Sample records for residual wavefront aberrations

  1. Aberration-sensing and wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis: management of decentered ablation. (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Krueger, Ronald R; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo


    To clarify the feasibility of aberration-sensing and wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to manage grossly decentered ablation and to discuss the limitations of the technology. Three patients with previous decentrations of the ablation zone between 1.5 to 2.0 mm were scheduled for wavefront-guided LASIK. All patients reported monocular diplopia and halos. Wavefront aberrations were measured with a Tscherning-type aberrometer. Laser ablation was done with a WaveLight Allegretto in a one-step procedure with ablation profiles calculated only from the individual wavefront map. Decentrations were determined from corneal topography. Three months after surgery, patient WM and patient SU had gained uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity. The root mean square-wavefront error decreased up to 61% and 33%, respectively, for total and higher order aberrations (Zernike modes of 3rd order and higher). There was significant enlargement of the optical zone determined by corneal topography, and both patients no longer reported diplopia and halos at 3 months postoperatively. The optical aberration of the third patient (RE), after a 5.00-D overcorrection with a 2-mm decentration, was too high for aberration-sensing; retinal images obtained from the wavefront device were too smeared and not of sufficient contrast. In addition, this patient had a residual corneal thickness of 416 microm and thus wavefront-guided LASIK was not done. Wavefront-guided LASIK offers a new way of managing grossly decentered laser ablations. Unfortunately, there are still patients who have aberrations too large for wavefront sensing or with other clinical limitations such as a residual corneal thickness too thin for further treatment.

  2. Wavefront aberration measurement in a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG slab using a wavefront sensor (United States)

    Sikocinski, P.; Novak, O.; Smrz, M.; Pilar, J.; Jelinkova, H.; Endo, A.; Lucianetti, A.; Mocek, T.


    We investigated wavefront aberrations in a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG slab with a wavefront sensor using a probe beam technique under non-lasing condition. To analyze the pump-induced phase aberrations created in the crystal, the measured wavefronts were fitted with orthonormal Zernike polynomials. The Yb:YAG crystal of 2 mm thickness, 10 mm diameter, and 3 at.% doping concentration was mounted in a copper holder in a closed-loop pulse tube cryostat with cooling capacity of 12 W at 100 K. The gain medium was single-end pumped by a fiber-coupled laser diode at pumping intensity of 6.5 kW/cm2 with a maximum repetition rate of 100 Hz, pulse duration of 1 ms, and pump spot diameter of 2.5 mm. The time resolved measurement revealed that defocus, which was the main wavefront aberration, represents not only a thermal lensing effect but also an electronic lensing effect. The thermally induced defocus is more dominant at high repetition rate than the electronically induced defocus. We also measured wavefront aberrations of amplified beams in a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG slab. A room temperature operated thin-disk regenerative amplifier was used as a seed laser. The seed beam was amplified in the cryogenically cooled crystal at 160 K in a double pass configuration. The wavefront measurement was conducted at semi-saturated conditions, at three different repetition rates: 10 Hz, 20 Hz and 40 Hz, and at five different pump intensities in the range between 6.5 kW/cm2 and 14.8 kW/cm2. Under lasing condition, only defocus aberration were induced. Due to opposite signs of the defocus aberration of the seed beam and pumped induced in the Yb:YAG crystal, wavefront of the amplified beam had smaller PtV (Peak to Valley) and RMS values than the seed beam.

  3. Study on tolerance of input wavefront aberration for color separation gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Gao Fu; Su Jing Qin; Gao Feng; Cao Hai Tao; Guo Yong Kang; Wei Xiao Feng; Ma Chi


    Through spectral analysis method, a theoretical analysis of wavefront aberration is made in intense laser system. The random phase screen is applied to reconstruct the wavefront in the domain of low spatial frequency, and a new iterative algorithm is proposed and used to reconstruct the wavefront in the domain of high spatial frequency. With the reconstructed wavefront, the effect of the wavefront aberration on the function of CSG is calculated. The preliminary conclusion is presented, which shows the rule of the tolerance of input wavefront aberration for CSG

  4. Research on reflective optical telescope system's wavefront aberration compensation method (United States)

    Duan, Xueting

    Wavefront aberration measurement of the image quality of reflective telescope system which has a large aperture and long focal length is one of the frequently-used methods of high-precision test and alignment. It was widely used during the large aperture telescope manufacturing process. The influences of surface shape error of the reflective optical telescope system components were simulated and analyst by input the actual measuring data into the optical design software CODE V in this article. According to the test results compared to the alignment process, the accuracy of the simulation method was indicated. At the same time, the wavefront aberration optical compensation principle of the reflective optical telescope system was proved by the simulation of alignment. And in this article, the feasibility of the application of optical phase compensation alignment method was investigated.

  5. Higher-Order Wavefront Aberrations for Populations of Young Emmetropes and Myopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Bao


    Conclusions: Human eyes have systematical higher order aberrations in population, and factors that cause bilateral symmetry of wavefront aberrations between the right and left eyes made important contribution to the systematical aberrations.

  6. Correcting the wavefront aberration of membrane mirror based on liquid crystal spatial light modulator (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Wei, Yin; Chen, Xinhua; Tang, Minxue


    Membrane mirror with flexible polymer film substrate is a new-concept ultra lightweight mirror for space applications. Compared with traditional mirrors, membrane mirror has the advantages of lightweight, folding and deployable, low cost and etc. Due to the surface shape of flexible membrane mirror is easy to deviate from the design surface shape, it will bring wavefront aberration to the optical system. In order to solve this problem, a method of membrane mirror wavefront aberration correction based on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) will be studied in this paper. The wavefront aberration correction principle of LCSLM is described and the phase modulation property of a LCSLM is measured and analyzed firstly. Then the membrane mirror wavefront aberration correction system is designed and established according to the optical properties of a membrane mirror. The LCSLM and a Hartmann-Shack sensor are used as a wavefront corrector and a wavefront detector, respectively. The detected wavefront aberration is calculated and converted into voltage value on LCSLM for the mirror wavefront aberration correction by programming in Matlab. When in experiment, the wavefront aberration of a glass plane mirror with a diameter of 70 mm is measured and corrected for verifying the feasibility of the experiment system and the correctness of the program. The PV value and RMS value of distorted wavefront are reduced and near diffraction limited optical performance is achieved. On this basis, the wavefront aberration of the aperture center Φ25 mm in a membrane mirror with a diameter of 200 mm is corrected and the errors are analyzed. It provides a means of correcting the wavefront aberration of membrane mirror.

  7. Corneal reshaping and wavefront aberrations during overnight orthokeratology. (United States)

    Lian, Yan; Shen, Meixiao; Huang, Shenghai; Yuan, Yimin; Wang, Yaozeng; Zhu, Dexi; Jiang, Jun; Mao, Xinjie; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Fan


    To investigate changes of corneal thickness at the vertical and horizontal meridians and of wavefront aberrations (WA) over a 30-day period of overnight myopia orthokeratology (OK) lens wear. Sixteen subjects (11 women, 5 men, 26.3±3.2 years) were enrolled and fitted for OK lenses. Long scan depth optical coherence tomography was used to measure corneal thickness profiles at both horizontal and vertical meridians at baseline and on days 1, 7, and 30 days. Corneal and ocular WA of a 6-mm pupil were measured and the root-mean-square (RMS) of the astigmatism, coma, spherical aberration (SA), and total higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were determined. During the 30-day period, the central cornea thinned in the horizontal and vertical meridians, whereas corneal thickening occurred in the temporal, nasal, and inferior mid-peripheries. In contrast, the cornea thinned in the mid-peripheral superior. There were significant increases in RMS for astigmatism, SA, coma, and positive horizontal coma during the study period. After OK, there were significant positive correlations between the midperipheral-central thickness change difference and the changes in corneal and ocular RMS of total HOAs and SA (r range: 0.281 to 0.492, POK caused unique changes in corneal thickness profiles at the vertical and horizontal meridians and increased corneal and ocular HOAs related to corneal reshaping.

  8. Comparative evaluation of higher-order aberrations and corneal asphericity between wavefront-guided and aspheric LASIK for myopia. (United States)

    Goyal, Jawahar Lal; Garg, Arushi; Arora, Ritu; Jain, Parul; Goel, Yashpal


    To compare visual outcome, higher-order aberrations, and corneal asphericity (Q value) between wavefront-guided and aspheric LASIK for myopia and myopic astigmatism. Forty patients were randomly selected to receive wavefront-guided LASIK (wavefront-guided group) or aspheric LASIK (aspheric group) (40 eyes of 20 patients in each group) using the Technolas 217z excimer laser platform (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY). Flaps were created using the Zyoptix XP microkeratome (Bausch & Lomb). Preoperative and postoperative evaluation included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corneal topography, wavefront aberrometry, and contrast sensitivity. Minimum follow-up period was 6 months. At 6 months postoperatively, the aspheric group had significantly better UDVA (logMAR 0.04 ± 0.04 [Snellen 20/16] [range: -0.079 to 0.000]) and lower mean residual spherical error (+0.10 ± 0.52 diopters [D] [range: -1.12 to 1.25 D]) than the wavefront-guided group (logMAR UDVA 0.00 ± 0.07 [range: -0.079 to 0.176]; MRSE -0.35 ± 0.47 D [range: -1.5 to 0.62 D]) (P = .003 and LASIK and 0.27 ± 0.28 µm after wavefront-guided LASIK (P = .02). Aspheric LASIK induced minimal change in spherical aberrations postoperatively (0.03 ± 0.12 µm, P = .09), unlike wavefront-guided LASIK (0.23 ± 0.17 µm, P guided group (0.91 ± 0.30) (P guided group showed a slight decrease at higher spatial frequency (18 cycles per degree). Aspheric LASIK induced significantly less change in higher-order aberrations and maintained corneal asphericity better than wavefront-guided LASIK. The visual outcome and contrast sensitivity was better in the aspheric group at 6 months postoperatively. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Corneal wavefront-guided LASIK retreatments for correction of highly aberrated corneas following refractive surgery. (United States)

    Alió, Jorge; Galal, Ahmed; Montalbán, Raúl; Piñero, David


    To investigate the safety and efficacy of customized corneal wavefront-guided retreatment in symptomatic patients with highly aberrated corneas following LASIK. This prospective study included 75 eyes of 59 patients with significant visual symptoms who underwent LASIK for the correction of residual refractive error. Ablation profiles were calculated using CSO corneal topography and ESIRIS/Schwind laser platform. Eyes were divided into two groups: those with significant night vision symptoms (37 eyes; night symptoms group) and those with decentration, irregular ablation profile, and flap complications (38 eyes; corneal complications group). Corneal topography and aberrations, visual acuity, point spread function (PSF), refractive outcome, and subjective symptoms were evaluated preoperatively, and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Mean uncorrected visual acuity was 20/32 preoperatively and 20/25 at 6 months postoperatively in the night symptoms group and 20/40 preoperatively and 20/30 at 6 months postoperatively in the corneal complications group. Mean best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 both preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively in both groups (t test, P = .219 and P = .149 for the night symptoms and corneal complications groups, respectively). Safety index was 1.1 in both groups, and efficacy index was 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. Statistically significant improvement of total corneal higher order aberrations, tilt, and improvement of spherical aberrations and coma were observed, with corresponding improvement of PSF. Corneal wavefront-guided LASIK retreatment with CSO topography, ORK-W software, and ESIRIS/Schwind laser platform is safe and effective for treating symptomatic patients affected by corneal higher order aberrations or corneal irregularities following LASIK surgery.

  10. Study of wavefront aberration in DR patients with different degree of dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ran Fang


    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the changes of wavefront aberrations in patients with diabetic retinopathy(DRand with different degrees of dry eye and to explore the reasons of visual quality decline in them. METHODS: We randomly selected 40 eyes in our hospital for treatment with DR and varying degrees of dry eye, and 40 eyes of normal control group. Topcon KR-1W visual quality analyzer was used to record the mean square the total high order corneal aberration, spherical aberration, comatic aberration and trefoil aberration of cornea with pupil diameters of 4mm and 6mm. Analysis of variance were used to compare the wavefront aberrations and the aberration values in the control group and in patients with diabetic retinopathy and with different degrees of dry eye. RESULTS: For 4mm and 6mm pupil diameters, nondiabetic retinopathy(NDRwith dry eye group, the nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRwith dry eye group and proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRdry eye group had significantly increased tHOA, coma and trefoil compared with the contrast group(PPCONCLUSION: Dry eye of diabetic retinopathy with different degrees is closely related to the increase of wavefront aberration. Increased wavefront aberration may be one of the reasons to reduced visual quality in patients with diabetic retinopathy and with dry eye, and provide the basis for the decline of visual function of diabetic patients with dry eye.

  11. Active compensation of wavefront aberrations by controllable heating of lens with electric film heater matrix. (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Hou, Lv; Zhou, Xinglin


    We present a new apparatus for active compensation of wavefront aberrations by controllable heating of a lens using a film heater matrix. The annular electric film heater matrix, comprising 24 individual heaters, is attached to the periphery of a lens. Utilizing the linear superposition, and wavefront change proportional to the heating energy properties induced by heating, a controllable wavefront can be defined by solving a linear function. The two properties of wavefront change of a lens have been confirmed through a specially designed experiment. The feasibility of the compensation method is validated by compensating the wavefront of a plate lens. The results show that the wavefront of the lens changes from 12.52 to 2.95 nm rms after compensation. With a more precise electric controlling board, better results could be achieved.

  12. Comparison of wavefront aberrations under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions using WaveScan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fan


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the differences of wavefront aberrations under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions. METHODS: A total of 174 eyes of 105 patients were measured using the wavefront sensor (WaveScan® 3.62 under different pupil conditions: cycloplegic 8.58 ± 0.54 mm (6.4 mm - 9.5 mm, scotopic 7.53 ± 0.69 mm (5.7 mm - 9.1 mm and photopic 6.08 ± 1.14 mm (4.1 mm - 8.8 mm. The pupil diameter, standard Zernike coefficients, root mean square of higher-order aberrations and dominant aberrations were compared between cycloplegic and scotopic conditions, and between scotopic and photopic conditions. RESULTS: The pupil diameter was 7.53 ± 0.69 mm under the scotopic condition, which reached the requirement of about 6.5 mm optical zone design in the wavefront-guided surgery and prevented measurement error due to the pupil centroid shift caused by mydriatics. Pharmacological pupil dilation induced increase of standard Zernike coefficients Z3-3, Z4(0 and Z5-5. The higher-order aberrations, third-order aberration, fourth-order aberration, fifth-order aberration, sixth-order aberration, and spherical aberration increased statistically significantly, compared to the scotopic condition (P<0.010. When the scotopic condition shifted to the photopic condition, the standard Zernike coefficients Z4(0, Z4², Z6-4, Z6-2, Z6² decreased and all the higher-order aberrations decreased statistically significantly (P<0.010, demonstrating that accommodative miosis can significantly improve vision under the photopic condition. Under the three conditions, the vertical coma aberration appears the most frequently within the dominant aberrations without significant effect by pupil size variance, and the proportion of spherical aberrations decreased with the decrease of the pupil size. CONCLUSIONS: The wavefront aberrations are significantly different under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions. Using the wavefront sensor (VISX WaveScan to measure scotopic

  13. Image system analysis of human eye wave-front aberration on the basis of HSS (United States)

    Xu, Ancheng


    Hartmann-Shack sensor (HSS) has been used in objective measurement of human eye wave-front aberration, but the research on the effects of sampling point size on the accuracy of the result has not been reported. In this paper, point spread function (PSF) of the whole system mathematical model was obtained via measuring the optical imaging system structure of human eye wave-front aberration measurement. The impact of Airy spot size on the accuracy of system was analyzed. Statistics study show that the geometry of Airy spot size of the ideal light source sent from eye retina formed on the surface of HSS is far smaller than the size of the HSS sample point image used in the experiment. Therefore, the effect of Airy spot on the precision of the system can be ignored. This study theoretically and experimentally justifies the reliability and accuracy of human eye wave-front aberration measurement based on HSS.

  14. Phase wavefront aberration modeling using Zernike and pseudo-Zernike polynomials. (United States)

    Rahbar, Kambiz; Faez, Karim; Attaran Kakhki, Ebrahim


    Orthogonal polynomials can be used for representing complex surfaces on a specific domain. In optics, Zernike polynomials have widespread applications in testing optical instruments, measuring wavefront distributions, and aberration theory. This orthogonal set on the unit circle has an appropriate matching with the shape of optical system components, such as entrance and exit pupils. The existence of noise in the process of representation estimation of optical surfaces causes a reduction of precision in the process of estimation. Different strategies are developed to manage unwanted noise effects and to preserve the quality of the estimation. This article studies the modeling of phase wavefront aberrations in third-order optics by using a combination of Zernike and pseudo-Zernike polynomials and shows how this combination may increase the robustness of the estimation process of phase wavefront aberration distribution.

  15. Relationship between ocular wavefront aberrations and refractive error in Chinese school children. (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zhou, Xiaodong; Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Xingtao; Chu, Renyuan; Hoffman, Matthew R


    The relationship between ocular wavefront aberrations and refractive error in children's eyes remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to re-examine this relationship in Chinese school children under natural distance accommodation. Ocular wavefront aberrations were measured in 86 Chinese children with spherical equivalent refraction (SER) between +0.5 D and -6.0 D and astigmatism less than -1.00 D. Wavefront aberrations were calculated using an objective method based on the Hartmann-Shack principle. Refractive error was obtained using a phoropter after cycloplegia. Subjects were categorised into three groups based on the mean SER: emmetropia (SER from -0.50 D to +0.50 D), mild myopia (SER greater than -0.50 D to -3.00 D) and moderate myopia (SER greater than -3.00 D to -6.00 D). Of the 86 participants, 22 were emmetropic, 43 were mildly myopic and 21 were moderately myopic. The root mean square (RMS) values of higher-order aberrations, Zernike coefficients (third-, fourth- and fifth-order aberrations) and R(j) (the ratio of third-, fourth- or fifth-order aberrations to total higher-order aberrations) were compared across the three refractive groups. No significant correlations were found between the RMS values of total higher-order aberrations, third-order aberrations, fourth-order aberrations, fifth-order aberrations, spherical aberration or coma and SER. No significant differences in the RMS values of total higher-order aberrations or R(j) were observed among the groups. The difference in fifth-order aberrations was statistically significant among the groups (p = 0.022); no other differences in higher-order aberration were found. Aside from C (3,1), no other differences were observed for Zernike coefficients. Ocular wavefront aberrations are similar among Chinese school children with different refractive errors under natural accommodation for a distance target. There is no evidence that myopes have a different amount of ocular higher-order aberrations

  16. Study on decentration-induced optical aberrations in an optical system using Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (United States)

    Kalikivayi, V.; Krishna Kumar, R.; Kannan, K.; Ganesan, A. R.


    Alignment of optical components is one of the important requirements in any optical system. Decentration of a component, like a lens, in the path of the beam, would introduce aberrations of various types. This would affect the measurement accuracy in the optical system such as an interferometer. In this work, we have analyzed the influence of decentration of an optical component on the wavefront in an optical system. The various aberrations caused due to the shifting of the axis of a lens in the path of an optical wavefront have been measured using a Shack Hartmann Wavefront Sensor and their influence studied. One of the lenses in the optical system is moved or decentered in transverse direction by 500 μm in steps of 50 μm. Decentration was done for all four quadrants. For each step, wavefront data is been taken and data was analyzed. Defocus, horizontal coma, vertical coma and spherical aberration were analyzed, apart from peak-to-valley and RMS values. Results showed that the error introduced is minimal up to 300 μm decentration, above which the aberrations were quite large. The experimental results and analyses are presented.

  17. Efficacy of predictive wavefront control for compensating aero-optical aberrations (United States)

    Goorskey, David J.; Schmidt, Jason; Whiteley, Matthew R.


    Imaging and laser beam propagation from airborne platforms are degraded by dynamic aberrations due to air flow around the aircraft, aero-mechanical distortions and jitter, and free atmospheric turbulence. For certain applications, like dim-object imaging, free-space optical communications, and laser weapons, adaptive optics (AO) is necessary to compensate for the aberrations in real time. Aero-optical flow is a particularly interesting source of aberrations whose flowing structures can be exploited by adaptive and predictive AO controllers, thereby realizing significant performance gains. We analyze dynamic aero-optical wavefronts to determine the pointing angles at which predictive wavefront control is more effective than conventional, fixed-gain, linear-filter control. It was found that properties of the spatial decompositions and temporal statistics of the wavefronts are directly traceable to specific features in the air flow. Furthermore, the aero-optical wavefront aberrations at the side- and aft-looking angles were the most severe, but they also benefited the most from predictive AO.

  18. The Impact of Model-Based Clutter Suppression on Cluttered, Aberrated Wavefronts. (United States)

    Dei, Kazuyuki; Byram, Brett


    Recent studies reveal that both phase aberration and reverberation play a major role in degrading ultrasound image quality. We previously developed an algorithm for suppressing clutter, but we have not yet tested it in the context of aberrated wavefronts. In this paper, we evaluate our previously reported algorithm, called aperture domain model image reconstruction (ADMIRE), in the presence of phase aberration and in the presence of multipath scattering and phase aberration. We use simulations to investigate phase aberration corruption and correction in the presence of reverberation. As part of this paper, we observed that ADMIRE leads to suppressed levels of aberration. In order to accurately characterize aberrated signals of interest, we introduced an adaptive component to ADMIRE to account for aberration, referred to as adaptive ADMIRE. We then use ADMIRE, adaptive ADMIRE, and conventional filtering methods to characterize aberration profiles on in vivo liver data. These in vivo results suggest that adaptive ADMIRE could be used to better characterize a wider range of aberrated wavefronts. The aberration profiles' full-width at half-maximum of ADMIRE, adaptive ADMIRE, and postfiltered data with 0.4- mm -1 spatial cutoff frequency are 4.0 ± 0.28 mm, 2.8 ± 1.3 mm, and 2.8 ± 0.57 mm, respectively, while the average root-mean square values in the same order are 16 ± 5.4 ns, 20 ± 6.3 ns, and 19 ± 3.9 ns, respectively. Finally, because ADMIRE suppresses aberration, we perform a limited evaluation of image quality using simulations and in vivo data to determine how ADMIRE and adaptive ADMIRE perform with and without aberration correction.

  19. Spherical aberration and other higher-order aberrations in the human eye : from summary wave-front analysis data to optical variables relevant to visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Wave-front analysis data from the human eye are commonly presented using the aberration coefficient c(4)(0) (primary spherical aberration) together with an overall measure of all higher-order aberrations. If groups of subjects are compared, however, the relevance of an observed difference cannot

  20. Fitting relationship between the beam quality β factor of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberration of laser beam (United States)

    Ji, Zhong-Ye; Zhang, Xiao-Fang


    The mathematical relation between the beam quality β factor of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberration of laser beam is important in beam quality control theory of the high-energy laser weapon system. In order to obtain this mathematical relation, numerical simulation is used in the research. Firstly, the Zernike representations of typically distorted atmospheric wavefront aberrations caused by the Kolmogoroff turbulence are generated. And then, the corresponding beam quality β factors of the different distorted wavefronts are calculated numerically through fast Fourier transform. Thus, the statistical distribution rule between the beam quality β factors of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberrations of the beam can be established by the calculated results. Finally, curve fitting method is chosen to establish the mathematical fitting relationship of these two parameters. And the result of the curve fitting shows that there is a quadratic curve relation between the beam quality β factor of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberration of laser beam. And in this paper, 3 fitting curves, in which the wavefront aberrations are consisted of Zernike Polynomials of 20, 36, 60 orders individually, are established to express the relationship between the beam quality β factor and atmospheric wavefront aberrations with different spatial frequency.

  1. Effective wavefront aberration measurement of spectacle lenses in as-worn status (United States)

    Jia, Zhigang; Xu, Kai; Fang, Fengzhou


    An effective wavefront aberration analysis method for measuring spectacle lenses in as-worn status was proposed and verified using an experimental apparatus based on an eye rotation model. Two strategies were employed to improve the accuracy of measurement of the effective wavefront aberrations on the corneal sphere. The influences of three as-worn parameters, the vertex distance, pantoscopic angle, and face form angle, together with the eye rotation and corresponding incident beams, were objectively and quantitatively obtained. The experimental measurements of spherical single vision and freeform progressive addition lenses demonstrate the accuracy and validity of the proposed method and experimental apparatus, which provide a potential means of achieving supernormal vision correction with customization and personalization in optimizing the as-worn status-based design of spectacle lenses and evaluating their manufacturing and imaging qualities.

  2. Broadband focal plane wavefront control of amplitude and phase aberrations (United States)

    Groff, Tyler D.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Carlotti, Alexis; Riggs, A. J. Eldorado


    The Stroke Minimization algorithm developed at the Princeton High Contrast Imaging Laboratory has proven symmetric dark hole generation using minimal stroke on two deformable mirrors (DM) in series. The windowed approach to Stroke Minimization has proven symmetric dark holes over small bandwidths by using three wavelengths to define the bandwidth of correction in the optimization problem. We address the relationship of amplitude and phase aberrations with wavelength, how this changes with multiple DMs, and the implications for simultaneously correcting both to achieve symmetric dark holes. Operating Stroke Minimization in the windowed configuration requires multiple wavelength estimates. To save on exposures, a single estimate is extrapolated to bounding wavelengths using the established relationship in wavelength to produce multiple estimates of the image plane electric field. Here we demonstrate better performance by improving this extrapolation of the estimate to other wavelengths. The accuracy of the functional relationship will ultimately bound the achievable bandwidth, therefore as a metric these results are also compared to estimating each wavelength separately. In addition to these algorithm improvements, we also discuss a laboratory upgrade and how it can better simulate broadband starlight. We also discuss the possibility of leveraging two DMs in series to directly estimate the electric field over a narrow bandwidth and the challenges associated with it.

  3. Measuring aberrations in the rat brain by coherence-gated wavefront sensing using a Linnik interferometer. (United States)

    Wang, Jinyu; Léger, Jean-François; Binding, Jonas; Boccara, A Claude; Gigan, Sylvain; Bourdieu, Laurent


    Aberrations limit the resolution, signal intensity and achievable imaging depth in microscopy. Coherence-gated wavefront sensing (CGWS) allows the fast measurement of aberrations in scattering samples and therefore the implementation of adaptive corrections. However, CGWS has been demonstrated so far only in weakly scattering samples. We designed a new CGWS scheme based on a Linnik interferometer and a SLED light source, which is able to compensate dispersion automatically and can be implemented on any microscope. In the highly scattering rat brain tissue, where multiply scattered photons falling within the temporal gate of the CGWS can no longer be neglected, we have measured known defocus and spherical aberrations up to a depth of 400 µm.

  4. Time-resolved measurement of thermally induced aberrations in a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG slab with a wavefront sensor (United States)

    Sikocinski, P.; Novak, O.; Smrz, M.; Pilar, J.; Jambunathan, V.; Jelínková, H.; Endo, A.; Lucianetti, A.; Mocek, T.


    The time-resolved measurements of thermally induced wavefront aberrations in a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG crystal are presented in dependence on temperature in the range between 250 and 130 K under non-lasing condition. A wavefront sensor was utilized to determine the wavefront aberrations. The wavefront distortions were experimentally studied for a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG crystal in detail for the first time. The wavefront aberrations were significantly reduced at cryogenic temperatures including defocus which was the dominant aberration and which was responsible for the so-called thermal lensing effect. We found that defocus aberration is caused not only by thermally induced effects (responsible for thermal lens), but also by electronically induced change in the refractive index due to excitation of ion activators which is responsible for the electronic lensing. Nevertheless, at pumping intensity of 6.3 kW/cm2 and repetition rate of 100 Hz thermal effects were the dominant one. In addition, an improvement in the Strehl ratio along with an increase in absorbed pump energy was observed while the temperature of the gain medium was decreased. The measurements clearly show the advantages of cryogenic cooling of laser-active media for beam quality improvement.

  5. Spatial-temporal-covariance-based modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations. (United States)

    Vogel, Curtis R; Tyler, Glenn A; Wittich, Donald J


    We introduce a framework for modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations that is based on spatial-temporal covariance matrices extracted from wavefront sensor measurements. Within this framework, we present a quasi-homogeneous structure function to analyze nonhomogeneous, mildly anisotropic spatial random processes, and we use this structure function to show that phase aberrations arising in aero-optics are, for an important range of operating parameters, locally Kolmogorov. This strongly suggests that the d5/3 power law for adaptive optics (AO) deformable mirror fitting error, where d denotes actuator separation, holds for certain important aero-optics scenarios. This framework also allows us to compute bounds on AO servo lag error and predictive control error. In addition, it provides us with the means to accurately simulate AO systems for the mitigation of aero-effects, and it may provide insight into underlying physical processes associated with turbulent flow. The techniques introduced here are demonstrated using data obtained from the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory.

  6. Evaluation of residual aberration in fifth-order geometrical aberration correctors. (United States)

    Morishita, Shigeyuki; Kohno, Yuji; Hosokawa, Fumio; Suenaga, Kazu; Sawada, Hidetaka


    Higher order geometrical aberration correctors for transmission electron microscopes are essential for atomic-resolution imaging, especially at low-accelerating voltages. We quantitatively calculated the residual aberrations of fifth-order aberration correctors to determine the dominant aberrations. The calculations showed that the sixth-order three-lobe aberration was dominant when fifth-order aberrations were corrected by using the double-hexapole or delta types of aberration correctors. It was also deduced that the sixth-order three-lobe aberration was generally smaller in the delta corrector than in the double-hexapole corrector. The sixth-order three-lobe aberration was counterbalanced with a finite amount of the fourth-order three-lobe aberration and 3-fold astigmatism. In the experiments, we used a low-voltage microscope equipped with delta correctors for probe- and image-forming systems. Residual aberrations in each system were evaluated using Ronchigrams and diffractogram tableaux, respectively. The counterbalanced aberration correction was applied to obtain high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of graphene and WS2 samples at 60 and 15 kV, respectively.

  7. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Bardak


    Full Text Available No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC, total trefoil (TF, total spherical aberration (TSA, and total higher order aberration (HOA were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France. The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p>0.05. A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p=0.029 and p=0.009, resp.. Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  8. Effect of Single Administration of Coffee on Pupil Size and Ocular Wavefront Aberration Measurements in Healthy Subjects. (United States)

    Bardak, Handan; Gunay, Murat; Mumcu, Ugur; Bardak, Yavuz


    No study has so far evaluated the impact of coffee drinking on ocular wavefront aberration (OWA) measurements. This study presents novel findings regarding the OWA of the eye following coffee intake. We aimed to evaluate the acute changes in pupil size and OWA of the eye after single administration of coffee. A total of 30 otherwise healthy participants were included in this prospective study. All subjects drank a cup of coffee containing 57 mg caffeine. Measurements of pupil size, total coma (TC), total trefoil (TF), total spherical aberration (TSA), and total higher order aberration (HOA) were performed before and at 5 minutes, at 30 minutes, and at 4 hours after coffee drinking using a wavefront aberrometer device (Irx3, Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France). The mean age of the study population was 20.30 ± 2.74 years. Pupil size did not show a significant change during the measurements (p > 0.05). A significant increase was observed in TF and HOA measurements following coffee intake (p = 0.029 and p = 0.009, resp.). Single administration of coffee results in significant increase in TF and total HOAs in healthy subjects without any effect on pupil diameter. Ultrastructural changes in the cornea following coffee intake might be of relevance to the alterations in ocular aberrations in healthy subjects.

  9. Wavefront correction for static and dynamic aberrations to within 1 second of the system shot in the NIF Beamlet demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.; Kartz, M.; Behrendt, W.


    The laser wavefront of the NIF Beamlet demonstration system is corrected for static aberrations with a wavefront control system. The system operates closed loop with a probe beam prior to a shot and has a loop bandwidth of about 3 Hz. However, until recently the wavefront control system was disabled several minutes prior to the shot to allow time to manually reconfigure its attenuators and probe beam insertion mechanism to shot mode. Thermally-induced dynamic variations in gas density in the Beamlet main beam line produce significant wavefront error. After about 5-8 seconds, the wavefront error has increased to a new, higher level due to turbulence- induced aberrations no longer being corrected- This implies that there is a turbulence-induced aberration noise bandwidth of less than one Hertz, and that the wavefront controller could correct for the majority of turbulence-induced aberration (about one- third wave) by automating its reconfiguration to occur within one second of the shot, This modification was recently implemented on Beamlet; we call this modification the t 0 -1 system

  10. Wavefront-optimized ablation versus topography-guided customized ablation in myopic LASIK: comparative study of higher order aberrations. (United States)

    El Awady, Hatem E; Ghanem, Asaad A; Saleh, Sameh M


    To compare the outcomes of wavefront-optimized ablation and topography-guided ablation in fellow eyes of patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. This prospective study included 84 patients who underwent LASIK in both eyes: wavefront-optimized ablation in one eye (group I) and topography-guided ablation in the fellow eye (group II). The Moria2 microkeratome with a 110 single-use head (Moria, Antony, France) was used to create a superior hinged flap and the Allegretto Wave Excimer Laser (Alcon/Wavelight Light Laser Technologie GmbH, Erlangen, Germany) for photoablation. The Allegretto wave analyzer was used to measure the ocular aberrations before and 6 months after LASIK. Refractive visual outcomes and ocular aberration changes were compared between the two treatment modalities. Six months postoperatively, the mean uncorrected visual acuity of group II was statistically better than that of group I (P = .02). Seventy percent of group I and 83% of group II achieved a postoperative spherical equivalent refraction of ±0.5 diopters. The postoperative total root-mean-square of higher order aberrations (HOAs) of group II was smaller than that of group I, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .51). There was a decrease in most of the individual terms of HOAs in group II, but it was only statistically significant in Z(3) (-1) (P = .04). The reverse occurred in group I, where most of the individual terms of HOAs increased, but it was not statistically significant. Significant improvement was only noted in Z(5) (3) (P = .05) and Z(5) (5) (P = .04). Both wavefront-optimized ablation and topography-guided ablation provided good refractive results, but the latter induced fewer HOAs. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Reducing depth induced spherical aberration in 3D widefield fluorescence microscopy by wavefront coding using the SQUBIC phase mask (United States)

    Patwary, Nurmohammed; Doblas, Ana; King, Sharon V.; Preza, Chrysanthe


    Imaging thick biological samples introduces spherical aberration (SA) due to refractive index (RI) mismatch between specimen and imaging lens immersion medium. SA increases with the increase of either depth or RI mismatch. Therefore, it is difficult to find a static compensator for SA1. Different wavefront coding methods2,3 have been studied to find an optimal way of static wavefront correction to reduce depth-induced SA. Inspired by a recent design of a radially symmetric squared cubic (SQUBIC) phase mask that was tested for scanning confocal microscopy1 we have modified the pupil using the SQUBIC mask to engineer the point spread function (PSF) of a wide field fluorescence microscope. In this study, simulated images of a thick test object were generated using a wavefront encoded engineered PSF (WFEPSF) and were restored using space-invariant (SI) and depth-variant (DV) expectation maximization (EM) algorithms implemented in the COSMOS software4. Quantitative comparisons between restorations obtained with both the conventional and WFE PSFs are presented. Simulations show that, in the presence of SA, the use of the SIEM algorithm and a single SQUBIC encoded WFE-PSF can yield adequate image restoration. In addition, in the presence of a large amount of SA, it is possible to get adequate results using the DVEM with fewer DV-PSFs than would typically be required for processing images acquired with a clear circular aperture (CCA) PSF. This result implies that modification of a widefield system with the SQUBIC mask renders the system less sensitive to depth-induced SA and suitable for imaging samples at larger optical depths.

  12. Alcon CustomCornea wavefront-guided retreatments after laser in situ keratomileusis. (United States)

    Chalita, Maria Regina; Xu, Meng; Krueger, Ronald R


    To evaluate the outcome of wavefront-guided ablations for the correction of residual myopia and astigmatism after standard laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Twenty nine eyes of 26 patients who underwent wavefront-guided LASIK retreatment with Alcon CustomCornea (Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, Tex) were evaluated. Complete ophthalmologic examination, corneal topography, and wavefront measurements were performed. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), manifest refraction, and wavefront analysis were evaluated preoperatively, 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Wavefront measurements were assessed using the LADARWave device. Statistical analysis was performed using the McNemar test and percentages of success. One week postoperatively, UCVA was > or =20/40 in 100% of eyes (> or =20/20 in 31%) and BSCVA was > or =20/40 in 100% (> or =20/20 in 73%). Wavefront analysis showed a decrease in total aberrations, high order aberrations, defocus, coma, spherical aberration, and other terms of higher order aberrations at 1-week follow-up. Three months postoperatively, UCVA was > or =20/40 in 100% of eyes (> or =20/20 in 38%) and BSCVA was > or =20/40 in 100% (> or =20/20 in 81%). Six months postoperatively, UCVA was > or =20/40 in 100% of eyes (> or =20/20 in 60%) and BSCVA was > or =20/40 in 100% (> or =20/20 in 90%). Wavefront analysis showed decrease in total aberration, high order aberration, defocus, coma, and spherical aberration. Wavefront-guided LASIK retreatment in post-LASIK eyes represents a good option for laser vision correction. All eyes showed reduction in pre-existing total aberrations. Some high order aberration components decreased in this initial series. Further follow-up is necessary to assess the initial predictability of wavefront-guided LASIK upgrade.

  13. Spherical aberration in contact lens wear. (United States)

    Lindskoog Pettersson, A; Jarkö, C; Alvin, A; Unsbo, P; Brautaset, R


    The aim of the present studies was to investigate the effect on spherical aberration of different non custom-made contact lenses, both with and without aberration control. A wavefront analyser (Zywave, Bausch & Lomb) was used to measure the aberrations in each subject's right eye uncorrected and with the different contact lenses. The first study evaluated residual spherical aberration with a standard lens (Focus Dailies Disposable, Ciba Vision) and with an aberration controlled contact lens (ACCL) (Definition AC, Optical Connection Inc.). The second study evaluated the residual spherical aberrations with a monthly disposable silicone hydrogel lens with aberration reduction (PureVision, Bausch & Lomb). Uncorrected spherical aberration was positive for all pupil sizes in both studies. In the first study, residual spherical aberration was close to zero with the standard lens for all pupil sizes whereas the ACCL over-corrected spherical aberration. The results of the second study showed that the monthly disposable lens also over-corrected the aberration making it negative. The changes in aberration were statistically significant (plenses. Since the amount of aberration varies individually we suggest that aberrations should be measured with lenses on the eye if the aim is to change spherical aberration in a certain direction.

  14. Laboratory and On-sky Validation of the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph’s Sensitivity to Low-order Aberrations With Active Wavefront Control (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler D.; Lozi, Julien; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Brandt, Timothy; Martinache, Frantz; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Skaf, Nour; Kuhn, Jonas; Pathak, Prashant; Kudo, Tomoyuki


    We present early laboratory simulations and extensive on-sky tests validating of the performance of a shaped pupil coronagraph (SPC) behind an extreme-AO corrected beam of the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system. In tests with the SCExAO internal source/wavefront error simulator, the normalized intensity profile for the SPC degrades more slowly than for the Lyot coronagraph as low-order aberrations reduce the Strehl ratio from extremely high values (S.R. ∼ 0.93–0.99) to those characteristic of current ground-based extreme AO systems (S.R. ∼ 0.74–0.93) and then slightly lower values down to S.R. ∼ 0.57. On-sky SCExAO data taken with the SPC and other coronagraphs for brown dwarf/planet-hosting stars HD 1160 and HR 8799 provide further evidence for the SPC’s robustness to low-order aberrations. From H-band Strehl ratios of 80% to 70%, the Lyot coronagraph’s performance versus that of the SPC may degrade even faster on sky than is seen in our internal source simulations. The 5-σ contrast also degrades faster (by a factor of two) for the Lyot than the SPC. The SPC we use was designed as a technology demonstrator only, with a contrast floor, throughput, and outer working angle poorly matched for SCExAO’s current AO performance and poorly tuned for imaging the HR 8799 planets. Nevertheless, we detect HR 8799 cde with SCExAO/CHARIS using the SPC in broadband mode, where the S/N for planet e is within 30% of that obtained using the vortex coronagraph. The shaped-pupil coronagraph is a promising design demonstrated to be robust in the presence of low-order aberrations and may be well-suited for future ground and space-based direct imaging observations, especially those focused on follow-up exoplanet characterization and technology demonstration of deep contrast within well-defined regions of the image plane.

  15. Efficacy of iris location to femtosecond-combined wavefront guided LASIK for myopia and astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jie Lin


    Full Text Available AIM:To observe effect of the iris location to femtosecond-combined wavefront guided LASIK for myopia and astigmatism.METHODS:The patients with astigmatism >1.0D during the same time and followed up for 1a were selected. A total of 129 eyes in 67 patients were treated under iris location with femtosecond-combined wavefront guided LASIK(experimental groupand 161 eyes in 82 cases with femtosecond-combined wavefront guided LASIK(control group. Laser cutting went with the same laser machine. The uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA, and wavefront aberration between the two groups were compared at 1, 3, 6mo and 1a after surgery. RESULTS:At 1 and 3mo after surgery, the number of patients with better postoperative UCVA than preoperative BCVA between the two group showed a statistically significant difference(χ2=6.423, P=0.011,χ2=14.431, P=0.01; at 1d and 1mo after surgery, the residual astigmatism showed a statistically significant difference between two groups(t=1.98, Pt=2.23, PP>0.05. At 6mo and 1a after surgery, the differences on UCVA between the two groups weren't significant(P>0.05. Until 1a after surgery, the root mean square(RMSof high order wavefront aberration of the two groups, spherical aberration and coma aberration(COMAwere all enhanced compared to before surgery(PPPCONCLUSION:Iris location technology applied in femtosecond-combined wavefront guided LASIK for myopia and astigmatism, can make the vision recovery faster, the RMS of high order and COMA increase less, the residual astigmatism less, show better and more stable treatment effect.

  16. Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K; Thompson, C A; Kartz, M W; Winters, S; Hartley, R; Wihelmsen, J; Dowla, F V; Carrano, C J; Bauman, B J; Pennington, D M; Lande, D; Sawvel, R M; Silva, D A; Cooke, J B; Brown, C G


    Programs at LLNL that involve large laser systems--ranging from the National Ignition Facility to new tactical laser weapons--depend on the maintenance of laser beam quality through precise control of the optical wavefront. This can be accomplished using adaptive optics, which compensate for time-varying aberrations that are often caused by heating in a high-power laser system. Over the past two decades, LLNL has developed a broad capability in adaptive optics technology for both laser beam control and high-resolution imaging. This adaptive optics capability has been based on thin deformable glass mirrors with individual ceramic actuators bonded to the back. In the case of high-power lasers, these adaptive optics systems have successfully improved beam quality. However, as we continue to extend our applications requirements, the existing technology base for wavefront control cannot satisfy them. To address this issue, this project studied improved modeling tools to increase our detailed understanding of the performance of these systems, and evaluated novel approaches to low-order wavefront control that offer the possibility of reduced cost and complexity. We also investigated improved beam control technology for high-resolution wavefront control. Many high-power laser systems suffer from high-spatial-frequency aberrations that require control of hundreds or thousands of phase points to provide adequate correction. However, the cost and size of current deformable mirrors can become prohibitive for applications requiring more than a few tens of phase control points. New phase control technologies are becoming available which offer control of many phase points with small low-cost devices. The goal of this project was to expand our wavefront control capabilities with improved modeling tools, new devices that reduce system cost and complexity, and extensions to high spatial and temporal frequencies using new adaptive optics technologies. In FY 99, the second year of

  17. Systematic comparison of the use of annular and Zernike circle polynomials for annular wavefronts. (United States)

    Mahajan, Virendra N; Aftab, Maham


    The theory of wavefront analysis of a noncircular wavefront is given and applied for a systematic comparison of the use of annular and Zernike circle polynomials for the analysis of an annular wavefront. It is shown that, unlike the annular coefficients, the circle coefficients generally change as the number of polynomials used in the expansion changes. Although the wavefront fit with a certain number of circle polynomials is identically the same as that with the corresponding annular polynomials, the piston circle coefficient does not represent the mean value of the aberration function, and the sum of the squares of the other coefficients does not yield its variance. The interferometer setting errors of tip, tilt, and defocus from a four-circle-polynomial expansion are the same as those from the annular-polynomial expansion. However, if these errors are obtained from, say, an 11-circle-polynomial expansion, and are removed from the aberration function, wrong polishing will result by zeroing out the residual aberration function. If the common practice of defining the center of an interferogram and drawing a circle around it is followed, then the circle coefficients of a noncircular interferogram do not yield a correct representation of the aberration function. Moreover, in this case, some of the higher-order coefficients of aberrations that are nonexistent in the aberration function are also nonzero. Finally, the circle coefficients, however obtained, do not represent coefficients of the balanced aberrations for an annular pupil. The various results are illustrated analytically and numerically by considering an annular Seidel aberration function.

  18. Aberration modeling of thermo-optical effects applied to wavefront fine-tuning and thermal compensation of Sodern UV and LWIR optical systems (United States)

    Battarel, D.; Fuss, P.; Durieux, A.; Martaud, E.


    As a manufacturer of optical systems for space applications, Sodern is faced with the necessity to design optical systems which image quality remains stable while the environment temperature changes. Two functions can be implemented: either a wavefront control or the athermalization of the optical system. In both cases, the mechanical deformations and thermal gradients are calculated by finite-element modeling with the IDEAS NX7 software. The data is then used in CODE V models for wavefront and image quality evaluation purposes. Two cases are presented: one is a UV beam expander in which a wavefront control is implemented and the other is an athermalized IR camera. The beam expander has a wavefront-tuning capability by thermal control. In order to perform the thermo-optical analysis in parallel with the opto-mechanical development, the thermo-optical modeling is done step by step in order to start before the mechanical design is completed. Each step then includes a new modeling stage leading to progressive improvements in accuracy. The IR camera athermalization is achieved through interaction between the mechanical CAD software and the optical design software to simulate the axial thermal gradients, radial gradients and all other thermal variations. The purpose of this paper is to present the steps that have led to the final STOP (Structural, Thermal Optical) analysis. Using incremental accuracy in modeling the thermo-optical effects enables to take them into account very early in the development process to devise all adjustment and test procedures to apply when assembling and testing the optical system.

  19. Real-time wavefront reconstruction from intensity measurements (United States)

    Smith, Carlas; Marinica, Raluca; Verhaegen, Michel


    We propose an ecient approximation to the nonlinear phase diversity method for wavefront reconstruction method from intensity measurements in order to avoid the shortcomings of the nonlinear phase diversity method that prevent its real-time application, such as its computationally complex and the presence of local minima. The new method is called linear sequential phase diversity (LSPD). The method assumes that residual phase aberration is small and makes use of a rst order Taylor expansion of the point spread function (PSF). The Taylor expansion is performed in two dierent phase diversities, that can be arbitrary (large) pupil shapes in order to optimize the phase retrieval. For static aberrations LSPD makes use of two images that are collected at each iteration step of the algorithm. In each step the residual phase aberrations are estimated by solving a linear least squares problem, followed by the use of a deformable mirror to correct for the aberrations. The computational complexity of LSPD is O(m*m) - where m*m is the number of pixels. For the static case the convergence of the LSPD iterations have been studied and experimentally veried. In an extensive comparison the method is compared with the recently proposed method of [1]. This study demonstrates the improved performance both computationally and in accuracy with respect to existing competitors that also linearize the PSF. A further contribution of the paper is that we extend the static LSPD method to the case of dynamic wavefront reconstruction based on intensity measurements. Here the dynamics are assumed to be modelled standardly by a linear innovation model such that its spectrum e.g. approximates that given by Kolmogorov. The advantage of the application of the dynamic variant of the LSPD method is that in closed-loop the assumption that the residual phase aberration is small is justiable, since the goal of the controller is to reduce (minimize) the residual phase aberration. This unique contribution

  20. Wavefront-Guided and Wavefront-Optimised Laser Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aslı Utine


    Full Text Available Optical aberrations of the eye are the errors of the optical system that limit the resolution, contrast and amount of detail in the image formed on the retina. Wavefront technology allows us to measure these optical aberrations, calculate mathematically, and transfer this information into excimer laser system to perform customized treatment on the cornea. Two treatment algorithms developed to create low aberration-corneal profile are wavefront-optimised (WF-O and wavefront-guided (WF-G treatments. WF-O treatment, aims not to increase the existing spherical aberration while treatment is based on manifest refractive error as in conventional laser treatments. By increasing the number of laser spots applied peripherally in order to optimize the corneal asphericity, the preoperative central:peripheral keratometry ratio is preserved and optic zone shrinkage is prevented. On the other hand, WF-G treatment is based on aberrometry measurements and aims to correct the existing high-order aberrations in the eye. Thus, retinal image with high spatial details can be achieved. However, presence of postoperative defocus can abolish the successful results obtained with WF-G treatment. Clinical randomized controlled trials showed that in patients with preoperative RMS value of <0.3 μm, higher order aberration outcomes are similar after WF-G and WF-O treatments, but WF-G treatment yields better results when it is ≥0.4 μm. In normal eyes, very limited visual advantage can be achieved with WF-G treatment and preservation of asphericity value with WF-O treatment carries greater importance. On the other hand, in case of high astigmatism or higher order aberrations other than spherical aberration, decreasing aberrations with WF-G treatment becomes more important. In this study, we aimed to make a comparative analysis of characteristics and outcomes of the two treatment algorithms. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 474-8

  1. Wavefront-guided enhancements using the wavelight excimer laser in symptomatic eyes previously treated with LASIK. (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, A John; Pe, Lawrence H


    To describe our clinical experience in wavefront-guided LASIK enhancements using the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO system (WaveLight Technologie AG, Erlangen, Germany) for symptomatic eyes previously treated with standard LASIK. Twenty-six eyes of 20 patients with residual myopia, hyperopia, or mixed astigmatism and/or night vision symptoms after primary standard LASIK were considered for wavefront-guided customized retreatment using the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE 200 Hz excimer laser system (model 106). Preoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), uncorrected visual acuity, topography with the ALLEGRETTO Topolyzer, wavefront analysis using the ALLEGRETTO WAVE Tscherning Analyzer, and contrast sensitivity were compared to postoperative (enhancement) measurements. Twenty-two of the original 26 eyes underwent wavefront-guided enhancement, 4 were excluded because they did not meet wavefront-guided treatment inclusion guidelines of this study. Mean follow-up was 8 months (range: 6 to 13 months, standard deviation [SD] 2). All patients were within +/- 0.50 diopters (manifest refraction) of intended postoperative refraction. The mean preoperative BSCVA improved from 20/25 (SD +/- 0.12) to 20/18 (SD +/- 0.1) postoperatively. All patients gained at least one line of BSCVA, and a maximum of three lines. There was no loss of BSCVA in any patient. The total amount of high order aberrations (RMSH) decreased from an average of 1.04 (SD +/- 0.22) to 0.46 (SD +/- 0.14) microm. Patients also had a mean improvement in low contrast sensitivity of 59%. Based on this small series, customized wavefront-guided enhancements using the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO system in patients who underwent previous LASIK appear to be safe and effective in correcting residual refractive error, reducing high order aberrations, and improving visual symptoms when reliable and reproducible measurements are achieved.

  2. Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrymgeour, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boye, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adelsberger, Kathleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise. Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.

  3. A wavefront analyzer for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abraham, E.; Brossard, M.; Fauche, P.


    We report on the development of a terahertz wavefront sensor able to determine the optical aberrations of a terahertz time-domain spectrometer. The system measures point-by-point the amplitude and phase of the terahertz electric field in a given plane. From this measurement, we reconstruct...... the terahertz wavefront and calculate its Zernike coefficients. In particular, we especially show that the focus spot of the spectrometer suffers from optical aberrations such as remaining defocus, first and second order astigmatisms, as well as spherical aberration. This opens a route to wavefront correction...... for improved terahertz imaging and spectroscopy....

  4. LADARWave wavefront measurement in normal eyes. (United States)

    Chalita, Maria Regina; Finkenthal, Josel; Xu, Meng; Krueger, Ronald R


    We evaluated the correlation of Alcon LADARWave wavefront measurements with clinical refraction and corneal topography. In a retrospective, non-comparative case series, 60 eyes (30 patients) of healthy individuals evaluated by preoperative examination for refractive surgery were enrolled (manifest sphere, -11.00 to +4.50 D; manifest cylinder, 0 to -4.75 D; 45 eyes were myopic, 12 eyes were hyperopic, and 3 had mixed astigmatism). Correlation of manifest refraction, cycloplegic refraction, and topographic data with wavefront refraction and higher order aberration was assessed. Match percentage given by the wavefront was analyzed. This number represents how much of the wavefront refraction is due to sphere and cylinder (high percentage match) or is influenced by higher order aberration (low percentage match), in which case aberrometer refraction will not be close to phoropter refraction. Pearson's correlation coefficient was assessed for two continuous variables, adjusting for repeated measurements. The median match percentage was 91%. Mean values for all higher order aberration components in a 7.0-mm pupil were: coma = 0.35 +/- 0.29 microm, spherical aberrations = 0.36 +/- 0.31 microm, and other terms of higher order aberrations = 0.31 +/- 0.14 microm. Wavefront sphere, cylinder, and axis terms were highly correlated to manifest and cycloplegic measurements. The high match subgroup had a higher correlation coefficient than the low match subgroup for refraction. Topographic cylinder and axis were not strongly correlated to wavefront refraction, but manifest axis was significantly correlated to topographic axis. In 60 normal eyes, the Alcon LADARWave wavefront measurement was highly correlated with refraction, but less well with corneal topography.

  5. Adaptive optics wide-field microscopy using direct wavefront sensing. (United States)

    Azucena, Oscar; Crest, Justin; Kotadia, Shaila; Sullivan, William; Tao, Xiaodong; Reinig, Marc; Gavel, Donald; Olivier, Scot; Kubby, Joel


    We report a technique for measuring and correcting the wavefront aberrations introduced by a biological sample using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, a fluorescent reference source, and a deformable mirror. The reference source and sample fluorescence are at different wavelengths to separate wavefront measurement and sample imaging. The measurement and correction at one wavelength improves the resolving power at a different wavelength, enabling the structure of the sample to be resolved.

  6. Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology (United States)

    Molebny, Vasyl

    Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.

  7. Vector polynomials for direct analysis of circular wavefront slope data. (United States)

    Mahajan, Virendra N; Acosta, Eva


    In the aberration analysis of a circular wavefront, Zernike circle polynomials are used to obtain its wave aberration coefficients. To obtain these coefficients from the wavefront slope data, we need vector functions that are orthogonal to the gradients of the Zernike polynomials, and are irrotational so as to propagate minimum uncorrelated random noise from the data to the coefficients. In this paper, we derive such vector functions, which happen to be polynomials.

  8. Wavefront measurement using computational adaptive optics. (United States)

    South, Fredrick A; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Bower, Andrew J; Xu, Yang; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A


    In many optical imaging applications, it is necessary to correct for aberrations to obtain high quality images. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides access to the amplitude and phase of the backscattered optical field for three-dimensional (3D) imaging samples. Computational adaptive optics (CAO) modifies the phase of the OCT data in the spatial frequency domain to correct optical aberrations without using a deformable mirror, as is commonly done in hardware-based adaptive optics (AO). This provides improvement of image quality throughout the 3D volume, enabling imaging across greater depth ranges and in highly aberrated samples. However, the CAO aberration correction has a complicated relation to the imaging pupil and is not a direct measurement of the pupil aberrations. Here we present new methods for recovering the wavefront aberrations directly from the OCT data without the use of hardware adaptive optics. This enables both computational measurement and correction of optical aberrations.

  9. Wavefront reconstruction using smartphone based wavefront sensors (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Zhan, Qiwen


    Smartphone camera system has the capability of being integrated into powerful field-sensing tools, capturing data and sharing these data with computing servers or cloud experts. The purpose of this work is to implement a wavefront sensor based on the smartphone platform, which has many potential applications in thin-films and bio-related sensing areas. To overcome problems caused by traditional wavefront curvature sensing setups, distorted micro-gratings are designed and introduced into the system in the dual role of both beam splitter and defocuser. The new design is capable of capturing two images of different levels of defocus in a single shot, which are then used as the input data to reconstruct the wavefront. Through testing with generated known spherical wavefronts, the smartphone based wavefront sensor has demonstrated decent system resolution and wavefront sensing accuracy.

  10. Optimization-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics for multiphoton microscopy. (United States)

    Antonello, Jacopo; van Werkhoven, Tim; Verhaegen, Michel; Truong, Hoa H; Keller, Christoph U; Gerritsen, Hans C


    Optical aberrations have detrimental effects in multiphoton microscopy. These effects can be curtailed by implementing model-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics, which only requires the addition of a wavefront shaping device, such as a deformable mirror (DM) to an existing microscope. The aberration correction is achieved by maximizing a suitable image quality metric. We implement a model-based aberration correction algorithm in a second-harmonic microscope. The tip, tilt, and defocus aberrations are removed from the basis functions used for the control of the DM, as these aberrations induce distortions in the acquired images. We compute the parameters of a quadratic polynomial that is used to model the image quality metric directly from experimental input-output measurements. Finally, we apply the aberration correction by maximizing the image quality metric using the least-squares estimate of the unknown aberration.

  11. Closed loop adaptive optics for microscopy without a wavefront sensor. (United States)

    Kner, Peter; Winoto, Lukman; Agard, David A; Sedat, John W


    A three-dimensional wide-field image of a small fluorescent bead contains more than enough information to accurately calculate the wavefront in the microscope objective back pupil plane using the phase retrieval technique. The phase-retrieved wavefront can then be used to set a deformable mirror to correct the point-spread function (PSF) of the microscope without the use of a wavefront sensor. This technique will be useful for aligning the deformable mirror in a widefield microscope with adaptive optics and could potentially be used to correct aberrations in samples where small fluorescent beads or other point sources are used as reference beacons. Another advantage is the high resolution of the retrieved wavefont as compared with current Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Here we demonstrate effective correction of the PSF in 3 iterations. Starting from a severely aberrated system, we achieve a Strehl ratio of 0.78 and a greater than 10-fold increase in maximum intensity.

  12. Meta-analysis of wavefront-guided vs. wavefront-optimized LASIK for myopia. (United States)

    Feng, Yifan; Yu, Jiguo; Wang, Qinmei


    To detect possible differences in clinical outcomes between wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and wavefront-optimized LASIK for the treatment of myopia. A comprehensive literature search of Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE to identify relevant trials comparing LASIK with wavefront-guided and wavefront-optimized. A meta-analysis was performed on the results of the reports. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan 5.0 software. Seven articles describing a total of 930 eyes were identified. There were no statistically significant differences in the final proportion of eyes achieving uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better [odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66 to 1.65; p = 0.86], manifest refractive spherical equivalent within ± 0.50 D of the target (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.75; p = 0.90). No patient lost ≥ 2 lines of distance-corrected visual acuity at posttreatment. The changes in higher order aberrations were not statistically significant different between the two groups with preoperative root-mean-square (RMS) higher order aberrations 0.3 μm (weighted mean difference, -0.10; 95% CI, -0.15 to -0.06; p technology may be a more appropriate choice for patients who have preoperative RMS higher order aberrations >0.3 μm.

  13. Low-order wavefront sensing for coronagraphic telescopes (United States)

    Subedi, Hari; Kasdin, Jeremy; Peter Varnai


    Space telescopes equipped with a coronagraph to detect and characterize exoplanets must have the ability to sense and control low-order wavefront aberrations. Most concepts for low-order wavefront sensing use the starlight rejected by the coronagraph to sense these aberrations. The sensor must be able to make precise estimates and be robust to photon and read noise. A thorough study of various differential low-order wavefront sensors (LOWFSs) would be beneficial for future space-based observatories designed for exoplanet detection and characterization. In this talk, we will expand on the comparison of different LOWFSs that use the rejected starlight either from the coronagraphic focal plane or the Lyot plane to estimate these aberrations. We will also present the experimental results of the sparse aperture mask (SAM) LOWFS that we have designed at the Princeton High Contrast Imaging Lab (PHCIL).

  14. Adaptive optics confocal microscopy using direct wavefront sensing. (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Fernandez, Bautista; Azucena, Oscar; Fu, Min; Garcia, Denise; Zuo, Yi; Chen, Diana C; Kubby, Joel


    Optical aberrations due to the inhomogeneous refractive index of tissue degrade the resolution and brightness of images in deep-tissue imaging. We introduce a confocal fluorescence microscope with adaptive optics, which can correct aberrations based on direct wavefront measurements using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with a fluorescent bead used as a point source reference beacon. The results show a 4.3× improvement in the Strehl ratio and a 240% improvement in the signal intensity for fixed mouse tissues at depths of up to 100 μm.

  15. Phase Diversity Wavefront Sensing for Control of Space Based Adaptive Optics Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schgallis, Richard J


    .... By looking at an image reflected off a deformable mirror by two cameras placed on either side of focus of a lens, intensity differences, indicating wavefront aberration in the beam, can be detected...

  16. Holographic Wavefront Correction for SHADOE LIDAR Receivers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current shared aperture diffractive optical elements (SHADOE) have intrinsic residual wavefront errors on the order of 20 waves which limits the angular resolution...

  17. Holographic Wavefront Correction for ShADOE LIDAR Receivers Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current shared aperture diffractive optical elements (ShADOE) have intrinsic residual wavefront errors on the order of 50 waves which limits the angular resolution...

  18. Iterative linear focal-plane wavefront correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, C.S.; Marinica, R.M.; Den Dekker, A.J.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.; Korkiakoski, V.; Keller, C.U.; Doelman, N.


    We propose an efficient approximation to the nonlinear phase diversity (PD) method for wavefront reconstruction and correction from intensity measurements with potential of being used in real-time applications. The new iterative linear phase diversity (ILPD) method assumes that the residual phase

  19. Outcomes of topography-guided versus wavefront-optimized laser in situ keratomileusis for myopia in virgin eyes. (United States)

    Jain, Arun Kumar; Malhotra, Chintan; Pasari, Anand; Kumar, Pawan; Moshirfar, Majid


    To compare the outcomes of topography-guided and wavefront-optimized treatment in patients having laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Advanced Eye Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. Prospective contralateral-eye case study. Patients had topography-guided LASIK in 1 eye and wavefront-optimized LASIK in the contralateral eye using the Customized Refractive Surgery Master software and Mel 80 excimer laser. Refractive (residual manifest refraction spherical equivalent [MRSE], higher-order aberrations [HOAs]), and visual (uncorrected distance visual acuity [UDVA] and photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity) outcomes were prospectively analyzed 6 months postoperatively. The study comprised 35 patients. The UDVA was 0.0 logMAR or better and the postoperative residual MRSE was ±0.50 diopter in 94.29% of eyes in the topography-guided group and 85.71% of eyes in the wavefront-optimized group (P = .09). More eyes in the topography-guided group than in the wavefront-optimized group had a UDVA of -0.1 logMAR or better (P = .04). Topography-guided LASIK was associated with less deterioration of mesopic contrast sensitivity at higher spatial frequencies (12 cycles per degree [cpd] and 18 cpd) and lower amounts of induced coma (P = .04) and spherical aberration (P = .04). Less stromal tissue was ablated in the topography-guided group (mean 61.57 μm ± 16.23 [SD]) than in the wavefront-optimized group (mean 79.71 ± 14.81 μm) (P topography-guided LASIK and wavefront-optimized LASIK gave excellent results, topography-guided LASIK was associated with better contrast sensitivity, lower induction of HOAs, and a smaller amount of tissue ablation. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tomographic wavefront correction for the LSST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillion, D W; Olivier, S S; Baker, K; Seppala, L; Hvisc, S


    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a three mirror modified Paul-Baker design with an 8.4m primary, a 3.4m secondary, and a 5.0m tertiary followed by a 3-element refractive corrector producing a 3.5 degree field of view. This design produces image diameters of <0.3 arcsecond 80% encircled energy over its full field of view. The image quality of this design is sufficient to ensure that the final images produced by the telescope will be limited by the atmospheric seeing at an excellent astronomical site. In order to maintain this image quality, the deformations and rigid body motions of the three large mirrors must be actively controlled to minimize optical aberrations. By measuring the optical wavefront produced by the telescope at multiple points in the field, mirror deformations and rigid body motions that produce a good optical wavefront across the entire field may be determined. We will describe the details of the techniques for obtaining these solutions. We will show that, for the expected mirror deformations and rigid body misalignments, the solutions that are found using these techniques produce an image quality over the field that is close to optimal. We will discuss how many wavefront sensors are needed and the tradeoffs between the number of wavefront sensors, their layout and noise sensitivity.

  1. Statistical characteristics of aberrations of human eyes after small incision lenticule extraction surgery and analysis of visual performance with individual eye model. (United States)

    Lou, Qiqi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; Fang, Hui


    Preoperative and postoperative wavefront aberrations of 73 myopic eyes with small incision lenticule extraction surgery are analyzed in this paper. Twenty-eight postoperative individual eye models are constructed to investigate the visual acuity (VA) of human eyes. Results show that in photopic condition, residual defocus, residual astigmatism, and higher-order aberrations are relatively small. 100% of eyes reach a VA of 0.8 or better, and 89.3% of eyes reach a VA of 1.0 or better. In scotopic condition, the residual defocus and the higher-order aberrations are, respectively, 1.9 and 8.5 times the amount of that in photopic condition, and the defocus becomes the main factor attenuating visual performance.

  2. Real Time Wavefront Sensing for Ultrafast High-Power Laser Beams - Oral Paper (United States)

    Bueno, J. M.; Vohnsen, B.; Prieto, P. M.; Roso, L.; Artal, P.


    A real-time Hartmann-Shack sensor adapted to measure ultrafast and high-power laser beams has been built. Wavefront aberrations were measured at two different temporal rates. Results show that for a 7-mm pupil, most of the root-mean square wavefront error is due to low order aberrations. This still happens after re-alignment of the optics inside the cavity. Wavefront was found to be stable over time, indicating an initial potential benefit with only static correction. For higher intensity regimes, we expect larger temporal variability and the need for real time corrections.

  3. Fundamental limits to high-contrast wavefront control (United States)

    Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent


    The current generation of ground-based coronagraphic instruments uses deformable mirrors to correct for phase errors and to improve contrast levels at small angular separations. Improving these techniques, several space and ground based instruments are currently developed using two deformable mirrors to correct for both phase and amplitude errors. However, as wavefront control techniques improve, more complex telescope pupil geometries (support structures, segmentation) will soon be a limiting factor for these next generation coronagraphic instruments. In this paper we discuss fundamental limits associated with wavefront control with deformable mirrors in high contrast coronagraph. We start with an analytic prescription of wavefront errors, along with their wavelength dependence, and propagate them through coronagraph models. We then consider a few wavefront control architectures, number of deformable mirrors and their placement in the optical train of the instrument, and algorithms that can be used to cancel the starlight scattered by these wavefront errors over a finite bandpass. For each configuration we derive the residual contrast as a function of bandwidth and of the properties of the incoming wavefront. This result has consequences when setting the wavefront requirements, along with the wavefront control architecture of future high contrast instrument both from the ground and from space. In particular we show that these limits can severely affect the effective Outer Working Angle that can be achieved by a given coronagraph instrument.

  4. Stability improvement of a wavefront correction system for robust image acquisition (United States)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Park, Nak-Gyu; Lee, Soo Man; Kim, Hyun Tae; Yoo, Jae Eun; Choi, Young Soo


    Stabilization techniques for a wavefront correction system using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a membrane deformable mirror (DM) for robust image acquisition were investigated in this research. Though stability of a closed-loop wavefront correction system is essential in practical fields, stability is decreased when the system spends voltage resources to correct non-meaningful residual distortions. In this research, adaptive limit control techniques were devised to ensure the long-term stability of a wavefront correction system. An adaptive deformation technique for the outer non-active actuators of a membrane deformable mirror was adopted to improve the correction efficiency of the wavefront correction system. The experimental results corrected for wavefront distortions by using a configured wavefront correction system were described in this research.

  5. MEMS deformable mirror embedded wavefront sensing and control system (United States)

    Owens, Donald; Schoen, Michael; Bush, Keith


    Electrostatic Membrane Deformable Mirror (MDM) technology developed using silicon bulk micro-machining techniques offers the potential of providing low-cost, compact wavefront control systems for diverse optical system applications. Electrostatic mirror construction using bulk micro-machining allows for custom designs to satisfy wavefront control requirements for most optical systems. An electrostatic MDM consists of a thin membrane, generally with a thin metal or multi-layer high-reflectivity coating, suspended over an actuator pad array that is connected to a high-voltage driver. Voltages applied to the array elements deflect the membrane to provide an optical surface capable of correcting for measured optical aberrations in a given system. Electrostatic membrane DM designs are derived from well-known principles of membrane mechanics and electrostatics, the desired optical wavefront control requirements, and the current limitations of mirror fabrication and actuator drive electronics. MDM performance is strongly dependent on mirror diameter and air damping in meeting desired spatial and temporal frequency requirements. In this paper, we present wavefront control results from an embedded wavefront control system developed around a commercially available high-speed camera and an AgilOptics Unifi MDM driver using USB 2.0 communications and the Linux development environment. This new product, ClariFast TM, combines our previous Clarifi TM product offering into a faster more streamlined version dedicated strictly to Hartmann Wavefront sensing.

  6. Wavefront sensing and adaptive optics in strong turbulence (United States)

    Mackey, Ruth; Dainty, Christopher


    When light propagates through the atmosphere the fluctuating refractive index caused by temperature gradients, humidity fluctuations and the wind mixing of air cause the phase of the optical field to be corrupted. In strong turbulence, over horizontal paths or at large zenith angles, the phase aberration is converted to intensity variation (scintillation) as interference within the beam and diffraction effects produce the peaks and zeros of a speckle-like pattern. At the zeros of intensity the phase becomes indeterminate as both the real and imaginary parts of the field go to zero. The wavefront is no longer continuous but contains dislocations along lines connecting phase singularities of opposite rotation. Conventional adaptive optics techniques of wavefront sensing and wavefront reconstruction do not account for discontinuous phase functions and hence can only conjugate an averaged, continuous wavefront. We are developing an adaptive optics system that can cope with dislocations in the phase function for potential use in a line-of-sight optical communications link. Using a ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator (FLC SLM) to generate dynamic atmospheric phase screens in the laboratory, we simulate strong scintillation conditions where high densities of phase singularities exist in order to compare wavefront sensors for tolerance to scintillation and accuracy of wavefront recovery.

  7. Wavefront reconstruction using computer-generated holograms (United States)

    Schulze, Christian; Flamm, Daniel; Schmidt, Oliver A.; Duparré, Michael


    We propose a new method to determine the wavefront of a laser beam, based on modal decomposition using computer-generated holograms (CGHs). Thereby the beam under test illuminates the CGH with a specific, inscribed transmission function that enables the measurement of modal amplitudes and phases by evaluating the first diffraction order of the hologram. Since we use an angular multiplexing technique, our method is innately capable of real-time measurements of amplitude and phase, yielding the complete information about the optical field. A measurement of the Stokes parameters, respectively of the polarization state, provides the possibility to calculate the Poynting vector. Two wavefront reconstruction possibilities are outlined: reconstruction from the phase for scalar beams and reconstruction from the Poynting vector for inhomogeneously polarized beams. To quantify single aberrations, the reconstructed wavefront is decomposed into Zernike polynomials. Our technique is applied to beams emerging from different kinds of multimode optical fibers, such as step-index, photonic crystal and multicore fibers, whereas in this work results are exemplarily shown for a step-index fiber and compared to a Shack-Hartmann measurement that serves as a reference.

  8. Quantitative comparison of different-shaped wavefront sensors and preliminary results for defocus aberrations on a mechanical eye Comparações quantitativas entre o sensor Hartmann-Shack e o sensor de Castro e resultados preliminares para um olho mecânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Carvalho


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is a general acceptance among the scientific community of Cartesian symmetry wavefront sensors (such as the Hartmann-Shack (HS sensor as a standard in the field of optics and vision science. In this study it is shown that sensors of different symmetries and/or configurations should also be tested and analyzed in order to quantify and compare their effectiveness when applied to visual optics. Three types of wave-aberration sensors were developed and tested here. Each sensor has a very different configuration and/or symmetry (dodecagonal (DOD, cylindrical (CYL and conventional Hartmann-Shack (HS. METHODS: All sensors were designed and developed in the Physics Department of the Universidade de São Paulo - São Carlos. Each sensor was mounted on a laboratory optical bench used in a previous study. A commercial mechanical eye was used as control. This mechanical eye has a rotating mechanism that allows the retinal plane to be positioned at different axial distances. Ten different defocus aberrations were generated: 5 cases of myopia from -1D to -5D and 5 cases of hyperopia, from +1D to +5D, in steps of 1D following the scale printed on the mechanical eye. For each wavefront sensor a specific image-processing and fitting algorithm was implemented. For all three cases, the wavefront information was fit using the first 36 VSIA standard Zernike polynomials. Results for the mechanical eye were also compared to the absolute Zernike surface generated from coefficients associated with the theoretical sphere-cylinder aberration value. RESULTS: Precision was analyzed using two different methods: first, a theoretical approach was used by generating synthetic Zernike coefficients from the known sphere-cylinder aberrations, simply by applying sphere-cylinder equations in the backward direction. Then comparisons were made of these coefficients with the ones obtained in practice. Results for DOD, HS and CYL sensors were, respectively, as follows

  9. Low aberration monolithic diffraction gratings for high performance optical spectrometers (United States)

    Triebel, Peter; Moeller, Tobias; Diehl, Torsten; Gatto, Alexandre; Pesch, Alexander; Erdmann, Lars E.; Burkhardt, Matthias; Kalies, Alexander


    Gratings are the core element of the spectrometer. For imaging spectrometers beside the polarization sensitivity and efficiency the imaging quality of the diffraction grating is essential. Lenses and mirrors can be produced with lowest wavefront aberrations. Low aberration imaging quality of the grating is required not to limit the overall imaging quality of the instrument. Different types of spectrometers will lead to different requirements on the wavefront aberrations for their specific diffraction gratings. The wavefront aberration of an optical grating is a combination of the substrate wavefront and the grating wavefront. During the manufacturing process of the grating substrate different processes can be applied in order to minimize the wavefront aberrations. The imaging performance of the grating is also optimized due to the recording setup of the holography. This technology of holographically manufactured gratings is used for transmission and reflection gratings on different types of substrates like prisms, convex and concave spherical and aspherical surface shapes, free-form elements. All the manufactured gratings are monolithic and can be coated with high reflection and anti-reflection coatings. Prism substrates were used to manufacture monolithic GRISM elements for the UV to IR spectral range preferably working in transmission. Besides of transmission gratings, numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) working on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. The present approach can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings for the EUV to the IR. In this paper we report our latest results on manufacturing lowest wavefront aberration gratings based on holographic processes in order to enable at least diffraction limited complex spectrometric setups over certain wavelength ranges. Beside the results of low aberration gratings the latest achievements on improving efficiency together with

  10. Orthonormal polynomials in wavefront analysis: error analysis. (United States)

    Dai, Guang-Ming; Mahajan, Virendra N


    Zernike circle polynomials are in widespread use for wavefront analysis because of their orthogonality over a circular pupil and their representation of balanced classical aberrations. However, they are not appropriate for noncircular pupils, such as annular, hexagonal, elliptical, rectangular, and square pupils, due to their lack of orthogonality over such pupils. We emphasize the use of orthonormal polynomials for such pupils, but we show how to obtain the Zernike coefficients correctly. We illustrate that the wavefront fitting with a set of orthonormal polynomials is identical to the fitting with a corresponding set of Zernike polynomials. This is a consequence of the fact that each orthonormal polynomial is a linear combination of the Zernike polynomials. However, since the Zernike polynomials do not represent balanced aberrations for a noncircular pupil, the Zernike coefficients lack the physical significance that the orthonormal coefficients provide. We also analyze the error that arises if Zernike polynomials are used for noncircular pupils by treating them as circular pupils and illustrate it with numerical examples.

  11. Tolerance analysis of misalignment in an optical system using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor: experimental study (United States)

    Kalikivayi, Venkataramana; Pretheesh Kumar, Valiyaparambil Chacko; Kannan, Krithivasan; Ganesan, Angarai Ramanathan


    The wavefront aberrations induced by misalignments due to decentration and tilt of an optical component in an optical measurement system are presented. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is used to measure various aberrations caused due to the shifting of the axis and tilt of a lens in the path of an optical wavefront. One of the lenses in an optical system is decentered in the transverse direction and is tilted by using a rotational stage. For each step, wavefront data have been taken and data were analyzed up to the fourth order consisting of 14 Zernike terms along with peak-to-valley and root mean square values. Theoretical simulations using ray tracing have been carried out and compared with experimental values. The results are presented along with the discussion on tolerance limits for both decentration and tilt.

  12. Simulation and experiment studies of aberration effects on the measurement of laser beam quality factor (M2) (United States)

    Meng, Lingqiang; Huang, Zheqiang; Han, Zhigang; Shen, Hua; Zhu, Rihong


    In the measurement system of beam quality factor, M2, wave-front and intensity aberrations caused by optical elements, thermal effects, residual pump light, etc., influence the measurement results. The influence was analyzed using the angular spectrum and the finite element methods. Simulation of the impact of different aberrations, thermal effects and residual pump light on the measurement of the M2 is provided. The M2 of a high-power fiber laser is measured by a beam quality analyzer when the laser transmits through a high absorption red glass with different output power. The results from the experiment and the simulation have good consistency. The simulation and experiment results can be applied for the designs of high-power laser, laser beam quality measurement, and laser-launching systems.

  13. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjie Mao

    Full Text Available To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated.Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951.The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye.

  14. A Demonstration of a Versatile Low-order Wavefront Sensor Tested on Multiple Coronographs (United States)

    Singh, Garima; Lozi, Julien; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Baudoz, Pierre; Martinache, Frantz; Kudo, Tomoyuki


    Detecting faint companions in close proximity to stars is one of the major goals of current/planned ground- and space-based high-contrast imaging instruments. High-performance coronagraphs can suppress the diffraction features and gain access to companions at small angular separation. However, the uncontrolled pointing errors degrade the coronagraphic performance by leaking starlight around the coronagraphic focal-plane mask, preventing the detection of companions at small separations. A Lyot-stop low-order wavefront sensor (LLOWFS) was therefore introduced to calibrate and measure these aberrations for focal-plane phase mask coronagraphs. This sensor quantifies the variations in wavefront error decomposed into a few Zernike modes by reimaging the diffracted starlight rejected by a reflective Lyot stop. The technique was tested with several coronagraphs on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system at the Subaru Telescope. The wavefront was decomposed into 15 and 35 Zernike modes with an occulting and focal-plane phase mask coronagraph, respectively, which were used to drive a closed-loop correction in the laboratory. Using a 2000-actuator deformable mirror, a closed-loop pointing stability between 10-3-10-4 λ/D was achieved in the laboratory in H-band, with sub nanometer residuals for the other Zernike modes (Noll index > 4). On-sky, the low-order control of 10+ Zernike modes for the phase-induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs was demonstrated, with a closed-loop pointing stability of {10}-4λ /D under good seeing and {10}-3λ /D under moderate seeing conditions readily achievable.

  15. Higher order aberrations of the eye: Part one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Oberholzer


    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series of two articles that provide a comprehensive literature review of higher order aberrations (HOAs of the eye. The present article mainly explains the general principles of such HOAs as well as HOAs of importance, and the measuring apparatus used to measure HOAs of the eye. The second article in the series discusses factors contributing to variable results in measurements of HOAs of the eye.Keywords: Higher order aberrations; wavefront aberrations; aberrometer

  16. Higher order aberrations of the eye: Part one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Oberholzer


    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series of two articles that provide a comprehensive literature review of higher order aberrations (HOAs of the eye. The present article mainly explains the general principles of such HOAs as well as HOAs of importance, and the measuring apparatus used to measure HOAs of the eye. The second article in the series discusses factors contributing to variable results in measurements of HOAs of the eye. Keywords: Higher order aberrations; wavefront aberrations; aberrometer

  17. Wave aberration of human eyes and new descriptors of image optical quality and visual performance. (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Lombardo, Giuseppe


    The expansion of wavefront-sensing techniques redefined the meaning of refractive error in clinical ophthalmology. Clinical aberrometers provide detailed measurements of the eye's wavefront aberration. The distribution and contribution of each higher-order aberration to the overall wavefront aberration in the individual eye can now be accurately determined and predicted. Using corneal or ocular wavefront sensors, studies have measured the interindividual and age-related changes in the wavefront aberration in the normal population with the goal of optimizing refractive surgery outcomes for the individual. New objective optical-quality metrics would lead to better use and interpretation of newly available information on aberrations in the eye. However, the first metrics introduced, based on sets of Zernike polynomials, is not completely suitable to depict visual quality because they do not directly relate to the quality of the retinal image. Thus, several approaches to describe the real, complex optical performance of human eyes have been implemented. These include objective metrics that quantify the quality of the optical wavefront in the plane of the pupil (ie, pupil-plane metrics) and others that quantify the quality of the retinal image (ie, image-plane metrics). These metrics are derived by wavefront aberration information from the individual eye. This paper reviews the more recent knowledge of the wavefront aberration in human eyes and discusses the image-quality and optical-quality metrics and predictors that are now routinely calculated by wavefront-sensor software to describe the optical and image quality in the individual eye. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yutaka


    Chromosomal aberrations are classified into two types, chromosome-type and chromatid-type. Chromosom-type aberrations include terminal deletion, dicentric, ring and interstitial deletion, and chromatid-type aberrations include achromatic lesion, chromatid deletion, isochromatid deletion and chromatid exchange. Clastogens which induce chromosomal aberration are divided into ''S-dependent'' agents and ''S-independent''. It might mean whether they can induce double strand breaks independent of the S phase or not. Double strand breaks may be the ultimate lesions to induce chromosomal aberrations. Caffeine added even in the G 2 phase appeared to modify the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by X-rays and mitomycin C. Those might suggest that the G 2 phase involves in the chromatid aberration formation. The double strand breaks might be repaired by ''G 2 repair system'', the error of which might yield breakage types of chromatid aberrations and the by-pass of which might yield chromatid exchanges. Chromosome-type aberrations might be formed in the G 1 phase. (author)

  19. Performance Comparison of Wavefront-Sensorless Adaptive Optics Systems by Using of the Focal Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizhen Yang


    Full Text Available The correction capability and the convergence speed of the wavefront-sensorless adaptive optics (AO system are compared based on two different system control algorithms, which both use the information of focal plane. The first algorithm is designed through the linear relationship between the second moment of the aberration gradients and the masked far-field intensity distribution and the second is stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD, which is the most commonly used algorithm in wavefront-sensorless AO systems. A wavefront-sensorless AO model is established with a 61-element deformable mirror (DM and a CCD. Performance of the two control algorithms is investigated and compared through correcting different wavefront aberrations. Results show that the correction ability of AO system based on the proposed control algorithm is obviously better than that of AO system based on SPGD algorithm when the wavefront aberrations increase. The time needed by the proposed control algorithm is much less than that of SPGD when the AO system achieves similar correction results. Additionally, the convergence speed of the proposed control algorithm is independent of the turbulence strength while the number of intensity measurements needed by SPGD increases as the turbulence strength magnifies.

  20. Performance analysis of coherent free space optical communications with sequential pyramid wavefront sensor (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Danian; Cao, Jingtai; Gu, Haijun


    Based-on the previous study on the theory of the sequential pyramid wavefront sensor (SPWFS), in this paper, the SPWFS is first applied to the coherent free space optical communications (FSOC) with more flexible spatial resolution and higher sensitivity than the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and with higher uniformity of intensity distribution and much simpler than the pyramid wavefront sensor. Then, the mixing efficiency (ME) and the bit error rate (BER) of the coherent FSOC are analyzed during the aberrations correction through numerical simulation with binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, an experimental AO system based-on SPWFS is setup, and the experimental data is used to analyze the ME and BER of homodyne detection with BPSK modulation. The results show that the AO system based-on SPWFS can increase ME and decrease BER effectively. The conclusions of this paper provide a new method of wavefront sensing for designing the AO system for a coherent FSOC system.

  1. Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy. (United States)

    Cha, Jae Won; Ballesta, Jerome; So, Peter T C


    The imaging depth of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy is partly limited by the inhomogeneity of the refractive index in biological specimens. This inhomogeneity results in a distortion of the wavefront of the excitation light. This wavefront distortion results in image resolution degradation and lower signal level. Using an adaptive optics system consisting of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror, wavefront distortion can be measured and corrected. With adaptive optics compensation, we demonstrate that the resolution and signal level can be better preserved at greater imaging depth in a variety of ex-vivo tissue specimens including mouse tongue muscle, heart muscle, and brain. However, for these highly scattering tissues, we find signal degradation due to scattering to be a more dominant factor than aberration.

  2. Non-common path aberration correction in an adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope. (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo


    The correction of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) between the imaging and wavefront sensing channel in a confocal scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscope is demonstrated. NCPA correction is achieved by maximizing an image sharpness metric while the confocal detection aperture is temporarily removed, effectively minimizing the monochromatic aberrations in the illumination path of the imaging channel. Comparison of NCPA estimated using zonal and modal orthogonal wavefront corrector bases provided wavefronts that differ by ~λ/20 in root-mean-squared (~λ/30 standard deviation). Sequential insertion of a cylindrical lens in the illumination and light collection paths of the imaging channel was used to compare image resolution after changing the wavefront correction to maximize image sharpness and intensity metrics. Finally, the NCPA correction was incorporated into the closed-loop adaptive optics control by biasing the wavefront sensor signals without reducing its bandwidth.

  3. Integrated Wavefront Corrector, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the critical issues for NASA missions requiring high contrast astrophysical imaging such as Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is wavefront control. Without use...

  4. Orthonormal polynomials in wavefront analysis: analytical solution. (United States)

    Mahajan, Virendra N; Dai, Guang-ming


    Zernike circle polynomials are in widespread use for wavefront analysis because of their orthogonality over a circular pupil and their representation of balanced classical aberrations. In recent papers, we derived closed-form polynomials that are orthonormal over a hexagonal pupil, such as the hexagonal segments of a large mirror. We extend our work to elliptical, rectangular, and square pupils. Using the circle polynomials as the basis functions for their orthogonalization over such pupils, we derive closed-form polynomials that are orthonormal over them. These polynomials are unique in that they are not only orthogonal across such pupils, but also represent balanced classical aberrations, just as the Zernike circle polynomials are unique in these respects for circular pupils. The polynomials are given in terms of the circle polynomials as well as in polar and Cartesian coordinates. Relationships between the orthonormal coefficients and the corresponding Zernike coefficients for a given pupil are also obtained. The orthonormal polynomials for a one-dimensional slit pupil are obtained as a limiting case of a rectangular pupil.

  5. Wavefront sensing for anisotropic turbulence using digital holography (United States)

    Thurman, Samuel T.; Gatt, Philip; Alley, Thomas


    We report on digital holographic imaging through atmospheric turbulence. Data recorded with aberrations is corrected during post processing using an iterative sharpness-metric maximization algorithm. Assuming the correction cancels the actual wavefront error, this process is equivalent to wavefront sensing. Much of our past work focused on imaging through isotropic turbulence with phase corrections using a Zernike-polynomial expansion. Here, we describe algorithm modifications for imaging through anisotropic turbulence, similar to what is seen when looking through the aero-optic boundary layer surrounding a moving aircraft. Specifically, we explore tradeoffs associated with switching from a Zernike representation to Karhunen-Loève basis functions. In some cases, the dimensionality of the phase correction estimation algorithm can be reduced significantly by this change. This reduces the computational burden

  6. Wavefront cellular learning automata (United States)

    Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza


    This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.

  7. Adaptive illumination based on direct wavefront sensing in a light-sheet fluorescence microscope. (United States)

    Wilding, Dean; Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Vdovin, Gleb; Verhaegen, Michel


    A methodology for the adaptive control and correction of phase aberrations in the illumination arm of a light-sheet fluorescence microscope has been developed. The method uses direct wavefront sensing on epi-fluorescent light to detect the aberration present in the sample. Using this signal, the aberrations in the illumination arm are subsequently corrected with a spatial light modulator in a feedforward mode. Adaptive correction, resulting in significant improvement in the axial resolution, has been demonstrated by imaging Tg(fli:GFP) zebrafish embryos.

  8. Representation of wavefronts in free-form transmission pupils with Complex Zernike Polynomials (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Rivera, Ricardo; Aporta, Justiniano


    Purpose To propose and evaluate Complex Zernike polynomials (CZPs) to represent general wavefronts with non uniform intensity (amplitude) in free-from transmission pupils. Methods They consist of three stages: (1) theoretical formulation; (2) numerical implementation; and (3) two studies of the fidelity of the reconstruction obtained as a function of the number of Zernike modes used (36 or 91). In the first study, we generated complex wavefronts merging wave aberration data from a group of 11 eyes, with a generic Gaussian model of the Stiles-Crawford effective pupil transmission. In the second study we simulated the wavefront passing through different pupil stop shapes (annular, semicircular, elliptical and triangular). Results The reconstructions of the wave aberration (phase of the generalized pupil function) were always good, the reconstruction RMS error was of the order of 10−4 wave lengths, no matter the number of modes used. However, the reconstruction of the amplitude (effective transmission) was highly dependent of the number of modes used. In particular, a high number of modes is necessary to reconstruct sharp edges, due to their high frequency content. Conclusions CZPs provide a complete orthogonal basis able to represent generalized pupil functions (or complex wavefronts). This provides a unified general framework in contrast to the previous variety of ad oc solutions. Our results suggest that complex wavefronts require a higher number of CZP, but they seem especially well-suited for inhomogeneous beams, pupil apodization, etc.

  9. Visual Outcomes After LASIK Using Topography-Guided vs Wavefront-Guided Customized Ablation Systems. (United States)

    Toda, Ikuko; Ide, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Teruki; Tsubota, Kazuo


    To evaluate the visual performance of two customized ablation systems (wavefront-guided ablation and topography-guided ablation) in LASIK. In this prospective, randomized clinical study, 68 eyes of 35 patients undergoing LASIK were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to wavefront-guided ablation using the iDesign aberrometer and STAR S4 IR Excimer Laser system (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA) (wavefront-guided group; 32 eyes of 16 patients; age: 29.0 ± 7.3 years) or topography-guided ablation using the OPD-Scan aberrometer and EC-5000 CXII excimer laser system (NIDEK, Tokyo, Japan) (topography-guided group; 36 eyes of 19 patients; age: 36.1 ± 9.6 years). Preoperative manifest refraction was -4.92 ± 1.95 diopters (D) in the wavefront-guided group and -4.44 ± 1.98 D in the topography-guided group. Visual function and subjective symptoms were compared between groups before and 1 and 3 months after LASIK. Of seven subjective symptoms evaluated, four were significantly milder in the wavefront-guided group at 3 months. Contrast sensitivity with glare off at low spatial frequencies (6.3° and 4°) was significantly higher in the wavefront-guided group. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, manifest refraction, and higher order aberrations measured by OPD-Scan and iDesign were not significantly different between the two groups at 1 and 3 months after LASIK. Both customized ablation systems used in LASIK achieved excellent results in predictability and visual function. The wavefront-guided ablation system may have some advantages in the quality of vision. It may be important to select the appropriate system depending on eye conditions such as the pattern of total and corneal higher order aberrations. [J Refract Surg. 2016;32(11):727-732.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Bilateral comparison of wavefront-guided versus conventional laser in situ keratomileusis with Bausch and Lomb Zyoptix. (United States)

    Kim, Tae-im; Yang, Seung-jae; Tchah, Hungwon


    One aim of corneal refractive surgery is to correct defocus and astigmatism. In the process of correcting lower order aberrations, higher order ocular aberrations increase. To evaluate the effectiveness of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) in reducing the increase of higher order aberration, we compared aberrational change after LASIK with conventional and wavefront-guided customized ablation. Our study included 48 eyes of 24 patients. We performed conventional LASIK in one eye (Group 1) and wavefront-guided customized ablation in the other eye (Group 2). Ocular aberration was measured with the Zywave, a type of Shack-Hartmann aberrometer. We then compared low and high order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, corneal topography, and manifest refraction preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 and 3 months. Uncorrected visual acuity improved to more than 20/20 in two eyes in the conventional ablation group and in five eyes in the customized ablation group. In the conventional ablation group, Root-mean-square for higher order (RMS(H)) was 0.215 preoperatively, 0.465 (216.3%) at 1 month, and 0.418 (194.4%) at 3 months. In the customized ablation group, RMS(H) was 0.207 preoperatively, 0.380 (183.6%) at 1 month, and 0.371 (179.2%) at 3 months after LASIK. Mesopic contrast sensitivity in the customized ablation group was higher than that in the conventional ablation group, but this change was not statistically significant. Wavefront-guided customized ablation reduced the increase of high order aberrations resulting from LASIK. In terms of visual acuity, patient preference, and mesopic contrast sensitivity, wavefront-guided customized ablation produced slightly-but not statistically significant-better results.

  11. A high speed model-based approach for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics systems (United States)

    Lianghua, Wen; Yang, Ping; Shuai, Wang; Wenjing, Liu; Shanqiu, Chen; Xu, Bing


    To improve temporal-frequency property of wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (AO) systems, a fast general model-based aberration correction algorithm is presented. The fast general model-based approach is based on the approximately linear relation between the mean square of the aberration gradients and the second moment of far-field intensity distribution. The presented model-based method is capable of completing a mode aberration effective correction just applying one disturbing onto the deformable mirror(one correction by one disturbing), which is reconstructed by the singular value decomposing the correlation matrix of the Zernike functions' gradients. Numerical simulations of AO corrections under the various random and dynamic aberrations are implemented. The simulation results indicate that the equivalent control bandwidth is 2-3 times than that of the previous method with one aberration correction after applying N times disturbing onto the deformable mirror (one correction by N disturbing).

  12. BER Analysis of Coherent Free-Space Optical Communication Systems with a Focal-Plane-Based Wavefront Sensor (United States)

    Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei; Gu, Haijun


    A wavefront sensor is one of most important units for an adaptive optics system. Based on our previous works, in this paper, we discuss the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of coherent free space optical communication systems with a focal-plane-based wavefront sensor. Firstly, the theory of a focal-plane-based wavefront sensor is given. Then the relationship between the BER and the mixing efficiency with a homodyne receiver is discussed on the basis of binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, the numerical simulation results are shown that the BER will be decreased obviously after aberrations correction with the focal-plane-based wavefront sensor. In addition, the BER will decrease along with increasing number of photons received within a single bit. These analysis results will provide a reference for the design of the coherent Free space optical communication (FSOC) system.

  13. On distributed wavefront reconstruction for large-scale adaptive optics systems. (United States)

    de Visser, Cornelis C; Brunner, Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Michel


    The distributed-spline-based aberration reconstruction (D-SABRE) method is proposed for distributed wavefront reconstruction with applications to large-scale adaptive optics systems. D-SABRE decomposes the wavefront sensor domain into any number of partitions and solves a local wavefront reconstruction problem on each partition using multivariate splines. D-SABRE accuracy is within 1% of a global approach with a speedup that scales quadratically with the number of partitions. The D-SABRE is compared to the distributed cumulative reconstruction (CuRe-D) method in open-loop and closed-loop simulations using the YAO adaptive optics simulation tool. D-SABRE accuracy exceeds CuRe-D for low levels of decomposition, and D-SABRE proved to be more robust to variations in the loop gain.

  14. SU-G-IeP4-09: Method of Human Eye Aberration Measurement Using Plenoptic Camera Over Large Field of View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Yang; Wang, Ruixing; Ma, Haotong; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Ning, Yu; Xu, Xiaojun


    Purpose: The measurement based on Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor(WFS), obtaining both the high and low order wave-front aberrations simultaneously and accurately, has been applied in the detection of human eyes aberration in recent years. However, Its application is limited by the small field of view (FOV), slight eye movement leads the optical bacon image exceeds the lenslet array which result in uncertain detection error. To overcome difficulties of precise eye location, the capacity of detecting eye wave-front aberration over FOV much larger than simply a single conjugate Hartmann WFS accurately and simultaneously is demanded. Methods: Plenoptic camera’s lenslet array subdivides the aperture light-field in spatial frequency domain, capture the 4-D light-field information. Data recorded by plenoptic cameras can be used to extract the wave-front phases associated to the eyes aberration. The corresponding theoretical model and simulation system is built up in this article to discuss wave-front measurement performance when utilizing plenoptic camera as wave-front sensor. Results: The simulation results indicate that the plenoptic wave-front method can obtain both the high and low order eyes wave-front aberration with the same accuracy as conventional system in single visual angle detectionand over FOV much larger than simply a single conjugate Hartmann systems. Meanwhile, simulation results show that detection of eye aberrations wave-front in different visual angle can be achieved effectively and simultaneously by plenoptic method, by both point and extended optical beacon from the eye. Conclusion: Plenoptic wave-front method possesses the feasibility in eye aberrations wave-front detection. With larger FOV, the method can effectively reduce the detection error brought by imprecise eye location and simplify the eye aberrations wave-front detection system comparing with which based on Shack-Hartmann WFS. Unique advantage of the plenoptic method lies in obtaining

  15. An Optical Wavefront Sensor Based on a Double Layer Microlens Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chun Wei


    Full Text Available In order to determine light aberrations, Shack-Hartmann optical wavefront sensors make use of microlens arrays (MLA to divide the incident light into small parts and focus them onto image planes. In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of long focal length MLA with various shapes and arrangements based on a double layer structure for optical wavefront sensing applications. A longer focal length MLA could provide high sensitivity in determining the average slope across each microlens under a given wavefront, and spatial resolution of a wavefront sensor is increased by numbers of microlenses across a detector. In order to extend focal length, we used polydimethysiloxane (PDMS above MLA on a glass substrate. Because of small refractive index difference between PDMS and MLA interface (UV-resin, the incident light is less refracted and focused in further distance. Other specific focal lengths could also be realized by modifying the refractive index difference without changing the MLA size. Thus, the wavefront sensor could be improved with better sensitivity and higher spatial resolution.

  16. Demonstrating optical aberrations in the laboratory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl


    Full Text Available in the laboratory D. Naidoo1,2 , C. Mafusire1,2 and A. Forbes1,2 1 CSIR National Laser Centre 2 School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal AN OPTICAL ABERRATION IS A DISTORTION OF AN IMAGE AS COMPARED TO THE OBJECT DUE TO DEFECTS IN AN OPTICAL SYSTEM TILT...Ne LASER COLLIMATING TELESCOPE MAGNIFICATION 8 TEST LENS SHACK-HARTMANN WAVEFRONT SENSOR FOCAL LENGTH Focal length from Defocus 750 850 950 1050 M e a s u r e d F o c a l L e n g t h ( m m ) Theoretical Experimental...

  17. Aberrations of the point spread function of a multimode fiber due to partial mode excitation (United States)

    Descloux, Adrien; Amitonova, Lyubov V.; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.


    We investigate the point spread function of a multimode fiber. The distortion of the focal spot created on the fiber output facet is studied for a variety of the parameters. We develop a theoretical model of wavefront shaping through a multimode fiber and use it to confirm our experimental results and analyze the nature of the focal distortions. We show that aberration-free imaging with a large field of view can be achieved by using an appropriate number of segments on the spatial light modulator during the wavefront-shaping procedure. The results describe aberration limits for imaging with multimode fibers as in, e.g., microendoscopy.

  18. Gaussian Process Kalman Filter for Focal Plane Wavefront Correction and Exoplanet Signal Extraction (United States)

    Sun, He; Kasdin, N. Jeremy


    Currently, the ultimate limitation of space-based coronagraphy is the ability to subtract the residual PSF after wavefront correction to reveal the planet. Called reference difference imaging (RDI), the technique consists of conducting wavefront control to collect the reference point spread function (PSF) by observing a bright star, and then extracting target planet signals by subtracting a weighted sum of reference PSFs. Unfortunately, this technique is inherently inefficient because it spends a significant fraction of the observing time on the reference star rather than the target star with the planet. Recent progress in model based wavefront estimation suggests an alternative approach. A Kalman filter can be used to estimate the stellar PSF for correction by the wavefront control system while simultaneously estimating the planet signal. Without observing the reference star, the (extended) Kalman filter directly utilizes the wavefront correction data and combines the time series observations and model predictions to estimate the stellar PSF and planet signals. Because wavefront correction is used during the entire observation with no slewing, the system has inherently better stability. In this poster we show our results aimed at further improving our Kalman filter estimation accuracy by including not only temporal correlations but also spatial correlations among neighboring pixels in the images. This technique is known as a Gaussian process Kalman filter (GPKF). We also demonstrate the advantages of using a Kalman filter rather than RDI by simulating a real space exoplanet detection mission.

  19. Effects of chalazion excision on ocular aberrations. (United States)

    Sabermoghaddam, Ali A; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak; Abrishami, Mojtaba


    The goal of this study was to compare higher-order aberrations before and after upper lid chalazion excision. Fourteen eyes from 12 patients (8 females, mean age: 28.7 ± 2.7 years) with upper lid chalazion were enrolled in this prospective interventional case series. Chalazia were excised by standard transconjunctival vertical incision. Ocular aberrations were evaluated by aberrometry (ZyWave) before and 2 months after chalazion excision. Root mean square of total higher-order aberrations decreased from 0.67 ± 0.12 to 0.43 ± 0.15 μm (P = 0.012) after excision. The root mean square of Zernike orders in the vertical and horizontal trefoil and horizontal coma were decreased after excision. Orbscan IIz tomography showed a statistically significant decrease in 5 mm zone irregularity (P = 0.027) and an increase in minimum simulated keratometry after surgery (P = 0.046). Chalazion increases higher-order aberrations, as measured by the Hartmann-Shack aberrometer, which could affect the preoperative evaluation and results of refractive surgery, especially wavefront-guided approaches. Chalazion excision could reduce ocular aberrations and is recommended before refractive surgeries.

  20. Wavefront reconstruction by modal decomposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C


    Full Text Available singularities It is pertinent to apply the technique to singular beams: beams containing optical vortices. An interesting example of a such a beam is a scalar donut beam, because of its exceptional phase distribution. Such a donut beam is formed by a coherent... EXPRESS 19722 ?1 0 1 1 0 ?1 0.0 0.5 1.0 1 0 ?1 0.0 0.5 1.0 1 0 ?1 0 max ?1 0 1 1 0 ?1 0 max 1 0 ?1 0.0 0.5 1.0 Fig. 5. Wavefront reconstruction for a scalar donut beam. (a) Intensity measured...

  1. CMOS-based Integrated Wavefront Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lima Monteiro, D.W.


    This thesis addresses the design, implementation and performance of an integrated Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor suitable for real-time operation and compatible with a standard technology. A wavefront sensor can be used for the detection of distortions in the profile of a light beam or of an

  2. ARGOS wavefront sensing: from detection to correction (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Bonaglia, M.; Borelli, J.; Busoni, L.; Connot, C.; Esposito, S.; Gaessler, W.; Kulas, M.; Mazzoni, T.; Puglisi, A.; Rabien, S.; Storm, J.; Ziegleder, J.


    Argos is the ground-layer adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope. In order to perform its wide-field correction, Argos uses three laser guide stars which sample the atmospheric turbulence. To perform the correction, Argos has at disposal three different wavefront sensing measurements : its three laser guide stars, a NGS tip-tilt, and a third wavefront sensor. We present the wavefront sensing architecture and its individual components, in particular: the finalized Argos pnCCD camera detecting the 3 laser guide stars at 1kHz, high quantum efficiency and 4e- noise; the Argos tip-tilt sensor based on a quad-cell avalanche photo-diodes; and the Argos wavefront computer. Being in the middle of the commissioning, we present the first wavefront sensing configurations and operations performed at LBT, and discuss further improvements in the measurements of the 3 laser guide star slopes as detected by the pnCCD.

  3. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I


    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Hybrid iterative wavefront shaping for high-speed focusing through scattering media (United States)

    Hemphill, Ashton S.; Wang, Lihong V.


    A major limiting factor of optical imaging in biological applications is the diffusion of light by tissue, preventing focusing at depths greater than ~1 mm in the body. To overcome this issue, phase-based wavefront shaping alters the phase of sections of the incident wavefront to counteract aberrations in phase caused by scattering. This enables focusing through scattering media beyond the optical diffusion limit and increases signal compared to amplitude-based compensation. However, in previous studies, speed of optimization has typically been limited by the use of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) for measurement and display. SLMs usually have refresh rates of less than 100 Hz and require much longer than the speckle correlation time of tissue in vivo, usually on the order of milliseconds, to determine the optimal wavefront. Here, we present a phase-based iterative wavefront shaping method based on an onaxis digital micromirror device (DMD) in conjunction with an electro-optic modulator (EOM) for measurement and a fast SLM for display. By combining phase modulation from an EOM with the modal selection of the DMD, we take advantage of DMDs higher refresh rate, approximately 23 kHz, for iterative phase measurement. The slower SLM requires one update for display following the rapid determination of the optimal wavefront via the DMD, allowing for high-speed wavefront shaping. Using this system, we are able to focus through scattering media using 64 modes in under 8 milliseconds, on the order of the speckle correlation time for tissue in vivo.

  5. Study of ocular aberrations with age. (United States)

    Athaide, Helaine Vinche Zampar; Campos, Mauro; Costa, Charles


    Aging has various effects on visual system. Vision deteriorate, contrast sensitivity decreases and ocular aberrations apparently make the optical quality worse across the years. To prospective evaluate ocular aberrations along the ages. Three hundred and fifteen patients were examined, 155 were male (39.36%) and 160 were female (60.63%). Ages ranged from 5 to 64 year-old, the study was performed from February to November, 2004. Patients were divided into 4 age-groups according to IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) classification: 68 patients from 5 to 14 year-old, 55 patients from 15 to 24 year-old, 116 from 25 to 44 year-old and 76 from 45 to 67 year-old. All patients had the following characteristics: best corrected visual acuity > 20/25, emmetropia or spherical equivalent < 3.50 SD, refractive astigmatism < 1.75 CD on cycloplegic refraction, normal ophthalmologic exam and no previous ocular surgeries. This protocol was approved by Federal University of São Paulo Institutional Review Board. Total optical aberrations were measured by H-S sensor LadarWave Custom Cornea Wavefront System (Alcon Laboratories Inc, Orlando, FLA, USA) and were statistically analysed. Corneal aberrations were calculated using CT-View software Version 6.89 (Sarver and Associates, Celebration, FL, USA). Lens aberrations were calculated by subtraction. High-order (0.32 e 0.48 microm) and ocular spherical aberrations (0.02 e 0.26 microm) increased respectively in child and middle age groups. High order (0.27 microm) and corneal spherical aberrations (0.05 microm) did not show changes with age. Lens showed a statistically significant spherical aberration increase (from -0.02 to 0.22 microm). Vertical (from 0.10 to -0.07 microm) and horizontal coma (from 0.01 to -0.12 microm) presented progressively negative values with aging. High-order and spherical aberrations increased with age due to lens contribution. The cornea did not affect significantly changes observed on ocular

  6. Wavefront reconstruction from its gradients. (United States)

    Talmi, Amos; Ribak, Erez N


    Wavefronts reconstructed from measured gradients are composed of a straightforward integration of the measured data, plus a correction term that disappears when there are no measurement errors. For regions of any shape, this term is a solution of Poisson's equation with Dirichlet conditions (V = 0 on the boundaries). We show that for rectangular regions, the correct solution is not a periodic one, but one expressed with Fourier cosine series. The correct solution has a lower variance than the periodic Fourier transform solution. Similar formulas exist for a circular region with obscuration. We present a near-optimal solution that is much faster than fast-Fourier-transform methods. By use of diagonal multigrid methods, a single iteration brings the correction term to within a standard deviation of 0.08, two iterations, to within 0.0064, etc.

  7. Data-based online nonlinear extremum-seeker for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics OCT (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Jian, Yifan; Verstraete, Hans R. G. W.; Heisler, Morgan; Ju, Myeong Jin; Wahl, Daniel J.; Bliek, Laurens; Kalkman, Jeroen; Bonora, Stefano; Verhaegen, Michel; Sarunic, Marinko V.


    Adaptive optics has been successfully applied to cellular resolution imaging of the retina, enabling visualization of the characteristic mosaic patterns of the outer retina. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSAO) is a novel technique that facilitates high resolution ophthalmic imaging; it replaces the Hartmann-Shack Wavefront Sensor with an image-driven optimization algorithm and mitigates some the challenges encountered with sensor-based designs. However, WSAO generally requires longer time to perform aberrations correction than the conventional closed-loop adaptive optics. When used for in vivo retinal imaging applications, motion artifacts during the WSAO optimization process will affect the quality of the aberration correction. A faster converging optimization scheme needs to be developed to account for rapid temporal variation of the wavefront and continuously apply corrections. In this project, we investigate the Databased Online Nonlinear Extremum-seeker (DONE), a novel non-linear multivariate optimization algorithm in combination with in vivo human WSAO OCT imaging. We also report both hardware and software updates of our compact lens based WSAO 1060nm swept source OCT human retinal imaging system, including real time retinal layer segmentation and tracking (ILM and RPE), hysteresis correction for the multi-actuator adaptive lens, precise synchronization control for the 200kHz laser source, and a zoom lens unit for rapid switching of the field of view. Cross sectional images of the retinal layers and en face images of the cone photoreceptor mosaic acquired in vivo from research volunteers before and after WSAO optimization are presented.

  8. Non-contact XUV metrology of Ru/B4C multilayer optics by means of Hartmann wavefront analysis. (United States)

    Ruiz-Lopez, Mabel; Dacasa, Hugo; Mahieu, Benoit; Lozano, Magali; Li, Lu; Zeitoun, Philippe; Bleiner, Davide


    Short-wavelength imaging, spectroscopy, and lithography scale down the characteristic length-scale to nanometers. This poses tight constraints on the optics finishing tolerances, which is often difficult to characterize. Indeed, even a tiny surface defect degrades the reflectivity and spatial projection of such optics. In this study, we demonstrate experimentally that a Hartmann wavefront sensor for extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths is an effective non-contact analytical method for inspecting the surface of multilayer optics. The experiment was carried out in a tabletop laboratory using a high-order harmonic generation as an XUV source. The wavefront sensor was used to measure the wavefront errors after the reflection of the XUV beam on a spherical Ru/B 4 C multilayer mirror, scanning a large surface of approximately 40 mm in diameter. The results showed that the technique detects the aberrations in the nanometer range.

  9. Deep-turbulence wavefront sensing using digital holography in the on-axis phase shifting recording geometry (United States)

    Thornton, Douglas E.; Spencer, Mark F.; Perram, Glen P.


    The effects of deep turbulence in long-range imaging applications presents unique challenges to properly measure and correct for aberrations incurred along the atmospheric path. In practice, digital holography can detect the path-integrated wavefront distortions caused by deep turbulence, and di erent recording geometries offer different benefits depending on the application of interest. Previous studies have evaluated the performance of the off-axis image and pupil plane recording geometries for deep-turbulence sensing. This study models digital holography in the on-axis phase shifting recording geometry using wave optics simulations. In particular, the analysis models spherical-wave propagation through varying deep-turbulence conditions to estimate the complex optical field, and performance is evaluated by calculating the field-estimated Strehl ratio and RMS wavefront error. Altogether, the results show that digital holography in the on-axis phase shifting recording geometry is an effective wavefront-sensing method in the presence of deep turbulence.

  10. Real-time wavefront correction system using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bliss, E.S.; Long, T.W.; Orham, E.L.; Presta, R.W.; Swift, C.D.; Ward, R.S.


    We have developed an adaptive optics system that corrects up to five waves of 2nd-order and 3rd-order aberrations in a high-power laser beam to less than 1/10th wave RMS. The wavefront sensor is a Hartmann sensor with discrete lenses and position-sensitive photodiodes; the deformable mirror uses piezoelectric actuators with feedback from strain gauges bonded to the stacks. The controller hardware uses a VME bus. The system removes thermally induced aberrations generated in the master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains of a dye laser, as well as aberrations generated in beam combiners and vacuum isolation windows for average output powers exceeding 1 kW. The system bandwidth is 1 Hz, but higher bandwidths are easily attainable

  11. Coded Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli


    Wavefront sensing is an old yet fundamental problem in adaptive optics. Traditional wavefront sensors are limited to time-consuming measurements, complicated and expensive setup, or low theoretically achievable resolution. In this thesis, we introduce an optically encoded and computationally decodable novel approach to the wavefront sensing problem: the Coded Shack-Hartmann. Our proposed Coded Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is inexpensive, easy to fabricate and calibrate, highly sensitive, accurate, and with high resolution. Most importantly, using simple optical flow tracking combined with phase smoothness prior, with the help of modern optimization technique, the computational part is split, efficient, and parallelized, hence real time performance has been achieved on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU), with high accuracy as well. This is validated by experimental results. We also show how optical flow intensity consistency term can be derived, using rigor scalar diffraction theory with proper approximation. This is the true physical law behind our model. Based on this insight, Coded Shack-Hartmann can be interpreted as an illumination post-modulated wavefront sensor. This offers a new theoretical approach for wavefront sensor design.

  12. Wavefront-guided scleral lens correction in keratoconus. (United States)

    Marsack, Jason D; Ravikumar, Ayeswarya; Nguyen, Chi; Ticak, Anita; Koenig, Darren E; Elswick, James D; Applegate, Raymond A


    To examine the performance of state-of-the-art wavefront-guided scleral contact lenses (wfgSCLs) on a sample of keratoconic eyes, with emphasis on performance quantified with visual quality metrics, and to provide a detailed discussion of the process used to design, manufacture, and evaluate wfgSCLs. Fourteen eyes of seven subjects with keratoconus were enrolled and a wfgSCL was designed for each eye. High-contrast visual acuity and visual quality metrics were used to assess the on-eye performance of the lenses. The wfgSCL provided statistically lower levels of both lower-order root mean square (RMS) (p scleral contact lens. The wfgSCL provided lower levels of lower-order RMS than a normal group of well-corrected observers (p scleral contact lenses are capable of optically compensating for the deleterious effects of higher-order aberration concomitant with the disease and can provide visual image quality equivalent to that seen in normal eyes. Longer-duration studies are needed to assess whether the visual system of the highly aberrated eye wearing a wfgSCL is capable of producing visual performance levels typical of the normal population.

  13. Multigrid approach to predictive wave-front reconstruction in adaptive optical systems. (United States)

    Barchers, Jeffrey D


    A computationally efficient approach, based on the principles of multigrid methods, to predictive wave-front reconstruction in adaptive optical systems is described. Local predictive estimators are computed by use of recursive least squares on multiple grids. Each grid is increasingly coarse, allowing for temporal prediction of the behavior of both high- and low-spatial-frequency aberrations. Example numerical simulation results are given, showing that implementing the recursive least-squares algorithm for predictive estimation in a multigrid fashion greatly accelerates convergence to the steady-state optimal estimator condition. By implementation of the multigrid predictive reconstructor in parallel, the computational cost of implementing a predictive wave-front reconstruction scheme that uses recursive least squares for each processor at each cycle can be reduced from [symbol: see text](m2) to [symbol: see text](2m), where m is the number of actuators.

  14. Clinical Outcomes of SMILE With a Triple Centration Technique and Corneal Wavefront-Guided Transepithelial PRK in High Astigmatism. (United States)

    Jun, Ikhyun; Kang, David Sung Yong; Reinstein, Dan Z; Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Archer, Timothy J; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Tae-Im


    To comparatively investigate the clinical outcomes, vector parameters, and corneal aberrations of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) with a triple centration technique and corneal wavefront-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the correction of high astigmatism. This retrospective, comparative case series study included 89 eyes (89 patients) that received treatment for myopia with high astigmatism (≥ 2.50 diopters) using SMILE with a triple centration technique (SMILE group; 45 eyes) and corneal wavefront-guided transepithelial PRK (transepithelial PRK group; 44 eyes). Visual acuity measurement, manifest refraction, slit-lamp examination, autokeratometry, corneal topography, and evaluation of corneal wavefront aberration were performed preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. The safety, efficacy, vector parameters, and corneal aberrations at 6 months after surgery were compared between the two groups. At 6 months after surgery, the transepithelial PRK and SMILE groups exhibited comparable mean uncorrected distance visual acuities (-0.06 ± 0.07 and -0.05 ± 0.07 logMAR, respectively), safety, efficacy, and predictability of refractive and visual outcomes. There was a slight but statistically significant difference in the correction index between the transepithelial PRK and SMILE groups (0.96 ± 0.11 and 0.91 ± 0.10, respectively). Whereas the transepithelial PRK group exhibited increased corneal spherical aberration and significantly reduced corneal coma and trefoil, no changes in aberrometric values were noted in the SMILE group. Both SMILE with a triple centration technique and corneal wavefront-guided transepithelial PRK are effective and provide predictable outcomes for the correction of high myopic astigmatism, although slight undercorrection was observed in the SMILE group. The triple centration technique was helpful in astigmatism correction by SMILE. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(3):156-163.]. Copyright 2018

  15. Population spherical aberration: associations with ametropia, age, corneal curvature, and image quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingston AC


    Full Text Available Amanda C Kingston,1,2 Ian G Cox11Bausch + Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USAPurpose: The aim of this analysis was to determine the total ocular wavefront aberration values of a large phakic population of physiologically normal, ametropic eyes, gathered under the same clinical protocol using the same diagnostic wavefront sensor.Materials and methods: Studies were conducted at multiple sites in Asia, North America, Europe, and Australia. A Bausch + Lomb Zywave II Wavefront Aberrometer (Rochester, NY, USA was used to measure the lower and higher order aberrations of each eye. Data analysis was conducted using linear regression analysis to determine the relationship between total spherical aberration, ametropia, age, corneal curvature, and image quality.Results: Linear regression analysis showed no correlation (r = 0.0207, P = 0.4874 between degree of ametropia and the amount of spherical aberration. There was also no correlation when the population was stratified into myopic and hyperopic refractive groups (rm = 0.0529, Pm = 0.0804 and rh = 0.1572, Ph = 0.2754. There was a statistically significant and weak positive correlation (r = 0.1962, P < 0.001 between age and the amount of spherical aberration measured in the eye; spherical aberration became more positive with increasing age. Also, there was a statistically significant and moderately positive correlation (r = 0.3611, P < 0.001 with steepness of corneal curvature; spherical aberration became more positive with increasing power of the anterior corneal surface. Assessment of image quality using optical design software (Zemax™, Bellevue, WA, USA showed that there was an overall benefit in correcting the average spherical aberration of this population.Conclusion: Analysis of this dataset provides insights into the inherent spherical aberration of a typical phakic, pre-presbyopic, population and provides the ability to

  16. Measurement range of phase retrieval in optical surface and wavefront metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, Gregory R.; Fienup, James R.


    Phase retrieval employs very simple data collection hardware and iterative algorithms to determine the phase of an optical field. We have derived limitations on phase retrieval, as applied to optical surface and wavefront metrology, in terms of the speed of beam (i.e., f-number or numerical aperture) and amount of aberration using arguments based on sampling theory and geometrical optics. These limitations suggest methodologies for expanding these ranges by increasing the complexity of the measurement arrangement, the phase-retrieval algorithm, or both. We have simulated one of these methods where a surface is measured at unusual conjugates

  17. Extended depth of field in an intrinsically wavefront-encoded biometric iris camera (United States)

    Bergkoetter, Matthew D.; Bentley, Julie L.


    This work describes a design process which greatly increases the depth of field of a simple three-element lens system intended for biometric iris recognition. The system is optimized to produce a point spread function which is insensitive to defocus, so that recorded images may be deconvolved without knowledge of the exact object distance. This is essentially a variation on the technique of wavefront encoding, however the desired encoding effect is achieved by aberrations intrinsic to the lens system itself, without the need for a pupil phase mask.

  18. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing. (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng


    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  19. Visual optics under the wavefront perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Júlio Faria-E-Sousa


    Full Text Available Some intriguing concepts of visual optics cannot be explained by ray tracing. However, they can be clarified using wavefront formalism. Its main advantage is in the use of the concept of vergence, which is very helpful in interpreting the optical phenomena involved in the neutralization of the ametropias. In this line of thinking, the major role of a lens is in the creation of a new light source (the image point that orientates the refracted waves. Once the nature and position of this source is known, one can easily predict the behavior of the wavefronts. The formalism also allows for an easier understanding on how wavefronts relate to light rays and on how algebraic signs are assigned to optical distances.

  20. Calibration of the island effect: Experimental validation of closed-loop focal plane wavefront control on Subaru/SCExAO (United States)

    N'Diaye, M.; Martinache, F.; Jovanovic, N.; Lozi, J.; Guyon, O.; Norris, B.; Ceau, A.; Mary, D.


    Context. Island effect (IE) aberrations are induced by differential pistons, tips, and tilts between neighboring pupil segments on ground-based telescopes, which severely limit the observations of circumstellar environments on the recently deployed exoplanet imagers (e.g., VLT/SPHERE, Gemini/GPI, Subaru/SCExAO) during the best observing conditions. Caused by air temperature gradients at the level of the telescope spiders, these aberrations were recently diagnosed with success on VLT/SPHERE, but so far no complete calibration has been performed to overcome this issue. Aims: We propose closed-loop focal plane wavefront control based on the asymmetric Fourier pupil wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) to calibrate these aberrations and improve the image quality of exoplanet high-contrast instruments in the presence of the IE. Methods: Assuming the archetypal four-quadrant aperture geometry in 8 m class telescopes, we describe these aberrations as a sum of the independent modes of piston, tip, and tilt that are distributed in each quadrant of the telescope pupil. We calibrate these modes with the APF-WFS before introducing our wavefront control for closed-loop operation. We perform numerical simulations and then experimental tests on a real system using Subaru/SCExAO to validate our control loop in the laboratory and on-sky. Results: Closed-loop operation with the APF-WFS enables the compensation for the IE in simulations and in the laboratory for the small aberration regime. Based on a calibration in the near infrared, we observe an improvement of the image quality in the visible range on the SCExAO/VAMPIRES module with a relative increase in the image Strehl ratio of 37%. Conclusions: Our first IE calibration paves the way for maximizing the science operations of the current exoplanet imagers. Such an approach and its results prove also very promising in light of the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) and the presence of similar artifacts with their complex aperture geometry.

  1. Phase error correction in wavefront curvature sensing via phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    Wavefront curvature sensing with phase error correction system is carried out using phase retrieval based on a partially-developed volume speckle field. Various wavefronts are reconstructed: planar, spherical, cylindrical, and a wavefront passing through the side of a bare optical fiber. Spurious...

  2. Recent progress in holographic wavefront sensing (United States)

    Kodatskiy, Bogdan; Kovalev, Michael; Malinina, Polina; Odinokov, Sergey; Soloviev, Maksim; Venediktov, Vladimir


    Many areas of optical science and technology require fast and accurate measurement of the radiation wavefront shape. Today there are known a lot of wavefront sensor (WFS) techniques, and their number is growing up. The last years have brought a growing interest in several schematics of WFS, employing the holography principles and holographic optical elements (HOE). Some of these devices are just the improved versions of the standard and most popular Shack-Hartman WFS, while other are based on the intrinsic features of HOE.

  3. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli


    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  4. In vivo imaging of human photoreceptor mosaic with wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V


    Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.

  5. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics OCT with the DONE algorithm forin vivohuman retinal imaging [Invited]. (United States)

    Verstraete, Hans R G W; Heisler, Morgan; Ju, Myeong Jin; Wahl, Daniel; Bliek, Laurens; Kalkman, Jeroen; Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Verhaegen, Michel; Sarunic, Marinko V


    In this report, which is an international collaboration of OCT, adaptive optics, and control research, we demonstrate the Data-based Online Nonlinear Extremum-seeker (DONE) algorithm to guide the image based optimization for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WFSL-AO) OCT for in vivo human retinal imaging. The ocular aberrations were corrected using a multi-actuator adaptive lens after linearization of the hysteresis in the piezoelectric actuators. The DONE algorithm succeeded in drastically improving image quality and the OCT signal intensity, up to a factor seven, while achieving a computational time of 1 ms per iteration, making it applicable for many high speed applications. We demonstrate the correction of five aberrations using 70 iterations of the DONE algorithm performed over 2.8 s of continuous volumetric OCT acquisition. Data acquired from an imaging phantom and in vivo from human research volunteers are presented.

  6. Implementation of a Wavefront-Sensing Algorithm (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Dean, Bruce; Aronstein, David


    A computer program has been written as a unique implementation of an image-based wavefront-sensing algorithm reported in "Iterative-Transform Phase Retrieval Using Adaptive Diversity" (GSC-14879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 4 (April 2007), page 32. This software was originally intended for application to the James Webb Space Telescope, but is also applicable to other segmented-mirror telescopes. The software is capable of determining optical-wavefront information using, as input, a variable number of irradiance measurements collected in defocus planes about the best focal position. The software also uses input of the geometrical definition of the telescope exit pupil (otherwise denoted the pupil mask) to identify the locations of the segments of the primary telescope mirror. From the irradiance data and mask information, the software calculates an estimate of the optical wavefront (a measure of performance) of the telescope generally and across each primary mirror segment specifically. The software is capable of generating irradiance data, wavefront estimates, and basis functions for the full telescope and for each primary-mirror segment. Optionally, each of these pieces of information can be measured or computed outside of the software and incorporated during execution of the software.

  7. Manufacturing and testing of wavefront filters for DARWIN (United States)

    Flatscher, R.; Artjushenko, V.; Sakharova, T.; Pereira do Carmo, Joao


    Wavefront filtering is mandatory in the realisation of nulling interferometers with high star light suppression capability required to detect extrasolar planets, such as the one foreseen for the ESA Darwin mission. This paper presents the design, manufacturing, and test results of single mode fibres to be used as wavefront filters in mid-infrared range. Fibres made from chalcogenide glass and silver halide crystals were produced. The first class can serve as wavefront filters up to a wavelength of 11 microns, while silver halide fibres can be used over the full Darwin wavelength range from 6.5 to 18 micron. The chalcogenide glass fibres were drawn by double crucible method whereas polycrystalline fibres from silver halides were fabricated by multiple extrusion from a crystalline preform. Multi-layer AR-coatings for fibre ends were developed and environmentally tested for both types of fibres. Special fibre facet polishing procedures were established, in particular for the soft silver halide fibre ends. Cable design and assembly process were also developed, including termination by SMA-connectors with ceramic ferrules and fibre protection by loose PEEK-tubings to prevent excessive bending and chemical attacks for fibres. The wavefront filtering capability of the fibres was demonstrated on a high quality Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Two different groups of laser sources were used to measure the wavefront filtering of the fibres by using a CO-laser for testing in the lower sub-band and a CO2-laser to check the upper sub-band. Measurements of the fibres far field intensity distribution and transmission were performed for numerous cable samples. Single mode behaviour was observed in more than 25 silver halide fibre cables before AR-coating of their ends, while after that 17 cables were compliant with all technical requirements. Residual cladding modes existing in short single mode fibres were effectively removed by applying of a proper absorbing jacket to the fibre

  8. Compensation of Hologram Distortion by Controlling Defocus Component in Reference Beam Wavefront for Angle Multiplexed Holograms (United States)

    Muroi, T.; Kinoshita, N.; Ishii, N.; Kamijo, K.; Kawata, Y.; Kikuchi, H.


    Holographic memory has the potential to function as a recording system with a large capacity and high data-transfer-rate. Photopolymer materials are typically used as a write-once recording medium. When holograms are recorded on this medium, they can distort due to shrinkage or expansion of the materials, which degrades the reconstructed image and causes a higher bit error rate (bER) of the reproduced data. We propose optically compensating for hologram distortion by controlling aberration components in the reference beam wavefront while reproducing data, thereby improving the reproduced data quality. First, we investigated the relation between each aberration component of the reference beam and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the reproduced data using numerical simulation and found that horizontal tilt and the defocus component affect the SNR. Next, we experimentally evaluated the reproduced data by controlling the defocus component in the reference beam and found that the bER of the reproduced data could be decreased by controlling the defocus center with respect to the hologram position and phase modulation depth of the defocus component. Then, we investigated a practical control method of the defocus component using an evaluation value similar to the definition of the SNR for actual data reproduction from holograms. Using a defocus controlled wavefront enabled us to decrease the bER from 3.54 x 10^-3 with a plane wave to 3.14 x 10^-4. We also investigated how to reduce the bERs of reproduced data in angle multiplexed holograms. By using a defocus controlled wavefront to compensate for hologram distortion on the 40th data page in 80-page angle multiplexed holograms, the bERs of all pages could be decreased to less than 1x10^-3. We showed that controlling the defocus component is an effective way to compensate for hologram distortion and to decrease the bER of reproduced data in holographic memory.

  9. Wavefronts and caustics associated with Mathieu beams. (United States)

    Julián-Macías, Israel; Rickenstorff-Parrao, Carolina; Cabrera-Rosas, Omar de Jesús; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Juárez-Reyes, Salvador Alejandro; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa


    In this work we compute the wavefronts and the caustics associated with the solutions to the scalar wave equation introduced by Durnin in elliptical cylindrical coordinates generated by the function A(ϕ)=ce ν (ϕ,q)+ise ν (ϕ,q), with ν being an integral or nonintegral number. We show that the wavefronts and the caustic are invariant under translations along the direction of evolution of the beam. We remark that the wavefronts of the separable Mathieu beams generated by A(ϕ)=ce ν (ϕ,q) and A(ϕ)=se ν (ϕ,q) are cones and their caustic is the z axis; thus, they are not structurally stable. However, in general, the Mathieu beam generated by A(ϕ)=ce ν (ϕ,q)+ise ν (ϕ,q) is stable because locally its caustic has singularities of the fold and cusp types. To show this property, we present the wavefronts and the caustics for the Mathieu beams with characteristic value a ν =0 and q=0,0.2,0.3,0.5. For q=0, we obtain the Bessel beam of order zero; in this case, the wavefronts are cones and the caustic coincides with the z axis. For q≠0, the wavefronts are deformations of conical ones, and the caustic surface, for some values of q, has singularities of the cusp ridge type. Furthermore, we remark that the set of Mathieu beams with characteristic value a ν =0 and 0≤qMathieu beam is more stable than plane waves, Bessel beams, parabolic beams, and those generated by A(ϕ)=ce ν (ϕ,q) and A(ϕ)=se ν (ϕ,q). To support this conclusion, we present experimental results showing the pattern obtained after obstructing a plane wave, the Bessel beam of order m=5, and the Mathieu beam of order m=5 and q=50 with complex transversal amplitude given by Ce 5 (ξ,50)ce 5 (η,50)+iSe 5 (ξ,50)se 5 (η,50), where (ξ, η) are the elliptical coordinates on the plane.

  10. Corneal aberrations in normal and keratoconic eyes using an OPD-Scan Ⅱ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naderan


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate higher order aberrations(HOAsof the corneal surface in normal and keratoconic eyes.METHODS: Using an OPD-Scan Ⅱ wavefront analyzer, aberrometric parameters of the corneal surface in one eye of 80 patients with keratoconus(KCand 91 participants with normal eyes were evaluated. The Zernike coefficients from third- to sixth-order as well as root mean square(RMSof primary coma, coma-like aberrations, and total HOA were calculated and compared between both groups.RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found in all aberrometric parameters between the measurements of the KC and normal participants(PPCONCLUSION: Corneal wavefront measurements by means of OPD-Scan Ⅱ were significantly higher in keratoconic corneas than normal corneas.

  11. Aberration-free laser beam in the soft x-ray range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goddet, J.P.; Sebban, S.; Gautier, J.; Zeitoun, P.; Valentin, C.; Tissandier, F.; Marchenko, T.; Lambert, G.; Ribières, M.; Douillet, D.; Lefrou, T.; Iaquaniello, G.; Burgy, F.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.; Robillard, B.; Mocek, Tomáš; Nejdl, Jaroslav; Kozlová, Michaela; Jakubczak, Krzysztof


    Roč. 34, č. 16 (2009), 2438-24 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J008 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100100911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : x-ray laser * optical field ionization * spatial filtering * wavefront aberrations Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.059, year: 2009

  12. Wavefront analysis for plenoptic camera imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Yin-Sen; Xu Bing; Yang Ping; Tang Guo-Mao


    The plenoptic camera is a single lens stereo camera which can retrieve the direction of light rays while detecting their intensity distribution. In this paper, to reveal more truths of plenoptic camera imaging, we present the wavefront analysis for the plenoptic camera imaging from the angle of physical optics but not from the ray tracing model of geometric optics. Specifically, the wavefront imaging model of a plenoptic camera is analyzed and simulated by scalar diffraction theory and the depth estimation is redescribed based on physical optics. We simulate a set of raw plenoptic images of an object scene, thereby validating the analysis and derivations and the difference between the imaging analysis methods based on geometric optics and physical optics are also shown in simulations. (paper)

  13. Correlation Wave-Front Sensing Algorithms for Shack-Hartmann-Based Adaptive Optics using a Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poynee, L A


    Shack-Hartmann based Adaptive Optics system with a point-source reference normally use a wave-front sensing algorithm that estimates the centroid (center of mass) of the point-source image 'spot' to determine the wave-front slope. The centroiding algorithm suffers for several weaknesses. For a small number of pixels, the algorithm gain is dependent on spot size. The use of many pixels on the detector leads to significant propagation of read noise. Finally, background light or spot halo aberrations can skew results. In this paper an alternative algorithm that suffers from none of these problems is proposed: correlation of the spot with a ideal reference spot. The correlation method is derived and a theoretical analysis evaluates its performance in comparison with centroiding. Both simulation and data from real AO systems are used to illustrate the results. The correlation algorithm is more robust than centroiding, but requires more computation

  14. Non-axisymmetric Aberration Patterns from Wide-field Telescopes Using Spin-weighted Zernike Polynomials (United States)

    Kent, Stephen M.


    If the optical system of a telescope is perturbed from rotational symmetry, the Zernike wavefront aberration coefficients describing that system can be expressed as a function of position in the focal plane using spin-weighted Zernike polynomials. Methodologies are presented to derive these polynomials to arbitrary order. This methodology is applied to aberration patterns produced by a misaligned Ritchey–Chrétien telescope and to distortion patterns at the focal plane of the DESI optical corrector, where it is shown to provide a more efficient description of distortion than conventional expansions.

  15. Fiber coupler end face wavefront surface metrology (United States)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Marcus, Michael A.


    Despite significant technological advances in the field of fiber optic communications, one area remains surprisingly `low-tech': fiber termination. In many instances it involves manual labor and subjective visual inspection. At the same time, high quality fiber connections are one of the most critical parameters in constructing an efficient communication link. The shape and finish of the fiber end faces determines the efficiency of a connection comprised of coupled fiber end faces. The importance of fiber end face quality becomes even more critical for fiber connection arrays and for in the field applications. In this article we propose and demonstrate a quantitative inspection method for the fiber connectors using reflected wavefront technology. The manufactured and polished fiber tip is illuminated by a collimated light from a microscope objective. The reflected light is collected by the objective and is directed to a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. A set of lenses is used to create the image of the fiber tip on the surface of the sensor. The wavefront is analyzed by the sensor, and the measured parameters are used to obtain surface properties of the fiber tip, and estimate connection loss. For example, defocus components in the reflected light indicate the presence of bow in the fiber end face. This inspection method provides a contact-free approach for quantitative inspection of fiber end faces and for estimating the connection loss, and can potentially be integrated into a feedback system for automated inspection and polishing of fiber tips and fiber tip arrays.

  16. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye (United States)

    Hofer, Heidi; Sredar, Nripun; Queener, Hope; Li, Chaohong; Porter, Jason


    Wavefront sensor noise and fidelity place a fundamental limit on achievable image quality in current adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes. Additionally, the wavefront sensor ‘beacon’ can interfere with visual experiments. We demonstrate real-time (25 Hz), wavefront sensorless adaptive optics imaging in the living human eye with image quality rivaling that of wavefront sensor based control in the same system. A stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm directly optimized the mean intensity in retinal image frames acquired with a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). When imaging through natural, undilated pupils, both control methods resulted in comparable mean image intensities. However, when imaging through dilated pupils, image intensity was generally higher following wavefront sensor-based control. Despite the typically reduced intensity, image contrast was higher, on average, with sensorless control. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging the living human eye and future refinements of this technique may result in even greater optical gains. PMID:21934779

  17. Dynamic wavefront creation for processing units using a hybrid compactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puthoor, Sooraj; Beckmann, Bradford M.; Yudanov, Dmitri


    A method, a non-transitory computer readable medium, and a processor for repacking dynamic wavefronts during program code execution on a processing unit, each dynamic wavefront including multiple threads are presented. If a branch instruction is detected, a determination is made whether all wavefronts following a same control path in the program code have reached a compaction point, which is the branch instruction. If no branch instruction is detected in executing the program code, a determination is made whether all wavefronts following the same control path have reached a reconvergence point, which is a beginning of a program code segment to be executed by both a taken branch and a not taken branch from a previous branch instruction. The dynamic wavefronts are repacked with all threads that follow the same control path, if all wavefronts following the same control path have reached the branch instruction or the reconvergence point.

  18. Possible Application of Wavefront Coding to the LSST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeveld, Willy; /SLAC


    Wavefront Coding has been applied as a means to increase the effective depth of focus of optical systems. In this note I discuss the potential for this technique to increase the depth of focus of the LSST and the resulting advantages for the construction and operation of the facility, as well as possible drawbacks. It may be possible to apply Wavefront Coding without changing the current LSST design, in which case Wavefront Coding might merit further study as a risk mitigation strategy.

  19. Clinical outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis using combined topography and refractive wavefront treatments for myopic astigmatism. (United States)

    Alpins, Noel; Stamatelatos, George


    To evaluate outcomes of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) guided by wavefront alone versus wavefront plus topographic data. NewVision Clinics, Cheltenham, Australia. Twenty-one eyes (14 patients) were distributed into 2 groups in a prospective double-masked study. One group was treated by wavefront parameters alone (WF, n = 11), and the other, by wavefront combined with topography values (WF&VP, n = 10) using vector planning. All treatments were performed using Visx Star S4 CustomVue software. In the WF&VP group, the treatment profile was calculated using simulated keratometry readings from the Humphrey Atlas topography and 2nd-order Zernike coefficients defocus 4 and astigmatism 3 and 5 from the WaveScan wavefront display of the entire eye. Mean corneal astigmatism preoperatively was 1.07 diopters (D) +/- 0.54 (SD) in the WF group and 1.50 +/- 0.87 D in the WF&VP group. At 6 months, it was 0.67 +/- 0.57 D (39% reduction) and 0.83 +/- 0.55 D (44% reduction), respectively. The WF&VP group had a greater reduction in horizontal coma. The mean gain in low-contrast visual acuity under mesopic conditions was 0.06 in the WF group and 0.11 in the WF&VP group and the mean gain in high-contrast visual acuity, 0.02 and 0.05, respectively. Two patients reported a change in the preferred eye postoperatively to the eye treated using vector planning. No result demonstrated statistical significance. The WF&VP group had greater reduction in corneal astigmatism and better visual outcomes under mesopic conditions than the WF group and equivalent higher-order aberrations.

  20. Wavefront reconstruction from non-modulated pyramid wavefront sensor data using a singular value type expansion (United States)

    Hutterer, Victoria; Ramlau, Ronny


    The new generation of extremely large telescopes includes adaptive optics systems to correct for atmospheric blurring. In this paper, we present a new method of wavefront reconstruction from non-modulated pyramid wavefront sensor data. The approach is based on a simplified sensor model represented as the finite Hilbert transform of the incoming phase. Due to the non-compactness of the finite Hilbert transform operator the classical theory for singular systems is not applicable. Nevertheless, we can express the Moore–Penrose inverse as a singular value type expansion with weighted Chebychev polynomials.

  1. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics versus sensor-based adaptive optics for in vivo fluorescence retinal imaging (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhang, Pengfei; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Zawadzki, Robert J.


    Adaptive optics (AO) is essential for achieving diffraction limited resolution in large numerical aperture (NA) in-vivo retinal imaging in small animals. Cellular-resolution in-vivo imaging of fluorescently labeled cells is highly desirable for studying pathophysiology in animal models of retina diseases in pre-clinical vision research. Currently, wavefront sensor-based (WFS-based) AO is widely used for retinal imaging and has demonstrated great success. However, the performance can be limited by several factors including common path errors, wavefront reconstruction errors and an ill-defined reference plane on the retina. Wavefront sensorless (WFS-less) AO has the advantage of avoiding these issues at the cost of algorithmic execution time. We have investigated WFS-less AO on a fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (fSLO) system that was originally designed for WFS-based AO. The WFS-based AO uses a Shack-Hartmann WFS and a continuous surface deformable mirror in a closed-loop control system to measure and correct for aberrations induced by the mouse eye. The WFS-less AO performs an open-loop modal optimization with an image quality metric. After WFS-less AO aberration correction, the WFS was used as a control of the closed-loop WFS-less AO operation. We can easily switch between WFS-based and WFS-less control of the deformable mirror multiple times within an imaging session for the same mouse. This allows for a direct comparison between these two types of AO correction for fSLO. Our results demonstrate volumetric AO-fSLO imaging of mouse retinal cells labeled with GFP. Most significantly, we have analyzed and compared the aberration correction results for WFS-based and WFS-less AO imaging.

  2. Conical wavefronts in optics and tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroko, L.M.


    A wide range of techniques in which the information is transferred by conical (nonspherical and nonplanar) wave fronts is considered. This is the first summary of papers published in the field of mesooptics and optical tomography. After the introduction into the new branch of modern optics - mesooptics -the properties of conical wavefronts are treated in detail. Some possible applications of mesooptics in science and technology are considered. The long history of mesooptics treated in the last chapter of this review lecture goes from the early stage of our Universe, gravitational lens, first publications in the last century and up-to-date innovations in optics, mesooptics and optical tomography. 3 refs

  3. Wavefront control in high average-power multi-slab laser system (United States)

    Pilar, Jan; Bonora, Stefano; Divoky, Martin; Phillips, Jonathan; Smith, Jodie; Ertel, Klaus; Collier, John; Jelinkova, Helena; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, TomáÅ.¡


    A high average power cryogenically-cooled diode-pumped solid-state laser system for Hilase centre in Czech Republic is being developed by Central Laser Facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, England in collaboration with Hilase team. The system will deliver pulses with energy of 100 J at 10 Hz repetition rate and will find applications in research and industry. The laser medium and other elements of the system are subject to heavy thermal loading which causes serious optical aberrations and degrade the output beam quality. To meet the stringent laser requirements of this kWclass laser, it is necessary to implement adaptive optics system, which will correct for these aberrations. During our research the sources of aberrations have been identified and analyzed. Based on this analysis, a suitable adaptive optics system was proposed. After finalizing numerical models, simulations and optimizations, the adaptive optics system was developed, characterized and installed in a cryogenically-cooled multi-slab laser system running up to 6 J and 10 Hz. The adaptive optics system consists of 6x6 actuator bimorph deformable mirror and wavefront sensor based on quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry operated in closed loop. The functionality of the system was demonstrated at full power.

  4. Correction of 157-nm lens based on phase ring aberration extraction method (United States)

    Meute, Jeff; Rich, Georgia K.; Conley, Will; Smith, Bruce W.; Zavyalova, Lena V.; Cashmore, Julian S.; Ashworth, Dominic; Webb, James E.; Rich, Lisa


    Early manufacture and use of 157nm high NA lenses has presented significant challenges including: intrinsic birefringence correction, control of optical surface contamination, and the use of relatively unproven materials, coatings, and metrology. Many of these issues were addressed during the manufacture and use of International SEMATECH"s 0.85NA lens. Most significantly, we were the first to employ 157nm phase measurement interferometry (PMI) and birefringence modeling software for lens optimization. These efforts yielded significant wavefront improvement and produced one of the best wavefront-corrected 157nm lenses to date. After applying the best practices to the manufacture of the lens, we still had to overcome the difficulties of integrating the lens into the tool platform at International SEMATECH instead of at the supplier facility. After lens integration, alignment, and field optimization were complete, conventional lithography and phase ring aberration extraction techniques were used to characterize system performance. These techniques suggested a wavefront error of approximately 0.05 waves RMS--much larger than the 0.03 waves RMS predicted by 157nm PMI. In-situ wavefront correction was planned for in the early stages of this project to mitigate risks introduced by the use of development materials and techniques and field integration of the lens. In this publication, we document the development and use of a phase ring aberration extraction method for characterizing imaging performance and a technique for correcting aberrations with the addition of an optical compensation plate. Imaging results before and after the lens correction are presented and differences between actual and predicted results are discussed.

  5. The Infrared Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) for TMT: multi-tiered wavefront measurements and novel mechanical design (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer; Andersen, David; Chapin, Edward; Reshetov, Vlad; Wierzbicki, Ramunas; Herriot, Glen; Chalmer, Dean; Isbrucker, Victor; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Suzuki, Ryuji


    The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) will be the first light adaptive optics instrument on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS is being built by a collaboration between Caltech, the University of California, NAOJ and NRC Herzberg. In this paper we present novel aspects of the Support Structure, Rotator and On-Instrument Wavefront Sensor systems being developed at NRC Herzberg. IRIS is suspended from the bottom port of the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), and provides its own image de-rotation to compensate for sidereal rotation of the focal plane. This arrangement is a challenge because NFIRAOS is designed to host two other science instruments, which imposes strict mass requirements on IRIS. As the mechanical design of all elements has progressed, we have been tasked with keeping the instrument mass under seven tonnes. This requirement has resulted in a mass reduction of 30 percent for the support structure and rotator compared to the most recent IRIS designs. To accomplish this goal, while still being able to withstand earthquakes, we developed a new design with composite materials. As IRIS is a client instrument of NFIRAOS, it benefits from NFIRAOS's superior AO correction. IRIS plays an important role in providing this correction by sensing low-order aberrations with three On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS). The OIWFS consists of three independently positioned natural guide star wavefront sensor probe arms that patrol a 2-arcminute field of view. We expect tip-tilt measurements from faint stars within the IRIS imager focal plane will further stabilize the delivered image quality. We describe how the use of On-Detector Guide Windows (ODGWs) in the IRIS imaging detector can be incorporated into the AO correction. In this paper, we present our strategies for acquiring and tracking sources with this complex AO system, and for mitigating and measuring the various potential sources of image blur and misalignment due to properties of

  6. Phase discrepancy induced from least squares wavefront reconstruction of wrapped phase measurements with high noise or large localized wavefront gradients (United States)

    Steinbock, Michael J.; Hyde, Milo W.


    Adaptive optics is used in applications such as laser communication, remote sensing, and laser weapon systems to estimate and correct for atmospheric distortions of propagated light in real-time. Within an adaptive optics system, a reconstruction process interprets the raw wavefront sensor measurements and calculates an estimate for the unwrapped phase function to be sent through a control law and applied to a wavefront correction device. This research is focused on adaptive optics using a self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor, which directly measures the wrapped wavefront phase. Therefore, its measurements must be reconstructed for use on a continuous facesheet deformable mirror. In testing and evaluating a novel class of branch-point- tolerant wavefront reconstructors based on the post-processing congruence operation technique, an increase in Strehl ratio compared to a traditional least squares reconstructor was noted even in non-scintillated fields. To investigate this further, this paper uses wave-optics simulations to eliminate many of the variables from a hardware adaptive optics system, so as to focus on the reconstruction techniques alone. The simulation results along with a discussion of the physical reasoning for this phenomenon are provided. For any applications using a self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor with low signal levels or high localized wavefront gradients, understanding this phenomena is critical when applying a traditional least squares wavefront reconstructor.

  7. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Fumio, E-mail: [BioNet Ltd., 2-3-28 Nishikityo, Tachikwa, Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midoriku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Sawada, Hidetaka [JEOL (UK) Ltd., JEOL House, Silver Court, Watchmead, Welwyn Garden City, Herts AL7 1LT (United Kingdom); Shinkawa, Takao [BioNet Ltd., 2-3-28 Nishikityo, Tachikwa, Tokyo (Japan); Sannomiya, Takumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midoriku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)


    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field’s components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field’s derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. - Highlights: • The formula of partial coherence for aberration corrected TEM is derived. • Transfer functions are calculated with several residual aberrations. • The calculated transfer function shows the characteristic damping. • The odd-symmetric wave aberrations can cause the attenuation of image via coherence. • The examples of aberration corrected TEM image simulations are shown.

  8. Optimization of Broadband Wavefront Correction at the Princeton High Contrast Imaging Laboratory (United States)

    Groff, Tyler Dean; Kasdin, N.; Carlotti, A.


    Wavefront control for imaging of terrestrial planets using coronagraphic techniques requires improving the performance of the wavefront control techniques to expand the correction bandwidth and the size of the dark hole over which it is effective. At the Princeton High Contrast Imaging Laboratory we have focused on increasing the search area using two deformable mirrors (DMs) in series to achieve symmetric correction by correcting both amplitude and phase aberrations. Here we are concerned with increasing the bandwidth of light over which this correction is effective so we include a finite bandwidth into the optimization problem to generate a new stroke minimization algorithm. This allows us to minimize the actuator stroke on the DMs given contrast constraints at multiple wavelengths which define a window over which the dark hole will persist. This windowed stroke minimization algorithm is written in such a way that a weight may be applied to dictate the relative importance of the outer wavelengths to the central wavelength. In order to supply the estimates at multiple wavelengths a functional relationship to a central estimation wavelength is formed. Computational overhead and new experimental results of this windowed stroke minimization algorithm are discussed. The tradeoff between symmetric correction and achievable bandwidth is compared to the observed contrast degradation with wavelength in the experimental results. This work is supported by NASA APRA Grant #NNX09AB96G. The author is also supported under an NESSF Fellowship.

  9. Using wavefront coding technique as an optical encryption system: reliability analysis and vulnerabilities assessment (United States)

    Konnik, Mikhail V.


    Wavefront coding paradigm can be used not only for compensation of aberrations and depth-of-field improvement but also for an optical encryption. An optical convolution of the image with the PSF occurs when a diffractive optical element (DOE) with a known point spread function (PSF) is placed in the optical path. In this case, an optically encoded image is registered instead of the true image. Decoding of the registered image can be performed using standard digital deconvolution methods. In such class of optical-digital systems, the PSF of the DOE is used as an encryption key. Therefore, a reliability and cryptographic resistance of such an encryption method depends on the size and complexity of the PSF used for optical encoding. This paper gives a preliminary analysis on reliability and possible vulnerabilities of such an encryption method. Experimental results on brute-force attack on the optically encrypted images are presented. Reliability estimation of optical coding based on wavefront coding paradigm is evaluated. An analysis of possible vulnerabilities is provided.

  10. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes. (United States)

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi


    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field's components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field's derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Wavefront correction system based on an equilateral triangular arrangement of actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bergum, J.W.; Kartz, M.W.; Presta, R.W.; Swift, C.D.


    Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) requires the copropagation of multiple beams at different wavelengths and at average powers exceeding 1 kW. Although mirror coatings are used that absorb less than one part in 10 5 , the beams still suffer from thermally induced phase distortions, both in the dye amplifiers and in transmissive optics, such as beam combiners and vacuum windows. These aberrations are 2nd-order and 3rd-order and can reach 5 waves peak-to-valley (p-v), which causes the beam to distort and break up when propagated over large distances. The magnitude of the aberrations scales with power, with time constants on the order of 30 seconds. Previous adaptive systems that have been developed corrected these thermally induced phase distortions of both 2nd-order and 3rd-order; however, these systems had limited spatial resolution and in some cases marginal stability. The authors have developed a new adaptive optics system where both the actuators of the deformable mirror and the lenslets of the Hartmann sensor are arranged with centers at the vertices of equilateral triangles. The wavefront sensor is a video Hartmann sensor that also uses an equilateral array of lenslets. The controller hardware uses a VME bus. The design minimizes the generation of reflected wavefronts higher than first order across each lenslet for large excursions of actuators from positions where the mirror is flat and, thus maximizes the precision of the slopes measured by the Hartmann sensor. The design is also immune to the waffle mode that is present in the reconstructors of adaptive optics systems where actuators are arranged in a square array

  12. Influence of mydriatic eye drops on wavefront sensing with the Zywave aberrometer. (United States)

    Taneri, Suphi; Oehler, Saskia; Azar, Dimitri T


    To investigate a potential influence of mydriatic eye drops on wavefront sensing with the Zywave aberrometer (Technolas Perfect Vision) in terms of predicted phoropter refraction (PPR) and higher order aberrations (HOA). In this prospective study, 200 myopic eyes were measured in miosis and pharmacologically induced mydriasis with an aberrometer and automated refraction. One hundred eyes were dilated with tropicamide 0.5%+phenylephrine 2.5% eye drops (tropicamide/phenylephrine group), and the remaining 100 eyes with tropicamide 0.5% (tropicamide only group). The PPR values for a pupil diameter of 3.5 mm in miosis and mydriasis, respectively, were compared and correlated to the corresponding values of automated refraction. Changes in HOAs up to the 4th order were recorded. Predicted phoropter refraction values obtained in mydriasis were less myopic than in miosis. The spherical equivalent refraction of PPR differed by an average of 0.36 ± 0.36 diopters (D) in the tropicamide/phenylephrine group. In the tropicamide only group, the difference was 0.24 ± 0.43 D. Sphere of PPR differed by an average of 0.33 ± 0.36 D in the tropicamide/phenylephrine group and by an average of 0.24 ± 0.35 D in the tropicamide only group. Patient age had no major influence on the level of difference. Automated refraction yielded a smaller difference in spherical equivalent refraction. Changes in HOA root-mean-square were statistically significant. The cycloplegic effect of mydriatic eye drops should be taken into account when interpreting aberration measurements and planning a wavefront-guided ablation. Ideally, the use of mydriatic eye drops should be avoided to minimize refractive surprises. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. CMOS optical centroid processor for an integrated Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor


    Pui, Boon Hean


    A Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor is used to detect the distortion of light in an optical wavefront. It does this by sampling the wavefront with an array of lenslets and measuring the displacement of focused spots from reference positions. These displacements are linearly related to the local wavefront tilts from which the entire wavefront can be reconstructed. In most Shack Hartmann wavefront sensors, a CCD is used to sample the entire wavefront, typically at a rate of 25 to 60 Hz, and a who...

  14. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.


    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  15. Visual outcome after correcting the refractive error of large pupil patients with wavefront-guided ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa MA


    .02. Magnitudes of primary coma and trefoil did not change significantly (P ≥ 0.34, with a small but statistically significant increase in primary spherical aberration.Conclusion: Wavefront-guided LASIK provides an effective correction of low to moderate myopia or myopic astigmatism in large pupil patients without deterioration of visual quality.Keywords: large pupil, wavefront, LASIK

  16. Method and apparatus for wavefront sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Seung-Whan


    A method for performing optical wavefront sensing includes providing an amplitude transmission mask having a light input side, a light output side, and an optical transmission axis passing from the light input side to the light output side. The amplitude transmission mask is characterized by a checkerboard pattern having a square unit cell of size .LAMBDA.. The method also includes directing an incident light field having a wavelength $ \\lamda $ to be incident on the light input side and propagating the incident light field through the amplitude transmission mask. The method further includes producing a plurality of diffracted light fields on the light output side and detecting, at a detector disposed a distance L from the amplitude transmission mask, an interferogram associated with the plurality of diffracted light fields.

  17. Wavefront Propagation and Fuzzy Based Autonomous Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Al-Jumaily


    Full Text Available Path planning and obstacle avoidance are the two major issues in any navigation system. Wavefront propagation algorithm, as a good path planner, can be used to determine an optimal path. Obstacle avoidance can be achieved using possibility theory. Combining these two functions enable a robot to autonomously navigate to its destination. This paper presents the approach and results in implementing an autonomous navigation system for an indoor mobile robot. The system developed is based on a laser sensor used to retrieve data to update a two dimensional world model of therobot environment. Waypoints in the path are incorporated into the obstacle avoidance. Features such as ageing of objects and smooth motion planning are implemented to enhance efficiency and also to cater for dynamic environments.

  18. Improved wavefront correction for coherent image restoration. (United States)

    Zelenka, Claudius; Koch, Reinhard


    Coherent imaging has a wide range of applications in, for example, microscopy, astronomy, and radar imaging. Particularly interesting is the field of microscopy, where the optical quality of the lens is the main limiting factor. In this article, novel algorithms for the restoration of blurred images in a system with known optical aberrations are presented. Physically motivated by the scalar diffraction theory, the new algorithms are based on Haugazeau POCS and FISTA, and are faster and more robust than methods presented earlier. With the new approach the level of restoration quality on real images is very high, thereby blurring and ringing caused by defocus can be effectively removed. In classical microscopy, lenses with very low aberration must be used, which puts a practical limit on their size and numerical aperture. A coherent microscope using the novel restoration method overcomes this limitation. In contrast to incoherent microscopy, severe optical aberrations including defocus can be removed, hence the requirements on the quality of the optics are lower. This can be exploited for an essential price reduction of the optical system. It can be also used to achieve higher resolution than in classical microscopy, using lenses with high numerical aperture and high aberration. All this makes the coherent microscopy superior to the traditional incoherent in suited applications.

  19. Linear dependence between the wavefront gradient and the masked intensity for the point source with a CCD sensor (United States)

    Yang, Huizhen; Ma, Liang; Wang, Bin


    In contrast to the conventional adaptive optics (AO) system, the wavefront sensorless (WFSless) AO system doesn't need a WFS to measure the wavefront aberrations. It is simpler than the conventional AO in system architecture and can be applied to the complex conditions. The model-based WFSless system has a great potential in real-time correction applications because of its fast convergence. The control algorithm of the model-based WFSless system is based on an important theory result that is the linear relation between the Mean-Square Gradient (MSG) magnitude of the wavefront aberration and the second moment of the masked intensity distribution in the focal plane (also called as Masked Detector Signal-MDS). The linear dependence between MSG and MDS for the point source imaging with a CCD sensor will be discussed from theory and simulation in this paper. The theory relationship between MSG and MDS is given based on our previous work. To verify the linear relation for the point source, we set up an imaging model under atmospheric turbulence. Additionally, the value of MDS will be deviate from that of theory because of the noise of detector and further the deviation will affect the correction effect. The theory results under noise will be obtained through theoretical derivation and then the linear relation between MDS and MDS under noise will be discussed through the imaging model. Results show the linear relation between MDS and MDS under noise is also maintained well, which provides a theoretical support to applications of the model-based WFSless system.

  20. Authentication via wavefront-shaped optical responses (United States)

    Eilers, Hergen; Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray


    Authentication/tamper-indication is required in a wide range of applications, including nuclear materials management and product counterfeit detection. State-of-the-art techniques include reflective particle tags, laser speckle authentication, and birefringent seals. Each of these passive techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages, including the need for complex image comparisons, limited flexibility, sensitivity to environmental conditions, limited functionality, etc. We have developed a new active approach to address some of these short-comings. The use of an active characterization technique adds more flexibility and additional layers of security over current techniques. Our approach uses randomly-distributed nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix (tag/seal) which is attached to the item to be secured. A spatial light modulator is used to adjust the wavefront of a laser which interacts with the tag/seal, and a detector is used to monitor this interaction. The interaction can occur in various ways, including transmittance, reflectance, fluorescence, random lasing, etc. For example, at the time of origination, the wavefront-shaped reflectance from a tag/seal can be adjusted to result in a specific pattern (symbol, words, etc.) Any tampering with the tag/seal would results in a disturbance of the random orientation of the nanoparticles and thus distort the reflectance pattern. A holographic waveplate could be inserted into the laser beam for verification. The absence/distortion of the original pattern would then indicate that tampering has occurred. We have tested the tag/seal's and authentication method's tamper-indicating ability using various attack methods, including mechanical, thermal, and chemical attacks, and have verified our material/method's robust tamper-indicating ability.

  1. Holographic wavefront sensor, based on diffuse Fourier holography (United States)

    Gorelaya, Alina; Orlov, Vyacheslav; Venediktov, Vladimir


    Many areas of optical science and technology require fast and accurate measurement of the radiation wavefront shape. Today there are known a lot of wavefront sensor (WFS) techniques, and their number is growing up. The last years have brought a growing interest in several schematics of WFS, employing the holography principles and holographic optical elements (HOE). Some of these devices are just the improved versions of the standard and most popular Shack-Hartman WFS, while other are based on the intrinsic features of HOE. A holographic mode wavefront sensor is proposed, which makes it possible to measure up to several tens of wavefront modes. The increase in the number of measured modes is implemented using the conversion of a light wave entering the sensor into a wide diffuse light beam, which allows one to record a large number of holograms, each intended for measuring one of the modes.

  2. Wavefront distortion optimized with volume Bragg gratings in photothermorefractive glass. (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Xiaojie; Yuan, Xiao


    The wavefront characteristics in 2D angular filtering on the basis of two orthogonal transmitting volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) is presented. The experimental results show that middle-high frequency wavefront distortions are efficiently suppressed with VBGs. The peak-valley value of the beam at a wavelength of 1053 nm reduces from 2.075λ to 0.209λ, and the root mean square value reduces from 0.207λ to 0.041λ. The wavefront power spectrum density shows that the wavefront distribution of the beam in medium and high frequencies is corrected by the VBGs. Additionally, the far-field distribution and focusing properties of the beam are improved. The beam Strehl ratio increases from 0.43 to 0.96, and the encircled energy improves from 95% energy at 4.01 mrad to 95% energy at 1.26 mrad.

  3. WFIRST: Managing Telescope Wavefront Stability to Meet Coronagraph Performance (United States)

    Noecker, Martin; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Kern, Brian; Krist, John; WFIRST System Engineering Team


    The WFIRST coronagraph instrument (CGI) needs a stable telescope and active wavefront control to perform coronagraph science with an expected sensitivity of 8x10-9 in the exoplanet-star flux ratio (SNR=10) at 200 milliarcseconds angular separation. With its subnanometer requirements on the stability of its input wavefront error (WFE), the CGI employs a combination of pointing and wavefront control loops and thermo-mechanical stability to meet budget allocations for beam-walk and low-order WFE, which enable stable starlight speckles on the science detector that can be removed by image subtraction. We describe the control strategy and the budget framework for estimating and budgeting the elements of wavefront stability, and the modeling strategy to evaluate it.

  4. Spatial-temporal distribution of femtosecond pulses at the focal region of a mirror with aberrations (United States)

    Anaya-Vera, S.; Rosete-Aguilar, M.; Rodríguez-Herrera, O. G.; Garduño-Mejía, J.; Bruce, N. C.


    The spatial-temporal distribution of femtosecond pulses around the focal region of lenses has been extensively studied in recent years [1-6] due to the rapid progress in the technology of femtosecond lasers and their applications in many experiments in physics [7,8]. In this paper we present the time and spatial distribution of a few optical-cycle optical pulses around the focal region of a perfectly conducting spherical mirror which is a dispersionless system, by calculating the aberrations introduced when an off-axis collimated beam is incident on the mirror. The Seidel aberration theory has been used to calculate the wavefront aberration and the corresponding phase change for each frequency at the pupil of the mirror. The propagation of the beam from the exit pupil to the focal region is calculated by using the scalar diffraction theory [9]. The effect of aberrations in the focusing pulses has been analyzed in the literature by approximating the wavenumber of the pulse-frequencies by the wavenumber of the carrier frequency [4, 5]. In this paper we show that the monochromatic aberrations change the temporal duration of few-optical-cycle pulses when this approximation is removed. When this approximation is used, monochromatic aberrations do not introduce any temporal change in the focusing pulse even for pulses as short as 2.7fs@810nm which corresponds to a oneoptical-cycle pulse. Examples are presented for homogeneous and Gaussian illumination on the entrance pupil.

  5. PIGS - A New Wavefront Sensor Concept for ELTs (United States)

    Kellner, S.; Ragazzoni, R.; Gässler, W.; Diolaiti, E.; Farinato, J.; Adriciaco, C.; Meyers, R.; Morris, T.; Ghedina, A.

    Adaptive Optics Systems for Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) will need new wavefront sensing concepts to deploy their full capabilities. In this paper we exemplify the necessity of new wavefront sensing ideas by discussing briefly some major problems and present as a possible solution the pseudo infinite guide star sensor (PIGS). A prototype of a PIGS sensor was already built in the laboratory, which could demonstrate its feasibility.

  6. Third order aberration theory of double Wien filters (United States)

    Ioanoviciu, D.; Tsuno, K.; Martinez, G.


    The second and the third order aberration theory for a double Wien filter have been analytically developed. A new second order aberration-free condition is found at the image plane of the second filter. This condition is met when b2=-1/4, e2=-1/2, and b3-e3=-1/8, where b2=B2R/B1, e2=E2R/E1, b3=B3R2/B1, and e3=E3R2/E1. Here, R is the cyclotron radius and E1, B1, E2, B2, E3, and B3 are the dipole, quadrupole, and hexapole components of electric and magnetic fields, respectively. This condition is different from the second order aberration-free condition for a single Wien filter, which is satisfied when b2=-3/4, e2=-1, and b3-e3=-3/8. The geometrical second order aberration-free condition has also been found, and requires that e3-b3=(m-1)/8, e2=-m/4, and b2=(1-m)/4. This last set is sufficient to satisfy the above two sets of conditions as well. Residual third order aberrations are calculated for various m. The third order aberrations at the second focus are very small when the new aberration-free condition is fulfilled.

  7. Advanced wavefront measurement and analysis of laser system modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Auerback, J.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    High spatial resolution measurements of the reflected or transmitted wavefronts of large aperture optical components used in high peak power laser systems is now possible. These measurements are produced by phase shifting interferometry. The wavefront data is in the form of 3-D phase maps that reconstruct the wavefront shape. The emphasis of this work is on the characterization of wavefront features in the mid-spatial wavelength range (from 0.1 to 10.0 mm) and has been accomplished for the first time. Wavefront structure from optical components with spatial wavelengths in this range are of concern because their effects in high peak power laser systems. At high peak power, this phase modulation can convert to large magnitude intensity modulation by non-linear processes. This can lead to optical damage. We have developed software to input the measured phase map data into beam propagation codes in order to model this conversion process. We are analyzing this data to: (1) Characterize the wavefront structure produced by current optical components, (2) Refine our understanding of laser system performance, (3) Develop a database from which future optical component specifications can be derived.

  8. Investigation of focusing and correcting aberrations with binary amplitude and polarization modulation. (United States)

    Fiala, Peter; Li, Yunqi; Dorrer, Christophe


    We investigate the focusing and correcting wavefront aberration of an optical wave using binary amplitude and polarization modulation. Focusing is performed by selectively modulating the field in different zones of the pupil to obtain on-axis constructive interference at a given distance. The conventional Soret zone plate (binary amplitude profile) is expanded to a polarization Soret zone plate with twice the focusing efficiency. Binary pixelated devices that approximate the sinusoidal transmission profile of a Gabor zone plate by spatial dithering are also investigated with amplitude and polarization modulation. Wavefront aberrations are corrected by modulation of the field in the pupil plane to prevent destructive interference in the focal plane of an ideal focusing element. Polarization modulation improves the efficiency obtained by amplitude-only modulation, with a gain that depends on the aberration. Experimental results obtained with Cr-on-glass devices for amplitude modulation and liquid crystal devices operating in the Mauguin condition for polarization modulation are in very good agreement with simulations.

  9. Corneal aberrations in keratoconic eyes: influence of pupil size and centering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comastri, S A; Perez, G D; Martin, G; Bianchetti, A; Perez, L I


    Ocular aberrations vary among subjects and under different conditions and are commonly analyzed expanding the wavefront aberration function in Zernike polynomials. In previous articles, explicit analytical formulas to transform Zernike coefficients of up to 7th order corresponding to an original pupil into those related to a contracted displaced new pupil are obtained. In the present paper these formulas are applied to 20 keratoconic corneas of varying severity. Employing the SN CT1000 topographer, aberrations of the anterior corneal surface for a pupil of semi-diameter 3 mm centered on the keratometric axis are evaluated, the relation between the higher-order root mean square wavefront error and the index KISA% characterizing keratoconus is studied and the size and centering of the ocular photopic natural pupil are determined. Using these data and the transformation formulas, new coefficients associated to the photopic pupil size are computed and their variation when coordinates origin is shifted from the keratometric axis to the ocular pupil centre is analyzed.

  10. A contralateral eye study comparing apodized diffrative and full diffrative lenses: wavefront analysis and distance and near uncorrected visual acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcony Rodrigues de Santhiago


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate intraindividual visual acuity, wavefront errors and modulation transfer functions in patients implanted with two diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses. METHODS: This prospective study examined 40 eyes of 20 cataract patients who underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a spherical multifocal ReSTOR intraocular lens in one eye and an aspheric Tecnis ZM900 multifocal intraocular lens in the other eye. The main outcome measures, over a 3-month follow-up period, were the uncorrected photopic distance and near visual acuity and the defocus curve. The visual acuity was converted to logMAR for statistical analysis and is presented in decimal scale. The wavefront error and modulation transfer function were also evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: At the 3-month postoperative visit, the mean photopic distance uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 0.74 ± 0.20 in the ReSTOR group and 0.76 ± 0.22 in the Tecnis group (p=0.286. The mean near UCVA was 0.96 ± 0.10 in the ReSTOR group and 0.93 ± 0.14 in the Tecnis group (p=0.963. The binocular defocus curve showed measurements between the peaks better than 0.2 logMAR. The total aberration, higher-order aberration and coma aberration were not significantly different between the groups. The spherical aberration was significantly lower in the Tecnis group than in the ReSTOR group. (p=0.004. Both groups performed similarly for the modulation transfer function. CONCLUSION: The ReSTOR SN60D3 and Tecnis ZM 900 intraocular lenses provided similar photopic visual acuity at distance and near. The diffractive intraocular lenses studied provided a low value of coma and spherical aberrations, with the Tecnis intraocular lens having a statistically lower spherical aberration compared to the ReSTOR intraocular lens. In the 5 mm pupil diameter analyses, both intraocular lens groups showed similar modulation transfer functions.

  11. Enabling Super-Nyquist Wavefront Control on WFIRST (United States)

    Bendek, Eduardo; Belikov, Ruslan; Sirbu, Dan; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.


    A large fraction of sun-like stars is contained in Binary systems. Within 10pc there are 70 FGK stars from which, 43 belong to a multi-star system, and 28 of them have companion leak that is greater than 1e-9 contrast assuming typical Hubble-quality space optics. Currently, those binary stars are not included in the WFIRST-CGI target list, but they could be observed if high-contrast imaging around binary star systems using WFIRST is possible, increasing by 70% the number of possible FGK targets for the mission. The Multi-Star Wavefront Control (MSWC) algorithm can be used to suppress the companion star leakage. If the targets have angular separations larger than the Nyquist controllable region of the Deformable Mirror the MSWC must operate in its Super-Nyquist (SN) mode. This mode requires a target star replica within the SN region in order to provide the energy, and coherent light necessary to null speckles at SN angular separations. For the case of WFIRST, about half of the targets that can be observed using MSWC have angular separations larger than the Nyquist controllable region of the 48x48 actuator Deformable Mirror (DM) to be used. Here, we discuss multiple alternatives to generate those PSF replicas with minimal or no impact to the WFIRST Coronagraph instrument such as 1) the addition of a movable diffractive pupil mounted of the Shape Pupil wheel. 2) Design of a modified Shape Pupil design able to create a dark zone and at the same time diffract a small fraction of the starlight on the SN region. 3) Predict the minimum residual quilting on Xinetics DM that would allow observing a given target.

  12. Numerical correction of anti-symmetric aberrations in single HRTEM images of weakly scattering 2D-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Ossi; Geiger, Dorin; Lee, Zhongbo; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Chen, Ming-Wei; Kis, Andras; Kaiser, Ute


    Here, we present a numerical post-processing method for removing the effect of anti-symmetric residual aberrations in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of weakly scattering 2D-objects. The method is based on applying the same aberrations with the opposite phase to the Fourier transform of the recorded image intensity and subsequently inverting the Fourier transform. We present the theoretical justification of the method, and its verification based on simulated images in the case of low-order anti-symmetric aberrations. Ultimately the method is applied to experimental hardware aberration-corrected HRTEM images of single-layer graphene and MoSe 2 resulting in images with strongly reduced residual low-order aberrations, and consequently improved interpretability. Alternatively, this method can be used to estimate by trial and error the residual anti-symmetric aberrations in HRTEM images of weakly scattering objects

  13. The effect of aberrated recording beams on reflecting Bragg gratings (United States)

    SeGall, Marc; Ott, Daniel; Divliansky, Ivan; Glebov, Leonid B.


    The effect of aberrations present in the recording beams of a holographic setup is discussed regarding the period and spectral response of a reflecting volume Bragg grating. Imperfect recording beams result in spatially varying resonant wavelengths and the side lobes of the spectrum are washed out. Asymmetrical spectra, spectral broadening, and a reduction in peak diffraction efficiency may also be present, though these effects are less significant for gratings with wider spectral widths. Reflecting Bragg gratings (RBGs) are used as elements in a variety of applications including spectral beam combining1,2, mode locking3,4, longitudinal and transverse mode selection in lasers5,6, and sensing7,8. For applications requiring narrow spectral selectivity9, or large apertures10, these gratings must have a uniform period throughout the length of the recording medium, which may be on the order of millimeters. However, when using typical recording techniques such as two-beam interference for large aperture gratings and phase-mask recording of fiber gratings, aberrations from the optical elements in the system result in an imperfect grating structure11-13. In this paper we consider the effects of aberrations on large aperture gratings recorded in thick media using the two-beam interference technique. Previous works in analyzing the effects of aberrations have considered the effects of aberrations in a single recording plane where the beams perfectly overlap. Such an approach is valid for thin media (on the order of tens of microns), but for thick recording media (on the order of several millimeters) there will be a significant shift in the positions of the beams relative to each other as they traverse the recording medium. Therefore, the fringe pattern produced will not be constant throughout the grating if one or both beams have a non-uniform wavefront. Such non-uniform gratings may have a wider spectral width, a shifted resonant wavelength, or other problems. It is

  14. Closed-loop adaptive optics using a spatial light modulator for sensing and compensating of optical aberrations in ophthalmic applications (United States)

    Akondi, Vyas; Jewel, Md. Atikur Rahman; Vohnsen, Brian


    Sensing and compensating of optical aberrations in closed-loop mode using a single spatial light modulator (SLM) for ophthalmic applications is demonstrated. Notwithstanding the disadvantages of the SLM, in certain cases, this multitasking capability of the device makes it advantageous over existing deformable mirrors (DMs), which are expensive and in general used for aberration compensation alone. A closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) system based on a single SLM was built. Beam resizing optics were used to utilize the large active area of the device and hence make it feasible to generate 137 active subapertures for wavefront sensing. While correcting Zernike aberrations up to fourth order introduced with the help of a DM (for testing purposes), diffraction-limited resolution was achieved. It is shown that matched filter and intensity-weighted centroiding techniques stand out among others. Closed-loop wavefront correction of aberrations in backscattered light from the eyes of three healthy human subjects was demonstrated after satisfactory results were obtained using an artificial eye, which was simulated with a short focal length lens and a sheet of white paper as diffuser. It is shown that the closed-loop AO system based on a single SLM is capable of diffraction-limited correction for ophthalmic applications.

  15. Wavefront control in space with MEMS deformable mirrors (United States)

    Cahoy, Kerri L.; Marinan, Anne D.; Novak, Benjamin; Kerr, Caitlin; Webber, Matthew


    To meet the high contrast requirement of 1 × 10-10 to image an Earth-like planet around a Sun-like star, space telescopes equipped with coronagraphs require wavefront control systems. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are a key element of a wavefront control system, as they correct for imperfections, thermal distortions, and diffraction that would otherwise corrupt the wavefront and ruin the contrast. The goal of the CubeSat Deformable Mirror technology demonstration mission is to test the ability of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) deformable mirror to perform wavefront control on-orbit on a nanosatellite platform. In this paper, we consider two approaches for a MEMS deformable mirror technology demonstration payload that will fit within the mass, power, and volume constraints of a CubeSat: 1) a Michelson interferometer and 2) a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We clarify the constraints on the payload based on the resources required for supporting CubeSat subsystems drawn from subsystems that we have developed for a different CubeSat flight project. We discuss results from payload lab prototypes and their utility in defining mission requirements.

  16. An analysis of printing conditions for wavefront overlapping printing (United States)

    Ichihashi, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Wakunami, K.; Oi, R.; Okui, M.; Senoh, T.


    Wavefront printing for a digitally-designed hologram has got attentions recently. In this printing, a spatial light modulator (SLM) is used for displaying a hologram data and the wavefront is reproduced by irradiating the hologram with a reference light the same way as electronic holography. However, a pixel count of current SLM devices is not enough to display an entire hologram data. To generate a practical digitally-designed hologram, the entire hologram data is divided into a set of sub-hologram data and wavefront reproduced by each sub-hologram is sequentially recorded in tiling manner by using X-Y motorized stage. Due to a lack of positioning an accuracy of X-Y motorized stage and the temporal incoherent recording, phase continuity of recorded/reproduced wavefront is lost between neighboring subholograms. In this paper, we generate the holograms that have different size of sub-holograms with an overlap or nonoverlap, and verify the size of sub-holograms effect on the reconstructed images. In the result, the reconstructed images degrade with decreasing the size of sub-holograms and there is little or no degradation of quality by the wavefront printing with the overlap.

  17. An imaging method of wavefront coding system based on phase plate rotation (United States)

    Yi, Rigui; Chen, Xi; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Xiaohua


    Wave-front coding has a great prospect in extending the depth of the optical imaging system and reducing optical aberrations, but the image quality and noise performance are inevitably reduced. According to the theoretical analysis of the wave-front coding system and the phase function expression of the cubic phase plate, this paper analyzed and utilized the feature that the phase function expression would be invariant in the new coordinate system when the phase plate rotates at different angles around the z-axis, and we proposed a method based on the rotation of the phase plate and image fusion. First, let the phase plate rotated at a certain angle around the z-axis, the shape and distribution of the PSF obtained on the image surface remain unchanged, the rotation angle and direction are consistent with the rotation angle of the phase plate. Then, the middle blurred image is filtered by the point spread function of the rotation adjustment. Finally, the reconstruction images were fused by the method of the Laplacian pyramid image fusion and the Fourier transform spectrum fusion method, and the results were evaluated subjectively and objectively. In this paper, we used Matlab to simulate the images. By using the Laplacian pyramid image fusion method, the signal-to-noise ratio of the image is increased by 19% 27%, the clarity is increased by 11% 15% , and the average gradient is increased by 4% 9% . By using the Fourier transform spectrum fusion method, the signal-to-noise ratio of the image is increased by 14% 23%, the clarity is increased by 6% 11% , and the average gradient is improved by 2% 6%. The experimental results show that the image processing by the above method can improve the quality of the restored image, improving the image clarity, and can effectively preserve the image information.

  18. Design of pre-optics for laser guide star wavefront sensor for the ELT (United States)

    Muslimov, Eduard; Dohlen, Kjetil; Neichel, Benoit; Hugot, Emmanuel


    In the present paper, we consider the optical design of a zoom system for the active refocusing in laser guide star wavefront sensors. The system is designed according to the specifications coming from the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT)-HARMONI instrument, the first-light, integral field spectrograph for the European (E)-ELT. The system must provide a refocusing of the laser guide as a function of telescope pointing and large decentring of the incoming beam. The system considers four moving lens groups, each of them being a doublet with one aspherical surface. The advantages and shortcomings of such a solution in terms of the component displacements and complexity of the surfaces are described in detail. It is shown that the system can provide the median value of the residual wavefront error of 13.8-94.3 nm and the maximum value <206 nm, while the exit pupil distortion is 0.26-0.36% for each of the telescope pointing directions.

  19. Iterative-Transform Phase Diversity: An Object and Wavefront Recovery Algorithm (United States)

    Smith, J. Scott


    Presented is a solution for recovering the wavefront and an extended object. It builds upon the VSM architecture and deconvolution algorithms. Simulations are shown for recovering the wavefront and extended object from noisy data.

  20. Traveling wavefront solutions to nonlinear reaction-diffusion-convection equations (United States)

    Indekeu, Joseph O.; Smets, Ruben


    Physically motivated modified Fisher equations are studied in which nonlinear convection and nonlinear diffusion is allowed for besides the usual growth and spread of a population. It is pointed out that in a large variety of cases separable functions in the form of exponentially decaying sharp wavefronts solve the differential equation exactly provided a co-moving point source or sink is active at the wavefront. The velocity dispersion and front steepness may differ from those of some previously studied exact smooth traveling wave solutions. For an extension of the reaction-diffusion-convection equation, featuring a memory effect in the form of a maturity delay for growth and spread, also smooth exact wavefront solutions are obtained. The stability of the solutions is verified analytically and numerically.

  1. A Prospective Study to Compare Visual Outcomes Between Wavefront-optimized and Topography-guided Ablation Profiles in Contralateral Eyes With Myopia. (United States)

    Shetty, Rohit; Shroff, Rushad; Deshpande, Kalyani; Gowda, Roshan; Lahane, Sumeet; Jayadev, Chaitra


    To analyze refractive outcomes of wavefront-optimized (WFO) ablation and topography-guided custom ablation (TCAT) profiles using the Allegretto Wave excimer laser platform (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) in the treatment of myopia. Sixty eyes of 30 patients who underwent LASIK were included in this prospective interventional study. WFO ablation was performed in one eye (WFO group) and TCAT in the fellow eye (TCAT group). The WaveLight FS200 femtosecond laser (Alcon Laboratories, Inc.) was used to create the flap and Allegretto Wave excimer laser (Alcon Laboratories, Inc.) was used for photoablation. The Pentacam HR (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) and Allegretto Topolyzer (Alcon Laboratories, Inc.) were used to measure the corneal aberrations. Refractive visual outcomes were also compared. Accuracy, safety, and efficacy were similar in the two groups. The total root mean square (RMS) and RMS of lower order aberrations were significantly better in eyes that underwent TCAT (P .05). There was a more positive change in Q value and spherical aberrations in the WFO group, but this was not statistically significant. TCAT and WFO ablation provided essentially equivalent outcomes after myopic LASIK, with induction of fewer lower order aberrations and higher order aberrations following TCAT ablation. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(1):6-10.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Broadband manipulation of acoustic wavefronts by pentamode metasurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Ye; Wei, Qi, E-mail:; Cheng, Ying [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Zheng [School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu, Xiaojun, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    An acoustic metasurface with a sub-wavelength thickness can manipulate acoustic wavefronts freely by the introduction of abrupt phase variation. However, the existence of a narrow bandwidth and a low transmittance limits further applications. Here, we present a broadband and highly transparent acoustic metasurface based on a frequency-independent generalized acoustic Snell's law and pentamode metamaterials. The proposal employs a gradient velocity to redirect refracted waves and pentamode metamaterials to improve impedance matching between the metasurface and the background medium. Excellent wavefront manipulation based on the metasurface is further demonstrated by anomalous refraction, generation of non-diffracting Bessel beam, and sub-wavelength flat focusing.

  3. Focusing light through dynamical samples using fast continuous wavefront optimization. (United States)

    Blochet, B; Bourdieu, L; Gigan, S


    We describe a fast continuous optimization wavefront shaping system able to focus light through dynamic scattering media. A micro-electro-mechanical system-based spatial light modulator, a fast photodetector, and field programmable gate array electronics are combined to implement a continuous optimization of a wavefront with a single-mode optimization rate of 4.1 kHz. The system performances are demonstrated by focusing light through colloidal solutions of TiO 2 particles in glycerol with tunable temporal stability.

  4. Broadband manipulation of acoustic wavefronts by pentamode metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ye; Wei, Qi; Cheng, Ying; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojun


    An acoustic metasurface with a sub-wavelength thickness can manipulate acoustic wavefronts freely by the introduction of abrupt phase variation. However, the existence of a narrow bandwidth and a low transmittance limits further applications. Here, we present a broadband and highly transparent acoustic metasurface based on a frequency-independent generalized acoustic Snell's law and pentamode metamaterials. The proposal employs a gradient velocity to redirect refracted waves and pentamode metamaterials to improve impedance matching between the metasurface and the background medium. Excellent wavefront manipulation based on the metasurface is further demonstrated by anomalous refraction, generation of non-diffracting Bessel beam, and sub-wavelength flat focusing

  5. Aberration correction during real time in vivo imaging of bone marrow with sensorless adaptive optics confocal microscope. (United States)

    Wang, Zhibin; Wei, Dan; Wei, Ling; He, Yi; Shi, Guohua; Wei, Xunbin; Zhang, Yudong


    We have demonstrated adaptive correction of specimen-induced aberration during in vivo imaging of mouse bone marrow vasculature with confocal fluorescence microscopy. Adaptive optics system was completed with wavefront sensorless correction scheme based on stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm. Using image sharpness as the optimization metric, aberration correction was performed based upon Zernike polynomial modes. The experimental results revealed the improved signal and resolution leading to a substantially enhanced image contrast with aberration correction. The image quality of vessels at 38- and 75-μm depth increased three times and two times, respectively. The corrections allowed us to detect clearer bone marrow vasculature structures at greater contrast and improve the signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes (United States)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.


    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  7. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)


    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  8. Iterative wave-front reconstruction in the Fourier domain. (United States)

    Bond, Charlotte Z; Correia, Carlos M; Sauvage, Jean-François; Neichel, Benoit; Fusco, Thierry


    The use of Fourier methods in wave-front reconstruction can significantly reduce the computation time for large telescopes with a high number of degrees of freedom. However, Fourier algorithms for discrete data require a rectangular data set which conform to specific boundary requirements, whereas wave-front sensor data is typically defined over a circular domain (the telescope pupil). Here we present an iterative Gerchberg routine modified for the purposes of discrete wave-front reconstruction which adapts the measurement data (wave-front sensor slopes) for Fourier analysis, fulfilling the requirements of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and providing accurate reconstruction. The routine is used in the adaptation step only and can be coupled to any other Wiener-like or least-squares method. We compare simulations using this method with previous Fourier methods and show an increase in performance in terms of Strehl ratio and a reduction in noise propagation for a 40×40 SPHERE-like adaptive optics system. For closed loop operation with minimal iterations the Gerchberg method provides an improvement in Strehl, from 95.4% to 96.9% in K-band. This corresponds to ~ 40 nm improvement in rms, and avoids the high spatial frequency errors present in other methods, providing an increase in contrast towards the edge of the correctable band.

  9. Receding-horizon adaptive contyrol of aero-optical wavefronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesch, J.; Gibson, S.; Verhaegen, M.


    A new method for adaptive prediction and correction of wavefront errors in adaptive optics (AO) is introduced. The new method is based on receding-horizon control design and an adaptive lattice filter. Experimental results presented illustrate the capability of the new adaptive controller to predict

  10. Orthonormal polynomials for elliptical wavefronts with an arbitrary orientation. (United States)

    Díaz, José A; Navarro, Rafael


    We generalize the analytical form of the orthonormal elliptical polynomials for any arbitrary aspect ratio to arbitrary orientation and give expression for them up to the 4th order. The utility of the polynomials is demonstrated by obtaining the expansion up to the 8th order in two examples of an off-axis wavefront exiting from an optical system with a vignetted pupil.

  11. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions (United States)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  12. Statistical learning methods for aero-optic wavefront prediction and adaptive-optic latency compensation (United States)

    Burns, W. Robert

    Since the early 1970's research in airborne laser systems has been the subject of continued interest. Airborne laser applications depend on being able to propagate a near diffraction-limited laser beam from an airborne platform. Turbulent air flowing over the aircraft produces density fluctuations through which the beam must propagate. Because the index of refraction of the air is directly related to the density, the turbulent flow imposes aberrations on the beam passing through it. This problem is referred to as Aero-Optics. Aero-Optics is recognized as a major technical issue that needs to be solved before airborne optical systems can become routinely fielded. This dissertation research specifically addresses an approach to mitigating the deleterious effects imposed on an airborne optical system by aero-optics. A promising technology is adaptive optics: a feedback control method that measures optical aberrations and imprints the conjugate aberrations onto an outgoing beam. The challenge is that it is a computationally-difficult problem, since aero-optic disturbances are on the order of kilohertz for practical applications. High control loop frequencies and high disturbance frequencies mean that adaptive-optic systems are sensitive to latency in sensors, mirrors, amplifiers, and computation. These latencies build up to result in a dramatic reduction in the system's effective bandwidth. This work presents two variations of an algorithm that uses model reduction and data-driven predictors to estimate the evolution of measured wavefronts over a short temporal horizon and thus compensate for feedback latency. The efficacy of the two methods are compared in this research, and evaluated against similar algorithms that have been previously developed. The best version achieved over 75% disturbance rejection in simulation in the most optically active flow region in the wake of a turret, considerably outperforming conventional approaches. The algorithm is shown to be

  13. Limitations of segmented wavefront control devices in emulating optical turbulence (United States)

    Plourde, Michael D.; Schmidt, Jason D.


    Using a device to act as a surrogate for atmospheric turbulence in a laboratory is necessary to build and test optical systems for imaging, lidar, laser weapons, and laser communications. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLMs) and segmented micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) deformable mirrors (DMs) are common devices for altering wavefronts to simulate a portion of atmospheric turbulence. The limitations of pixelation effects on a segmented wavefront control device were investigated theoretically. The results of this analysis were then verified by simulation. It was found that while LC SLMs with fine pixel resolution have almost no adverse effects from pixelation, segmented MEMS DMs have limitations related to the number of mirror segments on a DM. The performance capabilities of several available commercial devices are better understood as a result of this research.

  14. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.


    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  15. Wavefront sensing with all-digital Stokes measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available to wavefront sensing [8] based on Stokes polarimetry which makes use of the amplitude and phase relationship between orthogonal states of polarization. With our approach a field of interest is generated by encoding an appropriate hologram on a spatial light... modulator (SLM). Since SLMs are diffraction-inefficient, we can exploit the amplitude relationship between the orthogonal polarization states allowing the execution of Stokes polarimetry of the co-linear superposition of the reference beam and the beam...

  16. The radiation-wavefront instability in pulsed CO2 amplifiers (United States)

    Fedorov, S. V.; Iur'ev, M. S.


    The space-time evolution of a small-scale perturbation against a background of a smooth input beam which is incident on a pulsed CO2 amplifier is studied theoretically. Ranges of transverse frequency, longitudinal coordinate, and time values are found in which the perturbation growth is exponential in nature. It is shown that the wavefront instability is stabilized by the amplification of the main beam and sound damping.

  17. The Art of Optical Aberrations (United States)

    Wylde, Clarissa Eileen Kenney

    Art and optics are inseparable. Though seemingly opposite disciplines, the combination of art and optics has significantly impacted both culture and science as they are now known. As history has run its course, in the sciences, arts, and their fruitful combinations, optical aberrations have proved to be a problematic hindrance to progress. In an effort to eradicate aberrations the simple beauty of these aberrational forms has been labeled as undesirable and discarded. Here, rather than approach aberrations as erroneous, these beautiful forms are elevated to be the photographic subject in a new body of work, On the Bright Side. Though many recording methods could be utilized, this work was composed on classic, medium-format, photographic film using white-light, Michelson interferometry. The resulting images are both a representation of the true light rays that interacted on the distorted mirror surfaces (data) and the artist's compositional eye for what parts of the interferogram are chosen and displayed. A detailed description of the captivating interdisciplinary procedure is documented and presented alongside the final artwork, CCD digital reference images, and deformable mirror contour maps. This alluring marriage between the arts and sciences opens up a heretofore minimally explored aspect of the inextricable art-optics connection. It additionally provides a fascinating new conversation on the importance of light and optics in photographic composition.

  18. Control algorithms and applications of the wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (United States)

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Yuanshen; Yang, Huizhen


    Compared with the conventional adaptive optics (AO) system, the wavefront sensorless (WFSless) AO system need not to measure the wavefront and reconstruct it. It is simpler than the conventional AO in system architecture and can be applied to the complex conditions. Based on the analysis of principle and system model of the WFSless AO system, wavefront correction methods of the WFSless AO system were divided into two categories: model-free-based and model-based control algorithms. The WFSless AO system based on model-free-based control algorithms commonly considers the performance metric as a function of the control parameters and then uses certain control algorithm to improve the performance metric. The model-based control algorithms include modal control algorithms, nonlinear control algorithms and control algorithms based on geometrical optics. Based on the brief description of above typical control algorithms, hybrid methods combining the model-free-based control algorithm with the model-based control algorithm were generalized. Additionally, characteristics of various control algorithms were compared and analyzed. We also discussed the extensive applications of WFSless AO system in free space optical communication (FSO), retinal imaging in the human eye, confocal microscope, coherent beam combination (CBC) techniques and extended objects.

  19. Focal plane based wavefront sensing with random DM probes (United States)

    Pluzhnik, Eugene; Sirbu, Dan; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo; Dudinov, Vladimir N.


    An internal coronagraph with an adaptive optical system for wavefront control is being considered for direct imaging of exoplanets with upcoming space missions and concepts, including WFIRST, HabEx, LUVOIR, EXCEDE and ACESat. The main technical challenge associated with direct imaging of exoplanets is to control of both diffracted and scattered light from the star so that even a dim planetary companion can be imaged. For a deformable mirror (DM) to create a dark hole with 10-10 contrast in the image plane, wavefront errors must be accurately measured on the science focal plane detector to ensure a common optical path. We present here a method that uses a set of random phase probes applied to the DM to obtain a high accuracy wavefront estimate even for a dynamically changing optical system. The presented numerical simulations and experimental results show low noise sensitivity, high reliability, and robustness of the proposed approach. The method does not use any additional optics or complex calibration procedures and can be used during the calibration stage of any direct imaging mission. It can also be used in any optical experiment that uses a DM as an active optical element in the layout.

  20. The size effect of searching window for measuring wavefront of laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Lim, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jung Cheol; Yi, Seung Jun; Ra, Sung Woong


    We investigated the size effect of the searching window for measuring of a laser beam using a Shack-Hartmann sensor. The shapes of spot images on an acquired wavefront image by using a Shack-Hartmann sensor are usually imbalanced. Also, the distributed intensity pattern of each spot image is varied according to successively acquired wavefront image. We studied on the optimized size of searching window to get wavefront with high measurement resolution. We experimented on the various size effect of searching window on an acquired wavefront image to get fine wavefront information using a Shack-Hartmann sensor. As the experimental results, we proposed the optimum size of searching window to measure improved wavefront.

  1. Spectrally resolved single-shot wavefront sensing of broadband high-harmonic sources (United States)

    Freisem, L.; Jansen, G. S. M.; Rudolf, D.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Witte, S.


    Wavefront sensors are an important tool to characterize coherent beams of extreme ultraviolet radiation. However, conventional Hartmann-type sensors do not allow for independent wavefront characterization of different spectral components that may be present in a beam, which limits their applicability for intrinsically broadband high-harmonic generation (HHG) sources. Here we introduce a wavefront sensor that measures the wavefronts of all the harmonics in a HHG beam in a single camera exposure. By replacing the mask apertures with transmission gratings at different orientations, we simultaneously detect harmonic wavefronts and spectra, and obtain sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure such as pulse front tilt as well. We demonstrate the capabilities of the sensor through a parallel measurement of the wavefronts of 9 harmonics in a wavelength range between 25 and 49 nm, with up to lambda/32 precision.

  2. Algorithm study of wavefront reconstruction based on the cyclic radial shear interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Li Da Hai; Chen Huai Xin; Chen Zhen Pei; Chen Bo Fei; Jing Feng


    The author presents a new algorithm of wavefront reconstruction based on the cyclic radial shear interferometer. The algorithm is a technique that the actual wavefront can be reconstructed directly and accurately from the distribution of phase difference which is obtained from the radial shearing pattern by Fourier transform. It can help to measure accurately the distorted wavefront of ICF in-process. An experiment is presented to test the algorithm

  3. Wavefront control of a multicore ytterbium-doped pulse fiber amplifier by digital holography. (United States)

    Paurisse, Mathieu; Hanna, Marc; Druon, Frédéric; Georges, Patrick


    We demonstrate the active wavefront control of a 19-core ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier by the digital holography technique. The output wavefront is corrected even in the presence of large externally induced perturbations, with a measured output Strehl ratio of 0.6 in all cases. The wavefront-controlled multicore fiber is used to amplify 800 ps pulses at 1064 nm at a repetition rate of 40?kHz, and a gain of 23 dB is obtained.

  4. Origins and fundamentals of nodal aberration theory (United States)

    Rogers, John R.


    Nodal Aberration Theory, developed by Kevin Thompson and Roland Shack, predicts several important aberration phenomena but remains poorly understood. To de-mystify the theory, we describe the origins and fundamental concepts of the theory.

  5. 5-D interpolation with wave-front attributes (United States)

    Xie, Yujiang; Gajewski, Dirk


    Most 5-D interpolation and regularization techniques reconstruct the missing data in the frequency domain by using mathematical transforms. An alternative type of interpolation methods uses wave-front attributes, that is, quantities with a specific physical meaning like the angle of emergence and wave-front curvatures. In these attributes structural information of subsurface features like dip and strike of a reflector are included. These wave-front attributes work on 5-D data space (e.g. common-midpoint coordinates in x and y, offset, azimuth and time), leading to a 5-D interpolation technique. Since the process is based on stacking next to the interpolation a pre-stack data enhancement is achieved, improving the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of interpolated and recorded traces. The wave-front attributes are determined in a data-driven fashion, for example, with the Common Reflection Surface (CRS method). As one of the wave-front-attribute-based interpolation techniques, the 3-D partial CRS method was proposed to enhance the quality of 3-D pre-stack data with low S/N. In the past work on 3-D partial stacks, two potential problems were still unsolved. For high-quality wave-front attributes, we suggest a global optimization strategy instead of the so far used pragmatic search approach. In previous works, the interpolation of 3-D data was performed along a specific azimuth which is acceptable for narrow azimuth acquisition but does not exploit the potential of wide-, rich- or full-azimuth acquisitions. The conventional 3-D partial CRS method is improved in this work and we call it as a wave-front-attribute-based 5-D interpolation (5-D WABI) as the two problems mentioned above are addressed. Data examples demonstrate the improved performance by the 5-D WABI method when compared with the conventional 3-D partial CRS approach. A comparison of the rank-reduction-based 5-D seismic interpolation technique with the proposed 5-D WABI method is given. The comparison reveals that

  6. Wavefront Control and Image Restoration with Less Computing (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.


    PseudoDiversity is a method of recovering the wavefront in a sparse- or segmented- aperture optical system typified by an interferometer or a telescope equipped with an adaptive primary mirror consisting of controllably slightly moveable segments. (PseudoDiversity should not be confused with a radio-antenna-arraying method called pseudodiversity.) As in the cases of other wavefront- recovery methods, the streams of wavefront data generated by means of PseudoDiversity are used as feedback signals for controlling electromechanical actuators of the various segments so as to correct wavefront errors and thereby, for example, obtain a clearer, steadier image of a distant object in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. There are numerous potential applications in astronomy, remote sensing from aircraft and spacecraft, targeting missiles, sighting military targets, and medical imaging (including microscopy) through such intervening media as cells or water. In comparison with prior wavefront-recovery methods used in adaptive optics, PseudoDiversity involves considerably simpler equipment and procedures and less computation. For PseudoDiversity, there is no need to install separate metrological equipment or to use any optomechanical components beyond those that are already parts of the optical system to which the method is applied. In Pseudo- Diversity, the actuators of a subset of the segments or subapertures are driven to make the segments dither in the piston, tilt, and tip degrees of freedom. Each aperture is dithered at a unique frequency at an amplitude of a half wavelength of light. During the dithering, images on the focal plane are detected and digitized at a rate of at least four samples per dither period. In the processing of the image samples, the use of different dither frequencies makes it possible to determine the separate effects of the various dithered segments or apertures. The digitized image-detector outputs are processed in the spatial

  7. Partial coherence and imperfect optics at a synchrotron radiation source modeled by wavefront propagation (United States)

    Laundy, David; Alcock, Simon G.; Alianelli, Lucia; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal J. S.; Chubar, Oleg


    A full wave propagation of X-rays from source to sample at a storage ring beamline requires simulation of the electron beam source and optical elements in the beamline. The finite emittance source causes the appearance of partial coherence in the wave field. Consequently, the wavefront cannot be treated exactly with fully coherent wave propagation or fully incoherent ray tracing. We have used the wavefront code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) to perform partially coherent wavefront propagation using a parallel computing cluster at the Diamond Light Source. Measured mirror profiles have been used to correct the wavefront for surface errors.

  8. Freeform aberrations in phase space: an example. (United States)

    Babington, James


    We consider how optical propagation and aberrations of freeform systems can be formulated in phase space. As an example system, a freeform prism is analyzed and discussed. Symmetry considerations and their group theory descriptions are given some importance. Numerical aberrations are also highlighted and put into the context of the underlying aberration theory.

  9. Pathophysiology of MDS: genomic aberrations. (United States)

    Ichikawa, Motoshi


    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and their apoptosis, and show a propensity to progress to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Although MDS are recognized as neoplastic diseases caused by genomic aberrations of hematopoietic cells, the details of the genetic abnormalities underlying disease development have not as yet been fully elucidated due to difficulties in analyzing chromosomal abnormalities. Recent advances in comprehensive analyses of disease genomes including whole-genome sequencing technologies have revealed the genomic abnormalities in MDS. Surprisingly, gene mutations were found in approximately 80-90% of cases with MDS, and the novel mutations discovered with these technologies included previously unknown, MDS-specific, mutations such as those of the genes in the RNA-splicing machinery. It is anticipated that these recent studies will shed new light on the pathophysiology of MDS due to genomic aberrations.

  10. Aberrated surface soliton formation in a nonlinear 1D and 2D photonic crystal. (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A; Lysak, Tatiana M; Trykin, Evgenii M


    We discuss a novel type of surface soliton-aberrated surface soliton-appearance in a nonlinear one dimensional photonic crystal and a possibility of this surface soliton formation in two dimensional photonic crystal. An aberrated surface soliton possesses a nonlinear distribution of the wavefront. We show that, in one dimensional photonic crystal, the surface soliton is formed at the photonic crystal boundary with the ambient medium. Essentially, that it occupies several layers at the photonic crystal boundary and penetrates into the ambient medium at a distance also equal to several layers, so that one can infer about light energy localization at the lateral surface of the photonic crystal. In the one dimensional case, the surface soliton is formed from an earlier formed soliton that falls along the photonic crystal layers at an angle which differs slightly from the normal to the photonic crystal face. In the two dimensional case, the soliton can appear if an incident Gaussian beam falls on the photonic crystal face. The influence of laser radiation parameters, optical properties of photonic crystal layers and ambient medium on the one dimensional surface soliton formation is investigated. We also discuss the influence of two dimensional photonic crystal configuration on light energy localization near the photonic crystal surface. It is important that aberrated surface solitons can be created at relatively low laser pulse intensity and for close values of alternating layers dielectric permittivity which allows their experimental observation.

  11. Time-resolved measurement of thermally induced aberrations in a cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG slab with a wavefront sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sikocinski, Pawel; Novák, Ondřej; Smrž, Martin; Pilař, Jan; Jambunathan, Venkatesan; Jelínková, H.; Endo, Akira; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomáš


    Roč. 122, č. 4 (2016), 1-10, č. článku 73. ISSN 0946-2171 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA MŠk LO1602; GA ČR GA14-01660S Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : solid-state laser * Yb-Yag Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.696, year: 2016


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S.; Belikov, R.; Bendek, E. [NASA AMES Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)


    Direct imaging of extra-solar planets is now a reality with the deployment and commissioning of the first generation of specialized ground-based instruments (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, and SCExAO). These systems allow of planets 10{sup 7} times fainter than their host star. For space-based missions (EXCEDE, EXO-C, EXO-S, WFIRST), various teams have demonstrated laboratory contrasts reaching 10{sup −10} within a few diffraction limits from the star. However, all of these current and future systems are designed to detect faint planets around a single host star, while most non-M-dwarf stars such as Alpha Centauri belong to multi-star systems. Direct imaging around binaries/multiple systems at a level of contrast allowing detection of Earth-like planets is challenging because the region of interest is contaminated by the host star's companion in addition to the host itself. Generally, the light leakage is caused by both diffraction and aberrations in the system. Moreover, the region of interest usually falls outside the correcting zone of the deformable mirror (DM) with respect to the companion. Until now, it has been thought that removing the light of a companion star is too challenging, leading to the exclusion of many binary systems from target lists of direct imaging coronographic missions. In this paper, we will show new techniques for high-contrast imaging of planets around multi-star systems and detail the Super-Nyquist Wavefront Control (SNWC) method, which allows wavefront errors to be controlled beyond the nominal control region of the DM. Our simulations have demonstrated that, with SNWC, raw contrasts of at least 5 × 10{sup −9} in a 10% bandwidth are possible.

  13. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlmann-Diaz, M.C.


    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 10 5 copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G 0 , the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes

  14. Tomographic flow cytometry assisted by intelligent wavefronts analysis (United States)

    Merola, F.; Memmolo, P.; Miccio, L.; Mugnano, M.; Ferraro, P.


    High-throughput single-cell analysis is a challenging target for implementing advanced biomedical applications. An excellent candidate for this aim is label-free tomographic phase microscopy. However, in-line tomography is very difficult to be implemented in practice, as it requires complex setup for rotating the sample and/or illuminate the cell along numerous directions [1]. We exploit random rolling of cells while they are flowing along a microfluidic channel demonstrating that it is possible to obtain in-line phase-contrast tomography by adopting strategies for intelligent wavefronts analysis thus obtaining complete retrieval of both 3D-position and orientation of rotating cells [2]. Thus, by numerical wavefront analysis a-priori knowledge of such information is no longer needed. This approach makes continuos-flow cyto-tomography suitable for practical operation in real-world, single-cell analysis and with substantial simplification of the optical system avoiding any mechanical/optical scanning of light source. Demonstration is given for different classes of biosamples, red-blood-cells (RBCs), diatom algae and fibroblast cells [3]. Accurate characterization of each type of cells is reported despite their very different nature and materials content, thus showing the proposed method can be extended, by adopting two alternate strategies of wavefront-analysis, to many classes of cells. In particular, for RBCs we furnish important parameters as 3D morphology, Corpuscular Hemoglobin (CH), Volume (V), and refractive index (RI) for each single cell in the total population [3]. This could open a new route in blood disease diagnosis, for example for the isolation and characterization of "foreign" cells in the blood stream, the so called Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC), early manifestation of metastasis.

  15. Comparison of Ocular Monochromatic Higher-order Aberrations in Normal Refractive Surgery Candidates of Arab and South Asian Origin. (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Srivastava, Dhruv; Choudhuri, Sounak; Bacero, Ruthchel


    To compare the ocular monochromatic higher-order aberration. (HOA) profile in normal refractive surgery candidates of Arab and South Asian origin. This cross-sectional, observational, comparative study was performed in the cornea department of a specialty hospital. Normal refractive surgery candidates with no ocular morbidity except refractive error were recruited. Refractive surgery candidates underwent a preoperative evaluation, including wavefront aberrometry with the iDesign aberrometer (AMO, Inc., Santa Ana, California, United States). The HOA from right eyes were analyzed for HOA signed, absolute, and polar Zernike coefficients. Two hundred Arab participants (group 1) and 200 participants of South-Asian origin (group 2) comprised the study sample. The age and refractive status were comparable between groups. The mean of the HOA root mean square (RMS) was 0.36 ± 17 μ and 0.38 ± 18 μ for Arab and South-Asian eyes, respectively (P 0.002 [0.05/22]). The polar coefficients for coma, trefoil, spherical aberration, and tetrafoil were comparable between groups (P > 0.05, RST). Combined RMS values of third, fourth, fifth, and sixth order also were comparable between groups (P > 0.05, RST). Preoperative whole eye HOA were similar for refractive surgery candidates of Arab and South-Asian origin. The values were comparable to historical data for Caucasian eyes and were lower than Asian (Chinese) eyes. These findings may aid in refining refractive nomograms for wavefront ablations.

  16. Twisted speckle entities inside wave-front reversal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulov, A. Yu


    The previously unknown property of the optical speckle pattern reported. The interference of a speckle with the counterpropagating phase-conjugated (PC) speckle wave produces a randomly distributed ensemble of a twisted entities (ropes) surrounding optical vortex lines. These entities appear in a wide range of a randomly chosen speckle parameters inside the phase-conjugating mirrors regardless to an internal physical mechanism of the wave-front reversal. These numerically generated interference patterns are relevant to the Brillouin PC mirrors and to a four-wave mixing PC mirrors based upon laser trapped ultracold atomic cloud.

  17. Estimation of Shower Parameters in Wavefront Sampling Technique


    Chitnis, V. R.; Bhat, P. N.


    Wavefront sampling experiments record arrival times of \\v{C}erenkov photons with high precision at various locations in \\v{C}erenkov pool using a distributed array of telescopes. It was shown earlier that this photon front can be fitted with a spherical surface traveling at a speed of light and originating from a single point on the shower axis. Radius of curvature of the spherical shower front ($R$) is approximately equal to the height of shower maximum from observation level. For a given pr...

  18. Wavefront-error evaluation by mathematical analysis of experimental Foucault-test data (United States)

    Wilson, R. G.


    The diffraction theory of the Foucault test provides an integral formula expressing the complex amplitude and irradiance distribution in the Foucault pattern of a test mirror (lens) as a function of wavefront error. Recent literature presents methods of inverting this formula to express wavefront error in terms of irradiance in the Foucault pattern. The present paper describes a study in which the inversion formulation was applied to photometric Foucault-test measurements on a nearly diffraction-limited mirror to determine wavefront errors for direct comparison with ones determined from scatter-plate interferometer measurements. The results affirm the practicability of the Foucault test for quantitative wavefront analysis of very small errors, and they reveal the fallacy of the prevalent belief that the test is limited to qualitative use only. Implications of the results with regard to optical testing and the potential use of the Foucault test for wavefront analysis in orbital space telescopes are discussed.

  19. A test bench for ARGOS: integration of sub-systems and validation of the wavefront sensing (United States)

    Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian


    ARGOS, the wide eld Laser Guide Stars adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope, is now entering its installation phase. In the meanwhile, we have started a test bench in order to integrate various Argos sub-systems and demonstrate its wavefront measurements. To this objective, we rst validate three key components of the Argos wavefront sensor which we then integrate together. The test bench therefore comprises the Argos wavefront camera system - including a large frame, fast framerate, high quantum eciency and low readout noise pnCCD -, the slope computer, and a optical gating unit. While we present here the demonstration of those three key components, it is also a step to their system level integration that enables us to validate the wavefront measurements in term of noises, timing and computation. In the near future, those system will be integrated to the wavefront sensor system of ARGOS.

  20. Modeling and characterization of wavefront morphologies of laser induced damages on dielectric coating (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Liu, Zhichao; Luo, Jin; Pan, Feng; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao


    The specific morphologies of laser induced damages on dielectric coating can cause wavefront modulations and influence the downstream propagation properties of transmitted beam, which is so called wavefront morphologies. In this paper, the modeling and characterization of these wavefront morphologies are carried out. In theory, the modulation effects of different morphologies are discussed and their influence on downstream beam propagation properties are simulated based on diffraction integral. In experiment, a pump-and-probe system is developed to characterize different wavefront morphologies, and in correspondence, their geometric morphologies are characterized by microscopic instruments. The simulation and experiment match well with each other, and the geometric characterization explains the origins of wavefront properties of different morphologies.

  1. Fast modulation and dithering on a pyramid wavefront sensor bench (United States)

    van Kooten, Maaike; Bradley, Colin; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; Lardiere, Olivier


    A pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) bench has been setup at NRC-Herzberg (Victoria, Canada) to investigate, first, the feasibility of a double roof prism PWFS, and second, test the proposed pyramid wavefront sensing methodology to be used in NFIRAOS for the Thirty Meter Telescope. Traditional PWFS require shallow angles and strict apex tolerances, making them difficult to manufacture. Roof prisms, on the other hand, are common optical components and can easily be made to the desired specifications. Understanding the differences between a double roof prism PWFS and traditional PWFS will allow for the double roof prism PWFS to become more widely used as an alternative to the standard pyramid, especially in a laboratory setting. In this work, the response of the double roof prism PWFS as the amount of modulation is changed, is compared to an ideal PWFS modelled using the adaptive optics toolbox, OOMAO in MATLAB. The object oriented toolbox uses physical optics to model complete AO systems. Fast modulation and dithering using a PI mirror has been implemented using a micro-controller to drive the mirror and trigger the camera. The various trade offs of this scheme, in a controlled laboratory environment, are studied and reported.

  2. Amplification and Attenuation across USArray using Ambient Noise Wavefront Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Bowden, Daniel C.


    As seismic travel-time tomography continues to be refined using data from the vast USArray dataset, it is advantageous to also exploit the amplitude information carried by seismic waves. We use ambient noise cross correlation to make observations of surface-wave amplification and attenuation at shorter periods (8 – 32 seconds) than can be observed with only traditional teleseismic earthquake sources. We show that the wavefront tracking approach of [Lin et al., 2012a] can be successfully applied to ambient noise correlations, yielding results quite similar to those from earthquake observations at periods of overlap. This consistency indicates that the wavefront tracking approach is viable for use with ambient noise correlations, despite concerns of the inhomogeneous and unknown distribution of noise sources. The resulting amplification and attenuation maps correlate well with known tectonic and crustal structure; at the shortest periods, our amplification and attenuation maps correlate well with surface geology and known sedimentary basins, while our longest period amplitudes are controlled by crustal thickness and begin to probe upper mantle materials. These amplification and attenuation observations are sensitive to crustal materials in different ways than travel-time observations and may be used to better constrain temperature or density variations. We also value them as an independent means of describing the lateral variability of observed Rayleigh-wave amplitudes without the need for 3D tomographic inversions.

  3. Optically sensitive Medipix2 detector for adaptive optics wavefront sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallerga, John; McPhate, Jason; Tremsin, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan


    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused microchannel plate (MCP) read out by multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ('Medipix2') with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 256x256 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting), can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates and is abutable on 3 sides. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 ns. When used in a Shack-Hartmann style wavefront sensor, a detector with 4 Medipix chips should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7x7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest

  4. Wavefront Shaping and Its Application to Enhance Photoacoustic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Yu


    Full Text Available Since its introduction to the field in mid-1990s, photoacoustic imaging has become a fast-developing biomedical imaging modality with many promising potentials. By converting absorbed diffused light energy into not-so-diffused ultrasonic waves, the reconstruction of the ultrasonic waves from the targeted area in photoacoustic imaging leads to a high-contrast sensing of optical absorption with ultrasonic resolution in deep tissue, overcoming the optical diffusion limit from the signal detection perspective. The generation of photoacoustic signals, however, is still throttled by the attenuation of photon flux due to the strong diffusion effect of light in tissue. Recently, optical wavefront shaping has demonstrated that multiply scattered light could be manipulated so as to refocus inside a complex medium, opening up new hope to tackle the fundamental limitation. In this paper, the principle and recent development of photoacoustic imaging and optical wavefront shaping are briefly introduced. Then we describe how photoacoustic signals can be used as a guide star for in-tissue optical focusing, and how such focusing can be exploited for further enhancing photoacoustic imaging in terms of sensitivity and penetration depth. Finally, the existing challenges and further directions towards in vivo applications are discussed.

  5. Improvement of laser dicing performance II: dicing rate enhancement by multi beams and simultaneous aberration correction with phase-only spatial light modulator (United States)

    Takiguchi, Yu; Matsumoto, Naoya; Oyaizu, Masaki; Okuma, Jyunji; Nakano, Makoto; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Itoh, Haruyasu; Inoue, Takashi


    "Stealth Dicing" laser processing is a dry and debris-free semiconductor wafer dicing method achieved by generating thermal micro-cracks inside a wafer with a tightly focused laser beam. This method has two practical issues: (1) the dicing speed is limited by the repetition rate of the pulsed laser, and (2) integrated circuits on the opposite side of the wafer from the laser light are potentially damaged by excessive laser intensity required to compensate for insufficient beam convergence. The insufficient beam convergence is a result of spherical aberration due to a refractive index mismatch between air and the wafer. These problems can be resolved by incorporating a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) into the laser dicing system. The SLM produces two types of wavefront configurations simultaneously for two different functions. One is for multi-beam generation with a phase grating pattern. This improves the dicing speed by a factor equal to the number of diffracted beams. The other is for aberration correction of the multiple beams using a pre-distorted wavefront pattern. By correcting aberrations, the focused multiple beams inside the wafer will become sufficiently convergent to avoid undesirable laser damage. We demonstrated these improvements by dicing sapphire wafers with a pulsed laser and a high-numerical-aperture objective lens.

  6. Phase and birefringence aberration correction (United States)

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.


    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.; Vladar, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Vicanova, M.; Durcik, M.


    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  8. Reconstruction of laser beam wavefronts based on mode analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C


    Full Text Available . Experimental Setup To measure the influence of defined Zernike aberra- tions on a laser beam, we used an experimental setup as outlined in Fig. 3. The beam of a helium–neon laser (10 mW power, 633 nm wavelength) was expanded and collimated [ f �L 1 � � 15 mm, f.... Insets depict the shapes of the corresponding aberrations. Fig. 3. Schematic of the experimental setup to modally decom- pose differently aberrated Gaussian beams. He–Ne, helium–neon laser; L 1–5 , lenses; M, mirror; SLM 1;2, spatial light modulator...

  9. Wavefront reconstruction method based on wavelet fractal interpolation for coherent free space optical communication (United States)

    Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Zhao, Qingsong; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Lei; Wan, Xiongfeng


    Existing wavefront reconstruction methods are usually low in resolution, restricted by structure characteristics of the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH WFS) and the deformable mirror (DM) in the adaptive optics (AO) system, thus, resulting in weak homodyne detection efficiency for free space optical (FSO) communication. In order to solve this problem, we firstly validate the feasibility of liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC SLM) using in an AO system. Then, wavefront reconstruction method based on wavelet fractal interpolation is proposed after self-similarity analysis of wavefront distortion caused by atmospheric turbulence. Fast wavelet decomposition is operated to multiresolution analyze the wavefront phase spectrum, during which soft threshold denoising is carried out. The resolution of estimated wavefront phase is then improved by fractal interpolation. Finally, fast wavelet reconstruction is taken to recover wavefront phase. Simulation results reflect the superiority of our method in homodyne detection. Compared with minimum variance estimation (MVE) method based on interpolation techniques, the proposed method could obtain superior homodyne detection efficiency with lower operation complexity. Our research findings have theoretical significance in the design of coherent FSO communication system.

  10. Dynamic testbed demonstration of WFIRST coronagraph low order wavefront sensing and control (LOWFS/C) (United States)

    Shi, Fang; Cady, Eric; Seo, Byoung-Joon; An, Xin; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kern, Brian; Lam, Raymond; Marx, David; Moody, Dwight; Mejia Prada, Camilo; Patterson, Keith; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Shields, Joel; Sidick, Erkin; Tang, Hong; Trauger, John; Truong, Tuan; White, Victor; Wilson, Daniel; Zhou, Hanying


    To maintain the required performance of WFIRST Coronagraph in a realistic space environment, a Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control (LOWFS/C) subsystem is necessary. The LOWFS/C uses a Zernike wavefront sensor (ZWFS) with the phase shifting disk combined with the starlight rejecting occulting mask. For wavefront error corrections, WFIRST LOWFS/C uses a fast steering mirror (FSM) for line-of-sight (LoS) correction, a focusing mirror for focus drift correction, and one of the two deformable mirrors (DM) for other low order wavefront error (WFE) correction. As a part of technology development and demonstration for WFIRST Coronagraph, a dedicated Occulting Mask Coronagraph (OMC) testbed has been built and commissioned. With its configuration similar to the WFIRST flight coronagraph instrument the OMC testbed consists of two coronagraph modes, Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) and Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC), a low order wavefront sensor (LOWFS), and an optical telescope assembly (OTA) simulator which can generate realistic LoS drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront error that would be induced by the WFIRST telescope's vibration and thermal changes. In this paper, we will introduce the concept of WFIRST LOWFS/C, describe the OMC testbed, and present the testbed results of LOWFS sensor performance. We will also present our recent results from the dynamic coronagraph tests in which we have demonstrated of using LOWFS/C to maintain the coronagraph contrast with the presence of WFIRST-like line-of-sight and low order wavefront disturbances.

  11. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi embedded system (United States)

    Contreras-Martinez, Ramiro; Garduño-Mejía, Jesús; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Román-Moreno, Carlos J.


    In this work we present the design and manufacture of a compact Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi and a microlens array. The main goal of this sensor is to recover the wavefront of a laser beam and to characterize its spatial phase using a simple and compact Raspberry Pi and the Raspberry Pi embedded camera. The recovery algorithm is based on a modified version of the Southwell method and was written in Python as well as its user interface. Experimental results and reconstructed wavefronts are presented.

  12. Broadband reflected wavefronts manipulation using structured phase gradient metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Wang


    Full Text Available Acoustic metasurface (AMS is a good candidate to manipulate acoustic waves due to special acoustic performs that cannot be realized by traditional materials. In this paper, we design the AMS by using circular-holed cubic arrays. The advantages of our AMS are easy assemble, subwavelength thickness, and low energy loss for manipulating acoustic waves. According to the generalized Snell’s law, acoustic waves can be manipulated arbitrarily by using AMS with different phase gradients. By selecting suitable hole diameter of circular-holed cube (CHC, some interesting phenomena are demonstrated by our simulations based on finite element method, such as the conversion of incoming waves into surface waves, anomalous reflections (including negative reflection, acoustic focusing lens, and acoustic carpet cloak. Our results can provide a simple approach to design AMSes and use them in wavefront manipulation and manufacturing of acoustic devices.

  13. Multicore-Optimized Wavefront Diamond Blocking for Optimizing Stencil Updates

    KAUST Repository

    Malas, T.


    The importance of stencil-based algorithms in computational science has focused attention on optimized parallel implementations for multilevel cache-based processors. Temporal blocking schemes leverage the large bandwidth and low latency of caches to accelerate stencil updates and approach theoretical peak performance. A key ingredient is the reduction of data traffic across slow data paths, especially the main memory interface. In this work we combine the ideas of multicore wavefront temporal blocking and diamond tiling to arrive at stencil update schemes that show large reductions in memory pressure compared to existing approaches. The resulting schemes show performance advantages in bandwidth-starved situations, which are exacerbated by the high bytes per lattice update case of variable coefficients. Our thread groups concept provides a controllable trade-off between concurrency and memory usage, shifting the pressure between the memory interface and the CPU. We present performance results on a contemporary Intel processor.

  14. Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics temporal focusing-based multiphoton microscopy. (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Cheng, Li-Chung; Su, Hung-Wei; Hu, Yvonne Yuling; Cho, Keng-Chi; Yen, Wei-Chung; Xu, Chris; Dong, Chen Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen


    Temporal profile distortions reduce excitation efficiency and image quality in temporal focusing-based multiphoton microscopy. In order to compensate the distortions, a wavefront sensorless adaptive optics system (AOS) was integrated into the microscope. The feedback control signal of the AOS was acquired from local image intensity maximization via a hill-climbing algorithm. The control signal was then utilized to drive a deformable mirror in such a way as to eliminate the distortions. With the AOS correction, not only is the axial excitation symmetrically refocused, but the axial resolution with full two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) intensity is also maintained. Hence, the contrast of the TPEF image of a R6G-doped PMMA thin film is enhanced along with a 3.7-fold increase in intensity. Furthermore, the TPEF image quality of 1μm fluorescent beads sealed in agarose gel at different depths is improved.

  15. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.


    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  16. Performance and scalability analysis of teraflop-scale parallel architectures using multidimensional wavefront applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisie, A.; Lubeck, O.; Wasserman, H.


    The authors develop a model for the parallel performance of algorithms that consist of concurrent, two-dimensional wavefronts implemented in a message passing environment. The model, based on a LogGP machine parameterization, combines the separate contributions of computation and communication wavefronts. They validate the model on three important supercomputer systems, on up to 500 processors. They use data from a deterministic particle transport application taken from the ASCI workload, although the model is general to any wavefront algorithm implemented on a 2-D processor domain. They also use the validated model to make estimates of performance and scalability of wavefront algorithms on 100-TFLOPS computer systems expected to be in existence within the next decade as part of the ASCI program and elsewhere. In this context, they analyze two problem sizes. The model shows that on the largest such problem (1 billion cells), inter-processor communication performance is not the bottleneck. Single-node efficiency is the dominant factor

  17. Corneal-Wavefront guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy after corneal collagen cross linking in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Camellin


    Conclusions: Corneal-Wavefront guided transepithelial PRK ablation profiles after conventional CXL yields to good visual, optical, and refractive results. These treatments are safe and efficacious for the correction of refracto-therapeutic problems in keratoconic patients.

  18. [Wave front aberrations -- practical conclusions in eye with Restor 3+ difractive multifocal lens]. (United States)

    Staicu, Corina; Moraru, Ozana; Moraru, Cristian


    Implantation of multifocal intraocular lenses has become a rutine nowadays, but achieving good visual results requires a perfect intraoperative technique and also an adequate preoperative selection of the patients. We analysed the wave front aberrations (spherical aberations, coma and astigmatism) in the eyes implanted with ReStor + 3 IOL, and we realized some clinical correlations of these aberations with the pupil diameter in scotopic and fotopic conditions, kappa angle, IOL centration, residual refraction errors postoperatively. Taking into account the causes of postoperative high order aberration will allow the surgeon to make a good selection of the patiens and to a higher degree of satisfaction of both sides.

  19. Angular displacement and deformation analyses using speckle-based wavefront sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Giancarlo, Pedrini; Arun, Anand


    Wavefronts incident on a random phase plate are reconstructed via phase retrieval utilizing axially displaced speckle intensity measurements and the wave propagation equation. Retrieved phases and phase subtraction facilitate the investigations of wavefronts from test objects before and after und...... thermal loading. The technique offers simple, high resolution, noncontact, and whole field evaluation of three-dimensional objects before and after undergoing rotation or deformation. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America...

  20. Flow cytogenetics: progress toward chromosomal aberration detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrano, A.V.; Gray, J.W.; Van Dilla, M.A.


    Using clonal derivatives of the Chinese hamster M3-1 cell line, we demonstrate the potential of flow systems to karyotype homogeneous aberrations (aberrations which are identical and present in every cell) and to detect heterogeneous aberrations (aberrations which occur randomly in a population and are not identical in every cell). Flow cytometry (FCM) of ethidium bromide stained isolated chromosomes from clone 650A of the M3-1 cells distinguishes nine chromosome types from the fourteen present in the actual karyotype. X-irradiation of this parent 650A clone produced two sub-clones with an altered flow karyotype, that is, their FCM distributions were characterized by the addition of new peaks and alterations in area under existing peaks. From the relative DNA content and area for each peak, as determined by computer analysis, we predicted that each clone had undergone a reciprocal translocation involving chromosomes from two peaks. This prediction was confirmed by Giemsa-banding the metaphase cells. Heterogeneous aberrations are reflected in the flow karyotype as an increase in background, that is, an increase in area underlying the chromosome peaks. This increase is dose dependent but, as yet, the sample variability has been too large for quantitative analysis. Flow sorting of the valleys between chromosome peaks produces enriched fractions of aberrant chromosomes for visual analysis. These approaches are potentially applicable to the analysis of chromsomal aberrations induced by environmental contaminants

  1. [Aberrant bodily self in schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Maeda, Takaki; Mimura, Masaru


    Patients with schizophrenia often experience aberrant bodily self including depersonalization and cenesthopathy, especially in its prodromal and early stage. These symptoms are regarded as the beginning of self-disturbances (i.e. the core psychopathology of the illness). Thus, an understanding of schizophrenic bodily experiences could provide insight into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recently, in the field of cognitive neuroscience, research on self-awareness during intentional actions has focused on examining sense of body ownership (SoO) and sense of agency (SoA). The most critical factor for the emergence of those higher-order senses of self is subject's intention for actions. Intentional signals could integrate multiple bodily sensory feedbacks during actions, and lead to develop a coherent sense of self. Empirical studies using behavioral and neuroimaging experiments have demonstrated that schizophrenic patients exhibit specific patterns of abnormal SoO and SoA. Thus, from a clinical standpoint, the detection of specific nature of schizophrenic bodily experiences could provide evidence for early diagnosis and intervention for schizophrenia.

  2. Diagnostic radiation and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.R.; Hecht, F.; Lubs, H.A.; Kimberling, W.; Brown, J.; Gerald, P.S.; Summitt, R.L.


    Some evidence is presented suggesting that diagnostic X-rays may be important in the origin of a new chromosomal abnormality other than Down syndrome. Chromosome analyses have been carried out on 4342 children, seven or eight years old. Maternal diagnostic irradiation in the year before conception and up to third lunar month of the index pregnancy was recorded, before the chromosome study began, together with a large amount of family and clinical data. Information on X-ray exposure was supplied by the mothers, s o radiation dosage could not be estimated. 21 children (including a pair of twins and a pair of siblings) born to 19 mothers had chromosomal aberrations. The mothers of six children with inherited translocations, rearrangements and XYY karyotypes were excluded, and 3 (23%) of the remaining 13 mothers had received abdominal and pelvic X-ray exposures. In the whole sample, however, only 6% of the mothers had diagnostic irradiation. Two of these mothers, aged sixteen and twenty, gave birth to a child each with de-novo autosomal translocations, and the third mother, aged thirty-two, had a child with a complex mosaicism involving one X chromosome. Although the sample size of the mothers with chromosomally abnormal children is small, the results are significant. (U.K.)

  3. Diffracted wavefront measurement of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Habraken, Serge; Lemaire, Philippe; Jamar, Claude


    Flatness of the wavefront diffracted by grating can be mandatory for some applications. At ambient temperature, the wavefront diffracted by a volume phase holographic grating (VPHG) is well mastered by the manufacturing process and can be corrected or shaped by post polishing. However, to be used in cooled infrared spectrometers, VPHGs have to stand and work properly at low temperatures.We present the measurement of the wavefront diffracted by atypical VPHG at various temperatures down to 150 K and at several thermal inhomogeneity amplitudes. The particular grating observed was produced using a dichromated gelatine technique and encapsulated between two glass blanks. Diffracted wavefront measurements show that the wavefront is extremely stable according to the temperature as long as the latter is homogeneous over the grating stack volume. Increasing the thermal inhomogeneity increases the wavefront error that pinpoints the importance of the final instrument thermal design. This concludes the dichromated gelatine VPHG technology, used more and more in visible spectrometers, can be applied as it is to cooled IR spectrometers

  4. Local sharpening and subspace wavefront correction with predictive dynamic digital holography (United States)

    Sulaiman, Sennan; Gibson, Steve


    Digital holography holds several advantages over conventional imaging and wavefront sensing, chief among these being significantly fewer and simpler optical components and the retrieval of complex field. Consequently, many imaging and sensing applications including microscopy and optical tweezing have turned to using digital holography. A significant obstacle for digital holography in real-time applications, such as wavefront sensing for high energy laser systems and high speed imaging for target racking, is the fact that digital holography is computationally intensive; it requires iterative virtual wavefront propagation and hill-climbing to optimize some sharpness criteria. It has been shown recently that minimum-variance wavefront prediction can be integrated with digital holography and image sharpening to reduce significantly large number of costly sharpening iterations required to achieve near-optimal wavefront correction. This paper demonstrates further gains in computational efficiency with localized sharpening in conjunction with predictive dynamic digital holography for real-time applications. The method optimizes sharpness of local regions in a detector plane by parallel independent wavefront correction on reduced-dimension subspaces of the complex field in a spectral plane.

  5. Wavefront Reconstruction and Mirror Surface Optimizationfor Adaptive Optics (United States)


    Aberrations: Part II. Bellingham, WA: SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1998. [21] H. H. Barrett and K. J. Myers , Foundations of Image Science. Hoboken, NJ...optimization in MATLAB,” in Proceedings of CACSD, Taipei, Taiwan, 2004. [Online]. Available: http: // [71] W. L. Briggs , V...E. Henson, and S. F. McCormick, A Multigrid Tutorial. Philadelphia, PA: SIAM, 2000. [72] W. L. Briggs and V. E. Henson, “Wavelets and multigrid

  6. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M


    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  7. Comparative study of visual function and ocular aberrations of two different one-piece designed hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens. (United States)

    Zhao, Yuxin; Wang, Zhaoxia; Tian, Xia; Wang, Xuehong; Gao, Xining


    To determine whether the aspherical IOL, Tecnis ZCB00, can improve the visual quality by measuring visual acuity, wavefront aberrations, and contrast sensitivity. It was a retrospective case series. Patients who underwent phacoemulsification cataract surgery were divided into two groups. One group (Group TC) was implanted with one-piece aspherical acrylic IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, AMO); the other (Group SA) was implanted with one-piece spherical acrylic IOL (Sensar AAB00, AMO). Eighty-eight eyes were selected into this study, among them 43 eyes in 26 male cases and 45 eyes in 29 female cases. Thirty-six eyes in 23 cases were in Group TC, and 52 eyes in 32 cases were in Group SA. Three months postoperatively, aberrations were analyzed with i-Trace visual function analyzer (Tracy Technologies, USA). Contrast sensitivities were measured with Takaci-CGT-1000 contrast glare tester (Seiko, Japan). All the 88 eyes underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, without complications during or after surgery. Three months postoperatively, the uncorrected vision acuity in Group TC was significantly better than in Group SA (P = 0.007). At the pupil size of 5.0 mm, higher-order aberrations in Group TC were significantly higher than in Group SA (P = 0.02), especially the spherical aberration (Z 4 0 ) (P < 0.001); at the pupil size of 4.0 mm, Z 4 0 in Group SA was statistically higher than in Group TC (P < 0.001); at the pupil size of 3.0 mm, higher-order aberrations such as coma (Z 3 -1,1 ) and trefoil aberration (Z 3 -3,3 ) in Group SA were obviously higher than in Group TC (P = 0.01). In the low spatial frequency, the contrast sensitivity and the glare sensitivity in Group TC were significantly higher than in Group SA (P < 0.05). By the short-term follow-up (3 months), the aspherical acrylic IOL can reduce the higher-order aberrations (especially the spherical aberration) and increase the contrast sensitivity to improve the visual performance.

  8. Comparison of optical quality after implantable collamer lens implantation and wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the optical quality after implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL and wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (WG-LASIK. METHODS: The study included 40 eyes of 22 patients with myopia who accepted ICL implantation and 40 eyes of 20 patients with myopia who received WG-LASIK. Before surgery and three months after surgery, the objective scattering index (OSI, the values of modulation transfer function (MTF cutoff frequency, Strehl ratio, and the Optical Quality Analysis System (OQAS values (OVs were accessed. The higher order aberrations (HOAs data including coma, trefoil, spherical, 2nd astigmatism and tetrafoil were also obtained. For patients with pupil size <6 mm, HOAs data were analyzed for 4 mm-pupil diameter. For patients with pupil size ≥6 mm, HOAs data were calculated for 6 mm-pupil diameter. Visual acuity, refraction, pupil size and intraocular pressures were also recorded. RESULTS: In both ICL and WG-LASIK group, significant improvements in visual acuities were found postoperatively, with a significant reduction in spherical equivalent (P< 0.001. After the ICL implantation, the OSI decreased slightly from 2.34±1.92 to 2.24±1.18 with no statistical significance (P=0.62. While in WG-LASIK group, the OSI significantly increased from 0.68±0.43 preoperatively to 0.91±0.53 postoperatively (Wilcoxon signed ranks test, P=0.000. None of the mean MTF cutoff frequency, Strehl ratio, OVs showed statistically significant changes in both ICL and WG-LASIK groups. In the ICL group, there were no statistical differences in the total HOAs for either 4 mm-pupil or 6 mm-pupil. In the WG-LASIK group, the HOA parameters increased significantly at 4 mm-pupil. The total ocular HOAs, coma, spherical and 2nd astigmatism were 0.12±0.06, 0.06±0.03, 0.00±0.03, 0.02±0.01, respectively. After the operation, these values were increased into 0.16±0.07, 0.08±0.05, -0.04±0.04, 0.03±0.01 respectively (Wilcoxon signed ranks test

  9. Visual, aberrometric, photic phenomena, and patient satisfaction after myopic wavefront-guided LASIK using a high-resolution aberrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa S


    Full Text Available Sarah Moussa, Alois K Dexl, Eva M Krall, Eva M Arlt, Günther Grabner, Josef Ruckhofer Department of Ophthalmology, Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual, refractive, and aberrometric outcomes as well as the level of patient satisfaction and photic phenomena after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK surgery using wavefront-guided (WFG ablations based on measurements obtained with a high-resolution aberrometer. Patients and methods: This study was a prospective analysis including 253 eyes of 127 patients (aged between 19 years and 54 years undergoing WFG LASIK using the STAR S4 IR Excimer Laser System combined with the iDesign System and iFS Femtosecond Laser. Visual, refractive, and aberrometric outcomes during a 2-month follow-up as well as patient satisfaction and photic phenomena were evaluated by means of a questionnaire. Results: A total of 85% (215/253 and 99% (251/253 of eyes achieved a postoperative (Postop uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/16 and 20/20, respectively, and all eyes achieved an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/25. Postop spherical equivalent values were within ±0.25 D and ±0.50 D in 97% and 100% of eyes, respectively. Likewise, manifest cylinder was <0.25 D in 97% (245/253 of eyes. A statistically significant reduction was found in the total root mean square (P<0.001 and in the level of primary spherical aberration (P=0.001. Postop difficulties related to vision were graded as minimal, with low levels of photic phenomena and high levels of patient satisfaction. The level of difficulty to perform daily activities and the level of glare perceived by patients while driving car were significantly decreased (P<0.001. Conclusion: WFG LASIK surgery using the technology evaluated is predictable and effective for the correction of myopia and leads to high levels of patient satisfaction. Keywords: LASIK, patient

  10. Analysis of four aberrometers for evaluating lower and higher order aberrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Cade

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the measurements of lower and higher order aberrations (HOA of 4 commonly used aberrometers. SETTING: Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, USA. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study, in a controlled, single-blinded fashion. METHODS: Multiple readings were obtained in 42 eyes of 21 healthy volunteers, at a single visit, with each of the following aberrometers: Alcon LADARWave®, Visx WaveScan®, B & L Zywave®, and Wavelight Allegro Analyzer®. Results were compared and analyzed in regards to the lower and HOA, to the different wavefront sensing devices and software, Tscherning and Hartmann-Shack and between the Fourier and Zernike algorithms. Statistical analysis included Bland-Altman plots, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, multiple comparison tests with Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis. Significant level was set to p<0.05 and alpha level correction was adjusted under the Bonferroni criteria. RESULTS: Most measurements of all 4 aberrometers were comparable. However, statistically significant differences were found between the aberrometers in total HOA (tHOA, spherical aberration (SA, horizontal coma and astigmatism (2,2. LADARwave and Wavescan showed significant differences in tHOA (P<0.001, ICC = 0.549, LoA = 0.19±0.5 and in SA (P<0.001, ICC = 0.733, LoA = 0.16±0.37. Wavescan showed a significant difference compared to Zywave (p<0.001, ICC = 0.920, LoA = 0.09±0.13 in SA. Comparisons between Allegro Analyzer and Zywave demonstrated significant differences in both Horizontal Coma (3,1 (p<0.001, ICC = -0.207, LoA = -0.15±0.48 and Astigmatism (2,2 (P = 0.003, ICC = -0.965, LoA = 0.2±2.5. Allegro Analyzer also differed from Wavescan in Horizontal Coma (3,1 (P<0.001, ICC = 0.725, LoA = -0.07±0.25. CONCLUSIONS: Although some measurements were comparable predominately in the lower order aberrations, significant differences were found in the tHOA, SA, horizontal coma and astigmatism. Our analysis

  11. All-dielectric metasurface for wavefront control at terahertz frequencies (United States)

    Dharmavarapu, Raghu; Hock Ng, Soon; Bhattacharya, Shanti; Juodkazis, Saulius


    Recently, metasurfaces have gained popularity due to their ability to offer a spatially varying phase response, low intrinsic losses and high transmittance. Here, we demonstrate numerically and experimentally a silicon meta-surface at THz frequencies that converts a Gaussian beam into a Vortex beam independent of the polarization of the incident beam. The metasurface consists of an array of sub-wavelength silicon cross resonators made of a high refractive index material on substrates such as sapphire and CaF2 that are transparent at IR-THz spectral range. With these substrates, it is possible to create phase elements for a specific spectral range including at the molecular finger printing around 10 μm as well as at longer THz wavelengths where secondary molecular structures can be revealed. This device offers high transmittance and a phase coverage of 0 to 2π. The transmittance phase is tuned by varying the dimensions of the meta-atoms. To demonstrate wavefront engineering, we used a discretized spiraling phase profile to convert the incident Gaussian beam to vortex beam. To realize this, we divided the metasurface surface into eight angular sectors and chose eight different dimensions for the crosses providing successive phase shifts spaced by π/4 radians for each of these sectors. Photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) were used to fabricate these silicon crosses as the dimensions of these cylinders range up to few hundreds of micrometers. Large 1-cm-diameter optical elements were successfully fabricated and characterised by optical profilometry.

  12. Laboratory characterization of the ARGOS laser wavefront sensor (United States)

    Bonaglia, Marco; Busoni, Lorenzo; Carbonaro, Luca; Quiròs Pacheco, Fernando; Xompero, Marco; Esposito, Simone; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian


    In this paper we present the integration status of the ARGOS wavefront sensor and the results of the closed loop tests performed in laboratory. ARGOS is the laser guide star adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope. It is designed to implement a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics correction for LUCI, an infrared imaging camera and multi-object spectrograph, using 3 pulsed Rayleigh beacons focused at 12km altitude. The WFS is configured as a Shack-Hartman sensor having a 15 x 15 subaspertures over the telescope pupil. In the WFS each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and range-gated to reduce spot elongation. The 3 LGS are arranged on a single lenslet array and detector by the use of off-axis optics in the final part of the WFS. The units of WFS are in the integration and testing phase at Arcetri Observatory premises. We describe here the test aimed to demonstrate the functionality of the WFS in an adaptive optics closed loop performed using the internal light sources of the WFS and a MEMS deformable mirror.

  13. Continuous shearlet frames and resolution of the wavefront set

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp


    In recent years directional multiscale transformations like the curvelet- or shearlet transformation have gained considerable attention. The reason for this is that these transforms are-unlike more traditional transforms like wavelets-able to efficiently handle data with features along edges. The main result in Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009) confirming this property for shearlets is due to Kutyniok and Labate where it is shown that for very special functions ψ with frequency support in a compact conical wegde the decay rate of the shearlet coefficients of a tempered distribution f with respect to the shearlet ψ can resolve the wavefront set of f. We demonstrate that the same result can be verified under much weaker assumptions on ψ, namely to possess sufficiently many anisotropic vanishing moments. We also show how to build frames for L2(ℝ2)from any such function. To prove our statements we develop a new approach based on an adaption of the Radon transform to the shearlet structure. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. JWST Wavefront Sensing and Control: Operations Plans, Demonstrations, and Status (United States)

    Perrin, Marshall; Acton, D. Scott; Lajoie, Charles-Philippe; Knight, J. Scott; Myers, Carey; Stark, Chris; JWST Wavefront Sensing & Control Team


    After JWST launches and unfolds in space, its telescope optics will be aligned through a complex series of wavefront sensing and control (WFSC) steps to achieve diffraction-limited performance. This iterative process will comprise about half of the observatory commissioning time (~ 3 out of 6 months). We summarize the JWST WFSC process, schedule, and expectations for achieved performance, and discuss our team’s activities to prepare for an effective & efficient telescope commissioning. During the recently-completed OTIS cryo test at NASA JSC, WFSC demonstrations showed the flight-like operation of the entire JWST active optics and WFSC system from end to end, including all hardware and software components. In parallel, the same test data were processed through the JWST Mission Operations Center at STScI to demonstrate the readiness of ground system components there (such as the flight operations system, data pipelines, archives, etc). Moreover, using the Astronomer’s Proposal Tool (APT), the entire telescope commissioning program has been implemented, reviewed, and is ready for execution. Between now and launch our teams will continue preparations for JWST commissioning, including further rehearsals and testing, to ensure a successful alignment of JWST’s telescope optics.

  15. Kalman filter estimation for focal plane wavefront correction (United States)

    Groff, Tyler D.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy


    Space-based coronagraphs for future earth-like planet detection will require focal plane wavefront control techniques to achieve the necessary contrast levels. These correction algorithms are iterative and the control methods require an estimate of the electric field at the science camera, which requires nearly all of the images taken for the correction. We demonstrate a Kalman filter estimator that uses prior knowledge to create the estimate of the electric field, dramatically reducing the number of exposures required to estimate the image plane electric field. In addition to a significant reduction in exposures, we discuss the relative merit of this algorithm to other estimation schemes, particularly in regard to estimate error and covariance. As part of the reduction in exposures we also discuss a novel approach to generating the diversity required for estimating the field in the image plane. This uses the stroke minimization control algorithm to choose the probe shapes on the deformable mirrors, adding a degree of optimality to the problem and once again reducing the total number of exposures required for correction. Choosing probe shapes has been largely unexplored up to this point and is critical to producing a well posed set of measurements for the estimate. Ultimately the filter will lead to an adaptive algorithm which can estimate physical parameters in the laboratory and optimize estimation.

  16. The wavefront of the radio signal emitted by cosmic ray air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.D.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R. [Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Bähren, L.; Falcke, H. [ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bertaina, M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Pierro, F. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului no. 30, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); De Souza, V. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, Pq. Arnold Schmidt, São Carlos (Brazil); Fuchs, B. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gemmeke, H. [Institut für Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Grupen, C., E-mail: [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57072 Siegen (Germany); and others


    Analyzing measurements of the LOPES antenna array together with corresponding CoREAS simulations for more than 300 measured events with energy above 10{sup 17} eV and zenith angles smaller than 45{sup o}, we find that the radio wavefront of cosmic-ray air showers is of approximately hyperbolic shape. The simulations predict a slightly steeper wavefront towards East than towards West, but this asymmetry is negligible against the measurement uncertainties of LOPES. At axis distances ∼> 50 m, the wavefront can be approximated by a simple cone. According to the simulations, the cone angle is clearly correlated with the shower maximum. Thus, we confirm earlier predictions that arrival time measurements can be used to study the longitudinal shower development, but now using a realistic wavefront. Moreover, we show that the hyperbolic wavefront is compatible with our measurement, and we present several experimental indications that the cone angle is indeed sensitive to the shower development. Consequently, the wavefront can be used to statistically study the primary composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. At LOPES, the experimentally achieved precision for the shower maximum is limited by measurement uncertainties to approximately 140 g/c {sup 2}. But the simulations indicate that under better conditions this method might yield an accuracy for the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, X{sub max}, better than 30 g/c {sup 2}. This would be competitive with the established air-fluorescence and air-Cherenkov techniques, where the radio technique offers the advantage of a significantly higher duty-cycle. Finally, the hyperbolic wavefront can be used to reconstruct the shower geometry more accurately, which potentially allows a better reconstruction of all other shower parameters, too.

  17. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankos, Marian [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)


    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separator to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded

  18. Distortion-free 3D imaging using wavefront shaping (United States)

    Teich, M.; Sturm, J.; Büttner, L.; Czarske, J.


    3-dimensional imaging often requires substantial effort since information along the optical axis is not straight forward gatherable. In many applications it is aimed for depth information along the direction of view. For example fluidic mixing processes and the environmental interaction on a microscopic scale are of particular importance for e.g. pharmaceutical applications and often demand for 3D information. This problem is often solved by stereoscopic approaches, where two cameras are used in order to gather depth information by triangulation technique. Another approach is to scan the object through the focal plane in order to get sharp images of each layer. Since the before mentioned approaches require a lot of video data to be evaluated it would be more convenient to get depth mapping within a single camera recording and without scanning. Here we present a tunable 3D depth-mapping camera technique in combination with dynamic aberration control. By using an incoherent light source, only one camera and a spatial light modulator (LCoS-SLM), it is a simply applicable and highly scalable technique. A double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF) is generated for light emerging from the observed focal plane. Each object appears as a double-image on the camera. Within the orientation of the double-image, depth information along the optical axis is encoded. By using an additional adaptive element (deformable mirror) the technique is combined with wide-field aberration correction. Here we combine a tunable 3D depth camera with dynamic aberration control in one imaging system.

  19. Correction of surface aberration in strain scanning method with analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Takahisa; Mizuki, Junichiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Keisuke


    When a gauge volume sank below a specimen surface, the diffraction angle shifts. Thus, it is required to correct the surface aberration. For the annealed specimen of S45C, the shift in the diffraction angle was investigated using a strain scanning method with Ge (111) analyzer. This phenomenon was caused by the difference in the centroid between the geometric and the instrumental gauge volumes. This difference is explained by the following factors; 1) the change in the gauge volume by the divergence of the analyzer, 2) the X-ray penetration depth, 3) the gap of the centre line between the double receiving slits due to mis-setting the analyzer. As a result, the correcting method considered into these factors was proposed. For the shot-peened specimens of S45C, the diffraction angles were measured and corrected by our method. The distribution of the residual stress agreed with that obtained by the removal method. (author)

  20. X-ray wavefront characterization using a rotating shearing interferometer technique. (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal; Berujon, Sébastien; Ziegler, Eric; Rutishauser, Simon; David, Christian


    A fast and accurate method to characterize the X-ray wavefront by rotating one of the two gratings of an X-ray shearing interferometer is described and investigated step by step. Such a shearing interferometer consists of a phase grating mounted on a rotation stage, and an absorption grating used as a transmission mask. The mathematical relations for X-ray Moiré fringe analysis when using this device are derived and discussed in the context of the previous literature assumptions. X-ray beam wavefronts without and after X-ray reflective optical elements have been characterized at beamline B16 at Diamond Light Source (DLS) using the presented X-ray rotating shearing interferometer (RSI) technique. It has been demonstrated that this improved method allows accurate calculation of the wavefront radius of curvature and the wavefront distortion, even when one has no previous information on the grating projection pattern period, magnification ratio and the initial grating orientation. As the RSI technique does not require any a priori knowledge of the beam features, it is suitable for routine characterization of wavefronts of a wide range of radii of curvature. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  1. Beam parameters of FLASH beamline BL1 from Hartmann wavefront measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, Bernhard; Juranic, Pavle; Grossmann, Peter; Kapitzki, Svea; Keitel, Barbara; Mann, Klaus; Ploenjes, Elke; Schaefer, Bernd; Tiedtke, Kai


    We report on online measurements of beam parameters in the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range at the free-electron laser FLASH. A compact, self-supporting Hartmann sensor operating in the wavelength range from 6 to 30 nm was used to determine the wavefront quality of individual free-electron laser (FEL) pulses. Beam characterization and alignment of beamline BL1 was performed with λ 13.5nm /90 accuracy for wavefront rms (w rms ). A spot size of 159 μm (second moment) and other beam parameters are computed using a spherical reference wavefront generated by a 5 μm pinhole. Beam parameters are also computed relative to a reference wavefront created by a laser-driven plasma source of low coherence, proving the feasibility of such a calibration and reaching λ 13.5nm /7.5 w rms accuracy. The sensor was used for alignment of the toroidal focusing mirror of beamline BL1, resulting in a reduction of w rms by 25%, and to investigate wavefront distortions induced by thin solid filters.

  2. Accuracy of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a coherent wound fibre image bundle (United States)

    Zheng, Jessica R.; Goodwin, Michael; Lawrence, Jon


    Shack-Hartmannwavefront sensors using wound fibre image bundles are desired for multi-object adaptive optical systems to provide large multiplex positioned by Starbugs. The use of a large-sized wound fibre image bundle provides the flexibility to use more sub-apertures wavefront sensor for ELTs. These compact wavefront sensors take advantage of large focal surfaces such as the Giant Magellan Telescope. The focus of this paper is to study the wound fibre image bundle structure defects effect on the centroid measurement accuracy of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We use the first moment centroid method to estimate the centroid of a focused Gaussian beam sampled by a simulated bundle. Spot estimation accuracy with wound fibre image bundle and its structure impact on wavefront measurement accuracy statistics are addressed. Our results show that when the measurement signal-to-noise ratio is high, the centroid measurement accuracy is dominated by the wound fibre image bundle structure, e.g. tile angle and gap spacing. For the measurement with low signal-to-noise ratio, its accuracy is influenced by the read noise of the detector instead of the wound fibre image bundle structure defects. We demonstrate this both with simulation and experimentally. We provide a statistical model of the centroid and wavefront error of a wound fibre image bundle found through experiment.

  3. Improving imaging of the air-liquid interface in living mice by aberration-corrected optical coherence tomography (mOCT) (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Schulz-Hildebrandt, Hinnerk; Sauer, Benjamin; Reinholz, Fred; Pieper, Mario; Mall, Markus; König, Peter; Huettmann, Gereon


    Failure in mucociliary clearance is responsible for severe diseases like cystic fibroses, primary ciliary dyskinesia or asthma. Visualizing the mucous transport in-vivo will help to understanding transport mechanisms as well as developing and validating new therapeutic intervention. However, in-vivo imaging is complicated by the need of high spatial and temporal resolution. Recently, we developed microscopy optical coherence tomography (mOCT) for non-invasive imaging of the liquid-air interface in intact murine trachea from its outside. Whereas axial resolution of 1.5 µm is achieved by the spectral width of supercontinuum light source, lateral resolution is limited by aberrations caused by the cylindric shape of the trachea and optical inhomogenities of the tissue. Therefore, we extended our mOCT by a deformable mirror for compensation of the probe induced aberrations. Instead of using a wavefront sensor for measuring aberrations, we harnessed optimization of the image quality to determine the correction parameter. With the aberration corrected mOCT ciliary function and mucus transport was measured in wild type and βENaC overexpressing mice, which served as a model for cystic fibrosis.

  4. Analysis of the impacts of horizontal translation and scaling on wavefront approximation coefficients with rectangular pupils for Chebyshev and Legendre polynomials. (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Chen, Lei; Tuya, Wulan; He, Yong; Zhu, Rihong


    Chebyshev and Legendre polynomials are frequently used in rectangular pupils for wavefront approximation. Ideally, the dataset completely fits with the polynomial basis, which provides the full-pupil approximation coefficients and the corresponding geometric aberrations. However, if there are horizontal translation and scaling, the terms in the original polynomials will become the linear combinations of the coefficients of the other terms. This paper introduces analytical expressions for two typical situations after translation and scaling. With a small translation, first-order Taylor expansion could be used to simplify the computation. Several representative terms could be selected as inputs to compute the coefficient changes before and after translation and scaling. Results show that the outcomes of the analytical solutions and the approximated values under discrete sampling are consistent. With the computation of a group of randomly generated coefficients, we contrasted the changes under different translation and scaling conditions. The larger ratios correlate the larger deviation from the approximated values to the original ones. Finally, we analyzed the peak-to-valley (PV) and root mean square (RMS) deviations from the uses of the first-order approximation and the direct expansion under different translation values. The results show that when the translation is less than 4%, the most deviated 5th term in the first-order 1D-Legendre expansion has a PV deviation less than 7% and an RMS deviation less than 2%. The analytical expressions and the computed results under discrete sampling given in this paper for the multiple typical function basis during translation and scaling in the rectangular areas could be applied in wavefront approximation and analysis.

  5. Space active optics: in flight aberrations correction for the next generation of large space telescopes (United States)

    Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Lemaitre, G.


    The need for both high quality images and light structures is a constant concern in the conception of space telescopes. In this paper, we present an active optics system as a way to fulfill those two objectives. Indeed, active optics consists in controlling mirrors' deformations in order to improve the images quality [1]. The two main applications of active optics techniques are the in-situ compensation of phase errors in a wave front by using a corrector deformable mirror [2] and the manufacturing of aspherical mirrors by stress polishing or by in-situ stressing [3]. We will focus here on the wave-front correction. Indeed, the next generation of space telescopes will have lightweight primary mirrors; in consequence, they will be sensitive to the environment variations, inducing optical aberrations in the instrument. An active optics system is principally composed of a deformable mirror, a wave front sensor, a set of actuators deforming the mirror and control/command electronics. It is used to correct the wave-front errors due to the optical design, the manufacturing imperfections, the large lightweight primary mirrors' deflection in field gravity, the fixation devices, and the mirrors and structures' thermal distortions due to the local turbulence [4]. Active optics is based on the elasticity theory [5]; forces and/or load are used to deform a mirror. Like in adaptive optics, actuators can simply be placed under the optical surface [1,2], but other configurations have also been studied: a system's simplification, inducing a minimization of the number of actuators can be achieved by working on the mirror design [5]. For instance, in the so called Vase form Multimode Deformable Mirror [6], forces are applied on an external ring clamped on the pupil. With this method, there is no local effect due to the application of forces on the mirror's back face. Furthermore, the number of actuators needed to warp the mirror does not depend on the pupil size; it is a fully

  6. Changes in meibomian gland morphology and ocular higher-order aberrations in eyes with chalazion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuoka S


    Full Text Available Shima Fukuoka,1–3 Reiko Arita,2–4 Rika Shirakawa,2,3 Naoyuki Morishige2,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Omiya Hamada Eye Clinic, 2Lid and Meibomian Gland Working Group (LIME, Saitama-shi, Saitama, 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Itoh Clinic, Saitama-shi, Saitama, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Oshima Eye Hospital, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka, Japan Purpose: To examine the changes in meibomian gland morphology and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs in eyes with chalazion and its excision. Methods: Seven male patients with previous history of chalazion excision and seven control male subjects were enrolled. Changes in meibomian gland morphology (meiboscores, gland dropout, and shortening were evaluated by using meibography equipped in a wavefront analyzer KR-1W and in a slit-lamp device BG-4M. Ocular HOAs were measured sequentially with KR-1W. The tear film breakup time (BUT was measured. Results: Both KR-1W and BG-4M visualized meibomian gland as clear similar images. The tear film BUT (mean ± SD, 5.6±3.0 vs 9.4±2.3 seconds, P=0.025, the total meiboscore (median [interquartile range], 2 (2-3 vs 0 (0-1, P=0.007 as well as the meibomian gland dropout rate (86% vs 14%, P=0.008 and shortening rate (100% vs 29%, P=0.031 differed significantly between the patient and control groups. The first total ocular HOAs (0.142±0.063 vs 0.130±0.015, P=0.80 were similar in both groups, whereas the stability index of the total HOAs over time (0.0041±0.0048 vs -0.0012±0.0020, P=0.030 differed significantly between the patient and control groups. Conclusions: Chalazion and its excision were associated with dropout and shortening rate of meibomian glands. The morphological changes of meibomian glands in chalazion may be associated to instability of the tear film, which was suggested by the tear film BUT and the stability of ocular HOAs. Keywords: meibomian gland, meibography

  7. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.


    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  8. Optimization of scanning strategy of digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing. (United States)

    Guo, Wenjiang; Zhao, Liping; Li, Xiang; Chen, I-Ming


    In the traditional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing (SHWS) system, a lenslet array with a bigger configuration is desired to achieve a higher lateral resolution. However, practical implementation limits the configuration and this parameter is contradicted with the measurement range. We have proposed a digital scanning technique by making use of the high flexibility of a spatial light modulator to sample the reflected wavefront [X. Li, L. P. Zhao, Z. P. Fang, and C. S. Tan, "Improve lateral resolution in wavefront sensing with digital scanning technique," in Asia-Pacific Conference of Transducers and Micro-Nano Technology (2006)]. The lenslet array pattern is programmed to laterally scan the whole aperture. In this paper, the methodology to optimize the scanning step for the purpose of form measurement is proposed. The correctness and effectiveness are demonstrated in numerical simulation and experimental investigation. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  9. Generation of Optical Vortex Arrays Using Single-Element Reversed-Wavefront Folding Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Kumar Singh


    Full Text Available Optical vortex arrays have been generated using simple, novel, and stable reversed-wavefront folding interferometer. Two new interferometric configurations were used for generating a variety of optical vortex lattices. In the first interferometric configuration one cube beam splitter (CBS was used in one arm of Mach-Zehnder interferometer for splitting and combining the collimated beam, and one mirror of another arm is replaced by second CBS. At the output of interferometer, three-beam interference gives rise to optical vortex arrays. In second interferometric configuration, a divergent wavefront was made incident on a single CBS which splits and combines wavefronts leading to the generation of vortex arrays due to four-beam interference. It was found that the orientation and structure of the optical vortices can be stably controlled by means of changing the rotation angle of CBS.

  10. Shot-to-shot intensity and wavefront stability of high-harmonic generation. (United States)

    Künzel, S; Williams, G O; Boutu, W; Galtier, E; Barbrel, B; Lee, H J; Nagler, B; Zastrau, U; Dovillaire, G; Lee, R W; Merdji, H; Zeitoun, Ph; Fajardo, M


    We report on the shot-to-shot stability of intensity and spatial phase of high-harmonic generation (HHG). The intensity stability is measured for each high-harmonic (HH) order with a spectrometer. Additionally, the spatial phase is measured with an XUV wavefront sensor for a single HH order measured in a single shot, which according to our knowledge was not reported before with a Hartmann wavefront sensor. Furthermore, we compare the single-shot measurement of the spatial phase with time-integrated measurements and we show that the XUV wavefront sensor is a useful tool to simultaneously optimize the spatial phase and intensity of HHG within the available HHG parameter range used in this study.

  11. Manipulations of Wavefront Propagation: Useful Methods and Applications for Interferometric Measurements and Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Karsenty


    Full Text Available Phase measurements obtained by high-coherence interferometry are restricted by the 2π ambiguity, to height differences smaller than λ/2. A further restriction in most interferometric systems is for focusing the system on the measured object. We present two methods that overcome these restrictions. In the first method, different segments of a measured wavefront are digitally propagated and focused locally after measurement. The divergent distances, by which the diverse segments of the wavefront are propagated in order to achieve a focused image, provide enough information so as to resolve the 2π ambiguity. The second method employs an interferogram obtained by a spectrum constituting a small number of wavelengths. The magnitude of the interferogram’s modulations is utilized to resolve the 2π ambiguity. Such methods of wavefront propagation enable several applications such as focusing and resolving the 2π ambiguity, as described in the article.

  12. Chromosomal aberrations induced by alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M.


    The chromosomal aberrations produced by the ionizing radiation are commonly used when it is necessary to establish the exposure dose of an individual, it is a study that is used like complement of the traditional physical systems and its application is only in cases in that there is doubt about what indicates the conventional dosimetry. The biological dosimetry is based on the frequency of aberrations in the chromosomes of the lymphocytes of the individual in study and the dose is calculated taking like reference to the dose-response curves previously generated In vitro. A case of apparent over-exposure to alpha particles to which is practiced analysis of chromosomal aberrations to settle down if in fact there was exposure and as much as possible, to determine the presumed dose is presented. (Author)

  13. Electrostatic axisymmetric mirror with removable spherical aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birmuzaev, S.B.; Serikbaeva, G.S.; Hizirova, M.A.


    The electrostatic axisymmetric mirror, assembled from three coaxial cylinders with an equal diameter d and under the potential v1, v2 and v3, was computed. The proportions of geometrical and electric parameters of the mirror, with which the spherical 3-order aberration may be eliminated, were determined. The computation outcomes of the case, when the focal power of the mirror is enough large and the object plane in the focus is out of its field, are presented (Fig. 1 - potentials proportion that makes elimination of the spherical aberration possible; Fig. 2 - the focus coordinates when the spherical aberration is eliminated). The geometrical values are presented by d, and the electric ones are presented by v1. The figures on the curves present a length of the second (middle) electrode. The zero point is located in the middle of the gap between the first and second electrodes The investigated mirror may be used as a lens for the transmission electron microscope

  14. ℋ2-optimal control of an adaptive optics system. Pt.I: data-driven modeling of the wavefront disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, K.J.G.; Verhaegen, M.; Doelman, N.J.


    Even though the wavefront distortion introduced by atmospheric turbulence is a dynamic process, its temporal evolution is usually neglected in the adaptive optics (AO) control design. Most AO control systems consider only the spatial correlation in a separate wavefront reconstruction step. By

  15. Study on the properties of infrared wavefront coding athermal system under several typical temperature gradient distributions (United States)

    Cai, Huai-yu; Dong, Xiao-tong; Zhu, Meng; Huang, Zhan-hua


    Wavefront coding for athermal technique can effectively ensure the stability of the optical system imaging in large temperature range, as well as the advantages of compact structure and low cost. Using simulation method to analyze the properties such as PSF and MTF of wavefront coding athermal system under several typical temperature gradient distributions has directive function to characterize the working state of non-ideal temperature environment, and can effectively realize the system design indicators as well. In this paper, we utilize the interoperability of data between Solidworks and ZEMAX to simplify the traditional process of structure/thermal/optical integrated analysis. Besides, we design and build the optical model and corresponding mechanical model of the infrared imaging wavefront coding athermal system. The axial and radial temperature gradients of different degrees are applied to the whole system by using SolidWorks software, thus the changes of curvature, refractive index and the distance between the lenses are obtained. Then, we import the deformation model to ZEMAX for ray tracing, and obtain the changes of PSF and MTF in optical system. Finally, we discuss and evaluate the consistency of the PSF (MTF) of the wavefront coding athermal system and the image restorability, which provides the basis and reference for the optimal design of the wavefront coding athermal system. The results show that the adaptability of single material infrared wavefront coding athermal system to axial temperature gradient can reach the upper limit of temperature fluctuation of 60°C, which is much higher than that of radial temperature gradient.

  16. 2D wave-front shaping in optical superlattices using nonlinear volume holography. (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Hong, Xu-Hao; Lu, Rong-Er; Yue, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan


    Nonlinear volume holography is employed to realize arbitrary wave-front shaping during nonlinear processes with properly designed 2D optical superlattices. The concept of a nonlinear polarization wave in nonlinear volume holography is investigated. The holographic imaging of irregular patterns was performed using 2D LiTaO3 crystals with fundamental wave propagating along the spontaneous polarization direction, and the results agree well with the theoretical predictions. This Letter not only extends the application area of optical superlattices, but also offers an efficient method for wave-front shaping technology.

  17. Transmitted wavefront error of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature. (United States)

    Lee, David; Taylor, Gordon D; Baillie, Thomas E C; Montgomery, David


    This paper describes the results of transmitted wavefront error (WFE) measurements on a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating operating at a temperature of 120 K. The VPH grating was mounted in a cryogenically compatible optical mount and tested in situ in a cryostat. The nominal root mean square (RMS) wavefront error at room temperature was 19 nm measured over a 50 mm diameter test aperture. The WFE remained at 18 nm RMS when the grating was cooled. This important result demonstrates that excellent WFE performance can be obtained with cooled VPH gratings, as required for use in future cryogenic infrared astronomical spectrometers planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope.

  18. 110 °C range athermalization of wavefront coding infrared imaging systems (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Shi, Zelin; Chang, Zheng; Liu, Haizheng; Zhao, Yaohong


    110 °C range athermalization is significant but difficult for designing infrared imaging systems. Our wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system adopts an optical phase mask with less manufacturing errors and a decoding method based on shrinkage function. The qualitative experiments prove that our wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system has three prominent merits: (1) working well over a temperature range of 110 °C; (2) extending the focal depth up to 15.2 times; (3) achieving a decoded image being approximate to its corresponding in-focus infrared image, with a mean structural similarity index (MSSIM) value greater than 0.85.

  19. Chirped pulse digital holography for measuring the sequence of ultrafast optical wavefronts (United States)

    Karasawa, Naoki


    Optical setups for measuring the sequence of ultrafast optical wavefronts using a chirped pulse as a reference wave in digital holography are proposed and analyzed. In this method, multiple ultrafast object pulses are used to probe the temporal evolution of ultrafast phenomena and they are interfered with a chirped reference wave to record a digital hologram. Wavefronts at different times can be reconstructed separately from the recorded hologram when the reference pulse can be treated as a quasi-monochromatic wave during the pulse width of each object pulse. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated by numerical simulation.

  20. Quality control systems for aberrant mRNAs induced by aberrant translation elongation and termination. (United States)

    Inada, Toshifumi


    RNA processing is an essential gene expression step and plays a crucial role to achieve diversity of gene products in eukaryotes. Various aberrant mRNAs transiently produced during RNA processing reactions are recognized and eliminated by specific quality control systems. It has been demonstrated that these mRNA quality control systems stimulate the degradation of aberrant mRNA to prevent the potentially harmful products derived from aberrant mRNAs. Recent studies on quality control systems induced by abnormal translation elongation and termination have revealed that both aberrant mRNAs and proteins are subjected to rapid degradation. In NonStop Decay (NSD) quality control system, a poly(A) tail of nonstop mRNA is translated and the synthesis of poly-lysine sequence results in translation arrest followed by co-translational degradation of aberrant nonstop protein. In No-Go Decay (NGD) quality control system, the specific amino acid sequences of the nascent polypeptide induce ribosome stalling, and the arrest products are ubiquitinated and rapidly degraded by the proteasome. In Nonfunctional rRNA Decay (NRD) quality control system, aberrant ribosomes composed of nonfunctional ribosomal RNAs are also eliminated when aberrant translation elongation complexes are formed on mRNA. I describe recent progresses on the mechanisms of quality control systems and the relationships between quality control systems. This article is part of a Special issue entitled: RNA Decay mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao


    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  2. Chromosomal aberrations induced by Markhamia tomentosa (Benth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markhamia tomentosa (Benth.) K. Schum. Ex Engl. (Bignoniaceae) is used traditionally in the treatment of pain, oedema, pulmonary troubles and cancer. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of M. tomentosa was investigated using the Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay.

  3. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration (United States)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.


    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  4. Safety and efficacy of wavefront-guided myopic laser in situ keratomileusis using a new wavefront sensor technology: first 100 cases. (United States)

    Smadja, David; Santhiago, Marcony R; Tellouck, Joy; De Castro, Tania; Lecomte, Fanny; Mello, Glauco R; Touboul, David


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the correction of low to high myopia and myopic astigmatism using data derived from a new-generation Hartmann-Shack aberrometer. Refractive Surgery Unit, Bordeaux Hospital University, France. Retrospective case series. This retrospective study analyzed the initial group of eyes treated with wavefront-guided LASIK for myopia and myopic astigmatism using the Visx S4IR excimer laser and wavefront data derived from a new Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (iDesign Advanced Wavescan aberrometer). Refractive (refraction and refractive accuracy) and visual outcomes (uncorrected [UDVA] and corrected [CDVA] distance visual acuities) were recorded 3 months postoperatively. The study included 100 eyes of 50 consecutively treated patients. The mean decimal UDVA improved from 0.1 ± 0.1 (SD) preoperatively to 1.1 ± 0.15 postoperatively (P myopia and myopic astigmatism. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  6. Contralateral comparison of wavefront-guided LASIK surgery with iris recognition versus without iris recognition using the MEL80 Excimer laser system. (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Yang, Yabo; Dougherty, Paul J


    To compare outcomes in wavefront-guided LASIK performed with iris recognition software versus without iris recognition software in different eyes of the same patient. A randomised, prospective study of 104 myopic eyes of 52 patients undergoing LASIK surgery with the MEL80 excimer laser system was performed. Iris recognition software was used in one eye of each patient (study group) and not used in the other eye (control group). Higher order aberrations (HOAs), contrast sensitivity, uncorrected vision (UCV), visual acuity (VA) and corneal topography were measured and recorded pre-operatively and at one month and three months post-operatively for each eye. The mean post-operative sphere and cylinder between groups was similar, however the post-operative angles of error (AE) by refraction were significantly smaller in the study group compared to the control group both in arithmetic and absolute means (p = 0.03, p = 0.01). The mean logMAR UCV was significantly better in the study group than in the control group at one month (p = 0.01). The mean logMAR VA was significantly better in the study group than in control group at both one and three months (p = 0.01, p = 0.03). In addition, mean trefoil, total third-order aberration, total fourth-order aberration and the total scotopic root-mean-square (RMS) HOAs were significantly less in the study group than those in the control group at the third (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, p = 0.04, p = 0.02). By three months, the contrast sensitivity had recovered in both groups but the study group performed better at 2.6, 4.2 and 6.6 cpd (cycles per degree) than the control group (p = 0.01, p LASIK performed with iris recognition results in better VA, lower mean higher-order aberrations, lower refractive post-operative angles of error and better contrast sensitivity at three months post-operatively than LASIK performed without iris recognition.

  7. The Aberrant Coronary Artery - The Management Approach. (United States)

    King, Nina-Marie; Tian, David D; Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Buttar, Sana N; Chow, Vincent; Yan, Tristan


    An aberrant coronary artery is a rare clinical occurrence with an incidence of 0.05-1.2%. Often it is an incidental finding detected on coronary angiography or at autopsy. However, symptomatic patients can experience angina, arrhythmia, sudden death or non-specific symptoms such as dyspnoea and syncope. At present, there are no guidelines or dedicated studies assessing the treatment of an aberrant coronary artery leaving management options for these patients controversial. Selected international cardiothoracic surgeons were surveyed electronically in November 2016 to determine whether consensus exists on different management aspects for patients with an aberrant coronary artery arising from the contralateral sinus with an interarterial course. For asymptomatic patients with either an aberrant left main coronary artery (ALMCA) arising from the contralateral sinus or an aberrant right main coronary artery (ARMCA) arising from the contralateral sinus, there was no consensus on surgical correction of the anomaly. If myocardial ischaemia was demonstrated on either coronary angiography with fractional flow reserve measurements and/or stress myocardial perfusion scan, surgical correction was the consensus between the surveyed surgeons. If surgery was deemed appropriate, coronary artery bypass surgery utilising the internal mammary artery was marginally preferred by the respondents in patients with an ALMCA whilst unroofing of the coronary ostium was preferred in patients with an ARMCA. Although no consensus was reached, a large proportion of respondents would not treat a patient over the age of 30 years differently compared to those under 30 years old. For symptomatic patients or if myocardial ischaemia is demonstrated on either coronary angiography with fractional flow reserve measurements and/or stress myocardial perfusion scan, surgical correction is indicated. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the

  8. Micronuclei and chromosome aberrations found in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes form thorotrast patients and atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Izumi, Takaki; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kamada, Nanao (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)


    As two cytogenetic parameters of radiation exposure, the frequency of micronucleus in erythroblasts, lymphocytes and red cells (Howell-Jolly body) as well as chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells and in lymphocytes were studied in 24 thorotrast patients and in 32 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors who were exposed within one kilometer from the Hiroshima hypocenter. The incidence of both micronucleus and chromosome aberrations in these two exposed groups were significantly higher than that in non-exposed controls. So that these two parameters are useful guide for evaluating the residual effects of radiation, especially on hematopoietic cells. Because of its simple procedures, micronucleus test is also helpful as screening for prediction of chromosome aberrations. The characteristics of lymphocyte chromosome aberrations differed considerably between thorotrast patients and A-bomb survivors; the incidence of unstable type aberrations and intracellular complexity of chromosome aberrations were much higher in the former group. The incidence of micronucleus in erythroblasts and lymphocytes was also higher in thorotrast patients. Such differences are attributable to the differences in the radiation quality (..cap alpha..-ray or ..gamma..-ray+neutron) and in the mode of exposure (persistent or single) of these two groups.

  9. The Vector Vortex Coronagraph: Sensitivity to Low-Order Aberrations, Central Obscuration, Chromaticism, and Polarization (United States)

    Mawet, Dimitri; Pueyo, Laurent; Moody, Dwight; Krist, John; Serabyn, Eugene


    The Vector Vortex Coronagraph is a phase-based coronagraph, one of the most efficient in terms of inner working angle, throughput, discovery space, contrast, and simplicity. Using liquid-crystal polymer technology, this new coronagraph has recently been the subject of lab demonstrations in the near-infrared, visible and was also used on sky at the Palomar observatory in the H and K bands (1.65 and 2.2 micrometers, respectively) to image the brown dwarf companion to HR 7672, and the three extasolar planets around HR 8799. However, despite these recent successes, the Vector Vortex Coronagraph is, as are most coronagraphs, sensitive to the central obscuration and secondary support structures, low-order aberrations (tip-tilt, focus, etc), bandwidth (chromaticism), and polarization when image-plane wavefront sensing is performed. Here, we consider in detail these sensitivities as a function of the topological charge of the vortex and design properties inherent to the manufacturing technology, and show that in practice all of them can be mitigated to meet specific needs.

  10. Preliminary results of a high-resolution refractometer using the Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor: part I Resultados preliminares com refratrômetro de alta resolução, usando sensor de frente de onda de Hartmann-Shack: parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Carvalho


    Full Text Available In this project we are developing an instrument for measuring the wave-front aberrations of the human eye using the Hartmann-Shack sensor. A laser source is directed towards the eye and its diffuse reflection at the retina generates an approximately spherical wave-front inside the eye. This wave-front travels through the different components of the eye (vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, and cornea and then leaves the eye carrying information about the aberrations caused by these components. Outside the eye there is an optical system composed of an array of microlenses and a CCD camera. The wave-front hits the microlens array and forms a pattern of spots at the CCD plane. Image processing algorithms detect the center of mass of each spot and this information is used to calculate the exact wave-front surface using least squares approximation by Zernike polynomials. We describe here the details of the first phase of this project, i. e., the construction of the first generation of prototype instruments and preliminary results for an artificial eye calibrated with different ametropias, i. e., myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.Neste projeto estamos desenvolvendo instrumento para medidas das aberrações de frente de onda do olho humano usando um sensor Hartmann-Shack. Uma fonte de luz laser é direcionada ao olho e sua reflexão difusa na retina gera frente de onda aproximadamente esférica dentro do olho. Esta frente de onda atravessa os diferentes componentes do olho (humor vítreo, lente, humor aquoso e córnea trazendo informações sobre as aberrações ópticas causadas por estes componentes. No meio externo ao olho existe sistema óptico formado por uma matriz de microlentes e uma câmera CCD. A frente de onda incide nesta matriz e forma um padrão aproximadamente matricial de "spots" no plano do CCD. Algoritmos de processamento de imagens são utilizados para detectar os centróides de cada "spot" e esta informação é utilizada para

  11. Performance analysis of multidimensional wavefront algorithms with application to deterministic particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisie, A.; Lubeck, O.; Wasserman, H.


    The authors develop a model for the parallel performance of algorithms that consist of concurrent, two-dimensional wavefronts implemented in a message passing environment. The model, based on a LogGP machine parameterization, combines the separate contributions of computation and communication wavefronts. They validate the model on three important supercomputer systems, on up to 500 processors. They use data from a deterministic particle transport application taken from the ASCI workload, although the model is general to any wavefront algorithm implemented on a 2-D processor domain. They also use the validated model to make estimates of performance and scalability of wavefront algorithms on 100-TFLOPS computer systems expected to be in existence within the next decade as part of the ASCI program and elsewhere. In this context, the authors analyze two problem sizes. Their model shows that on the largest such problem (1 billion cells), inter-processor communication performance is not the bottleneck. Single-node efficiency is the dominant factor

  12. Wavefront improvement in an end-pumped high-power Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser. (United States)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Cha, Yong-Ho; Lim, Gwon; Kim, Yonghee; Kwon, Seong-Ouk; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Hyeon Cheor; Kim, Sangin; Koh, Kwang Uoong; Kim, Hyun Tae


    Techniques for wavefront improvement in an end-pumped Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser amplifier were proposed and demonstrated experimentally. First, a study on the contact materials was conducted to improve the heat transfer between the slab and cooling blocks and to increase the cooling uniformity. Among many attempts, only the use of silicon oil showed an improvement in the wavefront. Thus, the appropriate silicone oil was applied to the amplifier as a contact material. In addition, the wavefront compensation method using a glass rod array was also applied to the amplifier. A very low wavefront distortion was obtained through the use of a silicone-oil contact and glass rod array. The variance of the optical path difference for the entire beam height was 3.87 μm at a pump power of 10.6 kW, and that for the 80% section was 1.69 μm. The output power from the oscillator was 3.88 kW, which means the maximum output extracted from the amplifier at a pump power of 10.6 kW.

  13. Single mode chalcogenide glass fiber as wavefront filter for the DARWIN planet finding misson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, A.J.; Cheng, L.K.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Boussard-Plédel, C.; Houizot, P.; Danto, S.; Lucas, J.; Pereira Do Carmo, J.


    The development of single mode chalcogenide glass fibers as wavefront filter for the DARWIN mission is reported. Melting procedures and different preform techniques for manufacturing core-cladding chalcogenide fibers are described. Bulk glass samples on the basis of Te-As-Se- and high

  14. Tool to estimate optical metrics from summary wave-front analysis data in the human eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Purpose Studies in the field of cataract and refractive surgery often report only summary wave-front analysis data data that are too condensed to allow for a retrospective calculation of metrics relevant to visual perception. The aim of this study was to develop a tool that can be used to estimate

  15. Agile wavefront splitting interferometry and imaging using a digital micromirror device (United States)

    La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, Nabeel A.


    Since 1997, we have proposed and demonstrated the use of the Texas Instrument (TI) Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) for various non-display applications including optical switching and imaging. In 2009, we proposed the use of the DMD to realize wavefront splitting interferometers as well as a variety of imagers. Specifically, proposed were agile electronically programmable wavefront splitting interferometer designs using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) such as (a) a transmissive SLM, (b) a DMD SLM and (c) a Beamsplitter with a DMD SLM. The SLMs operates with on/off or digital state pixels, much like a black and white state optical window to control passage/reflection of incident light. SLM pixel locations can be spatially and temporally modulated to create custom wavefronts for near-common path optical interference at the optical detectors such as a CCD/CMOS sensor, a Focal Plane Array (FPA) sensor or a point-photodetector. This paper describes the proposed DMD-based wavefront splitting interferometer and imager designs and their relevant experimental results.

  16. Wavefront Engineering with Phase Discontinuities: Designer Interfaces for High Performance Planar Optical Components (United States)


    wavefronts of light such as vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum. This approach is based on the principle of holography : the coupler is designed...broadband absorption, high speed, and compatibility to silicon technology . Based on the idea of using coupled optical antennas to enhance photon

  17. The shape of the radio wavefront of extensive air showers as measured with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstanje, A.; Schellart, P.; Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Frieswijk, W.; Hörandel, J. R.; Krause, M.; Rachen, J. P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.; van den Akker, M.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; de Vos, M.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Fallows, R. A.; Ferrari, C.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hoeft, M.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kohler, J.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Mevius, M.; Munk, H.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pandey, V. N.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Smirnov, O.; Stewart, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; Toribio, C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    Extensive air showers, induced by high energy cosmic rays impinging on the Earth's atmosphere, produce radio emission that is measured with the LOFAR radio telescope. As the emission comes from a finite distance of a few kilometers, the incident wavefront is non-planar. A spherical or conical shape

  18. The shape of the radio wavefront of extensive air showers as measured with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstanje, A.; et al., [Unknown; Swinbank, J.


    Extensive air showers, induced by high energy cosmic rays impinging on the Earth’s atmosphere, produce radio emission that is measured with the LOFAR radio telescope. As the emission comes from a finite distance of a few kilometers, the incident wavefront is non-planar. A spherical, conical or

  19. Laser with a wavefront reversal mirror in the free-running mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucherov, Iu.I.; Lesnik, S.A.; Soskin, M.S.; Khizhniak, A.I.


    Experiments are reported in which free-running lasing has been achieved in a laser with a wavefront reversal mirror using forward four-wave mixing. The optical scheme of the laser and the lasing process are discussed and radiation oscillograms are presented.

  20. Enhanced wavefront reconstruction by random phase modulation with a phase diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Gundu, Phanindra Narayan


    A phase retrieval technique for enhanced wavefront reconstruction using random phase modulation and a phase diffuser is proposed. The speckle field generated is sampled at multiple axially displaced planes and the speckle patterns are used in an iterative algorithm based on the optical wave propa...

  1. Efficient Irregular Wavefront Propagation Algorithms on Hybrid CPU-GPU Machines (United States)

    Teodoro, George; Pan, Tony; Kurc, Tahsin; Kong, Jun; Cooper, Lee; Saltz, Joel


    We address the problem of efficient execution of a computation pattern, referred to here as the irregular wavefront propagation pattern (IWPP), on hybrid systems with multiple CPUs and GPUs. The IWPP is common in several image processing operations. In the IWPP, data elements in the wavefront propagate waves to their neighboring elements on a grid if a propagation condition is satisfied. Elements receiving the propagated waves become part of the wavefront. This pattern results in irregular data accesses and computations. We develop and evaluate strategies for efficient computation and propagation of wavefronts using a multi-level queue structure. This queue structure improves the utilization of fast memories in a GPU and reduces synchronization overheads. We also develop a tile-based parallelization strategy to support execution on multiple CPUs and GPUs. We evaluate our approaches on a state-of-the-art GPU accelerated machine (equipped with 3 GPUs and 2 multicore CPUs) using the IWPP implementations of two widely used image processing operations: morphological reconstruction and euclidean distance transform. Our results show significant performance improvements on GPUs. The use of multiple CPUs and GPUs cooperatively attains speedups of 50× and 85× with respect to single core CPU executions for morphological reconstruction and euclidean distance transform, respectively. PMID:23908562

  2. High-resolution wavefront shaping with a photonic crystal fiber for multimode fiber imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amitonova, L. V.; Descloux, A.; Petschulat, J.; Frosz, M. H.; Ahmed, G.; Babic, F.; Jiang, X.; Mosk, A. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186344686; Russell, P. S. J.; Pinkse, P.W.H.


    We demonstrate that a high-numerical-aperture photonic crystal fiber allows lensless focusing at an unparalleled res- olution by complex wavefront shaping. This paves the way toward high-resolution imaging exceeding the capabilities of imaging with multi-core single-mode optical fibers. We analyze

  3. Phase Estimation Techniques for Active Optics Systems Used in Real-Time Wavefront Reconstruction. (United States)


    square MSE Mean square error MMSE Minimum mean square error n Number of columns in detector array Dummy variable in Eq. (4-1) n, Noise counts ) n(t... Factorial xiii AFIT/GEO/EE/80D-4 Abstract * Wavefront estimation from shearing interferometry measurements is considered in detail. Two analyses

  4. Wavefront-sensor-induced beam size error: physical mechanism, sensitivity-analysis and correction method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, W.D.; Zwet, E.J. van


    When using a commonly-used quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometer wavefront sensor (QWLSI WFS) for beam size measurements on a high power CO2 laser, artefacts have been observed in the measured irradiance distribution. The grating in the QWLSI WFS not only generates the diffracted first orders

  5. Occlusion processing for computer generated hologram by conversion between the wavefront and light-ray information (United States)

    Wakunami, Koki; Yamaguchi, Masahiro


    In the field of computational holography for three-dimensional (3D) display, the mutual occlusion of objects is one of the crucial issues. We propose a new mutual occlusion processing that is achieved by the conversion between the light-ray and wavefront on a virtual plane called ray-sampling (RS) plane located at near the interrupting object. The wavefront coming from background scene is converted into light-ray information at the RS plane by using Fourier transform based on the angular spectrum theory, then the converted light-rays are overwritten with those from interrupting object in the light-ray domain as an occlusion culling process. The ray information after the occlusion process is reconverted into wavefront by inverse Fourier transform at each RS point, then wave propagation from RS plane to hologram is computed by general light diffraction computation techniques. Since the light-ray information is used for the occlusion processing, our approach can realize a correct occlusion effect by a simple algorithm. In addition, high resolution 3D image can be reconstructed with wavefront-based technique. In the numerical simulation, we demonstrate that our approach for deep 3D scene with plural objects can realize a correct occlusion culling for varying observation angle and focusing distance.

  6. High-resolution wavefront shaping with a photonic crystal fiber for multimode fiber imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amitonova, Lyubov; Descloux, Adrien; Petschulat, Joerg; Frosz, Michael H.; Ahmed, Goran; Babic, Fehim; Mosk, Allard; Russell, Philip St.J.; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry


    We demonstrate that a high-numerical-aperture photonic crystal fiber allows lensless focusing at an unparalleled resolution by complex wavefront shaping. This paves the way toward high-resolution imaging exceeding the capabilities of imaging with multi-core single-mode optical fibers. We analyze the

  7. Existence and uniqueness of travelling wavefronts for a bio-reactor equations with distributed delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Zhao


    Full Text Available We consider the diffusive single species growth in a plug flow reactor model with distributed delay. For small delay, existence and uniqueness of such wavefronts are proved when the convolution kernel assumes the strong generic delay kernel. The approaches used in this paper are geometric singular perturbation theory and the center manifold theorem.

  8. Automatic centroid detection and surface measurement with a digital Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Zhao, Liping; Li, Xiang; Fang, Zhongping


    With the breakthrough of manufacturing technologies, the measurement of surface profiles is becoming a big issue. A Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) provides a promising technology for non-contact surface measurement with a number of advantages over interferometry. The SHWS splits the incident wavefront into many subsections and transfers the distorted wavefront detection into the centroid measurement. So the accuracy of the centroid measurement determines the accuracy of the SHWS. In this paper, we have presented a new centroid measurement algorithm based on an adaptive thresholding and dynamic windowing method by utilizing image-processing techniques. Based on this centroid detection method, we have developed a digital SHWS system which can automatically detect centroids of focal spots, reconstruct the wavefront and measure the 3D profile of the surface. The system has been tested with various simulated and real surfaces such as flat surfaces, spherical and aspherical surfaces as well as deformable surfaces. The experimental results demonstrate that the system has good accuracy, repeatability and immunity to optical misalignment. The system is also suitable for on-line applications of surface measurement

  9. The prediction of spherical aberration with schematic eyes. (United States)

    Liou, H L; Brennan, N A


    Many model eyes have been proposed; they differ in optical characteristics and therefore have different aberrations and image quality. In predicting the visual performance of the eye, we are most concerned with the central foveal vision. Spherical aberration is the only on-axis monochromatic aberration and can be used as a criterion to assess the degree of resemblance of eye models to the human eye. We reviewed and compiled experimental values of the spherical aberration of the eye, calculated the spherical aberration of several different categories of model eyes and compared the calculated results to the experimental data. Results show an over-estimation of spherical aberration by all models, the finite schematic eyes predicting values of spherical aberration closest to the experimental data. Current model eyes do not predict the average experimental values of the spherical aberration of the eye. A new model eye satisfying this assessment criterion is required for investigations of the visual performance of the eye.

  10. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.


    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  11. Expressions for third-order aberration theory for holographic images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    established aberration theory in the case of conventional optical elements. It was Meier. [1] who pioneered third-order aberration theory for applications in holography. There are reports in the literature contrary to Meier's results, e.g.,. (i) Smith [2] recalculated third-order aberration on the lines of Meier and tabulated his.

  12. Wavefront-guided refractive surgery results of training-surgeons Resultados das cirurgias refrativas guiadas por frentes de ondas de cirurgiões em treinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iane Stillitano


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess clinical outcomes and changes on higher-order aberrations (HOA after wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism performed by training-surgeons. METHODS: One hundred and seventy patients had customized LASIK (207 eyes and PRK (103 eyes performed by surgeons in-training using the LADARVision 4000 (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX. Preoperative and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperative data of spherical equivalent (SE, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA were analysed. Wavefront changes were determined using the LADARWave Hartmann-Shack wavefront aberrometer and the pupil size was scaled for 6.5 mm. RESULTS: The mean SE in the LASIK group was -3.04 ±1.07 D and in the PRK group was -1.60 ± 0.59 D. At 1-year follow-up, (80.6% (LASIK and (66.7% (PRK were within ± 0.50 D of the intended refraction. The UCVA was 20/20 or better in (58.1% (LASIK and (66.7% (PRK of the operated eyes. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between achieved versus attempted refractive correction in both groups: LASIK (r=0.975, POBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados clínicos e mudanças nas aberrações de alta-ordem (HOA, após ceratomileuse assistida por excimer laser in situ (LASIK e ceratectomia fotorrefrativa (PRK guiados por frentes de onda para correção da miopia e astigmatismo miópico realizada por cirurgiões em treinamento. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de 170 pacientes submetidos a LASIK personalizado (207 olhos e PRK (103 olhos realizados por cirurgiões em treinamento utilizando o LADARVision 4000 (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX. Dados do equivalente esférico (SE, melhor acuidade visual corrigida (BSCVA e acuidade visual não corrigida (UCVA foram analisados no pré-operatório e com 1, 3, 6 e 12 meses de pós-operatório. As alterações de frentes de onda foram determinadas usando o aberrômetro Hartmann

  13. Three-year results of small incision lenticule extraction and wavefront-guided femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis for correction of high myopia and myopic astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Kun Xia


    Full Text Available AIM: To compare and calculate the 3-year refractive results, higher-order aberrations (HOAs, contrast sensitivity (CS and dry eye parameters after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE and wavefront-guided femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK for correction of high myopia and myopic astigmatism. METHODS: In this prospective, non-randomized comparative study, 78 eyes with spherical equivalent (SE of -8.11±1.09 diopters (D received a SMILE surgery, and 65 eyes with SE of -8.05±1.12 D received a wavefront-guided FS-LASIK surgery with the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany for flap cutting. Visual acuity, manifest refraction, CS, HOAs, ocular surface disease index (OSDI and tear break-up time (TBUT were evaluated during a 3-year follow-up. RESULTS: The difference of uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA postoperatively was achieved at 1mo and at 3mo, whereas the difference of the mean UDVA between two groups at 3y were not statistically significant (t=-1.59, P=0.13. The postoperative change of SE was 0.89 D in the FS-LASIK group (t=5.76, P=0.00, and 0.14 D in the SMILE group (t=0.54, P=0.59 from 1mo to 3y after surgery. At 3-year postoperatively, both HOAs and spherical aberrations in the SMILE group were obviously less than those in the FS-LASIK group (P=0.00, but the coma root mean square (RMS was higher in the SMILE group (0.59±0.26 than in the FS-LASIK group (0.29±0.14, P=0.00. The mesopic CS values between two groups were not statistically significant at 3y postoperatively. Compared with the FS-LASIK group, lower OSDI scores and longer TBUT values were found in the SMILE group at 1mo and 3mo postoperatively. With regard to safety, no eye lost any line of CDVA in both groups at 3y after surgery. CONCLUSION: Both SMILE and wavefront-guided FS-LASIK procedures provide good visual outcomes. Both procedures are effective and safe, but SMILE surgery achieve more stable long

  14. Aberrant intestinal microbiota in individuals with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Tremaroli, Valentina; Caesar, Robert


    Aims/hypothesis: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota. However, recent studies suggest that metformin alters the composition and functional potential of gut microbiota, thereby interfering with the diabetes-related microbial signatures. We tested whether specific gut...... microbiota profiles are associated with prediabetes (defined as fasting plasma glucose of 6.1–7.0 mmol/l or HbA1c of 42–48 mmol/mol [6.0–6.5%]) and a range of clinical biomarkers of poor metabolic health. Methods: In the present case–control study, we analysed the gut microbiota of 134 Danish adults...... impaired glucose regulation in recipient mice. Conclusions/interpretation: Collectively, our data show that individuals with prediabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota characterised by a decreased abundance of the genus Clostridium and the mucin-degrading bacterium A. muciniphila. Our findings...

  15. Aberrant PO2 values in proficiency testing. (United States)

    Fonzi, C E; Clausen, J L; Mahoney, J


    We prospectively determined the frequency of aberrant vials of fluorocarbon/buffer used for proficiency testing of measurements of pH, PCO2, and PO2, using 20 duplicate vials from 12 lots of fluorocarbon/buffer and two arterial blood gas analyzers in eight reference laboratories. We defined aberrant vials as vials for which both duplicate measurements differed from the mean value of repeated measurements for the specific instrument (for each lot of testing materials) by > 0.04 for pH, > 10% of the mean or 3.0 mm Hg, whichever was greater, for PCO2; or > 10% of the mean or 6 mm Hg, whichever was greater, for PO2. Four of 1620 vials (0.25%) were aberrant, all based on PO2 measurements (range of mean values: pH, 7.181-7.631; PCO2, 12.7-65.9; PO2, 32.5-150.1) were 0.0055 for pH, 0.67 mm Hg for PCO2, and 1.65 mm Hg for PO2. Deliberate contamination of the fluorocarbon emulsion with room air, as might occur during sampling from the vial, indicated that only minor increases in PO2 (e.g., 1.0 mm Hg at PO2 of 56 mm Hg) occur when samples are aspirated. Larger increases in PO2 (mean 7.1 mm Hg at a PO2 of 66 mm Hg) occurred when the syringe samples were contaminated with room air. We conclude that isolated aberrant measurements of PO2 in blood gas proficiency testing attributable to vial contents can occur, but the frequency is very low.

  16. Corneal versus ocular aberrations after overnight orthokeratology. (United States)

    Gifford, Paul; Li, Melanie; Lu, Helen; Miu, Jonathan; Panjaya, Monica; Swarbrick, Helen A


    To investigate relationships between changes to corneal and ocular aberrations induced by orthokeratology (OK) and their influence on visual function. Eighteen subjects (aged 20 to 23 years) were fitted with OK lenses (BE Enterprises Pty Ltd, Australia), manufactured in Boston XO material (Bausch & Lomb Boston, Wilmington, MA), and worn overnight for seven nights. Corneal and ocular aberrations were simultaneously captured (Discovery, Innovative Visual Systems, Elmhurst, IL), and contrast sensitivity function was measured on days 1 and 7, within 2 and 8 hours after lens removal on waking. Data from the eye achieving the higher myopic correction were analyzed for changes over time. There was a significant refractive effect at all visits. Orthokeratology induced an increase in corneal and ocular root mean square higher order aberrations (HOAs) and a positive shift in spherical aberration (SA) on day 1, with further increases by day 7. Increases in root mean square coma became significant by day 7. Changes to corneal and ocular SA were similar on day 1; however, by day 7, there was a greater increase in corneal than ocular SA, indicating a change in internal SA. Orthokeratology led to an overall decrease in contrast sensitivity function, which was isolated to spatial frequency changes on day 1 at 1 cycle per degree and on day 7 at 1 and 8 cycles per degree. A greater positive shift in corneal compared with ocular SA on day 7 suggests a negative shift in internal SA, which would be consistent with an increased accommodative response. Lack of any difference on day 1 indicates that this may be an ocular adaptation response toward neutralizing induced positive SA, rather than a direct effect of SA changes on the accommodation mechanism.

  17. Assessing the construct validity of aberrant salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Schmidt


    Full Text Available We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT. The “aberrant salience” measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance, attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a learned irrelevance task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for ~75% percent of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated “Introvertive Anhedonia” schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. Learned irrelevance loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of learned irrelevance and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.

  18. The aberrant retroesophageal right subclavian artery. (United States)

    Seres-Sturm, M; Maros, T N; Seres-Sturm, L


    Two cases with arteria lusoria were found at 278 routine dissections. These arteria arise as the last branches of the aortic arch and have a retroesophageal position. At the crossing point, the esophagus narrows due to the groove caused by the artery. The appearance of this malposition is the consequence of the perturbation in the organo-genesis of the right dorsal aorta and fourth branchial artery. The aberration can lead to disphagia lusoria.

  19. Aberrant phenotypes in peripheral T cell lymphomas. (United States)

    Hastrup, N; Ralfkiaer, E; Pallesen, G


    Seventy six peripheral T cell lymphomas were examined immunohistologically to test their reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies against 11 T cell associated antigens (CD1-8, CD27, UCHL1, and the T cell antigen receptor). Sixty two (82%) lymphomas showed aberrant phenotypes, and four main categories were distinguished as follows: (i) lack of one or several pan-T cell antigens (49, 64% of the cases); (ii) loss of both the CD4 and CD8 antigens (11, 15% of the cases); (iii) coexpression of the CD4 and CD8 antigens (13, 17% of the cases); and (iv) expression of the CD1 antigen (eight, 11% of the cases). No correlation was seen between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and the histological subtype. It is concluded that the demonstration of an aberrant phenotype is a valuable supplement to histological assessment in the diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphomas. It is recommended that the panel of monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens should be fairly large, as apparently any antigen may be lost in the process of malignant transformation. Images Figure PMID:2469701

  20. Study of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfring, E.


    A method for determining chromosomal aberrations was established for the purpose of examining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of photon radiation with respect to mammary epithelium cells. Cells were exposed to 25 kV X-radiation and to 200 kV X-radiation for comparison and the resulting concentrations of chromosomal aberrations were compared. The RBE M value for radiation-induced fragmentation was found to be 4.2 ± 2.4, while the RBE M value for radiation-induced generation of dicentric chromosomes was found to be 0.5 ± 0.5. In addition to the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations the number of cell cycles undergone by the cells was monitored by means of BrDU staining. As expected, the proportion of cells which underwent more than one cell cycle following exposure to 5 Gy was very low in both cases, amounting to 1.9% (25 kV) and 3.2 (200 kV). Non-radiated cells yielded control values of 26.0% and 12.6%, suggesting variations in external conditions from day to day

  1. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.


    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of


    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  3. Monte Carlo simulations of the timing structure of Cherenkov wavefronts of sub-100 GeV gamma ray air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaper, D. R.; Gottbrath, C. L.; Kertzman, M. P.; Sembroski, G. H.


    We present a Monte-Carlo study of the phenomenology of Cherenkov light wavefronts from low energy gamma ray induced air showers. Experimentally the measurements of the spatially distributed arrival times of the wavefronts of the Cherenkov light of gamma ray air showers have been used to extract the directions of the showers. This has mainly been done for >500 GeV showers using a conical fit to the timing structure of the wavefront. This directionality is then used to contribute to the rejection of background showers (mainly hadron induced showers) which arrive isotropically. Investigation of the arrival times of simulated Cherenkov photons from gamma ray induced air showers of energies 100 GeV and below reveals that there is greater variation in the morphology of the wavefronts than at the higher energies and that the fitting of simple conical functions to determine arrival directions may no longer be appropriate. We demonstrate that the detailed structure of the wavefront of these low energy gamma ray showers is primarily determined by the height distribution of the emitting cascade particles. Preliminary work suggests a correlation between the shape of the wavefront and the height of shower-maximum

  4. Reversible wavefront shaping between Gaussian and Airy beams by mimicking gravitational field (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyang; Liu, Hui; Sheng, Chong; Zhu, Shining


    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate reversible wavefront shaping through mimicking gravitational field. A gradient-index micro-structured optical waveguide with special refractive index profile was constructed whose effective index satisfying a gravitational field profile. Inside the waveguide, an incident broad Gaussian beam is firstly transformed into an accelerating beam, and the generated accelerating beam is gradually changed back to a Gaussian beam afterwards. To validate our experiment, we performed full-wave continuum simulations that agree with the experimental results. Furthermore, a theoretical model was established to describe the evolution of the laser beam based on Landau’s method, showing that the accelerating beam behaves like the Airy beam in the small range in which the linear potential approaches zero. To our knowledge, such a reversible wavefront shaping technique has not been reported before.

  5. Phase shift extraction and wavefront retrieval from interferograms with background and contrast fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Yang; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang


    The fluctuations of background and contrast cause measurement errors in the phase-shifting technique. To extract the phase shifts from interferograms with background and contrast fluctuations, an iterative algorithm is represented. The phase shifts and wavefront phase are calculated in two individual steps with the least-squares method. The fluctuation factors are determined when the phase shifts are calculated, and the fluctuations are compensated when the wavefront phase is calculated. The advantage of the algorithm lies in its ability to extract phase shifts from interferograms with background and contrast fluctuations converging stably and rapidly. Simulations and experiments verify the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed algorithm. The convergence accuracy and speed are demonstrated by the simulation results. The experiment results show its ability for suppressing phase retrieval errors. (paper)

  6. Fast correction approach for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics based on a linear phase diversity technique. (United States)

    Yue, Dan; Nie, Haitao; Li, Ye; Ying, Changsheng


    Wavefront sensorless (WFSless) adaptive optics (AO) systems have been widely studied in recent years. To reach optimum results, such systems require an efficient correction method. This paper presents a fast wavefront correction approach for a WFSless AO system mainly based on the linear phase diversity (PD) technique. The fast closed-loop control algorithm is set up based on the linear relationship between the drive voltage of the deformable mirror (DM) and the far-field images of the system, which is obtained through the linear PD algorithm combined with the influence function of the DM. A large number of phase screens under different turbulence strengths are simulated to test the performance of the proposed method. The numerical simulation results show that the method has fast convergence rate and strong correction ability, a few correction times can achieve good correction results, and can effectively improve the imaging quality of the system while needing fewer measurements of CCD data.

  7. Optimizing the regularization in broadband wavefront control algorithm for WFIRST coronagraph (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Kern, Brian; Marx, David; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Nemati, Bijan


    The WFIRST/AFTA 2.4 m space telescope currently under study includes a stellar coronagraph for the imaging and the spectral characterization of extrasolar planets. The coronagraph employs sequential deformable mirrors to compensate for phase and amplitude errors. Using the optical model of an Occulting Mask Coronagraph (OMC) testbed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), we have investigated and compared through modeling and simulations the performance of several actuator regularization-schemes in broadband wavefront control algorithm used to generate dark holes in an OMC, such as a Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC). Using the concept of a Tikhonov filter constituting the G-matrix, we have explained what the different regularization schemes do to singular-modes during a wavefront control (WFC) process called Electric Field Conjugation (EFC). In some cases we confirmed the numerical predictions with the testbed measured results. We present our findings in this paper.

  8. Parallel simulations of partially coherent wavefront propagation from a finite emittance electron beam (United States)

    Laundy, D.; Sutter, J. P.; Wagner, U. H.; Rau, C.; Thomas, C. A.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Chubar, O.


    Hard X-ray undulator radiation at 3rd generation storage rings falls between the geometrical and the fully coherent limit. This is a result of the small but finite emittance of the electron beam source and means that the radiation cannot be completely modelled by incoherent ray tracing or by fully coherent wave propagation. We have developed using the wavefront propagation code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) running in a Python environment, a parallel computer program using the Monte Carlo method for modelling the partially coherent emission from electron beam sources taking into account the finite emittance of the source. Using a parallel computing cluster with in excess of 500 cores and each core calculating the wavefront from in excess of a 1000 electrons, a source containing millions of electrons could be simulated. We have applied this method to the Diamond X-ray Imaging and Coherence beamline (113).

  9. Wave-front evaluation of the Ni-like Ag laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, K. [Osaka National Research Inst., AIST, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Sebban, S.; Yoshizumi, Y. [Osaka National Research Inst., AIST, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering; Tang, H.J.; Daido, H. [Osaka National Research Inst., AIST, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering; Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kyoto (Japan); Kato, Y.; Klisnick, A. [Osaka National Research Inst., AIST, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Zeitoun, Ph. [Osaka National Research Inst., AIST, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Lab. de Spectroscopie Atomique et Ionique, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Wang, S.; Gu, Y.; Huang, G.; Lin, Z. [Osaka National Research Inst., AIST, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); National Lab. for High Power Lasers and Physics, Shanghai, SH (China)


    Coherent X-ray lasers are desired for various applications such as holography of biological samples and diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas. However, the shape of the X-ray laser had not been examined. Information about its wave-front shape is also important for future application of X-ray lasers in research and industry. In this paper, we report the evaluation of the shape of the wave-front of the X-ray laser. Ni-like Ag lasers at 13.9 nm were examined in IV-01-GXII experiment at GEKKO XII glass laser facility at ILE, Osaka Univ. The fringe patterns generated using crossed wires located in the beam were recorded on the X-ray CCD. Our experimental results indicate that X-ray laser emitted from an end of a plasma column has a property of a point light source. (orig.)

  10. Comparative assessment of orthogonal polynomials for wavefront reconstruction over the square aperture. (United States)

    Ye, Jingfei; Gao, Zhishan; Wang, Shuai; Cheng, Jinlong; Wang, Wei; Sun, Wenqing


    Four orthogonal polynomials for reconstructing a wavefront over a square aperture based on the modal method are currently available, namely, the 2D Chebyshev polynomials, 2D Legendre polynomials, Zernike square polynomials and Numerical polynomials. They are all orthogonal over the full unit square domain. 2D Chebyshev polynomials are defined by the product of Chebyshev polynomials in x and y variables, as are 2D Legendre polynomials. Zernike square polynomials are derived by the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process, where the integration region across the full unit square is circumscribed outside the unit circle. Numerical polynomials are obtained by numerical calculation. The presented study is to compare these four orthogonal polynomials by theoretical analysis and numerical experiments from the aspects of reconstruction accuracy, remaining errors, and robustness. Results show that the Numerical orthogonal polynomial is superior to the other three polynomials because of its high accuracy and robustness even in the case of a wavefront with incomplete data.

  11. Hough transform used on the spot-centroiding algorithm for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (United States)

    Chia, Chou-Min; Huang, Kuang-Yuh; Chang, Elmer


    An approach to the spot-centroiding algorithm for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) is presented. The SHWS has a common problem, in that while measuring high-order wavefront distortion, the spots may exceed each of the subapertures, which are used to restrict the displacement of spots. This artificial restriction may limit the dynamic range of the SHWS. When using the SHWS to measure adaptive optics or aspheric lenses, the accuracy of the traditional spot-centroiding algorithm may be uncertain because the spots leave or cross the confined area of the subapertures. The proposed algorithm combines the Hough transform with an artificial neural network, which requires no confined subapertures, to increase the dynamic range of the SHWS. This algorithm is then explored in comprehensive simulations and the results are compared with those of the existing algorithm.

  12. Objective lens simultaneously optimized for pupil ghosting, wavefront delivery and pupil imaging (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G (Inventor)


    An objective lens includes multiple optical elements disposed between a first end and a second end, each optical element oriented along an optical axis. Each optical surface of the multiple optical elements provides an angle of incidence to a marginal ray that is above a minimum threshold angle. This threshold angle minimizes pupil ghosts that may enter an interferometer. The objective lens also optimizes wavefront delivery and pupil imaging onto an optical surface under test.

  13. A database of wavefront measurements for laser system modeling, optical component development and fabrication process qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.; Aikens, D.M.; English, R.E.


    In the second half of the 1990's, LLNL and others anticipate designing and beginning construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF will be capable of producing the worlds first laboratory scale fusion ignition and bum reaction by imploding a small target. The NIF will utilize approximately 192 simultaneous laser beams for this purpose. The laser will be capable of producing a shaped energy pulse of at least 1.8 million joules (MJ) with peak power of at least 500 trillion watts (TV). In total, the facility will require more than 7,000 large optical components. The performance of a high power laser of this kind can be seriously degraded by the presence of low amplitude, periodic modulations in the surface and transmitted wavefronts of the optics used. At high peak power, these phase modulations can convert into large intensity modulations by non-linear optical processes. This in turn can lead to loss in energy on target via many well known mechanisms. In some cases laser damage to the optics downstream of the source of the phase modulation can occur. The database described here contains wavefront phase maps of early prototype optical components for the NIF. It has only recently become possible to map the wavefront of these large aperture components with high spatial resolution. Modem large aperture static fringe and phase shifting interferometers equipped with large area solid state detectors have made this possible. In a series of measurements with these instruments, wide spatial bandwidth can be detected in the wavefront

  14. High-QE fast-readout wavefront sensor with analog phase reconstruction (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey T.; Loos, Gary C.; Restaino, Sergio R.; Percheron, Isabelle; Finkner, Lyle G.


    The contradiction inherent in high temporal bandwidth adaptive optics wavefront sensing at low-light-levels (LLL) has driven many researchers to consider the use of high bandwidth high quantum efficiency (QE) CCD cameras with the lowest possible readout noise levels. Unfortunately, the performance of these relatively expensive and low production volume devices in the photon counting regime is inevitably limited by readout noise, no matter how arbitrarily close to zero that specification may be reduced. Our alternative approach is to optically couple a new and relatively inexpensive Ultra Blue Gen III image intensifier to an also relatively inexpensive high bandwidth CCD camera with only moderate QE and high rad noise. The result is a high bandwidth broad spectral response image intensifier with a gain of 55,000 at 560 nm. Use of an appropriately selected lenslet array together with coupling optics generates 16 X 16 Shack-Hartmann type subapertures on the image intensifier photocathode, which is imaged onto the fast CCD camera. An integral A/D converter in the camera sends the image data pixel by pixel to a computer data acquisition system for analysis, storage and display. Timing signals are used to decode which pixel is being rad out and the wavefront is calculated in an analog fashion using a least square fit to both x and y tilt data for all wavefront sensor subapertures. Finally, we present system level performance comparisons of these new concept wavefront sensors versus the more standard low noise CCD camera based designs in the low-light-level limit.

  15. Performance analysis of large-scale applications based on wavefront algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisie, A.; Lubeck, O.; Wasserman, H.


    The authors introduced a performance model for parallel, multidimensional, wavefront calculations with machine performance characterized using the LogGP framework. The model accounts for overlap in the communication and computation components. The agreement with experimental data is very good under a variety of model sizes, data partitioning, blocking strategies, and on three different parallel architectures. Using the model, the authors analyzed performance of a deterministic transport code on a hypothetical 100 Tflops future parallel system of interest to ASCI

  16. Manipulation of plasmonic wavefront and light–matter interaction in metallic nanostructures: A brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia-Fang; Li Zhi-Yuan


    The control and application of surface plasmons (SPs), is introduced with particular emphasis on the manipulation of the plasmonic wavefront and light–matter interaction in metallic nanostructures. We introduce a direct design methodology called the surface wave holography method and show that it can be readily employed for wave-front shaping of near-infrared light through a subwavelength hole, it can also be used for designing holographic plasmonic lenses for SPs with complex wavefronts in the visible band. We also discuss several issues of light–matter interaction in plasmonic nanostructures. We show theoretically that amplification of SPs can be achieved in metal nanoparticles incorporated with gain media, leading to a giant reduction of surface plasmon resonance linewidth and enhancement of local electric field intensity. We present an all-analytical semiclassical theory to evaluate spaser performance in a plasmonic nanocavity incorporated with gain media described by the four-level atomic model. We experimentally demonstrate amplified spontaneous emission of SP polaritons and their amplification at the interface between a silver film and a polymer film doped with dye molecules. We discuss various aspects of microscopic and macroscopic manipulation of fluorescent radiation from gold nanorod hybrid structures in a system of either a single nanoparticle or an aligned group of nanoparticles. The findings reported and reviewed here could help others explore various approaches and schemes to manipulate plasmonic wavefront and light–matter interaction in metallic nanostructures for potential applications, such as optical displays, information integration, and energy harvesting technologies. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  17. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V


    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  18. Using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors and Zernike coefficients for beam characterisation: numerical procedures (United States)

    Bosch, Salvador; Vallmitjana, Santiago; Marzoa, Antonio; Arines, Justo; Acosta, Eva


    When using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (SH) and Zernike coefficients (Zs) in applications where the position of the measurement and the point of interest are far apart, as it is common practice in ophthalmic optics, problems in the interpretation of the values of the Zs arise, related to how the shape of the wavefront propagates along the beam. One typical example is pupil conjugation where an auxiliary lens is added to match the size of the area of the interest of the beam with the size of the entrance pupil of the SH used for measurements. In the present work, we address this problem in the framework of a numerical scheme for modeling the beam propagation. We calculate the wavefronts with exact ray tracing plus the fitting of the impacts so as to match a rectangular grid. This procedure allows the subsequent calculation of the Zs or, similarly, the pupil function at an arbitrary plane perpendicular to the optical axis. All the numerical methods and procedures have been implemented in MATLAB code and can be illustrated by running the MATLAB script for the setup configuration that is being considered. Several examples are presented to illustrate the previous ideas and to show the real capabilities of our procedures. They will help to clarify the issues actually found in practical setups for beam manipulation, often encountered in ophthalmic optics.

  19. An efficient means to mitigate wavefront curvature effects in polar format processed SAR imagery (United States)

    Linnehan, Robert; Yasuda, Mark; Doerry, Armin


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images processed using the polar format algorithm (PFA) may exhibit distortion if the curvature of the spherical wavefronts are not accounted for. The distortion manifests in geometric shifts and defocusing of targets, and intensifies as distances between pixels and the scene reference position increase. In this work, we demonstrate a method to mitigate the effects of wavefront curvature by applying localized (space-variant) phase corrections to sub-regions selected from the polar format processed image. The modified sub-images are then reassembled into a full image. To minimize discontinuities in the reconstructed image, the spatially variant phase adjustments are made to regions larger than the sub-images, and pared down before being reinserted into the complete image. The result is a SAR process that retains the efficiency of the PFA, yet avoids scene size limitations due to wavefront curvature distortions. The method is illustrated and validated using simulations and real data collected by the General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Lynx® Multi-mode Radar System.

  20. An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Magdaleno


    Full Text Available In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain: international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975. It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA. These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs. Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations.

  1. Rapid and highly integrated FPGA-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics system (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Pin; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen


    In this study, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) programmed on LabVIEW can be highly integrated into customized applications such as adaptive optics system (AOS) for performing real-time wavefront measurement. Further, a Camera Link frame grabber embedded with FPGA is adopted to enhance the sensor speed reacting to variation considering its advantage of the highest data transmission bandwidth. Instead of waiting for a frame image to be captured by the FPGA, the Shack-Hartmann algorithm are implemented in parallel processing blocks design and let the image data transmission synchronize with the wavefront reconstruction. On the other hand, we design a mechanism to control the deformable mirror in the same FPGA and verify the Shack-Hartmann sensor speed by controlling the frequency of the deformable mirror dynamic surface deformation. Currently, this FPGAbead SHWS design can achieve a 266 Hz cyclic speed limited by the camera frame rate as well as leaves 40% logic slices for additionally flexible design.

  2. Wavefront picking for 3D tomography and full-waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah


    We have developed an efficient approach for picking firstbreak wavefronts on coarsely sampled time slices of 3D shot gathers. Our objective was to compute a smooth initial velocity model for multiscale full-waveform inversion (FWI). Using interactive software, first-break wavefronts were geometrically modeled on time slices with a minimal number of picks. We picked sparse time slices, performed traveltime tomography, and then compared the predicted traveltimes with the data in-between the picked slices. The picking interval was refined with iterations until the errors in traveltime predictions fell within the limits necessary to avoid cycle skipping in early arrivals FWI. This approach was applied to a 3D ocean-bottom-station data set. Our results indicate that wavefront picking has 28% fewer data slices to pick compared with picking traveltimes in shot gathers. In addition, by using sparse time samples for picking, data storage is reduced by 88%, and therefore allows for a faster visualization and quality control of the picks. Our final traveltime tomogram is sufficient as a starting model for early arrival FWI. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  3. Aberrant Myokine Signaling in Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Nakamori


    Full Text Available Summary: Myotonic dystrophy types 1 (DM1 and 2 (DM2 are dominantly inherited neuromuscular disorders caused by a toxic gain of function of expanded CUG and CCUG repeats, respectively. Although both disorders are clinically similar, congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM, a severe DM form, is found only in DM1. CDM is also characterized by muscle fiber immaturity not observed in adult DM, suggesting specific pathological mechanisms. Here, we revealed upregulation of the interleukin-6 (IL-6 myokine signaling pathway in CDM muscles. We also found a correlation between muscle immaturity and not only IL-6 expression but also expanded CTG repeat length and CpG methylation status upstream of the repeats. Aberrant CpG methylation was associated with transcriptional dysregulation at the repeat locus, increasing the toxic RNA burden that upregulates IL-6. Because the IL-6 pathway is involved in myocyte maturation and muscle atrophy, our results indicate that enhanced RNA toxicity contributes to severe CDM phenotypes through aberrant IL-6 signaling. : Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM manifests characteristic genetic (very large CTG repeat expansions, epigenetic (CpG hypermethylation upstream of the repeat, and phenotypic (muscle immaturity features not seen in adult DM. Nakamori et al. find phenotype-genotype and epigenotype correlation in CDM muscle and reveal involvement of the IL-6 myokine signaling pathway in the disease process. Keywords: CTCF, ER stress, IL-6, muscular dystrophy, NF-κB, trinucleotide, cytokine, splicing

  4. Higher order monochromatic aberrations of the human infant eye


    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T. Rowan


    The monochromatic optical aberrations of the eye degrade retinal image quality. Any significant aberrations during postnatal development could contribute to infants’ immature visual performance and provide signals for the control of eye growth. Aberrations of human infant eyes from 5 to 7 weeks old were compared with those of adult subjects using a model of an adultlike infant eye that accounted for differences in both eye and pupil size. Data were collected using the COAS Shack-Hartmann wave...

  5. Chromosome aberration analysis for biological dosimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.D.; Venkatachalam, P.; Jeevanram, R.K.


    Among various biological dosimetry techniques, dicentric chromosome aberration method appears to be the method of choice in analysing accidental radiation exposure in most of the laboratories. The major advantage of this method is its sensitivity as the number of dicentric chromosomes present in control population is too small and more importantly radiation induces mainly dicentric chromosome aberration among unstable aberration. This report brings out the historical development of various cytogenetic methods, the basic structure of DNA, chromosomes and different forms of chromosome aberrations. It also highlights the construction of dose-response curve for dicentric chromosome and its use in the estimation of radiation dose. (author)

  6. Chromosome aberrations: plants to human and Feulgen to FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, A.T.


    Chromosome aberrations and their impact on human health have been recognized for a long time. In the 1950s, in India, studies on induced chromosome aberrations in plants were initiated by Swaminathan and his students. I trace here the impact of these initial studies on further developments in this field. The studies which were started in plants have been extended to mammals (including human) and the simple squash and solid staining have been improved by molecular cytogenetic techniques, thus enabling accurate identification and quantification of different types of chromosome aberrations. These studies have also thrown light on the mechanisms of chromosome aberration formation, especially following exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  7. Orthogonal polynomials describing polarization aberration for rotationally symmetric optical systems. (United States)

    Xu, Xiangru; Huang, Wei; Xu, Mingfei


    Optical lithography has approached a regime of high numerical aperture and wide field, where the impact of polarization aberration on imaging quality turns to be serious. Most of the existing studies focused on the distribution rule of polarization aberration on the pupil, and little attention had been paid to the field. In this paper, a new orthonormal set of polynomials is established to describe the polarization aberration of rotationally symmetric optical systems. The polynomials can simultaneously reveal the distribution rules of polarization aberration on the exit pupil and the field. Two examples are given to verify the polynomials.

  8. Calibration results using highly aberrated images for aligning the JWST instruments to the telescope (United States)

    Smith, Koby Z.; Acton, D. Scott; Gallagher, Ben B.; Knight, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce H.; Jurling, Alden S.; Zielinski, Thomas P.


    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) project is an international collaboration led by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, MD. JWST is NASA's flagship observatory that will operate nearly a million miles away from Earth at the L2 Lagrange point. JWST's optical design is a three-mirror anastigmat with four main optical components; 1) the eighteen Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA), 2) a single Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA), 3) an Aft-Optics Subsystem (AOS) consisting of a Tertiary Mirror and Fine Steering Mirror, and 4) an Integrated Science Instrument Module consisting of the various instruments for JWST. JWST's optical system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of alignment capability and risk with the PMSAs and SMA having rigid body motion available on-orbit just for alignment purposes. However, the Aft-Optics Subsystem (AOS) and Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) are essentially fixed optical subsystems within JWST, and therefore the cryogenic alignment of the AOS to the ISIM is critical to the optical performance and mission success of JWST. In support of this cryogenic alignment of the AOS to ISIM, an array of fiber optic sources, known as the AOS Source Plate Assembly (ASPA), are placed near the intermediate image location of JWST (between the secondary and tertiary mirrors) during thermal vacuum ground-test operations. The AOS produces images of the ASPA fiber optic sources at the JWST focal surface location, where they are captured by the various science instruments. In this manner, the AOS provides an optical yardstick by which the instruments within ISIM can evaluate their relative positions to and the alignment of the AOS to ISIM can be quantified. However, since the ASPA is located at the intermediate image location of the JWST three-mirror anastigmat design, the images of these fiber optic sources produced by the AOS are highly aberrated with approximately 2-3μm RMS wavefront error consisting

  9. Changes in meibomian gland morphology and ocular higher-order aberrations in eyes with chalazion. (United States)

    Fukuoka, Shima; Arita, Reiko; Shirakawa, Rika; Morishige, Naoyuki


    To examine the changes in meibomian gland morphology and ocular higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with chalazion and its excision. Seven male patients with previous history of chalazion excision and seven control male subjects were enrolled. Changes in meibomian gland morphology (meiboscores, gland dropout, and shortening) were evaluated by using meibography equipped in a wavefront analyzer KR-1W and in a slit-lamp device BG-4M. Ocular HOAs were measured sequentially with KR-1W. The tear film breakup time (BUT) was measured. Both KR-1W and BG-4M visualized meibomian gland as clear similar images. The tear film BUT (mean ± SD, 5.6±3.0 vs 9.4±2.3 seconds, P =0.025), the total meiboscore (median [interquartile range], 2 (2-3) vs 0 (0-1), P =0.007) as well as the meibomian gland dropout rate (86% vs 14%, P =0.008) and shortening rate (100% vs 29%, P =0.031) differed significantly between the patient and control groups. The first total ocular HOAs (0.142±0.063 vs 0.130±0.015, P =0.80) were similar in both groups, whereas the stability index of the total HOAs over time (0.0041±0.0048 vs -0.0012±0.0020, P =0.030) differed significantly between the patient and control groups. Chalazion and its excision were associated with dropout and shortening rate of meibomian glands. The morphological changes of meibomian glands in chalazion may be associated to instability of the tear film, which was suggested by the tear film BUT and the stability of ocular HOAs.

  10. Aberrant Gene Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Frederik Otzen

    genes and genetic signatures and for reducing dimensionally of gene expression data. Next, we have used machine-learning methods to predict survival and to assess important predictors based on these results. General application of a number of these methods has been implemented into two public query......Summary Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) is an aggressive cancer of the bone marrow, affecting formation of blood cells during haematopoiesis. This thesis presents investigation of AML using mRNA gene expression profiles (GEP) of samples extracted from the bone marrow of healthy and diseased subjects....... Here GEPs from purified healthy haematopoietic populations, with different levels of differentiation, form the basis for comparison with diseased samples. We present a mathematical transformation of mRNA microarray data to make it possible to compare AML samples, carrying expanded aberrant...

  11. Design of an aberration corrected low-voltage SEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, R.H. van; Maas, D.J.; Hagen, C.W.; Barth, J.E.; Kruit, P.


    The low-voltage foil corrector is a novel type of foil aberration corrector that can correct for both the spherical and chromatic aberration simultaneously. In order to give a realistic example of the capabilities of this corrector, a design for a low-voltage scanning electron microscope with the

  12. Aberration analysis calculations for synchrotron radiation beamline design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.R.; Howells, M.; Padmore, H.A.


    The application of ray deviation calculations based on aberration coefficients for a single optical surface for the design of beamline optical systems is reviewed. A systematic development is presented which allows insight into which aberration may be causing the rays to deviate from perfect focus. A new development allowing analytical calculation of line shape is presented

  13. An aberrant uterus: Case report | Ondieki | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an aberrant uterus is presented and literature reviewed. The patient presented with abnormal uterine bleeding, left iliac fossa pain and was managed by excising the aberrant uterus. This case was an enigma as it didn't present in the classical way one with anomalies of the uterus would present. Despite ...

  14. Aberrant Breast in a Rare Site: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Yeniay


    Full Text Available Aberrant breast tissue is an anomaly in the embryogenesis of the breast that is found along the mammary ridge or out of that line. We report a case of a 71-year-old female patient with an abdominal aberrant breast tissue found incidentally in a piece of mesenteric biopsy. The histological features were consistent with breast tissue.

  15. [An aberrant course of the internal carotid artery]. (United States)

    Hittel, J P; Mertens, J


    Aberrant vascular courses of the A. carotis interna are extremely rare. They are usually combined with pulsatile symptoms. Missing symptoms are not proof of a non-existing aberration, though. A paracentesis in such a situation leads to an initially unstoppable bleeding from the tympanion and tuba. For this reason it is necessary to contemplate a vascular reason for the local findings preoperatively.

  16. Expressions for third-order aberration theory for holographic images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expressions for third-order aberration in the reconstructed wave front of point objects are established by Meier. But Smith, Neil Mohon, Sweatt independently reported that their results differ from that of Meier. We found that coefficients for spherical aberration, astigmatism, tally with Meier's while coefficients for distortion and ...

  17. Brown's TRANSPORT up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jiawen; Xie Xi; Qiao Qingwen


    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, etc., including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effects by artificial intelligence, outputing automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  18. Chromosome aberration analysis based on a beta-binomial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Prentice, R.L.


    Analyses carried out here generalized on earlier studies of chromosomal aberrations in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, by allowing extra-binomial variation in aberrant cell counts corresponding to within-subject correlations in cell aberrations. Strong within-subject correlations were detected with corresponding standard errors for the average number of aberrant cells that were often substantially larger than was previously assumed. The extra-binomial variation is accomodated in the analysis in the present report, as described in the section on dose-response models, by using a beta-binomial (B-B) variance structure. It is emphasized that we have generally satisfactory agreement between the observed and the B-B fitted frequencies by city-dose category. The chromosomal aberration data considered here are not extensive enough to allow a precise discrimination between competing dose-response models. A quadratic gamma ray and linear neutron model, however, most closely fits the chromosome data. (author)

  19. Image based method for aberration measurement of lithographic tools (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Bo; Guo, Yongxing; Li, Gongfa


    Information of lens aberration of lithographic tools is important as it directly affects the intensity distribution in the image plane. Zernike polynomials are commonly used for a mathematical description of lens aberrations. Due to the advantage of lower cost and easier implementation of tools, image based measurement techniques have been widely used. Lithographic tools are typically partially coherent systems that can be described by a bilinear model, which entails time consuming calculations and does not lend a simple and intuitive relationship between lens aberrations and the resulted images. Previous methods for retrieving lens aberrations in such partially coherent systems involve through-focus image measurements and time-consuming iterative algorithms. In this work, we propose a method for aberration measurement in lithographic tools, which only requires measuring two images of intensity distribution. Two linear formulations are derived in matrix forms that directly relate the measured images to the unknown Zernike coefficients. Consequently, an efficient non-iterative solution is obtained.

  20. Brown's transport up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jiawen; Xie Xi; Qiao Qingwen


    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effect by artificial intelligence, outputting automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  1. Cellular origin of prognostic chromosomal aberrations in AML patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Jensen, H.; Jendholm, J.; Rapin, N.


    of these aberrations occur in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) before definitive leukemic transformation through additional acquisition of a few (that is, mostly 1 or 2) leukemia-promoting driver aberrations. NGS studies on sorted bone marrow (BM) populations of AML patients with a normal......Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents an aggressive cancer entity, whose malignant cells respond abnormally to regulatory stimuli and have lost the ability to differentiate and become fully mature blood cells.1, 2 AML evolves through accumulation of independent genetic aberrations, including...... karyotype have demonstrated the presence of prognostic driver aberrations (that is, NPM1, FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD) in committed HPCs but not in multipotent HSCs. However, the HSC populations lacking the prognostic driver aberrations contained preleukemic clones harboring a series of recurrent molecular...

  2. Optical alignment procedure utilizing neural networks combined with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (United States)

    Adil, Fatime Zehra; Konukseven, Erhan İlhan; Balkan, Tuna; Adil, Ömer Faruk


    In the design of pilot helmets with night vision capability, to not limit or block the sight of the pilot, a transparent visor is used. The reflected image from the coated part of the visor must coincide with the physical human sight image seen through the nonreflecting regions of the visor. This makes the alignment of the visor halves critical. In essence, this is an alignment problem of two optical parts that are assembled together during the manufacturing process. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is commonly used for the determination of the misalignments through wavefront measurements, which are quantified in terms of the Zernike polynomials. Although the Zernike polynomials provide very useful feedback about the misalignments, the corrective actions are basically ad hoc. This stems from the fact that there exists no easy inverse relation between the misalignment measurements and the physical causes of the misalignments. This study aims to construct this inverse relation by making use of the expressive power of the neural networks in such complex relations. For this purpose, a neural network is designed and trained in MATLAB® regarding which types of misalignments result in which wavefront measurements, quantitatively given by Zernike polynomials. This way, manual and iterative alignment processes relying on trial and error will be replaced by the trained guesses of a neural network, so the alignment process is reduced to applying the counter actions based on the misalignment causes. Such a training requires data containing misalignment and measurement sets in fine detail, which is hard to obtain manually on a physical setup. For that reason, the optical setup is completely modeled in Zemax® software, and Zernike polynomials are generated for misalignments applied in small steps. The performance of the neural network is experimented and found promising in the actual physical setup.

  3. Impacto da análise do 'wavefront' na refratometria de pacientes com ceratocone


    Ambrósio Junior,Renato; Caldas,Diogo Leitão; Silva,Renata Siqueira da; Pimentel,Leonardo Nogueira; Valbon,Bruno de Freitas


    OBJETIVO: Verificar se a aberrometria ocular total (análise da frente de onda ou 'wavefront') possibilita melhora na acuidade visual corrigida (AVc) com lentes esfero-cilíndricas, obtida com a refratometria manifesta em casos de ceratocone com algum grau de intolerância ao uso de lentes de contato. MÉTODOS: Os prontuários de 46 pacientes (89 olhos), referidos com diagnóstico de ceratocone e intolerantes ao uso de lentes de contato, submetidos ao exame de aberrometria ocular total seguido de r...

  4. Adaptive optics microscopy with direct wavefront sensing using fluorescent protein guide stars. (United States)

    Tao, Xiaodong; Azucena, Oscar; Fu, Min; Zuo, Yi; Chen, Diana C; Kubby, Joel


    We introduce a direct wavefront sensing method using structures labeled with fluorescent proteins in tissues as guide stars. An adaptive optics confocal microscope using this method is demonstrated for imaging of mouse brain tissue. A dendrite and a cell body of a neuron labeled with yellow fluorescent protein are tested as guide stars without injection of other fluorescent labels. Photobleaching effects are also analyzed. The results shows increased image contrast and 3× improvement in the signal intensity for fixed mouse tissues at depths of 70 μm.

  5. Analysis technique for controlling system wavefront error with active/adaptive optics (United States)

    Genberg, Victor L.; Michels, Gregory J.


    The ultimate goal of an active mirror system is to control system level wavefront error (WFE). In the past, the use of this technique was limited by the difficulty of obtaining a linear optics model. In this paper, an automated method for controlling system level WFE using a linear optics model is presented. An error estimate is included in the analysis output for both surface error disturbance fitting and actuator influence function fitting. To control adaptive optics, the technique has been extended to write system WFE in state space matrix form. The technique is demonstrated by example with SigFit, a commercially available tool integrating mechanical analysis with optical analysis.

  6. Measurement and statistical analysis of the wavefront distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence using two-channel moiré deflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, Mohsen; Rasouli, Saifollah


    Recently, an adjustable, high-sensitivity, wide dynamic range, two-channel wavefront sensor based on moiré deflectometry was proposed by Rasouli et al (2010 Opt. Express 18 23906). In this work we have used this sensor on a telescope for measuring turbulence-induced wavefront distortions. A slightly divergent laser beam passes through turbulent ground level atmosphere and enters the telescope’s aperture. The laser beam is collimated behind the telescope’s focal point by means of a collimator and the beam enters the wavefront sensor. First, from deviations in the moiré fringes we calculate the two orthogonal components of the angle of arrival at each location across the wavefront. The deviations have been deduced in successive frames which allows evolution of the wavefront shape and Fried’s seeing parameter r 0 to be determined. Mainly, statistical analysis of the reconstructed wavefront distortions are presented. The achieved accuracy in the measurements and comparison between the measurements and the theoretical models are presented. Owing to the use of the sensor on a telescope, and using sub-pixel accuracy for the measurement of the moiré fringe displacements, the sensitivity of the measurements is improved by more than one order of magnitude. In this work we have achieved a minimum measurable angle of arrival fluctuations equal to 3.7 × 10 −7 rad or 0.07 arc s. Besides, because of the large area of the telescope’s aperture, a high spatial resolution is achieved in detecting the spatial perturbations of the atmospheric turbulence. (paper)

  7. Space-variant post-filtering for wavefront curvature correction in polar-formatted spotlight-mode SAR imagery (United States)

    Doren, Neall Evan

    Wavefront curvature defocus effects occur in spotlight-mode SAR imagery when reconstructed via the well-known polar-formatting algorithm (PFA) under certain imaging scenarios. These include imaging at close range, using a very low radar center frequency, utilizing high resolution, and/or imaging very large scenes. Wavefront curvature effects arise from the unrealistic assumption of strictly planar wavefronts illuminating the imaged scene. This dissertation presents a method for the correction of wavefront curvature defocus effects under these scenarios, concentrating on the generalized, squint-mode imaging scenario and its computational aspects. This correction is accomplished through an efficient one-dimensional, image domain filter applied as a post-processing step to PFA. This post-filter, referred to as SVPF, is precalculated from a theoretical derivation of the wavefront curvature effect and varies as a function of scene location. Prior to SVPF, severe restrictions were placed on the imaged scene size in order to avoid defocus effects under these scenarios when using PFA. The SVPF algorithm eliminates the need for scene size restrictions when wavefront curvature effects are present, correcting for wavefront curvature in broadside as well as squinted collection modes while imposing little additional computational penalty for squinted images. This dissertation covers the theoretical development, implementation and analysis of the generalized, squint-mode SVPF algorithm (of which broadside-mode is a special case) and provides examples of its capabilities and limitations as well as offering guidelines for maximizing its computational efficiency. Tradeoffs between the PFA/SVPF combination and other spotlight-mode SAR image formation techniques are discussed with regard to computational burden, image quality, and imaging geometry constraints. It is demonstrated that other methods fail to exhibit a clear computational advantage over polar-formatting in conjunction

  8. Least-squares wave-front reconstruction of Shack-Hartmann sensors and shearing interferometers using multigrid techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.L.


    This article details a multigrid algorithm that is suitable for least-squares wave-front reconstruction of Shack-Hartmann and shearing interferometer wave-front sensors. The algorithm detailed in this article is shown to scale with the number of subapertures in the same fashion as fast Fourier transform techniques, making it suitable for use in applications requiring a large number of subapertures and high Strehl ratio systems such as for high spatial frequency characterization of high-density plasmas, optics metrology, and multiconjugate and extreme adaptive optics systems

  9. Space-Variant Post-Filtering for Wavefront Curvature Correction in Polar-Formatted Spotlight-Mode SAR Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Wavefront curvature defocus effects occur in spotlight-mode SAR imagery when reconstructed via the well-known polar-formatting algorithm (PFA) under certain imaging scenarios. These include imaging at close range, using a very low radar center frequency, utilizing high resolution, and/or imaging very large scenes. Wavefront curvature effects arise from the unrealistic assumption of strictly planar wavefronts illuminating the imaged scene. This dissertation presents a method for the correction of wavefront curvature defocus effects under these scenarios, concentrating on the generalized: squint-mode imaging scenario and its computational aspects. This correction is accomplished through an efficient one-dimensional, image domain filter applied as a post-processing step to PF.4. This post-filter, referred to as SVPF, is precalculated from a theoretical derivation of the wavefront curvature effect and varies as a function of scene location. Prior to SVPF, severe restrictions were placed on the imaged scene size in order to avoid defocus effects under these scenarios when using PFA. The SVPF algorithm eliminates the need for scene size restrictions when wavefront curvature effects are present, correcting for wavefront curvature in broadside as well as squinted collection modes while imposing little additional computational penalty for squinted images. This dissertation covers the theoretical development, implementation and analysis of the generalized, squint-mode SVPF algorithm (of which broadside-mode is a special case) and provides examples of its capabilities and limitations as well as offering guidelines for maximizing its computational efficiency. Tradeoffs between the PFA/SVPF combination and other spotlight-mode SAR image formation techniques are discussed with regard to computational burden, image quality, and imaging geometry constraints. It is demonstrated that other methods fail to exhibit a clear computational advantage over polar-formatting in conjunction

  10. Chromosome aberrations in solid tumors have a stochastic nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Mauro A.A. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600-anexo, Porto Alegre 90035-003 (Brazil) and Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre 90035-903 (Brazil) and Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil) and Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Rua Miguel Tostes 101, Canoas 92420-280 (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Onsten, Tor G.H. [Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre 90035-903 (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Rua Miguel Tostes 101, Canoas 92420-280 (Brazil); Moreira, Jose C.F. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600-anexo, Porto Alegre 90035-003 (Brazil); Almeida, Rita M.C. de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil)


    An important question nowadays is whether chromosome aberrations are random events or arise from an internal deterministic mechanism, which leads to the delicate task of quantifying the degree of randomness. For this purpose, we have defined several Shannon information functions to evaluate disorder inside a tumor and between tumors of the same kind. We have considered 79 different kinds of solid tumors with 30 or more karyotypes retrieved from the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer. The Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival was also obtained for each solid tumor type in order to correlate data with tumor malignance. The results here show that aberration spread is specific for each tumor type, with high degree of diversity for those tumor types with worst survival indices. Those tumor types with preferential variants (e.g. high proportion of a given karyotype) have shown better survival statistics, indicating that aberration recurrence is a good prognosis. Indeed, global spread of both numerical and structural abnormalities demonstrates the stochastic nature of chromosome aberrations by setting a signature of randomness associated to the production of disorder. These results also indicate that tumor malignancy correlates not only with karyotypic diversity taken from different tumor types but also taken from single tumors. Therefore, by quantifying aberration spread, we could confront diverse models and verify which of them points to the most likely outcome. Our results suggest that the generating process of chromosome aberrations is neither deterministic nor totally random, but produces variations that are distributed between these two boundaries.

  11. Aberrant intestinal microbiota in individuals with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Tremaroli, Valentina; Caesar, Robert


    with prediabetes and those with normal glucose regulation. At the genus level, the abundance of Clostridium was decreased (mean log2 fold change −0.64 (SEM 0.23), padj = 0.0497), whereas the abundances of Dorea, [Ruminococcus], Sutterella and Streptococcus were increased (mean log2 fold change 0.51 (SEM 0...... individuals with prediabetes (mean log2 fold change −1.74 (SEM 0.41), padj = 2 × 10−3 and −1.65 (SEM 0.34), padj = 4 × 10−4, respectively). Faecal transfer from donors with prediabetes or screen-detected, drug-naive type 2 diabetes to germfree Swiss Webster or conventional C57BL/6 J mice did not induce...... impaired glucose regulation in recipient mice. Conclusions/interpretation: Collectively, our data show that individuals with prediabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota characterised by a decreased abundance of the genus Clostridium and the mucin-degrading bacterium A. muciniphila. Our findings...

  12. Adapting Wave-front Algorithms to Efficiently Utilize Systems with Deep Communication Hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbyson, Darren J.; Lang, Michael; Pakin, Scott


    Large-scale systems increasingly exhibit a differential between intra-chip and inter-chip communication performance especially in hybrid systems using accelerators. Processor cores on the same socket are able to communicate at lower latencies, and with higher bandwidths, than cores on different sockets either within the same node or between nodes. A key challenge is to efficiently use this communication hierarchy and hence optimize performance. We consider here the class of applications that contains wavefront processing. In these applications data can only be processed after their upstream neighbors have been processed. Similar dependencies result between processors in which communication is required to pass boundary data downstream and whose cost is typically impacted by the slowest communication channel in use. In this work we develop a novel hierarchical wave-front approach that reduces the use of slower communications in the hierarchy but at the cost of additional steps in the parallel computation and higher use of on-chip communications. This tradeoff is explored using a performance model. An implementation using the Reverse-acceleration programming model on the petascale Roadrunner system demonstrates a 27% performance improvement at full system-scale on a kernel application. The approach is generally applicable to large-scale multi-core and accelerated systems where a differential in system communication performance exists.

  13. Soft matter interfaces beamline at NSLS-II: geometrical ray-tracing vs. wavefront propagation simulations (United States)

    Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg; DiMasi, Elaine


    We report on the implications of the design of a Soft Matter Interfaces beamline, a long energy range canted in-vacuum undulator (IVU) beamline at National Synchrotron Light Source II, based on comparison of geometrical ray-tracing and partially coherent x-ray wavefront propagation simulation software packages, namely, SHADOW and Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW). For SHADOW, we employed an SRW-generated source file which simulated spectralangular distribution and apparent source characteristics of radiation produced by a 2.8 m long IVU with a 23 mm period and allowed us to realistically estimate the beam intensity at the sample positions. We highlight the necessity to use realistic mirror surface profiles with expected slope errors as opposed to "standard" built-in SHADOW surface error options. The beamline performances at three different x-ray photon energies: 20358 eV, 10778 eV, and 2101 eV, under different focusing conditions, have been studied. We compare beamline simulations performed with both software packages. In particular, we stress that the neglect of wavefront diffraction effects in geometrical ray-tracing approach results in significant discrepancies in beam spot size and beam shape, the correct assessments of which are crucial in determining the future performance of an instrument.

  14. Wavefronts, light rays and caustic of a circular wave reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano-Melchor, Magdalena; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Montiel-Piña, Enrique; Román-Hernández, Edwin; Santiago-Santiago, José Guadalupe; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Rosado, Alfonso; Suárez-Xique, Román


    The aim of the present work is to obtain expressions for both the wavefront train and the caustic associated with the light rays reflected by an arbitrary smooth curve after being emitted by a point light source located at an arbitrary position in the two-dimensional free space. To this end, we obtain an expression for the k-function associated with the general integral of Stavroudis to the eikonal equation that describes the evolution of the reflected light rays. The caustic is computed by using the definitions of the critical and caustic sets of the two-dimensional map that describes the evolution of an arbitrary wavefront associated with the general integral. The general results are applied to circular and parabolic mirrors. The main motivation to carry out this research is to establish, in future work, the caustic touching theorem in a two-dimensional optical medium and to study the diffraction problem by using the k-function concept. Both problems are important in the computation of the image of an arbitrary object under reflection and refraction

  15. Improving the detection task performance of a LWIR imaging system through the use of wavefront coding (United States)

    Gross, Kevin A.; Kubala, Kenny


    In a traditional optical system the imaging performance is maximized at a single point in the operational space. This characteristic leads to maximizing the probability of detection if the object is on axis, at the designed conjugate, with the designed operational temperature and if the system components are manufactured without error in form and alignment. Due to the many factors that influence the system's image quality the probability of detection will decrease away from this peak value. An infrared imaging system is presented that statistically creates a higher probability of detection over the complete operational space for the Hotelling observer. The system is enabled through the use of wavefront coding, a computational imaging technology in which optics, mechanics, detection and signal processing are combined to enable LWIR imaging systems to be realized with detection task performance that is difficult or impossible to obtain in the optical domain alone. The basic principles of statistical decision theory will be presented along with a specific example of how wavefront coding technology can enable improved performance and reduced sensitivity to some of the fundamental constraints inherent in LWIR systems.

  16. Subwavelength diffractive acoustics and wavefront manipulation with a reflective acoustic metasurface (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.


    Acoustic metasurfaces provide useful wavefront shaping capabilities, such as beam steering, acoustic focusing, and asymmetric transmission, in a compact structure. Most acoustic metasurfaces described in the literature are transmissive devices and focus their performance on steering sound beam of the fundamental diffractive order. In addition, the range of incident angles studied is usually below the critical incidence predicted by generalized Snell's law of reflection. In this work, we comprehensively analyze the wave interaction with a generic periodic phase-modulating structure in order to predict the behavior of all diffractive orders, especially for cases beyond critical incidence. Under the guidance of the presented analysis, a broadband reflective metasurface is designed based on an expanded library of labyrinthine acoustic metamaterials. Various local and nonlocal wavefront shaping properties are experimentally demonstrated, and enhanced absorption of higher order diffractive waves is experimentally shown for the first time. The proposed methodology provides an accurate approach for predicting practical diffracted wave behaviors and opens a new perspective for the study of acoustic periodic structures. The designed metasurface extends the functionalities of acoustic metasurfaces and paves the way for the design of thin planar reflective structures for broadband acoustic wave manipulation and extraordinary absorption.

  17. Enhancing the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding. (United States)

    Cohen, Noy; Yang, Samuel; Andalman, Aaron; Broxton, Michael; Grosenick, Logan; Deisseroth, Karl; Horowitz, Mark; Levoy, Marc


    Light field microscopy has been proposed as a new high-speed volumetric computational imaging method that enables reconstruction of 3-D volumes from captured projections of the 4-D light field. Recently, a detailed physical optics model of the light field microscope has been derived, which led to the development of a deconvolution algorithm that reconstructs 3-D volumes with high spatial resolution. However, the spatial resolution of the reconstructions has been shown to be non-uniform across depth, with some z planes showing high resolution and others, particularly at the center of the imaged volume, showing very low resolution. In this paper, we enhance the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding techniques. By including phase masks in the optical path of the microscope we are able to address this non-uniform resolution limitation. We have also found that superior control over the performance of the light field microscope can be achieved by using two phase masks rather than one, placed at the objective's back focal plane and at the microscope's native image plane. We present an extended optical model for our wavefront coded light field microscope and develop a performance metric based on Fisher information, which we use to choose adequate phase masks parameters. We validate our approach using both simulated data and experimental resolution measurements of a USAF 1951 resolution target; and demonstrate the utility for biological applications with in vivo volumetric calcium imaging of larval zebrafish brain.

  18. Wavefront analysis of high-efficiency, large-scale, thin transmission gratings. (United States)

    Zhou, Chun; Seki, Takashi; Kitamura, Tsuyoshi; Kuramoto, Yoshiyuki; Sukegawa, Takashi; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Kanai, Teruto; Itatani, Jiro; Kobayashi, Yohei; Watanabe, Shuntaro


    Large-scale (180 × 60 × 1 mm(3)) transmission gratings with groove densities of 1250 and 1740 lines/mm have been developed, resulting in diffraction efficiencies above 95%. The throughput of a folded pulse compressor with two large-scale transmission gratings was approximately 80% in a 20-fs Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) laser. The parabolic bending of the transmission grating due to anti-reflection (AR) coating was minimized to 2.9 λ at 633 nm by improving the evaporation process. By a simple analysis, we explain why this level of bending does not induce a wavefront distortion through the transmission grating near the Littrow condition while the wavefront from a reflection grating is distorted to nearly twice the bending of the grating. The calculation based on the measured bending shows that both the group delay difference relative to the ideally flat grating from 750 to 850 nm and the spatial pulse front distortion over a 60-mm-diameter input beam are negligible, even when the dispersive beam covers ~140 mm on the grating. The spatial pulse front distortion measured after the compressor was less than the measurement limit (1.5 fs) for a 20-mm-diameter beam, where the beam size in the dispersive direction on the grating was 85 mm.

  19. Towards Fast Reverse Time Migration Kernels using Multi-threaded Wavefront Diamond Tiling

    KAUST Repository

    Malas, T.


    Today’s high-end multicore systems are characterized by a deep memory hierarchy, i.e., several levels of local and shared caches, with limited size and bandwidth per core. The ever-increasing gap between the processor and memory speed will further exacerbate the problem and has lead the scientific community to revisit numerical software implementations to better suit the underlying memory subsystem for performance (data reuse) as well as energy efficiency (data locality). The authors propose a novel multi-threaded wavefront diamond blocking (MWD) implementation in the context of stencil computations, which represents the core operation for seismic imaging in oil industry. The stencil diamond formulation introduces temporal blocking for high data reuse in the upper cache levels. The wavefront optimization technique ensures data locality by allowing multiple threads to share common adjacent point stencil. Therefore, MWD is able to take up the aforementioned challenges by alleviating the cache size limitation and releasing pressure from the memory bandwidth. Performance comparisons are shown against the optimized 25-point stencil standard seismic imaging scheme using spatial and temporal blocking and demonstrate the effectiveness of MWD.

  20. Chromosome aberrations analysis of Serbia population from 1985 to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovicic, D.; Markovic, B.; Milacic, S.; Joksic, G.


    After the accident of NE Chernobyl in May 1986, Chernobyl's fallout with unhomogeneous dispersion of radioactive material in atmosphere caused the difference in contamination of the Serbia territory. The highest contamination was found to be in region Uzice, and the lowest in the region Nis. Two groups of population from these regions were undergone chromosome aberration analysis during 1987, 1988 and 1989. year. The results of our examination show increased frequency of structural chromosome aberrations/dicentrics, rings, peri centric inversions and acentric/ in the Uzice population, especially in the 1987. year. In 1985 and 1995 year have not been found chromosome aberrations. 2 refs.; 1 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Impacto da análise do "wavefront" na refratometria de pacientes com ceratocone Impact of the wavefront analysis in refraction of keratoconus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ambrósio Junior


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se a aberrometria ocular total (análise da frente de onda ou wavefront possibilita a melhora na acuidade visual corrigida (AVc com lentes esfero-cilíndricas, obtida com a refratometria manifesta em casos de ceratocone com algum grau de intolerância ao uso de lentes de contato. MÉTODOS: Os prontuários de 46 pacientes (89 olhos referidos com diagnóstico de ceratocone e intolerantes ao uso de lentes de contato, submetidos ao exame de aberrometria ocular total seguido de refração manifesta, foram estudados de forma retrospectiva. A AVc (logMAR com a correção existente antes do exame foi comparada com a obtida com a nova refração manifesta, realizada, considerando-se os dados objetivos da aberrometria. O teste não-paramétrico de Wilcoxon para amostras pareadas foi utilizado para verificação de diferenças estatisticamente significantes na AVc. RESULTADOS: Houve uma melhora estatisticamente significante na AVc com a nova refração manifesta (pOBJECTIVE: To verify if the total ocular aberrometry (wavefront analysis facilitates manifest refraction and improvement in best spectacle distance corrected visual acuity (BSCDVA with sphero-cylindrical lenses, in keratoconus cases with some degree of contact lenses intolerance. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 46 patients (89 eyes referred with keratoconus and contact lenses intolerance was performed. Ocular aberrometry with ray tracing was followed by manifest refraction. BSCDVA (logMAR with the previous correction was compared with the one obtained based on the wavefront auto-refraction. The nonparametric test of Wilcoxon for paired samples was used to test statistically significant differences in BSCDVA. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant improvement in BSCDVA with the new manifest refraction (p <0,0001. The average BSCDVA changed from 0,37 or 20/47 (varying between 1,3 and 0; standard deviation [SD] = 0,25 with previous refraction to 0,23 or 20

  2. Beam wavefront control of a thermal inertia laser for inertial confinement fusion application. (United States)

    Wanjun, Dai; Dongxia, Hu; Wei, Zhou; Junpu, Zhao; Feng, Jing; Zeping, Yang; Kun, Zhang; Xuejun, Jiang; Wu, Deng; Runchang, Zhao; Zhitao, Peng; Bin, Feng


    A novel scheme to correct aberration of each beam from the front-end to the target point in a thermal inertia laser (TIL) is presented. Each beam contains a deformable mirror (DM) with an aperture of 70 mm x 70 mm at the injection of the main amplifier and a Hartman-Shack (HS) sensor in a parameter diagnostic unit (PDU). A temporary HS sensor for measuring the static aberration of each beam with 1 Hz source is placed at the target point. The sensor will be removed from the target point during the main single shot, so we transfer the results measured at the target point to the sensors in the PDU. Dynamic aberration can also be measured by the HS sensor in the PDU during the single shot. In this way, we need not calibrate the aberration of the PDU, and aberration of each beam can be corrected by the DM with the HS sensor in the PDU. We demonstrate that with this scheme the divergence angle of the TIL pulses can be improved from 100 to less than 60 murad with a focal length of 2200 mm and beam size of 290 mm x 290 mm, which meets the requirement of a TIL.

  3. Aberrations of Genetic Material as Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milacic, S.


    Ionizing radiation is the most powerful mutagen in environmental and working conditions. The result of genotoxic effect of radiation is the development of chromosome aberrations. The structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes are dicentric, ring, acentric fragment. The observation of chromosome aberration frequency in lymphocyte karyotype is the conclusive method to assess the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. Our study compared the incidence of chromosome aberrations in occupationally exposed healthy medical workers and in non-exposed healthy population. We analyzed the effect of working place, dose by thermo luminescence personal dosimeter (TLD), duration of occupational exposure (DOE) and age to the sum of aberrant cells and aberrations. four-year study included 462 subjects, mean-aged 42.3 years, who were occupational exposed to ionizing radiation and 95 subjects, mean-aged 35,2 years, who were not exposed to ionizing radiation, during the same time period and from the same territory. All of them possess thermo luminescence personal dosimeter (TLD) which is read by scanner for thermo luminescence dosimeters. Modified Moorheard's micro method for peripheral blood lymphocytes and conventional cytogenetic technique of chromosome aberration analysis were used for analysis of chromosome aberrations. Stained preparations (Giemsa) are observed in immersion by light microscope. The karyotype of 200 lymphocytes in metaphase is analyzed the most characteristic aberration: dicentric, then the ring and acentric fragments. The increased incidence of chromosome aberrations was found to tbe 21.6% in the exposed group and 2.1% in the controls, while the findings within the limits (non-specific chromosome lesions-gaps breaks, elongations, and exchanges) were equal in both groups (22%). Among occupationally exposed medical workers, the highest incidence was found in nuclear medicine workers (42.6%), then in orthopedists (27.08%). There is highly

  4. Aberrant lymphoid antigen expression in acute myeloid leukemia in Saudi Arabia. (United States)

    El-Sissy, Azza H; El-Mashari, May A; Bassuni, Wafaa Y; El-Swaayed, Aziza F


    Immunophenotyping improves both accuracy and reproducibility of acute leukemia classification and is considered particularly useful for identifying aberrant lineage association of acute leukemia, biphenotypic and bilineal acute leukemia, as well as monitoring minimal residual disease. Some immunophenotypes correlate with cytogenetic abnormalities and prognosis. Is to determine aberrant lymphoid antigen expression in Saudi acute myeloid leukemia (AML), correlate them with FAB subtypes, evaluate early surface markers CD7 and CD56, and to investigate the role of cytoplasmic CD79a (a B cell marker that is assigned a high score of 2.0 in the WHO classification). Thirty four newly diagnosed AML cases were included in this study, 47% showed aberrant lymphoid antigen expression. CD9 was the most frequently expressed lymphoid antigen (29.4%) followed by CD7 & CD19 (11.8%), CD4 (8.8%) and CD22 (2.9%). CD9 was expressed in 3/6 (50%) of M3 cases, CD7 was expressed in 11.8% and was mostly confined to FAB M1 and M2 and associated with immature antigens CD34, HLA-DR and TdT. CD56 was expressed in 7/34 (20.6%) cases, three of these cases (42.9%) belonged to the monocytic group. CD56 was also detected in 2 cases with 11q23 rearrangement. CD56 was expressed in 2/7 (28.6%) M2 cases, and was associated with t (8;21) (q22;q22) together with CD19. Co-expression of CD56 and CD7 was detected in 2.9% of the cases. CD79a was expressed in one case together with CD19, diagnosed as acute biphenotypic leukemia, and was associated with t(8;21) (q22;q22). Minimal residual disease in AML is very difficult to trace, detection of aberrant expression of lymphoid antigens will make it easier. The high score given to CD79a by EGIL is questionable based on cytogenetic classification.

  5. Chromosome aberration studies and microdosimetry with radiations of varying quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillmaier, R.E.; Bihy, L.; Menzel, H.G.; Schuhmacher, H.


    To investigate the biological effectivity of complex irradiation fields encountered in radiation protection and high LET radiation therapy and to find meaningful specification of radiation quality closely related to the biological effectivity, correlated chromosome aberration studies and microdosimetric investigations have been carried out using cyclotron produced collimated fast neutrons. Human lymphocytes have been irradiated at different dose levels in the direct beam and in different positions in the penumbra and the rates of acentric fragments and dicentrics have been determined. In identical positions microdosimetric measurements have been performed. The dose relationship of aberration rates after irradiation in the direct beam, the aberration rates observed in the penumbra and the microdosimetric quantities ysub(D), ysub(F) and y* are presented and their relations are discussed. Furthermore the dose relationship of chromosome aberrations induced by 60 Co-γ-rays has been investigated and used to establish the RBE dose relationship of cyclotron neutrons

  6. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  7. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo


    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  8. Herpes,zoster with Wrist Drop and Aberrant Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Dutta


    Full Text Available A patient having herpes zoster involving C6, 7, 8, Dl and 2 segments, developed ipsilateral wrist drop and aberrant lesions. Paralytic deformity preceded the skin eruption by one day.

  9. Aberrant Chromatin Modification as a Mechanism of Prostate Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Hongwu


    .... However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that aberrant chromatin modification plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression...

  10. Low level dose induced chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl-Rueling, J.


    Unstable structural aberrations in chromosomes of human blood lymphocytes cannot be used as biological dosemeters in the low dose range, when extrapolating from high doses using a linear dose response, as required by the original formula of the dual radiation action theory. A survey is given of experimental dose-response curves of chromosome aberrations, obtained in investigations not only by this institute, in cooperation with many other laboratories, but also by various authors in different areas of the world. The results are not compatible with the predicted linear dose relationships at in vivo dose ranges up to 30 mGy.y -1 . The aberration frequencies rise sharply with dose within the normal environmental exposure up to about twice that level. At higher doses, aberration frequencies increase less rapidly and reach a plateau. Some in vitro experiments of various authors with higher doses of low LET radiations, up to about 400 mGy have found dose responses with steps. (author)

  11. Impact of primary aberrations on coherent lidar performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist


    of the lidar system using different optical transceiver configurations. A rotating belt is used as a hard target. Our study shows that the lidar weighting function suffers from both spatial broadening and shift in peak position in the presence of aberration. It is to our knowledge the first experimental......In this work we investigate the performance of a monostatic coherent lidar system in which the transmit beam is under the influence of primary phase aberrations: spherical aberration (SA) and astigmatism. The experimental investigation is realized by probing the spatial weighting function...... effciency, the optimum truncation of the transmit beam and the spatial sensitivity of a CW coherent lidar system. Under strong degree of aberration, the spatial confinement is significantly degraded. However for SA, the degradation of the spatial confinement can be reduced by tuning the truncation...

  12. Establishing working standards of chromosome aberrations analysis for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Thi Kim Luyen; Tran Que; Pham Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Anh; Ha Thi Ngoc Lien


    Biological dosimetry is an dose assessment method using specify bio markers of radiation. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) defined that dicentric chromosome is specify for radiation, it is a gold standard for biodosimetry. Along with the documents published by IAEA, WHO, ISO and OECD, our results of study on the chromosome aberrations induced by radiation were organized systematically in nine standards that dealing with chromosome aberration test and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. This standard addresses: the reference dose-effect for dose estimation, the minimum detection levels, cell culture, slide preparation, scoring procedure for chromosome aberrations use for biodosimetry, the criteria for converting aberration frequency into absorbed dose, reporting of results. Following these standards, the automatic analysis devices were calibrated for improving biological dosimetry method. This standard will be used to acquire and maintain accreditation of the Biological Dosimetry laboratory in Nuclear Research Institute. (author)

  13. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gamborg, M O


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116...... greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. RESULTS: The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse...... workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding...

  14. Wavefront Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Riis, Morten S.


    In this article, we offer an object-oriented ontological perspective to complement the diversity of sounding ontologies, challenging the human perspective as the only valid perspective and call for the necessity of including perspectives of objects such as a speakers, voices and light sensors....... Subscribing to this view also confronts music and sound art as consistent autonomous categories and focuses on how the pieces attune to the environment, emphasising meetings, transformations and translations through and with other objects. These meetings generate an ecological awareness of causal aesthetics...

  15. Adaptive thresholding and dynamic windowing method for automatic centroid detection of digital Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiaoming; Li Xiang; Zhao Liping; Fang Zhongping


    A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SWHS) splits the incident wavefront into many subsections and transfers the distorted wavefront detection into the centroid measurement. The accuracy of the centroid measurement determines the accuracy of the SWHS. Many methods have been presented to improve the accuracy of the wavefront centroid measurement. However, most of these methods are discussed from the point of view of optics, based on the assumption that the spot intensity of the SHWS has a Gaussian distribution, which is not applicable to the digital SHWS. In this paper, we present a centroid measurement algorithm based on the adaptive thresholding and dynamic windowing method by utilizing image processing techniques for practical application of the digital SHWS in surface profile measurement. The method can detect the centroid of each focal spot precisely and robustly by eliminating the influence of various noises, such as diffraction of the digital SHWS, unevenness and instability of the light source, as well as deviation between the centroid of the focal spot and the center of the detection area. The experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm has better precision, repeatability, and stability compared with other commonly used centroid methods, such as the statistical averaging, thresholding, and windowing algorithms.

  16. Aberrant cervical thymus mimicking thyroid on ultrasonography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ju Hyun; Kim, Bong Soo; Park, Ji Kang; Choi, Jae Hyuck [Jeju National Univ. Hospital/Jeju National Univ. School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)


    Aberrant cervical thymus is rarely reported in adults. We report a case of solid aberrant cervical thymus in a 27 year old female, which was found incidentally on ultrasonography for the evaluation of the thyroid cancer. On ultrasonography, the lesion was found between the left thyroid and common carotid artery without any remarkable interface echo, and had similar echogenicity to the thyroid. The lesion extended to the upper pole of the left thyroid.

  17. Adaptive optics enables 3D STED microscopy in aberrating specimens. (United States)

    Gould, Travis J; Burke, Daniel; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Booth, Martin J


    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy allows fluorescence far-field imaging with diffraction-unlimited resolution. Unfortunately, extending this technique to three-dimensional (3D) imaging of thick specimens has been inhibited by sample-induced aberrations. Here we present the first implementation of adaptive optics in STED microscopy to allow 3D super-resolution imaging in strongly aberrated imaging conditions, such as those introduced by thick biological tissue.

  18. Adaptive optics enables 3D STED microscopy in aberrating specimens (United States)

    Gould, Travis J.; Burke, Daniel; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Booth, Martin J.


    Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy allows fluorescence far-field imaging with diffraction-unlimited resolution. Unfortunately, extending this technique to three-dimensional (3D) imaging of thick specimens has been inhibited by sample-induced aberrations. Here we present the first implementation of adaptive optics in STED microscopy to allow 3D super-resolution imaging in strongly aberrated imaging conditions, such as those introduced by thick biological tissue. PMID:23037223

  19. Moment aberrations in magneto-electrostatic plasma lenses (computer simulation)

    CERN Document Server

    Butenko, V I


    In this work moment aberrations in the plasma magneto-electrostatic lenses are considered in more detail with the use of the computer modeling. For solution of the problem we have developed a special computer code - the model of plasma optical focusing device, allowing to display the main parameters and operations of experimental sample of a lens, to simulate the moment and geometrical aberrations and give recommendations on their elimination.

  20. Desempenho visual de lentes de contato gelatinosas de diferentes tipos baseado na análise de frentes de onda Optical performance of different soft contact lenses based on wavefront analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fagnani Gatti


    valor médio de outras aberrações de alta ordem (que exclui coma de terceira ordem e aberração esférica de quarta ordem, caracterizada pelo componente "outros" no exame de aberrometria. As lentes Focus® Choice AB apresentaram melhor desempenho visual em relação a este componente. CONCLUSÕES: O uso de lentes de contato gelatinosas alteram o comportamento das aberrações de alta ordem, com tendência ao aumento no valor médio das aberrações de Zernike assimétricas. Tal tendência ao aumento não foi verificada para as aberrações simétricas. Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes ao compararmos o padrão de influência obtido com os seis tipos de lentes incluídos no estudo.PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual performance by wavefront analyses of six different kinds of soft contact lenses: Cooperflex® (Cooper Vision, Frequency® 55 Aspheric (Cooper Vision, World Vision FW® (World Vision, Pure Vision® (Bausch & Lomb, Focus® Monthly (Ciba Vision and Focus® Choice AB (Ciba Vision. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with 130 eyes of 71 myopic or hyperopic patients with astigmatism until 1.50 diopter and best corrected visual acuity 20/20 or better. The patients first underwent ophthalmic examination and then wavefront analyses without visual correction and wearing one of the different contact lenses included in the study. The patients were divided into six similar groups, each one tested with one of the six lenses included in the study. RESULTS: Changes at the values of high order aberrations were verified during the use of contact lenses. In 78 (60% of the 130 analyzed eyes an increase at the RMS (rooth mean square values during the use of contact lens was detected. All types of analyzed contact lenses showed an increase of "coma" aberrations due to contact lens use. Frequency® Aspheric and Cooperflex® had the best visual performance in relation to "coma". There was a decrease in the medium value of spherical aberrations

  1. Glucocorticoid Administration Improves Aberrant Fear-Processing Networks in Spider Phobia. (United States)

    Nakataki, Masahito; Soravia, Leila M; Schwab, Simon; Horn, Helge; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner; Wiest, Roland; Heinrichs, Markus; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Federspiel, Andrea; Morishima, Yosuke


    Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in patients with anxiety disorders. Previous studies have shown that fear-related activation of the amygdala can be mediated through the visual cortical pathway, which includes the fusiform gyrus, or through other pathways. However, it is not clear which of the pathways that activate the amygdala is responsible for the pathophysiology of a specific phobia and how glucocorticoid treatment alleviates fear processing in these neural networks. We recorded the brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with spider phobia, who received either 20 mg of cortisol or a placebo while viewing pictures of spiders. We also tested healthy participants who did not receive any medication during the same task. We performed dynamic causal modelling (DCM), a connectivity analysis, to examine the effects of cortisol on the networks involved in processing fear and to examine if there was an association between these networks and the symptoms of the phobia. Cortisol administration suppressed the phobic stimuli-related amygdala activity to levels comparable to the healthy participants and reduced subjective phobic fear. The DCM analysis revealed that cortisol administration suppressed the aberrant inputs into the amygdala that did not originate from the visual cortical pathway, but rather from a fast subcortical pathway mediated by the pulvinar nucleus, and suppressed the interactions between the amygdala and fusiform gyrus. This network changes were distinguishable from healthy participants and considered the residual changes under cortisol administration. We also found that the strengths of the aberrant inputs into the amygdala were positively correlated with the severity of spider phobia. This study demonstrates that patients with spider phobia show an aberrant functional connectivity of the amygdala when they are exposed to phobia-related stimuli and that cortisol administration can alleviate this fear-specific neural

  2. Wavefront Analysis of Nonlinear Self-Amplified Spontaneous-Emission Free-Electron Laser Harmonics in the Single-Shot Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachelard, R.; Chubar, O.; Mercere, P.; Idir, M.; Couprie, M.E.; Lambert, G.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Kimura, H.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiya, A.; Yabashi, M.; Nagasono, M.; Hara, T. and Ishikawa, T.


    The single-shot spatial characteristics of the vacuum ultraviolet self-amplified spontaneous emission of a free electron laser (FEL) is measured at different stages of amplification up to saturation with a Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fundamental radiation at 61.5 nm tends towards a single-mode behavior as getting closer to saturation. The measurements are found in good agreement with simulations and theory. A near diffraction limited wavefront was measured. The analysis of Fresnel diffraction through the Hartmann wavefront sensor hole array also provides some further insight for the evaluation of the FEL transverse coherence, of high importance for various applications.

  3. Numerical tilting compensation in microscopy based on wavefront sensing using transport of intensity equation method (United States)

    Hu, Junbao; Meng, Xin; Wei, Qi; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Zhilong; Xue, Liang; Liu, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu


    Wide-field microscopy is commonly used for sample observations in biological research and medical diagnosis. However, the tilting error induced by the oblique location of the image recorder or the sample, as well as the inclination of the optical path often deteriorates the imaging quality. In order to eliminate the tilting in microscopy, a numerical tilting compensation technique based on wavefront sensing using transport of intensity equation method is proposed in this paper. Both the provided numerical simulations and practical experiments prove that the proposed technique not only accurately determines the tilting angle with simple setup and procedures, but also compensates the tilting error for imaging quality improvement even in the large tilting cases. Considering its simple systems and operations, as well as image quality improvement capability, it is believed the proposed method can be applied for tilting compensation in the optical microscopy.

  4. Linear prediction of atmospheric wave-fronts for tomographic adaptive optics systems: modelling and robustness assessment. (United States)

    Jackson, Kate; Correia, Carlos; Lardière, Olivier; Andersen, Dave; Bradley, Colin


    We use a theoretical framework to analytically assess temporal prediction error functions on von-Kármán turbulence when a zonal representation of wavefronts is assumed. The linear prediction models analyzed include auto-regressive of an order up to three, bilinear interpolation functions, and a minimum mean square error predictor. This is an extension of the authors' previously published work Correia et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A31, 101 (2014)JOAOD61084-752910.1364/JOSAA.31.000101], in which the efficacy of various temporal prediction models was established. Here we examine the tolerance of these algorithms to specific forms of model errors, thus defining the expected change in behavior of the previous results under less ideal conditions. Results show that ±100% wind speed error and ±50  deg are tolerable before the best linear predictor delivers poorer performance than the no-prediction case.

  5. Diamond x-ray optics: Transparent, resilient, high-resolution, and wavefront preserving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Blank, Vladimir; Terentyev, Sergey


    Diamond features a unique combination of outstanding physical properties perfect for numerous x-ray optics applications, where traditional materials such as silicon fail to perform. In the last two decades, impressive progress has been achieved in synthesizing diamond with high crystalline perfection, in manufacturing efficient, resilient, high-resolution, wavefront-preserving diamond optical components, and in implementing them in cutting-edge x-ray instruments. Diamond optics are essential for tailoring x-rays to the most challenging needs of x-ray research. Furthermore, they are becoming vital for the generation of fully coherent hard x-rays by seeded x-ray free-electron lasers. In this article, we review progress in manufacturing flawless diamond crystal components and their applications in diverse x-ray optical devices, such as x-ray monochromators, beam splitters, high-reflectance backscattering mirrors, lenses, phase plates, diffraction gratings, bent-crystal spectrographs, and windows.

  6. Laser induced wavefront distortion in thick-disk material: An analytical description (United States)

    Isidro-Ojeda, Michel A.; Alvarado-Gil, Juan J.; Zanuto, Vitor S.; Baesso, Mauro L.; Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Malacarne, Luis C.


    Laser induced wavefront distortion is critical for designing and evaluation of optical components for high-power laser and can affect performance and stability of optical systems. The analysis of this effect involves a complex thermoelastic problem only solved in simplified conditions such as the plane-stress or plane-strain configurations. For more realistic descriptions, numerical solutions are required, although recent advances allowed for a unified model to describe the optical path change, regardless of the sample thickness, assuming a sample of infinite radius. In this work, we extend this result for the case of a thick-disk sample by solving the set of differential equations governing the thermoelastic response for the finite radius configuration. These results could represent a significant contribution for designing and characterization of laser systems with potential application in many photothermal methods for material characterization.

  7. Wave-front reconstruction without twin-image blurring by two arbitrary step digital holograms. (United States)

    Chen, Gu L; Lin, Ching Yang; Yau, Hon Fai; Kuo, Ming Kuei; Chang, Chi Ching


    We discuss a novel approach for numerical wave-front reconstruction which utilizes arbitrary phase step digital holography. Our experimental results demonstrate that only two digital holograms and a simple estimation procedure are required for twin-image suppression, and for numerical reconstruction. One advantage of this approach is its simplicity. Only one estimate equation needs be applied. In addition the optical system can be constructed from inexpensive, generally available elements. Another advantage is the effectiveness of the method. The tolerance of the estimated value is less than 1% different than the actual value. This means that the quality of the reconstructed image is superior. This novel approach should make the application of digital holography easier and more widely available.

  8. Improvement of correlation-based centroiding methods for point source Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (United States)

    Li, Xuxu; Li, Xinyang; wang, Caixia


    This paper proposes an efficient approach to decrease the computational costs of correlation-based centroiding methods used for point source Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Four typical similarity functions have been compared, i.e. the absolute difference function (ADF), ADF square (ADF2), square difference function (SDF), and cross-correlation function (CCF) using the Gaussian spot model. By combining them with fast search algorithms, such as three-step search (TSS), two-dimensional logarithmic search (TDL), cross search (CS), and orthogonal search (OS), computational costs can be reduced drastically without affecting the accuracy of centroid detection. Specifically, OS reduces calculation consumption by 90%. A comprehensive simulation indicates that CCF exhibits a better performance than other functions under various light-level conditions. Besides, the effectiveness of fast search algorithms has been verified.

  9. Measurement of nonlinear refractive index and ionization rates in air using a wavefront sensor. (United States)

    Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick; Kimmel, Mark; Atherton, Briggs


    A wavefront sensor has been used to measure the Kerr nonlinear focal shift of a high intensity ultrashort pulse beam in a focusing beam geometry while accounting for the effects of plasma-defocusing. It is shown that plasma-defocusing plays a major role in the nonlinear focusing dynamics and that measurements of Kerr nonlinearity and ionization are coupled. Furthermore, this coupled effect leads to a novel way that measures the laser ionization rates in air under atmospheric conditions as well as Kerr nonlinearity. The measured nonlinear index n₂ compares well with values found in the literature and the measured ionization rates could be successfully benchmarked to the model developed by Perelomov, Popov, and Terentev (PPT model) [Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 1393 (1966)].

  10. Broadband manipulation of refracted wavefronts by gradient acoustic metasurface with V-shape structure (United States)

    Lan, Jun; Li, Yifeng; Liu, Xiaozhou


    We present a space folding acoustic metasurface with a V-shaped structure, which exhibits ultra-broadband and high efficiency transmission compared to previously investigated space folding metasurfaces. The proposal employs a gradient refractive index profile to redirect the refracted wave arbitrarily and an existence of air channels with direct sound propagation to improve impedance matching between the metasurface and the background medium. As expected from frequency-independent generalized Snell's law, the demonstrated acoustic metasurface can steer refracted wavefronts at will, including anomalous refraction, non-diffracting Bessel beam, sub-wavelength flat lens, and conversion of the propagating wave into the surface wave. The designed V-shape metasurface overcomes the limitation of narrowband, which may offer potential applications in medical ultrasound imaging and broadband acoustical devices.

  11. A Note on Directional Wavelet Transform: Distributional Boundary Values and Analytic Wavefront Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. Apolonio


    Full Text Available By using a particular class of directional wavelets (namely, the conical wavelets, which are wavelets strictly supported in a proper convex cone in the k-space of frequencies, in this paper, it is shown that a tempered distribution is obtained as a finite sum of boundary values of analytic functions arising from the complexification of the translational parameter of the wavelet transform. Moreover, we show that for a given distribution f∈′(ℝn, the continuous wavelet transform of f with respect to a conical wavelet is defined in such a way that the directional wavelet transform of f yields a function on phase space whose high-frequency singularities are precisely the elements in the analytic wavefront set of f.

  12. Semiconductor sensor for optically measuring polarization rotation of optical wavefronts using rare earth iron garnets (United States)

    Duncan, Paul G.


    Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.

  13. Centroid estimation for a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on stream processing. (United States)

    Kong, Fanpeng; Polo, Manuel Cegarra; Lambert, Andrew


    Using center of gravity to estimate the centroid of the spot in a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, the measurement corrupts with photon and detector noise. Parameters, like window size, often require careful optimization to balance the noise error, dynamic range, and linearity of the response coefficient under different photon flux. It also needs to be substituted by the correlation method for extended sources. We propose a centroid estimator based on stream processing, where the center of gravity calculation window floats with the incoming pixel from the detector. In comparison with conventional methods, we show that the proposed estimator simplifies the choice of optimized parameters, provides a unit linear coefficient response, and reduces the influence of background and noise. It is shown that the stream-based centroid estimator also works well for limited size extended sources. A hardware implementation of the proposed estimator is discussed.

  14. Wavefront reconstruction in digital off-axis holography via sparse coding of amplitude and absolute phase. (United States)

    Katkovnik, V; Shevkunov, I A; Petrov, N V; Egiazarian, K


    This work presents the new method for wavefront reconstruction from a digital hologram recorded in off-axis configuration. The main feature of the proposed algorithm is a good ability for noise filtration due to the original formulation of the problem taking into account the presence of noise in the recorded intensity distribution and the sparse phase and amplitude reconstruction approach with the data-adaptive block-matching 3D technique. Basically, the sparsity assumes that low dimensional models can be used for phase and amplitude approximations. This low dimensionality enables strong suppression of noisy components and accurate revealing of the main features of the signals of interest. The principal point is that dictionaries of these sparse models are not known in advance and reconstructed from given noisy observations in a multiobjective optimization procedure. We show experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. High-resolution mass spectrometer with correction of horizontal and vertical aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachenko, V.D.; Fridlyanskij, G.V.


    Principles of calculation of the ion-optical system of a high-precision two-cascade sector type mass-spectrometer with total correction of spherical aberrations as well as the group of second order vertical aberrations are considered. A mass-spectrometer construction is described and some test results of the spectrometer are given. Configuration of boundaries of a spectrometer magnetic field has been formed by means of convex magnetic screens adjoining concave edqes of pole pieces. An energy diaphragm has been installed in the intermediate focus of the system. Precision slits of a source and receiver were made according to a spring parallelogram resolution of spectrometer constituted 80-100 thousands at a level of 10% of peak height. At a residual pressure of 5x10 -7 torr and 3-5x10 -5 torr inlet pressure in the source for Ar ''tail'' intensity in a neighbouring line amounted to 0.6x10 -6 of a main line. A measurement error for relative mass difference using the method of peak matching didnot exceed 1-2x10 -6

  16. Single freeform surface design for prescribed input wavefront and target irradiance. (United States)

    Bösel, Christoph; Gross, Herbert


    In beam shaping applications, the minimization of the number of necessary optical elements for the beam shaping process can benefit the compactness of the optical system and reduce its cost. The single freeform surface design for input wavefronts, which are neither planar nor spherical, is therefore of interest. In this work, the design of single freeform surfaces for a given zero-étendue source and complex target irradiances is investigated. Hence, not only collimated input beams or point sources are assumed. Instead, a predefined input ray direction vector field and irradiance distribution on a source plane, which has to be redistributed by a single freeform surface to give the predefined target irradiance, is considered. To solve this design problem, a partial differential equation (PDE) or PDE system, respectively, for the unknown surface and its corresponding ray mapping is derived from energy conservation and the ray-tracing equations. In contrast to former PDE formulations of the single freeform design problem, the derived PDE of Monge-Ampère type is formulated for general zero-étendue sources in Cartesian coordinates. The PDE system is discretized with finite differences, and the resulting nonlinear equation system is solved by a root-finding algorithm. The basis of the efficient solution of the PDE system builds the introduction of an initial iterate construction approach for a given input direction vector field, which uses optimal mass transport with a quadratic cost function. After a detailed description of the numerical algorithm, the efficiency of the design method is demonstrated by applying it to several design examples. This includes the redistribution of a collimated input beam beyond the paraxial approximation, the shaping of point source radiation, and the shaping of an astigmatic input wavefront into a complex target irradiance distribution.

  17. Spectral and Wavefront Error Performance of WFIRST/AFTA Prototype Filters (United States)

    Quijada, Manuel; Seide, Laurie; Marx, Cathy; Pasquale, Bert; McMann, Joseph; Hagopian, John; Dominguez, Margaret; Gong, Qian; Morey, Peter


    The Cycle 5 design baseline for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRSTAFTA) instrument includes a single wide-field channel (WFC) instrument for both imaging and slit-less spectroscopy. The only routinely moving part during scientific observations for this wide-field channel is the element wheel (EW) assembly. This filter-wheel assembly will have 8 positions that will be populated with 6 bandpass filters, a blank position, and a Grism that will consist of a three-element assembly to disperse the full field with an undeviated central wavelength for galaxy redshift surveys. All filter elements in the EW assembly will be made out of fused silica substrates (110 mm diameter) that will have the appropriate bandpass coatings according to the filter designations (Z087, Y106, J129, H158, F184, W149 and Grism). This paper presents and discusses the performance (including spectral transmission and reflectedtransmitted wavefront error measurements) of a subset of bandpass filter coating prototypes that are based on the WFC instrument filter compliment. The bandpass coating prototypes that are tested in this effort correspond to the Z087, W149, and Grism filter elements. These filter coatings have been procured from three different vendors to assess the most challenging aspects in terms of the in-band throughput, out of band rejection (including the cut-on and cutoff slopes), and the impact the wavefront error distortions of these filter coatings will have on the imaging performance of the de-field channel in the WFIRSTAFTA observatory.

  18. Spectral and Wavefront Error Performance of WFIRST-AFTA Bandpass Filter Coating Prototypes (United States)

    Quijada, Manuel A.; Seide, Laurie; Pasquale, Bert A.; McMann, Joseph C.; Hagopian, John G.; Dominguez, Margaret Z.; Gong, Quian; Marx, Catherine T.


    The Cycle 5 design baseline for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST/AFTA) instrument includes a single wide-field channel (WFC) instrument for both imaging and slit-less spectroscopy. The only routinely moving part during scientific observations for this wide-field channel is the element wheel (EW) assembly. This filter-wheel assembly will have 8 positions that will be populated with 6 bandpass filters, a blank position, and a Grism that will consist of a three-element assembly to disperse the full field with an undeviated central wavelength for galaxy redshift surveys. All filter elements in the EW assembly will be made out of fused silica substrates (110 mm diameter) that will have the appropriate bandpass coatings according to the filter designations (Z087, Y106, J129, H158, F184, W149 and Grism). This paper presents and discusses the performance (including spectral transmission and reflected/transmitted wavefront error measurements) of a subset of bandpass filter coating prototypes that are based on the WFC instrument filter compliment. The bandpass coating prototypes that are tested in this effort correspond to the Z087, W149, and Grism filter elements. These filter coatings have been procured from three different vendors to assess the most challenging aspects in terms of the in-band throughput, out of band rejection (including the cut-on and cutoff slopes), and the impact the wavefront error distortions of these filter coatings will have on the imaging performance of the wide-field channel in the WFIRST/AFTA observatory.

  19. Error analysis of compensation cutting technique for wavefront error of KH2PO4 crystal. (United States)

    Tie, Guipeng; Dai, Yifan; Guan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Dengchao; Song, Bing


    Considering the wavefront error of KH(2)PO(4) (KDP) crystal is difficult to control through face fly cutting process because of surface shape deformation during vacuum suction, an error compensation technique based on a spiral turning method is put forward. An in situ measurement device is applied to measure the deformed surface shape after vacuum suction, and the initial surface figure error, which is obtained off-line, is added to the in situ surface shape to obtain the final surface figure to be compensated. Then a three-axis servo technique is utilized to cut the final surface shape. In traditional cutting processes, in addition to common error sources such as the error in the straightness of guide ways, spindle rotation error, and error caused by ambient environment variance, three other errors, the in situ measurement error, position deviation error, and servo-following error, are the main sources affecting compensation accuracy. This paper discusses the effect of these three errors on compensation accuracy and provides strategies to improve the final surface quality. Experimental verification was carried out on one piece of KDP crystal with the size of Φ270 mm×11 mm. After one compensation process, the peak-to-valley value of the transmitted wavefront error dropped from 1.9λ (λ=632.8 nm) to approximately 1/3λ, and the mid-spatial-frequency error does not become worse when the frequency of the cutting tool trajectory is controlled by use of a low-pass filter.

  20. Volumetric optical coherence microscopy enabled by aberrated optics (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey A.; Liu, Siyang; Adie, Steven G.


    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is an interferometric imaging technique that enables high resolution, non-invasive imaging of 3D cell cultures and biological tissues. Volumetric imaging with OCM suffers a trade-off between high transverse resolution and poor depth-of-field resulting from defocus, optical aberrations, and reduced signal collection away from the focal plane. While defocus and aberrations can be compensated with computational methods such as interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) or computational adaptive optics (CAO), reduced signal collection must be physically addressed through optical hardware. Axial scanning of the focus is one approach, but comes at the cost of longer acquisition times, larger datasets, and greater image reconstruction times. Given the capabilities of CAO to compensate for general phase aberrations, we present an alternative method to address the signal collection problem without axial scanning by using intentionally aberrated optical hardware. We demonstrate the use of an astigmatic spectral domain (SD-)OCM imaging system to enable single-acquisition volumetric OCM in 3D cell culture over an extended depth range, compared to a non-aberrated SD-OCM system. The transverse resolution of the non-aberrated and astigmatic imaging systems after application of CAO were 2 um and 2.2 um, respectively. The depth-range of effective signal collection about the nominal focal plane was increased from 100 um in the non-aberrated system to over 300 um in the astigmatic system, extending the range over which useful data may be acquired in a single OCM dataset. We anticipate that this method will enable high-throughput cellular-resolution imaging of dynamic biological systems over extended volumes.

  1. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.


    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with [sup 144]Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to [sup 60]Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  2. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.


    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ``paints`` to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with {sup 144}Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to {sup 60}Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness.

  3. Radiation-induced cellular reproductive death and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, J.S.; Mitchell, J.B.; Griggs, H.G.; Bender, M.A.


    If a major mode of cell killing by ionizing radiation is the death of cells containing visible chromosomal aberrations, as for example from anaphase-bridge formation at mitosis, then cells bearing such aberrations should be selectively eliminated from the population, resulting in an increased survival potential for the population remaining at each succeeding cell generation. Using synchronized V79B Chinese hamster cells, we measured the aberration frequency and the colony-forming ability of mitotic cells at each of the first three generations following irradiation in G1. Cells were resynchronized by mechanial harvest at each succeeding mitosis after irradiation in order to avoid mixing of generations in the cell population at later sampling times. As anticipated, the chromosome aberration frequencies decreased markedly from the first to the second and from the second to the third mitosis. The surviving fraction, however, was virtually the same for plating assays carried out immediately after irradiation, at the first, or at the second mitosis. The surviving fraction was significantly higher for cells reaching the third postirradiation mitosis. Survival and aberration frequencies were assayed again at approximately the fourteenth postirradiation division, by which time the irradiated and control populations were not significantly different

  4. Revisiting Cross-Channel Information Transfer for Chromatic Aberration Correction

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Tiancheng


    Image aberrations can cause severe degradation in image quality for consumer-level cameras, especially under the current tendency to reduce the complexity of lens designs in order to shrink the overall size of modules. In simplified optical designs, chromatic aberration can be one of the most significant causes for degraded image quality, and it can be quite difficult to remove in post-processing, since it results in strong blurs in at least some of the color channels. In this work, we revisit the pixel-wise similarity between different color channels of the image and accordingly propose a novel algorithm for correcting chromatic aberration based on this cross-channel correlation. In contrast to recent weak prior-based models, ours uses strong pixel-wise fitting and transfer, which lead to significant quality improvements for large chromatic aberrations. Experimental results on both synthetic and real world images captured by different optical systems demonstrate that the chromatic aberration can be significantly reduced using our approach.

  5. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Khan, M.A.; Jostes, R.F.; Cross, F.T.


    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ''paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with 144 Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to 60 Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness

  6. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Measurement of wavefront distortions by the method of aperture sounding with spatially separated channels (United States)

    Prilepskiy, Boris V.; Alikhanov, Alexey N.; Berchenko, Evgeniy A.; Kiselev, Vladimir Yu; Narusbek, Ernest A.; Filatov, Aleksander S.


    Features of the formation of signals in wavefront sensors with the single-frequency light wave phase modulation and spatial separation of control channels are considered. Analysis is performed for sensors in which phase modulation is governed by a controlled element located in the pupil of the optical system of a sensor or in the focal plane of the objective of this system. Peculiarities of the signal formation for a tilted wavefront are considered separately for internal points of the exit pupil in the case of light wave phase modulation in the pupil. It is shown that a signal at the modulation frequency in these wavefront sensors for points located far from the pupil boundaries is determined by the wavefront curvature.

  7. Circumflex coronary artery with aberrant origin and atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, E.; Bozlar, U.; Celik, T.; Tasar, M.


    Full text: Introduction: Circumflex (Cx) coronary artery congenital anomaly is reported to be less than 1% incidence. Coronary arteries with aberrant origin are more likely to have atherosclerosis according to some published literatures. Objectives and tasks: In this study we aim to present computed tomography (CT) angiography findings of a patient, who has Cx artery with aberrant origin and atherosclerotic. Materials and methods: 57-year-old woman without any symptoms who has risk factors to atherosclerosis was referred to our clinic for coronary CT angiography. Results: In CT angiography; we detected Cx coronary artery with aberrant origin (right sinus of valsalva) and retroaortic course. Also we saw intimal irregularities and calcified plaque causing severe narrowing in the proximal segment of artery. Right coronary and left anterior descendant arteries had mild atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Coroner CT angiography, which allows multiplanar imaging with high resolution, is an effective diagnostic tool for coronary artery disease, like not only congenital anomalies but also acquired atherosclerotic disease

  8. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, O.L.; Corbin, G.J.; Dellby, N.; Elston, B.F.; Keyse, R.J.; Murfitt, M.F.; Own, C.S.; Szilagyi, Z.S.; Woodruff, J.W.


    Improved resolution made possible by aberration correction has greatly increased the demands on the performance of all parts of high-end electron microscopes. In order to meet these demands, we have designed and built an entirely new scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The microscope includes a flexible illumination system that allows the properties of its probe to be changed on-the-fly, a third-generation aberration corrector which corrects all geometric aberrations up to fifth order, an ultra-responsive yet stable five-axis sample stage, and a flexible configuration of optimized detectors. The microscope features many innovations, such as a modular column assembled from building blocks that can be stacked in almost any order, in situ storage and cleaning facilities for up to five samples, computer-controlled loading of samples into the column, and self-diagnosing electronics. The microscope construction is described, and examples of its capabilities are shown

  9. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng


    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  10. Biological dosimetry: chromosomal aberration analysis for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In view of the growing importance of chromosomal aberration analysis as a biological dosimeter, the present report provides a concise summary of the scientific background of the subject and a comprehensive source of information at the technical level. After a review of the basic principles of radiation dosimetry and radiation biology basic information on the biology of lymphocytes, the structure of chromosomes and the classification of chromosomal aberrations are presented. This is followed by a presentation of techniques for collecting blood, storing, transporting, culturing, making chromosomal preparations and scaring of aberrations. The physical and statistical parameters involved in dose assessment are discussed and examples of actual dose assessments taken from the scientific literature are given

  11. Screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borofsky, G.L.


    This paper attempts to promote a fuller understanding of how psychological assessment procedures can be used to reduce the threat from aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry. It begins with a discussion of the scientifically based methods that are used by psychologists in constructing, scoring, and interpreting these procedures. This discussion includes an emphasis on the concepts of validity and reliability and their central importance when one is choosing specific psychological screening tools. Criteria for selecting and using psychological assessment procedures when screening for aberrant behavior are also provided. Some commonly used assessment procedures that satisfy these criteria are discussed. A number a psychological assessment procedures specifically recommended for use in screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry are described

  12. Evidence-based RT-PCR methods for the detection of the 8 most common MLL aberrations in acute leukemias. (United States)

    Burmeister, Thomas; Meyer, Claus; Gröger, Daniela; Hofmann, Julia; Marschalek, Rolf


    MLL aberrations are detected in around 5-10% of acute myeloid and lymphatic leukemias and an additional 5% of acute myeloid leukemias show a partial internal MLL duplication (PTD). MLL rearrangements are important for therapy stratification, assessment of minimal residual disease and for targeted therapies. However, no truly evidence-based RT-PCR methods for the detection of most of these aberrations have been published yet. Based on the large data collection of MLL genomic breakpoints in acute leukemias comprising more than 1.600 cases at the Diagnostic Center for Acute Leukemias (DCAL) in Frankfurt, Germany that provide an overview over the experimentally observed fusion transcript variants, we developed RT-PCR methods for the reliable detection of the 8 most common MLL aberrations (MLL-AF4, MLL-AF6, MLL-AF9, MLL-AF10, MLL-ENL, MLL-ELL, MLL-EPS15, MLL PTD), together accounting for around 90% of MLL-r cases. The easily implementable RT-PCRs should enable a reliable detection of these MLL fusion transcripts by RT-PCR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship of DNA repair and chromosome aberrations to potentially lethal damage repair in X-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Nagasawa, H.; Little, J.B.


    By the alkaline elution technique, the repair of x-ray-induced DNA single strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links was investigated in stationary phase, contact-inhibited mouse cells. During the first hour of repair, approximately 90% of x-ray induced single strand breaks were rejoined whereas most of the remaining breaks were rejoined more slowly during the next 5 h. The number of residual non-rejoined single strand breaks was approximately proportional to the x-ray dose at early repair times. DNA-protein cross-links were removed at a slower rate - T 1/2 approximately 10 to 12 h. Cells were subcultured at low density at various times after irradiation and scored for colony survival, and chromosome aberrations in the first mitosis after sub-culture. Both cell lethality and the frequency of chromosome aberrations decreased during the first several hours of repair, reaching a minimum level by 6 h; this decrease correlated temporally with the repair of the slowly rejoining DNA strand breaks. The possible relationship of DNA repair to changes in survival and chromosome aberrations is discussed

  14. Reducing starbursts in highly aberrated eyes with pupil miosis. (United States)

    Xu, Renfeng; Kollbaum, Pete; Thibos, Larry; Lopez-Gil, Norberto; Bradley, Arthur


    To test the hypothesis that marginal ray deviations determine perceived starburst sizes, and to explore different strategies for decreasing starburst size in highly aberrated eyes. Perceived size of starburst images and visual acuities were measured psychophysically for eyes with varying levels of spherical aberration, pupil sizes, and defocus. Computationally, we use a polychromatic eye model including the typical levels of higher order aberrations (HOAs) for keratoconic and post-LASIK eyes to quantify the image quality (the visually weighted Strehl ratio derived from the optical transfer function, VSOTF) with different pupil sizes at both photopic and mesopic light levels. For distance corrected post-LASIK and keratoconic eyes with a night-time pupil (e.g., 7 mm), the starburst diameter is about 1.5 degrees (1 degree for normal presbyopic eyes), which can be reduced to ≤0.25 degrees with pupil sizes ≤3 mm. Starburst size is predicted from the magnitude of the longitudinal spherical aberration. Refracting the eye to focus the pupil margin also removed starbursts, but, unlike small pupils, significantly degraded visual acuity. Reducing pupil diameter to 3 mm improved image quality for these highly aberrated eyes by about 2.7 ×  to 1.7 ×  relative to the natural pupils when light levels were varied from 0.1 to 1000 cd m -2 , respectively. Subjects with highly aberrated eyes observed larger starbursts around bright lights at night predictable by the deviated marginal rays. These were effectively attenuated by reducing pupil diameters to ≤3 mm, which did not cause a drop in visual acuity or modelled image quality even at mesopic light levels. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Svishch


    Full Text Available The entrainment of the light flux by a uniaxial anisotropic medium and its influence on the measurement of stellar aberration are analyzed. The influence of the entrainment of the light flux by an isotropic medium on the measurement of stellar aberration was considered by Fresnel early. The absence of such influence was confirmed by Erie's experience when filling the telescope tube with water. The formula itself was perfectly confirmed by Fizeau's experiments with moving water and the repetition of this experiment with an increase in the accuracy of measurements by Michelson, Zeeman, and others. G.A. Lorentz already on the basis of the electromagnetic theory specified the formula with allowance for the frequency dispersion of the light flux. A. Einstein made an analysis of the schemes of experiments for determining the drag coefficient, covering all possible variants of similar experiments. As a result, he obtained Fresnel and Lorentz formulas, taking into account the frequency dispersion of light, starting from the theory of relativity. The entrainment of light and its influence on the measurement of stellar aberration by a uniaxial anisotropic medium have not been considered anywhere. An analysis of such influence is carried out. The results of the analysis indicate the possibility of measuring the current value of stellar aberration using a uniaxial anisotropic medium. The concept of active light aberration is introduced. The proposed schemes of experiments of using the entrainment of a light flux by an anisotropic substance for measuring the current value of stellar aberration are investigated. It is concluded that it is possible to study the determination of the current velocity of an inertial system relative to the light flux.

  16. Outline of an aberration correct optical channel without space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruck, H.


    A beam transport line is described which guides a particle bunch from a storage ring to the target, located at the center of the ring, for heavy ion fusion. The device was conceived to prevent spectral analysis and coma aberration, owing to the deflecting sector, and also chromatic and spherical aberrations. Space charge is not considered here. The device includes the following elements: (1) extraction from the storage ring, (2) adaptation to (3) the deflecting magnet sector, (4) collimator lens, and (5) 10m drift space to the target plane

  17. Investigation of spherical aberration effects on coherent lidar performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist


    In this paper we demonstrate experimentally the performance of a monostatic coherent lidar system under the influence of phase aberrations, especially the typically predominant spherical aberration (SA). The performance is evaluated by probing the spatial weighting function of the lidar system...... with different telescope configurations using a hard target. It is experimentally and numerically proven that the SA has a significant impact on lidar antenna efficiency and optimal beam truncation ratio. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both effective probing range and spatial resolution of the system...

  18. [Prenatal diagnostics of chromosomal aberrations Czech Republic: 1994-2007]. (United States)

    Gregor, V; Sípek, A; Sípek, A; Horácek, J '; Langhammer, P; Petrzílková, L; Calda, P


    An analysis of prenatal diagnostics efficiency of selected types of chromosomal aberrations in the Czech Republic in 2007. Update of 1994-2007 data according to particular selected diagnoses. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of pre- and postnatal chromosomal aberrations diagnostics and its efficiency. Data on pre- and postnatally diagnosed birth defects in the Czech Republic during 1994-2007 were used. Data on prenatally diagnosed birth defects (and for terminated pregnancies) were collected from particular departments of prenatal diagnostics, medical genetics and ultrasound diagnostics in the Czech Republic, data on birth defects in births from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics). Total numbers over the period under the study, mean incidences of selected types of chromosomal aberrations and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiencies were analyzed. Following chromosomal aberrations were studied: Down, Edwards, Patau, Turner and Klinefelter syndromes and syndromes 47,XXX and 47,XYY. A relative proportion of Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes as well as other autosomal and gonosomal aberration is presented in figures. Recently, trisomies 13, 18 and 21 present around 70% of all chromosomal aberrations in selectively aborted fetuses, in other pregnancies, "other chromosomal aberrations" category (mostly balanced reciprocal translocations and inversions) present more than 2/3 of all diagnoses. During the period under the study, following total numbers, mean relative incidences (per 10,000 live births, in brackets) and mean prenatal diagnostics efficiency (in %) were found in following chromosomal syndromes: Down syndrome 2,244 (16.58) and 63.37%, Edwards syndrome 521 (3.85) and 79.93%, Patau syndrome 201 (1.49) and 68.87%, Turner syndrome 380 (2.81) and 79.89%, 47,XXX syndrome 61 (0.45) and 59.74%, Klinefelter syndrome 163 (1.20) and 73.65% and 47,XYY syndrome 22 (0.16) and 54.76%. The study gives updated results of

  19. SAR wavefront reconstruction using motion-compensated phase history (polar format) data and DPCA-based GMTI (United States)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad; Worrell, Steven W.; Zelnio, Edmund G.; Keaffaber, Brett L.


    This paper address the problem of processing an X-band SAR database that was originally intended for processing via a polar format imaging algorithm. In our approach, we use the approximation-free SAR wavefront reconstruction. For this, the measured and motion compensated phase history (polar format) data are processed in a multi-dimensional digital signal processing algorithm that yields alias-free slow-time samples. The resultant database is used for wavefront image formation. The X-band SAR system also provides a two channel along-track monopulse database. The alias-free monopulse SAR data are used in a coherent signal subspace algorithm for Ground Moving Target Indication (GMTI). Results are provided.

  20. Far-field beam shaping through static wavefront correction in the near field on the HELEN laser (United States)

    Bett, Thomas H.; Hopps, N. W.; Nolan, J. R.


    This report discusses the design and installation of a phase optic inserted in the near field of the HELEN high power glass laser. The element is designed to shape the intensity distribution at the focal spot of the laser to produce an increase in the peak intensity through correction of static and thermally induced wavefront errors on the beam. A phase element has been fabricated commercially using a magneto-rheological finishing tool. Test data is presented.

  1. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.


    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  2. Novel plumage aberrations in Paraguayan non-Passerine Birds, and the definition of a new plumage aberration unique to Psittacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Smith


    Full Text Available Anomalous plumage colourations are reported for three species of non-passerine birds from Paraguay, Limpkin (Aramaus guarauna; Aramidae, Nanday Parakeet (Nandayus nenday; Psittacidae, and the Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus; Picidae. A leucistic Limpkin is the first published report of a colour anomaly for the family Aramidae. The colour aberration in N. nenday is hypothesised to be a result of an excess of red psittacofulvin pigments, which are unique to the Psittacidae. Although the mechanisms causing this colour aberration remain unknown, we suggest the term psittacofulvism for the phenotypic effect observed.

  3. Differential algebraic method for arbitrary order curvilinear-axis combined geometric-chromatic aberration analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng Min; Lu Yi Long; Yao Zhen Hua


    The principle of differential algebra is applied to analyse and calculate arbitrary order curvilinear-axis combined geometric-chromatic aberrations of electron optical systems. Expressions of differential algebraic form of high order combined aberrations are obtained and arbitrary order combined aberrations can be calculated numerically. As an example, a typical wide electron beam focusing system with curved optical axes named magnetic immersion lens has been studied. All the second-order and third-order combined geometric-chromatic aberrations of the lens have been calculated, and the patterns of the corresponding geometric aberrations and combined aberrations have been given as well.

  4. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect. (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Wada, S; Hatayama, A


    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  5. Chromosomal aberrations in tire plant workers and interaction with

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musak, L.; Souček, P.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Naccarati, Alessio; Halasová, E.; Poláková, Veronika; Slyšková, Jana; Susová, S.; Buchancová, J.; Šmerhovský, Z.; Sediková, J.; Klimentová, G.; Osina, O.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel


    Roč. 641, 1-2 (2008), s. 36-42 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosomal aberrations * Genetic polymorphisms * DNA repair genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2008

  6. Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery: A Life‑threatening Anomaly that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARCA, who suffered concurrently from esophageal cancer. CASE REPORT. The patient was a 56-year-old ... concurrent aberrant subclavian artery and esophageal cancer. The transhiatal esophagectomy was ... Department of Surgery, Imam Khomeini Training Hospital,. Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Ershad ...

  7. Detecting and explaining aberrant responding on the Outcome Questionnaire-45

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.M.; Emons, W.H.M.; de Jong, K.; Sijtsma, K.


    We applied item response theory based person-fit analysis (PFA) to data of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) to investigate the prevalence and causes of aberrant responding in a sample of Dutch clinical outpatients. The Formula person-fit statistic was used to detect misfitting item-score

  8. New trends and techniques in chromosome aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.A.


    The following topics are discussed: automation of chromosome analysis; storage of fixed cells from cultures of lymphocytes obtained routinely during periodic employee medical examinations; analysis of banded chromosomes; identification of first division metaphases; sister chromatid exchange; and patterns of aberration induction

  9. Aberrant Pattern of Scanning in Prosopagnosia Reflects Impaired Face Processing (United States)

    Stephan, Blossom Christa Maree; Caine, Diana


    Visual scanpath recording was used to investigate the information processing strategies used by a prosopagnosic patient, SC, when viewing faces. Compared to controls, SC showed an aberrant pattern of scanning, directing attention away from the internal configuration of facial features (eyes, nose) towards peripheral regions (hair, forehead) of the…

  10. Frequency and distribution studies of asymmetrical versus symmetrical chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, J.R.K.; Papworth, D.G.


    Two aspects of the relationship between Asymmetrical (A) and Symmetrical (S) radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations are considered in this paper. (1) Are A and S truly alternative modes of lesion interaction. Relative frequencies for chromatid-type and chromosome-type are examined, and new lymphocyte data using banding is used to look at this, and also for parallelism in chromosome participation of the two forms for various aberration categories. All the tests applied suggest that A and S are alternative interaction modes. (2) The long-term survival characteristics of A and S are discussed, and the differences in expected frequencies of derived S per surviving cell from chromosome-type and chromatid-types are stressed. Since many in vivo tissues have varying mixtures of potential chromatid and chromosome aberration-bearing target cells, ultimate cell survival and derived S frequencies may differ between tissues for the same absorbed dose. An Appendix gives Relative Corrected Lengths (RCL) for chromosomes of the human karyotype which should be used when testing the various exchange aberration categories for random chromosome participation. (orig.)

  11. Testicular artery arising from an aberrant right renal artery | Suluba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report we discovered the rare variation of the origin of the right testicular artery arising from the right aberrant renal artery with double renal artery irrigating both left and right kidneys. These variations in the testicular arteries and renal arteries have implication to surgical procedures such as orchidopexy repair for ...

  12. Iatrogenic injury of an aberrant right posterior sectoral bile duct

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Figs 1 and 2). A week later, an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. (ERCP) examination was performed. This showed no filling of the right posterior sectoral ducts but normal opacification of the other ducts. (Figs 3a and b). These findings led to the diagnosis of an aberrant right posterior sectoral bile duct that ...

  13. Expressions for third-order aberration theory for holographic images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expressions for third-order aberration theory for holographic images. S K TRIPATHY and S ANANDA RAO. Department of Physics, Jagannath Institute for Technology and Management,. Parlakhemundi 761 200, India. Email: MS received 14 September 2001; revised 5 August 2002. Abstract.

  14. Chromosomal aberrations and SCEs as biomarkers of cancer risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Norppa, H.; Bonassi, S.; Hansteen, I. L.; Hagmar, L.; Strömberg, U.; Rössner st., Pavel; Boffetta, P.; Lindholm, C.; Gundy, S.; Lazutka, J.; Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Fabiánová, E.; Šrám, Radim; Knudsen, L. E.; Barale, R.; Fucic, A.


    Roč. 600, - (2006), s. 37-45 ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : biomarkers * chromosomal aberration * sister chromatid exchange Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  15. Aberrant behavior of preschool children: Evaluation of questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajgelj Stanislav


    Full Text Available In the study metric characteristics of children aberrant behavior questionnaire were analyzed. The analysis was performed on the sample of 1.165 children, aged 4-7, in preschool institutions in several towns of Vojvodina. The questionnaire contained 36 items of the Likert-type scale and was filled in by one parent of each child. The authors examined main metric characteristics of the complete questionnaire, as well as individual items under the Rasche’s measurement model. Generally, parents seldom notice aberrant behavior in their children. Most frequently they notice stubbornness, while very rarely torturing of animals. The item discrimination, on the whole, was found satisfying. The reliability of the questionnaire is 0.84., and all indicators of misfit are within satisfactory ranges. According to differential functioning of the items, the authors found gender and age specificities of parents’ evaluation of aberrant behavior of their children. Parents often notice stubbornness and moldiness in girls, and aggression in boys. According to the parent’s observations, younger children are characterized by nail nibbling, ticklishness, and fearfulness, whereas older children show a tendency to force their way by crying, waywardness and bed-wetting. By means of factor analysis of the items, three principal facets of aberrant behavior were determined: overindulgence, shyness and quarrelsomeness. Cross validation (hold out showed that these three facets were robust in relation to the selection of the sample.

  16. Consequences of Aberrant Hedgehog Signaling During Zebrafish Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudijs, M.J.


    The Hedgehog signaling pathway is controlling proliferation, patterning and differentiation during development of vertebrates and invertebrates. Aberrant Hedgehog activity has been shown to be one of the underlying causes of a number of congenital disorders and multiple types of cancer. We

  17. Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery: A Life‑threatening Anomaly that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) is a rare anomaly, in which the right subclavian artery arises directly from the aortic arch instead of originating from the brachiocephalic artery. This anomaly should be taken into consideration during surgical procedures around esophagus, such as esophagectomy. Any unintentional ...

  18. Thermally induced lensing determination from the coefficient of defocus aberration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bell, Teboho


    Full Text Available The effects of a temperature gradient in a laser crystal in an end-pumped configuration in a solid-state laser resonator results in thermally induced aberrations. Of particular interest we measure the thermally induced lens from the coefficient...

  19. Splicing aberrations caused by constitutional RB1 gene mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . [Parsam VL, Ali MJ, Honavar SG, Vemuganti GK and Kannabiran C 2011 Splicing aberrations caused by constitutional RB1 gene mutations in retinoblastoma. J. Biosci. 36 281–287] DOI 10.1007/s12038-011-9062-9. 1. Introduction.

  20. Joint denoising, demosaicing, and chromatic aberration correction for UHD video (United States)

    Jovanov, Ljubomir; Philips, Wilfried; Damstra, Klaas Jan; Ellenbroek, Frank


    High-resolution video capture is crucial for numerous applications such as surveillance, security, industrial inspection, medical imaging and digital entertainment. In the last two decades, we are witnessing a dramatic increase of the spatial resolution and the maximal frame rate of video capturing devices. In order to achieve further resolution increase, numerous challenges will be facing us. Due to the reduced size of the pixel, the amount of light also reduces, leading to the increased noise level. Moreover, the reduced pixel size makes the lens imprecisions more pronounced, which especially applies to chromatic aberrations. Even in the case when high quality lenses are used some chromatic aberration artefacts will remain. Next, noise level additionally increases due to the higher frame rates. To reduce the complexity and the price of the camera, one sensor captures all three colors, by relying on Color Filter Arrays. In order to obtain full resolution color image, missing color components have to be interpolated, i.e. demosaicked, which is more challenging than in the case of lower resolution, due to the increased noise and aberrations. In this paper, we propose a new method, which jointly performs chromatic aberration correction, denoising and demosaicking. By jointly performing the reduction of all artefacts, we are reducing the overall complexity of the system and the introduction of new artefacts. In order to reduce possible flicker we also perform temporal video enhancement. We evaluate the proposed method on a number of publicly available UHD sequences and on sequences recorded in our studio.

  1. Telomere Length in Circulating Lymphocytes: Association with Chromosomal Aberrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemminki, K.; Rachakonda, S.; Musak, L.; Vymetálková, Veronika; Halasová, E.; Forsti,, A.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Buchancová, J.; Vodička, Pavel; Kumar, R.


    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2015), s. 194-196 ISSN 1045-2257 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : structural chromosome aberrations * healthy subjects * relative telomere length * genotoxicity * telomere biology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.960, year: 2015

  2. The Aberrant Salience Inventory: A New Measure of Psychosis Proneness (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.; McCarthy, Denis M.


    Aberrant salience is the unusual or incorrect assignment of salience, significance, or importance to otherwise innocuous stimuli and has been hypothesized to be important for psychosis and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Despite the importance of this concept in psychosis research, no questionnaire measures are available to assess…

  3. Frequency of primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, S.


    Objective: To find out the frequency of primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration and the different options available for management. Subjects and Methods: All patients with primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberrations were included in study. Patient's detailed history, general physical examination, presence or absence of secondary sexual characteristics, abdominal and pelvic examination finding were noted. Targeted investigations, including ultrasound, hormonal assay, buccal smear and karyotyping results were recorded. The management options were individually tailored with focus n psychological management. Results: Eighteen patients out of 30,000 patients were diagnosed as having primary amenorrhea. Six had primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberrations with the frequency of 0.02%. The age at presentation was 20 years and above in 50%. The most common cause was Turner's syndrome seen in 4 out of 6. The presenting symptoms were delay in onset of menstruation in 05 patients and primary infertility in 01 patient. Conclusion: Primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration is an uncommon condition requiring an early and accurate diagnosis. Turner's syndrome is a relatively common cause of this condition. Management should be multi-disciplinary and individualized according to the patient's age and symptom at presentation. Psychological management is very important and counselling throughout treatment is recommended. (author)

  4. The double monochromator geometric theory and compensation of aberrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolova, E.; Mogo, S.


    The light path function for the double monochromator is constructed, and the formulas of account of the members of its expanding in ascending power series adequate for the defocusing and the first order astigmatism aberrations are found. On the basis of results of the minimisation of obtained

  5. Spherical aberration from trajectories in real and hard-edge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. For analytical, real and hard-edge solenoidal axial magnetic fields, the low-energy electron trajectories are obtained using the third-order paraxial ray equation. Using the particle trajectories, it is shown that the spherical aberration in the hard-edge model is high and it increases monotonously with hard edginess, ...

  6. Oxidative stress and chromosomal aberrations in an environmentally exposed population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim


    Roč. 707, 1-2 (2011), s. 34-41 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * oxidative stress * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011

  7. Chromosome aberrations and cell survival in irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremp, J.


    A possible correlation between chromosome aberrations and reduced proliferation capacity or cell death was investigated. Synchronized Chinese hamster fibroblast cells were irradiated with 300 rad of x rays in early G 1 . Despite synchronization the cells reached the subsequent mitosis at different times. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was determined in the postirradiation division at 2-h intervals. The highest frequency occurred in cells with a first cell cycle of medium length. The colony-forming ability of mitotic cells was measured in parallel samples by following the progress of individual mitoses. The proportion of cells forming macrocolonies decreased with increasing cell cycle length, and the number of non-colony-forming cells increased. Irrespective of various first cell cycle lengths and different frequencies of chromosome aberrations, the number of cells forming microcolonies remained constant. A correlation was found between the absence of chromosome aberrations and the ability of cells to form macrocolonies. However, cells with a long first cell cycle formed fewer macrocolonies than expected

  8. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.


    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  9. Pre-shipment test of the ARGOS laser guide star wavefront sensor (United States)

    Bonaglia, Marco; Busoni, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Puglisi, Alfio; Antichi, Jacopo; Esposito, Simone; Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian


    We present the results of the laboratory characterization of the ARGOS LGS wavefront sensor (LGSW) and dichroic units. ARGOS is the laser guide star adaptive optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). It implements a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics (GLAO) correction for LUCI, an infrared imager and multi-object spectrograph (MOS), using 3 pulsed Rayleigh beacons focused at 12km altitude. The LGSW is a Shack-Hartman sensor having 15 × 15 subaspertures over the telescope pupil. Each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and gated to reduce spot elongation. The 3 LGS pupils are stabilized to compensate mechanical flexure and are arranged on a single detector. Two units of LGSW have been produced and tested at Arcetri Observatory. We report on the results obtained in the pre-shipment laboratory test: internal active flexure compensation loop performance, optomechanical stability under different gravity conditions, thermal cycling, Pockels cells performance. We also update on the upcoming installation and commissioning campaign at LBT.

  10. Integration and laboratory characterization of the ARGOS laser guide star wavefront sensors (United States)

    Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Carbonaro, Luca; Mazzoni, Tommaso; Antichi, Jacopo; Esposito, Simone; Orban De Xivry, Gilles; Rabien, Sebastian


    The integration status of the ARGOS wavefront sensors is presented. ARGOS is the laser guide star AO program for the LBT. It will implement a Ground Layer AO correction for the instruments LUCI, an infrared imaging and spectrograph camera, using 3 pulsed low-altitudes Rayleigh beacons for each LBT's eye. It profits of the LBT's adaptive secondary mirrors and of FLAO's pyramid unit for NGS sensing. Each LGS is independently stabilized for on-sky jitter and range-gated using custom Pockels cells and then sensed by a 15x15 SH sensor. The 3 pupil images are reimaged on a single lenslet array and a single detector. In the WFS are also installed 3 patrol cameras for the acquisition of the laser beacons, a system for the stabilization of the pupil images on the lenslet array and an internal source for calibration purposes. The two units are now completing the integration phase in Arcetri premises. We describe the characterization of the units and the closed-loop test realized using a deformable MEMS mirror.

  11. Holographic wavefront characterization of a frequency-tripled high-peak-power neodymium:glass laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, T.J.


    Near-field amplitude and phase distributions from a high-peak-power, frequency converted Nd:glass laser (lambda = 351 nm) have been holographically recorded on silver-halide emulsions. Conventionally, the absence of a suitable reference beam forces one to use some type of shearing interferometry to obtain phasefront information, while the near-field and far-field distributions are recorded as intensity profiles. In this study, a spatially filtered, locally generated reference beam was created to holographically store the complex amplitude distribution of the pulsed laser beam, while reconstruction of the original wavefront was achieved with a continuous-wave laser. Reconstructed near-field and quasi-far-field intensity distributions closely resembled those obtained from conventional techniques, and accurate phasefront reconstruction was achieved. Furthermore, several two-beam interferometric techniques, not practicable with a high-peak-power laser, have been successfully implemented on a continuous-wave reconstruction of the pulsed laser beam. 46 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab

  12. Measurement of M2-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhao Du


    Full Text Available For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M2-curve is developed. The M2-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M2-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.

  13. On radiation emission from a microbunched beam with wavefront tilt and its experimental observation (United States)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni


    In this paper we compare experimental observations and theory of radiation emission from a microbunched beam with microbunching wavefront tilt with respect to the direction of motion. The theory refers to the work Tanaka et al. (2004) , which predicts, in this case, exponential suppression of coherent radiation along the kicked direction. The observations refer to a recent experiment performed at the LCLS (Nuhn et al., 2015; Lutman etal., 2016), where a microbunched beam was kicked by a bend and sent to a radiator undulator. The experiment resulted in the emission of strong coherent radiation that had its maximum along the kicked direction of motion, when the undulator parameter was detuned to a value larger than the nominal one. We first analyze the theory in detail, and we confirm the correctness of its derivation according to the conventional theory of radiation emission from charged particles. Subsequently, we look for possible peculiarities in the experiment, which may not be modeled by the theory. We show that only spurious effects are not accounted for. We conclude that the experiment defies explanation in terms of the conventional theory of radiation emission.

  14. Distributed Computing Architecture for Image-Based Wavefront Sensing and 2 D FFTs (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Dean, Bruce H.; Haghani, Shadan


    Image-based wavefront sensing (WFS) provides significant advantages over interferometric-based wavefi-ont sensors such as optical design simplicity and stability. However, the image-based approach is computational intensive, and therefore, specialized high-performance computing architectures are required in applications utilizing the image-based approach. The development and testing of these high-performance computing architectures are essential to such missions as James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Terrestial Planet Finder-Coronagraph (TPF-C and CorSpec), and Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT). The development of these specialized computing architectures require numerous two-dimensional Fourier Transforms, which necessitate an all-to-all communication when applied on a distributed computational architecture. Several solutions for distributed computing are presented with an emphasis on a 64 Node cluster of DSPs, multiple DSP FPGAs, and an application of low-diameter graph theory. Timing results and performance analysis will be presented. The solutions offered could be applied to other all-to-all communication and scientifically computationally complex problems.

  15. Modeling of light-emitting diode wavefronts for the optimization of transmission holograms. (United States)

    Karthaus, Daniela; Giehl, Markus; Sandfuchs, Oliver; Sinzinger, Stefan


    The objective of applying transmission holograms in automotive headlamp systems requires the adaptation of holograms to divergent and polychromatic light sources like light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, four different options to describe the scalar light waves emitted by a typical automotive LED are regarded. This includes a new approach to determine the LED's wavefront from interferometric measurements. Computer-generated holograms are designed considering the different LED approximations and recorded into a photopolymer. The holograms are reconstructed with the LED and the resulting images are analyzed to evaluate the quality of the wave descriptions. In this paper, we show that our presented new approach leads to better results in comparison to other wave descriptions. The enhancement is evaluated by the correlation between reconstructed and ideal images. In contrast to the next best approximation, a spherical wave, the correlation coefficient increased by 0.18% at 532 nm, 1.69% at 590 nm, and 0.75% at 620 nm.

  16. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källman Tiia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS, are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals.

  17. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome (United States)

    Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, Juulia E; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Sarenius, Susan; Källman, Tiia; Järvelä, Irma; von Wendt, Lennart


    Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS), are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals. PMID:15826308

  18. Corneal aberration changes after rigid gas permeable contact lens wear in keratokonic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shokrollahzadeh


    Conclusion: In this study, corneal aberrations remained unchanged 3 months after wearing RGP contact lens. Further studies with sufficient samples in different groups of keratoconus severity or baseline aberrations are needed to obtain more accurate results.

  19. Chromosomal Aberrations in Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins Versus Singletons in Denmark During 1968-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lone Krøldrup; Larsen, Lisbeth A; Fagerberg, Christina


    BACKGROUND: Hall (Embryologic development and monozygotic twinning. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae, Vol. 45, 1996, pp. 53-57) hypothesized that chromosomal aberrations can lead to monozygotic (MZ) twinning. However, twinning and chromosomal aberrations increase prenatal mortality and could...

  20. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.


    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  1. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines


    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  2. Aberrant crossed corticospinal facilitation in muscles distant from a spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Bunday

    Full Text Available Crossed facilitatory interactions in the corticospinal pathway are impaired in humans with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI. The extent to which crossed facilitation is affected in muscles above and below the injury remains unknown. To address this question we tested 51 patients with neurological injuries between C2-T12 and 17 age-matched healthy controls. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation we elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs in the resting first dorsal interosseous, biceps brachii, and tibialis anterior muscles when the contralateral side remained at rest or performed 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC into index finger abduction, elbow flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion, respectively. By testing MEPs in muscles with motoneurons located at different spinal cord segments we were able to relate the neurological level of injury to be above, at, or below the location of the motoneurons of the muscle tested. We demonstrate that in patients the size of MEPs was increased to a similar extent as in controls in muscles above the injury during 70% of MVC compared to rest. MEPs remained unchanged in muscles at and within 5 segments below the injury during 70% of MVC compared to rest. However, in muscles beyond 5 segments below the injury the size of MEPs increased similar to controls and was aberrantly high, 2-fold above controls, in muscles distant (>15 segments from the injury. These aberrantly large MEPs were accompanied by larger F-wave amplitudes compared to controls. Thus, our findings support the view that corticospinal degeneration does not spread rostral to the lesion, and highlights the potential of caudal regions distant from an injury to facilitate residual corticospinal output after SCI.

  3. Aberration-corrected multipole Wien filter for energy-filtered x-ray photoemission electron microscopy


    Niimi, Hironobu; Chun, Wang-Jae; Suzuki, Shushi; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Kato, Makoto


    The aberration of a multipole Wien filter for energy-filtered x-ray photoemission electron microscopy was analyzed and the optimized Fourier components of the electric and magnetic fields for the third-order aperture aberration corrections were obtained. It was found that the third-order aperture aberration correction requires 12 electrodes and magnetic poles. ©2007 American Institute of Physics

  4. Aberration-corrected multipole Wien filter for energy-filtered x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (United States)

    Niimi, Hironobu; Chun, Wang-Jae; Suzuki, Shushi; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Kato, Makoto


    The aberration of a multipole Wien filter for energy-filtered x-ray photoemission electron microscopy was analyzed and the optimized Fourier components of the electric and magnetic fields for the third-order aperture aberration corrections were obtained. It was found that the third-order aperture aberration correction requires 12 electrodes and magnetic poles.

  5. Nodular Hyperplasia Arising from the Lateral Aberrant Thyroid Tissue: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Min Hye; Park, Jeong Seon; Lee, Young Jun


    The presence of aberrant thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is very rare. In addition, nodular hyperplasia in ectopic thyroid has rarely been reported. Due to the unusual location, the presence of lateral aberrant thyroid tissue could be misdiagnosed as a lymphadenopathy, neurogenic tumor, etc. We report on a case of nodular hyperplasia arising from the right lateral aberrant thyroid tissue.

  6. Complex Pupil Masks for Aberrated Imaging of Closely Spaced Objects (United States)

    Reddy, A. N. K.; Sagar, D. K.; Khonina, S. N.


    Current approach demonstrates the suppression of optical side-lobes and the contraction of the main lobe in the composite image of two object points of the optical system under the influence of defocusing effect when an asymmetric phase edges are imposed over the apodized circular aperture. The resolution of two point sources having different intensity ratio is discussed in terms of the modified Sparrow criterion, functions of the degree of coherence of the illumination, the intensity difference and the degree of asymmetric phase masking. Here we have introduced and explored the effects of focus aberration (defect-of-focus) on the two-point resolution of the optical systems. Results on the aberrated composite image of closely spaced objects with amplitude mask and asymmetric phase masks forms a significant contribution in astronomical and microscopic observations.

  7. Membrane-based aberration-corrected tunable micro-lenses (United States)

    Waibel, Philipp; Ermantraut, Eugen; Mader, Daniel; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas


    We present measurements and simulations of membrane-based micro-lens stacks, tunable in focal length in the range of 10mm to 50mm without chromatic aberration. The pressure-actuated, liquid-filled, membrane-based micro-lenses are fabricated by an all-silicone molding approach and consist of three chambers separated by two highly flexible silicone-membranes. Based on the idea of the classical achromatic Fraunhofer doublet, two different liquids with suitable optical properties are used. Pressure-dependent surface topologies are measured by profilometry for determining the correlation between refraction and applied pressure. The profiles are fit to polynomials; the coefficients of the polynomials are pressure-dependent and fit to empirically determined functions which are then used as an input for optical ray-tracing. Using this approach, the focal length is tunable while compensating for chromatic aberration by suitably applied pressures.

  8. Retrospective chromosome aberration analysis of former uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meszaros, G.; Bognar, G.; Koeteles, G. J.


    In this paper we present our data collected in the period of 1981-1985 on 165 persons exposed by different radon concentrations expressed in working level month (WLM) units from 100 up to 600. Following the decommissioning of the uranium mine in Hungary in 1997 cytogenetic status of 131 persons were within a follow-up-study of their health conditions initiated by the Hungarian Academy of Science. The persons have terminated their underground activities 5 to 20 years before testing. The comparison of the two datasets suggest a long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations above the population average values in large percentages of persons investigated. The frequency of chromosome aberrations of uranium miners was found increased in function of their exposure to radon. The comparison of the miner's categories 20 years ago and in the recent years demonstrated the long-term existence of aberrations for many years after completion of underground mining activities. (authors)

  9. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy (United States)

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas


    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy – or rather nanoscopy – to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem. PMID:26124194

  10. Chromosomal Aberrations in Humans Induced by Urban Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Norppa, Hannu; Gamborg, Michael O.


    We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes......, which was observed only in the bus drivers, appears to be associated with air pollution, whereas the NAT2 genotype effect, which affected all subjects, may influence the individual response to some other common exposure or the baseline level of chromosomal aberrations....... as a biomarker of genotoxic damage and dimethylsulfate-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in mononuclear WBCs, the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genotype, and the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype as biomarkers of susceptibility. The bus drivers, who had previously been observed to have elevated levels...

  11. Chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei frequencies in Bulgarian control population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, I.; Hadjidekova, V.; Hristova, R.; Atanasova, P.


    The aim of this investigation is to represent the frequency of spontaneous chromosomal damages in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Bulgarian control population. Material and methods: The investigated group includes persons belonging to both sexes and different ages. Each of them is interviewed of their social and health status. Sixteen persons are examined using the chromosomal aberrations analysis and forty-five with micronucleus test. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations varied between 0 - 2.4 % and the mean value is 1.00 %. The frequency of cells with micronuclei varied between 4.5 - 24.5 % and the mean value 12,9 %. Further work on the investigation of spontaneous frequency of chromosomal damages is in progress. (authors)

  12. Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated with Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of the present experiment was to provide data on the dose-dependent production of chromosome aberrations such as dicentrics, centric rings, and excess acentrics. Radiation is one of the more dangerous clastogens in the environment. Ionizing radiation causes chromosome breakages and various cytogenetic aberrations in exposed cells. In an investigation into radiation emergencies, it is important to estimate the dose to exposed persons for several reasons. Physical dosimeters (e. g., film badges) may misrepresent the actual radiation dose and may not be available in a radiological accident or terrorism incident. Biological dosimetry is suitable for estimating the radiation dose during such accidents. The dicentric chromosome assay is very sensitive and a reliable bio-indicator in cases of accidental overexposure.

  13. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy. (United States)

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas


    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy - or rather nanoscopy - to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy.

  14. [Residual neuromuscular blockade]. (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D


    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  15. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  16. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan


    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  17. Aberrant infestation of goat mandibles with Oestrus ovis larvae. (United States)

    Godara, R; Sharma, R L; Sharma, C S


    Nasal oestrosis is primarily an infestation of sheep. However, a non descript goat, aged three years was presented in lateral recumbency with clinical history of sneezing fits, laboured breathing, eroded mandibular lesions and bilaterally housing nasal bots therein. The first ever occurrence of nasal bots in an aberrant location (mandibles) in a goat, its therapeutic management and public health significance have been documented and discussed.

  18. Calibration of the island effect: Experimental validation of closed-loop focal plane wavefront control on Subaru/SCExAO


    N'Diaye, Mamadou; Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Lozi, Julien; Guyon, Olivier; Norris, Barnaby; Ceau, Alban; Mary, David


    Island effect (IE) aberrations are induced by differential pistons, tips, and tilts between neighboring pupil segments on ground-based telescopes, which severely limit the observations of circumstellar environments on the recently deployed exoplanet imagers (e.g., VLT/SPHERE, Gemini/GPI, Subaru/SCExAO) during the best observing conditions. Caused by air temperature gradients at the level of the telescope spiders, these aberrations were recently diagnosed with success on VLT/SPHERE, but so far...

  19. Partially coherent X-ray wavefront propagation simulations including grazing-incidence focusing optics. (United States)

    Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg; Reininger, Ruben


    X-ray beamlines in modern synchrotron radiation sources make extensive use of grazing-incidence reflective optics, in particular Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical mirror systems. These systems can focus the incoming X-rays down to nanometer-scale spot sizes while maintaining relatively large acceptance apertures and high flux in the focused radiation spots. In low-emittance storage rings and in free-electron lasers such systems are used with partially or even nearly fully coherent X-ray beams and often target diffraction-limited resolution. Therefore, their accurate simulation and modeling has to be performed within the framework of wave optics. Here the implementation and benchmarking of a wave-optics method for the simulation of grazing-incidence mirrors based on the local stationary-phase approximation or, in other words, the local propagation of the radiation electric field along geometrical rays, is described. The proposed method is CPU-efficient and fully compatible with the numerical methods of Fourier optics. It has been implemented in the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) computer code and extensively tested against the geometrical ray-tracing code SHADOW. The test simulations have been performed for cases without and with diffraction at mirror apertures, including cases where the grazing-incidence mirrors can be hardly approximated by ideal lenses. Good agreement between the SRW and SHADOW simulation results is observed in the cases without diffraction. The differences between the simulation results obtained by the two codes in diffraction-dominated cases for illumination with fully or partially coherent radiation are analyzed and interpreted. The application of the new method for the simulation of wavefront propagation through a high-resolution X-ray microspectroscopy beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) is demonstrated.

  20. On the nature of transverse coronal waves revealed by wavefront dislocations (United States)

    López Ariste, A.; Luna, M.; Arregui, I.; Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.


    Context. Coronal waves are an important aspect of the dynamics of the plasma in the corona. Wavefront dislocations are topological features of most waves in nature and also of magnetohydrodynamic waves. Are there dislocations in coronal waves? Aims: The finding and explanation of dislocations may shed light on the nature and characteristics of the propagating waves, their interaction in the corona, and in general on the plasma dynamics. Methods: We positively identify dislocations in coronal waves observed by the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) as singularities in the Doppler shifts of emission coronal lines. We study the possible singularities that can be expected in coronal waves and try to reproduce the observed dislocations in terms of localization and frequency of appearance. Results: The observed dislocations can only be explained by the interference of a kink and sausage wave modes propagating with different frequencies along the coronal magnetic field. In the plane transverse to the propagation, the cross-section of the oscillating plasma must be smaller than the spatial resolution, and the two waves result in net longitudinal and transverse velocity components that are mixed through projection onto the line of sight. Alfvén waves can be responsible for the kink mode, but a magnetoacoustic sausage mode is necessary in all cases. Higher (flute) modes are excluded. The kink mode has a pressure amplitude that is less than the pressure amplitude of the sausage mode, though its observed velocity is higher. This concentrates dislocations on the top of the loop. Conclusions: To explain dislocations, any model of coronal waves must include the simultaneous propagation and interference of kink and sausage wave modes of comparable but different frequencies with a sausage wave amplitude much smaller than the kink one. Appendix A is available in electronic form at