELS and AF4 theory (using both simplified and full expression of AF4 retention equations) was discussed. The conformation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and its aggregates in egg yolk plasma was discussed based on the ratio of radius of gyration (Rg) to Rh together with the results from bio-transmission electron microscopy (Bio-TEM). The results indicate that the full retention equation is more relevant than simplified version for the Rh determination at high cross flow rate. The Rh from online QELS is reliable only at a specific range of sample concentration. The effect of programmed cross flow rate (linear and exponential decay) on the analysis of egg yolk plasma was also investigated. It was found that the use of an exponentially decaying cross flow rate not only reduces the AF4 analysis time of the egg yolk plasma, but also provides better resolution than the use of either a constant or linearly decaying cross flow rate. A combination of an exponentially decaying cross flow AF4-UV-MALS-QELS and the utilization of full retention equation was proved to be a useful method for the separation and characterization of egg yolk plasma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cryopreservation of canine sperm using egg yolk and soy bean based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Calabuig, María Jesús; Maillo, Verónica; Beltrán-Breña, Paula; de la Fuente Martínez, Julio; Galera-Carrillo, Silvestre; Pérez-Gutiérrez, José Félix; Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín

    2017-09-01

    Animal protein-based extenders are widely used despite being a potential source of bacterial or mycoplasma contamination. Its replacement with vegetal protein-based extenders could represent an interesting alternative for dog sperm cryopreservation. This technique could be further improved by the addition of Tris-Glucose-Citric acid (TGC) that could physically protect the spermatozoa and improve its homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate a cryopreservation protocol for dog spermatozoa using a soybean-based extender (LP1 ℗ ) as well as the effects of the addition of (TGC) immediately after the semen collection. Eleven ejaculates from purebred adult dogs were collected, centrifuged in the absence or presence of TGC and processed as fresh or cryopreserved spermatozoa with: egg yolk-based extender (CaniPRO) or LP1 ℗ . Freezing the spermatozoa in LP1 ℗ reduced the amplitude of the lateral head displacement, the percentage of spermatozoa that showed the intact acrosome and the mitochondrial function (P<0.05). These samples also showed a trend towards increased percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa (P<0.05). The addition of TGC before centrifugation did not improve the seminal parameters and adversely affected motility (P<0.05) in the spermatozoa cryopreserved in CaniPRO. However, TGC did not affect motility and increased (P<0.05) the percentage of intact acrosomes in the spermatozoa cryopreserved in LP1 ℗ , reaching similar values than those cryopreserved in CaniPRO. In conclusion, LP1 ® plus TGC provide the same level of protection to dog spermatozoa cryopreservation than the egg yolk based extender CaniPRO when comparing standard post-thaw sperm quality parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  13. Yolk-shell structured composite for fast and selective lithium ion sieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Lu, Deli; Zhang, Jinlong; Wang, Lingzhi

    2018-06-15

    Yolk-shell structured C@Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 microspheres composed of carbon core (ca. 500 nm) and sea urchin-like Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 shell (ca. 400-500 nm) are formed by hydrothermally treating the core-shell structured C@TiO 2 in the EtOH/H 2 O solution of LiOH and calcining it in N 2 atmosphere. Yolk-shell structured TiO 2 -type lithium ion sieve is further transformed from C@Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 through the acid treatment, which have a high specific surface area of 201.74 m 2 /g. The composite shows adsorption capacity towards Li + proportional to the pH value in the range of 7-13. The adsorption reaches equilibrium within 2 h with a high equilibrium adsorption capacity of 28.46 mg/g under alkaline conditions, which is ca. 8 times the value of ordinary TiO 2 lithium ion sieve with comparable size and surface area, demonstrating the enhanced adsorption is attributed to the generation of more accessible surficial voids by replacing internal part with light carbon core. The adsorption follows Freundlich and pseudo-second-order kinetic models with a high rate constant of 0.015 g/(mg·min). The selective adsorption to Li + is verified in the presence of K + , Na + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Egg yolk antibodies for detection and neutralization of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, D L; Yang, M; Gonzalez, J; Larson, A E; Tepp, W H; Johnson, E A; Cook, M E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to determine the usefulness of an egg antibody platform for producing materials for the detection and neutralization of botulinum type A neurotoxin. Yield estimates for detection and neutralizing antibodies produced using methods described were calculated. Antibody specific to botulinum toxoid A (aToxoid) and toxin A (aBoNT/A) was produced by immunizing hens with botulinum toxoid A (toxoid) followed by increasing amounts of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) in Freund incomplete adjuvant. Egg yolks were extracted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) for antibody detection and neutralization experiments. A model aToxoid/toxoid immunoassay using only egg yolk antibody was developed and had a detection limit of 1 pg/ml of toxoid. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of BoNT/A-specific antibody, the aBoNT/A contained more BoNT/A-specific antibody than did the aToxoid, and aBoNT/A was as effective as commercial rabbit antibody. The aToxoid provided no protection against BoNT/A in a standard mouse neutralization assay; however, 1 mg of PEG-extracted aBoNT/A neutralized 4,000 lethal doses of BoNT/A injected intraperitoneally. Based on these results, we calculated that in 1 month one hen could produce more than 100 liters of antibody detection reagents or enough antibody to neutralize approximately 11.6 million mouse lethal doses of botulinum toxin. Utilization of an egg antibody platform is potentially rapid (28 to 70 days) and scalable to kilogram quantities using current egg production facilities with as few as 1,000 hens.

  15. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  16. Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

    2000-07-01

    In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

  17. Immunohistochemical demonstration of a hitherto undescribed localization of hemoglobin A and F in endodermal cells of normal human yolk sac and endodermal sinus tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U; Wimberley, P D

    1980-01-01

    In this study of 4 human yolk sacs, the presence of hemoglobin A and F (HbA and HbF) is demonstrated for the first time in epithelial cells (type 1) and erythroid-like cells (type 2) in the endodermal layer by immunoperoxidase technique. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis previously...... proposed that the red blood cells formed in the yolk sac are of endodermal origin. Tumor with yolk sac differentiation (8 endodermal sinus tumors and 1 embryonal carcinoma with vitelline areas) similarly showed HbA and HbF localisation in endodermal cells. None of 59 germ cell tumors of other types...

  18. General applicability of chicken egg yolk antibodies: the performance of IgY immunoglobulins raised against the hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Camenisch, G; Tini, M; Chilov, D; Kvietikova, I; Srinivas, V; Caro, J; Spielmann, P; Wenger, R H; Gassmann, M

    1999-01-01

    Avian embryos and neonates acquire passive immunity by transferring maternal immunoglobulins from serum to egg yolk. Despite being a convenient source of antibodies, egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) from immunized hens have so far received scant attention in research. Here we report the generation and rapid isolation of IgY from the egg yolk of hens immunized against the alpha subunit of the human hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1alpha). Anti-HIF-1alpha IgY antibodies were affinity purified and...

  19. Effects of Fab' fragments of specific egg yolk antibody (IgY-Fab') against Shewanella putrefaciens on the preservation of refrigerated turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lin, Hong; Sui, Jianxin; Wang, Jingxue; Cao, Limin

    2015-01-01

    In our previous studies the specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) against Shewanella putrefaciens (one of the specific spoilage organisms for marine products during aerobic chilling storage) demonstrated significant activity to prolong the shelf life of refrigerated fish. The exploitation of the antigen-binding fragment plus the hinge region (IgY-Fab') is now considered a promising method for improving the efficiency of such natural antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial activity of IgY-Fab' against S. putrefaciens was investigated using refrigerated turbot as samples. By microbial, chemical and sensory tests, it was shown to be able to effectively inhibit bacterial growth and prolong the shelf life of samples, with an efficiency evaluated significantly higher than that of whole IgY with the same molarity. The interaction between IgY agents and S. putrefaciens cells was also investigated, and the IgY-Fab' showed a much greater ability to damage cell membranes than the whole IgY. Compared to whole IgY with the same molarity, IgY-Fab' demonstrated higher and more durable antimicrobial efficiency. Such a result was assumed to be closely related to its structural properties (such as the much lower molecular weight), which may enhance its ability to influence physiological activities of antigen bacteria, especially the property or/and structure of cell membranes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Effect of Used of Soy Sauce Waste in the Ration on Yolk Chemical protein, fat and calcium of Mojosari Laying Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Jayanti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soy sauce waste in the ration on protein, fat and calcium content in the yolk of Mojosari laying duck. The animals used were 240 Mojosari laying ducks at 20 weeks old with the average of body weight were 1,385.0 ± 130.85 g (CV = 9.44%. Feed materials used were corn, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal, wheat pollard, premix and soy sauce waste. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design (CRD with 4 treatment and 6 replications so that there were 24 experimental units and each consists 10 ducks. The treatments were soy sauce waste at level T0 : 0%, T1: 5%, T2: 7,5% and T3: 10%. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA and Significant differences were denoted as P<0.05. There was no significant effect of soy sauce waste protein, fat, and calcium content. The conclusion of this study that soy sauce waste can be used up to 10% without adverse the content of protein, fat, and calcium in Mojosari laying ducks.

  1. Peso e rendimento dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em confinamento com dietas contendo proporções crescentes de resíduo úmido de cervejaria Weight and yield of liveweight components of feedlot finish lambs fed diets with increasing proportions of wet brewery residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Brochier

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de dietas contendo proporções crescentes de resíduo úmido de cervejaria sobre o peso e proporção dos componentes do peso vivo de cordeiros terminados em confinamento. Foram utilizados 25 cordeiros, machos, não-castrados, da raça Texel, distribuídos aleatoriamente em cinco tratamentos compostos por proporções de 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% de substituição do alimento concentrado por resíduo úmido de cervejaria. Utilizou-se dieta composta de feno de Tifton-85 e mistura concentrada em uma relação volumoso:concentrado de 40:60, na matéria seca. O alimento concentrado foi constituído por milho desintegrado, farelo de soja, mistura mineral e resíduo úmido de cervejaria, sendo que suas proporções variaram de acordo com os tratamentos. Houve redução linear dos pesos de sangue, patas, cabeça, fígado, pulmão e baço, e da proporção de fígado, à medida que se elevou a proporção do resíduo úmido de cervejaria nas dietas. A proporção, em relação ao peso vivo, de rúmen/retículo e do trato gastrintestinal, com conteúdo, e do conteúdo gastrintestinal aumentou linearmente, enquanto os pesos de rúmen/retículo, abomaso, intestino delgado e do trato gastrintestinal, sem conteúdo, diminuíram linearmente com o aumento da proporção do resíduo nas dietas. A proporção de rúmen/retículo, sem conteúdo, foi influenciada de forma quadrática.The effect of diets with increasing proportions of wet brewery residue on the weight and proportion of live weight components of feedlot finished lambs was evaluated. Twenty-five non-castrated Texel male lambs were randomly allotted into five groups, consisting in the replacement of the concentrate by wet brewery residue; at the proportions of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Diet composition was Tifton-85 hay and concentrate mixture, in a relation roughage:concentrate of 40:60, based on dry matter (DM. The concentrate was composed of ground corn, soybean meal, mineral

  2. Egg Yolk Protein Delays Recovery while Ovalbumin Is Useful in Recovery from Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kobayashi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein is a main nutrient involved in overall iron metabolism in vivo. In order to assess the prevention of iron deficiency anemia (IDA by diet, it is necessary to confirm the influence of dietary protein, which coexists with iron, on iron bioavailability. We investigated the usefulness of the egg structural protein in recovery from IDA. Thirty-one female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 6 fed a casein diet (4.0 mg Fe/100 g for 42 days and an IDA model group (n = 25 created by feeding a low-iron casein diet (LI, 0.4 mg Fe/100 g for 21 days and these IDA rats were fed normal iron diet with different proteins from eggs for another 21 days. The IDA rats were further divided into four subgroups depending on the proteins fed during the last 21 days, which were those with an egg white diet (LI-W, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, those with an ovalbumin diet (LI-A, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 7, those with an egg yolk-supplemented diet (LI-Y, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6, and the rest with a casein diet (LI-C, 4.0 mg Fe/100 g, n = 6. In the LI-Y group, recovery of the hematocrit, hemoglobin, transferrin saturation level and the hepatic iron content were delayed compared to the other groups (p < 0.01, 0.01, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively, resulting in no recovery from IDA at the end of the experimental period. There were no significant differences in blood parameters in the LI-W and LI-A groups compared to the control group. The hepatic iron content of the LI-W and LI-A groups was higher than that of the LI-C group (p < 0.05. We found that egg white protein was useful for recovery from IDA and one of the efficacious components was ovalbumin, while egg yolk protein delayed recovery of IDA. This study demonstrates, therefore, that bioavailability of dietary iron varies depending on the source of dietary protein.

  3. Cryopreservation of Dog Semen in a Tris Extender with 1% or 2% Soya Bean Lecithin as a Replacement of Egg Yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Lagerson, E

    2016-04-01

    Egg yolk is usually included in extenders used for preservation of dog semen. Lecithin is an interesting animal-protein free alternative to egg yolk for semen preservation. The aim of our study was to evaluate soya bean lecithin for cryopreservation of dog semen. Five ejaculate replicates were divided in three equal parts, centrifuged and each pellet diluted with one of the three Tris-based extenders containing 20% egg yolk, 1% soya bean lecithin or 2% soya bean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded in 0.5-ml straws, cooled and diluted a second time and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapours. Sperm motility parameters (CASA), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) and sperm membrane integrity (C-FDA) were evaluated 5 min post-thaw and after 2 and 4 h of incubation. Total motility was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extender and was better in the 1% lecithin extender than in the 2% lecithin extender. Sperm membrane integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in any of the lecithin-based extenders but did not differ significantly between the 1% and 2% lecithin extenders. Acrosome integrity was significantly better in the egg yolk extender than in the 2% lecithin extender but did not differ between the egg yolk extender and the 1% lecithin extender or between the two lecithin extenders. In conclusion, egg yolk was superior to lecithin in our study. The extender with 1% lecithin preserved sperm motility better than the extender with 2% lecithin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  5. Self-template synthesis of yolk-shelled NiCo2O4 spheres for enhanced hybrid supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Jiao, Xinyan; Liu, Peng; Ouyang, Yu; Xia, Xifeng; Lei, Wu; Hao, Qingli

    2018-01-01

    A self-template method is developed for hierarchically yolk-shelled NiCo2O4 spheres (YS-NiCo2O4) through a controlled hydrolysis process and followed by a thermal annealing treatment. The yolk-shelled NiCo2O4 spheres possess out-shell consisting of hundreds of ultrathin sheets with 3-5 nm in thickness and solid yolk composing of a large number of nanoparticles. The YS-NiCo2O4 generates a large specific surface area of 169.6 m2 g-1. Benefit from the large specific surface area and rich oxygen vacancy, the as-fabricated YS-NiCo2O4 as electrode materials for supercapacitor exhibits high specific capacitance of 835.7 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, an enhanced rate capability and excellent electrochemical stability with 93% retention after 10,000 cycles even at 10 A g-1. Moreover, a hybrid supercapacitor combined with YS-NiCo2O4 and graphene shows a high energy density of 34.7 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 395.0 W kg-1 at 0.5 A g-1, even at 20 A g-1, the hybrid supercapacitor still delivers the energy density of about 12.1 Wh kg-1 and the power density of 11697 W kg-1. The desirable performance of yolk-shelled NiCo2O4 suggests it to be a promising material as supercapacitor electrodes.

  6. Environmental calcium and variation in yolk sac size influence swimming performance in larval lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deslauriers, David; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Genz, Janet

    2018-01-01

    , because the yolk sac is likely to affect drag forces during swimming. Testing swimming performance of larval A. fulvescens reared in four different calcium treatments spanning the range of 4-132 mg l-1 [Ca2+], this study found no treatment effects on the sprint swimming speed. A novel test of volitional...... reduced swimming performance and could be more susceptible to predation or premature downstream drift. Our study reveals how environmental factors and phenotypic variation influence locomotor performance in a larval fish....

  7. Differentiation of ruminal bacterial species by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using egg yolk antibodies from immunized chicken hens.

    OpenAIRE

    Ricke, S C; Schaefer, D M; Cook, M E; Kang, K H

    1988-01-01

    Cross-reactivity among four species of ruminal bacteria was examined by using egg yolk antibodies from immunized Leghorn laying hens and an enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. The effects of the four species on the hens were compared on various days postimmunization. Hens injected with the same bacterial species had similar apparent antibody levels over the entire postimmunization period, but only Bacteroides ruminicola B1(4) and Selenomonas ruminantium D antigens elicited early increases in a...

  8. Xanthophylls in commercial egg yolks: quantification and identification by HPLC and LC-(APCI)MS using a C30 phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatterer, Jörg; Breithaupt, Dietmar E

    2006-03-22

    The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin have attracted a lot of interest since it was presumed that an increased nutritional uptake may prevent adult macula degeneration (AMD). Although egg yolks serve as an important dietary source of lutein and zeaxanthin, data on xanthophyll concentrations in commercial egg yolks are not available. Thus, an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed allowing for simultaneous separation of eight xanthophylls used to fortify poultry feed. Peak identification was carried out by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry [LC-(APCI)MS]. Egg yolks of four types of husbandry (seven batches each) were examined. Lutein and zeaxanthin were the predominant xanthophylls in egg yolks produced in accordance with ecological husbandry (class 0) because the concentrations of these xanthophylls ranged from 1274 to 2478 microg/100 g and from 775 to 1288 microg/100 g, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) proved that both mean lutein and mean zeaxanthin concentrations of eggs from class 0 were statistically discriminable from mean lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations from eggs of all other classes (P xanthophylls in eggs of classes 1 (free range), 2 (barn), and 3 (cage) were as follows: canthaxanthin, 707 +/- 284 microg/100 g; beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester, 639 +/- 391 microg/100 g; and citranaxanthin, 560 +/- 231 microg/100 g. Experiments with boiled eggs proved that beta-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester was the xanthophyll with the highest stability, whereas lutein was degraded to the largest extent (loss of 19%). Detailed knowledge about the xanthophyll amounts in eggs is indispensable to calculate the human uptake.

  9. Chronobiological studies of chicken IgY: monitoring of infradian, circadian and ultradian rhythms of IgY in blood and yolk of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Xin; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Rüdiger; Zhang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-08-15

    IgY is the functional equivalent of mammalian IgG found in birds, reptiles and amphibians. Many of its biological aspects have been explored with different approaches. In order to evaluate the rhythmicity of serum and yolk IgY, four chickens were examined and reared under the same conditions. To monitor biological oscillations of IgY in yolk and serum, the eggs and blood samples were collected over a 60 day period and the rhythm of yolk and serum IgY was determined by direct-ELISA. Results indicated that, there is a significant circaseptan rhythm in yolk IgY and circaquattran rhythm in serum IgY. The serum IgY concentration reached a peak in the morning, decreased to a minimum during the daytime and increased again at night revealing a significant circadian rhythm was superimposed by an ultradian rhythm. These data are suited to address the controversies concerning the IgY concentration in egg yolk and blood of laying hens. In addition, this study raised new questions, if the different rhythms in yolk and serum are concerned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Broiler incubation. 1. Effect of elevated temperature during late incubation on body weight and organs of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Brannan, K E; Brake, J

    2007-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of increased egg temperature during the final third of incubation on BW, yolk sac, heart, and digestive organs of broiler chicks at hatching. Egg temperatures were found to be approximately 1.0 to 1.5 degrees C higher than incubator air temperature. Elevated egg temperature (39.5 degrees C) after embryonic day 14 generally accelerated hatching time but decreased the relative weight of the heart in all 3 experiments, whereas BW and relative weights of the gizzard, proventriculus, and small intestines were significantly smaller in 2 of 3 experiments as compared with the control (approximately 38.2 degrees C). Relative weights of the yolk sac or liver were significantly larger due to elevated egg temperature in single experiments only. A striking feature of the chicks that developed at an elevated egg temperature was their white color as compared with the yellow color of chicks from eggs incubated at more normal temperatures.

  11. The Effect of NaOH Concentration on pH, Egg White Protein Content and Yolk Colour Pidan Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herly Evanuarini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the best treatment NaOH addition on pidan eggs. The materials used for this research was pidan made from duck egg, NaOH, salt, black tea and water. The method was used experiment laboratory and Completely Randomized Design (CRD using 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were T0 (control, T1 (1.4%, T2 (2.8% and T3 (4.2%. The data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA if there was significantly continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result showed that NaOH concentration on pidan eggs gave significant effect (P<0.05 on albumen protein content, gave highly significant (P<0.01 on pH value and yolk colour. The conclusion of this research was 4.2% NaOH addition on pidan egg was the best treatment with gave result yolk and albumen pH: 10.69; 10.25, albumen protein content 26.89%, egg yolk colour L* (lightness, a* (redness, b* (yellowness:  26.89; 11.33, and 26.77. The suggestion of this research was ussed different immersion time on pidan egg production.

  12. Facile Synthesis of Yolk/Core-Shell Structured TS-1@Mesosilica Composites for Enhanced Hydroxylation of Phenol

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Houbing

    2015-12-14

    © 2015 by the authors. In the current work, we developed a facile synthesis of yolk/core-shell structured TS-1@mesosilica composites and studied their catalytic performances in the hydroxylation of phenol with H2O2 as the oxidant. The core-shell TS-1@mesosilica composites were prepared via a uniform coating process, while the yolk-shell TS-1@mesosilica composite was prepared using a resorcinol-formaldehyde resin (RF) middle-layer as the sacrificial template. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption, Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FT-IR) UV-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization results showed that these samples possessed highly uniform yolk/core-shell structures, high surface area (560–700 m2 g−1) and hierarchical pore structures from oriented mesochannels to zeolite micropores. Importantly, owing to their unique structural properties, these composites exhibited enhanced activity, and also selectivity in the phenol hydroxylation reaction.

  13. Lutein and zeaxanthin: Role as macular pigment and factors that control bioavailability from egg yolks and nanoemulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Rohini

    Lutein and zeaxanthin, two oxygenated carotenoids, exclusively accumulate in the macula, protecting the underlying photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells from damaging blue radiation of sunlight. As macular pigment, lutein and zeaxanthin are also potent antioxidants protecting the vulnerable regions of retina from free radical injury. Oxidative stress and cumulative light damage play an important role in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of vision loss in the elderly population. Antioxidant and lutein supplementation has been shown to decrease the risk and prevent the progression of AMD. The egg yolk is a highly bioavailable source of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus a possible contender for AMD prevention and treatment. Consumption of 2 egg yolks/d for 5 weeks was shown herein to significantly increase serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentration and clinically improve macular pigment concentrations at 0.5° retinal eccentricity in an older adult population taking cholesterol-lowering statins. Four egg yolks/d not only raised serum lutein and zeaxanthin significantly but also macular pigment densities at 0.25°, 0.5° and 1° retinal eccentricity. A positive outcome of the 2 egg yolk consumption was the significant increase in serum HDL-C with a tendency of serum LDL-C to decrease, although not significantly. Four egg yolks/d seemed to cross the threshold for dietary cholesterol tolerance as serum LDL-C tended to increase, although not significantly, despite the significant increase in serum HDL-C. There is a strong possibility that greater build up of lutein and zeaxanthin in the macula may have been observed with 2 egg yolks/d if the intervention period was longer than 5 weeks. Addition of up to 2 eggs a day to the diet is suggested to benefit an older adult population, especially those who are already taking cholesterol-lowering statins by (a) building their macular pigment and possibly protect against AMD and (b

  14. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model.In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers.Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  15. An outbreak of food poisoning due to egg yolk reaction-negative Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, N; Kawamura, A; Masuda, T; Akiyama, M

    2001-03-20

    An outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning due to an egg yolk (EY) reaction-negative strain occurred in Japan. Twenty-one of 53 dam construction workers who ate boxed lunches prepared at their company cafeteria became ill, and eight required hospital treatment. The outbreak showed a typical incubation time (1.5-4 h with a median time of 2.7 h) and symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea) of staphylococcal food poisoning. Staphylococcus aureus, which produces staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A, was isolated from four fecal specimens of eight patients tested. Scrambled egg in the boxed lunches contained 20-40 ng/g of SEA, and 3.0 x 10(9)/g of viable S. aureus cells that produced this toxin. All isolates from patients and the food were EY reaction-negative, coagulase type II, and showed the same restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) pattern. We concluded that the outbreak was caused by scrambled egg contaminated with EY reaction-negative S. aureus. In Japan, outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning are mainly caused by EY reaction-positive S. aureus, and EY reaction-negative colonies grown on agar plates containing EY are usually not analyzed further for detection of S. aureus. The present outbreak suggested that EY reaction-negative isolates should be subjected to further analysis to detect the causative agents of staphylococcal food poisoning.

  16. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of lecithin free egg yolk protein preparation hydrolysates obtained with digestive enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zambrowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Several biological activities have now been associated with egg protein- derived peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anticancer and antioxidantactivities, highlighting the importance of these biopeptides in human health, and disease prevention and treatment. Special attention has been given to peptides with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities as a new source of natural preservatives in food industry. In this study, the antioxidant properties of the egg-yolk protein by-product (YP hydrolysates were evaluated based on their radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, Fe2+chelating effect and ferric reducing power (FRAP. Furthermore, antimicrobial properties of obtained hydrolysates against Bacillus species were studied. The degrees (DHs of hydrolysis for 4h hydrolysates were: 19.1%, 13.5% and 13.0%, for pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin, respectively. Pepsin was the most effective in producing the free amino groups (1410.3 μmolGly/g. The RP-HPLC profiles of the protein hydrolysates showed differences in the hydrophobicity of the generated peptides.Trypsin hydrolysate obtained after 4h reaction demonstrated the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity (0.85 µmol Troloxeq/mg. Trypsin and chymotrypsin hydrolysates obtained after 4h reaction exhibited 4 times higher ferric reducing capacity than those treated bypepsin. The hydrolysis products obtained from YP exhibited significant chelating activity. The 4h trypsin hydrolysate exhibited weak antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis B3; B. cereus B512; B. cereus B 3p and B. laterosporum B6.

  17. Transfer of Immunity from Mother to Offspring Is Mediated via Egg-Yolk Protein Vitellogenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Salmela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect immune systems can recognize specific pathogens and prime offspring immunity. High specificity of immune priming can be achieved when insect females transfer immune elicitors into developing oocytes. The molecular mechanism behind this transfer has been a mystery. Here, we establish that the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin is the carrier of immune elicitors. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera, model system, we demonstrate with microscopy and western blotting that vitellogenin binds to bacteria, both Paenibacillus larvae--the gram-positive bacterium causing American foulbrood disease--and to Escherichia coli that represents gram-negative bacteria. Next, we verify that vitellogenin binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and zymosan, using surface plasmon resonance. We document that vitellogenin is required for transport of cell-wall pieces of E. coli into eggs by imaging tissue sections. These experiments identify vitellogenin, which is distributed widely in oviparous species, as the carrier of immune-priming signals. This work reveals a molecular explanation for trans-generational immunity in insects and a previously undescribed role for vitellogenin.

  18. Invitro Assessment of Bacteriostatic Potency of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P1

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in commercial layer chickens to assess the bacteriostatic potency of egg yolk immunoglobulin IgY against food poisoning pathogen. The O antigen of food poisoning pathogen Escherichia coli was prepared and used to immunize commercial layer chickens. The eggs which contain anti-E.Coli IgY was collected on 30 th day of first injection and stored at 4 0 C. The antibacterial IgY was separated by water dilution method (10 times diluted with distilled water, pH 5.0 - 5.5, incubated at 4 0 C for 6 hrs and purified by 60 % ammonium sulphate. The recovery of IgY was in range of 57-62 %. The pathogens in Tryptic soya broth (approx. 6X108/ ml were cultured with anti-E.coli IgY @ 20 mg /ml and inhibitory effect was measured in UV spectrophotometer at 550 nm. The resultant growth curve indicated that the application of polyclonal antibodies (Ig Y on meat could be used to prevent the E.coli food poisoning. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 460-462

  19. Specific egg yolk immunoglobulin as a new preventive approach for Shiga-toxin-mediated diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Neri

    Full Text Available Shiga toxins (Stxs are involved in the development of severe systemic complications associated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC infection. Various neutralizing agents against Stxs are under investigation for management of EHEC infection. In this study, we immunized chickens with formalin-inactivated Stx-1 or Stx-2, and obtained immunoglobulin Y (IgY from the egg yolk. Anti-Stx-1 IgY and anti-Stx-2 IgY recognized the corresponding Stx A subunit and polymeric but not monomeric B subunit. Anti-Stx-1 IgY and anti-Stx-2 IgY suppressed the cytotoxicity of Stx-1 and Stx-2 to HeLa 229 cells, without cross-suppressive activity. The suppressive activity of these IgY was abrogated by pre-incubation with the corresponding recombinant B subunit, which suggests that the antibodies directed to the polymeric B subunits were predominantly involved in the suppression. In vivo, the intraperitoneal or intravenous administration of these IgY rescued mice from death caused by intraperitoneal injection of the corresponding toxin at a lethal dose. Moreover, oral administration of anti-Stx-2 IgY reduced the mortality of mice infected intestinally with EHEC O157:H7. Our results therefore suggest that anti-Stx IgY antibodies may be considered as preventive agents for Stx-mediated diseases in EHEC infection.

  20. Semente residual do urucum na alimentação de poedeiras comerciais: desempenho e características dos ovos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.207 Annato seed byproduct used as a source of pigment in laying hen diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i2.207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaele Ferreira Moreira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da inclusão da semente residual de urucum (SRU sobre o desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais alimentadas com rações contendo sorgo. Cento e quarenta e quatro poedeiras comerciais foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com seis tratamentos e seis repetições de quatro aves. Os tratamentos consistiram em uma ração � base de milho e, as demais, � base de sorgo com a inclusão de 0,0; 0,5; 1,0;1,5 e 2,0% de SRU. As variáveis: consumo de ração, percentagem de postura, peso e massa de ovo, conversão alimentar, percentagem de gema, albúmem e casca e unidades Haugh não foram afetadas significativamente pelos níveis de inclusão de SRU. Entretanto, a pigmentação da gema aumentou linearmente com o aumento de SRU na ração. A inclusão de 2% de SRU em rações contendo sorgo foi capaz de pigmentar as gemas em, aproximadamente, 61,4% da pigmentação obtida em rações compostas por milho.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of annatto (Bixa orellana L. seed byproduct (ASB in diets with sorghum on laying hens performance and eggs characteristics. A hundred and forty-four laying hens were randomly allotted to six treatments and six replications with four birds each. Treatments consisted of one diet based on corn and the five others based on sorghum with the inclusion of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0% of ASB. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion, yolk, albumen and shell percentages and Haugh units were not affected by the inclusion levels of ASB. However, yolk colour increased linearly as ASB increased in diet. The inclusion of 2% of annatto seed byproduct on laying hens diets based on sorghum improves egg yolk colour nearly 61.4% of that obtained with birds fed diet based on yellow corn.

  1. Effects of inositol, inositol-generating phytase B applied alone, and in combination with 6-phytase A to phosphorus-deficient diets on laying performance, eggshell quality, yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid deposition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyla, K; Mika, M; Duliński, R; Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J; Pustkowiak, H; Piironen, J

    2012-08-01

    Phytase B, a product of Aspergillus niger phyB gene expressed in Trichoderma reesei, which increased myo-inositol concentrations in 20 mM sodium phytate solution 7.5-fold during 120-min incubation, a combination of phytase B with 6-phytase A, and pure myo-inositol were tested as feed supplements in Bovans Brown laying hens. In the 2-factorial experiment (2×5), birds from wk 50 to 62 were fed 2 basal diets, corn-soybean (CSM) or wheat-soybean (WSM), using 12 one-hen cages per treatment. For both basal diets, the dietary treatments included negative control (0.08% nonphytate P in CSM, 0.13% nonphytate P in WSM; NC); internal control groups, NC+0.04% nonphytate P from monocalcium phosphate, MCP (IC); NC+0.1% of myo-inositol (Inos), NC+phytase B at 1,300 units of phytase B-acid phosphatase activity (AcPU)/kg (PhyB), NC+phytase B at 1,300 AcPU/kg+6-phytase A at 300 FTU/kg (PhyA+B). Feed intake, laying performance, and eggshell quality were determined. The total lipid and cholesterol contents as well as fatty acid profile were assessed in egg yolks collected from hens fed CSM diets, as was fatty acid profile. The hens fed the WSM diet consumed significantly more feed, laid a higher mass of eggs daily with higher mean weights, and had a higher hen-day egg production than the birds receiving the CSM diets. Similarly, higher values for yolk weights, shell weights, shell thickness, shell density, and breaking strengths were determined in the eggs laid by the hens fed the WSM diets. In hens fed either the CSM diets with phytase B alone, or in combination with 6-phytase A, enhanced feed intakes, egg mass, and hen-day egg production were recorded. Phytases also enhanced the eggshell quality parameters in the hens fed both variants of the diets. Phytase B alone, or in combination with 6-phytase A, reduced the total lipid and cholesterol concentrations in egg yolks collected from the hens fed the CSM diets, whereas the combination of both phytases improved the n-6:n-3

  2. IgY Technology: Extraction of Chicken Antibodies from Egg Yolk by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Diana; Chacana, Pablo A.; Calzado, Esteban G.; Brembs, Björn; Schade, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Hens can be immunized by means of i.m. vaccination (Musculus pectoralis, left and right, injection volume 0.5-1.0 ml) or by means of Gene-Gun plasmid-immunization. Dependent on the immunogenicity of the antigen, high antibody-titres (up to 1:100,000 - 1:1,000,000) can be achieved after only one or 3 - 4 boost immunizations. Normally, a hen lays eggs continuously for about 72 weeks, thereafter the laying capacity decreases. This protocol describes the extraction of total IgY from egg yolk by means of a precipitation procedure (PEG. Polson et al. 1980). The method involves two important steps. The first one is the removal of lipids and the second is the precipitation of total IgY from the supernatant of step one. After dialysis against a buffer (normally PBS) the IgY-extract can be stored at -20°C for more than a year. The purity of the extract is around 80 %, the total IgY per egg varies from 40-80 mg, dependent on the age of the laying hen. The total IgY content increases with the age of the hen from around 40 mg/egg up to 80 mg/egg (concerning PEG precipitation). The laying capacity of a hen per year is around 325 eggs. That means a total potential harvest of 20 g total IgY/year based on a mean IgY content of 60 mg total IgY/egg (see Table 1). PMID:21559009

  3. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY-Encapsulated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp.

  4. Rational design and synthesis of yolk-shell ZnGa2O4@C nanostructure with enhanced lithium storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nao; Xia, Yuguo; Han, Yanyang; Jiao, Xiuling; Chen, Dairong

    2018-03-01

    The ability to create hybrid nanostructure with synergistic effect and confined morphology to achieve high performance and long-term stability is high desirable in lithium ion batteries. Although transition metal oxides as anode material reveal high theoretical capacities, the significant volume changes during repeated lithium insertion and extraction cause pulverization of electrode materials, resulting in rapid fade in capacity. Herein, yolk-shell nanostructure of ZnGa2O4 encapsulated by amorphous carbon is rationally designed and synthesized through two-step surface coating followed by thermal treatment and etching process. It is noteworthy that ZnGa2O4@C with yolk-shell structure is superior to pristine ZnGa2O4 and ZnGa2O4@C with core-shell structure in term of lithium storage. The stable reversible capacity of yolk-shell ZnGa2O4@C can be retained at 657.2 mAh g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1 after completion of 300 cycles, which also reveals superior rate performance. The appropriate carbon shell and void space involved in the yolk-shell structure are considered to be the crucial factor in accommodating volume expansion as well as preserving the structural integrity of yolk-shell ZnGa2O4@C.

  5. Preparation of yolk-shell MoS2 nanospheres covered with carbon shell for excellent lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bangjun; Feng, Yu; Chen, Xiaofan; Li, Bo; Yu, Ke

    2018-03-01

    Molybdenum disulfide is regarded as one of the most promising electrode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries. Designing firm basal structure is a key point to fully utilize the high capacity of layered MoS2 nanomaterials. Here, yolk-shell structured MoS2 nanospheres is firstly designed and fabricated to meet this needs. This unique yolk-shell nanospheres are transformed from solid nanospheres by a simply weak alkaline etching method. Then, the yolk-shell MoS2/C is synthesized by a facile process to protect the outside MoS2 shell and promote the conductivity. Taking advantages of high capacity and well-defined cavity space, allowing the core MoS2 to expand freely without breaking the outer shells, yolk-shell MoS2/C nanospheres delivers long cycle life (94% of capacity retained after 200 cycles) and high rate behaviour (830 mA h g-1 at 5 A g-1). This design of yolk-shell structure may set up a new strategy for preparing next generation anode materials for LIBs.

  6. Yolk-Shell Porous Microspheres of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Using Calcium L-Lactate and Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate Disodium Salt: Application in Protein/Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guan-Jun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Qi, Chao; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2015-06-26

    A facile and environmentally friendly approach has been developed to prepare yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate by using calcium L-lactate pentahydrate (CL) as the calcium source and adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP) as the phosphate source through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the concentration of CL, the microwave hydrothermal temperature, and the time on the morphology and crystal phase of the product are investigated. The possible formation mechanism of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate is proposed. Hemoglobin from bovine red cells (Hb) and ibuprofen (IBU) are used to explore the application potential of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate in protein/drug loading and delivery. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have relatively high protein/drug loading capacity, sustained protein/drug release, favorable pH-responsive release behavior, and a high biocompatibility in the cytotoxicity test. Therefore, the yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have promising applications in various biomedical fields such as protein/drug delivery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Aktivitas Biologis Imunoglobulin Yolk Anti Parvovirus Setelah Perlakuan Suhu (BIOLOGY ACTIVITIES OF IgY PARVOVIRUS AFTER HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the biological activity of various crude and precipitate specific Immunoglobulin (IgY Canine parvovirus (CPV. Hiperimun serum conducted on Isa Brown chickens injected with antigen CPV. Crude yolk Ig preparations derived from chicken serum without purification while the yolk Ig preparations precipitates obtained by the chicken serum was precipitated with ammonium sulfate and dialyzed. Both types of Ig yolk given treatment temperature 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC for 15 minutes. To test Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT is performed to determine whether there is a specific IgY CPV in the serum of chickens. Biological activity of both types of Ig detected with Barriers Haemagglutination test (HI. The design used in this study is completely randomized design factorial. The results of this study indicate that the temperature was highly significant on the activities of IgY crude and precipitates. Activities IgY crude and precipitate down to the treatment temperature of 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC. Geometric Mean Titer crude IgY respectively - were 26.67, 26, 25.33, and <2º Unit HI while IgY precipitates are respectively 26.33, 25.67, 24, and <2º Unit HI. Based on the results of this study concluded that the biological activity of crude IgY better than IgY precipitates after treatment of a wide range of temperatures.

  8. Digestive enzyme ratios are good indicators of hatchling yolk reserve and digestive gland maturation in early life stages of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.: application of these new tools in ecology and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Georges; Martinez, A S; Le Pabic, C; Le Bihan, E; Robin, J P; Koueta, N

    2018-01-01

    In Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the digestive gland matures during the first month post-hatching, while a shift from intracellular acid to extracellular alkaline digestion occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using enzymatic ratios for the description of digestive system maturation in early life stages of S. officinalis. Second, it is intended to apply these new tools as eco-physiological indicators for understanding the impact of cuttlefish eggs' life history from different spawning sites of the English Channel on digestive performance of juveniles. An experimental rearing was performed over 35 days after hatching (DAH) on juveniles from wild collected eggs in 2010 and 2011. Four digestive enzyme activities and their ratios [i.e., trypsin, cathepsin, acid (ACP), and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase, ALP/ACP, and trypsin/cathepsin] were studied along with histological features (e.g., internal yolk surface and digestive gland development). The two enzyme ratios were good indicators of digestive system maturation allowing the study of the digestive gland's development. They were highly correlated to juveniles' weight increase and histological features of the gland in early DAH. These ratios described more accurately the shift occurring between the intracellular acid and the extracellular alkaline modes of digestion in S. officinalis and were more specific than separated enzyme activities. Their application as eco-physiological tools revealed that enzyme ratios reflected yolk content and digestive gland development in new hatching juveniles. Finally, ALP/ACP ratio was shown to be a powerful tool to describe growth performance of S. officinalis which is useful for aquaculture optimization.

  9. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  10. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  11. Effect of marine by-product meals on hen egg production parameters, yolk lipid composition and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyes-Vargas, E; Ortega-Pérez, R; Espinoza-Villavicencio, J L; Arellano-Pérez, M; Civera, R; Palacios, E

    2018-04-01

    The effect of including 5% marine by-product meals in feeds of laying hens on egg production, composition and sensory characteristics was tested. Marine by-product meals were prepared using two methods: (i) cooking (100°C/10 min) followed by drying (60°C/24 hr) or (ii) grinding followed by drying. The raw materials used for meal production were scallop or squid viscera, shrimp heads or whole mackerel. A total of 108 laying hens were allocated to nine diet treatments; one control diet (corn and soya bean based) and eight experimental diets, containing 95% of the control feed and 5% of the experimental meal for three weeks. Daily intake was higher in hens fed the dried mackerel and cooked shrimp meals. All the experimental treatments showed significantly higher concentration of n-3 HUFA in yolk reserves and phospholipids compared to the control (0.12-0.13 g per 100 g), especially those with scallop or squid prepared by both methods (0.53-0.95 g per 100 g). Scallop, squid and shrimp meal inclusion in the feed produced eggs with more astaxanthin (0.22 mg per 100 g) while this carotenoid was absent in the control and mackerel treatments. Visual evaluation of raw yolk colour increased with the inclusion of marine by-product meals with higher values in hens fed shrimp heads (13), followed by scallop viscera (11), squid viscera (9), and with similar values for mackerel and control (4). The taste, aroma, texture and colour of cooked eggs from different treatments were not statically different when evaluated by a panel of 60 untrained people. These results suggest that meals from marine by-products are a better alternative for improving egg yolk composition by increasing n-3 HUFA when compared to fishmeal as they also increase astaxanthin and yolk pigmentation without affecting egg sensory characteristics. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. CT Findings of Intrarenal Yolk Sac Tumor with Tumor Thrombus Extending into the Inferior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shao Chun; Li, Xue Hua; Sun, Can Hui; Feng, Shi Ting; Peng, Zhen Peng; Huang, Si Yun; Li, Zi Ping [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-10-15

    Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare germ cell neoplasm of childhood that usually arises from the testis or ovary. The rare cases of YST in various extragonadal locations have been reported, but the primary intrarenal YST is even more uncommon. Here, we report a case of a primary intrarenal YST with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava and left renal vein in a 2-year-old boy, with an emphasis on the CT features. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intrarenal YST with intravascular involvement.

  13. Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Human and Animal Neonates: A Concise Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Hlaing Myat; Myat, Theingi Win; Win, Mo Mo; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Rahman, Shofiqur; Umeda, Kouji; Nguyen, Sa Van; Icatlo, Faustino C.; Higo-Moriguchi, Kyoko; Taniguchi, Koki; Tsuji, Takao; Oguma, Keiji; Kim, Sang Jong; Bae, Hyun Suk

    2017-01-01

    The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpose of this concise review is to evaluate evidence on the properties and performance of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for prevention and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in human and animal neonates. A survey of relevant anti-rotavirus IgY basic studies and clinical trials among neonatal animals (since 1994-2015) and humans (since 1982-2015) have been reviewed and briefly summarized. Our analysis of a number of rotavirus investigations involving animal and human clinical trials revealed that anti-rotavirus IgY significantly reduced the severity of clinical manifestation of diarrhea among IgY-treated subjects relative to a corresponding control or placebo group. The accumulated information as a whole depicts oral IgY to be a safe and efficacious option for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in neonates. There is however a clear need for more randomized, placebo controlled and double-blind trials with bigger sample size to further solidify and confirm claims of efficacy and safety in controlling diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection especially among human infants with health issues such as low birth weights or compromised immunity in whom it is most needed. PMID:28316465

  14. Evaluation of an egg yolk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody test and its use to assess the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in laying hens in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tamba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in commercial layers was established by the presence of antibodies in eggs. Saline-extracted yolks were used with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. For the prevalence study, yolks from 30 eggs were obtained from each of 66 flocks coming from 36 layer farms. The prevalence of egg antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum was 33.3% in single-age farms and 77.8% in multi-age farms. In 27 flocks, antibody titers were compared with results obtained from blood samples taken in the same flock and in the same period and analyzed with the same kit. This study has confirmed that egg yolk enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody test is a suitable and practical approach for assessing the flock prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in layer hens.

  15. [Isolation of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and the inhibitory effect of egg yolk antibody on caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X L; Zhang, Z; Li, Z X; Deng, N J; Zeng, B; Chen, Y M

    2017-04-09

    Objective: To isolate the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans (Sm) strains and study the therapeutical effect of egg yolk antibody (IgY) of the Sm on dental caries development. Methods: Sm strains were isolated from the children's dental plaque samples. Morphological, biochemical and molecular biological methods were applied to identify the serotype, acid producing and adhesion abilities of isolated Sm strains. After inactivation one of the Sm strains was used as antigen to immune laying hens to collect and extract the specific anti-Sm IgY. The rats were infected with Sm (serotype e). After 16 weeks of infection, all the rats were found developing dental caries. The rats were then randomly divided into two groups. The rats in experimental group were supplied with diet containing anti-Sm IgY while the rats in control group with normal IgY. All rats were sacrificed after another 8 weeks' observation. The degree of caries for each rat was assessed using Keyes' method. Results: We isolated 7 Sm strains from the children's dental plaque samples in the present study. The numbers of serotype c, e, f, k were 3, 2, 0 and 2, respectively. All strains showed similar morphological and biochemical characters as standard UA159 Sm strain, and possessed strong capabilities of acid production and adherence. Interestingly, even the same serotypec strains, such as No.3 and No.7 strains, demonstrated significant difference on acid producing and adherence capabilities. After 16 weeks infection with serotype e strain, the rats' mandibular teeth were apparently decayed, and treatment with specific anti-Sm IgY obviously attenuated the development of caries in the experiment group rats (16.4±2.0) compared with that in the control group rats (30.2±9.3) ( Pcariogenic Sm strains of different serotypes were isolated, which possesses similar morphology and biochemical characters. Although belonging to the same serotype strains they always show significant difference in acid-producing and

  16. Thermodynamics of the interaction between bovine binder of sperm BSP1 and low-density lipoprotein from hen's egg yolk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusignan, Marie-France; Manjunath, Puttaswamy [Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center and Department of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada); Lafleur, Michel, E-mail: michel.lafleur@umontreal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Centre for Self-Assembled Chemical Structures (CSACS), Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-03-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed Binder-of-SPerm BSP1 protein has high affinity for egg yolk low density lipoproteins. {yields} It is estimated that 104 BSP1 molecules could bind one LDL particle. {yields} BSP1 has 2 phosphocholine binding sites and the BSP1/LDL ratio corresponds to 1.6 phosphatidylcholine per bound BSP1. {yields} The strong interaction between LDL particles and BSP1 is proposed to be important for sperm protection by egg yolk extender. - Abstract: Egg yolk is used in extender to protect sperm from cold shock and freezing during preservation. It is the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction of egg yolk that protects sperm. Even though essential for sperm capacitation, the major proteins from bull seminal plasma, the Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, are detrimental for sperm preservation because they induce a continual phospholipids and cholesterol efflux from sperm membranes. The BSP proteins were proposed to bind to egg yolk LDL, preventing the sperm membrane damage. We characterized the binding between the BSP proteins and the LDL by isothermal titration calorimetry, providing the thermodynamics and quantitative description of this putative association. The association between BSP1 (major BSP proteins) and LDL is characterized by an affinity constant (K{sub a}) of 3.4 {+-} 0.4 {mu}M{sup -1}. A protein/LDL ratio of 104 {+-} 5 was determined indicating that 104 molecules of BSP1 would bind to one LDL particle. This stoichiometry leads to proposing that the association involves 1.6 {+-} 0.1 phosphatidylcholines (PC) per BSP protein. This finding is satisfactorily consistent with the fact that each BSP1 protein has 2 binding sites for choline group. In conclusion, the formation of a high affinity complex between BSP1 and LDL is proposed to be important for the protection of sperm by egg yolk extender.

  17. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies against propionibacterium acnes for the prevention of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthika Selvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antigen-specific antibody has been widely used for immunological analysis in the field of diagnosis as well as in pure scientific research, where the IgY antibodies can be raised against P acnes antigen. Material and Methods: To produce IgY against Propionibacterium acnes, laying hens were immunized with P acnes (MTCC No: 1951 and subsequent booster injections were given. The antibodies produced were purified from the egg yolk of immunized chicken using the polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and, further, by Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. The protein fraction of IgY was isolated from the egg yolk. The separation was rapid, and the success of each step was viewed on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The reactivity of anti-P acnes was evaluated by the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test and the dot-immunoassay. Results: With ELISA, the highest titter of 1:10000 was observed on the 150 th day after vaccination. The results of dot-immunoassay suggested that anti-P acnes IgY developed a brown color as positive reaction, which showed the antigen-antibody binding even after a maximum dilution of 1/500. These results suggest that anti-acne IgY was produced and had strong specific antibody reactivity. Conclusion: The findings indicate that anti-acne IgY is worth utilizing as a preventive agent for acne vulgaris.

  18. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, Holger; Svensson, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2 6-1 experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO 2 until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon

  19. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  20. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  1. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  2. Características morfométricas, rendimentos de carcaça, filé, vísceras e resíduos em tilápias-do-nilo em diferentes faixas de peso Morphometric characteristics, carcass, filet, viscera and residues in different weight categories of the Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredson Vieira e Silva

    2009-08-01

    ; length of the head; height of the body measured at the front of the 1° ray of pectoral, dorsal, anal and tail fins; width of the body measured at the front of the insertion of 1º ray of pectoral, dorsal and anal fins; perimeter measured at the front of the insertion of the 1° ray of pectoral, dorsal and anal fins and minor circumference of the peduncle and yield of carcass, filet, head, fin, skin, viscera and residues of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Eighty tilapia were used, in a completely randomized design, with four treatments (weight categories 250 the 300 g; 350 the 400 g; 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g and 20 replications. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. The Nile tilapia presented minors variations in the morphometric characteristics in the weight category 450 to 600 g, when compared with the category 250 to 400 g. The weight category 250 the 300 g, 350 the 400 g, 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g provided the same yield of carcass, filet and percentages of head, fin, skin and residues. The percentage of viscera in the 550 the 600 g category (10.98% was significantly lower when compared to 250 the 300 g (12.77%, 350 the 400 g (13.26% and 450 the 500 g (12.69%. The weight of filet in the 350 the 400 g category (260.50 g was higher than the 250 the 300 g category (239.95 g. There was no difference in the weight of fillet between the 450 the 500 g category (284.20 g and 550 the 600 g (292.80 g. The category 450 the 500 g and 550 the 600 g presented higher values of weight of fillet when compared to 250 the 300 g and 350 the 400 g. According to the weight of fillet found, the ideal weight of slaughter of the tilapia is between 450 and 500 g in a range of 250-600 g.

  3. Egg-yolk protein by-product as a source of ACE-inhibitory peptides obtained with using unconventional proteinase from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Ewelina; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Polanowski, Antoni; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2014-10-14

    In the present study angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were isolated from egg-yolk protein preparation (YP). Enzymatic hydrolysis conducted using unconventional enzyme from Cucurbita ficifolia (dose: 1000 U/mg of hydrolyzed YP (E/S (w/w)=1:7.52)) was employed to obtain protein hydrolysates. The 4-h hydrolysate exhibited a significant (IC₅₀=482.5 μg/mL) ACE inhibitory activity. Moreover, hydrolysate showed no cytotoxic activity on human and animal cell lines which makes it a very useful multifunctional method for peptide preparation. The compiled isolation procedure (ultrafiltration, size-exclusion chromatography and RP-HPLC) of bioactive peptides from YP hydrolysate resulted in obtaining peptides with the strong ACE inhibitory activity. One homogeneous and three heterogeneous peptide fractions were identified. The peptides were composed of 9-18 amino-acid residues, including mainly arginine and leucine at the N-terminal positions. To confirm the selected bioactive peptide sequences their analogs were chemically synthesized and tested. Peptide LAPSLPGKPKPD showed the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC₅₀ value of 1.97 μmol/L. Peptides with specific biological activity can be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industries. Because of their potential role as physiological modulators, as well as theirhigh safety profile, they can be used as natural pharmacological compounds or functional food ingredients. The development of biotechnological solutions to obtain peptides with desired biological activity is already in progress. Studies in this area are focused on using unconventional highly specific enzymes and more efficient methods developed to conduct food process technologies. Natural peptides have many advantages. They are mainly toxicologically safe, have wide spectra of therapeutic actions, exhibit less side effects compared to synthetic drugs and are more efficiently absorbed in the intestinal tract. The complexity of

  4. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  5. Alternations in Cholesterol and Fatty Acids Composition in Egg Yolk of Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi Hens Fed with Hemp Seeds (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaib Shahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of hemp seed (HS supplementation on egg yolk cholesterol and fatty acid composition in laying hens. Sixty hens (Rhode Island Red x Fyoumi were evenly distributed into four groups (three replicates per group at the peak production (34 weeks. HS was included into the ration at the level of 0.0 (HS-0, 15 (HS-15, 20 (HS-20, and 25% (HS-25 and continued the supplementation for consecutively three weeks. At the end of the experiment, three eggs per replicate were randomly collected and analyzed for egg yolk fatty acids and cholesterol profile. The statistical analysis of the result revealed that supplementation of HS-25 significantly (P<0.05 decreased egg yolk total cholesterol, myristic (C14:0, palmitic (C16:0, and stearic (C18:0. Similarly, total as well as individual monounsaturated fatty acids decreased significantly (P<0.05 while total and individual polyunsaturated fatty acids increased significantly in the HS-25. In addition, total omega-3 and omega-6 increased significantly in the HS-25 group. From the present result, we concluded that addition of HS at the rate of 25% to the diet of laying hens augmented the cholesterol and fatty acids profile in egg yolk.

  6. Embryonic cholesterol esterification is regulated by a cyclic AMP-dependent pathway in yolk sac membrane-derived endodermal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siou-Huei Wang

    Full Text Available During avian embryonic development, endodermal epithelial cells (EECs absorb yolk through the yolk sac membrane. Sterol O-acyltransferase (SOAT is important for esterification and yolk lipid utilization during development. Because the major enzyme for yolk sac membrane cholesteryl ester synthesis is SOAT1, we cloned the avian SOAT1 promoter and elucidated the cellular functions of SOAT1. Treatments with either glucagon, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX, an adenylate cyclase activator (forskolin, a cAMP analog (dibutyryl-cAMP, or a low glucose concentration all increased SOAT1 mRNA accumulation in EECs from Japanese quail, suggesting that SOAT1 is regulated by nutrients and hormones through a cAMP-dependent pathway. Activity of protein kinase A (PKA was increased by IBMX, whereas co-treatment with the PKA inhibitor, H89 negated the increase in PKA activity. Cyclic AMP-induced EECs had greater cholesterol esterification than untreated EECs. By promoter deletion and point-mutation, the cAMP-response element (-349 to -341 bp was identified as critical in mediating transcription of SOAT1. In conclusion, expression of SOAT1 was regulated by a cAMP-dependent pathway and factors that increase PKA will increase SOAT1 to improve the utilization of lipids in the EECs and potentially modify embryonic growth.

  7. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VNcontrols (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk enriched in BRV-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent BRV diarrhea. Moreover a strong active ASC immune response is induced in the

  8. Efeitos da inclusão do farelo de sementes de jaqueira Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. na ração sobre a produção, pigmentação da gema e umidade fecal em codornas Effect of the addition of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seeds bran in dietary on the egg production, yolk pigmentation and dropping humidity in japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes do farelo da semente de jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. na ração sobre a produção e pigmentação da gema dos ovos e umidade das excretas em 180 codornas japonesas (Coturnix coturnix japonica. Aos 42 dias de idade, as aves foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentadas com rações contendo níveis de 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 e 10% do farelo de semente de jaqueira (FSJ. Foram avaliados o consumo de ração, produção de ovos, peso dos ovos, massa de ovos, conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos, além do peso e da porcentagem de gema, clara, casca, pigmentação da gema dos ovos e umidade das excretas. O aumento do FSJ na ração piorou linearmente (PAn experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of increase levels of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seeds bran in diet of japanese quails on egg production, yolk pigmentation and dropping humidity . A total of 180 japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica with 42 days oold were distributed in a completely randomized design and fed diets with differents levels of 0; 2; 4; 6; 8 and 10% of jackfruit seeds bran (JSB. The variables feed intake, egg production, egg weigh, egg mass, feed egg mass conversion and feed egg dozen conversion as well as the yolk weight and yolk percentage, egg white, egg shell and egg yolk pigmentation. The data shown that increasing JSB in the diets reduced the egg production and higher feed egg dozen conversion lineally (P<0,05. Therefore the egg yolk pigmentation improved up to 7.44% of JSB in the diet and the dropping humidity was higher up to 4.9% of JSB.The presence of antitrypsin factor is a possible explanation for lower performance on the japanese quails fed diets with increase of JSB fresh. In order to solve this problem e, it is recommended to expose the seeds to a thermal treatment, otherwise the jackfruit seed fresh should not be

  9. Proteomic analysis of the early bovine yolk sac fluid and cells from the day 13 ovoid and elongated preimplatation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille L.; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Tonny S.

    2014-01-01

    differentiate into the hypoblast and epiblast, which remain surrounded by the trophectoderm. The formation of the hypoblast epithelium is also accompanied by a change in the fluid within the embryo, i.e., the blastocoel fluid gradually alters to become the primitive yolk sac (YS) fluid. Our previous research......The bovine blastocyst hatches 8 to 9 days after fertilization, and this is followed by several days of preimplantation development during which the embryo transforms from a spherical over an ovoid to an elongated shape. As the spherical embryo enlarges, the cells of the inner cell mass...... describes the protein composition of human and bovine blastocoel fluid, which is surrounded by the trophectoderm and undifferentiated cells of the inner cell mass. In this study, we further examine the changes in the protein composition in both the primitive YS fluid and the embryonic cells during early...

  10. Semen Quality of Post-Thawed Local Ram’s in Tris-Egg Yolk Extender with Different Glutathione Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solihati, N.; Rasad, S. D.; Setiawan, R.; Foziah, E. N.; Wigiyanti, E. T.

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this research were to find out the effect of glutathione level on semen quality of local ram and to find out the glutathione level that provide the best quality of local ram semen. This research use Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments of glutathione level (0 mM, 4 mM, 5 mM, 6 mM and 7mM) and was repeated for 10 times. Data were analyzed using analysis of varians (ANOVA) and differences between treatment was analyzed using Duncan test. The parameter were semen quality consist of motility, intact plasma membrane (IPM), abnormality, and recovery rate. Result of this research showed that glutathione level significantly (pegg yolk tris extender provide the best quality of local ram semen.

  11. Side-specific effect of yolk testosterone elevation on second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Blázi, György; Hegyi, Gergely; Török, János

    2016-02-01

    Second-to-fourth digit ratio is a widely investigated sexually dimorphic morphological trait in human studies and could reliably indicate the prenatal steroid environment. Conducting manipulative experiments to test this hypothesis comes up against ethical limits in humans. However, oviparous tetrapods may be excellent models to experimentally investigate the effects of prenatal steroids on offspring second-to-fourth digit ratio. In this field study, we injected collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis) eggs with physiological doses of testosterone. Fledglings from eggs with elevated yolk testosterone, regardless of their sex, had longer second digits on their left feet than controls, while the fourth digit did not differ between groups. Therefore, second-to-fourth digit ratio was higher in the testosterone-injected group, but only on the left foot. This is the first study which shows experimentally that early testosterone exposure can affect second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild population of a passerine bird.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation and storage on lutein and zeaxanthin in liquid, frozen and dried egg yolk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine Uygun-Saribay; Ece Ergun; Turhan Koeseoglu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effects of gamma irradiation and storage on the content of lutein and zeaxanthin in egg yolk samples. Liquid, frozen and dried egg samples were subjected to gamma irradiation doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy followed by storage of liquid samples at +4 ± 1 deg C for 21 days, frozen samples at -18 ± 1 deg C and dried samples at room temperature for 1 year. The xanthophyll concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. It was observed that concentrations of both lutein and zeaxanthin were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after irradiation and during storage. The mechanism for radiation-induced degradation was proposed as radical formation which initiate chain reactions. It was suggested that during storage active radical species and oxygen caused the degradation. (author)

  13. Cryopreservation of boar semen by egg yolk-based extenders containing lactose or fructose is better than sorbitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2012-03-01

    The present study determined the effect of different types of sugars (lactose, fructose, glucose and sorbitol) used in egg yolk-based extender on the post-thawed boar semen quality. Twenty-two ejaculates from 6 fertility-proven Yorkshire boars were cryopreserved by liquid nitrogen vapor method. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and intact functional plasma membrane were determined at 0, 2 and 4 hr after thawing. It was found that the lactose-based extender resulted in a higher percentage of post-thawed sperm motility, viability, intact acrosome and functional plasma membrane than sorbitol-based extender (Pextender yielded a higher post-thawed sperm motility and viability than sorbitol-based extender (Pboar semen.

  14. Effect of flaxseed oil and microalgae DHA on the production performance, fatty acids and total lipids of egg yolk and plasma in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; Ojekudo, O; House, J D

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the egg is dependent on both the transfer efficiency of preformed dietary omega-3 fatty acids to the eggs as well as endogenous PUFA metabolism and deposition. Employing an experimental design consisting of 70 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens (n=10/treatment) in a 6-week feeding trial, we examined the impact of graded levels of either flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) or algal DHA (preformed docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), each supplying 0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3s. The control diet was practically low in omega-3s. Study parameters included monitoring the changes of fatty acid contents in yolk, measures of hen performance, eggshell quality, total lipids and fatty acid contents of plasma. Data were analysed as a complete randomized design using Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. No significant differences were observed between treatments with respect to hen performance, eggshell quality and cholesterol content in plasma and egg yolk. Individual and total omega-3 PUFA in the yolk and plasma increased (PDHA-fed hens incorporated 3-fold more DHA in eggs compared with ALA-fed hens (179±5.55 vs. 66.7±2.25mg/yolk, respectively). In both treatment groups, maximal enrichment of total n-3 PUFA was observed by week-2, declined by week-4 and leveled thereafter. In addition, accumulation of DHA in egg yolk showed linear (PDHA (R 2 =0.95). The current data, based on defined level of total omega-3s in the background diet, provides evidence to suggest that exogenous as well as endogenous synthesis of DHA may be subject to a similar basis of regulation, and serve to highlight potential regulatory aspects explaining the limitations in the deposition of endogenously produced omega-3 LCPUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of modified eggs and an egg-yolk based beverage on serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment optical density: results from a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton R Kelly

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests a beneficial effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on the progression of age-related macular degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched eggs or a lutein enriched egg-yolk based buttermilk beverage on serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment levels. Naturally enriched eggs were made by increasing the levels of the xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin in the feed given to laying hens. One hundred healthy volunteers were recruited and randomized into 5 groups for 90 days. Group one added one normal egg to their daily diet and group two received a lutein enriched egg-yolk based beverage. Group three added one lutein enriched egg and group four one zeaxanthin enriched egg to their diet. Group five was the control group and individuals in this group did not modify their daily diet. Serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations and macular pigment densities were obtained at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Macular pigment density was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Serum lutein concentration in the lutein enriched egg and egg yolk-based beverage groups increased significantly (p<0.001, 76% and 77%. A strong increase in the serum zeaxanthin concentration was observed in individuals receiving zeaxanthin enriched eggs (P< 0.001, 430%. No changes were observed in macular pigment density in the various groups tested. The results indicate that daily consumption of lutein or zeaxanthin enriched egg yolks as well as an egg yolk-based beverage show increases in serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels that are comparable with a daily use of 5 mg supplements.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00527553.

  16. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli strains by neutralizing IgY antibodies from ostrich egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Tobias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ostrich raising around the world have some key factors and farming profit depend largely on information and ability of farmers to rear these animals. Non fertilized eggs from ostriches are discharged in the reproduction season. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are microorganisms involved in animal and human diseases. In order to optimize the use of sub products of ostrich raising, non fertilized eggs of four selected birds were utilized for development of polyclonal IgY antibodies. The birds were immunized (200ug/animal with purified recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin C (recSEC and synthetic recRAP, both derived from S. aureus, and recBFPA and recEspB involved in E. coli pathogenicity, diluted in FCA injected in the braquial muscle. Two subsequent immunization steps with 21 days intervals were repeated in 0,85% saline in FIA. Blood and eggs samples were collected before and after immunization steps. Egg yolk immunoglobulins were purified by precipitation with 19% sodium sulfate and 20% ammonium sulphate methodologies. Purified IgY 50µL aliquots were incubated in 850µL BHI broth containing 50µL inoculums of five strains of S. aureus and five strains of E.coli during four hours at 37ºC. Growth inhibition was evaluated followed by photometry reading (DO550nm. Egg yolk IgY preparation from hiperimmunized birds contained antibodies that inhibited significantly (p<0,05 growth of strains tested. Potential use of ostrich IgY polyclonal antibodies as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool is proposed for diseased animals.

  17. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2015-06-01

    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-10-01

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  19. Effects of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuemei; Yu, Yang; Su, Zhuowei; Zhang, Keying

    2017-06-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark), respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks). For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks), period 2 (58 to 61 weeks), and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks). For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly improved ( P  digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased ( P  digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased ( P  digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO) in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

  20. Protective effect of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against Prevotella intermedia-mediated gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y-Y; Zhen, Y-H; Wang, D; Zhu, J; Sun, D-X; Liu, X-T; Wang, H-X; Liu, Y; Long, Y-Y; Shu, X-H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of an egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) specific to Prevotella intermedia in vitro and in vivo. An IgY specific to P. intermedia was produced by immunizing hens with formaldehyde-inactivated P. intermedia and showed high titres when subjected to an ELISA. The obtained IgY inhibited the growth of P. intermedia in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations from 1 to 20 mg ml(-1) in Center for Disease Control and Prevention liquid medium. Forty rats were challenged with P. intermedia on gingivae and then randomly divided into four groups, which were syringed respectively with phosphate-buffered saline, 1 mg ml(-1) of tinidazole, 20 mg ml(-1) of nonspecific IgY and 20 mg ml(-1) of the IgY specific to P. intermedia at a dosage of 300 μl per day. Gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), counts of white blood cell (WBC) and histopathological slide of the gums were measured after treatment for 15 days. The gingivitis rats treated with the IgY specific to P. intermedia showed significantly decreased GI, PI, BOP and WBC (P intermedia-mediated gingivitis. A new immunoglobulin specific to P. intermedia was developed from egg yolk. This specific IgY can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of P. intermedia and protect rats from gingivitis induced by P. intermedia. The new IgY has potential for the treatment of P. intermedia-mediated gingivitis. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Weighted Lomax distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, N M

    2016-01-01

    The Lomax distribution (Pareto Type-II) is widely applicable in reliability and life testing problems in engineering as well as in survival analysis as an alternative distribution. In this paper, Weighted Lomax distribution is proposed and studied. The density function and its behavior, moments, hazard and survival functions, mean residual life and reversed failure rate, extreme values distributions and order statistics are derived and studied. The parameters of this distribution are estimated by the method of moments and the maximum likelihood estimation method and the observed information matrix is derived. Moreover, simulation schemes are derived. Finally, an application of the model to a real data set is presented and compared with some other well-known distributions.

  2. Characterization of a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan synthesized by murine parietal yolk sac (PYS-2) cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Woods, A; Höök, M

    1985-01-01

    -polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of chondroitinase ABC-treated 125I-labeled proteoglycan reveals two polypeptides with molecular weights of 34,000 and 27,000. Results from papain digestion of the proteoglycan suggest that most of the polysaccharide chains are clustered at a papain-resistant segment of the core...

  3. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  4. Preservasi Semen Kambing Peranakan Etawa dalam Pengencer Tris dan Sitrat Kuning Telur dengan Penambahan Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (THE PRESERVATION OF ETTAWA GRADE BUCK SEMEN IN TRIS AND CITRATE EGG YOLK DILUENTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determineSDS concentration also to compare Tris egg yolk and citrateegg yolk on the quality of ettawa grade chilled semen. The study consist of two experiments. The firstexperiment was to determine the best SDS concentration in Tris egg yolk diluents and the second experimentwas to compare the SDS suplementation in tris and citrate egg yolk in the quality of ettawa grade chilledsemen. The semen were collected from three bucks, immediately after collection the semen evalutedmacro and microscopycally. Semen demonstrate more than 70% motility and less than 10% spermatozoaabnormality, individually divided into four tube, each tube was diluted in egg yolk supplemented with 0;0,025; 0,05; and 0.075% SDS then stored at 5°C for 72 hours. The quality of chilled semen was observefor motility and viability every 12 hours. Result demonstrated that 0.05% SDS was the best concentrationcompared to others. In the second experiment,the semen were diluted in four different diluents, it wereTris egg yolk (TEY, Tris egg yolk with 0.05% SDS (TEYS, citrate egg yolk (CEY and citrate egg yolk with0.05% SDS (CEYS. Result demonstrated that the mean value of motility and viability of spermatozoa inTEYSdiluents (67.08 ± 6.43% and77.07 ± 6.78% was higher (p<0.05 than CEYS (60.42 ± 9.05% and72.31± 7.45%, TEY (59.23 ± 9.41% and71.21 ± 8.56% and CEY (53.45 ± 11.33% and67.74 ± 8.90%. In conclusion,supplementation of 0.05% SDS in TEY was maintained best sperm quality compared to other diluentsduring preservation.

  5. Resistance of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms to disinfectants in the presence of organic matter and their residual effect on stainless steel and polypropylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez-Moreno, Maricarmen

    2018-04-23

    The effectiveness of disinfectants can vary according to the microorganism, type of residues and surface. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of four disinfectants in the presence of organic matter and their residual effect on stainless steel grade 304 (SS) and polypropylene B (PP-B). The disinfectant effectiveness in the presence of meat extract, yolk egg and whole milk was determined according to AOAC and UNE-EN 1040:2015; the residual effect was realized according to UNE-EN 13697:2015, using approved strains. The disinfectant effectiveness was affect at different grades depending on the organic matter present; disinfectant A (400μgmL -1 , fifth generation quaternary ammonium compound, QAC) was most effective in the presence of 10% meat extract, while the disinfectant C (200μgmL -1 , peracetic acid) had better activity in the presence of 10% egg yolk and whole milk. In the evaluation of residual effect onto SS and PP-B, the QAC had the better effect, reducing 6 Log 10 CFU mL -1 of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111 24h after their application. Conversely, the disinfectants had no residual effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. The antimicrobial activity of disinfectants tested against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms was affected according to the type of organic matter. Disinfectant A had a more residual effect than the other disinfectants evaluated. Moreover, the residual effect of a disinfectant is greater on SS than on PP-B and dependent on the microorganism tested. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  7. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  8. Decomposition of rice residue in tropical soils, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Tadakatsu; Yoshida, Tomio

    1977-01-01

    The decomposition processes of intact rice residue (leaf blades) in the Maahas soil in the Philippines were investigated. Three sets of beakers simulating both lowland and upland conditions were incubated in the dark at 30 deg. C. One set of beakers had neither rice residue nor fertilizer. Pieces of leaf blades weighing 204 mg (dry weight) were inserted in the second set. Pieces of leaf blades were inserted in the third set, and 200 ppm of fertilizer nitrogen as 15 N-labelled ammonium sulfate was added. The experiment dealt with the nitrogen immobilization by rice residue under lowland and upland conditions. The rice residue which has contained low nitrogen absorbed nitrogen from the soil and from the added fertilizer (ammonium sulfate) during its decomposition under both conditions. Under the lowland condition, the amount of nitrogen immobilized was small during the first week, but became large after 2 or 3 weeks. Under the upland condition, the immobilized nitrogen reached its maximum during the first week, but the amount was not so large as that under the lowland condition. The added fertilizer stimulated the decrease of weight of the rice residue in the early incubation period, but retarded it later under both conditions. The absorption of fertilizer by the rice residue ceased at the early stage of residue decomposition, but the nitrogen content of the residue continued to increase. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  10. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  11. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  12. Study of mortars with industrial residual plastic scales

    OpenAIRE

    Magariños, O. E.; Alderete, C. E.; Arias, L. E.; Lucca, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    This work proposes the utilization of industrial residues of PET (Polyethylene Terephtalate) as a partial substitute of arids (sand) in mortar making for construction components. Therefore, the environmental impact of large volumes of plastic of urban residues could be decreased. When PET scales were added to mortars in partial replacement of sand, lower unitary weight, acceptable absorption and resistances according to international specifications were achieved. Mortars with 66% of sand...

  13. Yolk proteins in the male reproductive system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster: spatial and temporal patterns of expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Magdalena M; Suszczynska, Agnieszka; Kotwica-Rolinska, Joanna; Czerwik, Tomasz; Paterczyk, Bohdan; Polanska, Marta A; Bernatowicz, Piotr; Bebas, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    In insects, spermatozoa develop in the testes as clones of single spermatogonia covered by specialized somatic cyst cells (cc). Upon completion of spermatogenesis, spermatozoa are released to the vas deferens, while the cc remain in the testes and die. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the released spermatozoa first reach the seminal vesicles (SV), the organ where post-testicular maturation begins. Here, we demonstrate the temporal (restricted to the evening and early night hours) accumulation of membranous vesicles containing proteins in the SV lumen of D. melanogaster. When SV vesicles were isolated from the semen and co-incubated with testis-derived spermatozoa in vitro, their contents bound to the spermatozoa along their tails. The proteins of the SV vesicles were then characterized using 2-D electrophoresis. We identified a prominent protein spot of around 45-47 kDa, which disappears from the SV vesicles in the night, i.e. shortly after they appear in the SV lumen. Sequencing of peptides derived from this spot by mass spectrometry revealed identity with three yolk proteins (YP1-3). This unexpected result was confirmed by western blotting, which demonstrated that SV vesicles contain proteins that are immunoreactive with an antibody against D. melanogaster YP1-3. The expression of all yp genes was shown to be a unique feature of testis tissues. Using RNA probes we found that their transcripts localize exclusively to the cc that cover fully developed spermatozoa in the distal part of each testis. Temporally, the expression of yp genes was found to be restricted to a short period during the day and is followed by the evening accumulation of YP proteins in the cc. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that cc are the source of SV vesicles containing YPs that are released into the SV lumen. These vesicles interact with spermatozoa and as a result, YPs become extrinsic proteins of the sperm membrane. Thus, we describe for the first time the expression of

  14. Soft template strategy to synthesize iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joohyun; Um, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Jihoon; Yu, Seung-Ho; Sung, Yung-Eun; Lee, Jin-Kyu

    2015-05-18

    Yolk-shell-structured nanoparticles with iron oxide core, void, and a titania shell configuration are prepared by a simple soft template method and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries. The iron oxide-titania yolk-shell nanoparticles (IO@void@TNPs) exhibit a higher and more stable capacity than simply mixed nanoparticles of iron oxide and hollow titania because of the unique structure obtained by the perfect separation between iron oxide nanoparticles, in combination with the adequate internal void space provided by stable titania shells. Moreover, the structural effect of IO@void@TNPs clearly demonstrates that the capacity retention value after 50 cycles is approximately 4 times that for IONPs under harsh operating conditions, that is, when the temperature is increased to 80 °C. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Modelling with response surface methodology of the effects of egg yolk, egg white and sodium carbonate on some textural properties of beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Ozgür; Zorba, Omer; Kurt, Sükrü

    2014-04-01

    This study was accomplished to determine the effects of egg yolk, egg white and sodium carbonate on textural properties of beef patties by using Central Composite Design of Response Surface Methodology. Meat patties were prepared using beef, lamb tail fat and spices. Effects of addition of egg yolk powder (0-1%), egg white powder (0-1%) and sodium carbonate (0-1%) on textural properties were studied by using a texture analyzer. The TPA and cutting force tests were measured in the samples. Effects of sodium carbonate were found to be significant (P  0.05). The levels of sodium carbonate up to 0.72% improved the textural properties of beef patties.

  16. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  17. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  18. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  19. Effect of different concentrations of egg yolk and virgin coconut oil in Tris-based extenders on chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarig, A A; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Yimer, N; Goh, Y M; Baiee, F H; Khumran, A M; Salman, H; Ebrahimi, M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8% virgin coconut oil (VCO) combined with different percentages of egg yolk in Tris extender on the quality of chilled and frozen-thawed bull semen. A total of 24 ejaculates from four bulls were collected using an electroejaculator. Semen samples were diluted with 8% VCO in Tris extender which contained different concentrations 0% (control), 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk. The diluted semen samples were divided into two fractions: one was chilled and stored at 4°C until evaluation after 24, 72, and 144h; the second fraction was processed by chilling for 3h at 4°C to equilibrate, then packaged in 0.25ml straws and frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C until evaluation after 7 and 14 days. Both chilled and frozen semen samples were then thawed at 37°C and assessed for general motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), viability, acrosome integrity, and morphology (eosin-nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)). The results indicate treatments with 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% egg yolk with 8% VCO had greater sperm quality (Psemen. In conclusion, the use of 8% VCO combined with 20% egg yolk in a Tris-based extender enhanced the values for chilled and frozen-thawed quality variables of bull sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of food availability on yolk androgen deposition in the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, a seabird with facultative brood reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Benowitz-Fredericks

    Full Text Available In birds with facultative brood reduction, survival of the junior chick is thought to be regulated primarily by food availability. In black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla where parents and chicks are provided with unlimited access to supplemental food during the breeding season, brood reduction still occurs and varies interannually. Survival of the junior chick is therefore affected by factors in addition to the amount of food directly available to them. Maternally deposited yolk androgens affect competitive dynamics within a brood, and may be one of the mechanisms by which mothers mediate brood reduction in response to a suite of environmental and physiological cues. The goal of this study was to determine whether food supplementation during the pre-lay period affected patterns of yolk androgen deposition in free-living kittiwakes in two years (2003 and 2004 that varied in natural food availability. Chick survival was measured concurrently in other nests where eggs were not collected. In both years, supplemental feeding increased female investment in eggs by increasing egg mass. First-laid ("A" eggs were heavier but contained less testosterone and androstenedione than second-laid ("B" eggs across years and treatments. Yolk testosterone was higher in 2003 (the year with higher B chick survival across treatments. The difference in yolk testosterone levels between eggs within a clutch varied among years and treatments such that it was relatively small when B chick experienced the lowest and the highest survival probabilities, and increased with intermediate B chick survival probabilities. The magnitude of testosterone asymmetry in a clutch may allow females to optimize fitness by either predisposing a brood for reduction or facilitating survival of younger chicks.

  1. Interface-modulated fabrication of hierarchical yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons as stable anodes for lithium and sodium storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu Wu; Jiashen Meng; Qi Li; Chaojiang Niu; Xuanpeng Wang; Wei Yang; Wei Li; Liqiang Mai

    2017-01-01

    Transition-metal oxides (TMOs) have gradually attracted attention from researchers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of their high theoretical capacity.However,their poor cycling stability and inferior rate capability resulting from the large volume variation during the lithiation/sodiation process and their low intrinsic electronic conductivity limit their applications.To solve the problems of TMOs,carbon-based metal-oxide composites with complex structures derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising electrode materials for LIBs and SIBs.In this study,we adopted a facile interface-modulated method to synthesize yolk-shell carbon-based Co3O4 dodecahedrons derived from ZIF-67 zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.This strategy is based on the interface separation between the ZIF-67 core and the carbon-based shell during the pyrolysis process.The unique yolk-shell structure effectively accommodates the volume expansion during lithiation or sodiation,and the carbon matrix improves the electrical conductivity of the electrode.As an anode for LIBs,the yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons exhibit a high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability (1,100 mAh·g-1 after 120 cycles at 200 mA·g-1).As an anode for SIBs,the composites exhibit an outstanding rate capability (307 mAh·g-1 at 1,000 mA·g-1 and 269 mAh·g-1 at 2,000 mA·g-1).Detailed electrochemical kinetic analysis indicates that the energy storage for Li+ and Na+ in yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons shows a dominant capacitive behavior.This work introduces an effective approach for fabricating carbonbased metal-oxide composites by using MOFs as ideal precursors and as electrode materials to enhance the electrochemical performance of LIBs and SIBs.

  2. Targeted heavy-ion microbeam irradiation of the embryo but not yolk in the diapause-terminated egg of the silkworm, bombyx mori, induces the somatic mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Toshiharu; Fukamoto, Kana; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Funayama, Tomoo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kakizaki, Takehiko; Wada, Seiichi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Ishioka, Noriaki; Nagaoka, Shunji

    2009-01-01

    Using heavy-ion microbeam, we report target irradiation of selected compartments within the diapause-terminated egg and its mutational consequences in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. On one hand, carbon-ion exposure of embryo to 0.5-6 Gy increased the somatic mutation frequency, suggesting targeted radiation effects. On the other, such increases were not observed when yolk was targeted, suggesting a lack of nontargeted bystander effect. (author)

  3. Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Human and Animal Neonates: A Concise Review

    OpenAIRE

    Thu, Hlaing Myat; Myat, Theingi Win; Win, Mo Mo; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Rahman, Shofiqur; Umeda, Kouji; Nguyen, Sa Van; Icatlo, Faustino C.; Higo-Moriguchi, Kyoko; Taniguchi, Koki; Tsuji, Takao; Oguma, Keiji; Kim, Sang Jong; Bae, Hyun Suk; Choi, Hyuk Joon

    2017-01-01

    The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpos...

  4. Effect of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) against Diarrhea in Domesticated Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Schade, Ruediger; Michael, Antonysamy; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals includ...

  5. Effect of Dietary Marine Microalgae ( Powder on Egg Production, Blood Lipid Profiles, Egg Quality, and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and sixteen Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA brown layers (40 wks of age were studied for 6 wks to examine the effect of microalgae powder (MAP on egg production, egg quality, blood lipid profile, and fatty acid concentration of egg yolk. Dietary treatments were as follows: i CON (basal diet, ii 0.5% MAP (CON+0.5% Schizochytrium powder, and iii 1.0% MAP (CON+1.0% Schizochytrium powder. From 44 to 46 wks, egg production was higher in 1.0% MAP treatment than in control treatment (linear, p = 0.034; however, there was no difference on the egg production from 40 to 43 wks (p>0.05. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly reduced in the groups fed with MAP, compared to those in groups fed with control diets (Quadratic, p = 0.034 and p = 0.039, respectively. Inclusion of 0.5% MAP in the diet of layers improved egg yolk color, compared with hens fed with basal diet at 46 wks (quadratic, p = 0.044. Eggshell thickness was linearly increased in MAP-fed treatments at 46th wk (p<0.05. Concentration of yolk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3 was increased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05. The n-6 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 fatty acid, and unsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid were decreased in treatment groups fed with MAP (linear, p<0.05. These results suggest that MAP improved the egg production and egg quality, and may affect serum lipid metabolites in the layers. In addition, MAP increases yolk DHA levels, and deceases n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio.

  6. Establishment of the fatty acid profile of the brain of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at hatch: effects of a yolk that is naturally rich in n-3 polyunsaturates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Brian K; Decrock, Frederic; Surai, Peter F; Wood, Nicholas A R; Groscolas, René

    2003-01-01

    Because the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) contain the highest concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids yet reported for an avian species, the consequences for the establishment of the brain's fatty acid profile in the embryo were investigated. To place the results in context, the fatty acid compositions of yolk lipid and brain phospholipid of the king penguin were compared with those from three other species of free-living birds. The proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) in the total lipid of the initial yolks for the Canada goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and king penguin were (% w/w of fatty acids) 1.0+/-0.1, 1.9+/-0.2, 3.3+/-0.1, and 5.9+/-0.2, respectively. The respective concentrations of DHA (% w/w of phospholipid fatty acids) in brains of the newly hatched chicks of these same species were 18.5+/-0.2, 19.6+/-0.7, 16.9+/-0.4, and 17.6+/-0.1. Thus, the natural interspecies diversity in yolk fatty acid profiles does not necessarily produce major differences in the DHA content of the developing brain. Only about 1% of the amount of DHA initially present in the yolk was recovered in the brain of the penguin at hatch. There was no preferential uptake of DHA from the yolk during development of the king penguin.

  7. Prediction of interface residue based on the features of residue interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiong; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2017-11-07

    Protein-protein interaction plays a crucial role in the cellular biological processes. Interface prediction can improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the related processes and functions. In this work, we propose a classification method to recognize the interface residue based on the features of a weighted residue interaction network. The random forest algorithm is used for the prediction and 16 network parameters and the B-factor are acting as the element of the input feature vector. Compared with other similar work, the method is feasible and effective. The relative importance of these features also be analyzed to identify the key feature for the prediction. Some biological meaning of the important feature is explained. The results of this work can be used for the related work about the structure-function relationship analysis via a residue interaction network model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laboratory studies of the properties of in-situ burn residues: chemical composition of residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, B.K.; Buist, I.A.; Schatzke, D.; Aurand, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical composition of the residue from small-scale burns of thick oil slicks was studied. The objective was to describe the changes in chemical composition in oils burning on water and to determine how these changes were influenced by the condition of the burn. Small-scale test burns involved burning 40-cm diameter pools of oil on water. A range of eight oil types including seven crude oils and an automotive diesel were burned. For each oil, slicks of fresh oil of three different thicknesses were tested. Two of the oils were tested before and after weathering. Results showed that the composition of the residue differed greatly from the parent oil. Asphaltenes, high-boiling-point aromatics and resins remained concentrated in the burn residue. The burning of slicks appeared to remove most of the lower-molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons which included the more toxic and more bioavailable components of the crude oils. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  9. Endometrial carcinoma with yolk sac tumor-like differentiation and elevated serum ß-hCG: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mingliang Ji,1 Yan Lu,1 Lina Guo,2 Fengzhi Feng,1 Xirun Wan,1 Yang Xiang1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Endometrial carcinoma with a germ cell tumor component is a rare event. Here we report a uterine neoplasm with a unique combination of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and mixed germ cell malignant elements. A 28-year-old woman with abnormal vaginal bleeding, an abdominal mass, and elevated alfa-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG levels had a history of biopsy of an omental mass and chemotherapy in another hospital one month before her referral to our department. Histologic examination of the mass removed from the omentum revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor-like differentiation. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy, and removal of metastatic disease were then undertaken at our hospital. Postoperative chemotherapy was given. Eight months postoperatively, serum alfa-fetoprotein and ß-hCG rose again. Cases with primary yolk sac tumors of the endometrium or endometrial carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation in the literature were reviewed. Keywords: endometrial carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, trophoblastic differentiation

  10. Synthesis of double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe3O4/TiO2/Au microspheres and their catalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Tan, Li; Wang, Ge; Yang, Mu

    2015-01-01

    Double-shelled sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 /Au microspheres were successfully synthesized through loading Au nanoparticles on the Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 support by a in situ reduction of HAuCl 4 with NaBH 4 aqueous solution. These microspheres possess tunable cavity size, adjustable shell layers, high structural stability and large specific surface area. The Au nanoparticles of approximately 5 nm in diameter were loaded both on the TiO 2 nanofibers and inside the cavities of sea urchin-like yolk-shell Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 microspheres. The sea urchin-like structure composed of TiO 2 nanofibers ensure the good distribution of the Au nanoparticles, while the novel double-shelled yolk-shell structure guarantees the high stability of the Au nanoparticles. Furthermore, the Fe 3 O 4 magnetic core facilitates the convenient recovery of the catalyst by applying an external magnetic field. The Fe 3 O 4 /TiO 2 /Au microspheres display excellent activities and recycling properties in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP): the rate constant is 1.84 min −1 and turnover frequency is 5457 h −1 . (paper)

  11. Phase-pure β-NiMoO4 yolk-shell spheres for high-performance anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jee Hyun; Park, Gi Dae; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2015-01-01

    Phase-pure β-NiMoO 4 yolk-shell spheres for lithium-ion battery anodes were prepared for the first time by one-pot spray pyrolysis, and their electrochemical properties were investigated. The yolk-shell-structured β-NiMoO 4 powders exhibited high initial discharge/charge capacities (1634/1253 mA h g −1 ) at a current density of 1000 mA g −1 . After 200 cycles, these powders exhibited a high discharge capacity of 1292 mA h g −1 , whereas the initial discharge capacity (1341 mA h g −1 ) of the filled structured NiMoO 4 powders was dramatically decreased to 479 mA h g −1 . The significant enhancement of the cycling performance of the β-NiMoO 4 powders with ultrafine crystallite size was attributed to the structural stability of the yolk-shell structure

  12. Effect of Ducks Yolk and Formic Acid in Fat Liquoring Process on the Physical Quality of Broiler Chicken Shank Chrome Tanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of ducks yolk and formic acid in fat liquoring process of the tanned skin.  The materials used in this study were 30 pieces of 7 weeks of broiler chicken shank. The study was carried out using completely randomized design. The variables measured were softness, tensile strength and stretch of the tanned skin. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The research results showed that the addition of ducks yolk and formic acid didn’t gave significantly affect on the softness (p>0.05, while gave highly significant affect on tensile strength and stretch (p0.05 on the softness and stretch, and have significantly (p<0.05 on the tensile strength of leather. The conclusion of this research the addition of 11% duck yolk and 1% formic acid in fat liquoring is the best treatment for broiler chicken shank chrome tanning on the skin softness (2,667, tensile strength (135,707 kg/cm2, and stretch (37,34%, respectively.

  13. The influence of different salinity conditions on egg buoyancy and development and yolk sac larval survival and morphometric traits of Baltic Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus Schneider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Petereit

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The small pelagic sprat (Sprattus sprattus is a key ecologic player in the Baltic Sea. However, there is long-term variability in recruitment which is thought to be influenced by fluctuations in abiotic and biotic conditions experienced during the early life stages. This study concentrates on the influence of different ambient salinities on sprat egg development, egg buoyancy and survival as well as early yolk sac larval morphometric traits. Egg buoyancy significantly decreased with increasing salinity experienced during fertilization and/or incubation experiments. Field egg buoyancy measurements in 2007 and 2008 exhibited annual and seasonal differences in specific gravity, potentially associated with changes in adult sprat vertical distribution. Neither egg development time nor the duration of the yolk sac phase differed among salinity treatments. At eye pigmentation, larval standard length exhibited high variance among individuals but did not differ among treatments. The largest ecological impact of salinity experienced during spawning was the modification the buoyancy of eggs and yolk sac larvae, which determines their vertical habitat in the Baltic Sea. There are strong thermo- and oxyclines in the Baltic Sea, and thus salinity can indirectly impact the survival of these early life stages by modifying the ambient temperatures and oxygen conditions experienced.

  14. The Preparation of Au@TiO2 Yolk-Shell Nanostructure and its Applications for Degradation and Detection of Methylene Blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Peng, Xiange; Zeng, Min; Yu, Lei; Wang, Kan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Guizhen

    2017-09-18

    This paper reports the synthesis of a new type of Au@TiO 2 yolk-shell nanostructures by integrating ion sputtering method with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique and its applications as visible light-driven photocatalyst and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate. Both the size and amount of gold nanoparticles confined in TiO 2 nanotubes could be facilely controlled via properly adjusting the sputtering time. The unique structure and morphology of the resulting Au@TiO 2 samples were investigated by using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in detail. It is found that all tested samples can absorb visible light with a maximum absorption at localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelengths (550-590 nm) which are determined by the size of gold nanoparticles. The Au@TiO 2 yolk-shell composites were used as the photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). As compared with pure TiO 2 nanotubes, Au@TiO 2 composites exhibit improved photocatalytic properties towards the degradation of MB. The SERS effect of Au@TiO 2 yolk-shell composites was also performed to investigate the detection sensitivity of MB.

  15. Synthesis of NiO-TiO2 hybrids/mSiO2 yolk-shell architectures embedded with ultrasmall gold nanoparticles for enhanced reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhou, Yuming; Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Chao; Huang, Mengqiu; Gao, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Novel NiO-TiO2 hybrids/mSiO2 yolk-shell architectures loaded with ultrasmall Au nanoparticles (STNVS-Au) were developed via the rational synthetic strategy. The hierarchical yolk-shell nanostructures (STNVS) with high surface areas were constructed by a facile "bottom-up" assembly process using SiO2 materials and polymer resins as cores/shells and sacrificial templates, accompanied by a simple hydrothermal incorporation of NiO into uniform amorphous TiO2 layers that were converted to NiO-anatase TiO2 p-n heterojunction hybrids. Then, numerous sub-3 nm Au nanoparticles were post encapsulated within STNVS nanostructures through the low-temperature hydrogen reduction based on the unique deposition-precipitation method with Au(en)2Cl3 compounds as gold precursors. The NiO-TiO2 hybrids alloying with Au nanoparticles were effectively protected and entrapped within STNVS architectures, and interacted with outer mSiO2-Au shells, which comprised the powerful STNVS-Au yolk-shell nanoreactors and produced stronger configural synergies in enhancing the heterogeneous catalysis. Into catalyzing the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, the STNVS-Au was shown with outstanding activity and reusability, and its pristine morphology was well retained during the recycling process.

  16. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures for advanced catalytic oxidation based on sulfate radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishu; Yang, Xijia; Han, Erfen; Zhao, Lijun; Lian, Jianshe

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we designed and synthesized a high performance catalyst of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) wrapped Fe3O4-Co3O4 (RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4) yolk-shell nanostructures for advanced catalytic oxidation based on sulfate radicals. The synergistic catalytic action of the RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures activate the peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to produce sulfate radicals (SO4rad -) for organic dyes degradation, and the Orange II can be almost completely degradated in 5 min. Meanwhile the RGO wrapping prevents the loss of cobalt in the catalytic process, and the RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 can be recycled after catalyzed reaction due to the presence of magnetic iron core. What's more, it can maintain almost the same high catalytic activity even after 10 cycles through repeated NaBH4 reduction treatment. Hence, RGO/Fe3O4-Co3O4 yolk-shell nanostructures possess a great opportunity to become a promising candidate for waste water treatment in industry.

  17. Effect of Feeding Low-Oil Ddgs to Laying Hens and Broiler Chickens on Performance and Egg Yolk and Skin Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Cortes-Cuevas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional quality of two sources of low-oil distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS and their pigmenting ability for broiler chicken skin and egg yolks. In Experiment 1, 360 Bovan-White hens between 69 and 77 weeks of age were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 hens each. In Experiment 2, 375 Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to five treatments with three replicates of 25 birds each. The chickens were fed the experimental diets from one to 42 d of age. In both experiments, treatments consisted of a basal diet with no DDGS, and diets with 6% or 12% inclusion of DDGS from two sources. In Experiment 1, no significant differences in performance were detected among treatments (p> 0.05. Egg yolk pigmentation, according to CR-400 Minolta Colorimeter redness (a and yellowness (b, linearly increased (p0.05 were detected among treatments in growth performance, carcass yield, or abdominal fat at 42 d of age. Yellowness linearly increased (p<0.05 in the skin and abdominal fat of the birds that consumed diets with DDGS. The results of the current study indicate that feeding two sources of low-oil DDGS to broiler chicks or laying hens does not negatively affect egg production or growth performance while improves egg yolk and skin yellowness.

  18. The Preparation of Au@TiO2 Yolk-Shell Nanostructure and its Applications for Degradation and Detection of Methylene Blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Peng, Xiange; Zeng, Min; Yu, Lei; Wang, Kan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Guizhen

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of a new type of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanostructures by integrating ion sputtering method with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique and its applications as visible light-driven photocatalyst and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate. Both the size and amount of gold nanoparticles confined in TiO2 nanotubes could be facilely controlled via properly adjusting the sputtering time. The unique structure and morphology of the resulting Au@TiO2 samples were investigated by using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in detail. It is found that all tested samples can absorb visible light with a maximum absorption at localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelengths (550-590 nm) which are determined by the size of gold nanoparticles. The Au@TiO2 yolk-shell composites were used as the photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). As compared with pure TiO2 nanotubes, Au@TiO2 composites exhibit improved photocatalytic properties towards the degradation of MB. The SERS effect of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell composites was also performed to investigate the detection sensitivity of MB.

  19. Formation of NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} yolk-double shell spheres with enhanced lithium storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Nai, Jianwei; Lou, Xiong Wen David [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2018-03-05

    Complex nanostructures with multi-components and intricate architectures hold great potential in developing high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we demonstrate a facile self-templating strategy for the synthesis of metal vanadate nanomaterials with complex chemical composition of NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} and a unique yolk-double shell structure. Starting with the Ni-Co glycerate spheres, NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} yolk-double shell spheres are synthesized through an anion-exchange reaction of Ni-Co glycerate templates with VO{sub 3}{sup -} ions, followed by an annealing treatment. By virtue of compositional and structural advantages, these NiCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8} yolk-double shell spheres manifest outstanding lithium storage properties when evaluated as anodes for LIBs. Impressively, an extra-high reversible capacity of 1228 mAh g{sup -1} can be retained after 500 cycles at a high current density of 1.0 Ag{sup -1}. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Age validation and growth of yolked larvae of Patagonotothen tessellata (Richardson, 1845 (Pisces: Nototheniidae from the rocky littoral of the Beagle Channel, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Alfredo Rae

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth estimation of Patagonotothen tessellata larvae over the endogenous period was estimated by examining their otolith microstructure and the associated increment deposition rate. Analyzed specimens were incubated from egg-masses collected in Lapataia Bay, Beagle Channel, Argentina. Validation was performed by monitoring reared larvae of known ages. Actual age and increment count were regressed suggesting a daily deposition of one ring in the otolith, which began at hatching time and continued until larvae reached sixteen days old (time of massive mortality. Mean lengths at each age were estimated using Richards´ growth function; their constant (m attained a value close to zero indicating that the data fitted to the von Bertalanffy model. Absolute growth rate was 0.55 mm*d-1of total length at hatching, dropped near zero on the fifth day after hatching and afterwards, there was no growth. Yolk absorption rate (expressed as a ratio between minor axis/major axis of the vitelline-sac showed a similar variation as that observed in absolute growth rate during the endogenous period. The total yolk absorption took five days in the unfed larvae group and seven days in the fed larvae group. The rapid absorption of the yolk and the observed growth pattern suggest that Patagonotothen tessellata larvae have a short endogenous period, reaching the state of first food uptake five days after hatching.

  1. In-depth nanocrystallization enhanced Li-ions batteries performance with nitrogen-doped carbon coated Fe3O4 yolk-shell nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhui; Zhao, Rongfang; Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiue; Shen, Xiao; Li, Wenlong; Diao, Guowang; Chen, Ming

    2017-03-01

    In this paper nitrogen-doped carbon-encapsulation Fe3O4 yolk-shell magnetic nanocapsules (Fe3O4@C-N nanocapsules) have been successfully constructed though a facile hydrothermal method and subsequent annealing process. Fe3O4 nanoparticles are completely enclosed in nitrogen-doped carbon shells with void space between the nanoparticle and the shell. The yolk-shell structure allows Fe3O4 nanoparticles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell during the lithiation/delithiation processes. The volume expansion of Fe3O4 results in the in-depth nanocrystallization. Fortunately, the new generated small nanoparticles can increase the capability with the cycle increase due to the unique confinement effect and excellent electronic conductivity of the nitrogen-doped carbon shells. Hence, after 150 cycles, the discharge capacity of Fe3O4@C-N-700 nanocapsules still remained 832 mA h g-1 at 500 mA g-1, which corresponds to 116.7% of the lowest capacity (713 mA h g-1) at the 16th cycle. We believe that the yolk-shell structure is conducive to enhance the capacity of easy pulverization metal oxidation during the charge/discharge processes.

  2. Template-free synthesis of hierarchical yolk-shell Co and N codoped porous carbon microspheres with enhanced performance for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shujun; Cui, Qian; Wang, Kui; Bai, Zhengyu; Yang, Lin; Qiao, Jinli

    2015-08-01

    The structures and compositions of materials have important influences on their performance. Herein, hierarchically structured yolk-shell Co and N codoped porous carbon microspheres (YS-Co/N-PCMs) have been successfully synthesized by using low-cost melamine, formaldehyde and cobalt acetate as raw materials via a facile template-free hydrothermal method and a subsequent pyrolysis. The formation process of the yolk-shell precursor is systematically investigated, involving a morphological evolution process from solid microspheres, ultrathin and wrinkled shells wrap, to yolk-shell structure formation. More importantly, the unique structure combines the favorable features towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), such as high surface area, sufficient Co-Nx and graphitic N active sites and suitable pore structures. As a result, the YS-Co/N-PCMs catalyst shows high catalytic activity for ORR in alkaline media for fuel cells, which not only outperforms commercial Pt-based catalysts in terms of resistance to methanol crossover and long-time stability, but is also better than many non-precious metal doped carbon-based catalysts reported previously. In addition, the YS-Co/N-PCMs catalyst also has high catalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Therefore, the YS-Co/N-PCMs catalyst may serve as a promising alternative to Pt/C catalyst for ORR and OER in alkaline media.

  3. Plasmon enhanced fluoro-immunoassay using egg yolk antibodies for ultra-sensitive detection of herbicide diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kukkar, Manil; Ganguli, Ashok K; Bhasin, Aman; Suri, C Raman

    2013-08-07

    Plasmon enhanced fluorescence immunoassay (PEFI) format has been reported in developing a sensitive heterogeneous fluoroimmunoassay for monitoring the phenylurea herbicide diuron. Computer-assisted molecular modeling was carried out to study the conformational and electrostatic effects of synthesized hapten for producing highly specific egg yolk antibody against a phenyl urea herbicide diuron. The generated antibodies were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate at different molar ratios and used as tracer in the developed fluorescence based immunoassay. The sensitivity of the assay format was enhanced by using silver nanoparticles tagged with bovine serum albumin as a new blocking reagent in the developed PEFI format. Enhancer treatment on the developed immunoassay showed a significant improvement of fluorescence signal intensity with approximately 10 fold increase in assay sensitivity. The immunoassay has a detection limit of 0.01 ng mL(-1) with good signal precision (~2%) in the optimum working concentration range between 1 pg mL(-1) to 10 μg mL(-1) of diuron. These findings facilitate high throughput fluorescence-based processes that could be useful in biology, drug discovery and compound screening applications.

  4. Viability and fertility of cooled equine semen diluted with skimmed milk or glycine egg yolk-based extenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Pugliesi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two semen extenders were compared for their ability to maintain viability of horse semen during 24 hours of cold preservation, and for the pregnancy rate after artificial insemination. In the experiment 1, five ejaculates from three stallions were split-diluted in either a skimmed milk-based extender (Kenney extender or a glycine egg yolk-based extender (Foote extender and cooled at 6-8 ºC for 24 hours. Semen samples stored in Kenney extender for 24 hours had higher motility and spermatic vigor compared with those stored in Foote extender. However, samples stored in Foote extender had higher number of reactive sperm by hypoosmotic test and greater viability by epifluorescence test compared with those in Kenney extender. In the experiment 2, 17 and 23 ejaculates from two stallions were split-diluted with Kenney extender and Foote extender. The sperm concentration in each extender was adjusted to 500 million viable sperms per insemination dose. Semen was cooled to 6-8 ºC and stored for 24 hours. Seventy-four cycles of crossbred mares were inseminated with either semen diluted in Kenney extender or semen diluted in Foote extender. The pregnancy rate was higher from semen diluted in Kenney extender than that from semen in Foote extender (0.553 vs. 0.306. The Kenney extender is effective in preserving the motility, vigor and fertility of stallion semen after 24 hours of cold storage, whereas the Foote extender is not acceptable.

  5. Egg yolk and glycerol requirements for freezing boar spermatozoa treated with methyl β-cyclodextrin or cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Eva; Tomás, Cristina; Hernández, Marta; Roca, Jordi; Martínez, Emilio A; Vázquez, Juan M; Mocé, Eva

    2014-04-24

    Egg yolk (EY) and glycerol are common constituents of extenders used for sperm cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that using cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrins (CLC) improves sperm cryosurvival in several species. However, standard freezing extenders might not be the most appropriate for CLC-treated sperm. This study evaluated the EY and glycerol requirements for freezing CLC-treated boar spermatozoa. Semen samples from 34 ejaculates coming from 4 boars were used. Each ejaculate was split into three aliquots: one was used untreated (control), and the other two were treated with 1 mg of CLC or methyl-β-cyclodextrin/120 × 10(6) sperm for 15 min at 22 C prior to cryopreservation. Our results indicated that reducing the concentration of EY was detrimental for sperm viability after thawing (31.57 ± 2 vs. 19.89% ± 2 for 20 and 10% EY, respectively; P semen treated with CLC. On the other hand, it was observed that the traditional concentration of glycerol (3%) was not the appropriate for freezing CLC-treated sperm (61.10 ± 3 vs. 47.87% ± 3 viable sperm for control and CLC-treated sperm, respectively; P extenders for CLC-treated sperm. Nevertheless, additional studies will be needed to evaluate alternative cryoprotectants and to determine the effect of high glycerol concentrations on sperm functionality.

  6. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  7. On locating steganographic payload using residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2011-02-01

    Locating steganographic payload usingWeighted Stego-image (WS) residuals has been proven successful provided a large number of stego images are available. In this paper, we revisit this topic with two goals. First, we argue that it is a promising approach to locate payload by showing that in the ideal scenario where the cover images are available, the expected number of stego images needed to perfectly locate all load-carrying pixels is the logarithm of the payload size. Second, we generalize cover estimation to a maximum likelihood decoding problem and demonstrate that a second-order statistical cover model can be used to compute residuals to locate payload embedded by both LSB replacement and LSB matching steganography.

  8. Recovering recyclable materials from shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.; Brockmeier, Norman F.

    1994-02-01

    Each year, about 11 million tons of metals are recovered in the United States from about 10 million discarded automobiles. The recovered metals account for about 75 percent of the total weight of the discarded vehicles. The balance of the material, known as shredder residue, amounts to about three million tons annually and is currently landfilled. The residue contains a diversity of potentially recyclable materials, including polyurethane foams, iron oxides, and certain thermoplastics. This article discusses a process under development at Argonne National Laboratory to separate and recover the recyclable materials from this waste stream. The process consists essentially of two stages. First, a physical separation is used to recover the foams and the metal oxides, followed by a chemical process to extract certain thermoplastics. The status of the technology and the process economics are reviewed here.

  9. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  10. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  11. Dietary choline and phospholipid supplementation enhanced docosahexaenoic acid enrichment in egg yolk of laying hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhang, H J; Wang, X C; Wu, S G; Wang, J; Xu, L; Qi, G H

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipid supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality, and the fatty acid profile of egg yolks from hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder diet. Three-hundred-sixty 28-wk-old Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly allocated to one of the 5 dietary treatments, each treatment with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. All diets included 2% Schizochytrium powder (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 137.09 mg/g). The control group was not supplemented with any additional phospholipids, whereas the other 4 experimental diets were supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg choline (CHO), 1,000 mg/kg monoethanolamine (MEA), 1,000 mg/kg lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or 500 mg/kg LPC + 500 mg/kg MEA (LPC + MEA). The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.15 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein, 16.60%). The feeding trial lasted 28 days. Laying hen performance and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by the diets used. The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) level was reduced in the LPC group at d 28 (P egg yolks in the LPC group had a trend to increase in comparison to the control (P = 0.07). The CHO and LPC groups had higher omega-3 (n-3) PUFA and DHA levels and lower n-6/n-3 ratios than the other groups at d 28 (P egg yolk reached a plateau after the laying hens consumed the experimental diets for 14 days, and higher yolk DHA contents were observed in the CHO and LPC groups as compared with the other groups at d 14. It was concluded that dietary choline supplementation for more than 14 d enhanced egg yolk enrichment with n-3 PUFA and DHA when laying hen diets were supplemented with 2% Schizochytrium powder. All the diets had no adverse effect on hen performance, egg quality, or egg components under the experimental condition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Weight-controlled capillary viscometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2005-11-01

    The draining of a water column through a vertical discharge capillary tube is examined with the aid of a force sensor. The change of the mass of the liquid in the column with time is found to be not purely exponential as implied by Poiseuille's law. Using observed residuals associated with a kinetic energy correction, an approximate formula for the mass as a function of time is derived and excellent agreement with experimental data is attained. These results are verified by a viscosity test of distilled water at room temperature. A simple and inexpensive weight-controlled capillary viscometer is proposed that is especially suitable for undergraduate physics and chemistry laboratories.

  13. On using smoothing spline and residual correction to fuse rain gauge observations and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengcheng; Zheng, Xiaogu; Tait, Andrew; Dai, Yongjiu; Yang, Chi; Chen, Zhuoqi; Li, Tao; Wang, Zhonglei

    2014-01-01

    Partial thin-plate smoothing spline model is used to construct the trend surface.Correction of the spline estimated trend surface is often necessary in practice.Cressman weight is modified and applied in residual correction.The modified Cressman weight performs better than Cressman weight.A method for estimating the error covariance matrix of gridded field is provided.

  14. Yolk proteins during ovary and egg development of mature female freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Vazquez-Boucard, Celia; Villarreal-Colmenares, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Vitellins from ovaries and eggs at different stages of development in freshwater crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were examined by chromatography, PAGE and SDS-PAGE. With these methods, two forms of vitellin (Vt1 and Vt2) were observed in ovaries and eggs (stages I and V). In ovaries in secondary vitellogenesis, native molecular mass was 470 (Vt1) and 440 (Vt2) kDa. The electrophoretic pattern of the eggs proved to be more complex. The protein molecular mass depend on the development stage of the egg: stage I, 650 kDa (Vt1) and 440 kDa (Vt2); stage V, 390 kDa (Vt1) and 340 kDa (Vt2). The identified vitellins appear to be lipo-glycocarotenoprotein. A similar vitellin polypeptide composition was observed in the two forms of vitellin from ovaries and eggs in stage V. In ovaries the SDS-PAGE analysis showed four subunits with molecular weights of approximately 180, 120, 95 and 80 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2). The polypeptide composition in the two forms of vitellins in stage I and stage III eggs were different at 195, 190, 130 and 110 kDa (Vt1) and 116 and 107 kDa (Vt2). On the other hand, in stage V eggs, 110, 95, 87 and 75 kDa (Vt1 and Vt2) were identified. Two antibodies (Ab1 and Ab2) were prepared against the purified proteins of stage V eggs and their specificity was demonstrated by radial immunoprecipitation, and Western blotting analysis. Two forms of vitellins were also found in stage V eggs after chromatography on Sepharose CL-2B column and hydroxylapatite and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  15. Kinetika Immunoglobulin Kuning Telur Antiparvovirus Anjing Pada Anjing (KINETICS OF ANTICANINE PARVOVIRUS YOLK IMMUNOGLOBULIN IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic study on Anti CPV IgY has been performed on six dogs aged 5-10 months. The IgY was injectedintravenously at dose of 21.4mg /10kg body weight. IgY levels in the blood were determined by ELISA. Aresearch was conducted to find out the kinetics of Anti CPV IgY in dogs blood. The kinetics of IgY wascalculated by using regression analysis to determine the association on the levels of IgY in serum againsttime at injection. The results showed that kinetic parameters were calculated based on first order kinetics.The constant elimination rate of IgY was at the range between 0.007 to 0.015 / h. IgY concentration in thedogs blood was from 0.746 to 0.992 mg / mL. The half-life of IgY was from 1.65 to 4.01 / d. Volumedistribution of IgY was between 21.47 to 28,55 / mL. Total IgY in the dog bodies (AUC was from 42,60 to142,00 mg / mL.h. The duration of the IgY in the dog’s body was 3.08 to 8.51 days. Clearance time of IgY was0.15 to 0.50 mL / h. In conclusion the kinetics of anti CPV IgY in dog’s body follow one compartment andfirst order model, which are only distributed in the blood with the half-life at 2.5 days, and IgY has lesspossibility to accumulate in the body compared to the IgG.

  16. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  17. Prognostic significance of an early decline in serum alpha-fetoprotein during chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Motte Rouge, Thibault; Pautier, Patricia; Genestie, Catherine; Rey, Annie; Gouy, Sébastien; Leary, Alexandra; Haie-Meder, Christine; Kerbrat, Pierre; Culine, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Lhommé, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    The ovarian yolk sac tumor (OYST) is a very rare malignancy arising in young women. Our objective was to determine whether an early decline in serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) during chemotherapy has a prognostic impact. This retrospective study is based on prospectively recorded OYST cases at Gustave Roussy (Cancer Treatment Center). Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The serum AFP decline was calculated with the formula previously developed and validated in male patients with poor prognosis non-seminomatous germ cell tumors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the log-rank test and logistic regression, respectively. Data on AFP were available to calculate an early AFP decline in 57 patients. All patients had undergone surgery followed by chemotherapy. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 86% (95% CI: 74%-93%) and 84% (95% CI: 73%-91%), respectively. The disease stage, presence of ascites at presentation, use of the BEP regimen, serum AFP half-life and an early AFP decline were significantly predictive factors for OS and EFS in the univariate analysis. The OS rate was 100% and 49% (95% CI: 26%-72%) in patients with a favorable AFP decline and in those with an unfavorable decline, respectively (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, only the presence of ascites at diagnosis (RR=7.3, p=0.03) and an unfavorable early AFP decline (RR=16.9, p<0.01) were significant negative predictive factors for OS. An early AFP decline during chemotherapy is an independent prognostic factor in patients with OYSTs. No conflict of interest. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The impact of model peptides on structural and dynamic properties of egg yolk lecithin liposomes - experimental and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałęsa, Roksana; Man, Dariusz; Engel, Grzegorz; Siodłak, Dawid; Kupka, Teobald; Ptak, Tomasz; Broda, Małgorzata A

    2015-07-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR), (1) H-NMR, voltage and resistance experiments were performed to explore structural and dynamic changes of Egg Yolk Lecithin (EYL) bilayer upon addition of model peptides. Two of them are phenylalanine (Phe) derivatives, Ac-Phe-NHMe (1) and Ac-Phe-NMe2 (2), and the third one, Ac-(Z)-ΔPhe-NMe2 (3), is a derivative of (Z)-α,β-dehydrophenylalanine. The ESR results revealed that all compounds reduced the fluidity of liposome's membrane, and the highest activity was observed for compound 2 with N-methylated C-terminal amide bond (Ac-Phe-NMe2 ). This compound, being the most hydrophobic, penetrates easily through biological membranes. This was also observed in voltage and resistance studies. (1) H-NMR studies provided a sound evidence on H-bond interactions between the studied diamides and lecithin polar head. The most significant changes in H-atom chemical shifts and spin-lattice relaxation times T1 were observed for compound 1. Our experimental studies were supported by theoretical calculations. Complexes EYLAc-Phe-NMe2 and EYLAc-(Z)-ΔPhe-NMe2 , stabilized by NH⋅⋅⋅O or/and CH⋅⋅⋅O H-bonds were created and optimized at M06-2X/6-31G(d) level of theory in vacuo and in H2 O environment. According to our molecular-modeling studies, the most probable lecithin site of H-bond interaction with studied diamides is the negatively charged O-atom in phosphate group which acts as H-atom acceptor. Moreover, the highest binding energy to hydrocarbon chains were observed in the case of Ac-Phe-NMe2 (2). Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Yolk testosterone affects growth and promotes individual-level consistency in behavioral lateralization of yellow-legged gull chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possenti, Cristina Daniela; Romano, Andrea; Caprioli, Manuela; Rubolini, Diego; Spiezio, Caterina; Saino, Nicola; Parolini, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Behavioral lateralization is common in animals and may be expressed at the individual- and at the population-level. The ontogenetic processes that control lateralization, however, are largely unknown. Well-established sex-dependence in androgen physiology and sex-dependent variation in lateralization have led to the hypothesis that testosterone (T) has organizational effects on lateralization. The effects of T exposure in early life on lateralization can be efficiently investigated by manipulating T levels in the cleidoic eggs of birds, because the embryo is isolated from maternal and sibling physiological interference, but this approach has been adopted very rarely. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) we increased yolk T concentration within the physiological limits and tested the effects on the direction of lateralization in two functionally fundamental behaviors (begging for parental care and escape to cover) of molecularly sexed hatchlings. We also speculated that T may intervene in regulating consistency, rather than direction of lateralization, and therefore tested if T affected the 'repeatability' of lateral preference in consecutive behavioral trials. T treatment had no effect on the direction of lateralization, but enhanced the consistency of lateral preference in escape responses. Sex did not predict lateralization. Neither behavior was lateralized at the population-level. We therefore showed for the first time in any species an effect of egg T on consistency in lateralization. The implications of the effect of T for the evolution of trade-offs in maternal allocation of egg hormones, and the evolutionary interpretations of findings from our studies on lateralization among unmanipulated birds are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  1. Endosulfan residues in fish from the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Sabri Junoh; Nuriati Nurdin

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried out in the recycled and the non-recycled areas of the Muda rice agroecosystem to determine the residue level of endosulfan in rice field fish. Snakehead or haruan (Channa striata), climbing perch or puyu (Anabas testudineus), walking catfish or keli (Clariasspp.) and snakeskin gouramy or sepat siam (Trichogasterpectoralis) were sampled and the tissues analysed using Gas Liquid Chromatography. Endosulfan sulphate metabolite was a ubiquitous residue in all fish at levels ranging from 0.0065 μg/g to 0.9837 μg/g of tissue wet weight whilst α-isomer was detected at a much lower concentration followed by β-isomer. In Channa striata, endosulfan total residue (α+β+sulphate) was accumulated in fish tissues sampled at ACRBD4 (non-recycled) site followed by Blok 14 (recycled) site. Endosulfan residue concentration did not coincide with water recycling practice nor changes in EROD enzyme activity. (Author)

  2. Relative availability of crop residue-N in rice cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirwando, H; Abdullah, N.

    1988-01-01

    The use of plant residues for soil amendment will reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. The experiment to study the uptake of N from various plant residues by rice crop. Three kinds of plant residue of soybean labelled with 15-N. Four levels of urea (0, 15, 30, 40 kg N/ha) were applied to aluvial soil from Pusakanegara. The factorial experiment was conducted in fully randomize design, with plant residues as the main treatment, and rate of urea as substreatment. The results obtained from this experiment showed that plant dry weight, N content of grain, straw, and the whole plant of Atomita I rice treated with soybean strow seens to be higher than those treated with the straw of rice or corn. (author). 6 refs.; 7 tabs

  3. Embryo yolk sac membrane kynurenine formamidase of l-tryptophan to NAD+ pathway as a primary target for organophosphorus insecticides (OPI) in OPI-induced NAD-associated avian teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Josef

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide in ovo evidence for the proposed role of kynurenine formamidase of l-tryptophan to NAD + pathway in embryo yolk sac membranes as a primary target for organophosphorus insecticide (OPI) teratogens in OPI-induced NAD-associated avian teratogenesis. Slices prepared from yolk sac membranes or embryo livers of chicken eggs treated with the OPI dicrotophos and/or methyl parathion were incubated with l-tryptophan. Yolk sac membrane slices metabolized l-tryptophan in the pathway to NAD + before that function was established in livers. OPI interfered in ovo with the second step of l-tryptophan to NAD + biosynthesis by inhibiting kynurenine formamidase. Its inhibition due to the teratogen dicrotophos occurred in yolk sac membranes during the period of embryo highest susceptibility to OPI teratogens in contrast to delayed and lower inhibition caused by the nonteratogen methyl parathion. Both OPI affected liver kynurenine formamidase in a similar manner. The onsets of liver enzyme inhibition, however, were delayed by about two days and occurred at the time of the reduced embryo susceptibility to teratogens. The early disruption of l-tryptophan metabolism and higher inhibition of kynurenine formamidase in yolk sac membranes may be the factors that determine action of OPI as teratogens in chicken embryos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  5. Should I Gain Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Should I Gain Weight? KidsHealth / For Teens / Should I Gain Weight? ... something about it. Why Do People Want to Gain Weight? Some of the reasons people give for ...

  6. Ground annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L. in sorghum-based commercial layer diets and their effects on performance, egg quality, and yolk pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EA Garcia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer demands for healthy foods have stimulated the research on the use of natural products in animal nutrition. Annatto can be used a pigmentation source to improve yolk color of commercial eggs. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the inclusion of ground annatto seeds on the performance and egg quality of layers fed sorghum-based diets. A total of 336 40-w-old hens were distributed according to randomized blocks into seven treatments with six replicates of eight birds each. The following treatments were applied: T1- egg production feed based on corn and soybean meal; T2- egg production feed based on sorghum and soybean meal; T3, T4, T5, T6, and T7- egg production feed based on sorghum supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% ground annatto seeds, respectively. As to performance parameters, only egg production was influenced, with hens fed the corn-based diet producing more eggs than those fed the sorghum-based diet with inclusion of 1.5 and 2.5% de annatto. The only egg quality parameter affected by treatments was the color of yolk, which pigmentation increased with increasing levels of ground annatto seeds. It is concluded that ground annatto seeds can be supplemented in sorghum-based production feeds for layers, and that the inclusion level of 0.89% is sufficient to promote the same yolk pigmentation as that obtained with corn-based diets.

  7. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  8. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alava, Juan Jose [School of the Environment, University of South Carolina, 702G Byrnes Building, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States) and Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail: jalavasa@sfu.ca; Keller, Jennifer M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail: Jennifer.Keller@noaa.gov; Kucklick, John R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Wyneken, Jeanette [Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Crowder, Larry [Duke University Marine Laboratory, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 (United States); Scott, Geoffrey I. [Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n = 22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of {sigma}PCBs (52 congeners), {sigma}DDTs, {sigma}chlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range = 7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range = 7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range = 4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range = 1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development.

  9. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alava, Juan Jose; Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R.; Wyneken, Jeanette; Crowder, Larry; Scott, Geoffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n = 22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of ΣPCBs (52 congeners), ΣDDTs, Σchlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range = 7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range = 7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range = 4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range = 1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development

  10. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  11. Precocious puberty secondary to a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with an ovarian yolk sac tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwalley Kotb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ovarian tumors are the least common cause of sexual precocity in girls. Mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumors associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary are rare neoplasms, of which only a small number of well-documented cases have been described so far. Here, we report precocious puberty in a four-year-old Egyptian girl caused by a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Case presentation A four-year-old Egyptian girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology unit for evaluation of bilateral breast budding, pubic hair and vaginal bleeding. On examination, we found that her breast enlargement and pubic hair were compatible with Tanner III. A thorough workup revealed a large mass in her right ovary. Magnetic resonance imaging ofher brain showed that her pituitary gland was normal. A hormonal assay revealed high levels of estradiol, 280 to 375pmol/L; progesterone, 5.3 nmol/L; testosterone 38.9 pg/mL; and androstenedione, 4.1 ng/mL. Her basal and stimulated levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were low. Tumor markers levels were high, with a total inhibin of 1,069U/L and an alpha-fetoprotein of 987 μg/L. Her chromosomes were normal (46XX. Our patient underwent an explorative laparotomy and a solid tumor localized to her right ovary was identified. A right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumorwith a yolk sac tumor of the ovary. Postoperatively, she was started on treatment with chemotherapy. Our patient is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis during eight months of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion Although a mixed germ cell-sex cord-stromal tumor associated with a yolk sac tumor of the ovary is a rare occurrence, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a prepubescent girl with an abdominal mass and precocious puberty.

  12. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  13. Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Davaus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hipointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal.

  14. 40 CFR 63.494 - Back-end process provisions-residual organic HAP limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organic HAP limitations. 63.494 Section 63.494 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.494 Back-end process provisions—residual organic HAP limitations. (a) The monthly weighted average residual organic HAP content of all grades of elastomer processed, measured after the stripping operation...

  15. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  16. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  17. Reactivity of Athabasca residue and of its SARA fractions during residue hydroconversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstraete, J.; Danial-Fortain, P.; Gauthier, T.; Merdrignac, I. [IFP-Lyon, Vermaison (France); Budzinski, H. [Bordeaux Univ. (France). ISM-LPTC, UMR CNRS

    2009-07-01

    Residue conversion processes are becoming increasingly important because of the declining market for residual fuel oil and a greater demand for middle distillates. Ebullated-bed hydroconversion is a commercially proven technology for converting heavy feedstocks with high amounts of impurities. The process enables the conversion of atmospheric or vacuum residues at temperatures up to 440 degrees C, and at liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) conditions in the range of 0.15 to 0.5 per hour. A 540 degrees C conversion of up to 80 weight per cent can be achieved under these conditions. This paper reported on a research study conducted at IFP Lyon in which the residue hydroconversion in a large-scale ebullated bed bench unit was investigated to determine the impact of operating conditions and feed properties on yield and product qualities. Hydrogen was added to the feed in the bench units to keep a high hydrogen partial pressure and favour the catalytic hydroconversion reactions. In a typical test, the reactor was fed with 50 g of feedstock and 0.45 g of crushed equilibrium industrial NiMo catalyst, pressurized hydrogen and quickly heated at the reaction temperature. This paper also discussed the conversion of Athabasca bitumen residue in the large-scale pilot plant and also in the small scale batch reactor. The effect of operating temperature and space velocity was examined. The reactivity of the saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes (SARA) fractions of the bitumen was studied separately in order to better understand the conversion mechanisms and reactivities. The Athabasca bitumen feed and SARA fractions were also analyzed in terms of standard petroleum analysis, SARA fractionation, elemental analysis, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and 13C NMR. Hydroconversion experiments were conducted in the batch unit at different reaction temperatures and reaction times. A comparison of small-scale batch results with those obtained with the continuous large-scale bench

  18. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  19. The Effect of Crop Residue Application to Soil Fauna Community and Mungbean Growth (Vigna radata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Litterbag experiment was carried out to determine the effect of crop residue application to soil fauna community and mungbean growth. The experiment arranged in randomized complete design with triplicate. The four treatment application of crotalarian, rice straw and banana’s aerial stem residues as well as without residue application as control. Soil fauna community and mungbean growth measured at 8 weeks after mungbean sown. Soil fauna extracted by modified Barless-Tullgren extractor apparatus. Height and dry weight of mungbean measured as crop growth parameters. The results indicated that the soil fauna densities and diversities as well as the growth of mungbean tended to increase by the application of crop residues. The effect of the treatment decreasing in the following order: banana’s aerial stem residue > crotalarian residue > rice straw > without residue application. There were high correlation between mungbean growth and soil fauna diversities.© 2001 Jurusan Biologi FMIPA UNS SurakartaKey words:

  20. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  1. Fe3O4@polyaniline yolk-shell micro/nanospheres as bifunctional materials for lithium storage and electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Minwei; Zhao, Jianming; Huang, Guoyong; Sun, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    Unique Fe3O4/polyaniline (PANI) composite with yolk-shell micro/nanostructure (FPys) has been successfully synthesized by a facile silica-assisted in-situ polymerization and subsequent etching strategy. The structural and compositional studies of the FPys composites are performed by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The yolk-shell morphology of the products is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared FPys electrodes deliver superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than those of bare Fe3O4 micro/nanospheres and Fe3O4/PANI core-shell (FPcs) electrodes. Moreover, FPys also exhibits excellent electromagnetic wave absorption performance when comparing to the synthesized Fe3O4-based electromagnetic wave absorbers, in which strong reflection loss and extensive response bandwidth can be achieved simultaneously. The excellent bifunctional properties of FPys material are associated with the specially designed hierarchical micro/nanostructures. The current strategy that application directed structural design can be applied to the synthesis of other multifunctional materials.

  2. Two different pathways for the transport of primitive and definitive blood cells from the yolk sac to the embryo in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Jaime; Monge, Juan I; Niimi, Gen

    2010-08-01

    During the early human embryonic period nutrients and blood cells are temporarily provided by the extraembryonic yolk sac (YS). The YS before week six is involved not only in primitive but also in definitive erythropoiesis. While the destiny of primitive erythroid cells that fill the blood vessels of the YS is well known, the final destination of erythrocytes present in the endodermal vesicular system is unknown. In the present study we have investigated, step by step, the destiny of the erythrocytes present in the endodermal vesicles during the embryonic period. Twelve human YSs and their corresponding yolk stalks were analyzed between weeks 4 and 7 of embryonic age by light and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that erythrocytes (according to their size and morphological features) located within the endodermal vesicles of the YS wall are pulled out through endodermal pits into the YS cavity, from where they reach the lumen of the primitive gut of the embryo through the vitelline duct, a temporary pathway communicating both compartments. During the study period no erythrocytes were seen within the embryo's vascular network where only primitive erythroblasts were identified. Our results indicate that the vitelline duct plays an important transient role as a pathway for the transport of nutrients and blood cells between the YS and the embryo before week five of embryonic development that ends just at the time when YS-embryo circulation becomes established. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Fe-N co-doped SiO2@TiO2 yolk-shell hollow nanospheres with enhanced visible light photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hengcheng; Yao, Weitang; Zhu, Wenkun; Tang, Yi; Ge, Huilin; Shi, Xiaozhong; Duan, Tao

    2018-06-01

    SiO2@TiO2 yolk@shell hollow nanospheres (STNSs) is considered as an outstanding photocatalyst due to its tunable structure and composition. Based on this point, we present an unprecedentedly excellent photocatalytic property of STNSs toward tannic acid via a Fe-N co-doped strategy. Their morphologies, compositions, structure and properties are characterized. The Fe-N co-doped STNSs formed good hollow yolk@shell structure. The results show that the energy gap of the composites can be downgraded to 2.82 eV (pure TiO2 = 3.2 eV). Photocatalytic degradation of tannic acid (TA, 30 mg L-1) under visible light (380 nm TiO2 nanospheres, non-doped STNSs and N-doped STNSs, the Fe-N co-doped STNSs exhibits the highest activity, which can degrade 99.5% TA into CO2 and H2O in 80 min. The probable degradation mechanism of the composites is simultaneously proposed, the band gap of STNSs becomes narrow by co-doping Fe-N, so that the TiO2 shell can stimulate electrons under visible light exposure, generate the ions of radOH and radO2- with a strong oxidizing property. Therefore this approach works is much desired for radioactive organic wastewater photocatalytic degradation.

  4. Multi-yolk-shell SnO2/Co3Sn2@C Nanocubes with High Initial Coulombic Efficiency and Oxygen Reutilization for Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liwei; Xu, Yawei; Xie, Jian; Wang, Lianbang; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-12-28

    The challenging problems of SnO 2 anode material for lithium ion batteries are the poor electronic conductivity and the low oxygen reutilization due to the irreversibility of Li 2 O generated in the initial discharge leading to a theoretical initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) of only 52.4%. Different from these strategies, this work proposes a novel strategy to level up the oxygen reutilization in SnO 2 by introducing Co 3 Sn 2 nanoalloys which can release Co atoms to reversibly react with Li 2 O instead. According to this protocol, multi-yolk-shell SnO 2 /Co 3 Sn 2 @C nanocubes are designed and successfully prepared using hollow CoSn(OH) 6 nanocubes as precursors followed a hydrothermal carbon coating and calcination treatment. The unique multi-yolk-shell nanostructure offers adequate breathing space for the volumetric deformation during long-term cycling. Moreover, the removal of Li 2 O allows a high electronic conductivity and resultant rate performance. As a result, the efficient reutilization of oxygen enables a high ICE of 71.7% and a reversible capacity of 1003 mA h g -1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g -1 . Cyclic voltammetry, cycling performance at different voltage windows, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the proposed mechanism. This strategy employing oxygen-poor metals or alloys provides a novel approach to enhance the oxygen reutilization in SnO 2 for higher reversibility.

  5. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  6. Biological activity of egg-yolk protein by-product hydrolysates obtained with the use of non-commercial plant protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zambrowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic hydrolysis leads to improved functional and biological properties of protein by-products, which can be further used as nutraceuticals and protein ingredients for food applications.The present study evaluated ACE-inhibitory, antioxidant and immunostimulating activities in hydrolysates of egg-yolk protein by-product (YP, generated during industrial process of delipidation of yolk. The protein substrate was hydrolyzed using non-commercial protease from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia. The reaction was conducted in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 at temperature of 37°C for 4 hours using different enzyme doses (100-1000 U/mg of substrate. The protein degradation was monitored by the determination of the degree of hydrolysis (DH, release of free amino groups (FAG and by RP-HPLC. In the obtained hydrolysates we also evaluated biological activities. It was shown that the highest DH of substrate (46.6% was obtained after 4h of reaction at the highest amount of enzyme. This hydrolysate exhibited antioxidant activity, including ferricion reducing (FRAP (56.41 μg Fe2+/mg, ferric ion chelating (695.76 μg Fe2+/mg and DPPH free radical scavenging (0.89 μmol troloxeq/mg as well as ACE-inhibitory (IC50=837.75 μg/mL activities.The research showed improved biological properties of enzymatically modified YP by-product.

  7. Effect of feeding low-fiber fraction of air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) meal on laying hen productive performance and egg yolk cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect on laying performance and egg quality resulting from total substitution of soybean meal (SBM) with low-fiber sunflower meal (SFM; Helianthus annus L.) meal in diet of hens. ISA Brown layers, 28 wk of age, were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments and fed for 10 wk. The hens were kept in a free-range environment and fed 2 wheat middling-based diets consisting of a control diet, which contained SBM (153 g/kg of diet), and a test diet containing low-fiber SFM (160 g/kg of diet) as the main protein source. Each dietary treatment was replicated 4 times. Low-fiber SFM was obtained by a combination of sieving and air classification processes. Feed consumption was recorded daily and egg production was calculated on a hen-day basis; eggs from each group were collected weekly to evaluate egg components and quality. The total substitution of SBM with low-fiber SFM had no adverse effect on growth performance of laying hens. Egg production and none of egg quality traits examined were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color (P eggs (P egg yolk total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P egg quality and to develop low-cholesterol eggs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. A yolk-shell V2O5 structure assembled from ultrathin nanosheets and coralline-shaped carbon as advanced electrodes for a high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ling-Li; Zhao, Gang-Gang; Huang, Ke-Jing; Wu, Xu

    2018-02-13

    Various V 2 O 5 three-dimensional nanostructures are synthesized using a facile template-free hydrothermal method and evaluated for use as supercapacitor electrode materials. As a result, the yolk-shell structure assembled from ultrathin nanosheets shows the best electrochemical performance, with a specific capacitance of 704.17 F g -1 at 1.0 A g -1 and a high capacity retention of 89% over 4000 cycles at 3.0 A g -1 . In addition, a continuous three-dimensional porous coralline-shaped carbon is synthesized from osmanthus and has a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 2840.88 m 2 g -1 . Then, an asymmetric supercapacitor is developed using the as-prepared yolk-shell V 2 O 5 as a positive electrode and the osmanthus derived coralline-shaped carbon as a negative electrode. This exhibits an energy density of 29.49 W h kg -1 at a power density of 800 W kg -1 with a good cycling performance that retains 90.6% of its initial capacity after 2000 cycles at 3.0 A g -1 . Furthermore, two cells in series can easily brightly light up a light-emitting diode (3 V), further demonstrating the great potential of the prepared materials for high-performance supercapacitor devices.

  9. Yolk-Shelled C@Fe3 O4 Nanoboxes as Efficient Sulfur Hosts for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiarui; Luo, Liu; Chen, Yuanfu; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-09-01

    Owing to the high theoretical specific capacity (1675 mA h g -1 ) and low cost, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries offer advantages for next-generation energy storage. However, the polysulfide dissolution and low electronic conductivity of sulfur cathodes limit the practical application of Li-S batteries. To address such issues, well-designed yolk-shelled carbon@Fe 3 O 4 (YSC@Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoboxes as highly efficient sulfur hosts for Li-S batteries are reported here. With both physical entrapment by carbon shells and strong chemical interaction with Fe 3 O 4 cores, this unique architecture immobilizes the active material and inhibits diffusion of the polysulfide intermediates. Moreover, due to their high conductivity, the carbon shells and the polar Fe 3 O 4 cores facilitate fast electron/ion transport and promote continuous reactivation of the active material during the charge/discharge process, resulting in improved electrochemical utilization and reversibility. With these merits, the S/YSC@Fe 3 O 4 cathodes support high sulfur content (80 wt%) and loading (5.5 mg cm -2 ) and deliver high specific capacity, excellent rate capacity, and long cycling stability. This work provides a new perspective to design a carbon/metal-oxide-based yolk-shelled framework as a high sulfur-loading host for advanced Li-S batteries with superior electrochemical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Supplementation of different concentrations of Orvus Es Paste (OEP) to ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein extender improves post-thaw boar semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L; Jasiewicz, E; Kordan, W

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare post-thaw quality of boar semen following freezing in an ostrich egg yolk lipoprotein (LPFo) extender supplemented with 0%, 0.25% and 0.50% Orvus Es Paste (OEP). Sperm assessments included total motility (TMOT), mitochondrial function (MF), plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and acrosome integrity (normal apical ridge, NAR). Considerable variations among boars and OEP treatments had a significant effect (P semen samples frozen in the absence of OEP. By contrast, lactose-LPFo-glycerol extender supplemented with either 0.25% OEP or 0.50% OEP markedly enhanced post-thaw sperm characteristics. In all boars, there were no marked differences in post-thaw sperm TMOT between the freezing extenders supplemented with 0.25% and 0.50% OEP. However, a decline in the percentage of post-thaw motile spermatozoa was more pronounced in the extender supplemented with 0.50% OEP following a 120-min incubation period. Furthermore, the proportions of frozen-thawed spermatozoa with MF, PMI and NAR acrosomes varied significantly among the boars in the OEP-supplemented extenders. The findings of this study indicate that different OEP concentrations, in the presence of ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins, could have varying effects on post-thaw sperm survival.

  11. Resíduo da semente de urucum (Bixa orellana L. como corante da gema, pele bico e ovário de poedeiras avaliado por dois métodos analíticos Evaluating of annatto (Bixa orellana L. seeds by-product as yolk, skin, beak and ovary coloring of hens using two analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o resíduo da semente de urucum (RSU como ingrediente e aditivo corante de diferentes tecidos de 125 poedeiras Lohmann-LSL, com 22 semanas de idade e 1,65 kg de peso vivo, distribuídas num delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em cinco tratamentos com cinco repetições de cinco aves. O tratamento 1 (T1 = ração à base de milho+farelo de soja (M+FS; T2 = ração à base de sorgo (40% + FS; T3 = T2 + 4% RSU; T4 = T2 + 8% RSU e T5 = T2 + 12% RSU. Foram fornecidos 110 g de ração/ave/dia e água à vontade. As coletas foram realizadas em três períodos de 28 dias. A pigmentação dos diferentes tecidos foi avaliada pelo método 1 (M1 do leque colorimétrico da Roche® e, pelo método 2 (M2 do escore "b+", que mede a cor amarela, pelo cromatográfo Minolta® CR-10. Excetuando-se os T1 e T2 da análise de variância, o aumento do RSU na ração com 40% de sorgo melhorou, linearmente, o consumo, produção, massa, conversão alimentar por massa e por dúzia de ovos. A pigmentação da gema analisada pelos M1 e M2, do bico pelo M2 e do ovário pelo M1 melhoraram com o aumento do RSU. Alta correlação (r = 0,72; P A experiment was carried out in the poultry science station of CFT/UFPB with the objective to evalluate the annatto seeds bran (ASB as an ingredient and as an additive colouring of several tissue in 125 hens Lohmann LSL with twenty-two weeks of age, 1.65 kg of live weight, allocated in the completely randomized design, with five treatments and five replication of five hens. The treatment 1 (T1 = diet based on corn and soybean meal; T2 = diet + 40% of sorghum; T3 = T2 + 4% ASB; T4 = T2 + 8% ASB; e T5 = T2 + 12% ASB. The birds were fed 110 g of diet/day and water ad libitum. The collect were obtained in three periods of twenty-eight days. Collor changes were measured with yolk the Roche® collor fan method (M1 and score calculated from "b+" (yellowness of Minolta® CR-10 instrument (M2

  12. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  13. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  14. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  15. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  16. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  17. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  18. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  19. Weighted network modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, Illes; Abel, Daniel; Palla, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamas

    2007-01-01

    The inclusion of link weights into the analysis of network properties allows a deeper insight into the (often overlapping) modular structure of real-world webs. We introduce a clustering algorithm clique percolation method with weights (CPMw) for weighted networks based on the concept of percolating k-cliques with high enough intensity. The algorithm allows overlaps between the modules. First, we give detailed analytical and numerical results about the critical point of weighted k-clique percolation on (weighted) Erdos-Renyi graphs. Then, for a scientist collaboration web and a stock correlation graph we compute three-link weight correlations and with the CPMw the weighted modules. After reshuffling link weights in both networks and computing the same quantities for the randomized control graphs as well, we show that groups of three or more strong links prefer to cluster together in both original graphs

  20. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  1. Weight management in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Olander, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Key learning points:\\ud - Women who start pregnancy in an overweight or obese weight category have increased health risks\\ud - Irrespective of pre-pregnancy weight category, there are health risks associated with gaining too much weight in pregnancy for both mother and baby\\ud - There are currently no official weight gain guidelines for pregnancy in the UK, thus focus needs to be on supporting pregnant women to eat healthily and keep active

  2. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  3. Gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Peaceman, Alan M

    2017-12-01

    Prenatal care providers are advised to evaluate maternal weight at each regularly scheduled prenatal visit, monitor progress toward meeting weight gain goals, and provide individualized counseling if significant deviations from a woman's goals occur. Today, nearly 50% of women exceed their weight gain goals with overweight and obese women having the highest prevalence of excessive weight gain. Risks of inadequate weight gain include low birthweight and failure to initiate breast-feeding whereas the risks of excessive weight gain include cesarean deliveries and postpartum weight retention for the mother and large-for-gestational-age infants, macrosomia, and childhood overweight or obesity for the offspring. Prenatal care providers have many resources and tools to incorporate weight and other health behavior counseling into routine prenatal practices. Because many women are motivated to improve health behaviors, pregnancy is often considered the optimal time to intervene for issues related to eating habits and physical activity to prevent excessive weight gain. Gestational weight gain is a potentially modifiable risk factor for a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials report that diet or exercise interventions during pregnancy can help reduce excessive weight gain. However, health behavior interventions for gestational weight gain have not significantly improved other maternal and neonatal outcomes and have limited effectiveness in overweight and obese women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  5. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering residues from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area of perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  6. HPLC identification of isoniazid residues in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite R.M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for the identification of isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide in the milk of cattle treated with a dose of 25 mg/kg/day in alternated days. The effect of milk pasteurization on the isoniazid residue concentration was also studied. The drug excretion presented a cyclic variation, with higher levels in the first day after administration (aa, a mean of 1104.48µg/l, and a decrease two days aa, with a mean of 104.12µg/l. Four days after the last administration of the drug it was not possible to identify residues of isoniazid in the milk of treated animals. Body weight and milk yield influenced the amount of the excreted drug, and pasteurization decreased (mean 47.07% the concentration of isoniazid residue in milk.

  7. Efeito do extrato de urucum na pigmentação da gema dos ovos Effect of anatto extract oil on the egg yolk colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Humberto Vilar da Silva

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado para avaliar níveis de adição do extrato de urucum (EU a uma ração em que o sorgo foi utilizado como principal fonte de energia. Um total de 280 poedeiras no segundo ciclo de produção, 140 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL e 140 Isa Brown (IB, foi alojado em densidade de duas aves/gaiola e alimentado ad libitum com sete rações. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração controle positiva com milho, como principal fonte de energia, e uma ração basal contendo sorgo, como principal fonte de energia, suplementada com seis níveis de EU em 0,0; 0,10; 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; e 0,60%. O delineamento foi inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 7 x 2 (tratamento e linhagem, com cinco repetições de quatro aves. A adição de EU à ração à base de sorgo melhorou a pigmentação da gema dos ovos linearmente. A linhagem IB apresentou melhor pigmentação da gema dos ovos que a linhagem LSL. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a adição de 0,1% de EU à ração com sorgo promoveu similar pigmentação da gema do ovo que a ração à base de milho.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the increasing levels of anatto extract (AE oil in sorghum-based diets as the main energy source. A total of 280 laying hens in the second production cycle, 140 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL and 140 Isa Brown (IB, was allotted to a density two birds/pen and full fed seven diets. The treatments consisted of a positive control corn based diet, as principal energy source, and a basal sorghum diet, as principal energy source, supplemented with 0.0, 0.10, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, and 0.60% of AE. A completely randomized design in a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement (treatment and line, with five replicates of four birds, was used. The egg yolk colour was linearly improved by addition of AE to the sorghum-based diets. The brown-egg layers presented better egg yolk colour than the white-egg layers. The addition of 0.1% AE to the sorghum-based diets produced

  8. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk malondialdehyde was observed in YG-fed groups, and ZnSeMet supplementation of diets decreased (P hens fed on diets supplemented by YG, followed by those on SO-diets. Although different fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources.

  9. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pcollection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pacemaker therapy in low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Tai; Nishioka, Masahiko; Akashige, Toru; Shimabukuro, Atsuya; Nagata, Nobuhiro

    2018-02-01

    Infants born with complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) and fetal bradycardia are frequently born with low birth weight. Three low-birth-weight CAVB infants underwent temporary pacemaker implantation, followed by permanent single-chamber pacemaker implantation at median body weights of 1.7 and 3.2 kg, respectively. All infants caught up with their growth curves and had >3 years of estimated residual battery life. This two-stage strategy was successful in facilitating permanent pacemaker implantation in low-birth-weight babies. Placement of single-chamber pacemaker on the apex of the left ventricle appears to be associated with longer battery lifespan. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Electrodialytically treated MSWI APC residue as substitute for cement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Geiker, Mette Rica; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and/or elect......Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and....../or electrodialytic remediation, were used in Portland cement mortar. Mortar bars with 15 % weight replacement of cement by APC residues showed compressive strengths up to 40 MPa after 28/32 days. Heavy metal and salt leaching from both crushed and monolithic mortars with APC residues was generally similar...

  12. Thyroid weight with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulier-Fabry, C.; Hammer, R.

    1965-01-01

    A large number of data on thyroid weight of euthyroid subjects have been collected from the literature in this study. The most probable average weight of the gland appears to be 20 g in the adult and 2 g in the newborn. A decrease in weight has been observed during the first year of life (1 g at 6 months) and only in the second year of life the initial birth weight is reached again. The weight curve may be considered as consisting of three straight lines: from 2 to 7, from 7 to 18 and from 18 to 25 years, their slopes being respectively 0.6, 0.9 and 0.5 g/year. The variations in weight of the thyroid during adulthood are sufficiently small to consider it as having constant value between 25 and 55 years. The available information points to a negligible weight difference between sexes. (authors) [fr

  13. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  14. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  15. Yogurt and weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  16. Hen egg yolk antibodies (IgY, production and use for passive immunization against bacterial enteric infections in chicken: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalghoumi R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Enteric infections caused by Salmonella remain a major public health burden worldwide. Poultry, particularly chickens, are known to be the main reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. Therefore, the prevention and monitoring of Salmonella infection during the live phase may greatly reduce the contamination of poultry meat during slaughter and processing. With the ban on sub-therapeutic antibiotic usage in Europe and the increasingly strictness of the European legislation on food hygiene, passive immunization by oral administration of pathogen-specific hen egg yolk antibody (IgY may be a useful and attractive alternative. This review offers summarized information about IgY production and the use of these antibodies for passive immunization, particularly in poultry.

  17. Improved quality of frozen boer goat semen with the addition of sweet orange essential oil on tris yolk and gentamicin extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, S. A.; Zaituni, U.; Jaswandi; Hendri

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to determine the extent of frozen semen quality Boer Goat by essential oils of sweet orange peel in tris yolk and gentamicin extender. Research has been conducted at the Laboratory Loka Penelitian Kambing Potong Sei Putih, Deli Serdang, North Sumatra in February 2017. This study used a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments are 0.25; 0.5; 0.75 and 1% essential oils as additional diluent. The parameters were measured percentage Motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability Boer Goat frozen semen. The results showed that the addition of essential oils as diluent semen was significant (P essential oil as much as 1%.

  18. Changes of Protein and Lipid Contents, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions in Eggs and Yolk-Sac Larvae of American Shad ( Alosa sapidissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Gao, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Jiuxiang; Wang, Yaohui; Guo, Zhenglong; Huang, Bin; Liu, Baoliang; Hong, Lei

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the changes of the biochemical composition of American shad ( Alosa sapidissima) eggs and larvae at embryonic and early larval stages, samples were collected at different development stages from artificial fertilization to the end of yolk absorption including 2 h, 12 h and 30 h after fertilization and newly hatched larvae including 1 and 3 days after hatching. The composition of lipid, fatty acids, protein and amino acids were analyzed. The content of total protein exhibited a decreasing trend during embryogenesis and larval development, and a significant reduction was detected after hatching ( P acids after hatching except for glycine ( P fatty acids remained stable during the period of embryogenesis. But after hatching, a significant decrease was found in the content of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-6, SFA and ratio of EPA/ARA ( P acids.

  19. [Correlation analysis between residual displacement and hip function after reconstruction of acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kunlong; Fang, Yue; Luan, Fujun; Tu, Chongqi; Yang, Tianfu

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the relationships between residual displacement of weight-bearing and non weight-bearing zones (gap displacement and step displacement) and hip function by analyzing the CT images after reconstruction of acetabular fractures. The CT measures and clinical outcome were retrospectively analyzed from 48 patients with displaced acetabular fracture between June 2004 and June 2009. All patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and were followed up 24 to 72 months (mean, 36 months); all fractures healed after operation. The residual displacement involved the weight-bearing zone in 30 cases (weight-bearing group), and involved the non weight-bearing zone in 18 cases (non weight-bearing group). The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Merle d'Aubigné-Postel criteria, and the reduction of articular surface by CT images, including the maximums of two indexes (gap displacement and step displacement). All the data were analyzed in accordance with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. There was strong negative correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in weight-bearing group (r(s) = -0.722, P = 0.001). But there was no correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in non weight-bearing group (r(s) = 0.481, P = 0.059). The results of clinical follow-up were similar to the correlation analysis results. In weight-bearing group, the hip function had strong negative correlation with step displacement (r(s) = 0.825, P = 0.002), but it had no correlation with gap displacement (r(s) = 0.577, P = 0.134). In patients with acetabular fracture, the hip function has correlation not only with the extent of the residual displacement but also with the location of the residual displacement, so the residual displacement of weight-bearing zone is a key factor to affect the hip function. In patients with residual displacement in weight-bearing zone, the bigger the step displacement is, the

  20. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Candida-specific chicken egg yolk antibodies to inhibit the adhering of Candida to denture base materials: prevention of denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Yoshiaki; Fujisaki, Junichi; Nagayama, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Kiyotsugu; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Hamada, Tomofumi; Sakamoto, Ryoich; Mukai, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Kazumasa

    2016-09-01

    Polyclonal anti-Candida chicken egg yolk antibodies (anti-IgY) were used to investigate the prevention of adherence of Candida species to denture base material in vitro. Candida is a potential virulence factor that can cause systemic infection and even death in immunocompromised individuals. Because long-term antifungal treatment may lead to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, it is necessary to develop novel preventive measures and treatments for candidiasis. Three types of chicken egg yolk antibodies were used in this study: non-specific antibody (control IgY), Candida albicans-specific antibody (anti-C.a.IgY) and Candida glabrata-specific antibody (anti-C.g.IgY). A mixture of different dilutions of each antibody with a suspension of Candida species and denture base material was incubated for 3 h, and then the colony-forming units of Candida on the denture base material were counted. Compared with control IgY, anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY significantly inhibited the adherence of C. albicans, but anti-C.a.IgY tended to be more potent than anti-C.g.IgY. The adherence of C. glabrata was also inhibited significantly by anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY with almost equivalent potency, indicating that their actions against C. glabrata were comparable. This study revealed the inhibitory effects of anti-C.a.IgY and anti-C.g.IgY against the adherence of C. albicans and C. glabrata to denture base material. This finding indicates the possibility of a beneficial effect of IgYs for the prevention of denture stomatitis and candidiasis in clinical settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  3. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  4. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. MRI of Residual Red Bone Marrow in the Distal Femur of Healthy Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Gozde; Ozmen, Evrim; Soyturk, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to examine the correlation of the residual red bone marrow areas of distal femoral metaphysis with the age, gender, weight and hemoglobin (hgb) values; evaluate the results, and comprehend the importance of these residual areas in the light of the results. 140 nonsmoking patients between the ages of 26 and 72 (92 women, 48 men) who had knee MR examinations were included in the study. The residual red bone marrow areas in the distal femoral metaphysis in MR images were examined by a radiologist. The areas were separated into grades according to their sizes. The hemoglobin values of the cases were measured. The size of the residual red bone marrow area and the age, gender, weight and hemoglobin values of the cases were compared by using the Tukey and Chi-Square Tests. Although no significant differences were observed between the mean ages, weights and hemoglobin values of the grades, a significant difference was detected between the gender distribution The male group had less residual red bone marrow in the distal femoral metaphysis than the female group (p=0.003). We observed that the hypointensities due to residual red bone marrow observed in the T1WS of the distal femoral metaphysis are not related with the age, weight and hemoglobin values. No grade 2 and grade 3 patient was detected in male group. We observed that these hypointense areas showed difference according to the gender variable; however, were not affected by the hemoglobin values over certain levels

  6. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  7. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  8. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  9. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  10. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  11. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  12. Heavy metal residues in beef carcasses in Beni-Suef abattoir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy A. Khalafalla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 300 samples were collected from cattle slaughtered in the Beni-Suef abattoir in Egypt. Samples included muscle, liver and kidney. Animals were randomly selected from the slaughter line. The age of the slaughtered cattle was less than three years (18-30 months. Samples were packed separately in plastic bags, identified and stored at -18°C until analysis which was performed at the Max Rubner Institute in Kulmbach, Germany, for the following heavy metals residues: lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, chromium and nickel in beef muscle, liver and kidney samples. The results revealed that the overall mean residual levels of lead were 8.77 µg/kg, 42.70 µg/kg and 109.42 µg/kg fresh weight in muscle, liver and kidney samples, respectively, while the mean residual levels of cadmium were 1.40 µg/kg, 14.16 µg/kg and 62.56 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively, and the mean arsenic residual levels were 5.06 µg/kg, 4.64 µg/kg and 14.92 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. The mean residual levels of mercury were 3.91 µg/kg, 5.81 µg/kg and 10.14 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively, and the residual levels of chromium were 11.20 µg/kg, 21.85 µg/kg and 25.49 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. Finally, the mean residual levels of nickel were 21.17 µg/kg, 14.59 µg/kg and 34.95 µg/kg fresh weight, respectively. The mean values of all heavy metals examined were low and did not exceed the permissible limits adopted by different organisations. Most heavy metals accumulated in higher concentrations in the kidney in comparison to the liver and muscle.

  13. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat:

  14. Robustness of weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.

  15. Residual volume in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Bezerra, Carolina Martins; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Silva, Viviane Martins da

    2017-06-12

    Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%. 105 samples of antibiotics were selected. The correct use of the antibiotics oxacillin (88.57%) and ceftriaxone (94.28%) predominated with low residual values. The same did not occur for procaine benzylpenicillin + potassium benzylpenicillin, since a greater residual volume was discarded in 74.28% of the vials. We highlight the need for improvements in managing antibiotics in the institution under study, so that the excess volume of the antibiotics in the vials is used within the acceptable stable time. It is also necessary that the disposal of the residual volume be adequately disposed, since it presents a risk to public health and the environment. Quantificar o volume residual contido em frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados na pediatria. Trata-se de um experimento com amostras de frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados em hospital pediátrico. O volume residual foi identificado calculando-se a diferença da aferição do peso antes e após a lavagem do frasco-ampola. A avaliação da diferença dos volumes residuais nos frascos-ampola foi determinada pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon para uma amostra e estabelecido o nível de significância de 5%. Foram selecionadas 105 amostras de antibióticos. Predominou o correto aproveitamento dos antibióticos oxacilina (88,57%) e ceftriaxona (94,28%), com baixos valores residuais. O mesmo não ocorreu com a benzilpenicilina procaína + potássica, pois em 74,28% dos frascos houve descarte de volume residual superior. Destaca-se a necessidade de

  16. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  17. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  18. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...

  19. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  20. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  1. Weighted Bergman Kernels for Logarithmic Weights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2010), s. 781-813 ISSN 1558-8599 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190802 Keywords : Bergman kernel * Toeplitz operator * logarithmic weight * pseudodifferential operator Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.462, year: 2010 http://www.intlpress.com/site/pub/pages/journals/items/pamq/content/vols/0006/0003/a008/

  2. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Body Weight URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  3. Concurrent weighted logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....

  4. Unexplained Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight is affected by your calorie intake, activity level, overall health, age, nutrient absorption, and economic and social factors. If you're losing weight without trying and you're concerned about it, consult your doctor — as a rule of thumb, losing more than 5 ...

  5. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid and Weight Resources Thyroid and Weight Brochure PDF En Español La Tiroides y el Peso El folleto de La Tiroides y el ...

  6. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Kjelldgaard, Heidi; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    day) communication with friends through cellphones, SMS messages, or Internet (1.66, 1.03-2.67). In the full population, overweight/obese weight status was associated with not perceiving best friend as a confidant (1.59, 1.11-2.28). No associations were found between weight status and number of close...

  7. Isotopes and atomic weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinglian

    1990-01-01

    A review of the chemical and mass spectrometric methods of determining the atomic weights of elements is presented. A, special discussion is devoted to the calibration of the mass spectrometer with highly enriched isotopes. It is illustrated by the recent work on europium. How to choose the candidate element for new atomic weight determination forms the last section of the article

  8. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  9. Cor, betacaroteno e colesterol em gema de ovos obtidos de poedeiras que receberam diferentes dietas Color, beta-caroten and cholesterol in yolks of eggs by different diets of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marino e Biscaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O ovo é um alimento considerado nutricionalmente completo, e contém quantidade significativa de nutrientes. Para os consumidores, a qualidade deste alimento está relacionada com o prazo de validade do produto e com as características sensoriais, como cor da gema e da casca. Poucos estudos foram efetuados no Brasil sobre a utilização de agentes pigmentantes e seus efeitos sobre a coloração das gemas e proporção e qualidade química dos componentes do ovo. Com base nisso, objetivou-se com este trabalho relacionar diferentes dietas com cor, quantidade de betacaroteno e teor colesterol das gemas dos ovos. Foram coletados ovos de poedeiras que receberam 4 diferentes tipos de ração. A cor foi medida em colorímetro Minolta, o beta-caroteno separado em coluna e medido em espectrofotômetro e o colesterol extraído com clorofórmio e quantificado por método colorimétrico. Os resultados mostraram que não há relação entre a cor e aumento do teor de betacaroteno das gemas dos ovos, mas a alimentação alterou a cor da gema. O teor de colesterol foi diferente (pEgg is a nutritional complete food, and content significant quantity of nutrients. For the consumers, the food quality is related with validity date of product and with sensorial characteristics, like yolk color and hull. Few studies were done in Brazil about utilization of colorfull agents and theirs effects in yolk color and chemical quality of egg compounds. The objective of this research was related different feeds with the color, beta-carotene and cholesterol amount of egg yolk. Eggs were caught of laying hens that received 4 feed types. The color measure was done by Minolta colorimeter, beta-carotene separated by column and spectrophotometer and cholesterol separated with chloroform and measured by colorimetric method. The results showed that there is not a relation between the color an increase of beta-carotene amount in the yolks, but feed altered the yolk color. Cholesterol

  10. Reciprocity of weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.

  11. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-trait and random regression mature weight heritability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legendre polynomials of orders 4, 3, 6 and 3 were used for animal and maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects, respectively, considering five classes of residual variances. Mature weight (five years) direct heritability estimates were 0.35 (MM) and 0.38 (RRM). Rank correlation between sires' breeding values ...

  13. Stability of tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans and soya bean oil towards different processing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cooking of contaminated faba beans did not degrade the originally present potentially toxic residues, namely, tetrachlorvinphos and its desmethyl derivative to any appreciable extent. Processing of contaminated soya bean oil, on the other hand, led to degradation of tetrachlorvinphos and its metabolites to give mono and dimethyl phosphates. Feeding of mice with bound residues of tetrachlorvinphos in beans for 90 days led to an apparent decrease in the rate of body weight gain. (author)

  14. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  15. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  16. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  17. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  18. Light-weight plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching.

  19. Convenient measurement of the residual stress using X-ray penetration depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Takayoshi; Shibano, Junichi

    1994-01-01

    The residual stress measured with a characteristic X-ray is usually evaluated as a surface stress. However, it is a weighted mean value over all penetration depth of X-ray. Thus, the classical sin 2 Ψ method with the characteristic X-ray is difficult to use for measuring the steep gradient of residual stress that occurs along the depth direction in a subsurface layer of the material after cold rolling and grinding. This paper presents a convenient method of the residual stress measurement along the depth direction in a subsurface layer using the penetration depth depending on a characteristic X-ray. The residual stress distribution of JIS SKS51 steel plate was measured as an example of applying this method. As a result, it could be confirmed that a residual stress distribution along the depth direction in a subsurface layer could be evaluated nondestructively by this convenient method. (author)

  20. Production of surfactin from rice mill polishing residue by submerged fermentation using Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Jigar; Sengupta, Bina

    2015-08-01

    Rice mill polishing residue (RMPR), an abundant and cheap agro residue, was used as substrate for microbial growth of Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423 by submerged fermentation process to produce surfactin. Nutrients present in the residue were sufficient to sustain the growth of the microorganism. Multi stage foam fractionation followed by acid precipitation was used to concentrate and recover the product. Recoverable yield of surfactin was 4.17 g/kg residue. Product recovered in the foamate accounted for 69% of the total yield. The residual broth containing ∼ 30% surfactin exhibited biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values of 23 and 69 mg/L respectively. The microbial growth data was correlated using three parameter sigmoid models. Surfactin synthesized had a predominance of molecular weight 1076 Da. Foam separation of copper using surfactin resulted in a maximum removal of 72.5%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  3. Epididymal sperm from Spix's yellow-toothed cavies sperm successfully cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andréia M; Praxedes, Erica C G; Campos, Lívia B; Bezerra, Luana G P; Moreira, Samara S J; Maia, Keilla M; Souza, Ana L P; Silva, Alexandre R

    2018-04-01

    As a non-threatened hystricognath rodent species, Spix's yellow-toothed cavies can be used as a model for the development of assisted reproductive techniques for the conservation of closely related species. The objective was to establish a functional protocol for cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from these cavies. Twelve sexually mature males, ∼2 y old and weighing ∼300 g, were euthanized. Sperm were recovered by retrograde flushing of the vas deferens and cauda epididymis with Tris extender. Thereafter, sperm were extended in Tris plus 20% egg yolk, with 3%, 6% or 9% glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), placed in 0.25 mL straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen. Sperm concentration, motility (using computer-assisted sperm analysis; CASA), plasma membrane integrity, osmotic response, morphology and sperm binding-ability were determined in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. For most sperm endpoints, glycerol was a more desirable cryoprotectant than DMSO. Data (mean ± SEM) were similar with use of 3%, 6%, and 9% glycerol (P > 0.05) in osmotic response (40.66 ± 6.3%, 42.5 ± 7.1%, and 39.5 ± 5.0% respectably), and membrane integrity (55.17 ± 5.5%, 68.4 ± 4.1%, and 59.1 ± 4.9% respectably). Among concentrations assessed, the use of 6% glycerol resulted in the greatest (P < 0.05) post-thaw values for total motility (60.9 ± 4.4%), rapid subpopulation motility (27.7 ± 3.1%) and sperm-binding capability (227.0 ± 20.2). In conclusion, epididymal sperm from the Spix's yellow-toothed cavies (G. spixii) are optimally cryopreserved in Tris extender with 6% glycerol and 20% egg yolk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of mungbean residue and nitrogen levels on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, A.; Muhammad, Z.; Daur, I.; Khan, I.A.

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate response of barley to mungbean residue (0, 10, 20 and 30 Mg ha/sup -1/), nitrogen levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg ha/sup -1/) and their interaction. Emergence m/sup -2/ (50), plant height (109 cm), leaf area tiller-1 (106 cm/sup 2/), lodging score (5.55), termites attack (3.4%), grains spike-1 (67), biological yield (12.80 Mg ha/sup -1/) and grain yield (2.32 Mg ha/sup -1/) were significantly (p=0.05) higher for 30 Mg ha/sup -1/ mungbean residue compared to other levels. Similarly plant height (110 cm), lodging score (5.29) and biological yield (13.75 Mg ha/sup -1/) were higher at 75 kg ha/sup -1/ N compared to other levels of N. Productive tillers m/sup -2/, grains spike/sup -1/, 1000 grain weight, grain yield and harvest index were optimum at 50 kg ha-1 N as compared to 75 kg ha/sup -1/ N that encouraged lodging. Interaction between residue and nitrogen indicated that 10 Mg residue and 50 kg N ha/sup -1/ is recommended to achieve maximum net return under comparable conditions. (author)

  5. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015;37:46. Blumenthal SR, et al. An electronic health records study of long-term weight gain following antidepressant ... your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy ...

  6. Weight gain - unintentional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes Hormone changes or medical problems can also cause unintentional weight gain. This may be due to: Cushing syndrome Underactive thyroid, or low thyroid (hypothyroidism) Polycystic ovary syndrome Menopause Pregnancy Bloating, or swelling ...

  7. Weight and psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Beyond the physical aspects of weight, the psychological mean- ing sees the virtues of ... sion in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediat- rics 2002 ... or secondary as in mood, anxiety or psychotic disorders. II. a related.

  8. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies) score, in a local ... these babies for expensive tertiary care. Subjects. ... patient numbers, the tendency is simply to increase the ... included birth weight, gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score ...

  9. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  10. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  11. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  13. Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) yolk-sac fry mortality is associated with disturbances in the function of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1α) and consecutive gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuori, Kristiina A.M.; Soitamo, Arto; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2004-01-01

    Baltic salmon (Salmo salar) suffer from abnormally high yolk-sac fry mortality designated as M74-syndrome. In 1990s, 25-80% of salmon females, which ascended rivers to spawn, produced yolk-sac fry suffering from the syndrome. Symptoms of M74-affected fry include neurological disturbances, impaired vascular development and abnormal haemorrhages. The latter symptoms are observed in mammalian embryos if the function of hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF-1α), its dimerization partner aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) or target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is disturbed. To study the possible involvement of HIF-1α and its target gene VEGF in the development of the syndrome, we collected healthy and M74-affected wild Baltic salmon yolk-sac fry and analyzed HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression, HIF-1α DNA-binding, target gene VEGF protein expression, and blood vessel density in both groups at different stages of yolk-sac fry development. In addition, since Baltic salmon females contain organochlorine contaminants, which have been suggested to be the cause of M74 syndrome via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent gene expression pathway, we studied AhR protein expression, AhR DNA-binding and target gene CYP1A protein expression. Since the parents of both healthy and M74-affected wild fry will have experienced the organochlorine load from the Baltic Sea, hatchery-reared fry were included in the studies as an additional control. The results show that the vascular defects observed in fry suffering from M74 are associated with reduced DNA-binding activity of HIF-1α and subsequent downregulation of its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In addition, also AhR function is decreased in diseased fry making it unlikely that symptoms of M74-affected fry would be caused by an upregulation of xenobiotically induced AhR-dependent gene expression pathway

  14. The relationship of physical and chemical conditions of CEP diluent with egg yolk addition to bull spermatozoa quality before and after storage at temperaturof 4-5°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducha, N.; Hariani, D.; Budijastuti, W.

    2018-01-01

    Storage of semen requires diluent to dilute semen and maintain sperm quality. One of the diluent for bull semen was CEP. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of bull spermatozoa quality with the physical and chemical conditions of CEP diluents with the addition of egg yolk before and after the storage process. The study used Limousin bull with 5 replications. The quality of spermatozoa included motility and viability. Physical and chemical conditions included the pH and osmolarity of the diluent. The motility of spermatozoa was observed under a light microscope with 200 X magnification at 37°C by two people. The viability of spermatozoa was observed under a light microscope with 400 X magnification with nigrosine eosin staining. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and continued Duncan’s test. Dilution pH was measured using pH indicator paper ranging from 6-8. The osmolarity of the diluent was measured by electrical osmolarity. The results showed that the addition of egg yolk in the CEP diluent decreased the pH and increased osmolartitas, but the quality of spermatozoa can be kept up to 8 days of storage. The conclusion in this study was the addition of egg yolk in the CEP diluent provided physical and chemical conditions that can maintain the quality of spermatozoa during storage at a temperature of 4-5 ° C.

  15. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  16. Powder addition assessment of manganese residue ceramic matrix coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, A.C.R. da; Santos, O.C.; Leao, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of recycled materials in the composition of new products follows the production's worldwide trending, meeting new technological requirements and environmental concerns. This work aims to utilize the residue of manganese dust on ceramic mass for the production of ceramic coating. The raw materials were characterized by both x-ray fluorescence and diffraction. The powder residue added to clay in the percentage of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (measured in weight) was compressed by a uniaxial pressing of 30MPa and the sintering temperatures were 900°, 1000° and 1100°. The samples were analysed in relation to flexural strength, bulk density, water absorption and linear shrinkage. The microstructural variation was also analysed by x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The results showed that there is a viability for the production of porcelain ceramic coating (A3 and A4 formulations) and stoneware (A2 formulation) according to the specification of technical standards. author)

  17. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  18. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  19. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  20. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  1. CONTRIBUTION OF TROUT YOLK-SAC FRY (SALMO TRUTTA L. ORIGINATING FROM WILD STOCK TO FISHING IN THE MOSELOTTE RIVER, FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERDEAUX D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Moselotte River has been severely affected by human activity and in some of its stretches this has impaired reproduction of trout, which has added to an adverse effect on the trout population arising from a high fishing pressure by local anglers. To offset this problem, the local anglers annually release about 50,000 yolk-sac fry that have been derived from wild native breeding stock. It was possible to monitor the fry released in 1999 and 2000 using a method of mass marking by immersion in a fluoromarking agent (Alizarin Red S. The trout enter the fishery at 3 years and about 90% of the trout caught are three or four years old. Fish that had been released represented 25.5% and 36.7% of the catches respectively in 2002 and 2003, two percentages that do not differ significantly. This proportion varied according to the location in the river. The age structure of the marked fish that were caught was similar to that of fish hatched in the wild.

  2. Lipovitellin-phosvitin crystals with orthorhombic features: thin-section electron microscopy, gel electrophoresis, and microanalysis in teleost and amphibian yolk platelets and a comparison with other vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, R.H.; Richter, H.P.; Riehl, R.; Zierold, K.; Trandaburu, T.; Magdowski, G.

    1983-01-01

    Yolk-platelet crystals in the teleosts Pelvicachromis pulcher and Noemacheilus barbatulus and the amphibians Xenopus laevis, Rana temporaria, R. esculenta, and Triturus sp. have been studied by electron diffraction and imaging using a standardized processing (glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide fixation, glutaraldehyde-urea embedding, thin-section staining), by X-ray microanalysis, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of their constituents. The crystal lattice is orthorhombic having. Crystal images in the three axial projections point to the presence of space group P212121 (or an approximation of it since the lipovitellin dimers cannot be fully equivalent in some cases), to differences between the phosvitins of the two teleosts, and to a highly unusual stain exclusion from large crystal constituents interpreted as representing lipovitellin dimers. Microanalysis in ultrathin cryosections and other preparations revealed K and Cl to be the prominent ions in the crystals (and in the superficial layer of the platelet). Gel electrophoresis (including data of cyclostomes) showed considerable molecular variations despite a closely similar crystal architecture, emphasizing a physiological significance of the architecture, which may have remained conserved for nearly 400 million years according to paleontologic views

  3. Long-Term Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Bound Phospholipids and the Combination of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Bound Triglyceride and Egg Yolk Phospholipid on Lipid Metabolism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hongxia; Cui, Jie; Wen, Min; Xu, Jie; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Wang, Qi; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2018-04-01

    The bioavailability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depends on their chemical forms. This study investigated the long-term effects of DHA-bound triglyceride (TG-DHA), DHA-bound phospholipid (PL-DHA), and the combination of TG-DHA and egg yolk phospholipid (Egg-PL) on lipid metabolism in mice fed with a high-fat diet (fat levels of 22.5%). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with different formulations containing 0.5% DHA, including TG-DHA, PL-DHA, and the combination of TG-DHA and Egg-PL, for 6 weeks. Serum, hepatic, and cerebral lipid concentrations and the fatty acid compositions of the liver and brain were determined. The concentrations of serum total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and hepatic TG in the PL-DHA group and the combination group were significantly lower than those in the high-fat (HF) group ( P Egg-PL in decreasing the AI. Long-term dietary supplementation with low amount of DHA (0.5%) may improve hepatic DHA levels, although cerebral DHA levels may not be enhanced.

  4. The dietary inclusion of Portulaca oleracea to the diet of laying hens increases the n-3 fatty acids content and reduces the cholesterol content in the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-enriched diet on yolk fatty acid profile and cholesterol content was evaluated. Dried Poutulaca oleracea (purslane: PO diet was added to a commercial diet (C diet at 20% of inclusion level. The effect of the supplemented diet was compared to that of C diet. Twenty-six laying hens were fed ad libitum for 21 days with the 2 diets, supplemented also with 300 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg. Eggs were collected and then the fatty acids (FA profile and the cholesterol content were analysed. The PO diet significantly reduced the saturated FA content (P<0.05 and increased that of the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA: 18:2 n-6 (P<0.001, 18:3 n-3 (P<0.001 and 22:6 n-3 (DHA; P<0.01. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA significantly increased with the PO diet and the n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (10.4 vs 11.3; P<0.05.

  5. Effect of different concentration of fish oil in skim milk-egg yolk extenders on post- thawed semen qualities of Kalang swamp buffalo bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of fish oil at different concentrations on post-thawed semen of Kalang swamp buffalo. Methods: A total of 4 Kalang swamp buffalo bulls with 3-5 years of age and weighed about 340-360 kg were slected. Semen was regularly collected from these buffalo bulls once a week by an artificial vagina. Fish oil was supplementary at the dosages of 0 mg (control, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg to the extender (skim milk-egg yolk. Fresh, pre-freezing and frozen semen were thawed at 37 °C and evaluated for motility, viability, morphology, and plasma integrity of membrane. Results: The study results indicated that before freezing, supplementation of fish oil at the dose of 150 mg in the extender had significantly motility. And a significant (P<0.05 increase was observed in viability and motility of post-thawed semen at the dose of 150 mg fish oil, which was in difference with other treatment groups. Conclusions: Addition of 150 mg fish oil in the extender could be positive for the enhancement of the quality of post-thawed semen of Kalang swamp buffaloes.

  6. The ontogeny of nutrient transporter and digestive enzyme gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia) intestine and yolk sac membrane during pre- and posthatch development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X Y; Wang, Y M; Yuan, C; Zou, X T

    2012-08-01

    To better understand the digestive capacity in domestic pigeons (Columba livia), this study was conducted to evaluate nutrient transporters and digestive enzymes gene expression in small intestine and yolk sac membrane (YSM) during pre- and posthatch development. We investigated the oligopeptide transporter Pept1, sodium glucose transporter SGLT1, glucose transporter GLUT2, aminopeptidase-N (APN), and sucrase-isomaltase (SI). Intestine was collected at embryo d 12, 14, and 16, day of hatch, and d 1, 3, 5, 8, and 14 posthatch. The YSM was collected at embryo d 12, 14, 16, and day of hatch. The cDNA fragments for Pept1, SGLT1, GLUT2, APN, and SI were isolated and cloned using reverse-transcription PCR. The sequences data showed that these genes were highly identical to the gene of chicken. The mRNA expression of each gene was assayed using real-time PCR. Expression of intestinal nutrient transporters increased linearly (Ppigeons and establish a foundation for future research on the nutrients requirements for young pigeons.

  7. Residual stress in deuterium implanted nominal copper coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inal, M. Y.; Alam, M.; Peascoe, R. A.; Watkins, T. R.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of deuterium (D) implantation on the residual stresses in Cu and CuAl 2 phases present in nominal Cu coatings (containing Al) deposited on Al-alloy (Al-6061) substrates were measured using an x-ray diffraction technique. The coatings were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a pure Cu target under identical conditions and Al was incorporated in the coatings during growth by diffusion from the substrate. Deuterium was implanted in the coatings at energies of 40 or 40+120 keV with fluences of 1x10 21 , 2x10 21 , or 3x10 21 D + /m 2 . Pole figures of the Cu phase in the coatings prior to and after implantation indicated no effect of implantation on the fibrous texture. Triaxial stress analysis indicated the surface normal stress component to be negligible in Cu and slightly tensile in CuAl 2 under all conditions. Furthermore, under all conditions, the in-plane residual stresses in both phases were found to be compressive and nearly isotropic. The magnitude of the isotropic compressive stress was always higher in CuAl 2 as compared to Cu. The compressive residual stresses in the Cu phase changed only mildly with increasing coating weight, ion energy, and fluence. However, in the CuAl 2 phase the compressive residual stresses changed markedly with increasing ion energy (initial decrease followed by leveling off) and increasing ion fluence (initial decrease followed by an increase), but remained unaffected by increasing coating weight. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  8. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  9. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  10. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  11. Newton-Gauss Algorithm of Robust Weighted Total Least Squares Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Bin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Newton-Gauss iterative algorithm of weighted total least squares (WTLS, a robust WTLS (RWTLS model is presented. The model utilizes the standardized residuals to construct the weight factor function and the square root of the variance component estimator with robustness is obtained by introducing the median method. Therefore, the robustness in both the observation and structure spaces can be simultaneously achieved. To obtain standardized residuals, the linearly approximate cofactor propagation law is employed to derive the expression of the cofactor matrix of WTLS residuals. The iterative calculation steps for RWTLS are also described. The experiment indicates that the model proposed in this paper exhibits satisfactory robustness for gross errors handling problem of WTLS, the obtained parameters have no significant difference with the results of WTLS without gross errors. Therefore, it is superior to the robust weighted total least squares model directly constructed with residuals.

  12. An Investigation on In-Vessel Composting of Pistachio Residuals with Different Additions

    OpenAIRE

    M Jalili; M Mokhtari; AA Ebrahimi; F Boghri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: About 1.35×105 tons of pistachio waste are produced in annually Iran that can result in environmental problems if managed improperly. . The purpose of this study was to investigate in-vessel composting of pistachio residuals with addition of cow manure and dewatered sludge as a recycling alternative. Materials and Methods: Pistachios wastes were combined with weight ratio of 5.5:10 (dewatered sludge: pistachio waste) and weight ratio of 1:10 (Cow manure: pi...

  13. Weight Management in Phenylketonuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Julio César; van Rijn, Margreet; van Dam, Esther

    2016-01-01

    . It is becoming evident that in addition to acceptable blood phenylalanine control, metabolic dieticians should regard weight management as part of routine clinical practice. SUMMARY: It is important for practitioners to differentiate the 3 levels for overweight interpretation: anthropometry, body composition...... and frequency and severity of associated metabolic comorbidities. The main objectives of this review are to suggest proposals for the minimal standard and gold standard for the assessment of weight management in PKU. While the former aims to underline the importance of nutritional status evaluation in every...... specialized clinic, the second objective is important in establishing an understanding of the breadth of overweight and obesity in PKU in Europe. KEY MESSAGES: In PKU, the importance of adopting a European nutritional management strategy on weight management is highlighted in order to optimize long...

  14. Family Weight School treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Höglund, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a Family Weight School treatment based on family therapy in group meetings with adolescents with a high degree of obesity. METHODS: Seventy-two obese adolescents aged 12-19 years old were referred to a childhood obesity center by pediatricians...... and school nurses and offered a Family Weight School therapy program in group meetings given by a multidisciplinary team. Intervention was compared with an untreated waiting list control group. Body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were calculated before and after intervention. RESULTS: Ninety percent...... group with initial BMI z-score 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: Family Weight School treatment model might be suitable for adolescents with BMI z...

  15. Weight for Stephen Finlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Daan

    2013-04-01

    According to Stephen Finlay, ' A ought to X ' means that X -ing is more conducive to contextually salient ends than relevant alternatives. This in turn is analysed in terms of probability. I show why this theory of 'ought' is hard to square with a theory of a reason's weight which could explain why ' A ought to X ' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X -es. I develop two theories of weight to illustrate my point. I first look at the prospects of a theory of weight based on expected utility theory. I then suggest a simpler theory. Although neither allows that ' A ought to X ' logically entails that the balance of reasons favours that A X -es, this price may be accepted. For there remains a strong pragmatic relation between these claims.

  16. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  17. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  18. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  19. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  20. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008